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Sample records for professional orchestral musicians

  1. Sound exposure of professional orchestral musicians during solitary practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Ian; Driscoll, Tim; Ackermann, Bronwen

    2013-10-01

    It is broadly acknowledged that professional orchestral musicians risk noise-induced hearing pathologies due to sound exposure in rehearsal and performance. While much has been published regarding orchestral sound levels, little is known of the sound exposure these musicians experience during solitary practice, despite the many hours they spend engaged in this activity. This study aimed to determine sound exposure during solitary practice of 35 professional orchestral musicians, representing players of most orchestral instruments. To allow cross-comparison, participants were assessed playing similar repertoire in a controlled environment, recording simultaneously at each ear to determine sound exposure levels. Sound levels were recorded between 60 and 107 dB L(Aeq), with peak levels between 101 and 130 dB L(C,peak). For average reported practice durations (2.1 h per day, five days a week) 53% would exceed accepted permissible daily noise exposure in solitary practice, in addition to sound exposure during orchestral rehearsals and performances. Significant inter-aural differences were noted in violin, viola, flute/piccolo, horn, trombone, and tuba. Only 40% used hearing protection at any time while practicing. These findings indicate orchestral musicians at risk of noise-induced hearing loss in ensemble face significant additional risks during solitary practice. Data presented will enable more effective and targeted management strategies for this population.

  2. Hearing and hearing conservation practices among Australia's professional orchestral musicians.

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    O'Brien, Ian; Ackermann, Bronwen J; Driscoll, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Orchestral musicians are an at-risk population for noise-induced hearing loss. Following strategic approaches to mitigate exposure, many must use earplugs to safeguard their hearing, although reported usage rates are poor. Australia has progressive hearing conservation programs within many of its orchestras, yet little is known of earplug usage rates, abilities with earplugs or self-perceived hearing loss in this population. To help direct and inform future approaches to hearing conservation in Australia's orchestras a questionnaire assessing hearing conservation behaviors and the prevalence of self-perceived hearing loss was distributed. A total of 580 musicians across eight professional orchestras were surveyed, with 367 completed surveys (63%) returned. Eighty percent of respondents reported a risk of hearing damage in the orchestra, 64% used earplugs of some type at least some of the time and 83% found this use difficult/impossible. Forty-three percent reported a hearing loss, including 54% in pit orchestras and 46% of those ≤50 years of age. Brass players were least likely to use earplugs, most likely to report usage difficulties and most likely of those ≤50 years of age to report a hearing loss. While earplug usage rates in Australia are encouraging and may be linked to hearing conservation measures in the orchestras, the widespread difficulty reported with the use of these earplugs, the prevalence of self-reported hearing loss and the continued vulnerability of those most at-risk indicate improvements in both earplug design and further education for musicians are required to progress hearing conservation options for this population.

  3. Sound Practice– Improving occupational health and safety for professional orchestral musicians in Australia

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    Bronwen Jane Ackermann

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Sound Practice Project is a five-year study involving baseline evaluation, development and implementation of musician-specific work health and safety initiatives. A cross-sectional population physical and psychological survey and physical assessment were conducted at the same time, with an auditory health assessment conducted later. The results were used to guide the development of a series of targeted interventions, encompassing physical, psychological and auditory health components. This paper provides an overview of the project but focuses on the health findings arising from the cross-sectional survey.377 musicians from the eight professional symphony orchestras in Australia took part in the cross-sectional study (about 70% of eligible musicians. Eighty-four percent (84% of musicians reported past performance-related musculoskeletal disorder (PRMD episodes; 50% were suffering a current PRMD. Of the 63% who returned hearing surveys, 43% believed they had hearing loss, and 64% used earplugs at least intermittently. Noise exposure was found to be high in private practice, although awareness of risk and earplug use in this environment was lower than in orchestral settings. Improved strategic approaches, acoustic screens and recently developed active earplugs were found to provide effective new options for hearing protection. With respect to psychosocial screening, female musicians reported significantly more trait anxiety, music performance anxiety, social anxiety, and other forms of anxiety and depression than male musicians. The youngest musicians were significantly more anxious compared with the oldest musicians. Thirty-three percent (33% of musicians may meet criteria for a diagnosis of social phobia; 32% returned a positive depression screen and 22% for post-traumatic stress disorder. PRMDs and trigger point discomfort levels were strongly associated with increasing severity of psychological issues such as depression and music

  4. Educating Orchestral Musicians

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    Calissendorff, Maria; Hannesson, Haukur F.

    2017-01-01

    This article examines research on the specific training of musicians before they begin work as players in professional orchestras. Most of the research is in the area of education. The present article suggests that little research exists that is specific to the development of a traditional orchestra musician from an early age through the music…

  5. Parametric method for the noise risk assessment of professional orchestral musicians

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    Matteo Bo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Occupational Health and Safety (OH&S literature shows that noise could represent a risk factor for professional orchestral musicians. The continuative exposition to elevated noise levels and the particular nature of the activity make necessary an “atypical” OH&S approach, which was identified to be necessarily organizational. Materials and Methods: In this study, a parametric-based method for orchestral exposure assessment and management was developed. The goal was to achieve a predictive tool to involve safety in the decision making of concert season program. After setting the parameters, the project’s hypothesis was defined and then validated through a yearly-scale monitoring on an important European symphonic orchestra. Moreover, workers’ exposure was assessed from the parametric study by a wide measurement campaign. Results: A general validation of the method was obtained by the verification of the main parameters’ (repertoire, headcount, and disposition significant influence on the sound pressure levels produced by the orchestra. Exposure levels comparable to the trends in literature for symphonic orchestras were observed, with criticalities among brass musicians, which was the only group exceeding the upper exposure action values. Conclusion: This research has emphasized that the exposure condition of musicians can be critical and requires the implementation of improvement plans. The study has shown that the predictive analysis can be performed on parameters describing the concert’s emissive characteristics. The future development of research currently under study will focus on the concert’s pieces and the use of parameters as indicators of the exposure context.

  6. Hearing and hearing conservation practices among Australia′s professional orchestral musicians

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    Ian O′Brien

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Orchestral musicians are an at-risk population for noise-induced hearing loss. Following strategic approaches to mitigate exposure, many must use earplugs to safeguard their hearing, although reported usage rates are poor. Australia has progressive hearing conservation programs within many of its orchestras, yet little is known of earplug usage rates, abilities with earplugs or self-perceived hearing loss in this population. To help direct and inform future approaches to hearing conservation in Australia′s orchestras a questionnaire assessing hearing conservation behaviors and the prevalence of self-perceived hearing loss was distributed. A total of 580 musicians across eight professional orchestras were surveyed, with 367 completed surveys (63% returned. Eighty percent of respondents reported a risk of hearing damage in the orchestra, 64% used earplugs of some type at least some of the time and 83% found this use difficult/impossible. Forty-three percent reported a hearing loss, including 54% in pit orchestras and 46% of those ≤50 years of age. Brass players were least likely to use earplugs, most likely to report usage difficulties and most likely of those ≤50 years of age to report a hearing loss. While earplug usage rates in Australia are encouraging and may be linked to hearing conservation measures in the orchestras, the widespread difficulty reported with the use of these earplugs, the prevalence of self-reported hearing loss and the continued vulnerability of those most at-risk indicate improvements in both earplug design and further education for musicians are required to progress hearing conservation options for this population.

  7. Pain among professional orchestral musicians: a case study in body culture and health psychology.

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    Nygaard Andersen, Lotte; Roessler, Kirsten K; Eichberg, Henning

    2013-09-01

    Professional musicians experience high rates of musculoskeletal pain, but only few studies have investigated how this pain is accepted by musicians. To investigate the culture of pain and to explore how professional musicians experience and cope with pain. Ten semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted; 8 with musicians and 2 with professional elite athletes. In addition, a concert and two rehearsals were observed. The audiotaped interviews were transcribed verbatim. Configurational analysis was used to interpret the material as a whole. Musicians often experience pain as a consequence of prolonged repetitive work early in their career. Such pain is compounded by the lack of breaks during concerts and rehearsals. Orchestras seldom give opportunities for adjustments required for individual instruments, breaks, or action to prevent pain. Musicians' strong sense of coherence and the experience of pain as integral to their identity have encouraged musicians to develop flexible coping strategies. Ignoring pain and potential damage is an accepted concomitant to striving for perfection. A musician does not focus on pain but on the music. For the musician, pain has a significance beyond being something that can simply be removed by a practitioner. Pain tells both an individual story and a cultural story that is crying out to be heard.

  8. Is the audiologic status of professional musicians a reflection of the noise exposure in classical orchestral music?

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    Emmerich, Edeltraut; Rudel, Lars; Richter, Frank

    2008-07-01

    The sound in classical orchestral music is louder than noise emissions allowed by national rules in industry. We wanted to assess the audiologic status of professional musicians at different ages of their careers and to look for a coherence of declined hearing ability and the sound emissions in order to substantiate advices for hearing protection and occupational medicine in musicians. Data from questionnaires (anamnestic data on sound exposure in profession and leisure times, use of hearing protection, self-evaluation of hearing function and hearing deficits), audiometric data and amplitudes of OAE were evaluated from 109 professional musicians aged 30-69 years from three major German orchestras and from 110 students of an academy of music (aged 11-19 years). Sound emissions of the whole orchestra and of single instruments/instrument groups were measured at the orchestra stages and pits during rehearsals and performances. None of the musicians was engaged in noisy hobbies and only a few used hearing protectors regularly. More than 50% of the musicians had a hearing loss of 15 dB(A) and more. Highest losses were found among the strings and the brass players. DPOAE amplitudes coincidently declined with the duration of performing music in the orchestras. Professional musicians aged older than 60 years had a significantly greater hearing loss at 4 and 6 kHz than those aged 30-39 years. Among the strings in one orchestra a dominant hearing deficit in the left ears was observed. Musicians need the same health care for their hearing as workers in noisy industry. A better education on the hearing hazards (use of hearing protectors) as well as sound protection in the rehearsal rooms is necessary. Hearing loss in professional musicians should be accepted as an occupational disease.

  9. The usefulness of on-site physical therapy-led triage services for professional orchestral musicians -- a national cohort study.

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    Chan, Cliffton; Driscoll, Tim; Ackermann, Bronwen

    2013-03-19

    Australian professional orchestral musicians reported a lifetime prevalence of musculoskeletal injuries that had interfered with playing at 84%. Physical therapy-led triage clinics may be a practical method to manage the impact of high performance-related musculoskeletal disorders (PRMDs) in professional orchestral musicians. This study aimed to: a) collect information on presenting injuries, b) determine the participant's provisional diagnosis, c) evaluate uptake of an on-site triage service, d) measure participant satisfaction, and e) identify factors influencing attendance. Eight triage sessions were run on a fortnightly basis during a designated lunch break between rehearsal calls in seven premier symphony orchestras in Australia; a total population of 483 musicians. The participants received one or a combination of: a) education and advice relating to their provisional diagnosis, b) basic acute management and/or c) a referral to a suitable medical practitioner or allied health professional for further consultation or treatment. A three-month follow-up questionnaire was completed and a qualitative narrative themes-based analysis was undertaken to summarise participant and physical therapist feedback. Uptake, participant satisfaction and factors influencing attendance were measured. 99 initial consultations (83 individuals) were conducted with more females (61%) utilizing the service than males (49%). The most common injury complaints were in the shoulder (22%), neck (18%), upper back (18%), and hand (8%). 66% of these were diagnosed as PRMDs. Of these injuries, 94% were considered preventable, 93% continued to affect playing, 68% were severe requiring a referral for further management, and 46% were recurrent. The advice at the triage service was rated as helpful or very helpful by 79% of the musicians, whilst 68% responded they were likely or very likely to continue to use the service if it was offered in the future. Of the participants that followed through

  10. Perception of orchestral musicians about work environment and conditions

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    Clarissa Stefani Teixeira

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the perception of 11 orchestral string (viola and violin musicians of both genders with respect to their work environment and conditions. We applied a questionnaire with demographic information and the scale Profile of Work Environment and Working Conditions by Nahas et al. (2009, which analyzes the following components: physical environment, social environment, development and professional achievement, salary and benefits, and social relevance. The social environment component presented the highest score - 8.00 (1.50 points, followed by professional achievement - 7.11 (1.96 points, and physical environment - 6.89 (0.93 points. The salary and benefits provided by the orchestra presented the lowest score - 6.78 (1.56 points. In general, the musicians showed positive perceptions of the components related to work environment and working conditions. However, remuneration and social relevance are work bases that could contribute to improve the working conditions of these professionals.

  11. Intensive short-term dynamic psychotherapy for severe music performance anxiety: assessment, process, and outcome of psychotherapy with a professional orchestral musician.

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    Kenny, Dianna T; Arthey, Stephen; Abbass, Allan

    2014-03-01

    This paper reports on the process and outcome of therapy using intensive short-term dynamic psychotherapy (ISTDP) with a professional musician who had suffered severe music performance anxiety over the course of his entire 30-year career. In this paper, we describe the nature of the therapy, the case history of the musician, the first assessment and trial therapy session, and the course and successful outcome of therapy. The patient underwent 10 sessions of ISTDP over a period of 4 months. This paper reports on the first 6 sessions, which were most relevant to the understanding and treatment of the patient's severe music performance anxiety. This case study is the first reported application of ISTDP to a professional musician. We believe that this case study provides initial support that moderate to severe performance anxiety, in at least some cases, has its origins in unresolved complex emotions and defences arising from ruptures to early attachment relationships.

  12. Heart rate in professional musicians

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    García Daniel

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Very few studies have analysed heart rate (HR with regard to music playing, and the scarce evidence available is controversial. The purpose of this study was to analyse the HR response of professional musicians during their real-work activity. Methods Sixty-two voluntary professional musicians (20 women, 42 men, whose ages ranged between 15 and 71 years old, underwent the test while playing their instruments in real life scenarios, i.e. rehearsals, practice and public concerts. The musicians carried Sport Tester PE4000 (Polar®, Finland pulsometers to record their HR. In order to compare data from differently aged subjects we calculated their Maximum Theoretical Heart Rate (MTHR. Later on we found out the MTHR percentages (%MTHR corresponding to the registered HR of each subject in different situations. The value of the MTHR for every musician was obtained by means of the 220 – age (in years formula. Results Throughout the HR recordings, we have observed that musicians present a heightened HR while playing (in soloists, mean and maximum HR were 72% and 85%MTHR, respectively. Cardiac demand is significantly higher in concerts than in rehearsals while performing the same musical piece. The HR curves corresponding to the same musician playing in repeated concerts (with the same programme were similar. Conclusion The cardiac demand of a professional instrument player is higher than previously described, much greater than what would be expected from a supposedly sedentary activity.

  13. Heart rate in professional musicians.

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    Iñesta, Claudia; Terrados, Nicolás; García, Daniel; Pérez, José A

    2008-07-25

    Very few studies have analysed heart rate (HR) with regard to music playing, and the scarce evidence available is controversial. The purpose of this study was to analyse the HR response of professional musicians during their real-work activity. Sixty-two voluntary professional musicians (20 women, 42 men), whose ages ranged between 15 and 71 years old, underwent the test while playing their instruments in real life scenarios, i.e. rehearsals, practice and public concerts. The musicians carried Sport Tester PE4000 (Polar(R), Finland) pulsometers to record their HR.In order to compare data from differently aged subjects we calculated their Maximum Theoretical Heart Rate (MTHR). Later on we found out the MTHR percentages (%MTHR) corresponding to the registered HR of each subject in different situations. The value of the MTHR for every musician was obtained by means of the 220 - age (in years) formula. Throughout the HR recordings, we have observed that musicians present a heightened HR while playing (in soloists, mean and maximum HR were 72% and 85%MTHR, respectively). Cardiac demand is significantly higher in concerts than in rehearsals while performing the same musical piece. The HR curves corresponding to the same musician playing in repeated concerts (with the same programme) were similar. The cardiac demand of a professional instrument player is higher than previously described, much greater than what would be expected from a supposedly sedentary activity.

  14. The Effects of Orchestration on Musicians' and Nonmusicians' Perception of Musical Tension

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    Silvey, Brian A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of orchestration on musicians' and nonmusicians' (N = 40) perception of musical tension. Participants were asked to register their perceptions of tension using the Continuous Response Digital Interface dial while listening to three orchestrations (full orchestra, brass quintet, and solo piano)…

  15. Pitch discrimination: are professional musicians better than non-musicians?

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    Kishon-Rabin, L; Amir, O; Vexler, Y; Zaltz, Y

    2001-01-01

    Musicians are typically considered to exhibit exceptional auditory skills. Only few studies, however, have substantiated this in basic psychoacoustic tasks. The purpose of the present investigation was to expand our knowledge on basic auditory abilities of musicians compared to non-musicians. Specific goals were: (1) to compare frequency discrimination thresholds (difference limen for frequency [DLF]) of non-musical pure tones in controlled groups of professional musicians and non-musicians; (2) to relate DLF performance to musical background; and (3) to compare DLF thresholds obtained with two threshold estimation procedures: 2- and 3- interval forced choice procedures (2IFC and 3IFC). Subjects were 16 professional musicians and 14 non-musicians. DLFs were obtained for three frequencies (0.25, 1 and 1.5 kHz) using the 3IFC adaptive procedure, and for one frequency (1 kHz) also using the 2IFC. Three threshold estimates were obtained for each frequency, procedure and subject. The results of the present study support five major findings: (a) mean DLFs for musicians were approximately half the values of the non-musicians; (b) significant learning for both groups during the three threshold estimations; (c) classical musicians performed better than those with contemporary musical background; (d) performance was influenced by years of musical experience; and (e) both groups showed better DLF in a 2IFC paradigm compared to the 3IFC. These data highlight the importance of short-term training on an auditory task, auditory memory and factors related to musical background (such as musical genre and years of experience) on auditory performance.

  16. Do older professional musicians have cognitive advantages?

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    Amer, Tarek; Kalender, Beste; Hasher, Lynn; Trehub, Sandra E; Wong, Yukwal

    2013-01-01

    The current study investigates whether long-term music training and practice are associated with enhancement of general cognitive abilities in late middle-aged to older adults. Professional musicians and non-musicians who were matched on age, education, vocabulary, and general health were compared on a near-transfer task involving auditory processing and on far-transfer tasks that measured spatial span and aspects of cognitive control. Musicians outperformed non-musicians on the near-transfer task, on most but not all of the far-transfer tasks, and on a composite measure of cognitive control. The results suggest that sustained music training or involvement is associated with improved aspects of cognitive functioning in older adults.

  17. Do older professional musicians have cognitive advantages?

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    Tarek Amer

    Full Text Available The current study investigates whether long-term music training and practice are associated with enhancement of general cognitive abilities in late middle-aged to older adults. Professional musicians and non-musicians who were matched on age, education, vocabulary, and general health were compared on a near-transfer task involving auditory processing and on far-transfer tasks that measured spatial span and aspects of cognitive control. Musicians outperformed non-musicians on the near-transfer task, on most but not all of the far-transfer tasks, and on a composite measure of cognitive control. The results suggest that sustained music training or involvement is associated with improved aspects of cognitive functioning in older adults.

  18. Professional musicians listen differently to music.

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    Mikutta, C A; Maissen, G; Altorfer, A; Strik, W; Koenig, T

    2014-05-30

    Experience-based adaptation of emotional responses is an important faculty for cognitive and emotional functioning. Professional musicians represent an ideal model in which to elicit experience-driven changes in the emotional processing domain. The changes of the central representation of emotional arousal due to musical expertise are still largely unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the electroencephalogram (EEG) correlates of experience-driven changes in the domain of emotional arousal. Therefore, the differences in perceived (subjective arousal via ratings) and physiologically measured (EEG) arousal between amateur and professional musicians were examined. A total of 15 professional and 19 amateur musicians listened to the first movement of Ludwig van Beethoven's 5th symphony (duration=∼7.4min), during which a continuous 76-channel EEG was recorded. In a second session, the participants evaluated their emotional arousal during listening. In a tonic analysis, we examined the average EEG data over the time course of the music piece. For a phasic analysis, a fast Fourier transform was performed and covariance maps of spectral power were computed in association with the subjective arousal ratings. The subjective arousal ratings of the professional musicians were more consistent than those of the amateur musicians. In the tonic EEG analysis, a mid-frontal theta activity was observed in the professionals. In the phasic EEG, the professionals exhibited an increase of posterior alpha, central delta, and beta rhythm during high arousal. Professionals exhibited different and/or more intense patterns of emotional activation when they listened to the music. The results of the present study underscore the impact of music experience on emotional reactions. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Audiological and electrophysiological assessment of professional pop/rock musicians.

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    Samelli, Alessandra G; Matas, Carla G; Carvallo, Renata M M; Gomes, Raquel F; de Beija, Carolina S; Magliaro, Fernanda C L; Rabelo, Camila M

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, we evaluated peripheral and central auditory pathways in professional musicians (with and without hearing loss) compared to non-musicians. The goal was to verify if music exposure could affect auditory pathways as a whole. This is a prospective study that compared the results obtained between three groups (musicians with and without hearing loss and non-musicians). Thirty-two male individuals participated and they were assessed by: Immittance measurements, pure-tone air conduction thresholds at all frequencies from 0.25 to 20 kHz, Transient Evoked Otoacoustic Emissions, Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR), and Cognitive Potential. The musicians showed worse hearing thresholds in both conventional and high frequency audiometry when compared to the non-musicians; the mean amplitude of Transient Evoked Otoacoustic Emissions was smaller in the musicians group, but the mean latencies of Auditory Brainstem Response and Cognitive Potential were diminished in the musicians when compared to the non-musicians. Our findings suggest that the population of musicians is at risk for developing music-induced hearing loss. However, the electrophysiological evaluation showed that latency waves of ABR and P300 were diminished in musicians, which may suggest that the auditory training to which these musicians are exposed acts as a facilitator of the acoustic signal transmission to the cortex.

  20. Audiological and electrophysiological assessment of professional pop/rock musicians

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    Alessandra G Samelli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we evaluated peripheral and central auditory pathways in professional musicians (with and without hearing loss compared to non-musicians. The goal was to verify if music exposure could affect auditory pathways as a whole. This is a prospective study that compared the results obtained between three groups (musicians with and without hearing loss and non-musicians. Thirty-two male individuals participated and they were assessed by: Immittance measurements, pure-tone air conduction thresholds at all frequencies from 0.25 to 20 kHz, Transient Evoked Otoacoustic Emissions, Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR, and Cognitive Potential. The musicians showed worse hearing thresholds in both conventional and high frequency audiometry when compared to the non-musicians; the mean amplitude of Transient Evoked Otoacoustic Emissions was smaller in the musicians group, but the mean latencies of Auditory Brainstem Response and Cognitive Potential were diminished in the musicians when compared to the non-musicians. Our findings suggest that the population of musicians is at risk for developing music-induced hearing loss. However, the electrophysiological evaluation showed that latency waves of ABR and P300 were diminished in musicians, which may suggest that the auditory training to which these musicians are exposed acts as a facilitator of the acoustic signal transmission to the cortex.

  1. University-Level Group Piano Instruction and Professional Musicians

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    Young, Margaret Mary

    2013-01-01

    Group piano courses for undergraduate music majors have been charged with developing the piano skills used by professional musicians; however, the only information available on the use of piano skills by professional musicians has been limited to one profession: public school music teachers. No one has attempted to identify the piano skills used…

  2. Increased gray matter volume of left pars opercularis in male orchestral musicians correlate positively with years of musical performance.

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    Abdul-Kareem, Ihssan A; Stancak, Andrej; Parkes, Laura M; Sluming, Vanessa

    2011-01-01

    To compare manual volumetry of gray matter (GM) / white matter (WM) of Broca's area subparts: pars opercularis (POP) and pars triangularis (PTR) in both hemispheres between musicians and nonmusician, as it has been shown that these regions are crucial for musical abilities. A previous voxel-based morphometric (VBM) study conducted in our laboratory reported increased GM density in Broca's area of left hemisphere in male orchestral musicians. Functional segregation of POP/PTR justified separate volumetric analysis of these parts. We used the same cohort for the VBM study. Manual morphometry (stereology) was used to compare volumes between 26/26 right-handed orchestral musicians/nonmusicians. As expected, musicians showed significantly increased GM volume in the Broca's area, specifically in the left POP. No significant results were detected in right POP, left/right PTR GM volumes, and WM volumes for all regions. Results were positively correlated with years of musical performance (r = 0.7, P = 0.0001). This result corroborates the VBM study and is in line with the hypothesis of critical involvement of POP in hearing-action integration being an integral component of frontoparietotemporal mirror neuron network. We hypothesize that increased size of musicians' left POP represent use-dependent structural adaptation in response to intensive audiomotor skill acquisition. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Evidence for Enhanced Interoceptive Accuracy in Professional Musicians.

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    Schirmer-Mokwa, Katharina L; Fard, Pouyan R; Zamorano, Anna M; Finkel, Sebastian; Birbaumer, Niels; Kleber, Boris A

    2015-01-01

    Interoception is defined as the perceptual activity involved in the processing of internal bodily signals. While the ability of internal perception is considered a relatively stable trait, recent data suggest that learning to integrate multisensory information can modulate it. Making music is a uniquely rich multisensory experience that has shown to alter motor, sensory, and multimodal representations in the brain of musicians. We hypothesize that musical training also heightens interoceptive accuracy comparable to other perceptual modalities. Thirteen professional singers, twelve string players, and thirteen matched non-musicians were examined using a well-established heartbeat discrimination paradigm complemented by self-reported dispositional traits. Results revealed that both groups of musicians displayed higher interoceptive accuracy than non-musicians, whereas no differences were found between singers and string-players. Regression analyses showed that accumulated musical practice explained about 49% variation in heartbeat perception accuracy in singers but not in string-players. Psychometric data yielded a number of psychologically plausible inter-correlations in musicians related to performance anxiety. However, dispositional traits were not a confounding factor on heartbeat discrimination accuracy. Together, these data provide first evidence indicating that professional musicians show enhanced interoceptive accuracy compared to non-musicians. We argue that musical training largely accounted for this effect.

  4. Evidence for enhanced interoceptive accuracy in professional musicians

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    Katharina eSchirmer-Mokwa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Interoception is defined as the perceptual activity involved in the processing of internal bodily signals. While the ability of internal perception is considered a relatively stable trait, recent data suggest that learning to integrate multisensory information can modulate it. Making music is a uniquely rich multisensory experience that has shown to alter motor, sensory, and multimodal representations in the brain of musicians. We hypothesize that musical training also heightens interoceptive accuracy comparable to other perceptual modalities. Thirteen professional singers, twelve string players, and thirteen matched non-musicians were examined using a well-established heartbeat discrimination paradigm complemented by self-reported dispositional traits. Results revealed that both groups of musicians displayed higher interoceptive accuracy than non-musicians, whereas no differences were found between singers and string-players. Regression analyses showed that accumulated musical practice explained about 49% variation in heartbeat perception accuracy in singers but not in string-players. Psychometric data yielded a number of psychologically plausible inter-correlations in musicians related to performance anxiety. However, dispositional traits were not a confounding factor on heartbeat discrimination accuracy. Together, these data provide first evidence indicating that professional musicians show enhanced interoceptive accuracy compared to non-musicians. We argue that musical training largely accounted for this effect.

  5. Incidence and relative risk of hearing disorders in professional musicians

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    Schink, Tania; Kreutz, Gunter; Busch, Veronika; Pigeot, Iris; Ahrens, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Background Hearing disorders have been associated with occupational exposure to music. Musicians may benefit from non-amplified and low-intensity music, but may also have high risks of music-induced hearing loss. Aims To compare the incidence of hearing loss (HL) and its subentities in professional musicians with that in the general population. Methods We performed a historical cohort study among insurants between 19 and 66 years who were employed subject to social insurance contributions. The study was conducted with data from three German statutory health insurance providers covering the years 2004–2008 with about 7 million insurants. Incidence rates with 95% CIs of HL and the subentities noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL), conductive HL, sensorineural HL, conductive and sensorineural HL, as well as tinnitus were estimated stratified by age, sex and federal state. A Cox regression analysis was conducted to estimate adjusted HRs and two-sided 95% CIs for HL and its subentities. Results More than 3 million insurants were eligible, of whom 2227 were identified as professional musicians (0.07%). During the 4-year observation period, 283 697cases of HL were seen, 238 of them among professional musicians (0.08%), leading to an unadjusted incidence rate ratio of 1.27. The adjusted hazard ratio of musicians was 1.45 (95% CI 1.28 to 1.65) for HL and 3.61 (95% CI 1.81 to 7.20) for NIHL. Conclusions Professional musicians have a high risk of contracting hearing disorders. Use of already available prevention measures should reduce the incidence of HL in professional musicians. PMID:24790053

  6. [Contribution to the study of laterality in professional musicians].

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    Chouard, C H

    1991-01-01

    Left-handed professional musicians percentage is not significantly different from normal population, excepted for piano, organ and harpsichord players. For these instruments the melody is always written for the right hand, probably because of the location of the frequencies which are the most easily perceived by the human ear on the right part of the keyboard. Thus for a lefthanded musician to play piano is comparable to write with his right hand, and as a consequence leads him to play an other instrument for his professional activity.

  7. Psychological features of the professional activities of Tuvan musicians

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    Anna D.-B. Sandyi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Article presents the study of psychological peculiarities of professional activities of Tuvan musicians. It reviews the effect of psychological characteristics on growth of value aspects of professionalism. Author analyzes the factors that retard the development of performance and improvisation skills and level of education, discerns the openness of Tuvan musicians for innovation. In 2016 musicians of the Center for Development of Traditional Tuvan Culture and Crafts, National Orchestra of the Republic of Tuva and amateur khoomei performers were interviewed. Total number of those surveyed was 31 aged from 16 to 54, all – male. Method of acmeological research was employed. Survey also relied on methods of testing, conversation, surveillance, interview, polling. Analysis revealed that performing activities of Tuvan musicians have some peculiarities. They consist of the complex of different characteristics, conditions, factors. The most important among them are the traits of national character of Tuvans, traditions of Tuvan musical culture. Professionalism of Tuvan musicians shapes by no means only through the special musical education. Self-education that one receives by traditional ways of passing the performance practices can have no less important value. Author has already conducted such a research in relation to another professional group of Tuvan ethnos – in 2015 with pedagogues, so this time she has a chance to compare the data. Author distinguishes the elements of mentality, traits of national character that characterize the either group by virtue of ethnic identification and, in some degree, affect the professionalism of both. Dampers for professional growth are inertia, low sociability, meditativeness, self- depreciation and reluctance to innovations. Nonetheless, strong traditionalism conceived as uniqueness is perceives as a factor that promotes professionalism.

  8. The music profession and the professional musician; a reflection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rineke Smilde

    2007-01-01

    This reflection will adress trends and changes of the music profession and the professional musician. First some background will be given, after that I will address three types of careers that are either emerging or changing and finally I would like shortly to go into the issue of what we might call

  9. Playing-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders of Professional Orchestra Musicians from the North of Portugal: Comparing String and Wind Musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Cláudia Maria; Machado, Jorge Pereira; Greten, Henry Johannes; Coimbra, Daniela

    2017-04-28

    It is well known that musicians are a group prone to suffer from playing-related musculoskeletal disorders. Professional orchestra musicians play for several hours a week and have to fight against pain caused by their profession. The aim of this study was to explore and describe self-reported complaints among professional orchestra musicians and to compare its intensity and the prevalence between string and wind instruments. Hundred and twelve professional orchestra musicians from the three main professional orchestras from the North of Portugal were individually interviewed about the prevalence and the intensity (measured by verbal numerical scale for pain) of their playing-related musculoskeletal disorders. About two third (62.5%) of the interviewed musicians presented playing-related musculoskeletal disorders during the time of the interview. Despite there are no significant statistic values between groups, results suggested that playing-related musculoskeletal disorders are more common in string players and more intense in wind players. Referring to the prevalence of playing-related musculoskeletal disorders, our data is in line with other studies from different countries. More than half of professional orchestra musicians in the North of Portugal are playing with a mild to moderate pain. Future studies focusing on working-related problems among professional orchestra musicians in Portugal would be useful to better describe the problem of occupational diseases among performing artist.

  10. Playing-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders of Professional Orchestra Musicians from the North of Portugal: Comparing String and Wind Musicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Maria Sousa

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: Future studies focusing on working-related problems among professional orchestra musicians in Portugal would be useful to better describe the problem of occupational diseases among performing artist.

  11. TEACHING FUTURE MUSICIANS PROFESSIONALLY DIRECTED LEXICAL COMPETENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya Vyspinska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the theoretical basis of the professionally directed English language lexical competence formation methods in the process of listening of higher education students by the example of "Music education" specialty. The psycholinguistic peculiarities of teaching lexical and professionally directed lexical competence to the students with musical abilities have been analysed. It reveals the essence of the process of listening and refines the notion of lexical and professionally directed lexical competence. This study provides evidence that music and language have much in common and reveals neurophysiological explanations for musician’s higher learning abilities, particularly in vocabulary acquisition. Recommendations for the development of the new methods of lexical and professionally directed lexical competence training have been given.

  12. The effect of music performance on the transcriptome of professional musicians

    OpenAIRE

    Chakravarthi Kanduri; Tuire Kuusi; Minna Ahvenainen; Philips, Anju K.; Harri Lähdesmäki; Irma Järvelä

    2015-01-01

    Music performance by professional musicians involves a wide-spectrum of cognitive and multi-sensory motor skills, whose biological basis is unknown. Several neuroscientific studies have demonstrated that the brains of professional musicians and non-musicians differ structurally and functionally and that musical training enhances cognition. However, the molecules and molecular mechanisms involved in music performance remain largely unexplored. Here, we investigated the effect of music performa...

  13. Occupational Diseases of Professional Orchestra Musicians from Northern Portugal: A Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Cláudia Maria; Machado, Jorge Pereira; Greten, Henry Johannes; Coimbra, Daniela

    2016-03-01

    Owing to repetitive movements and a very stressful and competitive lifestyle, musicians are a group that may be prone to suffer from occupational diseases. According to the literature, musicians are affected mainly by two types of occupational diseases: music performance anxiety (MPA) and playing-related musculoskeletal disorders (PRMDs). The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of the most common complaints affecting musicians in the three professional orchestras from northern Portugal. Professional orchestra musicians (n=112) from the three main professional orchestras from northern Portugal were individually interviewed about their physical and psychological complaints. Results indicated that 94% of musicians interviewed self-reported at least one working-related problem. PRMDs were the most common conditions, affecting 84.8% of musicians. The most affected areas were the shoulder and the cervical and lumbar regions. MPA was reported by 13.2% of musicians. The present work covers about 50% of all Portuguese professional orchestra musicians. It raises awareness of the importance of focusing on the high prevalence of professional diseases among musicians.

  14. Heart Rate Response of Professional Musicians When Playing Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellers, Heather L; Irwin, Conor; Lightfoot, J T

    2015-06-01

    The primary aim was to determine the level of physiological stress evoked while playing music in a standing position as indicated by heart rate (HR) response. A secondary aim was to analyze the effect of music genre (classic rock, western, contemporary Christian, and metal rock) on the relative HR response. Lastly, we considered potential physiological initiators of the music-playing-induced HR response. HR response was monitored in 27 professional musicians (3 women, 24 men) between the ages of 21 and 67 yrs old during rehearsal and public performances. The percent maximal HR (%MHR) evoked was determined by taking a percentage of the age-predicted maximal HR for each musician and comparing the average %MHR in each genre during public and rehearsal events. The role of the potential initiators of these responses (e.g., number of years playing in public, event type, instrument type, tempo, etc.) was determined using multiple regression analyses. The overall average %MHR responses were 52 ± 5% and 59 ± 5% during rehearsal and public performances, respectively, with genre type having a significant effect on the HR response (p=0.01). Body mass index and tempo were each found to be significant contributors to the HR response while playing music (r²=0.506, p=0.001). Playing music professionally evokes considerable increases in HR response, with music genre influencing the level of the physiological response. We concluded that 50% of the HR response while playing music was associated with body mass index, music tempo, and instrument type.

  15. Diffusion tensor and volumetric magnetic resonance imaging findings in the brains of professional musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acer, Niyazi; Bastepe-Gray, Serap; Sagiroglu, Ayse; Gumus, Kazim Z; Degirmencioglu, Levent; Zararsiz, Gokmen; Ozic, Muhammet Usame

    2018-03-01

    Professional musicians represent an ideal model to study the training-induced brain plasticity. The current study aimed to investigate the brain volume and diffusion characteristics of musicians using structural magnetic resonance and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). The combined use of volumetric and diffusion methods in studying musician brain has not been done in literature. Our study group consisted of seven male musicians playing an instrument and seven age- and gender-matched non-musicians. We evaluated the volumes of gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and calculated total intracranial volume (TIV) and measured the fractional anisotropy (FA) of pre-selected WM bundles: corpus callosum (CC), corticospinal tract (CST), superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), forceps major (ForMaj), forceps minor (ForMin), and arcuate fasciculus (AF). The mean WM/TIV volume in musicians was higher compared to non-musicians. The mean FA was lower in CC, SLF, ForMaj, ForMin, and right AF but higher in right CST in the musicians. The mean value of the total number of fibers was larger in the CST, SLF, left AF, and ForMaj in the musicians. The observed differences were not statistically significant between the groups (p>0.05). However, increased GM volume was found in the musicians compared to the non-musicians in the right and left cerebellum and supramarginal and angular gyrus, left superior and inferior parietal lobule and as well as left middle temporal gyrus. Our findings suggest differing brain structure in musicians and the confirmation of the results on a larger population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Reduced P50 Auditory Sensory Gating Response in Professional Musicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizkin, Sibel; Karlidag, Rifat; Ozcan, Cemal; Ozisik, Handan Isin

    2006-01-01

    Evoked potential studies have demonstrated that musicians have the ability to distinguish musical sounds preattentively and automatically at the temporal, spectral, and spatial levels in more detail. It is however not known whether there is a difference in the early processes of auditory data processing of musicians. The most emphasized and…

  17. Enhanced speech perception in noise and cortical auditory evoked potentials in professional musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meha-Bettison, Kiriana; Sharma, Mridula; Ibrahim, Ronny K; Mandikal Vasuki, Pragati Rao

    2018-01-01

    The current research investigated whether professional musicians outperformed non-musicians on auditory processing and speech-in-noise perception as assessed using behavioural and electrophysiological tasks. Spectro-temporal processing skills were assessed using a psychoacoustic test battery. Speech-in-noise perception was measured using the Listening in Spatialised Noise - Sentences (LiSN-S) test and Cortical Auditory Evoked Potentials (CAEPs) recorded to the speech syllable/da/presented in quiet and in 8-talker babble noise at 0, 5, and 10 dB signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). Ten professional musicians and 10 non-musicians participated in this study. Musicians significantly outperformed non-musicians in the frequency discrimination task and low-cue condition of the LiSN-S test. Musicians' N1 amplitude showed no difference between 5 dB and 0 dB SNR conditions while non-musicians showed significantly lower N1 amplitude at 0 dB SNR compared to 5 dB SNR. Brain-behaviour correlation for musicians showed a significant association between CAEPs at 5 dB SNR and the low-cue condition of the LiSN-S test at 30-70 ms. Time-frequency analysis indicated musicians had significantly higher alpha power desynchronisation in the 0 dB SNR condition indicating involvement of attention. Through the use of behavioural and electrophysiological data, the results provide converging evidence for improved speech recognition in noise in musicians.

  18. The lived experience of professional musicians with playing-related injuries: a phenomenological inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guptill, Christine A

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the lived experience of professional instrumental musicians who have experienced playing-related injuries. The study used a hermeneutic phenomenological methodology developed to examine this lived experience. In-depth interviews were conducted with 10 professional musicians, followed by a focus group where preliminary findings were presented to participants and their feedback was sought. Other sources of lived experience included participant-observation by the researcher, who is a musician and has experienced injuries, and biographic and artistic representations of musical performance and its loss, including literature, films, and television. The findings were summarized in a visual representation unique to this study. The representation illustrates three roles-musician, worker, and teacher-that are participated in, and disrupted by, the experience of being injured. In addition, the experience of a playing-related injury takes place within the context of a healthcare system which was perceived as insufficient to meet their needs: specialized care was rarely available and, if available, was not local or timely; treatment operated on a fee-for-service model when many musicians had meagre incomes and lacked coverage for these services; and treatment provided often failed to allow musicians to continue to perform at the level they had previously achieved. Finally, the representation illustrated four existentials-lived time, space, body and social relations-that permeated the experience. This study suggests that improvements to healthcare delivery and education of musicians, music teachers, and healthcare professionals are needed.

  19. Neural correlates of pre-attentive processing of pattern deviance in professional musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habermeyer, Benedikt; Herdener, Marcus; Esposito, Fabrizio; Hilti, Caroline C; Klarhöfer, Markus; di Salle, Francesco; Wetzel, Stephan; Scheffler, Klaus; Cattapan-Ludewig, Katja; Seifritz, Erich

    2009-11-01

    Pre-attentive registration of aberrations in predictable sound patterns is attributed to the temporal cortex. However, electrophysiology suggests that frontal areas become more important when deviance complexity increases. To play an instrument in an ensemble, professional musicians have to rely on the ability to detect even slight deviances from expected musical patterns and therefore have highly trained aural skills. Here, we aimed to identify the neural correlates of experience-driven plasticity related to the processing of complex sound features. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging in combination with an event-related oddball paradigm and compared brain activity in professional musicians and non-musicians during pre-attentive processing of melodic contour variations. The melodic pattern consisted of a sequence of five tones each lasting 50 ms interrupted by silent interstimulus intervals of 50 ms. Compared to non-musicians, the professional musicians showed enhanced activity in the left middle and superior temporal gyri, the left inferior frontal gyrus and in the right ventromedial prefrontal cortex in response to pattern deviation. This differential brain activity pattern was correlated with behaviorally tested musical aptitude. Our results thus support an experience-related role of the left temporal cortex in fast melodic contour processing and suggest involvement of the prefrontal cortex.

  20. Professional Orchestral Conductors' Use of Selected Teaching Behaviors in Rehearsal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Jennifer A.

    2017-01-01

    This descriptive study examined professional conductors' use of rehearsal time in sequential pattern components, discussing task presentation targets, and using verbal imagery and modeling techniques. Commercially available videos of 15 professional conductors rehearsing prominent orchestras were scripted, coded, and timed for selected teaching…

  1. Evidence for enhanced interoceptive accuracy in professional musicians

    OpenAIRE

    Katharina eSchirmer-Mokwa; Pouyan Rafiei Fard; Anna Maria Zamorano; Sebastian eFinkel; Niels eBirbaumer; Boris Alexander Kleber

    2015-01-01

    Interoception is defined as the perceptual activity involved in the processing of internal bodily signals. While the ability of internal perception is considered a relatively stable trait, recent data suggest that learning to integrate multisensory information can modulate it. Making music is a uniquely rich multisensory experience that has shown to alter motor, sensory, and multimodal representations in the brain of musicians. We hypothesize that musical training also heightens interoceptive...

  2. Evidence for Enhanced Interoceptive Accuracy in Professional Musicians

    OpenAIRE

    Schirmer-Mokwa, Katharina L.; Fard, Pouyan R.; Zamorano, Anna M.; Finkel, Sebastian; Birbaumer, Niels; Kleber, Boris A.

    2015-01-01

    Interoception is defined as the perceptual activity involved in the processing of internal bodily signals. While the ability of internal perception is considered a relatively stable trait, recent data suggest that learning to integrate multisensory information can modulate it. Making music is a uniquely rich multisensory experience that has shown to alter motor, sensory, and multimodal representations in the brain of musicians. We hypothesize that musical training also heightens interoceptive...

  3. Is Playing in the Pit Really the Pits?: Pain, Strength, Music Performance Anxiety, and Workplace Satisfaction in Professional Musicians in Stage, Pit, and Combined Stage/Pit Orchestras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Dianna T; Driscoll, Tim; Ackermann, Bronwen J

    2016-03-01

    Typically, Australian orchestral musicians perform on stage, in an orchestra pit, or in a combination of both workplaces. This study explored a range of physical and mental health indicators in musicians who played in these different orchestra types to ascertain whether orchestra environment was a risk factor affecting musician wellbeing. Participants comprised 380 full-time orchestral musicians from the eight major state orchestras in Australia comprised of two dedicated pit orchestras, three stage-only symphonic orchestras, and three mixed stage/pit orchestras. Participants completed a physical assessment and a range of self-report measures assessing performance-related musculoskeletal disorders (PRMD), physical characteristics including strength and perceived exertion, and psychological health, including music performance anxiety (MPA), workplace satisfaction, and bullying. Physical characteristics and performance-related musculoskeletal profiles were similar for most factors on the detailed survey completed by orchestra members. The exceptions were that pit musicians demonstrated greater shoulder and elbow strength, while mixed-workload orchestra musicians had greater flexibility Significantly more exertion was reported by pit musicians when rehearsing and performing. Stage/pit musicians reported less physical exertion when performing in the pit compared with performing on stage. Severity of MPA was significantly greater in pit musicians than mixed orchestra musicians. Pit musicians also reported more frequent bullying and lower job satisfaction compared with stage musicians. There were few differences in the objective physical measures between musicians in the different orchestra types. However, pit musicians appear more psychologically vulnerable and less satisfied with their work than musicians from the other two orchestra types. The physical and psychological characteristics of musicians who perform in different orchestra types have not been adequately

  4. The occurrence of musculoskeletal complaints among professional musicians : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, Laura M.; Huisstede, Bionka M A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/298688719; Voorn, Veronique M A; Schoones, Jan W.; Nelissen, Rob G H H

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study gives a systematic overview of the literature on the occurrence of musculoskeletal complaints in professional instrumental musicians. Methods: A systematic review. Nine literature databases were searched without time limits on June 25, 2015, also the complete index of the journal

  5. Communities of Practice in the Conservatory: Learning with a Professional Musician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virkkula, Esa

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the sociocultural learning of popular and jazz music in communities of practice as part of secondary vocational music education in a Finnish conservatory. The research is based on performance workshops which were implemented as a joint effort between professional musicians and music students. These workshops are suggested as…

  6. Cerebral activations related to audition-driven performance imagery in professional musicians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bauke M. Jong; Robert Harris

    2014-01-01

    unctional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) was used to study the activation of cerebral motor networks during auditory perception of music in professional keyboard musicians (n=12). The activation paradigm implied that subjects listened to two-part polyphonic music, while either critically

  7. Cerebral Activations Related to Audition-Driven Performance Imagery in Professional Musicians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harris, Robert; de Jong, BM

    2014-01-01

    Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) was used to study the activation of cerebral motor networks during auditory perception of music in professional keyboard musicians (n = 12). The activation paradigm implied that subjects listened to two-part polyphonic music, while either critically

  8. The effect of music performance on the transcriptome of professional musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanduri, Chakravarthi; Kuusi, Tuire; Ahvenainen, Minna; Philips, Anju K; Lähdesmäki, Harri; Järvelä, Irma

    2015-03-25

    Music performance by professional musicians involves a wide-spectrum of cognitive and multi-sensory motor skills, whose biological basis is unknown. Several neuroscientific studies have demonstrated that the brains of professional musicians and non-musicians differ structurally and functionally and that musical training enhances cognition. However, the molecules and molecular mechanisms involved in music performance remain largely unexplored. Here, we investigated the effect of music performance on the genome-wide peripheral blood transcriptome of professional musicians by analyzing the transcriptional responses after a 2-hr concert performance and after a 'music-free' control session. The up-regulated genes were found to affect dopaminergic neurotransmission, motor behavior, neuronal plasticity, and neurocognitive functions including learning and memory. Particularly, candidate genes such as SNCA, FOS and DUSP1 that are involved in song perception and production in songbirds, were identified, suggesting an evolutionary conservation in biological processes related to sound perception/production. Additionally, modulation of genes related to calcium ion homeostasis, iron ion homeostasis, glutathione metabolism, and several neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases implied that music performance may affect the biological pathways that are otherwise essential for the proper maintenance of neuronal function and survival. For the first time, this study provides evidence for the candidate genes and molecular mechanisms underlying music performance.

  9. Cerebral activations related to audition-driven performance imagery in professional musicians

    OpenAIRE

    de Jong, M.; Harris, Robert

    2014-01-01

    unctional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) was used to study the activation of cerebral motor networks during auditory perception of music in professional keyboard musicians (n=12). The activation paradigm implied that subjects listened to two-part polyphonic music, while either critically appraising the performance or imagining they were performing themselves. Two-part polyphonic audition and bimanual motor imagery circumvented a hemisphere bias associated with the convention of playing the...

  10. Injury and the orchestral environment: part I. The role of work organisation and psychosocial factors in injury risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickert, Dale L; Barrett, Margaret S; Ackermann, Bronwen J

    2013-12-01

    That orchestral musicians are exposed to a high risk of playing-related injury is well established, but despite this, little is known about how work organisation and psychosocial factors may contribute to this risk. Lack of research in this area is surprising considering the importance of these factors in managing occupational health risks in a wide range of other working populations. To address this, we conducted a qualitative study with the following aims: to investigate orchestral musicians' and managers' perceptions of those workplace environmental factors that contribute to injury, and to investigate the potential influence of work organisation and psychosocial factors on injury risk for orchestral musicians. Using a qualitative case-study methodology, in-depth, semi-structured interviews were undertaken with 10 professional orchestral cellists (2 casual and 8 full-time members) from a single Australian orchestra. After initial data analysis, further interviews were undertaken with a set of 5 orchestral management staff as a means of data triangulation. All data were analysed using a "themes-based" analysis of narrative approach. The findings indicate that musicians perceive that stress in the orchestral environment increases injury risk. The perceived stressors were divided into two broad categories: psychosocial injury risks, which included performance stress and interpersonal relationships, and combined psychosocial/physical injury risks such as work organisation and lack of control. This article evaluates the findings in terms of existing literature and makes recommendations for better management of environmental injury risk for orchestral musicians.

  11. Cerebral activations related to audition-driven performance imagery in professional musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Robert; de Jong, Bauke M

    2014-01-01

    Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) was used to study the activation of cerebral motor networks during auditory perception of music in professional keyboard musicians (n = 12). The activation paradigm implied that subjects listened to two-part polyphonic music, while either critically appraising the performance or imagining they were performing themselves. Two-part polyphonic audition and bimanual motor imagery circumvented a hemisphere bias associated with the convention of playing the melody with the right hand. Both tasks activated ventral premotor and auditory cortices, bilaterally, and the right anterior parietal cortex, when contrasted to 12 musically unskilled controls. Although left ventral premotor activation was increased during imagery (compared to judgment), bilateral dorsal premotor and right posterior-superior parietal activations were quite unique to motor imagery. The latter suggests that musicians not only recruited their manual motor repertoire but also performed a spatial transformation from the vertically perceived pitch axis (high and low sound) to the horizontal axis of the keyboard. Imagery-specific activations in controls were seen in left dorsal parietal-premotor and supplementary motor cortices. Although these activations were less strong compared to musicians, this overlapping distribution indicated the recruitment of a general 'mirror-neuron' circuitry. These two levels of sensori-motor transformations point towards common principles by which the brain organizes audition-driven music performance and visually guided task performance.

  12. Cerebral activations related to audition-driven performance imagery in professional musicians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Harris

    Full Text Available Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI was used to study the activation of cerebral motor networks during auditory perception of music in professional keyboard musicians (n = 12. The activation paradigm implied that subjects listened to two-part polyphonic music, while either critically appraising the performance or imagining they were performing themselves. Two-part polyphonic audition and bimanual motor imagery circumvented a hemisphere bias associated with the convention of playing the melody with the right hand. Both tasks activated ventral premotor and auditory cortices, bilaterally, and the right anterior parietal cortex, when contrasted to 12 musically unskilled controls. Although left ventral premotor activation was increased during imagery (compared to judgment, bilateral dorsal premotor and right posterior-superior parietal activations were quite unique to motor imagery. The latter suggests that musicians not only recruited their manual motor repertoire but also performed a spatial transformation from the vertically perceived pitch axis (high and low sound to the horizontal axis of the keyboard. Imagery-specific activations in controls were seen in left dorsal parietal-premotor and supplementary motor cortices. Although these activations were less strong compared to musicians, this overlapping distribution indicated the recruitment of a general 'mirror-neuron' circuitry. These two levels of sensori-motor transformations point towards common principles by which the brain organizes audition-driven music performance and visually guided task performance.

  13. Identifying attachment ruptures underlying severe music performance anxiety in a professional musician undertaking an assessment and trial therapy of Intensive Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy (ISTDP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Dianna T; Arthey, Stephen; Abbass, Allan

    2016-01-01

    Kenny has proposed that severe music performance anxiety that is unresponsive to usual treatments such as cognitive-behaviour therapy may be one manifestation of unresolved attachment ruptures in early life. Intensive Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy specifically targets early relationship trauma. Accordingly, a trial of Intensive Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy with severely anxious musicians was implemented to assess whether resolution of attachment ruptures resulted in clinically significant relief from music performance anxiety. Volunteer musicians participating in a nationally funded study were screened for MPA severity. Those meeting the critical cut-off score on the Kenny Music Performance Anxiety Inventory were offered a trial of Intensive Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy. In this paper, we present the theoretical foundations and rationale for the treatment approach, followed by sections of a verbatim transcript and process analysis of the assessment phase of treatment that comprised a 3-h trial therapy session. The 'case' was a professional orchestral musician (male, aged 55) who had suffered severe music performance anxiety over the course of his entire career, which spanned more than 30 years at the time he presented for treatment following his failure to secure a position at audition. The participant was able to access the pain, rage and grief associated with unresolved attachment ruptures with both parents that demonstrated the likely nexus between early attachment trauma and severe music performance anxiety. Intensive Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy is a potentially cost-effective treatment for severe music performance anxiety. Further research using designs with higher levels of evidence are required before clinical recommendations can be made for the use of this therapy with this population.

  14. Exposure to music and noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) among professional pop/rock/jazz musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halevi-Katz, Dana N; Yaakobi, Erez; Putter-Katz, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) has been extensively studied in industrial work environments. With the advent of new technologies, loud music has been increasingly affecting listeners outside of the industrial setting. Most research on the effects of music and hearing loss has focused on classical musicians. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between the amount of experience a professional pop/rock/jazz musician has and objective and subjective variables of the musician's hearing loss. This study also examined professional pop/rock/jazz musicians' use of hearing protection devices in relation to the extent of their exposure to amplified music. Forty-four pop/rock/jazz musicians were interviewed using the Pop/Rock/Jazz Musician's Questionnaire (PRJMQ) in order to obtain self-reported symptoms of tinnitus and hyperacusis. Forty-two of the subjects were also tested for air-conduction hearing thresholds in the frequency range of 1-8 kHz. Results show that the extent of professional pop/rock/jazz musicians' exposure to amplified music was related to both objective and subjective variables of hearing loss: Greater musical experience was positively linked to higher hearing thresholds in the frequency range of 3-6 kHz and to the subjective symptom of tinnitus. Weekly hours playing were found to have a greater effect on hearing loss in comparison to years playing. Use of hearing protection was not linked to the extent of exposure to amplified music. It is recommended that further research be conducted with a larger sample, in order to gain a greater understanding of the detrimental effects of hours playing versus years playing.

  15. Cognitive abilities of musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovagnoli, A R; Raglio, A

    2011-10-01

    Playing music may involve different cognitive domains, but previous studies of musicians and patients with brain lesions have reported inconsistent associations between music performances and other cognitive functions. Fine musical performance may be associated with high executive and control functions. 21 skilled musicians and 21 age- and education-matched healthy controls with no specific musical competence were compared on attentive, executive, linguistic, perceptual, praxic, memory, and theory of mind functions, using standardized neuropsychological tests. No differences between the musicians and controls, music composers and performers, or between soloists or orchestral players were observed. In musicians, there was no correlation between the test scores and amount of music education. Findings based on these musician groups, carefully evaluated, suggest further exploration of associations of distinct components of music comprehension and expression with different cognitive functions and behavioral aspects.

  16. A Motion Capture Study to Measure the Feeling of Synchrony in Romantic Couples and in Professional Musicians

    KAUST Repository

    Preissmann, Delphine

    2016-10-27

    The feeling of synchrony is fundamental for most social activities and prosocial behaviors. However, little is known about the behavioral correlates of this feeling and its modulation by intergroup differences. We previously showed that the subjective feeling of synchrony in subjects involved in a mirror imitation task was modulated by objective behavioral measures, as well as contextual factors such as task difficulty and duration of the task performance. In the present study, we extended our methodology to investigate possible interindividual differences. We hypothesized that being in a romantic relationship or being a professional musician can modulate both implicit and explicit synchronization and the feeling of synchrony as well as the ability to detect synchrony from a third person perspective. Contrary to our hypothesis, we did not find significant differences between people in a romantic relationship and control subjects. However, we observed differences between musicians and control subjects. For the implicit synchrony (spontaneous synchronization during walking), the results revealed that musicians that had never met before spontaneously synchronized their movements earlier among themselves than control subjects, but not better than people sharing a romantic relationship. Moreover, in explicit behavioral synchronization tasks (mirror game), musicians reported earlier feeling of synchrony and had less speed errors than control subjects. This was in interaction with tasks difficulty as these differences appeared only in tasks with intermediate difficulty. Finally, when subjects had to judge synchrony from a third person perspective, musicians had a better performance to identify if they were present or not in the videos. Taken together, our results suggest that being a professional musician can play a role in the feeling of synchrony and its underlying mechanisms. © 2016 Preissmann, Charbonnier, Chagué, Antonietti, Llobera, Ansermet and Magistretti.

  17. A motion capture study to measure the feeling of synchrony in romantic couples and in professional musicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Preissmann

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The feeling of synchrony is fundamental for most social activities and prosocial behaviors. However, little is known about the behavioral correlates of this feeling and its modulation by intergroup differences. We previously showed that the subjective feeling of synchrony in subjects involved in a mirror imitation task was modulated by objective behavioral measures, as well as contextual factors such as task difficulty and duration of the task performance. In the present study, we extended our methodology to investigate possible interindividual differences. We hypothesized that being in a romantic relationship or being a professional musician can modulate both implicit and explicit synchronisation and the feeling of synchrony as well as the ability to detect synchrony from a third person perspective. Contrary to our hypothesis, we did not find significant differences between people in a romantic relationship and control subjects. However, we observed differences between musicians and control subjects. For the implicit synchrony (spontaneous synchronization during walking, the results revealed that musicians that had never met before spontaneously synchronized their movements earlier among themselves than control subjects, but not better than people sharing a romantic relationship. Moreover, in explicit behavioral synchronisation tasks (mirror game, musicians reported earlier feeling of synchrony and had less speed errors than control subjects. This was in interaction with tasks difficulty as these differences appeared only in tasks with intermediate difficulty. Finally, when subjects had to judge synchrony from a third person perspective, musicians had a better performance to identify if they were present or not in the videos. Taken together, our results suggest that being a professional musician can play a role in the feeling of synchrony and its underlying mechanisms.

  18. [Musculoskeletal diseases among musicians of the "teatro dell'Opera" of Rome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaco, Edoardo; Vicaro, Vincenzo; Catarinozzi, Elena; Rossi, Marina; Prestigiacomo, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Musculo-skeletal injuries represent a significant medical problem in professional musicians for which was coined the following acronym PRMDs (that stands for Playing Related Musculoskeletal disorders). A little osteo-articular problem in the professional musicians can impact on a real decreasing performance activity. The purpose of this study is to quantify prevalence of PRMDs syntoms among the professional musicians and to verify their relative impact on quality lives. This study has investigated the orchestral staff of the principal lyric theatre of Rome to which it was distributed DASH OUTCOME and SF-36 questionnaires to identify the presence of musculoskeletal complaints for cervical brachial syndrome and the general quality of life respectively. The employment of the above methodology furnish statistically significant results, pointing out that the musicians quality life suffering from musculo-skeletal symptomatology (DASH SF > or = 15) was lower than ones without a clinical symptomatology. Subsequently these results were compared with the Italian population benchmarking values.

  19. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Finnish Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ in 590 Professional Musicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Vastamäki

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Poorly functioning work environments may lead to dissatisfaction for the employees and financial loss for the employers. The Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ was designed to measure social and psychological characteristics of work environments. Objective: To investigate the factor construct of the Finnish 14-item version of JCQ when applied to professional orchestra musicians. Methods: In a cross-sectional survey, the questionnaire was sent by mail to 1550 orchestra musicians and students. 630 responses were received. Full data were available for 590 respondents (response rate 38%.The questionnaire also contained questions on demographics, job satisfaction, health status, health behaviors, and intensity of playing music. Confirmatory factor analysis of the 2-factor model of JCQ was conducted. Results: Of the 5 estimates, JCQ items in the “job demand” construct, the “conflicting demands” (question 5 explained most of the total variance in this construct (79% demonstrating almost perfect correlation of 0.63. In the construct of “job control,” “repetitive work” (question 10 demonstrated a perfect correlation index of 0.84 and the items “little decision freedom” (question 14 and “allows own decisions” (question 6 showed substantial correlations of 0.77 and 0.65. Conclusion: The 2-factor model of the Finnish 14-item version of JCQ proposed in this study fitted well into the observed data. The “conflicting demands,” “repetitive work,” “little decision freedom,” and “allows own decisions” items demonstrated the strongest correlations with latent factors suggesting that in a population similar to the studied one, especially these items should be taken into account when observed in the response of a population.

  20. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Finnish Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) in 590 Professional Musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vastamäki, Heidi; Vastamäki, Martti; Laimi, Katri; Saltychev, Michail

    2017-07-01

    Poorly functioning work environments may lead to dissatisfaction for the employees and financial loss for the employers. The Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) was designed to measure social and psychological characteristics of work environments. To investigate the factor construct of the Finnish 14-item version of JCQ when applied to professional orchestra musicians. In a cross-sectional survey, the questionnaire was sent by mail to 1550 orchestra musicians and students. 630 responses were received. Full data were available for 590 respondents (response rate 38%).The questionnaire also contained questions on demographics, job satisfaction, health status, health behaviors, and intensity of playing music. Confirmatory factor analysis of the 2-factor model of JCQ was conducted. Of the 5 estimates, JCQ items in the "job demand" construct, the "conflicting demands" (question 5) explained most of the total variance in this construct (79%) demonstrating almost perfect correlation of 0.63. In the construct of "job control," "opinions influential" (question 10) demonstrated a perfect correlation index of 0.84 and the items "little decision freedom" (question 14) and "allows own decisions" (question 6) showed substantial correlations of 0.77 and 0.65. The 2-factor model of the Finnish 14-item version of JCQ proposed in this study fitted well into the observed data. The "conflicting demands," "opinions influential," "little decision freedom," and "allows own decisions" items demonstrated the strongest correlations with latent factors suggesting that in a population similar to the studied one, especially these items should be taken into account when observed in the response of a population.

  1. Insula-based networks in professional musicians: Evidence for increased functional connectivity during resting state fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamorano, Anna M; Cifre, Ignacio; Montoya, Pedro; Riquelme, Inmaculada; Kleber, Boris

    2017-10-01

    Despite considerable research on experience-dependent neuroplasticity in professional musicians, detailed understanding of an involvement of the insula is only now beginning to emerge. We investigated the effects of musical training on intrinsic insula-based connectivity in professional classical musicians relative to nonmusicians using resting-state functional MRI. Following a tripartite scheme of insula subdivisions, coactivation profiles were analyzed for the posterior, ventral anterior, and dorsal anterior insula in both hemispheres. While whole-brain connectivity across all participants confirmed previously reported patterns, between-group comparisons revealed increased insular connectivity in musicians relative to nonmusicians. Coactivated regions encompassed constituents of large-scale networks involved in salience detection (e.g., anterior and middle cingulate cortex), affective processing (e.g., orbitofrontal cortex and temporal pole), and higher order cognition (e.g., dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the temporoparietal junction), whereas no differences were found for the reversed group contrast. Importantly, these connectivity patterns were stronger in musicians who experienced more years of musical practice, including also sensorimotor regions involved in music performance (M1 hand area, S1, A1, and SMA). We conclude that musical training triggers significant reorganization in insula-based networks, potentially facilitating high-level cognitive and affective functions associated with the fast integration of multisensory information in the context of music performance. Hum Brain Mapp 38:4834-4849, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Exposure to music and noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) among professional pop/rock/jazz musicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halevi-Katz, Dana N.; Yaakobi, Erez; Putter-Katz, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) has been extensively studied in industrial work environments. With the advent of new technologies, loud music has been increasingly affecting listeners outside of the industrial setting. Most research on the effects of music and hearing loss has focused on classical musicians. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between the amount of experience a professional pop/rock/jazz musician has and objective and subjective variables of the musician's hearing loss. This study also examined professional pop/rock/jazz musicians’ use of hearing protection devices in relation to the extent of their exposure to amplified music. Forty-four pop/rock/jazz musicians were interviewed using the Pop/Rock/Jazz Musician's Questionnaire (PRJMQ) in order to obtain self-reported symptoms of tinnitus and hyperacusis. Forty-two of the subjects were also tested for air-conduction hearing thresholds in the frequency range of 1-8 kHz. Results show that the extent of professional pop/rock/jazz musicians’ exposure to amplified music was related to both objective and subjective variables of hearing loss: Greater musical experience was positively linked to higher hearing thresholds in the frequency range of 3-6 kHz and to the subjective symptom of tinnitus. Weekly hours playing were found to have a greater effect on hearing loss in comparison to years playing. Use of hearing protection was not linked to the extent of exposure to amplified music. It is recommended that further research be conducted with a larger sample, in order to gain a greater understanding of the detrimental effects of hours playing versus years playing. PMID:25913555

  3. Monitoring stage fright outside the laboratory: an example in a professional musician using wearable sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusserow, Martin; Candia, Victor; Amft, Oliver; Hildebrandt, Horst; Folkers, Gerd; Tröster, Gerhard

    2012-03-01

    We implemented and tested a wearable sensor system to measure patterns of stress responses in a professional musician under public performance conditions. Using this sensor system, we monitored the cellist's heart activity, the motion of multiple body parts, and their gradual changes during three repeated performances of a skill-demanding piece in front of a professional audience. From the cellist and her teachers, we collected stage fright self-reports and performance ratings that were related to our sensor data analysis results. Concomitant to changes in body motion and heart rate, the cellist perceived a reduction in stage fright. Performance quality was objectively improved, as technical playing errors decreased throughout repeated renditions. In particular, from performance 1 to 3, the wearable sensors measured a significant increase in the cellist's bowing motion dynamics of approximately 6% and a decrease in heart rate. Bowing motion showed a marginal correlation to the observed heart rate patterns during playing. The wearable system did not interfere with the cellist's performance, thereby allowing investigation of stress responses during natural public performances.

  4. Comparing the Impact of Specific Strength Training vs General Fitness Training on Professional Symphony Orchestra Musicians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard Andersen, Lotte; Mann, Stephanie; Juul-Kristensen, Birgit

    2017-01-01

    Musculoskeletal symptoms, especially in the upper body, are frequent among professional symphony orchestra musicians. Physical exercise may relieve pain but might also interfere with playing performance. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feasibility and effect of "specific strength training" (SST) versus...... "general fitness training" (GFT). METHODS: A feasibility study using randomized controlled methods. Primarily, evaluations involved self-reported impact on instrument playing and satisfaction with the interventions. Secondary evaluations included pain intensity, hand-grip strength, aerobic capacity, body...... reduction for GFT (19.7±24.0 to 13.5±26.0 mm). GFT significantly improved aerobic capacity (34.1±7.9 mL/min/kg to 40.0±13.6 mL/min/kg) compared to no significant gain for SST. For GFT, a significant improvement was seen in self-reported muscle strength (5.7±1.3 to 6.5±1.8) with a tendency toward significant...

  5. Evidence-Informed Physical Therapy Management of Performance-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders in Musicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cliffton eChan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Playing a musical instrument at an elite level is a highly complex motor skill. The regular daily training loads resulting from practice, rehearsals and performances place great demands on the neuromusculoskeletal systems of the body. As a consequence, performance-related musculoskeletal disorders (PRMDs are globally recognized as common phenomena amongst professional orchestral musicians. These disorders create a significant financial burden to individuals and orchestras as well as lead to serious consequences to the musicians’ performance and ultimately their career. Physical therapists are experts in treating musculoskeletal injuries and are ideally placed to apply their skills to manage PRMDs in this hyper functioning population, but there is little available evidence to guide specific injury management approaches. An Australia-wide survey of professional orchestral musicians revealed that the musicians attributed excessively high or sudden increase in playing-load as major contributors to their PRMDs. Therefore, facilitating musicians to better manage these loads should be a cornerstone of physical therapy management. The Sound Practice orchestral musicians work health and safety project used formative and process evaluation approaches to develop evidence-informed and clinically applicable physical therapy interventions, ultimately resulting in favourable outcomes. After these methodologies were employed, the intervention studies were conducted with a national cohort of professional musicians including: health education, onsite injury management, cross-training exercise regimes, performance postural analysis, and music performance biomechanics feedback. The outcomes of all these interventions will be discussed alongside a focussed review on the existing literature of these management strategies. Finally, a framework for best-practice physical therapy management of PRMDs in musicians will be provided.

  6. Hearing loss in relation to sound exposure of professional symphony orchestra musicians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, J. H.; Pedersen, E. R.; Paarup, H. M.

    2014-01-01

    of the symphony orchestra musicians had better hearing than expected but they had a work-related risk of developing additional noise-induced hearing loss. The additional NITPS of the left ear compared with the right ear was at the expected level based on the cumulated sound exposure and ISO1999, indicating......B compared with the 238 ears with lowest exposure. The observed hearing loss of musicians was smaller compared with the noise-induced permanent threshold shift (NIPTS) predicted from ISO1999. A remaining confounding effect of age after ISO7029 age corrections could be observed to explain the difference......OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to: (1) estimate the hearing status of classical symphony orchestra musicians and (2) investigate the hypothesis that occupational sound exposure of symphony orchestra musicians leads to elevated hearing thresholds. DESIGN: The study population...

  7. Is there addiction to loud music? Findings in a group of non-professional pop/rock musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmuziger, Nicolas; Patscheke, Jochen; Stieglitz, Rolf; Probst, Rudolf

    2012-01-09

    Listening to loud music may be connected to addictive behavior possibly leading to damaging effects on the cochlea. We hypothesized that members of non-professional pop/rock bands with regular exposure to loud music are more likely to show an addictive-like behavior for loud music than matched control subjects. Fifty non-professional musicians and 50 matched control subjects were asked to complete the Northeastern Music Listening Survey (NEMLS) with two basic components. The first comprises an adaptation of the validated Michigan Alcohol Screening Test (MAST) to study the addictive-like behavior towards loud music. The second comprises the criteria outlined by the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) of the American Psychiatric Society for the diagnosis of substance dependence. The NEMLS was scored using the same point system as used in the MAST. The DSM-IV criteria for substance dependence were met by nine of the musician group and by one control subject. Seven of these nine musicians also had a positive NEMLS score. Traits of addictive-like behavior to loud music were detected more often in members of nonprofessional pop/rock bands than in control subjects.

  8. Is there addiction to loud music? Findings in a group of non-professional pop/rock musicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Schmuziger

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Listening to loud music may be connected to addictive behavior possibly leading to damaging effects on the cochlea. We hypothesized that members of non-professional pop/rock bands with regular exposure to loud music are more likely to show an addictive-like behavior for loud music than matched control subjects. Fifty non-professional musicians and 50 matched control subjects were asked to complete the Northeastern Music Listening Survey (NEMLS with two basic components. The first comprises an adaptation of the validated Michigan Alcohol Screening Test (MAST to study the addictive-like behavior towards loud music. The second comprises the criteria outlined by the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV of the American Psychiatric Society for the diagnosis of substance dependence. The NEMLS was scored using the same point system as used in the MAST. The DSM-IV criteria for substance dependence were met by nine of the musician group and by one control subject. Seven of these nine musicians also had a positive NEMLS score. Traits of addictive-like behavior to loud music were detected more often in members of nonprofessional pop/rock bands than in control subjects.

  9. The Application of Tensegrity Massage in a Professionally Active Musician - Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilk, Iwona; Kurpas, Donata; Andrzejewski, Waldemar; Okręglicka-Forysiak, Ewa; Gworys, Bohdan; Kassolik, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to present options for the application of tensegrity massage to manage pain caused by the overload of soft tissues in musicians. Tensegrity massage was applied to a 34-year-old male violinist. The methodology included a correct positioning and tensegrity massage with individually designed procedure. After therapy, the patient achieved complete pain relief, and relaxation of muscles in the shoulder girdle and free part of the upper arm. The analgesic effect lasted for 6 months after the end of therapy. Massage is an effective method in eliminating pain caused by the overload of soft tissues. If used regularly before physical effort, it can prevent muscle overload. The presented massage procedure is an effective therapy in pain caused by the overload of soft tissues in musicians and it can be one of the elements of complex physiotherapy in active musicians. © 2014 Association of Rehabilitation Nurses.

  10. Exposure to music and noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL among professional pop/rock/jazz musicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana N Halevi-Katz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL has been extensively studied in industrial work environments. With the advent of new technologies, loud music has been increasingly affecting listeners outside of the industrial setting. Most research on the effects of music and hearing loss has focused on classical musicians. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between the amount of experience a professional pop/rock/jazz musician has and objective and subjective variables of the musician′s hearing loss. This study also examined professional pop/rock/jazz musicians′ use of hearing protection devices in relation to the extent of their exposure to amplified music. Forty-four pop/rock/jazz musicians were interviewed using the Pop/Rock/Jazz Musician′s Questionnaire (PRJMQ in order to obtain self-reported symptoms of tinnitus and hyperacusis. Forty-two of the subjects were also tested for air-conduction hearing thresholds in the frequency range of 1-8 kHz. Results show that the extent of professional pop/rock/jazz musicians′ exposure to amplified music was related to both objective and subjective variables of hearing loss: Greater musical experience was positively linked to higher hearing thresholds in the frequency range of 3-6 kHz and to the subjective symptom of tinnitus. Weekly hours playing were found to have a greater effect on hearing loss in comparison to years playing. Use of hearing protection was not linked to the extent of exposure to amplified music. It is recommended that further research be conducted with a larger sample, in order to gain a greater understanding of the detrimental effects of hours playing versus years playing.

  11. Music Therapy as a Caring Intervention: Swedish Musicians Learning a New Professional Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersson, Gunnar; Nystrom, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The question of competence in providing music therapy has rarely been the focus of interest in empirical research, as most music therapy research aims at measuring outcomes. Therefore, the aim of this study is to analyse and describe musicians' learning processes when they study music therapy as a caring intervention. An initial presumption is…

  12. Audio-visuomotor processing in the Musician's brain: an ERP study on professional violinists and clarinetists

    OpenAIRE

    Mado Proverbio, Alice; Calbi, Marta; Manfredi, Mirella; Zani, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    The temporal dynamics of brain activation during visual and auditory perception of congruent vs. incongruent musical video clips was investigated in 12 musicians from the Milan Conservatory of music and 12 controls. 368 videos of a clarinetist and a violinist playing the same score with their instruments were presented. The sounds were similar in pitch, intensity, rhythm and duration. To produce an audiovisual discrepancy, in half of the trials, the visual information was incongruent with the...

  13. Audio-visuomotor processing in the musician's brain: an ERP study on professional violinists and clarinetists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proverbio, Alice Mado; Calbi, Marta; Manfredi, Mirella; Zani, Alberto

    2014-07-29

    The temporal dynamics of brain activation during visual and auditory perception of congruent vs. incongruent musical video clips was investigated in 12 musicians from the Milan Conservatory of music and 12 controls. 368 videos of a clarinetist and a violinist playing the same score with their instruments were presented. The sounds were similar in pitch, intensity, rhythm and duration. To produce an audiovisual discrepancy, in half of the trials, the visual information was incongruent with the soundtrack in pitch. ERPs were recorded from 128 sites. Only in musicians for their own instruments was a N400-like negative deflection elicited due to the incongruent audiovisual information. SwLORETA applied to the N400 response identified the areas mediating multimodal motor processing: the prefrontal cortex, the right superior and middle temporal gyrus, the premotor cortex, the inferior frontal and inferior parietal areas, the EBA, somatosensory cortex, cerebellum and SMA. The data indicate the existence of audiomotor mirror neurons responding to incongruent visual and auditory information, thus suggesting that they may encode multimodal representations of musical gestures and sounds. These systems may underlie the ability to learn how to play a musical instrument.

  14. Listening to music – with professional ears. A study of orchestral musicians’ ways of listening

    OpenAIRE

    Reitan, Inger Elise

    2013-01-01

    The training of listening skills in higher music education is a central part of the aural training discipline, often called aural analysis or structural hearing. Listening here refers to active, conscious attention paid to the music and its elements through the combination of perceptual and cognitive skills, and understanding. Theories about listening suggest various categories and types of listeners and of listening, mainly along the analytical-emotional spectrum. How do professional musicia...

  15. Reduced surround inhibition in musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hae-Won; Kang, Suk Y; Hallett, Mark; Sohn, Young H

    2012-06-01

    To investigate whether surround inhibition (SI) in the motor system is altered in professional musicians, we performed a transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) study in 10 professional musicians and 15 age-matched healthy non-musicians. TMS was set to be triggered by self-initiated flexion of the index finger at different intervals ranging from 3 to 1,000 ms. Average motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitudes obtained from self-triggered TMS were normalized to average MEPs of the control TMS at rest and expressed as a percentage. Normalized MEP amplitudes of the abductor digiti minimi (ADM) muscles were compared between the musicians and non-musicians with the primary analysis being the intervals between 3 and 80 ms (during the movement). A mixed-design ANOVA revealed a significant difference in normalized ADM MEPs during the index finger flexion between groups, with less SI in the musicians. This study demonstrated that the functional operation of SI is less strong in musicians than non-musicians, perhaps due to practice of movement synergies involving both muscles. Reduced SI, however, could lead susceptible musicians to be prone to develop task-specific dystonia.

  16. Orchestrating Docker

    CERN Document Server

    Holla, Shrikrishna

    2015-01-01

    If you are a competent developer or DevOps with a good understanding of Linux filesystems but want to manage and orchestrate Docker services, images, and products using a multitude of techniques, then this book is for you. No prior knowledge of Docker or container virtualization is required.

  17. Learning a Music Instrument in Early Childhood: What Can We Learn from Professional Musicians' Childhood Memories?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Wyverne

    2008-01-01

    Professional early childhood educators are often asked for advice about whether or when a young child should learn to play a music instrument. Many educators who do not have a background in music education may not be confident in providing such advice. A range of overseas research has supported learning a music instrument in the early childhood…

  18. The encoding of vowels and temporal speech cues in the auditory cortex of professional musicians: an EEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühnis, Jürg; Elmer, Stefan; Meyer, Martin; Jäncke, Lutz

    2013-07-01

    Here, we applied a multi-feature mismatch negativity (MMN) paradigm in order to systematically investigate the neuronal representation of vowels and temporally manipulated CV syllables in a homogeneous sample of string players and non-musicians. Based on previous work indicating an increased sensitivity of the musicians' auditory system, we expected to find that musically trained subjects will elicit increased MMN amplitudes in response to temporal variations in CV syllables, namely voice-onset time (VOT) and duration. In addition, since different vowels are principally distinguished by means of frequency information and musicians are superior in extracting tonal (and thus frequency) information from an acoustic stream, we also expected to provide evidence for an increased auditory representation of vowels in the experts. In line with our hypothesis, we could show that musicians are not only advantaged in the pre-attentive encoding of temporal speech cues, but most notably also in processing vowels. Additional "just noticeable difference" measurements suggested that the musicians' perceptual advantage in encoding speech sounds was more likely driven by the generic constitutional properties of a highly trained auditory system, rather than by its specialisation for speech representations per se. These results shed light on the origin of the often reported advantage of musicians in processing a variety of speech sounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Character Strengths Profiles of Musicians and Non-Musicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika Güsewell

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the 1980s and 1990s a series of studies investigated musicians’ personalities using Cattell’s 16 personality factors, Eysenck’s PEN super factors, and Costa and McCrae’s Big Five. The findings hinted at some traits most musicians seemed to share, and highlighted differences between the personality traits of brass and string players. However, results were inconclusive and sometimes contradictory. The main aim of this study was to further investigate the topic using novel theoretical frameworks: Peterson and Seligman’s (2004 VIA classification, and Güsewell and Ruch’s (2012 responsiveness to the beautiful and good model. The character strengths and responsiveness to the beautiful and good profiles of classical and non-classical (i.e. jazz, rock, and pop professional musicians, amateur musicians, and non-musicians were compared. In total, 324 participants equally distributed among these three subgroups completed the Values in Action Inventory of Strengths (VIA-IS; Peterson, Park, & Seligman, 2005, the Engagement with Beauty Scale (EBS; Diessner, Solom, Frost, Parsons, & Davidson, 2008, and the Appreciation of Beauty and Excellence Test (ABET; Güsewell & Ruch, 2012. Professional musicians scored significantly higher than non-musicians on self-regulation, appreciation of beauty and excellence, and responsiveness to artistic beauty; they scored significantly lower than amateurs on judgement and perspective, and lower than both amateurs and non-musicians on teamwork, fairness, and leadership. Professional classical musicians scored significantly higher than professional non-classical musicians on prudence. The latter, in turn, displayed significantly higher scores on creativity, bravery, and honesty. The two groups did not differ with respect to any of the responsiveness dimensions.

  20. Insecurity, Professional Sociability, and Alcohol: Young Freelance Musicians' Perspectives on Work and Life in the Music Profession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Melissa C.

    2011-01-01

    Research addressing a link between musical creativity and mental disorder has predominantly considered composers rather than performers, and has been dominated by the questionable use of retrospective biographical research methods. This article calls for research to explore more widely the stressors and challenges that living musicians face in…

  1. Moral development, executive functioning, peak experiences and brain patterns in professional and amateur classical musicians: interpreted in light of a Unified Theory of Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Frederick; Harung, Harald S; Lagrosen, Yvonne

    2011-12-01

    This study compared professional and amateur classical musicians matched for age, gender, and education on reaction times during the Stroop color-word test, brainwaves during an auditory ERP task and during paired reaction-time tasks, responses on the Gibbs Sociomoral Reflection questionnaire, and self-reported frequencies of peak experiences. Professional musicians were characterized by: (1) lower color-word interference effects (Stroop task), (2) faster categorization of rare expected stimuli (P3b), and a trend for faster processing of rare unexpected stimuli (P3a), (3) higher scores on the Sociomoral Reflection questionnaire, and (4) more frequent peak experiences during rest, tasks, and sleep. Both groups had high values on the Brain Integration Scale. These findings are interpreted in light of a Unified Theory of Performance, which posits that effectiveness in any area is influenced by one's level of mind-brain development-emotional, cognitive, moral, ego and cortical development-with higher mind-brain development supporting greater effectiveness in any domain. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Musicians as lifelong learners: 32 biographies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rineke Smilde

    2009-01-01

    Within the study ‘Musicians as Lifelong Learners: Discovery through Biography’, biographical research was used to examine key developments in the professional lives of musicians, focusing on the relationship between their life, educational and career span ant their learning styles. This resulted in

  3. Increased functional connectivity in the ventral and dorsal streams during retrieval of novel words in professional musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittinger, Eva; Valizadeh, Seyed Abolfazl; Jäncke, Lutz; Besson, Mireille; Elmer, Stefan

    2017-11-03

    Current models of speech and language processing postulate the involvement of two parallel processing streams (the dual stream model): a ventral stream involved in mapping sensory and phonological representations onto lexical and conceptual representations and a dorsal stream contributing to sound-to-motor mapping, articulation, and to how verbal information is encoded and manipulated in memory. Based on previous evidence showing that music training has an influence on language processing, cognitive functions, and word learning, we examined EEG-based intracranial functional connectivity in the ventral and dorsal streams while musicians and nonmusicians learned the meaning of novel words through picture-word associations. In accordance with the dual stream model, word learning was generally associated with increased beta functional connectivity in the ventral stream compared to the dorsal stream. In addition, in the linguistically most demanding "semantic task," musicians outperformed nonmusicians, and this behavioral advantage was accompanied by increased left-hemispheric theta connectivity in both streams. Moreover, theta coherence in the left dorsal pathway was positively correlated with the number of years of music training. These results provide evidence for a complex interplay within a network of brain regions involved in semantic processing and verbal memory functions, and suggest that intensive music training can modify its functional architecture leading to advantages in novel word learning. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Error monitoring in musicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemens eMaidhof

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available To err is human, and hence even professional musicians make errors occasionally during their performances. This paper summarizes recent work investigating error monitoring in musicians, i.e. the processes and their neural correlates associated with the monitoring of ongoing actions and the detection of deviations from intended sounds. EEG Studies reported an early component of the event-related potential (ERP occurring before the onsets of pitch errors. This component, which can be altered in musicians with focal dystonia, likely reflects processes of error detection and/or error compensation, i.e. attempts to cancel the undesired sensory consequence (a wrong tone a musician is about to perceive. Thus, auditory feedback seems not to be a prerequisite for error detection, consistent with previous behavioral results. In contrast, when auditory feedback is externally manipulated and thus unexpected, motor performance can be severely distorted, although not all feedback alterations result in performance impairments. Recent studies investigating the neural correlates of feedback processing showed that unexpected feedback elicits an ERP component after note onsets, which shows larger amplitudes during music performance than during mere perception of the same musical sequences. Hence, these results stress the role of motor actions for the processing of auditory information. Furthermore, recent methodological advances like the combination of 3D motion capture techniques with EEG will be discussed. Such combinations of different measures can potentially help to disentangle the roles of different feedback types such as proprioceptive and auditory feedback, and in general to derive at a better understanding of the complex interactions between the motor and auditory domain during error monitoring. Finally, outstanding questions and future directions in this context will be discussed.

  5. Musicians working in community contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rineke Smilde

    2012-01-01

    This paper will explore types of learning, which takes place when musicians work in situations where they have to connect to community contexts. It will first address musicians’ changing professional roles in the changing sociocultural landscape and the need for lifelong learning and emergence of

  6. Brain structures differ between musicians and non-musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaser, Christian; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2003-10-08

    From an early age, musicians learn complex motor and auditory skills (e.g., the translation of visually perceived musical symbols into motor commands with simultaneous auditory monitoring of output), which they practice extensively from childhood throughout their entire careers. Using a voxel-by-voxel morphometric technique, we found gray matter volume differences in motor, auditory, and visual-spatial brain regions when comparing professional musicians (keyboard players) with a matched group of amateur musicians and non-musicians. Although some of these multiregional differences could be attributable to innate predisposition, we believe they may represent structural adaptations in response to long-term skill acquisition and the repetitive rehearsal of those skills. This hypothesis is supported by the strong association we found between structural differences, musician status, and practice intensity, as well as the wealth of supporting animal data showing structural changes in response to long-term motor training. However, only future experiments can determine the relative contribution of predisposition and practice.

  7. Sound Exposure of Symphony Orchestra Musicians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jesper Hvass; Pedersen, Ellen Raben; Juhl, Peter Møller

    2011-01-01

    Background: Assessment of sound exposure by noise dosimetry can be challenging especially when measuring the exposure of classical orchestra musicians where sound originate from many different instruments. A new measurement method of bilateral sound exposure of classical musicians was developed...... and used to characterize sound exposure of the left and right ear simultaneously in two different symphony orchestras.Objectives: To measure binaural sound exposure of professional classical musicians and to identify possible exposure risk factors of specific musicians.Methods: Sound exposure was measured...... with microphones mounted on the musician’s ears and recorded digitally. The recorded sound was analysed and the specific sound exposure of the left and the right ear was determined for the musicians. A total of 114 measurements covering 106 h were recorded in two symphony orchestras.Results: Sound exposure depends...

  8. International organizations as orchestrators

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, Kenneth W

    2015-01-01

    International Organizations as Orchestrators reveals how IOs leverage their limited authority and resources to increase their effectiveness, power, and autonomy from states. By 'orchestrating' intermediaries - including NGOs - IOs can shape and steer global governance without engaging in hard, direct regulation. This volume is organized around a theoretical model that emphasizes voluntary collaboration and support. An outstanding group of scholars investigate the significance of orchestration across key issue areas, including trade, finance, environment and labor, and in leading organizations, including the GEF, G20, WTO, EU, Kimberley Process, UNEP and ILO. The empirical studies find that orchestration is pervasive. They broadly confirm the theoretical hypotheses while providing important new insights, especially that states often welcome IO orchestration as achieving governance without creating strong institutions. This volume changes our understanding of the relationships among IOs, nonstate actors and sta...

  9. An Investigation into Musicians' Thoughts and Perceptions during Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Terry; Lisboa, Tânia; Williamon, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    Given the current state of understanding surrounding musicians' experiences while performing, this study sought to investigate musicians' thoughts and perceptions during performances and the perceived impact their evaluation of those thoughts and perceptions has on their subsequent musical activities. Twenty-nine student and professional classical…

  10. Perceived Performance Anxiety in Advanced Musicians Specializing in Different Musical Genres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgi, Ioulia; Creech, Andrea; Welch, Graham

    2013-01-01

    Most research on musical performance anxiety has focused on musicians coming from a classical background, and performance anxiety experiences of musicians outside the western classical genre remain under-researched. The aim of this study was to investigate perceived performance anxiety experiences in undergraduate and professional musicians and to…

  11. Perceived performance anxiety in advanced musicians specializing in different musical genres

    OpenAIRE

    Papageorgi, I.; Creech, A.; Welch, G.

    2013-01-01

    Most research on musical performance anxiety has focused on musicians coming from a classical background, and performance anxiety experiences of musicians outside the western classical genre remain under-researched. The aim of this study was to investigate perceived performance anxiety experiences in undergraduate and professional musicians and to explore whether musical genre specialization (Western classical, jazz, popular, Scottish traditional) affected musicians' performance anxiety exper...

  12. Eating disorders in musicians: a survey investigating self-reported eating disorders of musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapsetaki, Marianna Evangelia; Easmon, Charlie

    2017-07-14

    This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of eating disorders (EDs) in musicians, and to evaluate their relation to perfectionism, stress, anxiety and depression. It examined: (1) the prevalence of EDs using the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q), body mass index (BMI) and self-reports, (2) psychological risk factors using the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21) and perfectionism inventory and (3) demographic details, information about musical and career development, lifestyle, eating habits and health. A survey was distributed worldwide and a total of 301 English-speaking musicians aged 18 years and older participated. Our screening tools for EDs showed a high prevalence of EDs in musicians: the EDE-Q Global Score (EDE-QGS) showed pathological values in 18.66% of the musicians and when questioned about lifetime prevalence, 32.3% of the musicians answered positively. The median BMI was within the normal range. Regarding general mental health, the DASS-21 showed that depression and stress were severe, anxiety was extremely severe and the perfectionism inventory composite score was 26.53. There was no significant difference on the EDE-QGS between musicians who perform different types of music, but music students, professionals, soloists and musicians travelling overseas had a higher percentage of pathological EDE-QGS. Perfectionism was higher in classical musicians and there was a low positive correlation between EDE-QGS and the risk factors: perfectionism, depression, anxiety, stress, peer pressure and social isolation. EDs are prevalent in musicians and possible risk factors are their increased perfectionism, depression, anxiety and stress due to the demands of their job.

  13. Functional network interactions during sensorimotor synchronization in musicians and non-musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Vanessa; Schnitzler, Alfons; Pollok, Bettina

    2010-08-01

    Precise timing as determined by sensorimotor synchronization is crucial for a wide variety of activities. Although it is well-established that musicians show superior timing as compared to non-musicians, the neurophysiological foundations - in particular the underlying functional brain network - remain to be characterized. To this end, drummers, professional pianists and non-musicians performed an auditory synchronization task while neuromagnetic activity was measured using a 122-channel whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG) system. The underlying functional brain network was determined using the beamformer approach Dynamic Imaging of Coherent Sources (DICS). Behaviorally, drummers performed less variably than non-musicians. Neuromagnetic analysis revealed a cerebello-thalamo-cortical network in all subjects comprising bilateral primary sensorimotor cortices (S1/M1), contralateral supplementary motor and premotor regions (SMA and PMC), thalamus, posterior parietal cortex (PPC), ipsilateral cerebellum and bilateral auditory cortices. Stronger PMC-thalamus and PPC-thalamus interactions at alpha and beta frequencies were evident in drummers as compared to non-musicians. In professional pianists stronger PMC-thalamus interaction as compared to non-musicians at beta frequency occurred. The present data suggest that precise timing is associated with increased functional interaction within a PMC-thalamus-PPC network. The PMC-thalamus connectivity at beta frequency might be related to musical expertise, whereas the PPC-thalamus interaction might have specific relevance for precise timing. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Trastornos músculo-esqueléticos en músicos profesionales: revisión bibliográfica Musculoskeletal disorders in professional musicians: a review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Almonacid-Canseco

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: los músicos son susceptibles de muchas patologías que repercuten en su carrera profesional debido a las posturas forzadas, las horas de práctica, los movimientos repetitivos y la carga psicológica. Las principales causas de los trastornos músculo-esqueléticos son la sobrecarga muscular, la compresión nerviosa y la distonía focal ocupacional. Este grupo de patologías en los músicos no está recogido en el cuadro de enfermedades profesionales español. Objetivo: conocer la producción científica sobre los trastornos músculo-esqueléticos en músicos profesionales como consecuencia de su actividad laboral. Material y Métodos: Se realiza una revisión bibliográfica de la literatura científica publicada entre 2006-2012. Se consultaron las bases de datos MEDLINE, OSH UPDATE, IBECS, Biblioteca Cochrane, Scielo, LILACS y CISDOC. Resultados: se seleccionaron 24 artículos; un estudio experimental, dos revisiones sistemáticas, cuatro estudios de casos y controles, 16 estudios transversales y una serie de casos. Se encontró una prevalencia de 25,5%-86% para los trastornos músculo-esqueléticos, sin consenso para los factores de riesgo. Las principales localizaciones fueron cuello, espalda y brazo. Se encontró más afectación en mujeres, excepto para la distonía focal que fue más frecuente en hombres. Conclusiones: los trastornos músculo-esqueléticos son muy frecuentes en músicos profesionales. Es necesario seguir investigando en esta materia e incidir sobre las medidas de prevención desde las etapas iniciales de su formación. Habría que valorar la inclusión de estos trastornos en los músicos dentro del cuadro de enfermedades profesionales español.Introduction: musicians are susceptible to many disorders that affect their professional careers, due to awkward posture, an excess of practice hours, to repetitive movements and psychological stress. The main causes leading to musculoskeletal disorders are those of

  15. The prevalence of chronic pain in orchestra musicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gasenzer, Elena R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The study investigated the incidence of chronic pain as well as causes and mechanisms of pain chronification in orchestra musicians. Aims: Chronic pain is a serious problem in the study group due to very specific playing techniques and body positions while playing, with a high impact on professional and private life. Methods: 8,645 professional musicians from 132 German cultural orchestras were contacted and asked about chronic pain via an online questionnaire. The study group comprised orchestra musicians suffering from pain. The control group consisted of musicians playing the same type of instruments (same working conditions who reported to be free of pain. Results: The response rate was 8.6% (740 musicians. 66.2% (n=490 out of 740 musicians who completed the questionnaire reported chronic pain. The most frequently reported localizations of pain were the body parts which are mostly involved in instrumental playing such as back (70%, shoulders (67.8%, neck (64.1%, hands and wrists (39.8%. 27.4% of the investigated musicians suffered from pain with a high degree of impairment. Conclusions: These results appear conclusive and indicate a need to continue research into chronic pain in musicians.

  16. Regaining motor control in musician's dystonia by restoring sensorimotor organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkranz, Karin; Butler, Katherine; Williamon, Aaron; Rothwell, John C

    2009-11-18

    Professional musicians are an excellent model of long-term motor learning effects on structure and function of the sensorimotor system. However, intensive motor skill training has been associated with task-specific deficiency in hand motor control, which has a higher prevalence among musicians (musician's dystonia) than in the general population. Using a transcranial magnetic stimulation paradigm, we previously found an expanded spatial integration of proprioceptive input into the hand motor cortex [sensorimotor organization (SMO)] in healthy musicians. In musician's dystonia, however, this expansion was even larger. Whereas motor skills of musicians are likely to be supported by a spatially expanded SMO, we hypothesized that in musician's dystonia this might have developed too far and now disrupts rather than assists task-specific motor control. If so, motor control should be regained by reversing the excessive reorganization in musician's dystonia. Here, we test this hypothesis and show that a 15 min intervention with proprioceptive input (proprioceptive training) restored SMO in pianists with musician's dystonia to the pattern seen in healthy pianists. Crucially, task-specific motor control improved significantly and objectively as measured with a MIDI (musical instrument digital interface) piano, and the amount of behavioral improvement was significantly correlated to the degree of sensorimotor reorganization. In healthy pianists and nonmusicians, the SMO and motor performance remained essentially unchanged. These findings suggest that the differentiation of SMO in the hand motor cortex and the degree of motor control of intensively practiced tasks are significantly linked and finely balanced. Proprioceptive training restored this balance in musician's dystonia to the behaviorally beneficial level of healthy musicians.

  17. Meteorological phenomena in Western classical orchestral music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, P. D.; Aplin, K. L.

    2012-12-01

    The creative output of composers, writers, and artists is often influenced by their surroundings. To give a literary example, it has been claimed recently that some of the characters in Oliver Twist and A Christmas Carol were based on real-life people who lived near Charles Dickens in London. Of course, an important part of what we see and hear is not only the people with whom we interact, but also our geophysical surroundings. Of all the geophysical phenomena to influence us, the weather is arguably the most significant, because we are exposed to it directly and daily. The weather was a great source of inspiration for Monet, Constable, and Turner, who are known for their scientifically accurate paintings of the skies. But to what extent does weather inspire composers? The authors of this presentation, who are atmospheric scientists by day but amateur classical musicians by night, have been contemplating this question. We have built a systematic musical database, which has allowed us to catalogue and analyze the frequencies with which weather is depicted in a sample of classical orchestral music. The depictions vary from explicit mimicry using traditional and specialized orchestral instruments, through to subtle suggestions. We have found that composers are generally influenced by their own environment in the type of weather they choose to represent. As befits the national stereotype, British composers seem disproportionately keen to depict the UK's variable weather patterns and stormy coastline. Reference: Aplin KL and Williams PD (2011) Meteorological phenomena in Western classical orchestral music. Weather, 66(11), pp 300-306. doi:10.1002/wea.765

  18. Orchestrating Lean Implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Jens Ove; Mikkelsen, Hans; Andersen, Jesper Rank

    2008-01-01

    The notion of Lean Manufacturing is not merely confined to a set of well defined techniques, but represents a broad approach to managing a company. Working with lean entails many aspects, such as production planning and control, production engineering, product development, supply chain......, and organizational issues. To become effective, many functional areas and departments must be involved. At the same time companies are embedded in a dynamic environment. The aim of the paper is to propose a comprehensive approach to better implementation of lean initiatives, based on two empirical studies. The paper...... will discuss how a concerted effort can be staged taking into account the interdependencies among individual improvement initiatives. The notion of orchestration will be introduced, and several means for orchestration will be presented. Critical behavioral issues for lean implementation will be discussed....

  19. The Influence of a Sudden Increase in Playing Time on Playing-Related Musculoskeletal Complaints in High-Level Amateur Musicians in a Longitudinal Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, Laura M; Haitjema, Saskia; Groenewegen, Karlijn A; Rietveld, A Boni M

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several studies in the domain of professional musicians describe the relation between playing time and the occurrence of musculoskeletal complaints in professional musicians. To date, no longitudinal cohort study into this relationship has been performed and no amateur musicians were

  20. Windows Terminal Servers Orchestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowiec, Sebastian; Gaspar, Ricardo; Smith, Tim

    2017-10-01

    Windows Terminal Servers provide application gateways for various parts of the CERN accelerator complex, used by hundreds of CERN users every day. The combination of new tools such as Puppet, HAProxy and Microsoft System Center suite enable automation of provisioning workflows to provide a terminal server infrastructure that can scale up and down in an automated manner. The orchestration does not only reduce the time and effort necessary to deploy new instances, but also facilitates operations such as patching, analysis and recreation of compromised nodes as well as catering for workload peaks.

  1. Orchestrating with Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiniry, Joseph Roland; Martinez, Josu

    2012-01-01

    of the units under composition. Orc is an executable language, and in the Orc system, units are realized as methods implemented in the Java programming language. Since Java methods' behavior can be formally specified with the Java Modeling Language (JML), then the behavior of an Orc program can be reasoned......Our domain of interest is self-healing systems. We wish to reason about the behavior of statically and dynamically composed systems. The orchestration language Orc permits one to write programs that compose such systems. Unfortunately, Orc's semantics make no assumptions about the behavior...

  2. Pain sensitivity and tactile spatial acuity are altered in healthy musicians as in chronic pain patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamorano, Anna M.; Riquelme, Inmaculada; Kleber, Boris; Altenmüller, Eckart; Hatem, Samar M.; Montoya, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Extensive training of repetitive and highly skilled movements, as it occurs in professional classical musicians, may lead to changes in tactile sensitivity and corresponding cortical reorganization of somatosensory cortices. It is also known that professional musicians frequently experience musculoskeletal pain and pain-related symptoms during their careers. The present study aimed at understanding the complex interaction between chronic pain and music training with respect to somatosensory processing. For this purpose, tactile thresholds (mechanical detection, grating orientation, two-point discrimination) and subjective ratings to thermal and pressure pain stimuli were assessed in 17 professional musicians with chronic pain, 30 pain-free musicians, 20 non-musicians with chronic pain, and 18 pain-free non-musicians. We found that pain-free musicians displayed greater touch sensitivity (i.e., lower mechanical detection thresholds), lower tactile spatial acuity (i.e., higher grating orientation thresholds) and increased pain sensitivity to pressure and heat compared to pain-free non-musicians. Moreover, we also found that musicians and non-musicians with chronic pain presented lower tactile spatial acuity and increased pain sensitivity to pressure and heat compared to pain-free non-musicians. The significant increment of pain sensitivity together with decreased spatial discrimination in pain-free musicians and the similarity of results found in chronic pain patients, suggests that the extensive training of repetitive and highly skilled movements in classical musicians could be considered as a risk factor for developing chronic pain, probably due to use-dependent plastic changes elicited in somatosensory pathways. PMID:25610384

  3. Pain sensitivity and tactile spatial acuity are altered in healthy musicians as in chronic pain patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M. eZamorano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Extensive training of repetitive and highly skilled movements, as it occurs in professional classical musicians, may lead to changes in tactile sensitivity and corresponding cortical reorganization of somatosensory cortices. It is also known that professional musicians frequently experience musculoskeletal pain and pain-related symptoms during their careers. The present study aimed at understanding the complex interaction between chronic pain and music training with respect to somatosensory processing. For this purpose, tactile thresholds (mechanical detection, grating orientation, two-point discrimination and subjective ratings to thermal and pressure pain stimuli were assessed in 17 professional musicians with chronic pain, 30 pain-free musicians, 20 non-musicians with chronic pain, and 18 pain-free non-musicians. We found that pain-free musicians displayed greater touch sensitivity (i.e. lower mechanical detection thresholds, lower tactile spatial acuity (i.e., higher grating orientation thresholds and increased pain sensitivity to pressure and heat compared to pain-free non-musicians. Moreover, we also found that musicians and non-musicians with chronic pain presented lower tactile spatial acuity and increased pain sensitivity to pressure and heat compared to pain-free non-musicians. The significant increment of pain sensitivity together with decreased spatial discrimination in pain-free musicians and the similarity of results found in chronic pain patients, suggests that the extensive training of repetitive and highly skilled movements in classical musicians could be considered as a risk factor for developing chronic pain, probably due to use-dependent plastic changes elicited in somatosensory pathways.

  4. A Prospective Evaluation of Duplex Ultrasound for Thoracic Outlet Syndrome in High-Performance Musicians Playing Bowed String Musicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garret Adam

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS is a neurovascular condition involving the upper extremity, which is known to occur in individuals who perform chronic repetitive upper extremity activities. We prospectively evaluate the incidence of TOS in high-performance musicians who played bowed string musicians. Sixty-four high-performance string instrument musicians from orchestras and professional musical bands were included in the study. Fifty-two healthy volunteers formed an age-matched control group. Bilateral upper extremity duplex scanning for subclavian vessel compression was performed in all subjects. Provocative maneuvers including Elevated Arm Stress Test (EAST and Upper Limb Tension Test (ULTT were performed. Abnormal ultrasound finding is defined by greater than 50% subclavian vessel compression with arm abduction, diminished venous waveforms, or arterial photoplethysmography (PPG tracing with arm abduction. Bowed string instruments performed by musicians in our study included violin (41%, viola (33%, and cello (27%. Positive EAST or ULTT test in the musician group and control group were 44%, and 3%, respectively (p = 0.03. Abnormal ultrasound scan with vascular compression was detected in 69% of musicians, in contrast to 15% of control subjects (p = 0.03. TOS is a common phenomenon among high-performance bowed string instrumentalists. Musicians who perform bowed string instruments should be aware of this condition and its associated musculoskeletal symptoms.

  5. Music performance anxiety: New insights from young musicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret S. Osborne

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Music performance anxiety (MPA is a relatively neglected psychological phenomenon that rarely appears in mainstream psychological journals or textbooks. To date, this field of inquiry has focused primarily on professional and amateur adult musicians or college level music students. With the exception of a small number of recent additions to the literature, there have been few studies examining the experience of MPA in younger musicians. In this paper, we review our work on MPA in general, and summarize our recent work with young musicians. We argue that the experience of MPA may begin early in a musical career and that the characteristics of this experience are qualitatively similar to those experienced by adult musicians. There are therefore compelling reasons to address MPA early and to take a strong preventive focus on a condition that to date shows persistence over time and only modest response to available treatments.

  6. Astrocytes: Orchestrating synaptic plasticity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pittà, M; Brunel, N; Volterra, A

    2016-05-26

    Synaptic plasticity is the capacity of a preexisting connection between two neurons to change in strength as a function of neural activity. Because synaptic plasticity is the major candidate mechanism for learning and memory, the elucidation of its constituting mechanisms is of crucial importance in many aspects of normal and pathological brain function. In particular, a prominent aspect that remains debated is how the plasticity mechanisms, that encompass a broad spectrum of temporal and spatial scales, come to play together in a concerted fashion. Here we review and discuss evidence that pinpoints to a possible non-neuronal, glial candidate for such orchestration: the regulation of synaptic plasticity by astrocytes. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Focal dystonia in musicians: From phenomenology to therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Christian Jabusch

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Musician's dystonia is a task-specific movement disorder which manifests itself as a loss of voluntary motor control in extensively trained movements. In many cases, the disorder terminates the careers of affected musicians. Approximately 1% of all professional musicians are affected.Etiology and Pathophysiology: The pathophysiology of the disorder is still unclear. Findings include (a reduced inhibition in different levels of the central nervous system, (b maladaptive plasticity, e.g. in the somatosensory cortex and in the basal ganglia, and (c alterations in sensorimotor processing. Epidemiological data demon-strated a higher risk for those musicians who play instruments requiring maximal fine-motorskills. For instruments where workload differs across hands, focal dystonia appears more often in the more intensely used hand. In psychological studies, musicians with dystonia had more perfectionist tendencies than healthy musicians. These findings streng then the assumption that behavioral factors may be involved in the etiology of musician's dystonia. Hereditary factors may play a greater role than previously assumed. Preliminary findings suggest a genetic contributiont o focal task-specific dystonia with phenotypic variations including musician's dystonia.Treatment: Treatment options for musician's dystonia include pharmacological interventions such as administration of Trihexyphenidyl or Botulinum Toxin-A as well as retraining programs and ergonomic changes in the instrument. A long-term follow-up study was performed in 144 patients with musician's dystonia. The outcome was revealed on average 8.4 years after onset of symptoms. Outcome was assessed by patients' subjective rating of cumulative treatmentresponse and response to individual therapies. Seventy-seven patients (54% reported an alleviation of symptoms: 33% of the patients with Trihexyphenidyl, 49% with Botulinum Toxin, 50% with pedagogical retraining, 56% with unmonitored

  8. The enigma of dyslexic musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Atalia H; Granot, Roni Y; Ahissar, Merav

    2014-02-01

    Musicians are known to have exceptional sensitivity to sounds, whereas poor phonological representations (or access to these representations) are considered a main characteristic of dyslexic individuals. Though these two characteristics refer to different abilities that are related to non-verbal and verbal skills respectively, the recent literature suggests that they are tightly related. However, there are informal reports of dyslexic musicians. To better understand this enigma, two groups of musicians were recruited, with and without a history of reading difficulties. The pattern of reading difficulties found among musicians was similar to that reported for non-musician dyslexics, though its magnitude was less severe. In contrast to non-musician dyslexics, their performance in pitch and interval discrimination, synchronous tapping and speech perception tasks, did not differ from the performance of their musician peers, and was superior to that of the general population. However, the auditory working memory scores of dyslexic musicians were consistently poor, including memory for rhythm, melody and speech sounds. Moreover, these abilities were inter-correlated, and highly correlated with their reading accuracy. These results point to a discrepancy between their perceptual and working memory skills rather than between sensitivity to speech and non-speech sounds. The results further suggest that in spite of intensive musical training, auditory working memory remains a bottleneck to the reading accuracy of dyslexic musicians. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Noise induced hearing loss and other hearing complaints among musicians of symphony orchestras

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, E.J.M.; Helleman, H.W.; Dreschler, W.A.; de Laat, J.A.P.M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: An investigation of the hearing status of musicians of professional symphony orchestras. Main questions are: (1) Should musicians be treated as a special group with regard to hearing, noise, and noise related hearing problems (2) Do patterns of hearing damage differ for different

  10. Auditory and cognitive performance in elderly musicians and nonmusicians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Grassi

    Full Text Available Musicians represent a model for examining brain and behavioral plasticity in terms of cognitive and auditory profile, but few studies have investigated whether elderly musicians have better auditory and cognitive abilities than nonmusicians. The aim of the present study was to examine whether being a professional musician attenuates the normal age-related changes in hearing and cognition. Elderly musicians still active in their profession were compared with nonmusicians on auditory performance (absolute threshold, frequency intensity, duration and spectral shape discrimination, gap and sinusoidal amplitude-modulation detection, and on simple (short-term memory and more complex and higher-order (working memory [WM] and visuospatial abilities cognitive tasks. The sample consisted of adults at least 65 years of age. The results showed that older musicians had similar absolute thresholds but better supra-threshold discrimination abilities than nonmusicians in four of the six auditory tasks administered. They also had a better WM performance, and stronger visuospatial abilities than nonmusicians. No differences were found between the two groups' short-term memory. Frequency discrimination and gap detection for the auditory measures, and WM complex span tasks and one of the visuospatial tasks for the cognitive ones proved to be very good classifiers of the musicians. These findings suggest that life-long music training may be associated with enhanced auditory and cognitive performance, including complex cognitive skills, in advanced age. However, whether this music training represents a protective factor or not needs further investigation.

  11. Auditory and cognitive performance in elderly musicians and nonmusicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Massimo; Meneghetti, Chiara; Toffalini, Enrico; Borella, Erika

    2017-01-01

    Musicians represent a model for examining brain and behavioral plasticity in terms of cognitive and auditory profile, but few studies have investigated whether elderly musicians have better auditory and cognitive abilities than nonmusicians. The aim of the present study was to examine whether being a professional musician attenuates the normal age-related changes in hearing and cognition. Elderly musicians still active in their profession were compared with nonmusicians on auditory performance (absolute threshold, frequency intensity, duration and spectral shape discrimination, gap and sinusoidal amplitude-modulation detection), and on simple (short-term memory) and more complex and higher-order (working memory [WM] and visuospatial abilities) cognitive tasks. The sample consisted of adults at least 65 years of age. The results showed that older musicians had similar absolute thresholds but better supra-threshold discrimination abilities than nonmusicians in four of the six auditory tasks administered. They also had a better WM performance, and stronger visuospatial abilities than nonmusicians. No differences were found between the two groups' short-term memory. Frequency discrimination and gap detection for the auditory measures, and WM complex span tasks and one of the visuospatial tasks for the cognitive ones proved to be very good classifiers of the musicians. These findings suggest that life-long music training may be associated with enhanced auditory and cognitive performance, including complex cognitive skills, in advanced age. However, whether this music training represents a protective factor or not needs further investigation.

  12. Perception of Segment Boundaries in Musicians and Non-Musicians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Martin; Toiviainen, Petri; Lartillot, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    not pinpoint the effects of data collection methods and of musicianship on boundary perception. Our study investigated the differences between segmentation tasks performed by musicians in real-time and non real-time listening contexts. Further, we assessed the effect of musical training on the perception...... of boundaries in real-time listening. We collected perceived boundaries by 18 musicians and 18 non- musicians in 9 musical examples. Musicians also completed a non real-time segmentation task for 6 of the examples. We observed high significant correlations between participant groups and between task groups...... at a time-scale of 10 seconds after comparing segmentation data at different resolutions. Further, musicians located significantly more boundaries in the non real-time task than in the real-time task for 5 out of 6 examples. We found a clear effect of the task but no effects of musical training upon...

  13. Enhanced feature integration in musicians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels Christian; Højlund, Andreas; Møller, Cecilie

    (MEG) from 25 musicians and 25 non-musicians, exposed to sounds presented in interleaved blocks of a musical multi-feature paradigm and a classical oddball control paradigm. In addition to single deviants differing in pitch (P), intensity (I), or perceived location (L), double and triple deviants were...... of MMNms obtained with the constituent single deviants. Significantly greater MMNm under-additivity was observed in musicians compared to non-musicians, specifically for pitch-related deviants in the musical paradigm (i.e. PI, LP, and, marginally, PIL). Conversely, expertise effects were absent from...... the classical oddball control paradigm which used identical sounds. This novel finding supports the dependent processing hypothesis suggesting that musicians recruit overlapping neural resources facilitating more holistic representations of domain-relevant stimuli. These specialised refinements in predictive...

  14. Vestibular Findings in Military Band Musicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeigelboim, Bianca Simone

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Exposure to music is the subject of many studies because it is related to an individual's professional and social activities. Objectives Evaluate the vestibular behavior in military band musicians. Methods A retrospective cross-sectional study was performed. Nineteen musicians with ages ranging from 21 to 46 years were evaluated (average = 33.7 years and standard deviation = 7.2 years. They underwent anamnesis and vestibular and otolaryngologic evaluation through vectoelectronystagmography. Results The most evident otoneurologic symptoms in the anamnesis were tinnitus (84.2%, hearing difficulties (47.3%, dizziness (36.8%, headache (26.3%, intolerance to intense sounds (21.0%, and earache (15.7%. Seven musicians (37.0% showed vestibular abnormality, which occurred in the caloric test. The abnormality was more prevalent in the peripheral vestibular system, and there was a predominance of irritative peripheral vestibular disorders. Conclusion The alteration in vestibular exam occurred in the caloric test (37.0%. There were changes in the prevalence of peripheral vestibular system with a predominance of irritative vestibular dysfunction. Dizziness was the most significant symptom for the vestibular test in correlation with neurotologic symptoms. The present study made it possible to verify the importance of the labyrinthine test, which demonstrates that this population should be better studied because the systematic exposure to high sound pressure levels may cause major vestibular alterations.

  15. Vestibular findings in military band musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigelboim, Bianca Simone; Gueber, Crislaine; Silva, Thanara Pruner da; Liberalesso, Paulo Breno Noronha; Gonçalves, Claudia Giglio de Oliveira; Faryniuk, João Henrique; Marques, Jair Mendes; Jurkiewicz, Ari Leon

    2014-04-01

    Introduction Exposure to music is the subject of many studies because it is related to an individual's professional and social activities. Objectives Evaluate the vestibular behavior in military band musicians. Methods A retrospective cross-sectional study was performed. Nineteen musicians with ages ranging from 21 to 46 years were evaluated (average = 33.7 years and standard deviation = 7.2 years). They underwent anamnesis and vestibular and otolaryngologic evaluation through vectoelectronystagmography. Results The most evident otoneurologic symptoms in the anamnesis were tinnitus (84.2%), hearing difficulties (47.3%), dizziness (36.8%), headache (26.3%), intolerance to intense sounds (21.0%), and earache (15.7%). Seven musicians (37.0%) showed vestibular abnormality, which occurred in the caloric test. The abnormality was more prevalent in the peripheral vestibular system, and there was a predominance of irritative peripheral vestibular disorders. Conclusion The alteration in vestibular exam occurred in the caloric test (37.0%). There were changes in the prevalence of peripheral vestibular system with a predominance of irritative vestibular dysfunction. Dizziness was the most significant symptom for the vestibular test in correlation with neurotologic symptoms. The present study made it possible to verify the importance of the labyrinthine test, which demonstrates that this population should be better studied because the systematic exposure to high sound pressure levels may cause major vestibular alterations.

  16. Yoga reduces performance anxiety in adolescent musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalsa, Sat Bir S; Butzer, Bethany; Shorter, Stephanie M; Reinhardt, Kristen M; Cope, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Professional musicians often experience high levels of stress, music performance anxiety (MPA), and performance-related musculoskeletal disorders (PRMDs). Given the fact that most professional musicians begin their musical training before the age of 12, it is important to identify interventions that will address these issues from an early age. This study intended to replicate and expand upon adult research in this area by evaluating the effects of a yoga intervention on MPA and PRMDs in a population of adolescent musicians. The present study was the first to examine these effects. The research team assigned participants, adolescent musicians, into two groups. The intervention group (n = 84) took part in a 6-wk yoga program, and the control group (n = 51) received no treatment. The team evaluated the effects of the yoga intervention by comparing the scores of the intervention group to those of the control group on a number of questionnaires related to MPA and PRMDs. The study was conducted at the Boston University Tanglewood Institute (BUTI). BUTI is a training academy for advanced adolescent musicians, located in Lenox, Massachusetts. Participants were adolescent, residential music students (mean age = 16 y) in a 6-wk summer program at the BUTI in 2007 and 2008. Participants in the yoga intervention group were requested to attend three, 60-min, Kripalustyle yoga classes each wk for 6 wk. MPA was measured using the Performance Anxiety Questionnaire (PAQ) and the Music Performance Anxiety Inventory for Adolescents (MPAI-A). PRMDs were measured using the Performance-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders Questionnaire (PRMD-Q). RESULTS • Yoga participants showed statistically significant reductions in MPA from baseline to the end of the program compared to the control group, as measured by several subscales of the PAQ and MPAI-A; however, the results for PRMDs were inconsistent. The findings suggest that yoga may be a promising way for adolescents to reduce MPA and

  17. Musicians working in community contexts : Perspectives of learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rineke Smilde

    2012-01-01

    This paper will explore types of learning, which takes place when musicians work in situations where they have to connect to community contexts. It will first address musicians’ changing professional roles in the changing sociocultural landscape and the need for lifelong learning and emergence of

  18. Musicians--same or different?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tervaniemi, Mari

    2009-07-01

    In the neuroscience of music, musicians have traditionally been treated as a unified group, as if the demands set by their musical activities would be more or less equal in terms of perceptual, cognitive, and motor functions. However, obviously, their musical preferences differentiate them to a higher degree, for instance, in terms of the instrument they choose and the music genre they are mostly engaged with as well as their practicing style. This diversity in musicians' profiles has been recently taken into account in several empirical endeavors. The present contribution will review the evidence available about the various neurocognitive profiles these different kinds of musicians display.

  19. Pitch Discrimination in Musicians and Non-Musicians: Effects of Harmonic Resolvability and Processing Effort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bianchi, Federica; Santurette, Sébastien; Wendt, Dorothea

    2016-01-01

    Musicians typically show enhanced pitch discrimination abilities compared to non-musicians. The present study investigated this perceptual enhancement behaviorally and objectively for resolved and unresolved complex tones to clarify whether the enhanced performance in musicians can be ascribed to...

  20. Voxel-based morphometry reveals increased gray matter density in Broca's area in male symphony orchestra musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluming, Vanessa; Barrick, Thomas; Howard, Matthew; Cezayirli, Enis; Mayes, Andrew; Roberts, Neil

    2002-11-01

    Broca's area is a major neuroanatomical substrate for spoken language and various musically relevant abilities, including visuospatial and audiospatial localization. Sight reading is a musician-specific visuospatial analysis task, and spatial ability is known to be amenable to training effects. Musicians have been reported to perform significantly better than nonmusicians on spatial ability tests, which is supported by our findings with the Benton judgement of line orientation (JOL) test (P musicians. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and stereological analyses were applied to high-resolution 3D MR images in male orchestral musicians (n = 26) and sex, handedness, and IQ-matched nonmusicians (n = 26). The wide age range (26 to 66 years) of volunteers permitted a secondary analysis of age-related effects. VBM with small volume correction (SVC) revealed a significant (P = 0.002) region of increased gray matter in Broca's area in the left inferior frontal gyrus in musicians. We observed significant age-related volume reductions in cerebral hemispheres, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex subfields bilaterally and gray matter density in the left inferior frontal gyrus in controls but not musicians; a positive correlation between JOL test score and age in musicians but not controls; a positive correlation between years of playing and the volume of gray matter in a significant region identified by VBM in under-50-year-old musicians. We suggest that orchestral musical performance promotes use-dependent retention, and possibly expansion, of gray matter involving Broca's area and that this provides further support for shared neural substrates underpinning expressive output in music and language.

  1. Orchestrating an Exceptional Death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anja Marie Bornø

    processes of facing brain death and deciding about organ donation. This study suggests that organ donation should be understood as a ‘strange figure’ challenging traditions and attitudes regarding the boundaries between life and death and the practices surrounding dead human bodies. Simultaneously, organ......, reinterpret and translate death and organ donation into something culturally acceptable and sense making. With chapters focusing analytically on the performance of trust, the transformative practices of hope, the aesthetization of ambiguous bodies, the sociality of exchangeable organs and the organ donation......This Ph.D. thesis explores the experiences of Danish donor families and the context of organ donation in Denmark. Based on comprehensive ethnographic studies at Danish hospitals and interviews with health care professionals and donor families, readers are invited on a journey into the complex...

  2. Visual memory in musicians and non-musicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Ana Carolina; Loureiro, Maurício; Caramelli, Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Many investigations have reported structural, functional, and cognitive changes in the brains of musicians, which occur as a result of many years of musical practice. We aimed to investigate if intensive, long-term musical practice is associated with improved visual memory ability. Musicians and non-musicians, who were comparable in age, gender, and education, were submitted to a visual memory test. The test consisted of the presentation of four sets of stimuli, each one containing eight figures to be memorized. Each set was followed by individual figures and the subject was required to indicate if each figure was or was not present in the memorized set, by pressing the corresponding keys. We divided the test in two parts, in which the stimuli had greater or reduced semantic coding. Overall, musicians showed better performance on reaction times, but not on accuracy. An additional analysis revealed no significant interaction between group and any part of the test in the prediction of the outcomes. When simple reaction time was included as covariate, no significant difference between groups was found on reaction times. In the group of musicians, we found some significant correlations between variables related to musical practice and performance in the visual memory test. In summary, our data provide no evidence of enhanced visual memory ability in musicians, since there was no difference in accuracy between groups. Our results suggest that performance of musicians in the visual memory test may be associated with better sensorimotor integration, since although they have presented shorter reaction times, such effect disappeared when taken in consideration the simple reaction time test. However, given existing evidence of associations between simple reaction time and cognitive function, their performance in the visual memory test could also be related to enhanced visual attention ability, as has been suggested by previous studies, but this hypothesis deserves more

  3. Focal hand dystonia in musicians: phenomenology, etiology, and psychological trigger factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenmüller, Eckart; Jabusch, Hans-Christian

    2009-01-01

    NARRATIVE REVIEW: Musician's dystonia is a task-specific movement disorder, which manifests itself as a loss of voluntary motor control in extensively trained movements. In many cases, the disorder terminates the careers of affected musicians. Approximately 1% of all professional musicians are affected. In the past, focal dystonia (FD) was classified as a psychological disorder. Over time, the problem was classified as a neurological problem. Although the specific pathophysiology of the disorder is still unclear, it appears the etiology is multifactorial. While there may be a family history, neurophysiological, physical, and environmental factors, trauma and stress contribute to the phenotypic development of FD. This manuscript analyzes the evidence supporting the potential contribution of the emotional brain systems in the etiology of focal hand dystonia in musicians. In addition, the psychological findings from a large descriptive study comparing healthy musicians, musicians with dystonia, and musicians with chronic pain. Information about psychogenic characteristics might be used to modify intervention strategies and music instruction to reduce the incidence of musician's dystonia.

  4. Musician earplugs: Appreciation and protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockstael, Annelies; Keppler, Hannah; Botteldooren, Dick

    2015-01-01

    Recreational music exposure is a potential risk factor for noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). Augmented hearing protectors have been designed with modified attenuation characteristics to combine hearing protection and listening comfort. However, to date, only a few independent studies have assessed the performance of those augmented protectors in realistic exposure conditions. This study compares the listening experience and temporary effects on cochlear status with different types of earplugs after exposure to contemporary club music. Five different types of commercially available hearing protectors were worn, all commonly used during leisure-time music exposure. Four of them were augmented premolded earplugs and the fifth type was an inexpensive, standard earplug frequently distributed for free at music events. During five different test sessions of 30 min each, participants not professionally involved in music wore one particular type of protector. Contemporary club music was played at sound pressure levels (SPLs) representative of concerts and bars. After each listening session, a questionnaire on sound quality and general appreciation was completed. In addition, otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) were measured directly before and after music exposure. The reported appreciation clearly differed depending on the addressed characteristics and the specific earplug type. In this test group, the reported appreciation mainly depended on comfort and looks, while differences in sound quality were less noticeable. The changes in OAE amplitude before and after noise exposure were small in terms of clinical standards. Nevertheless, the observed temporary shifts differed systematically for the different types of hearing protectors, with two types of musician earplug showing a more systematic decline than the others. Further research with respect to actual use and achieved protection for real, unsupervised music exposure is warranted.

  5. Musician earplugs: Appreciation and protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annelies Bockstael

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recreational music exposure is a potential risk factor for noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL. Augmented hearing protectors have been designed with modified attenuation characteristics to combine hearing protection and listening comfort. However, to date, only a few independent studies have assessed the performance of those augmented protectors in realistic exposure conditions. This study compares the listening experience and temporary effects on cochlear status with different types of earplugs after exposure to contemporary club music. Five different types of commercially available hearing protectors were worn, all commonly used during leisure-time music exposure. Four of them were augmented premolded earplugs and the fifth type was an inexpensive, standard earplug frequently distributed for free at music events. During five different test sessions of 30 min each, participants not professionally involved in music wore one particular type of protector. Contemporary club music was played at sound pressure levels (SPLs representative of concerts and bars. After each listening session, a questionnaire on sound quality and general appreciation was completed. In addition, otoacoustic emissions (OAEs were measured directly before and after music exposure. The reported appreciation clearly differed depending on the addressed characteristics and the specific earplug type. In this test group, the reported appreciation mainly depended on comfort and looks, while differences in sound quality were less noticeable. The changes in OAE amplitude before and after noise exposure were small in terms of clinical standards. Nevertheless, the observed temporary shifts differed systematically for the different types of hearing protectors, with two types of musician earplug showing a more systematic decline than the others. Further research with respect to actual use and achieved protection for real, unsupervised music exposure is warranted.

  6. ABOUT METHODOLOGICAL TRAINING OF TEACHER-MUSICIANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. A. Bodina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the need for reinterpretation of the content and functions of methodological training of teacher-musicians in the higher school; the above problem being raised as the result of the massive penetration of information technologies, intensification of knowledge updates, rejection of narrow specializations, and propagation of the postmodern culture. The author focuses on modernization of methodology training of teachermusicians with the emphasis on general features of the modern musical environment affecting students’ personality. The proper methodology training of the future teacher-musicians, based on the culture-adequate knowledge and accompanied by the actual project activity forms, is capable to counteract the influence of the second-rate common musical tastes and negative world perception. In conclusion, the author highlights the need for intensification of the ontological and personal worldview orientation of methodology training and further development of professional tools. The paper is addressed to the higher school teachers and students, music school teachers, and additional education teachers.

  7. Cortical and subcortical processing of short duration speech stimuli in trained rock musicians: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prawin; Anil, Sam Publius; Grover, Vibhu; Sanju, Himanshu Kumar; Sinha, Sachchidanand

    2017-02-01

    Most trained musicians are actively involved in rigorous practice from several years to achieve a high level of proficiency. Therefore, musicians are best group to research changes or modification in brain structures and functions across several information processing systems. This study aimed to investigate cortical and subcortical processing of short duration speech stimuli in trained rock musicians and non-musicians. Two groups of participant (experimental and control groups) in the age range of 18-25 years were selected for the study. Experimental group includes 15 rock musicians who had minimum professional training of 5 years of rock music, and each member had to be a regular performer of rock music for at least 15 h a week. Further age-matched 15 participants who were not having any formal training of any music served as non-musicians, in the control group. The speech-evoked ABR (S-ABR) and speech-evoked ALLR (S-LLR) with short duration speech 'synthetic /da/' was elicited in both groups. Different measures were analyzed for S-ABR and S-LLR. For S-ABR, MANOVA revealed significant main effect of groups on latencies of wave V, wave A, and amplitude of wave V/A slope. Similarly, Kruskal-Wallis test showed significantly higher F 0 amplitude in rock musicians compared with non-musicians. For S-LLR, MANOVA showed statistically significant differences observed for latencies of wave P2 and N2 and amplitude measures of P2-N2 amplitude. This study indicated better neural processing of short duration speech stimuli at subcortical as well as cortical level among rock musicians when compared with non-musicians.

  8. Contact dermatitis and other skin conditions in instrumental musicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freitag Marcus

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The skin is important in the positioning and playing of a musical instrument. During practicing and performing there is a permanent more or less intense contact between the instrument and the musician's skin. Apart from aggravation of predisposed skin diseases (e.g., atopic eczema or psoriasis due to music-making, specific dermatologic conditions may develop that are directly caused by playing a musical instrument. Methods To perform a systematic review on instrument-related skin diseases in musicians we searched the PubMed database without time limits. Furthermore we studied the online bibliography "Occupational diseases of performing artist. A performing arts medicine bibliography. October, 2003" and checked references of all selected articles for relevant papers. Results The most prevalent skin disorders of instrumental musicians, in particular string instrumentalists (e.g., violinists, cellists, guitarists, woodwind players (e.g., flautists, clarinetists, and brass instrumentalists (e.g., trumpeters, include a variety of allergic contact sensitizations (e.g., colophony, nickel, and exotic woods and irritant (physical-chemical noxae skin conditions whose clinical presentation and localization are usually specific for the instrument used (e.g., "fiddler's neck", "cellist's chest", "guitar nipple", "flautist's chin". Apart from common callosities and "occupational marks" (e.g., "Garrod's pads" more or less severe skin injuries may occur in musical instrumentalists, in particular acute and chronic wounds including their complications. Skin infections such as herpes labialis seem to be a more common skin problem in woodwind and brass instrumentalists. Conclusions Skin conditions may be a significant problem not only in professional instrumentalists, but also in musicians of all ages and ability. Although not life threatening they may lead to impaired performance and occupational hazard. Unfortunately, epidemiological

  9. [Focal dystonia in musicians: Phenomenology and musical triggering factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aránguiz, R; Chana-Cuevas, P; Alburquerque, D; Curinao, X

    2015-06-01

    Dystonias are defined as a joint sustained and involuntary contraction of agonist and antagonist muscles, which can cause torsion, repetitive abnormal involuntary movements, and/or abnormal postures. One special group of dystonias are those known as occupational, which include dystonia disorders triggered by a repetitive motor activity associated with a specific professional activity or task. Musicians are a population particularly vulnerable to these types of dystonia, which are presented as a loss of coordination and voluntary motor control movements highly trained in musical interpretation. Our aim is to describe a clinical series of focal dystonias in musicians evaluated and treated in our centre. Data is presented on a clinical series of 12 musicians with occupational dystonia. Their history and phenomenology are described, as well as well as their outcome after therapy. Demographic details: Mean age 34.8 ± 11.8 years, 10 males (83.3%) and 2 females (16.7%). History of trauma in dystonic segment, 6 patients (50%); family history of neurological diseases in first-degree relatives, 6 patients (50%); occupational history according to music category, 8 patients (66.6%) were classical musicians and 4 patients (33.3%) were popular musicians. The dystonia syndrome was characterised by having a mean age of onset of 28.2 ± 11.3 years (range 18-57 years). The segment affected was the hand (91.7%) in 11 patients. Of all the musicians seen in the clinic, 9 of them (75%) received therapy. The majority of patients appeared to have triggering factors specific to musical execution and linked to the requirement of fine motor control. It should be mentioned that 50% of the musicians treated maintained their professional activity or position in the orchestra to which they belonged. The majority of our phenomenological findings are consistent with those reported in the current literature. However, it is worth mentioning the presence of triggering factors attributed to the

  10. The Musician, the Researcher and the Psychologist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uddholm, Mats

    The Musician, the Researcher and the Psychologist The aim of this presentation is to illuminate and discuss some connections between the therapeutic profession and development of music pedagogic theory. A topic that initially emerged as a result of a sub-study in my PhD -project about professional...... practitioners music-pedagogical Powers of Definition. The purpose of this sub-study was to generate data about which concepts music-therapists use in their meta-reflections on musical situations in special-pedagogic related practices. The link between the sub-study’s results and the research question was based...... on the thesis that language constitutes a structural coupling between social and psychological systems. The result showed among other things that respondents did not use the same concepts when expressing their thoughts. The findings also revealed significant differences in the respondents understanding...

  11. Temporal processing of audiovisual stimuli is enhanced in musicians: evidence from magnetoencephalography (MEG.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Lu

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have demonstrated that the structural and functional differences between professional musicians and non-musicians are not only found within a single modality, but also with regard to multisensory integration. In this study we have combined psychophysical with neurophysiological measurements investigating the processing of non-musical, synchronous or various levels of asynchronous audiovisual events. We hypothesize that long-term multisensory experience alters temporal audiovisual processing already at a non-musical stage. Behaviorally, musicians scored significantly better than non-musicians in judging whether the auditory and visual stimuli were synchronous or asynchronous. At the neural level, the statistical analysis for the audiovisual asynchronous response revealed three clusters of activations including the ACC and the SFG and two bilaterally located activations in IFG and STG in both groups. Musicians, in comparison to the non-musicians, responded to synchronous audiovisual events with enhanced neuronal activity in a broad left posterior temporal region that covers the STG, the insula and the Postcentral Gyrus. Musicians also showed significantly greater activation in the left Cerebellum, when confronted with an audiovisual asynchrony. Taken together, our MEG results form a strong indication that long-term musical training alters the basic audiovisual temporal processing already in an early stage (direct after the auditory N1 wave, while the psychophysical results indicate that musical training may also provide behavioral benefits in the accuracy of the estimates regarding the timing of audiovisual events.

  12. Orchestrating Company Development in SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Jens Ove

    2003-01-01

    Over a period of several years many companies undergo a transformation with signifi­cant improvement in performance. We have studied such a process in seven SMEs to achieve a better understanding of how the change process was initiated and orches­trated. A rather complex picture has emerged...... suggesting a multitude of dimensions and aspects to be employed when interpreting the findings. The metaphor of orchestration seems well suited to describe company development as a process of bringing a broad spectrum of areas and aspects into play, in parallel and in series. It implies following a score...

  13. Activation of the left superior temporal gyrus of musicians by music-derived sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Toshie; Tanaka, Satomi; Kazai, Koji; Tsuzaki, Minoru; Katayose, Haruhiro

    2013-01-09

    Previous studies have suggested that professional musicians comprehend features of music-derived sound even if the sound sequence lacks the traditional temporal structure of music. We tested this hypothesis through behavioral and functional brain imaging experiments. Musicians were better than nonmusicians at identifying scrambled pieces of piano music in which the original temporal structure had been destroyed. Bilateral superior temporal gyri (STG) activity was observed while musicians listened to the scrambled stimuli, whereas this activity was present only in the right STG of nonmusicians under the same experimental conditions. We suggest that left STG activation is related to the processing of deviants, which appears to be enhanced in musicians. This may be because of the superior knowledge of musical temporal structure held by this population.

  14. Transient evoked otoacoustic emissions in rock musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høydal, Erik Harry; Lein Størmer, Carl Christian; Laukli, Einar; Stenklev, Niels Christian

    2017-09-01

    Our focus in this study was the assessment of transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) in a large group of rock musicians. A further objective was to analyse tinnitus among rock musicians as related to TEOAEs. The study was a cross-sectional survey of rock musicians selected at random. A control group was included at random for comparison. We recruited 111 musicians and a control group of 40 non-musicians. Testing was conducted by using clinical examination, pure tone audiometry, TEOAEs and a questionnaire. TEOAE SNR in the half-octave frequency band centred on 4 kHz was significantly lower bilaterally in musicians than controls. This effect was strongly predicted by age and pure-tone hearing threshold levels in the 3-6 kHz range. Bilateral hearing thresholds were significantly higher at 6 kHz in musicians. Twenty percent of the musicians had permanent tinnitus. There was no association between the TEOAE parameters and permanent tinnitus. Our results suggest an incipient hearing loss at 6 kHz in rock musicians. Loss of TEOAE SNR in the 4 kHz half-octave frequency band was observed, but it was related to higher mean 3-6 kHz hearing thresholds and age. A large proportion of rock musicians have permanent tinnitus.

  15. Apollo's curse: neurological causes of motor impairments in musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenmüller, Eckart; Ioannou, Christos I; Lee, Andre

    2015-01-01

    Performing music at a professional level is probably one of the most complex human accomplishments. Extremely fast and complex, temporo-spatially predefined movement patterns have to be learned, memorized, and retrieved with high reliability in order to meet the expectations of listeners. Performing music requires not only the integration of multimodal sensory and motor information, and its precise monitoring via auditory and kinesthetic feedback, but also emotional communicative skills, which provide a "speaking" rendition of a musical masterpiece. To acquire these specialized auditory-sensory-motor and emotional skills, musicians must undergo extensive training periods over many years, which start in early childhood and continue on through stages of increasing physical and strategic complexities. Performance anxiety, linked to high societal pressures such as the fear of failure and heightened self-demands, frequently accompanies these learning processes. Motor disturbances in musicians are common and include mild forms, such as temporary motor fatigue with short-term reduction of motor skills, painful overuse injuries following prolonged practice, anxiety-related motor failures during performances (choking under pressure), as well as more persistent losses of motor control, here termed "dynamic stereotypes" (DSs). Musician's dystonia (MD), which is characterized by the permanent loss of control of highly skilled movements when playing a musical instrument, is the gravest manifestation of dysfunctional motor programs, frequently linked to a genetic susceptibility to develop such motor disturbances. In this review chapter, we focus on different types of motor failures in musicians. We argue that motor failures in musicians develop along a continuum, starting with subtle transient degradations due to fatigue, overuse, or performance stress, which transform by and by into more permanent, still fluctuating motor degradations, the DSs, until a more irreversible

  16. Prevalence and function of Heschl's gyrus morphotypes in musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benner, Jan; Wengenroth, Martina; Reinhardt, Julia; Stippich, Christoph; Schneider, Peter; Blatow, Maria

    2017-11-01

    Morphological variations of the first transverse Heschl's gyrus (HG) in the human auditory cortex (AC) are common, yet little is known about their functional implication. We investigated individual morphology and function of HG variations in the AC of 41 musicians, using structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) as well as magnetoencephalography (MEG). Four main morphotypes of HG were (i) single HG, (ii) common stem duplication (CSD), (iii) complete posterior duplication (CPD), and (iv) multiple duplications (MD). The vast majority of musicians (90%) exhibited HG multiplications (type ii-iv) in either one (39%) or both (51%) hemispheres. In 27% of musicians, MD with up to four gyri were found. To probe the functional contribution of HG multiplications to auditory processing we performed fMRI and MEG with auditory stimulation using analogous instrumental tone paradigms. Both methods pointed to the recruitment of all parts of HG during auditory stimulation, including multiplications if present. FMRI activations extended with the degree of HG gyrification. MEG source waveform patterns were distinct for the different types of HG: (i) hemispheres with single HG and (ii) CSD exhibited dominant N1 responses, whereas hemispheres with (iii) CPD and (iv) MD exhibited dominant P1 responses. N1 dipole amplitudes correlated with the localization of the first complete Heschl's sulcus (cHS), designating the most posterior anatomical border of HG. P2 amplitudes were significantly higher in professional as compared to amateur musicians. The results suggest that HG multiplications occur much more frequently in musicians than in the general population and constitute a functional unit with HG.

  17. Music listening engages specific cortical regions within the temporal lobes: differences between musicians and non-musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo-Perkins, Arafat; Aubé, William; Peretz, Isabelle; Barrios, Fernando A; Armony, Jorge L; Concha, Luis

    2014-10-01

    Music and speech are two of the most relevant and common sounds in the human environment. Perceiving and processing these two complex acoustical signals rely on a hierarchical functional network distributed throughout several brain regions within and beyond the auditory cortices. Given their similarities, the neural bases for processing these two complex sounds overlap to a certain degree, but particular brain regions may show selectivity for one or the other acoustic category, which we aimed to identify. We examined 53 subjects (28 of them professional musicians) by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), using a paradigm designed to identify regions showing increased activity in response to different types of musical stimuli, compared to different types of complex sounds, such as speech and non-linguistic vocalizations. We found a region in the anterior portion of the superior temporal gyrus (aSTG) (planum polare) that showed preferential activity in response to musical stimuli and was present in all our subjects, regardless of musical training, and invariant across different musical instruments (violin, piano or synthetic piano). Our data show that this cortical region is preferentially involved in processing musical, as compared to other complex sounds, suggesting a functional role as a second-order relay, possibly integrating acoustic characteristics intrinsic to music (e.g., melody extraction). Moreover, we assessed whether musical experience modulates the response of cortical regions involved in music processing and found evidence of functional differences between musicians and non-musicians during music listening. In particular, bilateral activation of the planum polare was more prevalent, but not exclusive, in musicians than non-musicians, and activation of the right posterior portion of the superior temporal gyrus (planum temporale) differed between groups. Our results provide evidence of functional specialization for music processing in specific

  18. Tourette's syndrome in famous musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Carlos Henrique F; Bronzini, Augusto

    2015-12-01

    Tourette's syndrome (TS) is defined as a disorder characterized by multiple motor tics and at least one vocal tic that have lasted for not less than one year. It is a relatively complex neurobehavioral disorder, in which patients may present with coexistent attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder or other behavioral comorbidities. The musical genius Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791) and the rock star Kurt Cobain (1967-1994) may both have suffered from TS, and some contemporary musicians have had their clinical condition confirmed as TS. Our hypothetical diagnosis of TS in Mozart and Cobain is based on the presence of tics and psychiatric comorbidities. In contemporary musicians, such as Michael Wolff, Nick Van Bloss and James Durbin, TS has often only been diagnosed after a considerable delay. This delay in diagnosis and the controversies surrounding the clinical case of Mozart show how difficult a confirmatory diagnosis of this complex disease is.

  19. Tourette's syndrome in famous musicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique F. Camargo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourette's syndrome (TS is defined as a disorder characterized by multiple motor tics and at least one vocal tic that have lasted for not less than one year. It is a relatively complex neurobehavioral disorder, in which patients may present with coexistent attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder or other behavioral comorbidities. The musical genius Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791 and the rock star Kurt Cobain (1967-1994 may both have suffered from TS, and some contemporary musicians have had their clinical condition confirmed as TS. Our hypothetical diagnosis of TS in Mozart and Cobain is based on the presence of tics and psychiatric comorbidities. In contemporary musicians, such as Michael Wolff, Nick Van Bloss and James Durbin, TS has often only been diagnosed after a considerable delay. This delay in diagnosis and the controversies surrounding the clinical case of Mozart show how difficult a confirmatory diagnosis of this complex disease is.

  20. Playing-Related Problems among Musicians of the Orquesta Buena Vista Social Club® and Supporting Bands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia, Luisn; Hinkamp, David; Brodsky, Marc; Llapur, Carlos

    2014-06-01

    The Orquesta Buena Vista Social Club® is a world-renowned group of Cuban musicians accomplished in a variety of musical styles. The musicians of the Orquesta Buena Vista Social Club and supporting musicians of their orchestras represent a cohort of musicians throughout Cuba who continue to play traditional genres and perform into their older ages. The purpose of the study was to (1) identify musculoskeletal conditions that occurred over the previous 12 months among the members of the Orquesta and supporting musicians and (2) to discover if these conditions, in part, were caused by or in some way affected musical performance. The study was a convenience sample of musicians within the Orquesta Buena Vista Social Club and supporting musical groups. Thirty-six musicians completed a self-administered survey. Sixty-seven percent (24/36) of the total sample of musicians and 89% (16/18) of those over age 60 years had at least one musculoskeletal condition over the previous 12 months. Forty-four percent (16/36) of the total sample of musicians and 61% (11/18) of those older than 60 years of age reported that a musculoskeletal complaint was either, in part, caused by or affected their performance. Musculoskeletal conditions were prevalent among the Cuban musicians, especially in those over 60 years of age. Collaboration of medical professionals, managers, and musicians may help to generate ideas on how to prevent injuries as well as to evaluate what treatments for playing-related conditions, including both conventional and complementary and alternative therapies, are most effective.

  1. A comparative study on the prevalence of musculoskeletal complaints among musicians and non-musicians

    OpenAIRE

    Kok Laura M; Vlieland Theodora PM Vliet; Fiocco Marta; Nelissen Rob GHH

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Research comparing the frequency of musculoskeletal complaints between musicians and non-musicians is scarce. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of musculoskeletal complaints between musicians and non-musicians. Methods A cross-sectional study in 3215 students from three music academies (n = 345) and one medical school (n = 2870) in The Netherlands was performed, using an electronic questionnaire. The questionnaire included socio-demographic characteristic...

  2. Difference Limen for Frequency in String Musicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Mirhaj

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: determining difference limen for Frequency (DLFin string musicians. Materials &Methods: This case-control study was conducted on 15 string musicians with musicianship > 10 years (30 ears and 15 normal hearing subjects (30 ears. They all were male and 20-30 years old. DLF was measured after otoscopy and immitance audiometry and pure tone audiometry. Results: DLF was significantly different between two groups of case and control. DLF in musicians is less than the normal hearing subjects. Conclusion: It seems that familiarization with notes results in better DLF in musicians comparing to others.

  3. Auditory and visual interhemispheric communication in musicians and non-musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woelfle, Rebecca; Grahn, Jessica A

    2013-01-01

    The corpus callosum (CC) is a brain structure composed of axon fibres linking the right and left hemispheres. Musical training is associated with larger midsagittal cross-sectional area of the CC, suggesting that interhemispheric communication may be faster in musicians. Here we compared interhemispheric transmission times (ITTs) for musicians and non-musicians. ITT was measured by comparing simple reaction times to stimuli presented to the same hemisphere that controlled a button-press response (uncrossed reaction time), or to the contralateral hemisphere (crossed reaction time). Both visual and auditory stimuli were tested. We predicted that the crossed-uncrossed difference (CUD) for musicians would be smaller than for non-musicians as a result of faster interhemispheric transfer times. We did not expect a difference in CUDs between the visual and auditory modalities for either musicians or non-musicians, as previous work indicates that interhemispheric transfer may happen through the genu of the CC, which contains motor fibres rather than sensory fibres. There were no significant differences in CUDs between musicians and non-musicians. However, auditory CUDs were significantly smaller than visual CUDs. Although this auditory-visual difference was larger in musicians than non-musicians, the interaction between modality and musical training was not significant. Therefore, although musical training does not significantly affect ITT, the crossing of auditory information between hemispheres appears to be faster than visual information, perhaps because subcortical pathways play a greater role for auditory interhemispheric transfer.

  4. Auditory and visual interhemispheric communication in musicians and non-musicians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Woelfle

    Full Text Available The corpus callosum (CC is a brain structure composed of axon fibres linking the right and left hemispheres. Musical training is associated with larger midsagittal cross-sectional area of the CC, suggesting that interhemispheric communication may be faster in musicians. Here we compared interhemispheric transmission times (ITTs for musicians and non-musicians. ITT was measured by comparing simple reaction times to stimuli presented to the same hemisphere that controlled a button-press response (uncrossed reaction time, or to the contralateral hemisphere (crossed reaction time. Both visual and auditory stimuli were tested. We predicted that the crossed-uncrossed difference (CUD for musicians would be smaller than for non-musicians as a result of faster interhemispheric transfer times. We did not expect a difference in CUDs between the visual and auditory modalities for either musicians or non-musicians, as previous work indicates that interhemispheric transfer may happen through the genu of the CC, which contains motor fibres rather than sensory fibres. There were no significant differences in CUDs between musicians and non-musicians. However, auditory CUDs were significantly smaller than visual CUDs. Although this auditory-visual difference was larger in musicians than non-musicians, the interaction between modality and musical training was not significant. Therefore, although musical training does not significantly affect ITT, the crossing of auditory information between hemispheres appears to be faster than visual information, perhaps because subcortical pathways play a greater role for auditory interhemispheric transfer.

  5. [Functional MRI of human brain in musicians and non-musicians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Heng-wu; Zhang, Shi-zheng; Di, Hai-bo; Liu, Hai; Zhu, Yi-hong; Zhang, Qiao-wei; Weng, Xu-chu; Chen, Yi-zhang

    2005-07-01

    To explore the differences in brain activation between musicians and non-musicians by use of functional MRI. Twelve right-handed musicians and twelve right-handed non-musicians were recruited in the study. During a listening task, they were scanned on the Sigma 1.5T scanner (GE) while they were passively listening to several segments of music of "the Butterfly Love" and the white noise with same physical energy. Both musicians and non-musicians demonstrated bilateral transverse gyrus weak activated while listening to the white noise. But when listening to music, they showed bilateral temporal areas strongly activated including superior temporal gyrus, transverse gyrus and some middle temporal areas. Moreover, musicians showed relative left dominance (10/12), whereas non-musicians demonstrated right dominance(11/12). Furthermore,besides bilateral temporal areas, more and stronger activated areas were found in musicians such as cuneus, precuneus,medial frontal and left middle occipital gyrus. There are different neuro-patterns between musicians and non-musicians.

  6. Recovering Disembodied Spirits: Teaching Movement to Musicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    Understanding physical movement is an integral part of learning to make music. This article presents the action research that the author has pursued while teaching movement to musicians. The narrative provides a theoretical underpinning for the teaching practices discussed. It provides examples of musicians' movement with analyses of the…

  7. Performance Stress and the Very Young Musician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Helene; Ryan, Charlene A.

    2011-01-01

    Performance anxiety is a common experience among musicians. Recent studies have found it to be an issue not only for adult performers but also for developing musicians as early as third grade. The question as to its developed or innate nature led to the present inquiry pertaining to young children's responses to performance situations. Sixty-six…

  8. Temporal and spectral audiotactile interactions in musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Simon P; Sharp, Andréanne; Pagé, Sara; Champoux, François

    2017-02-01

    Previous investigations have revealed that the complex sensory exposure of musical training alters audiovisual interactions. As of yet, there has been little evidence on the effects of musical training on audiotactile interactions at a behavioural level. Here, we tested audiotactile interaction in musicians using the audiotactile illusory flash and the parchment-skin illusion. Significant differences were only found between musicians and non-musicians for the audiotactile illusory flash. Both groups had similar task-relevant unisensory abilities, but unlike non-musicians, the number of auditory stimulations did not have a statistically important influence on the number of perceived tactile stimulations for musicians. Musicians and non-musicians similarly perceived the parchment-skin illusion. Spectral alterations of self-generated palmar sounds similarly altered the perception of wetness and dryness for both groups. These results suggest that musical training does not seem to alter multisensory interactions at large. The specificity of the sensory enhancement suggests that musical training specifically alters processes underlying the interaction of temporal audiotactile stimuli and not the global interaction between these modalities. These results are consistent with previous unisensory and multisensory investigations on sensory abilities related to audiotactile processing in musicians.

  9. Description and evaluation of a hearing conservation program in use in a professional symphony orchestra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Ian; Driscoll, Tim; Ackermann, Bronwen

    2015-04-01

    Professional orchestral musicians risk permanent hearing loss while playing their instruments. Protecting the hearing of these musicians in the workplace is critical to their ongoing ability to play their instruments, but typical workplace hearing conservation measures can have very damaging effects on the product (music) and the musicians' abilities to hear one another sufficiently. To enable effective intervention, orchestras as employers must encourage engagement with hearing protection programs and implement controls while preserving the integrity of the music. To achieve this, typical approaches used in other industries must be redesigned to suit this unique workplace. In response to these challenges, the Queensland Symphony Orchestra (Brisbane, Australia) introduced a comprehensive hearing conservation strategy in 2005 based upon best practice at the time. This strategy-which has been regularly refined-continues to be implemented on a daily basis. This investigation aimed to assess the successes, difficulties, and practical viability of the program. To achieve this a process evaluation was carried out, incorporating archival analyses, player and management focus groups, and an interview with the program's administrator. Results show the program has successfully become integrated into the orchestra's and the musicians' daily operations and significantly contributes to managing the risk of hearing loss in this population. While there is room for improvement in the orchestra's approach-particularly regarding usable personal protective devices and improved education and training, results are encouraging. This study provides a basis for those wishing to implement or evaluate similar paradigms. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  10. Musician Map: visualizing music collaborations over time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Ji-Dong; Shaw, Chris D.; Bartram, Lyn

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we introduce Musician Map, a web-based interactive tool for visualizing relationships among popular musicians who have released recordings since 1950. Musician Map accepts search terms from the user, and in turn uses these terms to retrieve data from MusicBrainz.org and AudioScrobbler.net, and visualizes the results. Musician Map visualizes relationships of various kinds between music groups and individual musicians, such as band membership, musical collaborations, and linkage to other artists that are generally regarded as being similar in musical style. These relationships are plotted between artists using a new timeline-based visualization where a node in a traditional node-link diagram has been transformed into a Timeline-Node, which allows the visualization of an evolving entity over time, such as the membership in a band. This allows the user to pursue social trend queries such as "Do Hip-Hop artists collaborate differently than Rock artists".

  11. Performing, Representing, and Archiving Belief: Religious Expressions among Jazz Musicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaughn A. Booker

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The archives of African American jazz musicians demonstrate rich sites for studying expressions of religious belief and daily religious practice in public and private arenas, in professional and personal capacities. Highlighting print material from the archives of Edward Kennedy “Duke” Ellington (1899–1974 and Mary Lou Williams (1910–1981, this article examines the ways that these musicians worked to articulate their beliefs in print and to make meaning of their routine practices. Ellington and Williams produced written records of their aspirations for non-clerical religious authority and leadership, novel notions of religious community, and conceptions of quotidian writing tasks as practices with devotional value in the middle decades of the twentieth century. In preparation for his Sacred Concert tours of American and Western European religious congregations, Ellington theologized about the nature of God and the proper language to address God through private hotel stationery. Following her conversion to Roman Catholicism, Williams managed a Harlem thrift shop and worked to create the Bel Canto Foundation for musicians struggling with substance abuse and unemployment. This study of the religious subjectivity of African Americans with status as race representatives employs archival historical methods in the effort to vividly approximate complex religious interiority.

  12. Orchestration in work environment policy programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasle, Peter; Limborg, Hans Jørgen; Grøn, Sisse

    2017-01-01

    In spite of many years’ efforts, it is difficult to prove substantial improvements of the work environment and policymakers are continuously searching for new efficient strategies. This paper examines the concept of orchestration of work environment programs, based on an empirical analysis...... of recent Danish policy. Orchestration is a strategy where different stakeholders and activities are integrated into a unified program aimed at a specific target group. The analysis includes three policy cases, supplemented with two company case studies. The research shows a move toward a more governance...... type of regulation, which is not only emerging in network but also includes more explicitly orchestrated policy programs. The stakeholders participate in the network with different interests and the orchestration of work environment policies is therefore built on a platform of regulation...

  13. Comparison of Gap in Noise Test Results in Musicians and Non-Musician Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghassem Mohamadkhani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Main feature of auditory processing abilities is temporal processing including temporal resolution, temporal ordering, temporal integration and temporal masking. Many studies have shown the superiority of musicians in temporal discrimination over non-musicians. In this study we compared temporal processing in musicians and non-musician controls via Gap in Noise (GIN test.Methods: This cohort study was conducted on 24 musicians with mean age of 25.3 years and 24 normal hearing non-musician controls with mean age of 24.5 years, in Faculty of Rehabilitation of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. GIN test results (approximate threshold and percent of corrected answers obtained and analyzed by Mann-Whitney non-parametric statistical test.Results: There was significant difference between approximate threshold and percent of corrected answers between musicians and non-musician group (p0.05.Conclusion: the lower approximate threshold and the more corrected answers in GIN test by musician group indicate rapid auditory temporal processing ability of this group rather than non-musicians group. This might be related to effects of musical training on central auditory processing.

  14. When Work Starts in Childhood: The Anticipatory Socialization Process of Classical Musicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabor, Elena

    2009-01-01

    Classical music is distinguished among professions in several ways: work has to start in childhood in order to achieve proficiency; the training takes an average of 16 years in order to become a professional musician (Manturzewska, 1990); the cost of training is high; a high level of discipline is required to develop performance abilities…

  15. A Gendered Study of the Working Patterns of Classical Musicians: Implications for Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Dawn

    2008-01-01

    Despite an increase in participation at all levels of the music profession, women continue to experience fewer opportunities to forge careers in music and are less likely than men to apply for leadership positions. This article presents results from a study in which 152 instrumental musicians reflected upon their professional practice and career…

  16. Absolute Memory for Tempo in Musicians and Non-Musicians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Gratton

    Full Text Available The ability to remember tempo (the perceived frequency of musical pulse without external references may be defined, by analogy with the notion of absolute pitch, as absolute tempo (AT. Anecdotal reports and sparse empirical evidence suggest that at least some individuals possess AT. However, to our knowledge, no systematic assessments of AT have been performed using laboratory tasks comparable to those assessing absolute pitch. In the present study, we operationalize AT as the ability to identify and reproduce tempo in the absence of rhythmic or melodic frames of reference and assess these abilities in musically trained and untrained participants. We asked 15 musicians and 15 non-musicians to listen to a seven-step `tempo scale' of metronome beats, each associated to a numerical label, and then to perform two memory tasks. In the first task, participants heard one of the tempi and attempted to report the correct label (identification task, in the second, they saw one label and attempted to tap the correct tempo (production task. A musical and visual excerpt was presented between successive trials as a distractor to prevent participants from using previous tempi as anchors. Thus, participants needed to encode tempo information with the corresponding label, store the information, and recall it to give the response. We found that more than half were able to perform above chance in at least one of the tasks, and that musical training differentiated between participants in identification, but not in production. These results suggest that AT is relatively wide-spread, relatively independent of musical training in tempo production, but further refined by training in tempo identification. We propose that at least in production, the underlying motor representations are related to tactus, a basic internal rhythmic period that may provide a body-based reference for encoding tempo.

  17. Absolute Memory for Tempo in Musicians and Non-Musicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandimonte, Maria A.; Bruno, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    The ability to remember tempo (the perceived frequency of musical pulse) without external references may be defined, by analogy with the notion of absolute pitch, as absolute tempo (AT). Anecdotal reports and sparse empirical evidence suggest that at least some individuals possess AT. However, to our knowledge, no systematic assessments of AT have been performed using laboratory tasks comparable to those assessing absolute pitch. In the present study, we operationalize AT as the ability to identify and reproduce tempo in the absence of rhythmic or melodic frames of reference and assess these abilities in musically trained and untrained participants. We asked 15 musicians and 15 non-musicians to listen to a seven-step `tempo scale’ of metronome beats, each associated to a numerical label, and then to perform two memory tasks. In the first task, participants heard one of the tempi and attempted to report the correct label (identification task), in the second, they saw one label and attempted to tap the correct tempo (production task). A musical and visual excerpt was presented between successive trials as a distractor to prevent participants from using previous tempi as anchors. Thus, participants needed to encode tempo information with the corresponding label, store the information, and recall it to give the response. We found that more than half were able to perform above chance in at least one of the tasks, and that musical training differentiated between participants in identification, but not in production. These results suggest that AT is relatively wide-spread, relatively independent of musical training in tempo production, but further refined by training in tempo identification. We propose that at least in production, the underlying motor representations are related to tactus, a basic internal rhythmic period that may provide a body-based reference for encoding tempo. PMID:27760198

  18. Music, musicians, medicine, and the kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, Rajeev; Eknoyan, Garabed

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between music, medicine and nephrology is ancient; ranging from musicians afflicted with kidney disease, contributors to nephrology who were musicians, and the use of music to treat renal maladies. Musicians have long been afflicted by diseases of the kidney, particularly nephrolithiasis, for which Marin Marais in 1725 composed a unique piece for the viol detailing the harrowing experience of 'cutting for stone.' Beethoven and Mozart were afflicted by kidney disease, as are several current musicians. Where past musicians succumbed to their failing kidneys, the advent of renal replacement therapy has given today's musicians, such as James DePreist and Natalie Cole, the opportunity to continue performing and composing. Several notable physicians of old have excelled as musicians; one example is Jacob Henle (1809-1885), for whom the loop of Henle is named, another is Robert Christison, a contemporary of Richard Bright, who is considered a 'founder of nephrology'. Importantly, music therapy, as used in the times of Hippocrates and King David, has evolved from an empiric to a well-established scientific discipline. Given the recent enlarging body of scholarly studies of music therapy, its rudimentary role in nephrology deserves further exploration. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Functional anatomy of musical perception in musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, T; Matsuda, H; Asada, T; Aruga, M; Hirakata, M; Nishikawa, M; Katoh, A; Imabayashi, E

    2001-08-01

    The present study used functional magnetic resonance to examine the cerebral activity pattern associated with musical perception in musicians and non-musicians. Musicians showed left dominant secondary auditory areas in the temporal cortex and the left posterior dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during a passive music listening task, whereas non-musicians demonstrated right dominant secondary auditory areas during the same task. A significant difference in the degree of activation between musicians and non-musicians was noted in the bilateral planum temporale and the left posterior dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. The degree of activation of the left planum temporale correlated well with the age at which the person had begun musical training. Furthermore, the degree of activation in the left posterior dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the left planum temporale correlated significantly with absolute pitch ability. The results indicated distinct neural activity in the auditory association areas and the prefrontal cortex of trained musicians. We suggest that such activity is associated with absolute pitch ability and the use-dependent functional reorganization produced by the early commencement of long-term training.

  20. Performance anxiety in Brazilian musicians: prevalence and association with psychopathology indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbar, Ana Elisa Medeiros; de Souza Crippa, José Alexandre; de Lima Osório, Flávia

    2014-01-01

    Musical performance anxiety (MPA) refers to persistent and distressing apprehension associated with performing to an audience. Our objective was to assess the presence of MPA and other psychopathologies in musicians and find correlations between socio-demographic and clinical variables. We assessed 230 musicians using self-rated instruments whose results were statistically compared. The logistic regression was used to check for predictors of MPA. 24% of musicians had MPA indicators, 19% had indicators of social anxiety, and 20% of depression. These figures were even higher in the comparison between professional and amateur musicians, where the rates were doubled. In the logistic regression, gender and professional status did not predict MPA, but did predict social anxiety (OD=3.22; p=0.006) and depression (OD=3.87; p=0.003). We conclude that there is a high rate of psychiatric indicators among musicians, who have been dealing not only with difficulties inherent to their occupation, but also with under-recognized comorbidities with the potential to affect their personal and professional life in specific, poorly investigated ways. It should be noted that our results must be interpreted with caution as we used screening and not diagnostic instruments, and because of the fact that our sample was restricted to the Brazilian context. Also, the role of temperamental features that could have a positive association with the condition of musician-and therefore minimize performance anxiety-could have been explored in order to provide a deeper understanding of the topic. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. [Death and the pop musician].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leeuw, Peter W

    2011-01-01

    Many people are inclined to believe that popular music artists are prone to die prematurely. Scientific research into this matter is scarce. There is only one epidemiological study on this subject, showing that mortality among pop stars during the first 25 years after they became famous is increased. This mortality is higher in Northern America than it is in Europe, but European pop stars die on average at an earlier age. A fairly common belief states that many pop stars die at the age of 27 years. This age has even been proclaimed as the most critical for modern musicians. However, data of several hundred deceased pop stars shows no evidence for increased mortality at the age of 27. Moreover, the data suggests that the age of death has increased over the past forty years. As far as the cause of death is concerned, overdose of drugs or alcohol rank highly next to cardiovascular disease and malignancy.

  2. DIAMI: Distributed Intelligent Environment for Blind Musicians

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz, José E.; Márquez, Juan L.; Sánchez, Miguel; Sánchez Aguilera, José M.; Bajo Pérez, Javier

    2017-01-01

    The emergence of new technologies provides the opportunity to develop novel solutions that facilitate the integration of the visual disabled people in different activities of our daily life. This paper presents a distributed intelligent architecture, called DIAMI, focused on facilitating the integration of blind musicians in orchestras. The DIAMI architecture provides a distributed, ubiquitous system aimed at providing a way for blind musicians to receive the instructions of the orchestra con...

  3. Faster native vowel discrimination learning in musicians is mediated by an optimization of mnemonic functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmer, Stefan; Greber, Marielle; Pushparaj, Arethy; Kühnis, Jürg; Jäncke, Lutz

    2017-09-01

    The ability to discriminate phonemes varying in spectral and temporal attributes constitutes one of the most basic intrinsic elements underlying language learning mechanisms. Since previous work has consistently shown that professional musicians are characterized by perceptual and cognitive advantages in a variety of language-related tasks, and since vowels can be considered musical sounds within the domain of speech, here we investigated the behavioral and electrophysiological correlates of native vowel discrimination learning in a sample of professional musicians and non-musicians. We evaluated the contribution of both the neurophysiological underpinnings of perceptual (i.e., N1/P2 complex) and mnemonic functions (i.e., N400 and P600 responses) while the participants were instructed to judge whether pairs of native consonant-vowel (CV) syllables manipulated in the first formant transition of the vowel (i.e., from /tu/ to /to/) were identical or not. Results clearly demonstrated faster learning in musicians, compared to non-musicians, as reflected by shorter reaction times and higher accuracy. Most notably, in terms of morphology, time course, and voltage strength, this steeper learning curve was accompanied by distinctive N400 and P600 manifestations between the two groups. In contrast, we did not reveal any group differences during the early stages of auditory processing (i.e., N1/P2 complex), suggesting that faster learning was mediated by an optimization of mnemonic but not perceptual functions. Based on a clear taxonomy of the mnemonic functions involved in the task, results are interpreted as pointing to a relationship between faster learning mechanisms in musicians and an optimization of echoic (i.e., N400 component) and working memory (i.e., P600 component) functions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Metric-Aware Secure Service Orchestration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Costa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Secure orchestration is an important concern in the internet of service. Next to providing the required functionality the composite services must also provide a reasonable level of security in order to protect sensitive data. Thus, the orchestrator has a need to check whether the complex service is able to satisfy certain properties. Some properties are expressed with metrics for precise definition of requirements. Thus, the problem is to analyse the values of metrics for a complex business process. In this paper we extend our previous work on analysis of secure orchestration with quantifiable properties. We show how to define, verify and enforce quantitative security requirements in one framework with other security properties. The proposed approach should help to select the most suitable service architecture and guarantee fulfilment of the declared security requirements.

  5. Cortical Activity during Perception of Musical Rhythm; Comparing Musicians and Non-musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Assal; Wirantana, Vinthia; Starr, Arnold

    2014-06-01

    This study investigates the effects of musical training on brain activity to violations of rhythmic expectancies. We recorded behavioral and event-related brain potential (ERP) responses of musicians and non-musicians to discrepancies of rhythm between pairs of unfamiliar melodies based on Western classical rules. Rhythm deviations in the second melody involved prolongation of a note, thus creating a delay in the subsequent note; the duration of the second note was consequently shorter because the offset time was unchanged. In the first melody, on the other hand, the two notes were of equal duration. Musicians detected rhythm deviations significantly better than non-musicians. A negative auditory cortical potential in response to the omitted stimulus was observed at a latency of 150-250 ms from where the note should have been. There were no significant differences of amplitude or latency between musicians and non-musicians. In contrast, the N100 and P200 to the delayed note after the omission were significantly greater in amplitude in musicians compared to non-musicians especially in frontal and frontal-central areas. These findings indicate that long term musical training enhances brain cortical activities involved in processing temporal irregularities of unfamiliar melodies.

  6. Effects of reverberation on brainstem representation of speech in musicians and non-musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidelman, Gavin M; Krishnan, Ananthanarayan

    2010-10-08

    Perceptual and neurophysiological enhancements in linguistic processing in musicians suggest that domain specific experience may enhance neural resources recruited for language specific behaviors. In everyday situations, listeners are faced with extracting speech signals in degraded listening conditions. Here, we examine whether musical training provides resilience to the degradative effects of reverberation on subcortical representations of pitch and formant-related harmonic information of speech. Brainstem frequency-following responses (FFRs) were recorded from musicians and non-musician controls in response to the vowel /i/ in four different levels of reverberation and analyzed based on their spectro-temporal composition. For both groups, reverberation had little effect on the neural encoding of pitch but significantly degraded neural encoding of formant-related harmonics (i.e., vowel quality) suggesting a differential impact on the source-filter components of speech. However, in quiet and across nearly all reverberation conditions, musicians showed more robust responses than non-musicians. Neurophysiologic results were confirmed behaviorally by comparing brainstem spectral magnitudes with perceptual measures of fundamental (F0) and first formant (F1) frequency difference limens (DLs). For both types of discrimination, musicians obtained DLs which were 2-4 times better than non-musicians. Results suggest that musicians' enhanced neural encoding of acoustic features, an experience-dependent effect, is more resistant to reverberation degradation which may explain their enhanced perceptual ability on behaviorally relevant speech and/or music tasks in adverse listening conditions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The appropriate or optimal tempo for music: a comparison between non-musicians and musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Sandra; Watt, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Musicians have enhanced skills that result from intensive training. Whilst musicians show enhanced auditory capabilities (Kraus and Chandrasekaran, 2010 Nature Reviews Neuroscience 11 599-605), non-musicians demonstrate an ability to perform musical tasks (eg listening, dancing, and singing). Non-musicians can also undertake tasks that would normally be reserved for musicians. For example, non-musicians can perceive optimal tempi (ie an appropriate speed) for music (Quinn and Watt, 2006 Perception 35 267-280; Quinn and Watt, 2012 Perception 41 236-238; Quinn et al, 2012 Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 131 3595-3598). This suggests that formalised musical training is not a prerequisite for developing a sense of the tempo that sounds right for a melody. The current studies examine this issue and compare the tempo that musicians choose to perform unfamiliar melodies with the tempo that non-musicians perceive to be optimal for the same melodies. The results demonstrate that the perceived optimal tempo is similar to the performed tempo.

  8. Cortical pitch representations of complex tones in musicians and non-musicians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bianchi, Federica; Hjortkjær, Jens; Santurette, Sébastien

    enhancement. In a previous behavioral study, musicians showed an increased pitch-discrimination performance for both resolved and unresolved complex tones suggesting an enhanced neural representation of pitch at central stages of the auditory system. The aim of this study was to clarify whether musicians show...... (i) differential neural activation in response to complex tones as compared to non-musicians and/or (ii) finer fundamental frequency (F0) representation in the auditory cortex. Assuming that the right auditory cortex is specialized in processing fine spectral changes, we hypothesized that an enhanced...... F0 representation in musicians would be associated with a stronger right-lateralized response to complex tones compared to non-musicians. Fundamental frequency (F0) discrimination thresholds were obtained for harmonic complex tones with F0s of 100 and 500 Hz, filtered in either a low or a high...

  9. Russian orchestral works. Torgny Sporsen / Ivan March

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    March, Ivan

    1991-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Russian orchestral works. Torgny Sporsen (bass). Gothenburg Symphony Brass Band. Gothenburg Symphony Chorus and Orchestra / Neeme Järvi" D6 MC 429 984 - 4 GH; CD 429 984 - 26H (76 minutes). Borodin: In Central Asia. Prince Igor - Polovtsian Dances

  10. Musicians are better than non-musicians in frequency change detection: behavioral and electrophysiological evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawen Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objectives of this study were: 1 to determine if musicians have a better ability to detect frequency changes under quiet and noisy conditions; 2 to use the acoustic change complex (ACC, a type of electroencephalographic (EEG response, to understand the neural substrates of musician vs. non-musician difference in frequency change detection abilities. Methods: Twenty-four young normal hearing listeners (12 musicians and 12 non-musicians participated. All participants underwent psychoacoustic frequency detection tests with 3 types of stimuli: tones (base frequency at 160 Hz containing frequency changes (Stim 1, tones containing frequency changes masked by low-level noise (Stim 2, and tones containing frequency changes masked by high-level noise (Stim 3. The EEG data were recorded using tones (base frequency at 160 Hz and 1200 Hz, respectively containing different magnitudes of frequency changes (0%, 5%, and 50% changes, respectively. The late-latency evoked potential evoked by the onset of the tones (onset LAEP or N1-P2 complex and that evoked by the frequency change contained in the tone (the acoustic change complex or ACC or N1’-P2’ complex were analyzed. Results: Musicians significantly outperformed non-musicians in all stimulus conditions. The ACC and onset LAEP showed similarities and differences. Increasing the magnitude of frequency change resulted in increased ACC amplitudes. ACC measures were found to be significantly different between musicians (larger P2’ amplitude and non-musicians for the base frequency of 160 Hz but not 1200 Hz. Although the peak amplitude in the onset LAEP appeared to be larger and latency shorter in musicians than in non-musicians, the difference did not reach statistical significance. The amplitude of the onset LAEP is significantly correlated with that of the ACC for the base frequency of 160 Hz.Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that musicians do perform better than non-musicians in

  11. Concurrent sound segregation is enhanced in musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zendel, Benjamin Rich; Alain, Claude

    2009-08-01

    The ability to segregate simultaneously occurring sounds is fundamental to auditory perception. Many studies have shown that musicians have enhanced auditory perceptual abilities; however, the impact of musical expertise on segregating concurrently occurring sounds is unknown. Therefore, we examined whether long-term musical training can improve listeners' ability to segregate sounds that occur simultaneously. Participants were presented with complex sounds that had either all harmonics in tune or the second harmonic mistuned by 1%, 2%, 4%, 8%, or 16% of its original value. The likelihood of hearing two sounds simultaneously increased with mistuning, and this effect was greater in musicians than nonmusicians. The segregation of the mistuned harmonic from the harmonic series was paralleled by an object-related negativity that was larger and peaked earlier in musicians. It also coincided with a late positive wave referred to as the P400 whose amplitude was larger in musicians than in nonmusicians. The behavioral and electrophysiological effects of musical expertise were specific to processing the mistuned harmonic as the N1, the N1c, and the P2 waves elicited by the tuned stimuli were comparable in both musicians and nonmusicians. These results demonstrate that listeners' ability to segregate concurrent sounds based on harmonicity is modulated by experience and provides a basis for further studies assessing the potential rehabilitative effects of musical training on solving complex scene analysis problems illustrated by the cocktail party example.

  12. Life satisfaction of musicians with focal dystonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, A; Eich, C; Ioannou, C I; Altenmüller, E

    2015-07-01

    Little is known about the effects of musicians' dystonia (MD) on patients' life satisfaction. To assess general life satisfaction in patients with MD with regard to their health and jobs, in relation to the duration and course of the condition. We asked patients with MD and a group of healthy musicians (controls) to complete a life satisfaction questionnaire. We analysed responses from those who had to change their profession and those who did not, and we assessed life satisfaction scores in relation to the duration and the course of the condition. Of the 642 patients contacted, 295 responded (46%). We excluded 52 amateur musicians and analysed a sample of 243 patients with MD. We contacted an unknown number of healthy musicians and 57 responded. We found no differences in life satisfaction between patients and controls or between patients who had to change their profession and those who did not and no correlations between life satisfaction and the duration or the course of the disease. Musicians find a way to cope with dystonia, irrespective of the course of the disease or a change of profession. Patients should be made aware of self-regulatory mechanisms and the probability of being able to cope and be supported in selecting their goals and achieving them. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Performing arts medicine - instrumentalist musicians: part III - case histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dommerholt, Jan

    2010-04-01

    In parts I and II of this article series, the basic principles of examining musicians in a healthcare setting were reviewed [Dommerholt, J. Performing arts medicine - instrumentalist musicians: part I: general considerations. J. Bodyw. Mov. Ther., in press-a; Dommerholt, J. Performing arts medicine - instrumentalist musicians: part II: the examination. J. Bodyw. Mov. Ther., in press-b]. Part III describes three case reports of musicians with hand pain, interfering with their ability to play their instruments. The musicians consulted with a performing arts physiotherapist. Neither musician had a correct medical diagnosis if at all, when they first contacted the physiotherapist. Each musician required an individualized approach not only to establish the correct diagnosis, but also to develop a specific treatment program. The treatment programs included ergonomic interventions, manual therapy, trigger point therapy, and patient education. All musicians returned to playing their instruments without any residual pain or dysfunction. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Cognitive control in auditory working memory is enhanced in musicians

    OpenAIRE

    Pallesen, K.J.; Brattico, E.; Bailey, C.J.; Korvenoja, A.; Koivisto, J.; Gjedde, A.; Carlson, Synnöve

    2010-01-01

    Musical competence may confer cognitive advantages that extend beyond processing of familiar musical sounds. Behavioural evidence indicates a general enhancement of both working memory and attention in musicians. It is possible that musicians, due to their training, are better able to maintain focus on task-relevant stimuli, a skill which is crucial to working memory. We measured the blood oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) activation signal in musicians and non-musicians during working memor...

  15. Allergy and skin diseases in musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, C; Bottello, M; Caruso, A; Gargioni, S; Passalacqua, G

    2003-02-01

    In order to define a standard diagnostic protocol for managing allergic dis-eases in musicians, we conducted a literature search on this topic. The most frequent allergic disease in this special category of workers was contact dermatitis, always described in stringed and wind instruments players, involving the mouth and the hands. No other allergic disease directly related to musical instruments was reported. The most frequently reported culprit substances were: colophony, exotic woods, nickel sulphate, varnishes, and propolis (bee glue). Thus, being contact dermatitis the most frequent disease, a correct diagnostic approach to this problem in musicians should involve, in addition to clinical history and examination, the patch test with a specific panel of substances. Finally, allergy in musicians involves additional problems: the virtual impossibility to avoid the offending substance, and the poor adherence to therapy due to lifestyle. In general, this specific allergologic problem seems to be underestimated, underdiagnosed and, as a conquence, poorly managed.

  16. Page turning solutions for musicians: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolberg, George; Schipper, Irene

    2012-01-01

    Musicians have long been hampered by the challenge in turning sheet music while their hands are occupied playing an instrument. The sight of a human page turner assisting a pianist during a performance, for instance, is not uncommon. This need for a page turning solution is no less acute during practice sessions, which account for the vast majority of playing time. Despite widespread appreciation of the problem, there have been virtually no robust and affordable products to assist the musician. Recent progress in assistive technology and electronic reading devices offers promising solutions to this long-standing problem. The objective of this paper is to survey the technology landscape and assess the benefits and drawbacks of page turning solutions for musicians. A full range of mechanical and digital page turning products are reviewed.

  17. Epidemiology and treatment of 23 musicians with task specific tremor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, André; Furuya, Shinichi; Altenmüller, Eckart

    2014-01-01

    Task specific tremors in musicians have been mainly described as primary bowing tremor in string instrumentalists in relatively small sample sizes. Our aim was to describe epidemiology, risk factors, phenomenology and treatment options of this disorder in 23 musicians of different instruments. We included 23 professional musicians (4 female, 19 male; mean age 51.5 ± 11.4 years) with a TSTM. During anamnesis, clinical examination, by mail or via telephone patients were asked for epidemiological, phenomenological information, risk factors and treatments. We then compared our findings to primary writing tremor, the most common task specific tremor. Age at onset of the TST was 44.6 ± 13.6 years and tremor appeared 35.1 ± 13.5 years after beginning to play the instrument. The majority of patients were string instrumentalists, followed by woodwind instrumentalists. Other instrumentalists were a guitarist, pianist and percussionist respectively. In contrast to primary writing tremor, we also found proximal muscles of the upper extremity involved in tremor. A positive family history was found in Prior trauma was more common than in primary writing tremor. Treatment with a positive effect on tremor were in order of efficacy: Botulinumtoxin, Primidone, Propranolol, Trihexyphenidyl. No patient had undergone deep brain stimulation. Task specific tremor in musicians is a heterogeneous disorder with a male gender predominance that shares many commonalities with PWT. The onset age as well as the time between starting to play the instrument and tremor onset has a wide range. Because previous trauma and overuse appear to be risk factors, preventive measures against playing related injuries are necessary. There appears to be a genetic predisposition for TST. No single beneficial medication exists and treatment of patients remains highly individual. It should be discussed, whether deep brain stimulation should be offered not only to patients that do not respond to

  18. The challenge of diagnosing focal hand dystonia in musicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosset-Llobet, J.; Candia, V.; Molas, S. Fàbregas i; Dolors Rosinés i Cubells, D.; Pascual-Leone, A.

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose To most clinicians, medical problems in musicians, particularly those concerning focal hand dystonia, constitute an unfamiliar domain difficult to manage. The latter can importantly influence diagnostics and the course of treatment. The purpose of this study was to enlighten the issue and to identify possible problems in diagnosing musicians’ cramp within the Spanish medical community. Methods We used a brief questions’ catalog and clinical histories of 665 musicians seen at our clinic for performing artists. We analyzed patients’ diagnosis records in 87 cases of focal hand dystonia (13.1%). In so doing, we surveyed previous diagnoses and diverse treatments prescriptions prior to referral to our clinic. Results Referrals came primarily from orthopaedists and neurologists. The 52.9% arrived at our clinic without a diagnosis or a suspicion of suffering from focal dystonia. The most frequently attempted diagnoses other than musicians’ dystonia included nerve compression, tendonitis and trigger fingers. Commonly prescribed treatments included rest, various surgical procedures, physiotherapy and oral anti-inflammatory medication. Conclusions This data depicts the diagnostic challenges of medical professionals may encounter when confronted with musician’s focal dystonia. PMID:19473363

  19. The influence of music and stress on musicians' hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kähäri, Kim; Zachau, Gunilla; Eklöf, Mats; Möller, Claes

    2004-10-01

    Hearing and hearing disorders among classical and rock/jazz musicians was investigated. Pure tone audiometry was done in 140 classical and 139 rock/jazz musicians. The rock/jazz musicians answered a questionnaire concerning hearing disorders and psychosocial exposure. All results were compared to age appropriate reference materials. Hearing thresholds showed a notch configuration in both classical and rock/jazz musicians indicating the inclusion of high sound levels but an overall well-preserved hearing thresholds. Female musicians had significantly better hearing thresholds in the high-frequency area than males. Rock/jazz musicians showed slight worse hearing thresholds as compared to classical musicians. When assessing hearing disorders, a large number of rock/jazz musicians suffered from different hearing disorders (74%). Hearing loss, tinnitus and hyperacusis were the most common disorders and were significantly more frequent in comparison with different reference populations. Among classical musicians, no extended negative progress of the pure tone hearing threshold values was found in spite of the continued 16 years of musical noise exposure. In rock/jazz musicians, there was no relationships between psychosocial factors at work and hearing disorders. The rock/jazz musicians reported low stress and high degree of energy. On the average, the rock/jazz musicians reported higher control, lower stress and higher energy than a reference material of white-collar workers.

  20. Reorganization of the thalamocortical network in musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Shoji; Kirino, Eiji

    2017-06-01

    The cortico-thalamocortical network is relevant to music performance in that the network can regulate sensitivity to afferent input or sound, mediate the integration of multimodal information required for the performance, and play a role in skilled performance control. We, therefore, predicted that this network would be reorganized via musical training-induced neuroplasticity. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed resting-state functional connectivity of the thalamocortical network in musicians (n=35) and nonmusicians (n=35). The seed-to-voxel functional connectivity analysis of the left thalamus seed showed enhanced connectivity voxels in the precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) in musicians compared with nonmusicians. Region of interest (ROI)-to-ROI functional connectivity analysis showed that the auditory areas were also more strongly connected with the left thalamus in musicians. Discriminant analysis using the ROI-to-ROI functional connectivity data of the precuneus/PCC and auditory areas as predictors yielded an 87% correct discrimination of musicians from nonmusicians. Therefore, we can conclude that, as a consequence of long-term musical training, musicians have a characteristically organized thalamocortical network. The precuneus and PCC are principal nodes of the default mode network and play a pivotal role in the manipulation of mental imagery. We propose that the reorganized thalamocortical network in musicians contributes not only to higher sensitivity to sound but also to the integration of mental imagery with sound, which are both presumed to be important for better music performance. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Orchestrating chaos: teaching foreign language pronunciation in the complexity paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Flores Kupske

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a theoretical discussion on foreign language pronunciation teaching considering the Complexity Theory (e.g., BECKNER et al., 2009. To this end, we analyzed the framework for communicative pronunciation instruction proposed by Celce-Murcia et al. (1996 and Celce-Murcia et al. (2010, taking the Complex Adaptive Systems Theory as reference. In this analysis, the framework proposed is considered to be able to sustain the metaphor of Complexity applied to language, as it considers that multiple agents must interact in an organic manner during the teaching and learning processes, and that the behavior of a speaker is gradually built based on his past experiences. However, we point out that following the steps proposed in the framework does not necessarily guarantee the dynamicity needed in teaching. Therefore, we highlight the role of qualified professionals to implement and to orchestrate Complexity in the foreign language classroom.

  2. Exercise- and Stress-Induced Hypoalgesia in Musicians with and without Shoulder Pain: A Randomized Controlled Crossover Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppens, Kevin; Struyf, Filip; Nijs, Jo; Cras, Patrick; Fransen, Erik; Hermans, Linda; Meeus, Mira; Roussel, Nathalie

    2016-02-01

    Professional and pre-professional musicians are characterized by physical and psychological demands inherent to their musical activity, and therefore at risk for developing performance related musculoskeletal pain. Physical and psychological demands are known to influence human pain modulation. In this study we compared the influence of a physically and emotionally stressful task on pain thresholds in musicians with and without shoulder pain. A single-blinded randomized and controlled crossover study design was used to compare the effects of a physical versus emotional testing procedure on pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) in musicians with and without shoulder pain. All data were obtained in the field (e.g., at the physiotherapy accommodation in the Royal Conservatory). During the physical testing procedure, the subjects performed an isometric exercise of the glenohumeral external rotators. The emotional task comprised watching "unpleasant" images selected from the International Affective Picture System. The outcome was the assessment of change in PPTs before and after the physical and emotional task. Our results indicate similar effects of both protocols in either group, i.e., musicians with and without shoulder pain (P > 0.05). All musicians showed elevated PPTs at local and remote areas after isometric exercise (P effect size of Cohen's d = 1. Furthermore, comparing these results with those of non-musicians (both healthy subjects and patients with shoulder pain) might reveal information regarding the specific adaptations. Finally a high variability was observed in shoulder disability (i.e., SDQ-scores) as typically seen in a population with shoulder pain. In musicians with and without regional shoulder pain, no significant differences were found with respect to pain modulation during a physically and an emotionally stressful task. Both interventions adequately activated central and widespread pain inhibitory mechanisms in both groups.

  3. Microsoft System Center 2012 Orchestrator cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Erskine, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    This book is written in a practical, Cookbook style with numerous chapters and recipes focusing on creating runbooks to automate mission critical and everyday administration tasks.System Center 2012 Orchestrator is for administrators who wish to simplify the process of automating systems administration tasks. This book assumes that you have a basic knowledge of Windows Server 2008 Administration, Active Directory, Network Systems, and Microsoft System Center technologies.

  4. Sadness is unique: neural processing of emotions in speech prosody in musicians and non-musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Mona; Gutyrchik, Evgeny; Welker, Lorenz; Carl, Petra; Pöppel, Ernst; Zaytseva, Yuliya; Meindl, Thomas; Blautzik, Janusch; Reiser, Maximilian; Bao, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Musical training has been shown to have positive effects on several aspects of speech processing, however, the effects of musical training on the neural processing of speech prosody conveying distinct emotions are yet to be better understood. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate whether the neural responses to speech prosody conveying happiness, sadness, and fear differ between musicians and non-musicians. Differences in processing of emotional speech prosody between the two groups were only observed when sadness was expressed. Musicians showed increased activation in the middle frontal gyrus, the anterior medial prefrontal cortex, the posterior cingulate cortex and the retrosplenial cortex. Our results suggest an increased sensitivity of emotional processing in musicians with respect to sadness expressed in speech, possibly reflecting empathic processes.

  5. Sadness is unique: Neural processing of emotions in speech prosody in musicians and non-musicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona ePark

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Musical training has been shown to have positive effects on several aspects of speech processing, however, the effects of musical training on the neural processing of speech prosody conveying distinct emotions are yet to be better understood. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to investigate whether the neural responses to speech prosody conveying happiness, sadness, and fear differ between musicians and non-musicians. Differences in processing of emotional speech prosody between the two groups were only observed when sadness was expressed. Musicians showed increased activation in the middle frontal gyrus, the anterior medial prefrontal cortex, the posterior cingulate cortex and the retrosplenial cortex. Our results suggest an increased sensitivity of emotional processing in musicians with respect to sadness expressed in speech, possibly reflecting empathic processes.

  6. Executive Function, Visual Attention and the Cocktail Party Problem in Musicians and Non-Musicians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kameron K Clayton

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to investigate how cognitive factors influence performance in a multi-talker, "cocktail-party" like environment in musicians and non-musicians. This was achieved by relating performance in a spatial hearing task to cognitive processing abilities assessed using measures of executive function (EF and visual attention in musicians and non-musicians. For the spatial hearing task, a speech target was presented simultaneously with two intelligible speech maskers that were either colocated with the target (0° azimuth or were symmetrically separated from the target in azimuth (at ±15°. EF assessment included measures of cognitive flexibility, inhibition control and auditory working memory. Selective attention was assessed in the visual domain using a multiple object tracking task (MOT. For the MOT task, the observers were required to track target dots (n = 1,2,3,4,5 in the presence of interfering distractor dots. Musicians performed significantly better than non-musicians in the spatial hearing task. For the EF measures, musicians showed better performance on measures of auditory working memory compared to non-musicians. Furthermore, across all individuals, a significant correlation was observed between performance on the spatial hearing task and measures of auditory working memory. This result suggests that individual differences in performance in a cocktail party-like environment may depend in part on cognitive factors such as auditory working memory. Performance in the MOT task did not differ between groups. However, across all individuals, a significant correlation was found between performance in the MOT and spatial hearing tasks. A stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that musicianship and performance on the MOT task significantly predicted performance on the spatial hearing task. Overall, these findings confirm the relationship between musicianship and cognitive factors including domain-general selective

  7. Executive Function, Visual Attention and the Cocktail Party Problem in Musicians and Non-Musicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Kameron K.; Swaminathan, Jayaganesh; Yazdanbakhsh, Arash; Zuk, Jennifer; Patel, Aniruddh D.; Kidd, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate how cognitive factors influence performance in a multi-talker, “cocktail-party” like environment in musicians and non-musicians. This was achieved by relating performance in a spatial hearing task to cognitive processing abilities assessed using measures of executive function (EF) and visual attention in musicians and non-musicians. For the spatial hearing task, a speech target was presented simultaneously with two intelligible speech maskers that were either colocated with the target (0° azimuth) or were symmetrically separated from the target in azimuth (at ±15°). EF assessment included measures of cognitive flexibility, inhibition control and auditory working memory. Selective attention was assessed in the visual domain using a multiple object tracking task (MOT). For the MOT task, the observers were required to track target dots (n = 1,2,3,4,5) in the presence of interfering distractor dots. Musicians performed significantly better than non-musicians in the spatial hearing task. For the EF measures, musicians showed better performance on measures of auditory working memory compared to non-musicians. Furthermore, across all individuals, a significant correlation was observed between performance on the spatial hearing task and measures of auditory working memory. This result suggests that individual differences in performance in a cocktail party-like environment may depend in part on cognitive factors such as auditory working memory. Performance in the MOT task did not differ between groups. However, across all individuals, a significant correlation was found between performance in the MOT and spatial hearing tasks. A stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that musicianship and performance on the MOT task significantly predicted performance on the spatial hearing task. Overall, these findings confirm the relationship between musicianship and cognitive factors including domain-general selective attention and

  8. Sadness is unique: neural processing of emotions in speech prosody in musicians and non-musicians

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Mona; Gutyrchik, Evgeny; Welker, Lorenz; Carl, Petra; Pöppel, Ernst; Zaytseva, Yuliya; Meindl, Thomas; Blautzik, Janusch; Reiser, Maximilian; Bao, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Musical training has been shown to have positive effects on several aspects of speech processing, however, the effects of musical training on the neural processing of speech prosody conveying distinct emotions are yet to be better understood. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate whether the neural responses to speech prosody conveying happiness, sadness, and fear differ between musicians and non-musicians. Differences in processing of emotional speech prosody be...

  9. Sadness is unique: Neural processing of emotions in speech prosody in musicians and non-musicians

    OpenAIRE

    Mona ePark; Mona ePark; Mona ePark; Evgeny eGutyrchik; Evgeny eGutyrchik; Evgeny eGutyrchik; Lorenz eWelker; Lorenz eWelker; Petra eCarl; Petra eCarl; Ernst ePöppel; Ernst ePöppel; Ernst ePöppel; Ernst ePöppel; Ernst ePöppel

    2015-01-01

    Musical training has been shown to have positive effects on several aspects of speech processing, however, the effects of musical training on the neural processing of speech prosody conveying distinct emotions are yet to be better understood. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate whether the neural responses to speech prosody conveying happiness, sadness, and fear differ between musicians and non-musicians. Differences in processing of emotional speech prosody be...

  10. Enhanced syllable discrimination thresholds in musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuk, Jennifer; Ozernov-Palchik, Ola; Kim, Heesoo; Lakshminarayanan, Kala; Gabrieli, John D E; Tallal, Paula; Gaab, Nadine

    2013-01-01

    Speech processing inherently relies on the perception of specific, rapidly changing spectral and temporal acoustic features. Advanced acoustic perception is also integral to musical expertise, and accordingly several studies have demonstrated a significant relationship between musical training and superior processing of various aspects of speech. Speech and music appear to overlap in spectral and temporal features; however, it remains unclear which of these acoustic features, crucial for speech processing, are most closely associated with musical training. The present study examined the perceptual acuity of musicians to the acoustic components of speech necessary for intra-phonemic discrimination of synthetic syllables. We compared musicians and non-musicians on discrimination thresholds of three synthetic speech syllable continua that varied in their spectral and temporal discrimination demands, specifically voice onset time (VOT) and amplitude envelope cues in the temporal domain. Musicians demonstrated superior discrimination only for syllables that required resolution of temporal cues. Furthermore, performance on the temporal syllable continua positively correlated with the length and intensity of musical training. These findings support one potential mechanism by which musical training may selectively enhance speech perception, namely by reinforcing temporal acuity and/or perception of amplitude rise time, and implications for the translation of musical training to long-term linguistic abilities.

  11. Enhanced syllable discrimination thresholds in musicians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Zuk

    Full Text Available Speech processing inherently relies on the perception of specific, rapidly changing spectral and temporal acoustic features. Advanced acoustic perception is also integral to musical expertise, and accordingly several studies have demonstrated a significant relationship between musical training and superior processing of various aspects of speech. Speech and music appear to overlap in spectral and temporal features; however, it remains unclear which of these acoustic features, crucial for speech processing, are most closely associated with musical training. The present study examined the perceptual acuity of musicians to the acoustic components of speech necessary for intra-phonemic discrimination of synthetic syllables. We compared musicians and non-musicians on discrimination thresholds of three synthetic speech syllable continua that varied in their spectral and temporal discrimination demands, specifically voice onset time (VOT and amplitude envelope cues in the temporal domain. Musicians demonstrated superior discrimination only for syllables that required resolution of temporal cues. Furthermore, performance on the temporal syllable continua positively correlated with the length and intensity of musical training. These findings support one potential mechanism by which musical training may selectively enhance speech perception, namely by reinforcing temporal acuity and/or perception of amplitude rise time, and implications for the translation of musical training to long-term linguistic abilities.

  12. Enhanced Syllable Discrimination Thresholds in Musicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Heesoo; Lakshminarayanan, Kala; Gabrieli, John D. E.; Tallal, Paula; Gaab, Nadine

    2013-01-01

    Speech processing inherently relies on the perception of specific, rapidly changing spectral and temporal acoustic features. Advanced acoustic perception is also integral to musical expertise, and accordingly several studies have demonstrated a significant relationship between musical training and superior processing of various aspects of speech. Speech and music appear to overlap in spectral and temporal features; however, it remains unclear which of these acoustic features, crucial for speech processing, are most closely associated with musical training. The present study examined the perceptual acuity of musicians to the acoustic components of speech necessary for intra-phonemic discrimination of synthetic syllables. We compared musicians and non-musicians on discrimination thresholds of three synthetic speech syllable continua that varied in their spectral and temporal discrimination demands, specifically voice onset time (VOT) and amplitude envelope cues in the temporal domain. Musicians demonstrated superior discrimination only for syllables that required resolution of temporal cues. Furthermore, performance on the temporal syllable continua positively correlated with the length and intensity of musical training. These findings support one potential mechanism by which musical training may selectively enhance speech perception, namely by reinforcing temporal acuity and/or perception of amplitude rise time, and implications for the translation of musical training to long-term linguistic abilities. PMID:24339875

  13. Neural correlates of strategy use during auditory working memory in musicians and non-musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, K; Mueller, K; Koelsch, S

    2011-01-01

    Working memory (WM) performance in humans can be improved by structuring and organizing the material to be remembered. For visual and verbal information, this process of structuring has been associated with the involvement of a prefrontal-parietal network, but for non-verbal auditory material, the brain areas that facilitate WM for structured information have remained elusive. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, this study compared neural correlates underlying encoding and rehearsal of auditory WM for structured and unstructured material. Musicians and non-musicians performed a WM task on five-tone sequences that were either tonally structured (with all tones belonging to one tonal key) or tonally unstructured (atonal) sequences. Functional differences were observed for musicians (who are experts in the music domain), but not for non-musicians - The right pars orbitalis was activated more strongly in musicians during the encoding of unstructured (atonal) vs. structured (tonal) sequences. In addition, data for musicians showed that a lateral (pre)frontal-parietal network (including the right premotor cortex, right inferior precentral sulcus and left intraparietal sulcus) was activated during WM rehearsal of structured, as compared with unstructured, sequences. Our findings indicate that this network plays a role in strategy-based WM for non-verbal auditory information, corroborating previous results showing a similar network for strategy-based WM for visual and verbal information. © 2010 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2010 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. A comparative study on the prevalence of musculoskeletal complaints among musicians and non-musicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok Laura M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research comparing the frequency of musculoskeletal complaints between musicians and non-musicians is scarce. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of musculoskeletal complaints between musicians and non-musicians. Methods A cross-sectional study in 3215 students from three music academies (n = 345 and one medical school (n = 2870 in The Netherlands was performed, using an electronic questionnaire. The questionnaire included socio-demographic characteristics, use of music instruments and the occurrence of musculoskeletal complaints in six body regions. Questions were related to musculoskeletal complaints over the last twelve months and at the time of the questionnaire. Chi-square, t-tests and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used for comparison between the two groups. The association between musculoskeletal complaints and possible predictors was analyzed using a logistic and Poisson regression. Results Eighty-seven music academy students and 503 medical students returned the questionnaire, of which respectively eighty-three and 494 were included in the study. Seventy-four music academy students (89.2% reported one or more musculoskeletal complaints during the last twelve months, compared to 384 (77.9% medical students (p = 0.019. Moreover 52 music academy students (62.7% and 211 medical students (42.7% reported current musculoskeletal complaints (p = 0.001. The Odds ratio (OR for the development of musculoskeletal complaints during the last twelve months in music academy students versus medical students is 2.33 (95% CI 1.61–3.05, p = 0.022. The OR at the time of the questionnaire is 2.25 (95% CI 1.77–2.73, p = 0.001. The total number of complaints have been modeled by employing a Poisson regression; the results show that non-musicians have on average less complaints than musicians (p = 0.01. The adjusted means are 2.90 (95% CI 2.18–3.63 and 1.83 (95% CI 1.63–2.04 respectively for

  15. From Music Student to Professional: The Process of Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creech, Andrea; Papageorgi, Ioulia; Duffy, Celia; Morton, Frances; Haddon, Elizabeth; Potter, John; de Bezenac, Christophe; Whyton, Tony; Himonides, Evangelos; Welch, Graham

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses the question of whether higher education music courses adequately prepare young musicians for the critical transition from music undergraduate to professional. Thematic analyses of interviews with 27 undergraduate and portfolio career musicians representing four musical genres were compared. The evidence suggests that the…

  16. Music education and musicians: Expectations, course and outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogunović Blanka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the long-term talent development, from the moment of its recognition to the moment when an adult is confronted with the necessity of integration in the professional music and life streams, we wonder whether education satisfies the needs of talents and provides, in the long run, the necessary knowledge and skills. The aim of this research was to investigate: (1 the initial motivation for learning music and expectations from music education; (2 the course of development of young musicians (the degree of self-actualisation, developmental perspectives, evaluation of music education and (3 outcomes of music education and development of the professional career. The sample (N=487 consisted of five subsamples: music kindergarten pupils, students of primary music schools, students of secondary music schools, university students of music and teachers at music schools and universities. The paper analyses psychological, educational and professional aspects of education of musically gifted pupils and students, as well as music teachers in five successive age groups. The results indicate that with an increase in age there is a considerable increase in the variety and scope of expectations and a higher aspiration towards personal, educational and professional lifelong improvement, while, at the same time, there is a considerable decrease in the level of fulfilment of expectations and the level of assessment of self-actualisation. This is indicative of a continuously present feeling of “hidden underachievement” in the group of (relatively successful young musicians and professionals. Analysis of respondents’ answers points out to the existence of still traditional system of music education, which lacks flexibility and innovation and fails to provide a sufficient level of transferable knowledge and skills. The findings point out to a whole cluster of controversies demanding further reconsideration and (redesigning of the curriculum of (high

  17. Movement induced tremor in musicians and non-musicians reflects adaptive brain plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, André; Schoonderwaldt, Erwin; Chadde, Mareike; Altenmüller, Eckart

    2014-01-01

    Evidence exists that motor dexterity is associated with a higher tremor amplitude of physiological tremor. Likewise, lower frequencies are associated with motor control. So far only case reports of a higher amplitude of physiological tremor in musicians exist. Moreover, no study has investigated lower frequencies during a finger movement task in musicians who can be regarded as a model of motor expertise. We developed a model and derived three hypotheses which we investigated in this study: (1) Tremor amplitude is higher in the range of physiological tremor and (2) higher for frequency ranges of dystonic tremor in musicians compared to non-musicians; (3) there is no difference in tremor amplitude at frequencies below 4 Hz. We measured tremor during a finger flexion-extension movement in 19 musicians (age 26.5 ± 8.2 years) and 24 age matched non-musicians (age 26.5 ± 8.7). By using empirical mode decomposition in combination with a Hilbert transform we obtained the instantaneous frequency and amplitude, allowing to compare tremor amplitudes throughout the movement at various frequency ranges. We found a significantly higher tremor amplitude in musicians for physiological tremor and a tendency toward a higher amplitude during most of the movement in the frequency range of 4-8 Hz, which, however, was not significant. No difference was found in the frequency range below 4 Hz for the flexion and for almost the entire extension movement. Our results corroborate findings that the 8-12 Hz oscillatory activity plays a role in motor dexterity. However, our results do not allow for the conclusion that tremor at the frequency range of 4-8 Hz is related to either plasticity induced changes that are beneficial for motor skill development nor to maladaptive changes as, e.g., focal dystonia.

  18. Movement induced tremor in musicians and non-musicians reflects adaptive brain plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André eLee

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Evidence exists that motor dexterity is associated with a higher tremor amplitude of physiological tremor. Likewise, lower frequencies are associated with motor control. So far only case reports of a higher amplitude of physiological tremor in musicians exist. Moreover, no study has investigated lower frequencies during a finger movement task in musicians who can be regarded as a model of motor expertise. We developed a model and derived 3 hypotheses which we investigated in this study: 1 Tremor amplitude is higher in the range of physiological tremor and 2 higher for frequency ranges of dystonic tremor in musicians compared to non-musicians; 3 there is no difference in tremor amplitude at frequencies below 4Hz. We measured tremor during a finger flexion-extension movement in 19 musicians (age 26.5±8.2 years and 24 age matched non-musicians (age 26.5±8.7. By using empirical mode decomposition in combination with a Hilbert transform we obtained the instantaneous frequency and amplitude, allowing to compare tremor amplitudes throughout the movement at various frequency ranges. We found a significantly higher tremor amplitude in musicians for physiological tremor and a tendency towards a higher amplitude during most of the movement in the frequency range of 4-8Hz , which however was not significant. No difference was found in the frequency range below 4Hz for the flexion and for almost the entire extension movement. Our results corroborate findings that the 8-12Hz oscillatory activity plays a role in motor dexterity. However, our results do not allow for the conclusion that tremor at the frequency range of 4-8Hz is related to either plasticity induced changes that are beneficial for motor skill development nor to maladaptive changes as e.g. focal dystonia.

  19. From Orchestration to Choreography through Contract Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Basile

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We study the relations between a contract automata and an interaction model. In the former model, distributed services are abstracted away as automata - oblivious of their partners - that coordinate with each other through an orchestrator. The interaction model relies on channel-based asynchronous communication and choreography to coordinate distributed services. We define a notion of strong agreement on the contract model, exhibit a natural mapping from the contract model to the interaction model, and give conditions to ensure that strong agreement corresponds to well-formed choreography.

  20. Orchestration of Globally Distributed Knowledge for Innovation in Multinational Companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sajadirad, Solmaz; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann

    2017-01-01

    Conducting a multiple-case study in five companies from Danish industry, this paper explores how multinational companies orchestrate knowledge from their globally distributed subsidiaries for innovation. Comparisons of knowledge orchestration within headquarter and subsidiaries for improvement...... globally distributed knowledge. This study contributes to the understanding of knowledge orchestration between headquarter and distributed subsidiaries in multinational companies and how it is related to innovation. Specifically, this paper has important implications regarding the use of inter-firm objects...

  1. Relationships between behavior, brainstem and cortical encoding of seen and heard speech in musicians and non-musicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musacchia, Gabriella; Strait, Dana; Kraus, Nina

    2008-01-01

    Musicians have a variety of perceptual and cortical specializations compared to non-musicians. Recent studies have shown that potentials evoked from primarily brainstem structures are enhanced in musicians, compared to non-musicians. Specifically, musicians have more robust representations of pitch periodicity and faster neural timing to sound onset when listening to sounds or both listening to and viewing a speaker. However, it is not known whether musician-related enhancements at the subcortical level are correlated with specializations in the cortex. Does musical training shape the auditory system in a coordinated manner or in disparate ways at cortical and subcortical levels? To answer this question, we recorded simultaneous brainstem and cortical evoked responses in musician and non-musician subjects. Brainstem response periodicity was related to early cortical response timing across all subjects, and this relationship was stronger in musicians. Peaks of the brainstem response evoked by sound onset and timbre cues were also related to cortical timing. Neurophysiological measures at both levels correlated with musical skill scores across all subjects. In addition, brainstem and cortical measures correlated with the age musicians began their training and the years of musical practice. Taken together, these data imply that neural representations of pitch, timing and timbre cues and cortical response timing are shaped in a coordinated manner, and indicate corticofugal modulation of subcortical afferent circuitry. PMID:18562137

  2. The difference between standing and sitting in 3 different seat inclinations on abdominal muscle activity and chest and abdominal expansion in woodwind and brass musicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronwen Jane Ackermann

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Wind instrumentalists require a sophisticated functioning of their respiratory system to control their air stream, which provides the power for optimal musical performance. The air supply must be delivered into the instrument in a steady and controlled manner and with enough power by the action of the expiratory musculature to produce the desired level of sound at the correct pitch. It is suggested that playing posture may have an impact on the abdominal muscle activity controlling this expired air, but there is no research on musicians to support this theory. This study evaluated chest and abdominal expansion, via respiratory inductive plethysmography, as well as activation patterns of lower and upper abdominal musculature, using surface electromyography, during performance of a range of typical orchestral repertoire by 113 woodwind and brass players. Each of the five orchestral excerpts was played in one of four randomly allocated postures: standing; sitting flat; sitting inclined forwards; and sitting inclined backwards.Musicians showed a clear preference for playing in standing rather than sitting. In standing, the chest expansion range and maximum values were greater (p<0.01, while the abdominal expansion was less than in all sitting postures (p<0.01. Chest expansion patterns did not vary between the three sitting postures, while abdominal expansion was reduced in the forward inclined posture compared to the other sitting postures (p<0.05. There was no significant variation in abdominal muscle activation between the sitting postures, but the level of activation in sitting was only 2/3 of the significantly higher level observed in standing (p<0.01.This study has demonstrated significant differences in respiratory mechanics between sitting and standing postures in wind musicians during playing of typical orchestral repertoire. Further research is needed to clarify the complex respiratory mechanisms supporting musical performance.

  3. Cognitive control in auditory working memory is enhanced in musicians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Karen Johanne; Brattico, Elvira; Bailey, Christopher J

    2010-01-01

    Musical competence may confer cognitive advantages that extend beyond processing of familiar musical sounds. Behavioural evidence indicates a general enhancement of both working memory and attention in musicians. It is possible that musicians, due to their training, are better able to maintain...... focus on task-relevant stimuli, a skill which is crucial to working memory. We measured the blood oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) activation signal in musicians and non-musicians during working memory of musical sounds to determine the relation among performance, musical competence and generally...... enhanced cognition. All participants easily distinguished the stimuli. We tested the hypothesis that musicians nonetheless would perform better, and that differential brain activity would mainly be present in cortical areas involved in cognitive control such as the lateral prefrontal cortex. The musicians...

  4. Investigation of symphony orchestra musicians' use of hearing protectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Torben; Koskinen, Heli

    2010-01-01

    that musicians are aware of the dangers of loud music, that they only use hearing protectors to some extent, and that hearing protector is sometimes used only in one ear. Musicians are concerned about their hearing and musicians that experience hearing problems use hearing protectors more frequently. At present......A questionnaire study was performed about the use of hearing protectors in Danish symphony orchestras. The musicians in three Danish symphony orchestras were asked to complete a questionnaire about their use of hearing protection. A total of 146 musicians filled in the questionnaire. Results showed...... an investigation is performed about the use of hearing aids as hearing protectors by symphony orchestra musicians. Preliminary results from this investigation will be presented at the conference....

  5. Safety of subcutaneous microinjections (mesotherapy) in musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarte, Danik Arana; Rosset-Llobet, Jaume

    2011-06-01

    Determine the safety and tolerance of mesotherapy as a technique for the treatment of musculoskeletal complaints in musicians. 67 patients (55.2% women) were subjected to a total of 267 mesotherapy sessions. A mesotherapy needle or normal needle was used randomly. The drugs employed were thiocolchicoside and diazepam as muscular relaxants, pentoxifylline or buflomedil as vasodilators, and piroxicam as an anti-inflammatory, as directed. A visual analogue scale was used to quantify the pain produced by the microinjections as well as the degree of immediate and midterm side effects as reported on a standard questionnaire. A mean of 155.5 microinjections were performed per session, of which 45.6% were perceived as painful by the patient with a mean severity of 4.3 out of 10. The pain reduced to 0.5 out of 10 after 24 hours. The most sensitive areas were the levator scapulae and splenius muscles. Systemic symptoms were reported by 5.99% of the musicians after the mesotherapy sessions (muscular weakness 1.5%, rash 1.5%, drowsiness 1.1% and itching 1.1%, being the most frequent). The mean severity of these symptoms was 2.77 out of 10. In all cases the symptoms had completely disappeared after 24 hours. No patient referred to signs of local or systemic infection. The application of drugs by means of subcutaneous injections (mesotherapy) in musicians is a technique that is safe, well tolerated, and without any severe complications.

  6. Creativity and personality in classical, jazz and folk musicians

    OpenAIRE

    Benedek, Mathias; Borovnjak, Barbara; Neubauer, Aljoscha C.; Kruse-Weber, Silke

    2014-01-01

    The music genre of jazz is commonly associated with creativity. However, this association has hardly been formally tested. Therefore, this study aimed at examining whether jazz musicians actually differ in creativity and personality from musicians of other music genres. We compared students of classical music, jazz music, and folk music with respect to their musical activities, psychometric creativity and different aspects of personality. In line with expectations, jazz musicians are more fre...

  7. Performing arts medicine--instrumentalist musicians, Part II--examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dommerholt, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Part I of this article's series included background information on performing arts medicine with a special focus on musicians. It covered in detail what questions need to be included in the history, when healthcare providers first examine musicians. In part II of the series, the emphasis is on the physical examination, including posture, range of motion and hypermobility, ergonomics, and instrument-specific examination procedures. The final article in the series will describe three case histories of musicians with hand pain.

  8. Cognitive control in auditory working memory is enhanced in musicians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Johanne Pallesen

    Full Text Available Musical competence may confer cognitive advantages that extend beyond processing of familiar musical sounds. Behavioural evidence indicates a general enhancement of both working memory and attention in musicians. It is possible that musicians, due to their training, are better able to maintain focus on task-relevant stimuli, a skill which is crucial to working memory. We measured the blood oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD activation signal in musicians and non-musicians during working memory of musical sounds to determine the relation among performance, musical competence and generally enhanced cognition. All participants easily distinguished the stimuli. We tested the hypothesis that musicians nonetheless would perform better, and that differential brain activity would mainly be present in cortical areas involved in cognitive control such as the lateral prefrontal cortex. The musicians performed better as reflected in reaction times and error rates. Musicians also had larger BOLD responses than non-musicians in neuronal networks that sustain attention and cognitive control, including regions of the lateral prefrontal cortex, lateral parietal cortex, insula, and putamen in the right hemisphere, and bilaterally in the posterior dorsal prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate gyrus. The relationship between the task performance and the magnitude of the BOLD response was more positive in musicians than in non-musicians, particularly during the most difficult working memory task. The results confirm previous findings that neural activity increases during enhanced working memory performance. The results also suggest that superior working memory task performance in musicians rely on an enhanced ability to exert sustained cognitive control. This cognitive benefit in musicians may be a consequence of focused musical training.

  9. Cognitive control in auditory working memory is enhanced in musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallesen, Karen Johanne; Brattico, Elvira; Bailey, Christopher J; Korvenoja, Antti; Koivisto, Juha; Gjedde, Albert; Carlson, Synnöve

    2010-06-15

    Musical competence may confer cognitive advantages that extend beyond processing of familiar musical sounds. Behavioural evidence indicates a general enhancement of both working memory and attention in musicians. It is possible that musicians, due to their training, are better able to maintain focus on task-relevant stimuli, a skill which is crucial to working memory. We measured the blood oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) activation signal in musicians and non-musicians during working memory of musical sounds to determine the relation among performance, musical competence and generally enhanced cognition. All participants easily distinguished the stimuli. We tested the hypothesis that musicians nonetheless would perform better, and that differential brain activity would mainly be present in cortical areas involved in cognitive control such as the lateral prefrontal cortex. The musicians performed better as reflected in reaction times and error rates. Musicians also had larger BOLD responses than non-musicians in neuronal networks that sustain attention and cognitive control, including regions of the lateral prefrontal cortex, lateral parietal cortex, insula, and putamen in the right hemisphere, and bilaterally in the posterior dorsal prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate gyrus. The relationship between the task performance and the magnitude of the BOLD response was more positive in musicians than in non-musicians, particularly during the most difficult working memory task. The results confirm previous findings that neural activity increases during enhanced working memory performance. The results also suggest that superior working memory task performance in musicians rely on an enhanced ability to exert sustained cognitive control. This cognitive benefit in musicians may be a consequence of focused musical training.

  10. Evaluation of the noise exposure of symphonic orchestra musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Matilde Alexandra; Freitas, Marisa Alexandra; Neves, Maria Paula; Silva, Manuela Vieira

    2014-01-01

    For musicians, the impact of noise exposure is not yet fully characterized. Some inconsistencies can be found in the methodology used to evaluate noise exposure. This study aims to analyze the noise exposure of musicians in a symphonic orchestra to understand their risk for hearing loss, applying the methodology proposed by ISO 9612:2009. Noise levels were monitored among musicians during the rehearsal of eight different repertoires. Test subjects were selected according to their instrument and position in the orchestra. Participants wore noise dosimeters throughout the rehearsals. A sound meter was used to analyze the exposure of the conductor. The results showed that musicians are exposed to high noise levels that can damage hearing. Brass, woodwind and percussion and timpani musicians were exposed to noise levels in excess of the upper exposure action level of 85 dB (A), while the other instrumental groups had a lower exposure action level of 80 dB (A). Percussion musicians were exposed to high peak noise levels of 135 dB (C). Sound levels varied by instrument, repertoire and position. Octave frequency analyses showed differences among musicians. This study suggests that musicians are at risk for hearing loss. There is a need for more effective guidelines applicable to all countries, which should define standardized procedures for determining musician noise exposure and should allow exposure level normalization to the year, including different repertoires.

  11. Performing arts medicine - instrumentalist musicians part I - general considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dommerholt, Jan

    2009-10-01

    Performing arts medicine is a relatively new specialty addressing the medical needs of dancers, musicians, ice skaters, and gymnasts. This paper focuses on the role of healthcare providers in the diagnosis and therapeutic management of instrumentalist musicians. Musicians are at high risk for developing painful musculoskeletal problems, including pain and overuse injuries, entrapment and peripheral neuropathies, and focal dystonias. Musicians' careers are threatened, when they are no longer able to play their instrument because of pain and dysfunction. To appreciate music-related injuries, it is important that clinicians are familiar with the context of musicians' injuries and disorders. This is the first paper in a series of three. This paper discusses the importance of taking an extended history. The typical history procedures need to be broadened when interviewing musicians, and should include instrument-specific questions, and questions regarding practice habits, education, repertoire, and employment. The second article addresses the physical examination, while the third article provides three case reports of musicians with hand problems, which serve to illustrate the points made in the first two articles. The articles are illustrated with several tables and photographs of musicians to assist the reader in assessing instrumentalist musicians and determining the most appropriate course of action.

  12. Orchestration of floral initiation by APETALA1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Kerstin; Wellmer, Frank; Muiño, Jose M; Ferrier, Thilia; Wuest, Samuel E; Kumar, Vijaya; Serrano-Mislata, Antonio; Madueño, Francisco; Krajewski, Pawel; Meyerowitz, Elliot M; Angenent, Gerco C; Riechmann, José Luis

    2010-04-02

    The MADS-domain transcription factor APETALA1 (AP1) is a key regulator of Arabidopsis flower development. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying AP1 function, we identified its target genes during floral initiation using a combination of gene expression profiling and genome-wide binding studies. Many of its targets encode transcriptional regulators, including known floral repressors. The latter genes are down-regulated by AP1, suggesting that it initiates floral development by abrogating the inhibitory effects of these genes. Although AP1 acts predominantly as a transcriptional repressor during the earliest stages of flower development, at more advanced stages it also activates regulatory genes required for floral organ formation, indicating a dynamic mode of action. Our results further imply that AP1 orchestrates floral initiation by integrating growth, patterning, and hormonal pathways.

  13. Orchestrating Transnational Environmental Governance in Maritime Shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lister, Jane; Taudal Poulsen, René; Ponte, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    emerging private ‘green shipping’ initiatives to achieve better ecological outcomes? Contributing to transnational governance theory, we find that conditions stalling regulatory progress include low environmental issue visibility, poor interest alignment, a broadening scope of environmental issues......Maritime shipping is the transmission belt of the global economy. It is also a major contributor to global environmental change through its under-regulated air, water and land impacts. It is puzzling that shipping is a lagging sector as it has a well-established global regulatory body......—the International Maritime Organization. Drawing on original empirical evidence and archival data, we introduce a four-factor framework to investigate two main questions: why is shipping lagging in its environmental governance; and what is the potential for the International Maritime Organization to orchestrate...

  14. Service Orchestration on the Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordán Pascual Espada

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available On July 27, 2010, Jordán Pascual Espada defended his Master’s thesis at Oviedo University (Spain, titled: “Service Orchestration on the internet of things”. This Master’s thesis is the final part of the Web Engineering Official Research Master belonging to the European Higher Education Area. Jordán Pascual Espada defended his dissertation in a publicly open presentation held in the School of Computer Engineering at Oviedo University, and was able to comment on every question raised by his committee and the audience. The master’s thesis was supervised by his advisors, Juan Manuel Cueva Lovelle and Oscar Sanjuán Martínez. The thesis has been read and approved by his thesis committee, receiving the highest rating.

  15. The Neuronal Network Orchestration behind Motor Behaviors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Peter Christian

    In biological networks, millions of neurons organize themselves from microscopic noisy individuals to robust macroscopic entities. These entities are capable of producing higher functions like sensory processing, decision-making, and elaborate behavioral responses. Every aspect of these behaviors...... is the outcome of an advanced orchestration of the activity of populations of neurons. Through spiking activity, neurons are able to interact; yet we know little about how this interaction occurs in spinal networks. How is the activity distributed across the population? What is the composition of synaptic input...... that is received by the individual neurons and how is the synaptic input processed? This thesis focuses on aspects of these questions for spinal networks involved in the generation of stereotypical motor behaviors. The thesis consists of two studies. In the first study, I investigated the synaptic input...

  16. Orchestration of Social Modes in e-Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weinberger, Armin; Papadopoulos, Pantelis M.

    2016-01-01

    of tools offering possibilities to the teachers, orchestration refers to the purposeful mixture of different aspects of the learning experience, serving a particular set of learning goals. In this paper, we present the current dialogue on e-learning orchestration, identifying the questions and open issues...

  17. Real-Time QoS Control for Service Orchestration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosman, J.; Berg, H. van den; Mei, R. van der

    2015-01-01

    Service orchestration has become the predominant paradigm that enables businesses to combine and integrate services offered by third parties. For the commercial viability of orchestrated services, it is crucial that they are offered at sharp price-quality ratios. A complicating factor is that many

  18. Educating Professional Musicians: Lessons Learned from School Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruthers, Glen

    2008-01-01

    Music in Canadian schools at one time focused on skills development. Building on talent, aptitude, prior learning and physical coordination, students would become better at singing or playing an instrument by studying it at school. Over time, new approaches to music teaching and learning opened the umbrella to a more comprehensive range of…

  19. Personality Influences Career Choice: Sensation Seeking in Professional Musicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuust, Peter; Gebauer, Line; Hansen, Niels Chr.; Jorgensen, Stine Ramsgaard; Moller, Arne; Linnet, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    Despite the obvious importance of deciding which career to pursue, little is known about the influence of personality on career choice. Here we investigated the relation between sensation seeking, a supposedly innate personality trait, and career choice in classical and "rhythmic" students at the academies of music in Denmark. We…

  20. Layman versus Professional Musician: Who Makes the Better Judge?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Larrouy-Maestri

    Full Text Available The increasing number of casting shows and talent contests in the media over the past years suggests a public interest in rating the quality of vocal performances. In many of these formats, laymen alongside music experts act as judges. Whereas experts' judgments are considered objective and reliable when it comes to evaluating singing voice, little is known about laymen's ability to evaluate peers. On the one hand, layman listeners-who by definition did not have any formal training or regular musical practice-are known to have internalized the musical rules on which singing accuracy is based. On the other hand, layman listeners' judgment of their own vocal skills is highly inaccurate. Also, when compared with that of music experts, their level of competence in pitch perception has proven limited. The present study investigates laypersons' ability to objectively evaluate melodies performed by untrained singers. For this purpose, laymen listeners were asked to judge sung melodies. The results were compared with those of music experts who had performed the same task in a previous study. Interestingly, the findings show a high objectivity and reliability in layman listeners. Whereas both the laymen's and experts' definition of pitch accuracy overlap, differences regarding the musical criteria employed in the rating task were evident. The findings suggest that the effect of expertise is circumscribed and limited and supports the view that laypersons make trustworthy judges when evaluating the pitch accuracy of untrained singers.

  1. Mirror neuron activation of musicians and non-musicians in response to motion captured piano performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jiancheng; Rajmohan, Ravi; Fang, Dan; Kashfi, Karl; Al-Khalil, Kareem; Yang, James; Westney, William; Grund, Cynthia M; O'Boyle, Michael W

    2017-07-01

    Mirror neurons (MNs) activate when performing an action and when an observer witnesses the same action performed by another individual. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and presentation of motion captured piano performances were used to identify differences in MN activation for musicians/non-musicians when viewing piano pieces played in a "Correct" mode (i.e., emphasis on technical correctness) or an "Enjoyment" mode (i.e., simply told to "enjoy" playing the piece). Results showed greater MN activation in a variety of brain regions for musicians, with these differences more pronounced in the "Enjoyment" mode. Our findings suggest that activation of MNs is not only initiated by the imagined action of an observed movement, but such activation is modulated by the level of musical expertise and knowledge of associated motor movements that the observer brings to the viewing situation. Enhanced MN activation in musicians may stem from imagining themselves actually playing the observed piece. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Distributed Practice and Procedural Memory Consolidation in Musicians' Skill Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Amy L.

    2012-01-01

    This research was designed to determine whether musicians' learning is affected by the time intervals interposed between practice sessions. Twenty-nine non-pianist musicians learned a 9-note sequence on a piano keyboard in three practice sessions that were separated by 5 min, 6 hr, or 24 hr. Significant improvements in performance accuracy were…

  3. Analysis of Listening Preferences of High School and College Musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Dianne

    1994-01-01

    Reports on a study of music listening preferences among undergraduate college music majors, high school musicians in performance groups, and sixth-grade students in eight U.S. sites. Finds instrumental biases among high school and college musicians' preferences for relatively unfamiliar classical music. (CFR)

  4. Making Mavericks: Preparing Musicians for Independent Artistic Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canham, Nicole L.

    2016-01-01

    This essay explores the role that maverick qualities--"independent or unorthodox behaviour" ("The Oxford Dictionary," 2015)--play in developing and sustaining musician employability. Whilst career education for musicians often highlights new career models (Bridgstock, 2005), there is limited evidence of how these concepts work…

  5. Probabilistic diffusion tractography reveals improvement of structural network in musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianfu; Luo, Cheng; Peng, Yueheng; Xie, Qiankun; Gong, Jinnan; Dong, Li; Lai, Yongxiu; Li, Hong; Yao, Dezhong

    2014-01-01

    Musicians experience a large amount of information transfer and integration of complex sensory, motor, and auditory processes when training and playing musical instruments. Therefore, musicians are a useful model in which to investigate neural adaptations in the brain. Here, based on diffusion-weighted imaging, probabilistic tractography was used to determine the architecture of white matter anatomical networks in musicians and non-musicians. Furthermore, the features of the white matter networks were analyzed using graph theory. Small-world properties of the white matter network were observed in both groups. Compared with non-musicians, the musicians exhibited significantly increased connectivity strength in the left and right supplementary motor areas, the left calcarine fissure and surrounding cortex and the right caudate nucleus, as well as a significantly larger weighted clustering coefficient in the right olfactory cortex, the left medial superior frontal gyrus, the right gyrus rectus, the left lingual gyrus, the left supramarginal gyrus, and the right pallidum. Furthermore, there were differences in the node betweenness centrality in several regions. However, no significant differences in topological properties were observed at a global level. We illustrated preliminary findings to extend the network level understanding of white matter plasticity in musicians who have had long-term musical training. These structural, network-based findings may indicate that musicians have enhanced information transmission efficiencies in local white matter networks that are related to musical training.

  6. Probabilistic diffusion tractography reveals improvement of structural network in musicians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfu Li

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Musicians experience a large amount of information transfer and integration of complex sensory, motor, and auditory processes when training and playing musical instruments. Therefore, musicians are a useful model in which to investigate neural adaptations in the brain. METHODS: Here, based on diffusion-weighted imaging, probabilistic tractography was used to determine the architecture of white matter anatomical networks in musicians and non-musicians. Furthermore, the features of the white matter networks were analyzed using graph theory. RESULTS: Small-world properties of the white matter network were observed in both groups. Compared with non-musicians, the musicians exhibited significantly increased connectivity strength in the left and right supplementary motor areas, the left calcarine fissure and surrounding cortex and the right caudate nucleus, as well as a significantly larger weighted clustering coefficient in the right olfactory cortex, the left medial superior frontal gyrus, the right gyrus rectus, the left lingual gyrus, the left supramarginal gyrus, and the right pallidum. Furthermore, there were differences in the node betweenness centrality in several regions. However, no significant differences in topological properties were observed at a global level. CONCLUSIONS: We illustrated preliminary findings to extend the network level understanding of white matter plasticity in musicians who have had long-term musical training. These structural, network-based findings may indicate that musicians have enhanced information transmission efficiencies in local white matter networks that are related to musical training.

  7. Home recording for musicians for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Strong, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    Invaluable advice that will be music to your ears! Are you thinking of getting started in home recording? Do you want to know the latest home recording technologies? Home Recording For Musicians For Dummies will get you recording music at home in no time. It shows you how to set up a home studio, record and edit your music, master it, and even distribute your songs. With this guide, you?ll learn how to compare studio-in-a-box, computer-based, and stand-alone recording systems and choose what you need. You?ll gain the skills to manage your sound, take full advantage of MIDI, m

  8. Modulated neural processing of Western harmony in folk musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brattico, Elvira; Tupala, Tiina; Glerean, Enrico; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2013-07-01

    A chord deviating from the conventions of Western tonal music elicits an early right anterior negativity (ERAN) in inferofrontal brain regions. Here, we tested whether the ERAN is modulated by expertise in more than one music culture, as typical of folk musicians. Finnish folk musicians and nonmusicians participated in electroencephalography recordings. The cadences consisted of seven chords. In incongruous cadences, the third, fifth, or seventh chord was a Neapolitan. The ERAN to the Neapolitans was enhanced in folk musicians compared to nonmusicians. Folk musicians showed an enhanced P3a for the ending Neapolitan. The Neapolitan at the fifth position was perceived differently and elicited a late enhanced ERAN in folk musicians. Hence, expertise in more than one music culture seems to modify chord processing by enhancing the ERAN to ambivalent chords and the P3a to incongruous chords, and by altering their perceptual attributes. Copyright © 2013 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  9. Hearing loss and tinnitus in rock musicians: A Norwegian survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Christian Lein Størmer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Our focus in this study was to assess hearing thresholds and the prevalence and characteristics of tinnitus in a large group of rock musicians based in Norway. A further objective was to assess related factors such as exposure, instrument category, and the preventive effect of hearing protection. The study was a cross-sectional survey of rock musicians selected at random from a defined cohort of musicians. A random control group was included for comparison. We recruited 111 active musicians from the Oslo region, and a control group of 40 nonmusicians from the student population at the University of TromsØ. The subjects were investigated using clinical examination, pure tone audiometry, tympanometry, and a questionnaire. We observed a hearing loss in 37.8% of the rock musicians. Significantly poorer hearing thresholds were seen at most pure-tone frequencies in musicians than controls, with the most pronounced threshold shift at 6 kHz. The use of hearing protection, in particular custom-fitted earplugs, has a preventive effect but a minority of rock musicians apply them consistently. The degree of musical performance exposure was inversely related to the degree of hearing loss in our sample. Bass and guitar players had higher hearing thresholds than vocalists. We observed a 20% prevalence of chronic tinnitus but none of the affected musicians had severe tinnitus symptomatology. There was no statistical association between permanent tinnitus and hearing loss in our sample. We observed an increased prevalence of hearing loss and tinnitus in our sample of Norwegian rock musicians but the causal relationship between musical exposure and hearing loss or tinnitus is ambiguous. We recommend the use of hearing protection in rock musicians.

  10. The Effect of Instruction on Musicians' and Non-Musicians' Aesthetic Response to Brazilian and African Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeKaney, Elisa M.; Coggiola, John C.; Macedo, Elizeu C.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined aesthetic response to Brazilian and African music experienced with and without instruction received prior to the listening session. In addition, there was an attempt to determine if there was a difference in response between musicians (music therapy majors) and non-musicians (psychology majors). The participants (N = 44) were…

  11. Preference of reverberation time for musicians and audience of the Javanese traditional gamelan music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyatno; Tjokronegoro, H. A.; Merthayasa, I. G. N.; Supanggah, R.

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents results of an investigation of room acoustic parameters those are appropriated particularly to perform a Javanese gamelan. The acoustic parameters were obtained by analysing simulated sounds of performance. Those simulated sounds were obtained by sound convolution technique of a dry sound signal of Javanese gamelan performance with impulse responses rooms whose appropriated reverberation time. The reverberation time were varied between 1.0s to 1.8s, those belong to the characteristic of Pendopo Mangkunegaran Surakarta. In this case, Pendopo Mangkunegaran is assumed as one of the most suitable concert halls for Javanese gamelan performance. To obtain the acoustic parameters, we used a psycho-acoustics measurement based on paired comparison test that having different of acoustic parameters to determine the most comfortable one to majority of respondents. The respondents who have participated in this research composed of a group of professional musicians of Javanese gamelan and groups of audience who are not musician, nevertheless part of them were familiar with Javanese gamelan music. The comparison test gave results and showed majority of respondents of group of musicians had a notion sound reverberation time of 1.2s was most comfortable. This corresponds to +6.2dB, clarity and 74% definition. It means the appropriate acoustic condition allows musicians to recognize and distinguish clearly sound of each instrument being played. Meanwhile, group of audience had a notion reverberation time in a range of 1.2s - 1.6s was most comfortable. This range of reverberation time corresponds to +4dB to +6.2dB of clarity, and 66% to 74% of definition.

  12. Orchestration of Social Modes in e-Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weinberger, Armin; Papadopoulos, Pantelis M.

    2016-01-01

    The concept of orchestration has recently emerged as a useful metaphor in technology-enhanced learning research communities, because of its explanatory power and appeal in describing how different learning activities, tools, and arrangements could be combined to promote learning. More than a buffet...... of tools offering possibilities to the teachers, orchestration refers to the purposeful mixture of different aspects of the learning experience, serving a particular set of learning goals. In this paper, we present the current dialogue on e-learning orchestration, identifying the questions and open issues...

  13. Fibroblasts as maestros orchestrating tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Almeida, Raquel; Soares, Raquel; Granja, Pedro L

    2017-01-20

    Fibroblasts constitute a dynamic and versatile population of cells of mesenchymal origin, implicated in both regenerative strategies and pathological conditions. Despite being frequently associated to disease development, particularly through the establishment of fibrotic tissue, fibroblasts hold great potential for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. They are responsible for synthesizing and depositing extracellular matrix components, allowing other cells to settle and migrate along a three-dimensional support and thereby generating an organ-specific architecture. Additionally, they produce bioactive molecules that are involved in several physiological processes, including angiogenesis and tissue repair. Although there seems to be much still to unveil about these fascinating cells they have been attracting increasing interest and are now being intensively explored as a cell source to develop bioengineered tissue constructs or to improve stem cell-based technologies. This review intends to highlight the potential of fibroblasts in orchestrating tissue regeneration, as well as to contribute to uncover uncharted prospective applications of these cells. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Orchestrating Distributed Resource Ensembles for Petascale Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldin, Ilya; Mandal, Anirban; Ruth, Paul; Yufeng, Xin

    2014-04-24

    Distributed, data-intensive computational science applications of interest to DOE scientific com- munities move large amounts of data for experiment data management, distributed analysis steps, remote visualization, and accessing scientific instruments. These applications need to orchestrate ensembles of resources from multiple resource pools and interconnect them with high-capacity multi- layered networks across multiple domains. It is highly desirable that mechanisms are designed that provide this type of resource provisioning capability to a broad class of applications. It is also important to have coherent monitoring capabilities for such complex distributed environments. In this project, we addressed these problems by designing an abstract API, enabled by novel semantic resource descriptions, for provisioning complex and heterogeneous resources from multiple providers using their native provisioning mechanisms and control planes: computational, storage, and multi-layered high-speed network domains. We used an extensible resource representation based on semantic web technologies to afford maximum flexibility to applications in specifying their needs. We evaluated the effectiveness of provisioning using representative data-intensive ap- plications. We also developed mechanisms for providing feedback about resource performance to the application, to enable closed-loop feedback control and dynamic adjustments to resource allo- cations (elasticity). This was enabled through development of a novel persistent query framework that consumes disparate sources of monitoring data, including perfSONAR, and provides scalable distribution of asynchronous notifications.

  15. Orchestration of TEL proposal for the European Framework Programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalz, Marco; Joy, Aislinn

    2012-01-01

    Kalz, M., & Joy, A. (2012, 27 January). Orchestration of TEL proposals for the European Framework Program. Presentation given during Research Away Days of the University College Cork, Rosscarberry, Ireland: UCC.

  16. Tchaikovsky, P.: Orchestral Suite no. 3 op. 55 / Terry Williams

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Williams, Terry

    1996-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Tchaikovsky, P.: Orchestral Suite no. 3 op. 55. Francesca di Rimini op. 32. Detroit Symphony Orchestra, Neeme Järvi". Chandos CHAN 9 419, distribution Media 7 (CD: 160F). TT: 1h 09'20"

  17. Musicians and non-musicians' different reliance of features in consonance perception: a behavioral and ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Chun-Chia; Hsieh, Tsung-Hao; Liou, Jen-Yu; Lin, Kuei-Ju; Shaw, Fu-Zen; Liang, Sheng-Fu

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the different features that musicians and non-musicians rely upon when they discern consonant and dissonant intervals. Previous studies have addressed this issue from the perspective of either the frequency ratio (Western music theory) or the frequency difference (psychoacoustics), but have not considered both features in a single and balanced study. Twelve musicians and twelve non-musicians judged musical consonance at various 50-500 Hz intervals, orthogonally selected from across the "pitch interval" and "roughness" spectrum. Both behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) data were collected separately. Behavioral results demonstrated that while musicians relied upon pitch intervals (between perfect fifths and tritones, with 95% accuracy), non-musicians performed around chance. The latter performance could, however, be sub-divided into "rough tritone and non-rough perfect-fifth" (70-80%) and "non-rough tritone and rough perfect-fifth" combinations (25-30%), suggesting non-musicians' reliance on the roughness dimension. ERP components revealed corresponding P2 (200-250 ms) amplitude differences in the Fz and Cz channels for the "tritones vs. perfect fifths" comparison in musicians, and by the "rough vs. non-rough" comparison in the non-musicians. In addition, N1 (∼100 ms) and N2 (300-400 ms) components also revealed difference in Fz, F3, F4, FCz, Cz and CPz electrodes for "tritones vs. perfect fifths" in musicians. In the non-musicians, a stronger negative N2 for rough than for non-rough stimuli was found at F4 and Cz. Together, these results suggest that musicians and non-musicians rely upon pitch intervals and sensory roughness, respectively, for consonance/dissonance perception. To our knowledge, this is the first study to compare independently across the pitch interval and roughness spectrum. Our results further support the brain plasticity as a result of musical training in consonance perception. Copyright © 2013

  18. Reluctant entrepreneurs: musicians and entrepreneurship in the 'new' music industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Jo; Marshall, Lee

    2017-09-18

    Changing labour conditions in the creative industries - with celebrations of autonomy and entrepreneurialism intertwined with increasing job insecurity, portfolio careers and short-term, project-based contracts - are often interpreted as heralding changes to employment relations more broadly. The position of musicians' labour in relation to these changes is unclear, however, given that these kinds of conditions have defined musicians' working practices over much longer periods of time (though they may have intensified due to well-documented changes to the music industry brought about by digitization and disintermediation). Musicians may thus be something of a barometer of current trends, as implied in the way that the musically derived label 'gig economy' is being used to describe the spread of precarious working conditions to broader sections of the population. This article, drawing on original qualitative research that investigated the working practices of musicians, explores one specific aspect of these conditions: whether musicians are self-consciously entrepreneurial towards their work and audience. We found that, while the musicians in our study are routinely involved in activities that could be construed as entrepreneurial, generally they were reluctant to label themselves as entrepreneurs. In part this reflected understandings of entrepreneurialism as driven by profit-seeking but it also reflected awareness that being a popular musician has always involved business and commercial dimensions. Drawing on theoretical conceptions of entrepreneurship developed by Joseph Schumpeter we highlight how the figure of the entrepreneur and the artist/musician share much in common and reflect various aspects of romantic individualism. Despite this, there are also some notable differences and we conclude that framing musicians' labour as entrepreneurial misrepresents their activities through an overemphasis on the economic dimensions of their work at the expense of the

  19. Psychosocial and physiological correlates of self-reported hearing problems in male and female musicians in symphony orchestras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasson, Dan; Theorell, Töres; Liljeholm-Johansson, Yvonne; Canlon, Barbara

    2009-11-01

    Experimental and epidemiological research indicate an association between long-term stress and hearing problems, yet the mechanisms underlying these disorders are not yet fully established. Thus, in order to better understand the pathogenesis of stress-related hearing problems, the present study explored the symptoms and general physiological and psychosocial status of musicians in symphony orchestras. Orchestral musicians are an ideal group to study since physical, psychosocial, work-environmental and acoustic stressors are highly prevalent. The subjects where obtained from two different studies. The first group included 250 participants from 12 orchestras and is entitled "the epidemiological study". The second group, entitled "the longitudinal study", included 47 musicians who were assessed at five occasions (every half year) during two years. Thirty-one of the 47 participants were selected for sampling of physiological variables, i.e. 24-hour ECG to assess heart rate variability to evaluate the synergistic action of the autonomic system as well as saliva cortisol and testosterone levels. The results indicate that self-reported hearing problems are associated with perceived poorer psychosocial environment, as well as mental health symptoms and stress. High-frequency power of heart rate variability (parasympathetic activity) showed a negative relationship to hearing problems, implying a poorer ability to "unwind" from stress. Cortisol levels were not correlated to hearing problems whereas testosterone levels showed a tendency to be lower in subjects with hearing problems than in others. These findings provide evidence for a relationship between long-term stress and self-reported hearing problems and demonstrate a protective role of parasympathetic and anabolic activity on hearing status.

  20. Musician advantage for speech-on-speech perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Başkent, Deniz; Gaudrain, Etienne

    2016-03-01

    Evidence for transfer of musical training to better perception of speech in noise has been mixed. Unlike speech-in-noise, speech-on-speech perception utilizes many of the skills that musical training improves, such as better pitch perception and stream segregation, as well as use of higher-level auditory cognitive functions, such as attention. Indeed, despite the few non-musicians who performed as well as musicians, on a group level, there was a strong musician benefit for speech perception in a speech masker. This benefit does not seem to result from better voice processing and could instead be related to better stream segregation or enhanced cognitive functions.

  1. Behavioral and neural correlates of executive functioning in musicians and non-musicians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Zuk

    Full Text Available Executive functions (EF are cognitive capacities that allow for planned, controlled behavior and strongly correlate with academic abilities. Several extracurricular activities have been shown to improve EF, however, the relationship between musical training and EF remains unclear due to methodological limitations in previous studies. To explore this further, two experiments were performed; one with 30 adults with and without musical training and one with 27 musically trained and untrained children (matched for general cognitive abilities and socioeconomic variables with a standardized EF battery. Furthermore, the neural correlates of EF skills in musically trained and untrained children were investigated using fMRI. Adult musicians compared to non-musicians showed enhanced performance on measures of cognitive flexibility, working memory, and verbal fluency. Musically trained children showed enhanced performance on measures of verbal fluency and processing speed, and significantly greater activation in pre-SMA/SMA and right VLPFC during rule representation and task-switching compared to musically untrained children. Overall, musicians show enhanced performance on several constructs of EF, and musically trained children further show heightened brain activation in traditional EF regions during task-switching. These results support the working hypothesis that musical training may promote the development and maintenance of certain EF skills, which could mediate the previously reported links between musical training and enhanced cognitive skills and academic achievement.

  2. Behavioral and neural correlates of executive functioning in musicians and non-musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuk, Jennifer; Benjamin, Christopher; Kenyon, Arnold; Gaab, Nadine

    2014-01-01

    Executive functions (EF) are cognitive capacities that allow for planned, controlled behavior and strongly correlate with academic abilities. Several extracurricular activities have been shown to improve EF, however, the relationship between musical training and EF remains unclear due to methodological limitations in previous studies. To explore this further, two experiments were performed; one with 30 adults with and without musical training and one with 27 musically trained and untrained children (matched for general cognitive abilities and socioeconomic variables) with a standardized EF battery. Furthermore, the neural correlates of EF skills in musically trained and untrained children were investigated using fMRI. Adult musicians compared to non-musicians showed enhanced performance on measures of cognitive flexibility, working memory, and verbal fluency. Musically trained children showed enhanced performance on measures of verbal fluency and processing speed, and significantly greater activation in pre-SMA/SMA and right VLPFC during rule representation and task-switching compared to musically untrained children. Overall, musicians show enhanced performance on several constructs of EF, and musically trained children further show heightened brain activation in traditional EF regions during task-switching. These results support the working hypothesis that musical training may promote the development and maintenance of certain EF skills, which could mediate the previously reported links between musical training and enhanced cognitive skills and academic achievement.

  3. Life Expectancy and Cause of Death in Popular Musicians: Is the Popular Musician Lifestyle the Road to Ruin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Dianna T; Asher, Anthony

    2016-03-01

    Does a combination of lifestyle pressures and personality, as reflected in genre, lead to the early death of popular musicians? We explored overall mortality, cause of death, and changes in patterns of death over time and by music genre membership in popular musicians who died between 1950 and 2014. The death records of 13,195 popular musicians were coded for age and year of death, cause of death, gender, and music genre. Musician death statistics were compared with age-matched deaths in the US population using actuarial methods. Although the common perception is of a glamorous, free-wheeling lifestyle for this occupational group, the figures tell a very different story. Results showed that popular musicians have shortened life expectancy compared with comparable general populations. Results showed excess mortality from violent deaths (suicide, homicide, accidental death, including vehicular deaths and drug overdoses) and liver disease for each age group studied compared with population mortality patterns. These excess deaths were highest for the under-25-year age group and reduced chronologically thereafter. Overall mortality rates were twice as high compared with the population when averaged over the whole age range. Mortality impacts differed by music genre. In particular, excess suicides and liver-related disease were observed in country, metal, and rock musicians; excess homicides were observed in 6 of the 14 genres, in particular hip hop and rap musicians. For accidental death, actual deaths significantly exceeded expected deaths for country, folk, jazz, metal, pop, punk, and rock.

  4. Hearing ability in Danish symphony orchestra musicians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obeling, Lise; Poulsen, Torben

    1999-01-01

    equipment placed in various instrument groups. The average audiogram showed a decrease at higher frequencies similar to an age-related hearing loss. Each audiogram was corrected for the age of the person by means of the median from ISO 7029 and the average audiogram from these age-corrected individual...... audiograms showed no signs of hearing loss. The audiograms were also compared to the expected audiograms from ISO 1999, which takes account of the number of years at work, the number of playing hours per week, and the average sound level in the orchestra for the instrument group. In almost all cases...... the measured audiograms looked better than the predictions from ISO 1999. It may be concluded from this investigation that musicians cannot be expected to get pronounced audiometric hearing losses from playing in a symphony orchestra. It should be noted, though, that the data material is limited...

  5. Neural processing of musical meter in musicians and non-musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, T Christina; Lam, H T Gloria; Sohi, Harkirat; Kuhl, Patricia K

    2017-11-01

    Musical sounds, along with speech, are the most prominent sounds in our daily lives. They are highly dynamic, yet well structured in the temporal domain in a hierarchical manner. The temporal structures enhance the predictability of musical sounds. Western music provides an excellent example: while time intervals between musical notes are highly variable, underlying beats can be realized. The beat-level temporal structure provides a sense of regular pulses. Beats can be further organized into units, giving the percept of alternating strong and weak beats (i.e. metrical structure or meter). Examining neural processing at the meter level offers a unique opportunity to understand how the human brain extracts temporal patterns, predicts future stimuli and optimizes neural resources for processing. The present study addresses two important questions regarding meter processing, using the mismatch negativity (MMN) obtained with electroencephalography (EEG): 1) how tempo (fast vs. slow) and type of metrical structure (duple: two beats per unit vs. triple: three beats per unit) affect the neural processing of metrical structure in non-musically trained individuals, and 2) how early music training modulates the neural processing of metrical structure. Metrical structures were established by patterns of consecutive strong and weak tones (Standard) with occasional violations that disrupted and reset the structure (Deviant). Twenty non-musicians listened passively to these tones while their neural activities were recorded. MMN indexed the neural sensitivity to the meter violations. Results suggested that MMNs were larger for fast tempo and for triple meter conditions. Further, 20 musically trained individuals were tested using the same methods and the results were compared to the non-musicians. While tempo and meter type similarly influenced MMNs in both groups, musicians overall exhibited significantly reduced MMNs, compared to their non-musician counterparts. Further analyses

  6. Auditory and visual memory in musicians and nonmusicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Michael A; Evans, Karla K; Horowitz, Todd S; Wolfe, Jeremy M

    2011-06-01

    Numerous studies have shown that musicians outperform nonmusicians on a variety of tasks. Here we provide the first evidence that musicians have superior auditory recognition memory for both musical and nonmusical stimuli, compared to nonmusicians. However, this advantage did not generalize to the visual domain. Previously, we showed that auditory recognition memory is inferior to visual recognition memory. Would this be true even for trained musicians? We compared auditory and visual memory in musicians and nonmusicians using familiar music, spoken English, and visual objects. For both groups, memory for the auditory stimuli was inferior to memory for the visual objects. Thus, although considerable musical training is associated with better musical and nonmusical auditory memory, it does not increase the ability to remember sounds to the levels found with visual stimuli. This suggests a fundamental capacity difference between auditory and visual recognition memory, with a persistent advantage for the visual domain.

  7. The Unforgettable Neurosurgical Operations of Musicians in the Last Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasenzer, Elena Romana; Kanat, Ayhan; Neugebauer, Edmund

    2017-05-01

    There has been no study of craniotomies of famous musicians throughout history. This subject was investigated. The key search words were "neurosurgery and music" and the names of composers. We used digital catalogs such as PubMed as well as university libraries. We found 4 musicians from the twentieth century with different neurosurgical diseases: Maurice Ravel, George Gershwin, Clara Haskil, and Pat Martino. Neurosurgical operations affected the musical careers and lives of mentioned musicians and two of them died. Neurosurgeons can understand the effect of limited diagnostic tools such as magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography at the time on the poor outcome of 2 musicians. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Opposite musical-manual interference in young vs expert musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbro, F; Brusaferro, A; Bava, A

    1990-01-01

    Cerebral lateralization for music has been studied through a music-manual interference paradigm (tapping) in a group of young musicians (seven males and seven females) attending the 1st and 3rd intermediate grades of Udine's "J. Tomadini" State Conservatory of Music and in a group of graduated expert musicians or higher course students during the execution of three distinct tasks (singing notes, whistling a melody and singing a melody). A significant superiority of the right hemisphere (greater degree of interference with the left hand) in these tasks has been found in young musicians, while an opposite left hemisphere superiority (greater degree of interference with the right hand) was evident in the expert musicians. Other differences between sexes and tasks were not significant. The modification of hemispheric specialization occurring during academical musical training are discussed in terms of the role of education in the cerebral organization of superior cognitive functions.

  9. [The experience with the application of ozone therapy for the treatment of periodontitis in musicians-instrumentalists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kislitsyna, A V; Volkov, A G; Dikopova, N Zh; Akhmedbaeva, S S; Shishmareva, A L

    2017-01-01

    Playing various musical instruments is the cause of an additional load that affects the condition of dentition and of all organs and body systems at large. Each group of instruments is known to exert a specific impact on the health of the musicians including the undesirable influence on the state of thir oral cavity, such as a change of occlusion and irritation of oral mucosa. Taken together, these effects contribute to the development of periodontal disease, one of the most common dental disorders. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of ozone therapy conducted with the use of the generator producing ozone under effect of ultraviolet radiation for the treatment of periodontitis in musicians-instrumentalists. The study included 42 musicians presenting with the diagnosis of periodontitis who were divided into two groups depending on the severity of the disease. Group 1 was comprised of the subjects with mild periodontitis while group 2 consisted of the musicians having periodontitis of moderate severity. All the participants in the study remained under observation over 6 months during which they were treated by ozone therapy. The results of the treatment were estimated immediately after the onset of therapy as well as within the next 3 and 6 months. The variance analysis with the use of Student's t-test was employed for the statistical treatment of the data obtained. The study has demonstrate that ozone therapy resulted in the reduction of inflammation and normalization of local blood circulation in the periodontal tissues; moreover, it extended and lengthened the periods of remission and stabilization of the process of recovery. The results of the study are of primary importance for the maintenance of oral cavity health in musicians-instrumentalists which is indispensable for the maintenance of their successful professional activity.

  10. Enhanced brainstem encoding predicts musicians' perceptual advantages with pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidelman, Gavin M; Krishnan, Ananthanarayan; Gandour, Jackson T

    2011-02-01

    Important to Western tonal music is the relationship between pitches both within and between musical chords; melody and harmony are generated by combining pitches selected from the fixed hierarchical scales of music. It is of critical importance that musicians have the ability to detect and discriminate minute deviations in pitch in order to remain in tune with other members of their ensemble. Event-related potentials indicate that cortical mechanisms responsible for detecting mistuning and violations in pitch are more sensitive and accurate in musicians as compared with non-musicians. The aim of the present study was to address whether this superiority is also present at a subcortical stage of pitch processing. Brainstem frequency-following responses were recorded from musicians and non-musicians in response to tuned (i.e. major and minor) and detuned (± 4% difference in frequency) chordal arpeggios differing only in the pitch of their third. Results showed that musicians had faster neural synchronization and stronger brainstem encoding for defining characteristics of musical sequences regardless of whether they were in or out of tune. In contrast, non-musicians had relatively strong representation for major/minor chords but showed diminished responses for detuned chords. The close correspondence between the magnitude of brainstem responses and performance on two behavioral pitch discrimination tasks supports the idea that musicians' enhanced detection of chordal mistuning may be rooted at pre-attentive, sensory stages of processing. Findings suggest that perceptually salient aspects of musical pitch are not only represented at subcortical levels but that these representations are also enhanced by musical experience. © 2010 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2010 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Sentence pitch change detection in the native and unfamiliar language in musicians and non-musicians: behavioral, electrophysiological and psychoacoustic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguchi, Chizuru; Boureux, Magali; Sarlo, Michela; Besson, Mireille; Grassi, Massimo; Schön, Daniele; Colombo, Lucia

    2012-05-21

    Previous ERP studies have shown that musicians detect a pitch change in spoken sentences better than non-musicians in both native (French, Schön et al., 2004) and unfamiliar (Portuguese, Marques et al., 2007) language. The aim of the present study was to further investigate differences between musicians and non-musicians in processing pitch changes in spoken sentences. To study the effects of familiarity of intonational contour and of the presence of meaningful context, behavioral and electrophysiological data from Italian musicians and non-musicians were compared in a pitch incongruity detection task using sentences in the native (Italian) and foreign (French) language and in jabberwocky (meaningless sentences formed by pseudowords). Moreover, to examine whether these differences depend on enhanced auditory sensitivity to pitch, the frequency discrimination threshold (FDT) for tones was obtained using a psychophysical procedure. Musicians were more accurate than non-musicians in detecting small pitch changes in all languages showing a smaller response bias, as well as much lower FDTs than non-musicians. The ERP data revealed shorter latencies of a late positivity over parietal sites in musicians than in non-musicians for weak and strong incongruities. Overall results confirmed musicians' advantage in detection of subtle pitch changes not only with tones but also with speech sentences in both native and unfamiliar languages. Such effect appears to emerge from more efficient pitch analysis trained by musical experience. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Creativity and personality in classical, jazz and folk musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedek, Mathias; Borovnjak, Barbara; Neubauer, Aljoscha C; Kruse-Weber, Silke

    2014-06-01

    The music genre of jazz is commonly associated with creativity. However, this association has hardly been formally tested. Therefore, this study aimed at examining whether jazz musicians actually differ in creativity and personality from musicians of other music genres. We compared students of classical music, jazz music, and folk music with respect to their musical activities, psychometric creativity and different aspects of personality. In line with expectations, jazz musicians are more frequently engaged in extracurricular musical activities, and also complete a higher number of creative musical achievements. Additionally, jazz musicians show higher ideational creativity as measured by divergent thinking tasks, and tend to be more open to new experiences than classical musicians. This study provides first empirical evidence that jazz musicians show particularly high creativity with respect to domain-specific musical accomplishments but also in terms of domain-general indicators of divergent thinking ability that may be relevant for musical improvisation. The findings are further discussed with respect to differences in formal and informal learning approaches between music genres.

  13. Mental rotation and working memory in musicians' dystonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erro, Roberto; Hirschbichler, Stephanie T; Ricciardi, Lucia; Ryterska, Agata; Antelmi, Elena; Ganos, Christos; Cordivari, Carla; Tinazzi, Michele; Edwards, Mark J; Bhatia, Kailash P

    2016-11-01

    Mental rotation of body parts engages cortical-subcortical areas that are actually involved in the execution of a movement. Musicians' dystonia is a type of focal hand dystonia that is grouped together with writer's cramp under the rubric of "occupational dystonia", but it is unclear to which extent these two disorders share common pathophysiological mechanisms. Previous research has demonstrated patients with writer's cramp to have deficits in mental rotation of body parts. It is unknown whether patients with musicians' dystonia would display similar deficits, reinforcing the concept of shared pathophysiology. Eight patients with musicians' dystonia and eight healthy musicians matched for age, gender and musical education, performed a number of tasks assessing mental rotation of body parts and objects as well as verbal and spatial working memories abilities. There were no differences between patients and healthy musicians as to accuracy and reaction times in any of the tasks. Patients with musicians' dystonia have intact abilities in mentally rotating body parts, suggesting that this disorder relies on a highly selective disruption of movement planning and execution that manifests only upon playing a specific instrument. We further demonstrated that mental rotation of body parts and objects engages, at least partially, different cognitive networks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Musicians react faster and are better multisensory integrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Simon P; Champoux, François

    2017-02-01

    The results from numerous investigations suggest that musical training might enhance how senses interact. Despite repeated confirmation of anatomical and structural changes in visual, tactile, and auditory regions, significant changes have only been reported in the audiovisual domain and for the detection of audio-tactile incongruencies. In the present study, we aim at testing whether long-term musical training might also enhance other multisensory processes at a behavioural level. An audio-tactile reaction time task was administrated to a group of musicians and non-musicians. We found significantly faster reaction times with musicians for auditory, tactile, and audio-tactile stimulations. Statistical analyses between the combined uni- and multisensory reaction times revealed that musicians possess a statistical advantage when responding to multisensory stimuli compared to non-musicians. These results suggest for the first time that long-term musical training reduces simple non-musical auditory, tactile, and multisensory reaction times. Taken together with the previous results from other sensory modalities, these results strongly point towards musicians being better at integrating the inputs from various senses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Jazz musicians reveal role of expectancy in human creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przysinda, Emily; Zeng, Tima; Maves, Kellyn; Arkin, Cameron; Loui, Psyche

    2017-12-01

    Creativity has been defined as the ability to produce work that is novel, high in quality, and appropriate to an audience. While the nature of the creative process is under debate, many believe that creativity relies on real-time combinations of known neural and cognitive processes. One useful model of creativity comes from musical improvisation, such as in jazz, in which musicians spontaneously create novel sound sequences. Here we use jazz musicians to test the hypothesis that individuals with training in musical improvisation, which entails creative generation of musical ideas, might process expectancy differently. We compare jazz improvisers, non-improvising musicians, and non-musicians in the domain-general task of divergent thinking, as well as the musical task of preference ratings for chord progressions that vary in expectation while EEGs were recorded. Behavioral results showed for the first time that jazz musicians preferred unexpected chord progressions. ERP results showed that unexpected stimuli elicited larger early and mid-latency ERP responses (ERAN and P3b), followed by smaller long-latency responses (Late Positivity Potential) in jazz musicians. The amplitudes of these ERP components were significantly correlated with behavioral measures of fluency and originality on the divergent thinking task. Together, results highlight the role of expectancy in creativity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Analyze the beta waves of electroencephalogram signals from young musicians and non-musicians in major scale working memory task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chien-Chang; Cheng, Ching-Wen; Chiu, Yi-Shiuan

    2017-02-15

    Electroencephalograms can record wave variations in any brain activity. Beta waves are produced when an external stimulus induces logical thinking, computation, and reasoning during consciousness. This work uses the beta wave of major scale working memory N-back tasks to analyze the differences between young musicians and non-musicians. After the feature analysis uses signal filtering, Hilbert-Huang transformation, and feature extraction methods to identify differences, k-means clustering algorithm are used to group them into different clusters. The results of feature analysis showed that beta waves significantly differ between young musicians and non-musicians from the low memory load of working memory task. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Differences between musicians and non-musicians in neuro-affective processing of sadness and fear expressed in music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Mona; Gutyrchik, Evgeny; Bao, Yan; Zaytseva, Yuliya; Carl, Petra; Welker, Lorenz; Pöppel, Ernst; Reiser, Maximilian; Blautzik, Janusch; Meindl, Thomas

    2014-04-30

    Music is known to convey and evoke emotional states. Musical training has been argued to lead to changes in neural architecture and enhanced processing of emotions. It is not clear, however, whether musical training is also associated with changes in behavioral and neural responses to musically conveyed discrete emotions. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated the responses to three musically conveyed emotions (happiness, sadness, fear) in a group of musicians and a group of non-musicians. We find that musicians rate sadness and fear as significantly more arousing than non-musicians, and that musical training is associated with specific neural activations: In response to sadness expressed in music, musicians show activation increases in the right prefrontal cortex, specifically in the superior and middle frontal gyri. In response to fear, musicians show activation increases in the right parietal cortex, specifically in the supramarginal and inferior parietal gyri. No specific activations were observed in response to happiness. Our results highlight the strong association between musical training and altered processing of "negative" emotions on both the behavioral and on the neural level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Neurocardiological differences between musicians and control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burggraaf, J L I; Elffers, T W; Segeth, F M; Austie, F M C; Plug, M B; Gademan, M G J; Maan, A C; Man, S; de Muynck, M; Soekkha, T; Simonsz, A; van der Wall, E E; Schalij, M J; Swenne, C A

    2013-04-01

    Exercise training is beneficial in health and disease. Part of the training effect materialises in the brainstem due to the exercise-associated somatosensory nerve traffic. Because active music making also involves somatosensory nerve traffic, we hypothesised that this will have training effects resembling those of physical exercise. We compared two groups of healthy, young subjects between 18 and 30 years: 25 music students (13/12 male/female, group M) and 28 controls (12/16 male/female, group C), peers, who were non-musicians. Measurement sessions to determine resting heart rate, resting blood pressure and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) were held during morning hours. Groups M and C did not differ significantly in age (21.4 ± 3.0 vs 21.2 ± 3.1 years), height (1.79 ± 0.11 vs 1.77 ± 0.10 m), weight (68.0 ± 9.1 vs 66.8 ± 10.4 kg), body mass index (21.2 ± 2.5 vs 21.3 ± 2.4 kg∙m(-2)) and physical exercise volume (39.3 ± 38.8 vs 36.6 ± 23.6 metabolic equivalent hours/week). Group M practised music daily for 1.8 ± 0.7 h. In group M heart rate (65.1 ± 10.6 vs 68.8 ± 8.3 beats/min, trend P =0.08), systolic blood pressure (114.2 ± 8.7 vs 120.3 ± 10.0 mmHg, P = 0.01), diastolic blood pressure (65.0 ± 6.1 vs 71.0 ± 6.2 mmHg, P active music making has training effects resembling those of physical exercise training. Our study opens a new perspective, in which active music making, additionally to being an artistic activity, renders concrete health benefits for the musician.

  19. The effect of visual cues on auditory stream segregation in musicians and non-musicians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Marozeau

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The ability to separate two interleaved melodies is an important factor in music appreciation. This ability is greatly reduced in people with hearing impairment, contributing to difficulties in music appreciation. The aim of this study was to assess whether visual cues, musical training or musical context could have an effect on this ability, and potentially improve music appreciation for the hearing impaired. METHODS: Musicians (N = 18 and non-musicians (N = 19 were asked to rate the difficulty of segregating a four-note repeating melody from interleaved random distracter notes. Visual cues were provided on half the blocks, and two musical contexts were tested, with the overlap between melody and distracter notes either gradually increasing or decreasing. CONCLUSIONS: Visual cues, musical training, and musical context all affected the difficulty of extracting the melody from a background of interleaved random distracter notes. Visual cues were effective in reducing the difficulty of segregating the melody from distracter notes, even in individuals with no musical training. These results are consistent with theories that indicate an important role for central (top-down processes in auditory streaming mechanisms, and suggest that visual cues may help the hearing-impaired enjoy music.

  20. Factors Affecting Healthful Eating Among Touring Popular Musicians and Singers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cizek, Erin; Kelly, Patrick; Kress, Kathleen; Mattfeldt-Beman, Mildred

    2016-06-01

    Maintaining good health is essential for touring musicians and singers. The stressful demands of touring may impact food choices, leading to detrimental effects on health and performance. This exploratory pilot study aimed to assess factors affecting healthful eating of touring musicians and singers. A 46-item survey was used to assess food- and nutrition-related attitudes, knowledge and behaviors, and environmental factors, as well as lifestyle, musical background, and demographic data. Participants (n=35) were recruited from a musicians' assistance foundation as well as touring musical theater productions and a music festival. Results indicate that touring musicians and singers had positive attitudes regarding healthful foods. Of 35 respondents, 80.0% indicated eating healthful food was important to them. Respondents reported feeling confident selecting (76.5%) and preparing (82.4%) healthful foods; however, they showed uncertainty when determining if carbohydrate-containing foods should be consumed or avoided. Respondents indicated environmental factors including availability and cost of healthy food options and tour schedules limited access to healthful foods. Venues (73.5%), fast food restaurants (67.6%), and airports (64.7%) were the most frequently identified locations in need of offering more healthful food choices. Respondents (52.9%) indicated more support from others while touring would help them make healthier food choices. More research is needed to develop mobile wellness programs as well as performance-based nutrition guidelines for musicians and singers that address the unique demands associated with touring.

  1. Task-irrelevant auditory feedback facilitates motor performance in musicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia eConde

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available An efficient and fast auditory–motor network is a basic resource for trained musicians due to the importance of motor anticipation of sound production in musical performance. When playing an instrument, motor performance always goes along with the production of sounds and the integration between both modalities plays an essential role in the course of musical training. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of task-irrelevant auditory feedback during motor performance in musicians using a serial reaction time task (SRTT. Our hypothesis was that musicians, due to their extensive auditory–motor practice routine during musical training, have a superior performance and learning capabilities when receiving auditory feedback during SRTT relative to musicians performing the SRTT without any auditory feedback. Here we provide novel evidence that task-irrelevant auditory feedback is capable to reinforce SRTT performance but not learning, a finding that might provide further insight into auditory-motor integration in musicians on a behavioral level.

  2. Pitch height modulates visual and haptic bisection performance in musicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlotta eLega

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Consistent evidence suggests that pitch height may be represented in a spatial format, having both a vertical and an horizontal representation. The spatial representation of pitch height results into response compatibility effects for which high pitch tones are preferentially associated to up-right responses, and low pitch tones are preferentially associated to down-left responses (i.e., the SMARC effect, with the strength of these associations depending on individuals’ musical skills. In this study we investigated whether listening to tones of different pitch affects the representation of external space, as assessed in a visual and haptic line bisection paradigm, in musicians and non musicians. Low and high pitch tones affected the bisection performance in musicians differently, both when pitch was relevant and irrelevant for the task, and in both the visual and the haptic modality. No effect of pitch height was observed on the bisection performance of non musicians. Moreover, our data also show that musicians present a (supramodal rightward bisection bias in both the visual and the haptic modality, extending previous findings limited to the visual modality, and consistent with the idea that intense practice with musical notation and bimanual instrument training affects hemispheric lateralization.

  3. Functional connectivity of the dorsal striatum in female musicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoji eTanaka

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The dorsal striatum (caudate/putamen is a node of the cortico-striato-pallido-thalamo-cortical (CSPTC motor circuit, which plays a central role in skilled motor learning, a critical feature of musical performance. The dorsal striatum receives input from a large part of the cerebral cortex, forming a hub in the cortical-subcortical network. This study sought to examine how the functional network of the dorsal striatum differs between musicians and nonmusicians.Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data were acquired from female university students majoring in music and nonmusic disciplines. The data were subjected to graph theoretical analysis and functional connectivity analysis. The graph theoretical analysis of the entire brain revealed that the degree, which represents the number of connections, of the bilateral putamen was significantly lower in musicians than in nonmusicians. The functional connectivity analysis indicated that compared with nonmusicians, musicians had significantly decreased connectivity between the left putamen and bilateral frontal operculum and between the left caudate nucleus and cerebellum. In conclusion, compared with nonmusicians, female musicians have a smaller functional network of the dorsal striatum, with decreased connectivity. These data are consistent with previous anatomical studies reporting a reduced volume of the dorsal striatum in musicians and ballet dancers. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study suggesting that long-term musical training results in a less extensive or selective functional network of the dorsal striatum.

  4. Reading sheet music facilitates sensorimotor mu-desynchronization in musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behmer, Lawrence Paul; Jantzen, Kelly J

    2011-07-01

    Recent brain imaging studies have demonstrated that the human mirror system, in addition to becoming active while viewing the actions of others, also responds to abstract visual and auditory stimuli associated with specific actions. Here, we test the hypothesis that when musicians read sheet music an associated motor act is automatically recruited in the same way as when we observe the actions of others. Using EEG, we measured event related desynchronization of the sensorimotor mu rhythm (mu-ERD) while musicians and non-musicians listened to music, observed movies of a musical instrument being played and observed a static image of the corresponding sheet music. Musicians showed significantly greater mu-ERD than non-musicians when observing sheet music and musical performances. Our results demonstrate that the human motor system aids in the process of perception and understanding by forming functional links between arbitrary, abstract percepts and associated acts. This research uniquely adds to the existing body of literature by demonstrating that abstract images are capable of triggering an "action understanding" system when viewed by experts who have formed the appropriate visual-motor association. Copyright © 2010 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Task-Irrelevant Auditory Feedback Facilitates Motor Performance in Musicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Virginia; Altenmüller, Eckart; Villringer, Arno; Ragert, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    An efficient and fast auditory–motor network is a basic resource for trained musicians due to the importance of motor anticipation of sound production in musical performance. When playing an instrument, motor performance always goes along with the production of sounds and the integration between both modalities plays an essential role in the course of musical training. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of task-irrelevant auditory feedback during motor performance in musicians using a serial reaction time task (SRTT). Our hypothesis was that musicians, due to their extensive auditory–motor practice routine during musical training, have superior performance and learning capabilities when receiving auditory feedback during SRTT relative to musicians performing the SRTT without any auditory feedback. Behaviorally, we found that auditory feedback reinforced SRTT performance of the right hand (referring to absolute response speed) while learning capabilities remained unchanged. This finding highlights a potential important role for task-irrelevant auditory feedback in motor performance in musicians, a finding that might provide further insight into auditory–motor integration independent of the trained musical context. PMID:22623920

  6. Sensorimotor integration is enhanced in dancers and musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpati, Falisha J; Giacosa, Chiara; Foster, Nicholas E V; Penhune, Virginia B; Hyde, Krista L

    2016-03-01

    Studying individuals with specialized training, such as dancers and musicians, provides an opportunity to investigate how intensive practice of sensorimotor skills affects behavioural performance across various domains. While several studies have found that musicians have improved motor, perceptual and sensorimotor integration skills compared to untrained controls, fewer studies have examined the effect of dance training on such skills. Moreover, no study has specifically compared the effects of dance versus music training on perceptual or sensorimotor performance. To this aim, in the present study, expert dancers, expert musicians and untrained controls were tested on a range of perceptual and sensorimotor tasks designed to discriminate performance profiles across groups. Dancers performed better than musicians and controls on a dance imitation task (involving whole-body movement), but musicians performed better than dancers and controls on a musical melody discrimination task as well as on a rhythm synchronization task (involving finger tapping). These results indicate that long-term intensive dance and music training are associated with distinct enhancements in sensorimotor skills. This novel work advances knowledge of the effects of long-term dance versus music training and has potential applications in therapies for motor disorders.

  7. Functional Connectivity of the Dorsal Striatum in Female Musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Shoji; Kirino, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    The dorsal striatum (caudate/putamen) is a node of the cortico-striato-pallido-thalamo-cortical (CSPTC) motor circuit, which plays a central role in skilled motor learning, a critical feature of musical performance. The dorsal striatum receives input from a large part of the cerebral cortex, forming a hub in the cortical-subcortical network. This study sought to examine how the functional network of the dorsal striatum differs between musicians and nonmusicians. Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were acquired from female university students majoring in music and nonmusic disciplines. The data were subjected to functional connectivity analysis and graph theoretical analysis. The functional connectivity analysis indicated that compared with nonmusicians, musicians had significantly decreased connectivity between the left putamen and bilateral frontal operculum (FO) and between the left caudate nucleus and cerebellum. The graph theoretical analysis of the entire brain revealed that the degrees, which represent the numbers of connections, of the bilateral putamen were significantly lower in musicians than in nonmusicians. In conclusion, compared with nonmusicians, female musicians have a smaller functional network of the dorsal striatum with decreased connectivity. These data are consistent with previous anatomical studies reporting a reduced volume of the dorsal striatum in musicians and ballet dancers, suggesting that long-term musical training reshapes the functional network of the dorsal striatum to be less extensive or selective.

  8. Pärt: Chamber and Orchestral Works / Robert Cowan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Cowan, Robert

    1994-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Pärt: Chamber and Orchestral Works. Bournemouth Sinfonietta, Richard Studt. EMI Eminence CD CD-EMX 2221; Fratres; Cantus in memory of Benjamin Britten; Summa; Spiegel im Spiegel; Festina lente; Tabula Rasa; Fratres - selected comparison: Bachmann, Kibonoff (12/94)(CATA) 09026 61824-2. Kremer, Jarrett (ECM) 817 764-2

  9. Roles of Teachers in Orchestrating Learning in Elementary Science Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Junqing; Tan, Aik-Ling

    2015-01-01

    This study delves into the different roles that elementary science teachers play in the classroom to orchestrate science learning opportunities for students. Examining the classroom practices of three elementary science teachers in Singapore, we found that teachers shuttle between four key roles in enabling student learning in science. Teachers…

  10. Shostakovich: The Orchestral Songs Vol. 2 / Michael Tanner

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tanner, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Shostakovich: The Orchestral Songs Vol. 2: Six Romances on texts by Japanese poets, Op. 21. Six Poems on Marina Tsvetayeva, Op. 143. Suite on Verses of Michelangelo, Op. 145. Gothenburg Symphony Orchestra, Neeme Järvi". DG 447 085-2GH (71 minutes:DDD)

  11. Specifying Orchestrating Capability in Network Organization and Interfirm Innovation Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yimei; Sørensen, Olav Jull

    implements its blue ocean strategy through purposively build multi-level networks, i.e. an intra network organization and interfirm innovation networks. In order to get more innovation output from external and internal networks, orchestration capability is needed and should be applied both externally...

  12. Public Orchestration, Social Networks, and Transnational Environmental Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lasse Folke; Ponte, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    that a social network analytical perspective on orchestration can improve our understanding of how governments and international organizations can shape transnational environmental governance. Through a case study of aviation, we provide two contributions to these debates: first, we propose four analytical...

  13. Survivable resource orchestration for optically interconnected data center networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiong; She, Qingya; Zhu, Yi; Wang, Xi; Palacharla, Paparao; Sekiya, Motoyoshi

    2014-01-13

    We propose resource orchestration schemes in overlay networks enabled by optical network virtualization. Based on the information from underlying optical networks, our proposed schemes provision the fewest data centers to guarantee K-connect survivability, thus maintaining resource availability for cloud applications under any failure.

  14. Orchestration in Learning Technology Research: Evaluation of a Conceptual Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Luis P.; Dimitriadis, Yannis; Asensio-Pérez, Juan I.; Looi, Chee-Kit

    2015-01-01

    The term "orchestrating learning" is being used increasingly often, referring to the coordination activities performed while applying learning technologies to authentic settings. However, there is little consensus about how this notion should be conceptualised, and what aspects it entails. In this paper, a conceptual framework for…

  15. Context effects on pitch perception in musicians and nonmusicians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brattico, E; Naatanen, R; Tervaniemi, M

    2001-01-01

    Behavioral evidence indicates that musical context facilitates pitch discrimination. In the present study, we sought to determine whether pitch context and its familiarity might affect brain responses to pitch change even at the preattentive level. Ten musicians and 10 nonmusicians, while...... arithmetically determined tone frequencies, the deviant not causing any change of mode. The no-context condition included only third-position tones. All deviants elicited the change-specific mismatch negativity component of the event-related potentials in both groups of subjects. In both musicians...... is generally enhanced in a familiar context. Moreover, the latency of the mismatch negativity was shorter for musicians than for nonmusicians in both the familiar and unfamiliar conditions, whereas no difference between groups was observed in the no-context condition. This finding indicates that, in response...

  16. Training of Tonal Similarity Ratings in Non-Musicians: A “Rapid Learning” Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oechslin, Mathias S.; Läge, Damian; Vitouch, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Although cognitive music psychology has a long tradition of expert–novice comparisons, experimental training studies are rare. Studies on the learning progress of trained novices in hearing harmonic relationships are still largely lacking. This paper presents a simple training concept using the example of tone/triad similarity ratings, demonstrating the gradual progress of non-musicians compared to musical experts: In a feedback-based “rapid learning” paradigm, participants had to decide for single tones and chords whether paired sounds matched each other well. Before and after the training sessions, they provided similarity judgments for a complete set of sound pairs. From these similarity matrices, individual relational sound maps, intended to display mental representations, were calculated by means of non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS), and were compared to an expert model through procrustean transformation. Approximately half of the novices showed substantial learning success, with some participants even reaching the level of professional musicians. Results speak for a fundamental ability to quickly train an understanding of harmony, show inter-individual differences in learning success, and demonstrate the suitability of the scaling method used for learning research in music and other domains. Results are discussed in the context of the “giftedness” debate. PMID:22629252

  17. Training of tonal similarity ratings in non-musicians: a rapid learning approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias S Oechslin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Although music psychology has a long tradition of expert-novice comparisons, experimental training studies are rare. Studies on the learning progress of trained novices in hearing harmonic relationships are still largely lacking. This paper presents a simple training concept using the example of tone/triad similarity ratings, demonstrating the gradual progress of non-musicians compared to musical experts: In a feedback-based rapid learning paradigm, participants had to decide for single tones and chords whether paired sounds matched each other well. Before and after the training sessions, they provided similarity judgments for a complete set of sound pairs. From these similarity matrices, individual relational sound maps, aiming to map the mental representations, were calculated by means of non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS, which were compared to an expert model through procrustean transformation. Approximately half of the novices showed substantial learning success, with some participants even reaching the level of professional musicians. Results speak for a fundamental ability to quickly train an understanding of harmony, show inter-individual differences in learning success, and demonstrate the suitability of the scaling method used for music psychological research. Results are discussed in the context of the giftedness debate.

  18. Training of tonal similarity ratings in non-musicians: a "rapid learning" approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oechslin, Mathias S; Läge, Damian; Vitouch, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Although cognitive music psychology has a long tradition of expert-novice comparisons, experimental training studies are rare. Studies on the learning progress of trained novices in hearing harmonic relationships are still largely lacking. This paper presents a simple training concept using the example of tone/triad similarity ratings, demonstrating the gradual progress of non-musicians compared to musical experts: In a feedback-based "rapid learning" paradigm, participants had to decide for single tones and chords whether paired sounds matched each other well. Before and after the training sessions, they provided similarity judgments for a complete set of sound pairs. From these similarity matrices, individual relational sound maps, intended to display mental representations, were calculated by means of non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS), and were compared to an expert model through procrustean transformation. Approximately half of the novices showed substantial learning success, with some participants even reaching the level of professional musicians. Results speak for a fundamental ability to quickly train an understanding of harmony, show inter-individual differences in learning success, and demonstrate the suitability of the scaling method used for learning research in music and other domains. Results are discussed in the context of the "giftedness" debate.

  19. Health-oriented physical activity in prevention of musculoskeletal disorders among young Polish musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawrocka, Agnieszka; Mynarski, Władysław; Powerska, Aneta; Grabara, Małgorzata; Groffik, Dorota; Borek, Zbigniew

    2014-01-01

    Musicians represent a very specific professional group, which due to some occupational hazards is exposed to different health problems known as playing-related musculoskeletal disorders (PRMDs). The aim of this study was to assess correlations between the level of physical activity, and the occurrence of musculoskeletal pain among young instrumentalists. Total of 225 Polish musical school students were investigated. To assess the study participants' physical activity level, the moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) index was used. To assess pain complaints on the side of the musculoskeletal system, Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ) was applied. The NMQ questionnaire was complemented by adding a visual-analog scale (VAS), which also allowed to assess pain intensity on a numerical scale 1-10. The pain localized in neck, shoulders, upper and lower back was reported significantly more often by the participants who did not meet standard criteria for the recommended or minimal physical activity level. Performing the recommended health-oriented physical activity may reduce the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain in young musicians.

  20. Changes in resting-state connectivity in musicians with embouchure dystonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslinger, Bernhard; Noé, Jonas; Altenmüller, Eckart; Riedl, Valentin; Zimmer, Claus; Mantel, Tobias; Dresel, Christian

    2017-03-01

    Embouchure dystonia is a highly disabling task-specific dystonia in professional brass musicians leading to spasms of perioral muscles while playing the instrument. As they are asymptomatic at rest, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging in these patients can reveal changes in functional connectivity within and between brain networks independent from dystonic symptoms. We therefore compared embouchure dystonia patients to healthy musicians with resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging in combination with independent component analyses. Patients showed increased functional connectivity of the bilateral sensorimotor mouth area and right secondary somatosensory cortex, but reduced functional connectivity of the bilateral sensorimotor hand representation, left inferior parietal cortex, and mesial premotor cortex within the lateral motor function network. Within the auditory function network, the functional connectivity of bilateral secondary auditory cortices, right posterior parietal cortex and left sensorimotor hand area was increased, the functional connectivity of right primary auditory cortex, right secondary somatosensory cortex, right sensorimotor mouth representation, bilateral thalamus, and anterior cingulate cortex was reduced. Negative functional connectivity between the cerebellar and lateral motor function network and positive functional connectivity between the cerebellar and primary visual network were reduced. Abnormal resting-state functional connectivity of sensorimotor representations of affected and unaffected body parts suggests a pathophysiological predisposition for abnormal sensorimotor and audiomotor integration in embouchure dystonia. Altered connectivity to the cerebellar network highlights the important role of the cerebellum in this disease. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  1. Subcortical and cortical correlates of pitch discrimination: Evidence for two levels of neuroplasticity in musicians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bianchi, Federica; Hjortkjær, Jens; Santurette, Sébastien

    2017-01-01

    in pitch discrimination across all participants, but not within the musicians group alone. Only neural activity in the right auditory cortex scaled with the fine pitch-discrimination thresholds within the musicians. These findings suggest two levels of neuroplasticity in musicians, whereby training...

  2. "You Start Feeling Old": Rock Musicians Reconciling the Dilemmas of Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Using interview data from 38 musicians, this study examines the ways in which the transition to adulthood is complicated by aspirations to a nonstandard line of work. Musicians face a recurring set of obstacles as they move into adulthood and respond by enacting various tactics to reconcile these dilemmas. The "on-time" musicians do so by framing…

  3. Perception of tension in music: musicians versus nonmusicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredrickson, W E

    2000-01-01

    Music therapists are often highly trained musicians who deal with diverse populations, most of whom do not have formal musical training. Questions may arise regarding the issue of a therapist's ability to understand, and predict, the musical perceptions and preferences of a client when their own background is so different. The current work is a look at a series of studies using various musical stimuli and comparing responses of musicians and nonmusicians to perceived "musical tension." Subjects (N = 126) included adult musicians and nonmusicians as well as a case study of a father/daughter. All subjects listened to recordings through individual headphones and were physically isolated from other subjects to ensure individuality of responses. Subjects, whether adults or children, were given instructions telling them that they were about to hear a piece of music and that they would be using a Continuous Response Digital Interface (CRDI) dial to trace the musical tension they heard. No specific definition of musical tension was given to any of the subjects. In effect, individual subjects supplied their own definition, either knowingly or unknowingly, in the absence of a formal one. Results indicated that group perceptions of the points at which tension and its release were strongest are remarkably similar between musicians and nonmusicians (correlations ranged from r =.71 to r =.95). Within at least the western art music tradition the likelihood that perceptions of group responses to tension and release in music could be predicted is high. These data indicate that therapists, trained as musicians, might be able to predict with some accuracy the responses of their clients who are not trained musicians.

  4. Musicians have better memory than nonmusicians: A meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Talamini

    Full Text Available Several studies have found that musicians perform better than nonmusicians in memory tasks, but this is not always the case, and the strength of this apparent advantage is unknown. Here, we conducted a meta-analysis with the aim of clarifying whether musicians perform better than nonmusicians in memory tasks.Education Source; PEP (WEB-Psychoanalytic Electronic Publishing; Psychology and Behavioral Science (EBSCO; PsycINFO (Ovid; PubMed; ScienceDirect-AllBooks Content (Elsevier API; SCOPUS (Elsevier API; SocINDEX with Full Text (EBSCO and Google Scholar were searched for eligible studies. The selected studies involved two groups of participants: young adult musicians and nonmusicians. All the studies included memory tasks (loading long-term, short-term or working memory that contained tonal, verbal or visuospatial stimuli. Three meta-analyses were run separately for long-term memory, short-term memory and working memory.We collected 29 studies, including 53 memory tasks. The results showed that musicians performed better than nonmusicians in terms of long-term memory, g = .29, 95% CI (.08-.51, short-term memory, g = .57, 95% CI (.41-.73, and working memory, g = .56, 95% CI (.33-.80. To further explore the data, we included a moderator (the type of stimulus presented, i.e., tonal, verbal or visuospatial, which was found to influence the effect size for short-term and working memory, but not for long-term memory. In terms of short-term and working memory, the musicians' advantage was large with tonal stimuli, moderate with verbal stimuli, and small or null with visuospatial stimuli.The three meta-analyses revealed a small effect size for long-term memory, and a medium effect size for short-term and working memory, suggesting that musicians perform better than nonmusicians in memory tasks. Moreover, the effect of the moderator suggested that, the type of stimuli influences this advantage.

  5. Musicians have better memory than nonmusicians: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talamini, Francesca; Altoè, Gianmarco; Carretti, Barbara; Grassi, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    Several studies have found that musicians perform better than nonmusicians in memory tasks, but this is not always the case, and the strength of this apparent advantage is unknown. Here, we conducted a meta-analysis with the aim of clarifying whether musicians perform better than nonmusicians in memory tasks. Education Source; PEP (WEB)-Psychoanalytic Electronic Publishing; Psychology and Behavioral Science (EBSCO); PsycINFO (Ovid); PubMed; ScienceDirect-AllBooks Content (Elsevier API); SCOPUS (Elsevier API); SocINDEX with Full Text (EBSCO) and Google Scholar were searched for eligible studies. The selected studies involved two groups of participants: young adult musicians and nonmusicians. All the studies included memory tasks (loading long-term, short-term or working memory) that contained tonal, verbal or visuospatial stimuli. Three meta-analyses were run separately for long-term memory, short-term memory and working memory. We collected 29 studies, including 53 memory tasks. The results showed that musicians performed better than nonmusicians in terms of long-term memory, g = .29, 95% CI (.08-.51), short-term memory, g = .57, 95% CI (.41-.73), and working memory, g = .56, 95% CI (.33-.80). To further explore the data, we included a moderator (the type of stimulus presented, i.e., tonal, verbal or visuospatial), which was found to influence the effect size for short-term and working memory, but not for long-term memory. In terms of short-term and working memory, the musicians' advantage was large with tonal stimuli, moderate with verbal stimuli, and small or null with visuospatial stimuli. The three meta-analyses revealed a small effect size for long-term memory, and a medium effect size for short-term and working memory, suggesting that musicians perform better than nonmusicians in memory tasks. Moreover, the effect of the moderator suggested that, the type of stimuli influences this advantage.

  6. Verbal memory retrieval engages visual cortex in musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Z; Zhang, J X; Yang, Z; Dong, G; Wu, J; Chan, A S; Weng, X

    2010-06-16

    As one major line of research on brain plasticity, many imaging studies have been conducted to identify the functional and structural reorganization associated with musical expertise. Based on previous behavioral research, the present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to identify the neural correlates of superior verbal memory performance in musicians. Participants with and without musical training performed a verbal memory task to first encode a list of words auditorily delivered and then silently recall as many words as possible. They performed in separate blocks a control task involving pure tone pitch judgment. Post-scan recognition test showed better memory performance in musicians than non-musicians. During memory retrieval, the musicians showed significantly greater activations in bilateral though left-lateralized visual cortex relative to the pitch judgment baseline. In comparison, no such visual cortical activations were found in the non-musicians. No group differences were observed during the encoding stage. The results echo a previous report of visual cortical activation during verbal memory retrieval in the absence of any visual sensory stimulation in the blind population, who are also known to possess superior verbal memory. It is suggested that the visual cortex can be recruited to serve as extra memory resources and contributes to the superior verbal memory in special situations. While in the blind population, such cross-modal functional reorganization may be induced by sensory deprivation; in the musicians it may be induced by the long-term and demanding nature of musical training to use as much available neural resources as possible. 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Brain lateralization and neural plasticity for musical and cognitive abilities in an epileptic musician

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel eTrujillo-Pozo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of intracarotid propofol procedure (IPP when assessing musical lateralization has not been reported in literature up to now. This procedure (similar to Wada Test has provided the opportunity to investigate not only lateralization of language and memory functions on epileptic patients but also offers a functional mapping approach with superior spatial and temporal resolution to analyze the lateralization of musical abilities. Findings in literature suggest that musical training modifies functional and structural brain organization. We studied hemispheric lateralization in a professional musician, a 33 years old woman with refractory left medial temporal lobe epilepsy. A longitudinal neuropsychological study was performed over a period of 21 months. Before epilepsy surgery, musical abilities, language and memory were tested during IPP by means of a novel and exhaustive neuropsychological battery focusing on the processing of music. We used a selection of stimuli to analyze listening, score reading, and tempo discrimination. Our results suggested that IPP is an excellent method to determine not only language, semantic and episodic memory, but also musical dominance in a professional musician who may be candidate for epilepsy surgery. Neuropsychological testing revealed that right hemisphere’s patient is involved in semantic and episodic musical memory processes, whereas her score reading and tempo processing require contribution from both hemispheres. At 1-year follow-up, outcome was excellent with respect to seizures and professional skills, meanwhile cognitive abilities improved. These findings indicate that IPP helps to predict who might be at risk for postoperative musical, language and memory deficits after epilepsy surgery. Our research suggests that musical expertise and epilepsy critically modifies long-term memory processes and induces brain structural and functional plasticity.

  8. Brain lateralization and neural plasticity for musical and cognitive abilities in an epileptic musician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo-Pozo, Isabel; Martín-Monzón, Isabel; Rodríguez-Romero, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    The use of intracarotid propofol procedure (IPP) when assessing musical lateralization has not been reported in literature up to now. This procedure (similar to Wada Test) has provided the opportunity to investigate not only lateralization of language and memory functions on epileptic patients but also offers a functional mapping approach with superior spatial and temporal resolution to analyze the lateralization of musical abilities. Findings in literature suggest that musical training modifies functional and structural brain organization. We studied hemispheric lateralization in a professional musician, a 33 years old woman with refractory left medial temporal lobe (MTL) epilepsy (TLE). A longitudinal neuropsychological study was performed over a period of 21 months. Before epilepsy surgery, musical abilities, language and memory were tested during IPP by means of a novel and exhaustive neuropsychological battery focusing on the processing of music. We used a selection of stimuli to analyze listening, score reading, and tempo discrimination. Our results suggested that IPP is an excellent method to determine not only language, semantic, and episodic memory, but also musical dominance in a professional musician who may be candidate for epilepsy surgery. Neuropsychological testing revealed that right hemisphere's patient is involved in semantic and episodic musical memory processes, whereas her score reading and tempo processing require contribution from both hemispheres. At one-year follow-up, outcome was excellent with respect to seizures and professional skills, meanwhile cognitive abilities improved. These findings indicate that IPP helps to predict who might be at risk for postoperative musical, language, and memory deficits after epilepsy surgery. Our research suggests that musical expertise and epilepsy critically modifies long-term memory processes and induces brain structural and functional plasticity.

  9. The Teacher and the Tool: Instrumental Orchestrations in the Technology-Rich Mathematics Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drijvers, Paul; Doorman, Michiel; Boon, Peter; Reed, Helen; Gravemeijer, Koeno

    2010-01-01

    The availability of technology in the mathematics classroom challenges the way teachers orchestrate student learning. Using the theory of instrumental orchestration as the main interpretative framework, this study investigates which types of orchestrations teachers develop when using technology and to what extent these are related to teachers'…

  10. The Influence of a Sudden Increase in Playing Time on Playing-Related Musculoskeletal Complaints in High-Level Amateur Musicians in a Longitudinal Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Laura M; Haitjema, Saskia; Groenewegen, Karlijn A; Rietveld, A Boni M

    Several studies in the domain of professional musicians describe the relation between playing time and the occurrence of musculoskeletal complaints in professional musicians. To date, no longitudinal cohort study into this relationship has been performed and no amateur musicians were studied. Therefore, the aim of this study is to examine the causal relationship between a sudden increase in playing time among amateur musicians on the occurrence of musculoskeletal complaints in a prospective cohort study. All members of two national Dutch Students Orchestras were asked to participate in the study. These project-based orchestras, consisting of high-level amateurs, followed a nine-hour rehearsing schedule for ten consecutive days. On the first day (t0) and after one week (t1) the subjects were asked to complete a paper-based questionnaire including sociodemographic characteristics, music-related questions, questions regarding playing-related musculoskeletal complaints and the music module of the disabilities of arm, shoulder and hand questionnaire. The NSO consisted of 85 and the NESKO of 41 members during the study period. 59 subjects completed the questionnaire at both timepoints (response rate 47%). 9 subjects were excluded for being a music academy student, leaving 50 subjects (mean age 22.1, 72% female) suitable for analysis. During the rehearsal week, the prevalence of at least one playing-related musculoskeletal complaint increased from 28% to 80%. The most frequently affected areas were the neck, upper and lower back, hand/and or wrists and shoulders. The DASH music module score increased from 14 at t0 to 23 at t1. A point prevalence of 28% at the start of the study that increased remarkably to 80% within a one-week period. Future research should evaluate other risk factors for musculoskeletal complaints in amateur musicians. These risk factors should be the base for the development of preventive measures.

  11. Tinnitus, Anxiety, Depression and Substance Abuse in Rock Musicians a Norwegian Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stormer, Carl Christian Lein; Sorlie, Tore; Stenklev, Niels Christian

    2017-06-01

    Rock musicians are known to have an increased prevalence of hearing loss and tinnitus. The aims of the present study were to examine the distribution of anxiety and depression symptoms among rock musicians with or without tinnitus and how these mental health indicators and internal locus of control influenced upon their tinnitus symptom concerns and the degree to which the tinnitus affected their lives. The study was a questionnairebased cross-sectional survey of subjects selected from a cohort of rock musicians. We recruited 111 active musicians from the Oslo region, and a control group of 40 non-musicians from the student population at the University of Tromso. Among the rock musicians 19.8% reported permanent tinnitus vs. 0% among the controls. Musicians more often reported anxiety symptoms than controls (35.1% vs. 17.5%), however this prevalence was not different in musicians with and without tinnitus. Tinnitus-affected musicians reported depressive symptoms, significantly more than controls (13.6% vs. 5%). Rock musicians consumed more alcohol than controls, but alcohol consumption was unrelated to severity of tinnitus. Drug abuse was not more prevalent in rock musicians than in controls. Duration of tinnitus, internal locus of control, sleep disturbance and anxiety were significant predictors of how affected and how concerned musicians were about their tinnitus. Rock musicians are at risk for the development of chronic tinnitus, and they have an increased prevalence of anxiety. There is an association between chronic tinnitus and depressive symptoms in rock musicians, but our results are ambiguous. Although rock musicians have a chronic exposure to noise, noise-induced hearing loss is not the sole causative agent for the development of tinnitus.

  12. Examining the noisy life of the college musician: weeklong noise dosimetry of music and non-music activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufts, Jennifer B; Skoe, Erika

    2018-02-01

    To examine the contribution of all daily activities, including non-music activities, to the overall noise exposure of college student musicians, and to compare their "noise lives" with those of non-musician college students. Continuous week-long dosimetry measurements were collected on student musicians and non-musicians. During the measurement period, participants recorded their daily activities in journals. 22 musicians and 40 non-musicians, all students (aged 18-24 years) at the University of Connecticut. On every day of the week, musicians experienced significantly higher average exposure levels than did non-musicians. Nearly half (47%) of the musicians' days exceeded a daily dose of 100%, compared with 10% of the non-musicians' days. When the exposure due to music activities was removed, musicians still led noisier lives, largely due to participation in noisier social activities. For some musicians, non-music activities contributed a larger share of their total weekly noise exposure than did their music activities. Compared with their non-musician peers, college student musicians are at higher risk for noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). On a weekly basis, non-music activities may pose a greater risk to some musicians than music activities. Thus, hearing health education for musicians should include information about the contribution of lifestyle factors outside of music to NIHL risk.

  13. Auditory evoked responses in musicians during passive vowel listening are modulated by functional connectivity between bilateral auditory-related brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühnis, Jürg; Elmer, Stefan; Jäncke, Lutz

    2014-12-01

    Currently, there is striking evidence showing that professional musical training can substantially alter the response properties of auditory-related cortical fields. Such plastic changes have previously been shown not only to abet the processing of musical sounds, but likewise spectral and temporal aspects of speech. Therefore, here we used the EEG technique and measured a sample of musicians and nonmusicians while the participants were passively exposed to artificial vowels in the context of an oddball paradigm. Thereby, we evaluated whether increased intracerebral functional connectivity between bilateral auditory-related brain regions may promote sensory specialization in musicians, as reflected by altered cortical N1 and P2 responses. This assumption builds on the reasoning that sensory specialization is dependent, at least in part, on the amount of synchronization between the two auditory-related cortices. Results clearly revealed that auditory-evoked N1 responses were shaped by musical expertise. In addition, in line with our reasoning musicians showed an overall increased intracerebral functional connectivity (as indexed by lagged phase synchronization) in theta, alpha, and beta bands. Finally, within-group correlative analyses indicated a relationship between intracerebral beta band connectivity and cortical N1 responses, however only within the musicians' group. Taken together, we provide first electrophysiological evidence for a relationship between musical expertise, auditory-evoked brain responses, and intracerebral functional connectivity among auditory-related brain regions.

  14. Orchestration in learning technology research: evaluation of a conceptual framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis P. Prieto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The term ‘orchestrating learning’ is being used increasingly often, referring to the coordination activities performed while applying learning technologies to authentic settings. However, there is little consensus about how this notion should be conceptualised, and what aspects it entails. In this paper, a conceptual framework for orchestration-related research is evaluated by an international panel of learning technology experts. The results of this evaluation show that the framework is complete and understandable, and it is particularly useful as an integrative list of aspects to consider when designing and evaluating learning technologies. To illustrate a way in which the framework can be used to help researchers structure their classroom innovation evaluations, an example is presented that follows the adoption of the framework by a group of researchers in Singapore. Finally, a new evolved version of the framework is presented, taking into account the evaluation feedback.

  15. 159 THE ROLE OF MUSIC AND MUSICIANS IN PROMOTING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    a result they fail to comprehend the vital role music and musicians play in the proper functioning of events in human existence and thereby accord them little or no serious reputation in society. Music is more than ordinary entertainment phenomenon, according to Umezinwa (128) “to the owners and practitioners, it is a force, ...

  16. Possible Selves as a Source of Motivation for Musicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnare, Ben; MacIntyre, Peter; Doucette, Jesslyn

    2012-01-01

    Music can be a core element of the sense of self. Integration of the future, possible musical self within the self-concept helps to account for the enormous investment of time and energy necessary to become a musician. In this qualitative study, we explore the motivational dimensions of the possible musical self. Possible selves exist in multiple…

  17. Auditory temporal processing skills in musicians with dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop-Liebler, Paula; Welch, Graham; Huss, Martina; Thomson, Jennifer M; Goswami, Usha

    2014-08-01

    The core cognitive difficulty in developmental dyslexia involves phonological processing, but adults and children with dyslexia also have sensory impairments. Impairments in basic auditory processing show particular links with phonological impairments, and recent studies with dyslexic children across languages reveal a relationship between auditory temporal processing and sensitivity to rhythmic timing and speech rhythm. As rhythm is explicit in music, musical training might have a beneficial effect on the auditory perception of acoustic cues to rhythm in dyslexia. Here we took advantage of the presence of musicians with and without dyslexia in musical conservatoires, comparing their auditory temporal processing abilities with those of dyslexic non-musicians matched for cognitive ability. Musicians with dyslexia showed equivalent auditory sensitivity to musicians without dyslexia and also showed equivalent rhythm perception. The data support the view that extensive rhythmic experience initiated during childhood (here in the form of music training) can affect basic auditory processing skills which are found to be deficient in individuals with dyslexia. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. One-Handed Musicians-More Than a Gimmick

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woldendorp, K. H.; van Gils, W.

    2012-01-01

    There are many musicians with acquired limitations in making music, and there are many people with a disability who would like to play a music instrument in a modified way. There is discouragingly little information about this topic in literature. This article gives an overview of "making music in a

  19. The Role of Personality in Musicians' Information Seeking for Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostagiolas, Petros; Lavranos, Charilaos; Martzoukou, Konstantina; Papadatos, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: This paper explores the relationship between musicians' information seeking behaviour and their personality traits within the context of musical creativity. Although previous research has addressed different socio-technological and behavioral aspects of music information seeking, the role of personality characteristics around…

  20. Proverbs and conflicts among Yoruba popular musicians | Adegbite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proverbs and conflicts among Yoruba popular musicians. Ademola Adegbite. Abstract. No abstract. Nigerian Music Review Vol. 4 2003: 25-32. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/nmr.v4i1.35355 · AJOL African Journals Online.

  1. Faster Sound Stream Segmentation in Musicians than in Nonmusicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, Clément; Jaillet, Florent; Takerkart, Sylvain; Schön, Daniele

    2014-01-01

    The musician's brain is considered as a good model of brain plasticity as musical training is known to modify auditory perception and related cortical organization. Here, we show that music-related modifications can also extend beyond motor and auditory processing and generalize (transfer) to speech processing. Previous studies have shown that adults and newborns can segment a continuous stream of linguistic and non-linguistic stimuli based only on probabilities of occurrence between adjacent syllables, tones or timbres. The paradigm classically used in these studies consists of a passive exposure phase followed by a testing phase. By using both behavioural and electrophysiological measures, we recently showed that adult musicians and musically trained children outperform nonmusicians in the test following brief exposure to an artificial sung language. However, the behavioural test does not allow for studying the learning process per se but rather the result of the learning. In the present study, we analyze the electrophysiological learning curves that are the ongoing brain dynamics recorded as the learning is taking place. While musicians show an inverted U shaped learning curve, nonmusicians show a linear learning curve. Analyses of Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) allow for a greater understanding of how and when musical training can improve speech segmentation. These results bring evidence of enhanced neural sensitivity to statistical regularities in musicians and support the hypothesis of positive transfer of training effect from music to sound stream segmentation in general. PMID:25014068

  2. Polyrhythmic communicational devices appear as languagein the brains of musicians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vuust, Peter; Østergaard, Leif; Roepstorff, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between music and language has been oneof the most fiercely debated subjects in the modern literatureof neuroscience and music. In this paper we argue thata musicological study of the online communication betweenjazz musicians in combination with brain imaging studiesoffers...... structuresemploy brain areas, hitherto associated with linguistic semanticprocessing and discuss possible implications of this result....

  3. Faster sound stream segmentation in musicians than in nonmusicians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clément François

    Full Text Available The musician's brain is considered as a good model of brain plasticity as musical training is known to modify auditory perception and related cortical organization. Here, we show that music-related modifications can also extend beyond motor and auditory processing and generalize (transfer to speech processing. Previous studies have shown that adults and newborns can segment a continuous stream of linguistic and non-linguistic stimuli based only on probabilities of occurrence between adjacent syllables, tones or timbres. The paradigm classically used in these studies consists of a passive exposure phase followed by a testing phase. By using both behavioural and electrophysiological measures, we recently showed that adult musicians and musically trained children outperform nonmusicians in the test following brief exposure to an artificial sung language. However, the behavioural test does not allow for studying the learning process per se but rather the result of the learning. In the present study, we analyze the electrophysiological learning curves that are the ongoing brain dynamics recorded as the learning is taking place. While musicians show an inverted U shaped learning curve, nonmusicians show a linear learning curve. Analyses of Event-Related Potentials (ERPs allow for a greater understanding of how and when musical training can improve speech segmentation. These results bring evidence of enhanced neural sensitivity to statistical regularities in musicians and support the hypothesis of positive transfer of training effect from music to sound stream segmentation in general.

  4. Unimodal and cross-modal prediction is enhanced in musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassena, Eliana; Kochman, Katty; Latomme, Julie; Verguts, Tom

    2016-05-04

    Musical training involves exposure to complex auditory and visual stimuli, memorization of elaborate sequences, and extensive motor rehearsal. It has been hypothesized that such multifaceted training may be associated with differences in basic cognitive functions, such as prediction, potentially translating to a facilitation in expert musicians. Moreover, such differences might generalize to non-auditory stimuli. This study was designed to test both hypotheses. We implemented a cross-modal attentional cueing task with auditory and visual stimuli, where a target was preceded by compatible or incompatible cues in mainly compatible (80% compatible, predictable) or random blocks (50% compatible, unpredictable). This allowed for the testing of prediction skills in musicians and controls. Musicians showed increased sensitivity to the statistical structure of the block, expressed as advantage for compatible trials (disadvantage for incompatible trials), but only in the mainly compatible (predictable) blocks. Controls did not show this pattern. The effect held within modalities (auditory, visual), across modalities, and when controlling for short-term memory capacity. These results reveal a striking enhancement in cross-modal prediction in musicians in a very basic cognitive task.

  5. Memorization by a Jazz Musician: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noice, Helga; Jeffrey, John; Noice, Tony; Chaffin, Roger

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the memory strategies of jazz musicians, we videotaped an experienced jazz pianist as he learned a new bebop piece. He had not previously heard a recording of the selection, nor had he seen the written music. The pianist provided detailed reports of the musical structure and the types of cues he used as landmarks to guide his…

  6. Orchestrating the Dynamic Adaptation of Distributed Software With Process Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    applications and systems. For example, AUTONOMIA [118], employs a coordination model derived from tuple spaces for orchestrating mobile agents, which...with the AUTONOMIA middleware platform, which makes them internally and natively autonomic, and exposes handles for monitoring and actuation...Wa., USA, June 2003. [118] S. Hariri, L. Xue, H. Chen, M. Zhang, S. Pavuluri, S. Rao, AUTONOMIA : An Autonomic Computing Environment, in 22nd

  7. Error monitoring is altered in musician's dystonia: evidence from ERP-based studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strübing, Felix; Herrojo Ruiz, María; Jabusch, Hans Christian; Altenmüller, Eckart

    2012-04-01

    Musician's dystonia (MD) is a task-specific movement disorder characterized by a loss of voluntary motor control in highly trained movements like piano playing. Its underlying pathophysiology is defined by deficient functioning of neural pathways at different levels of the central nervous system. However, a few studies have examined the brain responses associated with executive functions such as error monitoring in MD. We recorded the electroencephalogram (EEG) in professional pianists during the performance of memorized music sequences at fast tempi. Event-related potentials (ERPs) locked to pitch errors were investigated in MD and a control group. In MD patients, significantly larger error-related brain responses before and following errors were observed as compared with healthy pianists. Our results suggest that in MD, the generalized degraded neural activity at all levels of the central nervous system is manifested in specific neural correlates of the executive functions that monitor an overlearned sensorimotor performance. © 2012 New York Academy of Sciences.

  8. Enhanced cognitive and perceptual processing: A computational basis for the musician advantage in speech learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten eSmayda

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Long-term music training can positively impact speech processing. A recent framework developed to explain such cross-domain plasticity posits that music training-related advantages in speech processing are due to shared cognitive and perceptual processes between music and speech. Although perceptual and cognitive processing advantages due to music training have been independently demonstrated, to date no study has examined perceptual and cognitive processing within the context of a single task. The present study examines the impact of long-term music training on speech learning from a rigorous, computational perspective derived from signal detection theory. Our computational models provide independent estimates of cognitive and perceptual processing in native English-speaking musicians (n=15, mean age= 25 years and non-musicians (n=15, mean age= 23 years learning to categorize non-native lexical pitch patterns (Mandarin tones. Musicians outperformed non-musicians in this task. Model-based analyses suggested that musicians shifted from simple unidimensional decision strategies to more optimal multidimensional decision strategies sooner than non-musicians. In addition, musicians used optimal decisional strategies more often than non-musicians. However, musicians and non-musicians who used multidimensional strategies showed no difference in performance. We estimated parameters that quantify the magnitude of perceptual variability along two dimensions that are critical for tone categorization: pitch height and pitch direction. Both musicians and non-musicians showed a decrease in perceptual variability along the pitch height dimension, but only musicians showed a significant reduction in perceptual variability along the pitch direction dimension. Notably, these advantages persisted during a generalization phase, when no feedback was provided. These results provide an insight into the mechanisms underlying the musician advantage observed in non

  9. Enhanced cognitive and perceptual processing: a computational basis for the musician advantage in speech learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smayda, Kirsten E; Chandrasekaran, Bharath; Maddox, W Todd

    2015-01-01

    Long-term music training can positively impact speech processing. A recent framework developed to explain such cross-domain plasticity posits that music training-related advantages in speech processing are due to shared cognitive and perceptual processes between music and speech. Although perceptual and cognitive processing advantages due to music training have been independently demonstrated, to date no study has examined perceptual and cognitive processing within the context of a single task. The present study examines the impact of long-term music training on speech learning from a rigorous, computational perspective derived from signal detection theory. Our computational models provide independent estimates of cognitive and perceptual processing in native English-speaking musicians (n = 15, mean age = 25 years) and non-musicians (n = 15, mean age = 23 years) learning to categorize non-native lexical pitch patterns (Mandarin tones). Musicians outperformed non-musicians in this task. Model-based analyses suggested that musicians shifted from simple unidimensional decision strategies to more optimal multidimensional (MD) decision strategies sooner than non-musicians. In addition, musicians used optimal decisional strategies more often than non-musicians. However, musicians and non-musicians who used MD strategies showed no difference in performance. We estimated parameters that quantify the magnitude of perceptual variability along two dimensions that are critical for tone categorization: pitch height and pitch direction. Both musicians and non-musicians showed a decrease in perceptual variability along the pitch height dimension, but only musicians showed a significant reduction in perceptual variability along the pitch direction dimension. Notably, these advantages persisted during a generalization phase, when no feedback was provided. These results provide an insight into the mechanisms underlying the musician advantage observed in non-native speech learning.

  10. Error management for musicians: an interdisciplinary conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse-Weber, Silke; Parncutt, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Musicians tend to strive for flawless performance and perfection, avoiding errors at all costs. Dealing with errors while practicing or performing is often frustrating and can lead to anger and despair, which can explain musicians' generally negative attitude toward errors and the tendency to aim for flawless learning in instrumental music education. But even the best performances are rarely error-free, and research in general pedagogy and psychology has shown that errors provide useful information for the learning process. Research in instrumental pedagogy is still neglecting error issues; the benefits of risk management (before the error) and error management (during and after the error) are still underestimated. It follows that dealing with errors is a key aspect of music practice at home, teaching, and performance in public. And yet, to be innovative, or to make their performance extraordinary, musicians need to risk errors. Currently, most music students only acquire the ability to manage errors implicitly - or not at all. A more constructive, creative, and differentiated culture of errors would balance error tolerance and risk-taking against error prevention in ways that enhance music practice and music performance. The teaching environment should lay the foundation for the development of such an approach. In this contribution, we survey recent research in aviation, medicine, economics, psychology, and interdisciplinary decision theory that has demonstrated that specific error-management training can promote metacognitive skills that lead to better adaptive transfer and better performance skills. We summarize how this research can be applied to music, and survey-relevant research that is specifically tailored to the needs of musicians, including generic guidelines for risk and error management in music teaching and performance. On this basis, we develop a conceptual framework for risk management that can provide orientation for further music education and

  11. Musicians have better memory than nonmusicians: A meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altoè, Gianmarco; Carretti, Barbara; Grassi, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    Background Several studies have found that musicians perform better than nonmusicians in memory tasks, but this is not always the case, and the strength of this apparent advantage is unknown. Here, we conducted a meta-analysis with the aim of clarifying whether musicians perform better than nonmusicians in memory tasks. Methods Education Source; PEP (WEB)—Psychoanalytic Electronic Publishing; Psychology and Behavioral Science (EBSCO); PsycINFO (Ovid); PubMed; ScienceDirect—AllBooks Content (Elsevier API); SCOPUS (Elsevier API); SocINDEX with Full Text (EBSCO) and Google Scholar were searched for eligible studies. The selected studies involved two groups of participants: young adult musicians and nonmusicians. All the studies included memory tasks (loading long-term, short-term or working memory) that contained tonal, verbal or visuospatial stimuli. Three meta-analyses were run separately for long-term memory, short-term memory and working memory. Results We collected 29 studies, including 53 memory tasks. The results showed that musicians performed better than nonmusicians in terms of long-term memory, g = .29, 95% CI (.08–.51), short-term memory, g = .57, 95% CI (.41–.73), and working memory, g = .56, 95% CI (.33–.80). To further explore the data, we included a moderator (the type of stimulus presented, i.e., tonal, verbal or visuospatial), which was found to influence the effect size for short-term and working memory, but not for long-term memory. In terms of short-term and working memory, the musicians’ advantage was large with tonal stimuli, moderate with verbal stimuli, and small or null with visuospatial stimuli. Conclusions The three meta-analyses revealed a small effect size for long-term memory, and a medium effect size for short-term and working memory, suggesting that musicians perform better than nonmusicians in memory tasks. Moreover, the effect of the moderator suggested that, the type of stimuli influences this advantage. PMID:29049416

  12. Do musicians with perfect pitch have more autism traits than musicians without perfect pitch? An empirical study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Dohn

    Full Text Available Perfect pitch, also known as absolute pitch (AP, refers to the rare ability to identify or produce a musical tone correctly without the benefit of an external reference. AP is often considered to reflect musical giftedness, but it has also been associated with certain disabilities due to increased prevalence of AP in individuals with sensory and developmental disorders. Here, we determine whether individual autistic traits are present in people with AP. We quantified subclinical levels of autism traits using the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ in three matched groups of subjects: 16 musicians with AP (APs, 18 musicians without AP (non-APs, and 16 non-musicians. In addition, we measured AP ability by a pitch identification test with sine wave tones and piano tones. We found a significantly higher degree of autism traits in APs than in non-APs and non-musicians, and autism scores were significantly correlated with pitch identification scores (r = .46, p = .003. However, our results showed that APs did not differ from non-APs on diagnostically crucial social and communicative domain scores and their total AQ scores were well below clinical thresholds for autism. Group differences emerged on the imagination and attention switching subscales of the AQ. Thus, whilst these findings do link AP with autism, they also show that AP ability is most strongly associated with personality traits that vary widely within the normal population.

  13. Do musicians with perfect pitch have more autism traits than musicians without perfect pitch? An empirical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohn, Anders; Garza-Villarreal, Eduardo A; Heaton, Pamela; Vuust, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Perfect pitch, also known as absolute pitch (AP), refers to the rare ability to identify or produce a musical tone correctly without the benefit of an external reference. AP is often considered to reflect musical giftedness, but it has also been associated with certain disabilities due to increased prevalence of AP in individuals with sensory and developmental disorders. Here, we determine whether individual autistic traits are present in people with AP. We quantified subclinical levels of autism traits using the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) in three matched groups of subjects: 16 musicians with AP (APs), 18 musicians without AP (non-APs), and 16 non-musicians. In addition, we measured AP ability by a pitch identification test with sine wave tones and piano tones. We found a significantly higher degree of autism traits in APs than in non-APs and non-musicians, and autism scores were significantly correlated with pitch identification scores (r = .46, p = .003). However, our results showed that APs did not differ from non-APs on diagnostically crucial social and communicative domain scores and their total AQ scores were well below clinical thresholds for autism. Group differences emerged on the imagination and attention switching subscales of the AQ. Thus, whilst these findings do link AP with autism, they also show that AP ability is most strongly associated with personality traits that vary widely within the normal population.

  14. Effects of regularity on the processing of sound omission in a tone sequence in musicians and non-musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Kentaro; Matsuhashi, Masao; Mima, Tatsuya; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Altmann, Christian F

    2013-09-01

    Numerous studies have reported that perceptual grouping affects the pre-attentive processing of sound omission in a sequence of tones. However, it remains unclear whether or not the perceptual grouping and musical experience affect the attentive processing of sound omission. To this end, we created a sequence of loud (L) and soft (S) tones grouped as 'LLSLLS…' and a random sequence of the L and S tones. The omission of the L tones was inserted pseudo-randomly in the random sequence, and there were two positions at which it was inserted. For within-group omission, the omission was after the first L tone within the 'LLS' pattern. For between-group omission, the omission was inserted between the patterns. The brain response to the omission in musicians and non-musicians was measured using magnetoencephalography. During the magnetoencephalography measurement, the subjects' performance in a task to detect the omission was faster in the random sequence than in the group sequence. Source analysis showed that the omission in the random sequence caused greater activity than that in the group sequence. The increase was found in the right inferior parietal lobe in musicians, whereas it was found in the left superior temporal gyrus in non-musicians. These results suggest that the attentive processing of perceptual grouping might implicate the left superior temporal gyrus or right inferior parietal lobe, depending on musical experience. © 2013 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Connectivity patterns during music listening: Evidence for action-based processing in musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alluri, Vinoo; Toiviainen, Petri; Burunat, Iballa; Kliuchko, Marina; Vuust, Peter; Brattico, Elvira

    2017-06-01

    Musical expertise is visible both in the morphology and functionality of the brain. Recent research indicates that functional integration between multi-sensory, somato-motor, default-mode (DMN), and salience (SN) networks of the brain differentiates musicians from non-musicians during resting state. Here, we aimed at determining whether brain networks differentially exchange information in musicians as opposed to non-musicians during naturalistic music listening. Whole-brain graph-theory analyses were performed on participants' fMRI responses. Group-level differences revealed that musicians' primary hubs comprised cerebral and cerebellar sensorimotor regions whereas non-musicians' dominant hubs encompassed DMN-related regions. Community structure analyses of the key hubs revealed greater integration of motor and somatosensory homunculi representing the upper limbs and torso in musicians. Furthermore, musicians who started training at an earlier age exhibited greater centrality in the auditory cortex, and areas related to top-down processes, attention, emotion, somatosensory processing, and non-verbal processing of speech. We here reveal how brain networks organize themselves in a naturalistic music listening situation wherein musicians automatically engage neural networks that are action-based while non-musicians use those that are perception-based to process an incoming auditory stream. Hum Brain Mapp 38:2955-2970, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Auditory Profiles of Classical, Jazz, and Rock Musicians: Genre-Specific Sensitivity to Musical Sound Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tervaniemi, Mari; Janhunen, Lauri; Kruck, Stefanie; Putkinen, Vesa; Huotilainen, Minna

    2015-01-01

    When compared with individuals without explicit training in music, adult musicians have facilitated neural functions in several modalities. They also display structural changes in various brain areas, these changes corresponding to the intensity and duration of their musical training. Previous studies have focused on investigating musicians with training in Western classical music. However, musicians involved in different musical genres may display highly differentiated auditory profiles according to the demands set by their genre, i.e., varying importance of different musical sound features. This hypothesis was tested in a novel melody paradigm including deviants in tuning, timbre, rhythm, melody transpositions, and melody contour. Using this paradigm while the participants were watching a silent video and instructed to ignore the sounds, we compared classical, jazz, and rock musicians' and non-musicians' accuracy of neural encoding of the melody. In all groups of participants, all deviants elicited an MMN response, which is a cortical index of deviance discrimination. The strength of the MMN and the subsequent attentional P3a responses reflected the importance of various sound features in each music genre: these automatic brain responses were selectively enhanced to deviants in tuning (classical musicians), timing (classical and jazz musicians), transposition (jazz musicians), and melody contour (jazz and rock musicians). Taken together, these results indicate that musicians with different training history have highly specialized cortical reactivity to sounds which violate the neural template for melody content.

  17. Intervention program in college instrumental musicians, with kinematics analysis of cello and flute playing: a combined program of yogic breathing and muscle strengthening-flexibility exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Hie; Carey, Stephanie; Dubey, Rajiv; Matz, Rachel

    2012-06-01

    College musicians encounter health risks not dissimilar to those of professional musicians. Fifteen collegiate instrumental musicians participated in the intervention program of yogic-breathing and muscle-strengthening and flexibility exercises for 8 weeks. Pre- and post-intervention data from the Health-Pain-Injury Inventory (HPI) and the Physical & Musical-Performance Efficacy Assessment Survey (PME) were analyzed for the effects of the program on the musicians' physical and musical-performance efficacy. HPI results showed that the majority of our sample had healthy lifestyles and minimal pain and injuries but irregular eating and exercise habits. The pre-intervention PME data showed a high level of musical efficacy (i.e., awareness of music technique, tone, and flow) but a low-level of physical efficacy (i.e., awareness of posture, tension, and movement flexibility). Post-intervention data showed that the program improved physical efficacy by increased awareness of posture and tension. In 2 volunteer musicians, kinematics motion analysis was conducted for exploratory purposes. Our cellist played the scale using a larger range of motion (ROM) in right shoulder flexion and abduction and slightly increased rotation while keeping decreased right elbow ROM after the intervention program. The flutist shifted the body weight from one foot to the other more in the second playing post-intervention. These changes can be attributed to the increased physical efficacy that allowed freedom to express musicality. Findings from these case scenarios provide empirically based hypotheses for further study. We share our experience so that others may use our model and instruments to develop studies with larger samples.

  18. The musician effect: Does it persist under degraded pitch conditions of cochlear implant simulations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina eFuller

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cochlear implants (CIs are auditory prostheses that restore hearing via electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve. Compared to normal acoustic hearing, sounds transmitted through the CI are spectro-temporally degraded, causing difficulties in challenging listening tasks such as speech intelligibility in noise and perception of music. In normal hearing (NH, musicians have been shown to better perform than non-musicians in auditory processing and perception, especially for challenging listening tasks. This ‘musician effect’ was attributed to better processing of pitch cues, as well as better overall auditory cognitive functioning in musicians. Does the musician effect persist when pitch cues are degraded, as it would be in signals transmitted through a CI? To answer this question, NH musicians and non-musicians were tested while listening to unprocessed signals or to signals processed by an acoustic CI simulation. The task increasingly depended on pitch perception: 1 speech intelligibility (words and sentences in quiet or in noise, 2 vocal emotion identification, and 3 melodic contour identification. For speech perception, there was no musician effect with the unprocessed stimuli, and a small musician effect only for word identification in one noise condition, in the CI simulation. For emotion identification, there was a small musician effect for both. For melodic contour identification, there was a large musician effect for both. Overall, the effect was stronger as the importance of pitch in the listening task increased. This suggests that the musician effect may be more rooted in pitch perception, rather than in a global advantage in cognitive processing (in which musicians would have performed better in all tasks. The results further suggest that musical training before (and possibly after implantation might offer some advantage in pitch processing that could partially benefit speech perception, and more strongly emotion and music

  19. The musician effect: does it persist under degraded pitch conditions of cochlear implant simulations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Christina D; Galvin, John J; Maat, Bert; Free, Rolien H; Başkent, Deniz

    2014-01-01

    Cochlear implants (CIs) are auditory prostheses that restore hearing via electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve. Compared to normal acoustic hearing, sounds transmitted through the CI are spectro-temporally degraded, causing difficulties in challenging listening tasks such as speech intelligibility in noise and perception of music. In normal hearing (NH), musicians have been shown to better perform than non-musicians in auditory processing and perception, especially for challenging listening tasks. This "musician effect" was attributed to better processing of pitch cues, as well as better overall auditory cognitive functioning in musicians. Does the musician effect persist when pitch cues are degraded, as it would be in signals transmitted through a CI? To answer this question, NH musicians and non-musicians were tested while listening to unprocessed signals or to signals processed by an acoustic CI simulation. The task increasingly depended on pitch perception: (1) speech intelligibility (words and sentences) in quiet or in noise, (2) vocal emotion identification, and (3) melodic contour identification (MCI). For speech perception, there was no musician effect with the unprocessed stimuli, and a small musician effect only for word identification in one noise condition, in the CI simulation. For emotion identification, there was a small musician effect for both. For MCI, there was a large musician effect for both. Overall, the effect was stronger as the importance of pitch in the listening task increased. This suggests that the musician effect may be more rooted in pitch perception, rather than in a global advantage in cognitive processing (in which musicians would have performed better in all tasks). The results further suggest that musical training before (and possibly after) implantation might offer some advantage in pitch processing that could partially benefit speech perception, and more strongly emotion and music perception.

  20. The sound of music: differentiating musicians using a fast, musical multi-feature mismatch negativity paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuust, Peter; Brattico, Elvira; Seppänen, Miia; Näätänen, Risto; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2012-06-01

    Musicians' skills in auditory processing depend highly on instrument, performance practice, and on level of expertise. Yet, it is not known though whether the style/genre of music might shape auditory processing in the brains of musicians. Here, we aimed at tackling the role of musical style/genre on modulating neural and behavioral responses to changes in musical features. Using a novel, fast and musical sounding multi-feature paradigm, we measured the mismatch negativity (MMN), a pre-attentive brain response, to six types of musical feature change in musicians playing three distinct styles of music (classical, jazz, rock/pop) and in non-musicians. Jazz and classical musicians scored higher in the musical aptitude test than band musicians and non-musicians, especially with regards to tonal abilities. These results were extended by the MMN findings: jazz musicians had larger MMN-amplitude than all other experimental groups across the six different sound features, indicating a greater overall sensitivity to auditory outliers. In particular, we found enhanced processing of pith and sliding up to pitches in jazz musicians only. Furthermore, we observed a more frontal MMN to pitch and location compared to the other deviants in jazz musicians and left lateralization of the MMN to timbre in classical musicians. These findings indicate that the characteristics of the style/genre of music played by musicians influence their perceptual skills and the brain processing of sound features embedded in a musical context. Musicians' brain is hence shaped by the type of training, musical style/genre, and listening experiences. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Do coaches orchestrate? The working practices of elite Portuguese coaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Sofia; Jones, Robyn L; Mesquita, Isabel

    2013-06-01

    Although the concept of orchestration has resonated well with coaches and students of coaching, it remains quite an immature theorization lacking empirical evidence. Consequently, the purpose of this study was to explore the practice of expert Portuguese coaches from the perspective of orchestration. The specific objectives related to examining if and how coaches manipulate contexts and relationships toward desired ends, if and how they steer and/or stage-manage events, and precisely what informs their actions. Data were gathered through a series of semi-structured interviews with 5 top-level Portuguese coaches from a variety of sports. The coaches were selected through purposive sampling. The interviews were taped and transcribed verbatim so that an accurate record of the data gathered was obtained. The data were subject to both inductive and deductive examination through a process of thematic analysis. The categorical themes resulting from the process of data analysis included (a) the need amongst the coaches "for stakeholder buy-in," (b) "generating an illusion of empowerment" among both staff and athletes to ensure compliance, (c) "scaffolding the context to create a controlled instability" and (d) "detailed noticing to inform action." The coaches featured in this study were found to carefully and strategically consider their actions and behaviors; particularly concerning the generation of others' compliance and respect. Consequently, in giving further credence to the notions of power, social obligation, and the flexible scaffolding of learning, the findings support the notion that the concept of orchestration deserves further exploration and development in order to better understand the coach's role.

  2. Orchestrating care: nursing practice with hospitalised older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlke, Sherry Ann; Phinney, Alison; Hall, Wendy Ann; Rodney, Patricia; Baumbusch, Jennifer

    2015-12-01

    The increased incidence of health challenges with aging means that nurses are increasingly caring for older adults, often in hospital settings. Research about the complexity of nursing practice with this population remains limited. To seek an explanation of nursing practice with hospitalised older adults. Design. A grounded theory study guided by symbolic interactionism was used to explore nursing practice with hospitalised older adults from a nursing perspective. Glaserian grounded theory methods were used to develop a mid-range theory after analysis of 375 hours of participant observation, 35 interviews with 24 participants and review of selected documents. The theory of orchestrating care was developed to explain how nurses are continuously trying to manage their work environments by understanding the status of the patients, their unit, mobilising the assistance of others and stretching available resources to resolve their problem of providing their older patients with what they perceived as 'good care' while sustaining themselves as 'good' nurses. They described their practice environments as hard and under-resourced. Orchestrating care is comprised of two subprocesses: building synergy and minimising strain. These two processes both facilitated and constrained each other and nurses' abilities to orchestrate care. Although system issues presented serious constraints to nursing practice, the ways in which nurses were making meaning of their work environment both aided them in managing their challenges and constrained their agency. Nurses need to be encouraged to share their important perspective about older adult care. Administrators have a role to play in giving nurses voice in workplace committees and in forums. Further research is needed to better understand how multidisciplinary teams influence care of hospitalized older adults. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Acquisition and reacquisition of motor coordination in musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, Shinichi; Altenmüller, Eckart

    2015-03-01

    Precise control of movement timing plays a key role in musical performance. This motor skill requires coordination across multiple joints and muscles, which is acquired through extensive musical training from childhood. However, extensive training has a potential risk of causing neurological disorders that impair fine motor control, such as task-specific tremor and focal dystonia. Recent technological advances in measurement and analysis of biological data, as well as noninvasive manipulation of neuronal activities, have promoted the understanding of computational and neurophysiological mechanisms underlying acquisition, loss, and reacquisition of dexterous movements through musical practice and rehabilitation. This paper aims to provide an overview of the behavioral and neurophysiological basis of motor virtuosity and disorder in musicians, representative extremes of human motor skill. We also report novel evidence of effects of noninvasive neurorehabilitation that combined transcranial direct-current stimulation and motor rehabilitation over multiple days on musician's dystonia, which offers a promising therapeutic means. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.

  4. Brain Plasticity and the Concept of Metaplasticity in Skilled Musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenmüller, Eckart; Furuya, Shinichi

    2016-01-01

    Early and extensive musical training provides plastic adaptations of the nervous system and enhanced sensory, motor, and cognitive functions. Over decades, neuronal mechanism underlying the plastic adaptation through musical training has been investigated using neuroimaging and transcranial stimulation techniques. Recently, plastic changes in neuroplastic functions through musical training have gradually gained some interest, so-called metaplasticity. Metaplasticity enables faster and more stable skill acquisition for individuals with a history of prior musical training. This mechanism may also serve for prevention of developing maladaptive changes in the nervous system, being pathophysiology of focal dystonia in musicians. The present chapter introduces neurophysiological mechanisms and functional significances of brain plasticity and metaplasticity of the sensory and motor systems of musicians.

  5. Orchestrating learning activities using the CADMOS learning design tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Katsamani

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives an overview of CADMOS (CoursewAre Development Methodology for Open instructional Systems, a graphical IMS-LD Level A & B compliant learning design (LD tool, which promotes the concept of “separation of concerns” during the design process, via the creation of two models: the conceptual model, which describes the learning activities and the corresponding learning resources, and the flow model, which describes the orchestration of these activities. According to the feedback from an evaluation case study with 36 participants, reported in this paper, CADMOS is a user-friendly tool that allows educational practitioners to design flows of learning activities using a layered approach.

  6. Natural Killer Cells in the Orchestration of Chronic Inflammatory Diseases

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    Luca Parisi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation, altered immune cell phenotype, and functions are key features shared by diverse chronic diseases, including cardiovascular, neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and cancer. Natural killer cells are innate lymphoid cells primarily involved in the immune system response to non-self-components but their plasticity is largely influenced by the pathological microenvironment. Altered NK phenotype and function have been reported in several pathological conditions, basically related to impaired or enhanced toxicity. Here we reviewed and discussed the role of NKs in selected, different, and “distant” chronic diseases, cancer, diabetes, periodontitis, and atherosclerosis, placing NK cells as crucial orchestrator of these pathologic conditions.

  7. Error management for musicians: an interdisciplinary conceptual framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse-Weber, Silke; Parncutt, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Musicians tend to strive for flawless performance and perfection, avoiding errors at all costs. Dealing with errors while practicing or performing is often frustrating and can lead to anger and despair, which can explain musicians’ generally negative attitude toward errors and the tendency to aim for flawless learning in instrumental music education. But even the best performances are rarely error-free, and research in general pedagogy and psychology has shown that errors provide useful information for the learning process. Research in instrumental pedagogy is still neglecting error issues; the benefits of risk management (before the error) and error management (during and after the error) are still underestimated. It follows that dealing with errors is a key aspect of music practice at home, teaching, and performance in public. And yet, to be innovative, or to make their performance extraordinary, musicians need to risk errors. Currently, most music students only acquire the ability to manage errors implicitly – or not at all. A more constructive, creative, and differentiated culture of errors would balance error tolerance and risk-taking against error prevention in ways that enhance music practice and music performance. The teaching environment should lay the foundation for the development of such an approach. In this contribution, we survey recent research in aviation, medicine, economics, psychology, and interdisciplinary decision theory that has demonstrated that specific error-management training can promote metacognitive skills that lead to better adaptive transfer and better performance skills. We summarize how this research can be applied to music, and survey-relevant research that is specifically tailored to the needs of musicians, including generic guidelines for risk and error management in music teaching and performance. On this basis, we develop a conceptual framework for risk management that can provide orientation for further music education and

  8. Survival Strategy of Street Musician in Tampan District Pekanbaru

    OpenAIRE

    ", Nurhamlin; Pardede, Toni

    2016-01-01

    This research carried out in Tampan District, Pekanbaru. This research aims to determine the characteristics and survival strategies of street musician. To obtain the necessary data in this study, the writer collected data to descend directly to the research location and do observation and in-depth interviews. The subjects of this research as many as seven person. Data obtained was processed in the descriptive qualitative analysis form. Technique determination sample of research using inciden...

  9. Processing of complex auditory patterns in musicians and nonmusicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boh, Bastiaan; Herholz, Sibylle C; Lappe, Claudia; Pantev, Christo

    2011-01-01

    In the present study we investigated the capacity of the memory store underlying the mismatch negativity (MMN) response in musicians and nonmusicians for complex tone patterns. While previous studies have focused either on the kind of information that can be encoded or on the decay of the memory trace over time, we studied capacity in terms of the length of tone sequences, i.e., the number of individual tones that can be fully encoded and maintained. By means of magnetoencephalography (MEG) we recorded MMN responses to deviant tones that could occur at any position of standard tone patterns composed of four, six or eight tones during passive, distracted listening. Whereas there was a reliable MMN response to deviant tones in the four-tone pattern in both musicians and nonmusicians, only some individuals showed MMN responses to the longer patterns. This finding of a reliable capacity of the short-term auditory store underlying the MMN response is in line with estimates of a three to five item capacity of the short-term memory trace from behavioural studies, although pitch and contour complexity covaried with sequence length, which might have led to an understatement of the reported capacity. Whereas there was a tendency for an enhancement of the pattern MMN in musicians compared to nonmusicians, a strong advantage for musicians could be shown in an accompanying behavioural task of detecting the deviants while attending to the stimuli for all pattern lengths, indicating that long-term musical training differentially affects the memory capacity of auditory short-term memory for complex tone patterns with and without attention. Also, a left-hemispheric lateralization of MMN responses in the six-tone pattern suggests that additional networks that help structuring the patterns in the temporal domain might be recruited for demanding auditory processing in the pitch domain.

  10. Musicians' social representations of health and illness: a qualitative case study about focal dystonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zosso, Amélie; Schoeb, Veronika

    2012-01-01

    Musicians are artists who use the entire body when playing their instruments. Since over-practicing may lead to physical problems, musicians might encounter focal dystonia, a hand's motor disorder. The cause seems to be the brain's confusion between afferent and efferent information transfer provoking a disharmony with the instrument. Although focal dystonia may have serious consequences for a musician's career, it is unclear how musicians perceive this trouble. This case study describes two musicians with focal dystonia. Qualitative research was used to study their social representations of health and illness. The results show the central role of the hand during music playing, the passion for music and the understanding for focal dystonia as "brain panic". Therapists should account for those specific features inherent to this population in order to better help them in their quest for art through music. Giving a voice to musicians may improve their quality of care.

  11. The sound of music: Differentiating musicians using a fast, musical multi-feature mismatch negativity paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vuust, Peter; Brattico, Elvira; Seppänen, Miia

    2012-01-01

    Musicians' skills in auditory processing depend highly on instrument, performance practice, and on level of expertise. Yet, it is not known though whether the style/genre of music might shape auditory processing in the brains of musicians. Here, we aimed at tackling the role of musical style....../genre on modulating neural and behavioral responses to changes in musical features. Using a novel, fast and musical sounding multi-feature paradigm, we measured the mismatch negativity (MMN), a pre-attentive brain response, to six types of musical feature change in musicians playing three distinct styles of music...... to the other deviants in jazz musicians and left lateralization of the MMN to timbre in classical musicians. These findings indicate that the characteristics of the style/genre of music played by musicians influence their perceptual skills and the brain processing of sound features embedded in a musical...

  12. Italian musicians in Greece during the nineteenth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanou Ekaterini

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In Greece, the monophonic chant of the Orthodox church and its neumatic notation have been transmitted as a popular tradition up to the first decades of the 20th century. The transformation of Greek musical tradition to a Western type of urban culture and the introduction of harmony, staff notation and western instruments and performance practices in the country began in the 19th century. Italian musicians played a central role in that process. A large number of them lived and worked on the Ionian Islands. Those Italian musicians have left a considerable number of transcriptions and original compositions. Quite a different cultural background existed in Athens. Education was in most cases connected to the church - the institution that during the four centuries of Turkish occupation kept Greeks united and nationally conscious. The neumatic notation was used for all music sung by the people, music of both western and eastern origin. The assimilation of staff notation and harmony was accelerated in the last quarter of the 19th century. At the beginning of the 20th century in Athens a violent cultural clash was provoked by the reformers of music education all of them belonging to German culture. The clash ended with the displacement of the Italian and Greek musicians from the Ionian Islands working at the time in Athens, and the defamation of their fundamental work in music education.

  13. An evaluation of musician earplugs with college music students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesky, Kris; Pair, Marla; Yoshimura, Eri; Landford, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Musician earplugs are marketed and recommended for use in music settings but no studies have evaluated these products with musicians. This study evaluated the influences of earplugs on college students' perception and abilities to communicate in a musical environment, attitudes of earplugs, comfort over time, and the influence of earplugs on ability to play music. College students (N = 323) were provided with earplugs for use during and following an experimental condition designed to mimic a night club. Results underline the challenges of earplugs in environments that are both loud and require verbal interaction. Responses to comfort questions were variable and suggest a multi-factorial set of influences that may include intrinsic variables. Despite these limitations, subjects in this study generally liked the earplugs and believed that they are valuable. However, the earplugs were not viewed favorably by musicians willing to use the earplugs while playing music. This study supports the view that earplugs are subject to many problems and should be considered as a last resort.

  14. The Effect of Music on Hearing of String Musicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Mirhaj

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Hearing sensitivity is so vital for musicians as loud music can cause hearing loss. The aim of this study was to assess hearing sensitivity of musicians in order to determine the effects of music exposure on hearing organ. Materials and Methods: This case-control study was conducted on 15 string musicians with musicianship history of more than 10 years and 15 normal hearing subjects. They all were male and 20-30 years old. TEOAE and DPOAE performed and after otoscopy, immittance and pure tone audiometry in octave frequencies between 250 to 16000 Hz. Results: There is not significant difference between pure tone thresholds of two groups for all frequencies. A significant difference of TEOAE is found between two groups for total response and amplitudes of TEOAE .DPOAE amplitudes are not significantly different between two groups. Conclusion: Musicianship may affect TEOAE amplitudes , but cannot affect results of PTA and DPOAE. Therefore this can be useful to detect cochlear lesions secondary to music exposure and also as a tool in hearing protection program.

  15. Improved effectiveness of performance monitoring in amateur instrumental musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jentzsch, Ines; Mkrtchian, Anahit; Kansal, Nayantara

    2014-01-01

    Here we report a cross-sectional study investigating the influence of instrumental music practice on the ability to monitor for and respond to processing conflicts and performance errors. Behavioural and electrophysiological indicators of response monitoring in amateur musicians with various skill levels were collected using simple conflict tasks. The results show that instrumental musicians are better able than non-musicians to detect conflicts and errors as indicated by systematic increases in the amplitude of the error-related negativity and the N200 with increasing levels of instrumental practice. Also, high levels of musical training were associated with more efficient and less reactive responses after experience of conflicts and errors as indicated by reduced post-error interference and post-conflict processing adjustments. Together, the present findings suggest that playing a musical instrument might improve the ability to monitor our behavior and adjust our responses effectively when needed. As these processes are amongst the first to be affected by cognitive aging, our evidence could promote musical activity as a realistic intervention to slow or even prevent age-related decline in frontal cortex mediated executive functioning. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Differential adaptation of descending motor tracts in musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüber, Theodor; Lindenberg, Robert; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2015-06-01

    Between-group comparisons of musicians and nonmusicians have revealed structural brain differences and also functional differences in motor performance. In this study, we aimed to examine the relation between white matter microstructure and high-level motor skills by contrasting 2 groups of musicians with different instrument-specific motor requirements. We used diffusion tensor imaging to compare diffusivity measures of different corticospinal motor tracts of 10 keyboard players, 10 string players, and 10 nonmusicians. Additionally, the maximal tapping rates of their left and right index fingers were determined. When compared with nonmusicians, fractional anisotropy (FA) values of right-hemispheric motor tracts were significantly higher in both musician groups, whereas left-hemispheric motor tracts showed significantly higher FA values only in the keyboard players. Voxel-wise FA analysis found a group effect in white matter underlying the right motor cortex. Diffusivity measures of fibers originating in the primary motor cortex correlated with the maximal tapping rate of the contralateral index finger across all groups. The observed between-group diffusivity differences might represent an adaptation to the specific motor demands of the respective musical instrument. This is supported further by finding correlations between diffusivity measures and maximal tapping rates. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. TRIO: Burst Buffer Based I/O Orchestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Teng [Auburn University; Oral, H Sarp [ORNL; Pritchard, Michael [Auburn University; Wang, Bin [Auburn University; Yu, Weikuan [Auburn University

    2015-01-01

    The growing computing power on leadership HPC systems is often accompanied by ever-escalating failure rates. Checkpointing is a common defensive mechanism used by scientific applications for failure recovery. However, directly writing the large and bursty checkpointing dataset to parallel filesystem can incur significant I/O contention on storage servers. Such contention in turn degrades the raw bandwidth utilization of storage servers and prolongs the average job I/O time of concurrent applications. Recently burst buffer has been proposed as an intermediate layer to absorb the bursty I/O traffic from compute nodes to storage backend. But an I/O orchestration mechanism is still desired to efficiently move checkpointing data from bursty buffers to storage backend. In this paper, we propose a burst buffer based I/O orchestration framework, named TRIO, to intercept and reshape the bursty writes for better sequential write traffic to storage severs. Meanwhile, TRIO coordinates the flushing orders among concurrent burst buffers to alleviate the contention on storage server bandwidth. Our experimental results reveal that TRIO can deliver 30.5% higher bandwidth and reduce the average job I/O time by 37% on average for data-intensive applications in various checkpointing scenarios.

  18. Diminished whole-brain but enhanced peri-sylvian connectivity in absolute pitch musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäncke, Lutz; Langer, Nicolas; Hänggi, Jürgen

    2012-06-01

    Several anatomical studies have identified specific anatomical features within the peri-sylvian brain system of absolute pitch (AP) musicians. In this study we used graph theoretical analysis of cortical thickness covariations (as indirect indicator of connectivity) to examine whether AP musicians differ from relative pitch musicians and nonmusicians in small-world network characteristics. We measured "local connectedness" (local clustering = γ), "global efficiency of information transfer" (path length = λ), "small-worldness" (σ = γ/λ), and "degree" centrality as measures of connectivity. Although all groups demonstrated typical small-world features, AP musicians showed significant small-world alterations. "Degree" as a measure of interconnectedness was globally significantly decreased in AP musicians. These differences let us suggest that AP musicians demonstrate diminished neural integration (less connections) among distant brain regions. In addition, AP musicians demonstrated significantly increased local connectivity in peri-sylvian language areas of which the planum temporale, planum polare, Heschl's gyrus, lateral aspect of the superior temporal gyrus, STS, pars triangularis, and pars opercularis were hub regions. All of these brain areas are known to be involved in higher-order auditory processing, working or semantic memory processes. Taken together, whereas AP musicians demonstrate decreased global interconnectedness, the local connectedness in peri-sylvian brain areas is significantly higher than for relative pitch musicians and nonmusicians.

  19. Technology-Supported Orchestration Matters: Outperforming Paper-Based Scripting in a Jigsaw Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestrini, Mara; Hernandez-Leo, Davinia; Nieves, Raul; Blat, Josep

    2014-01-01

    Under the umbrella of ubiquitous technologies, many computational artifacts have been designed to enhance the learning experience in physical settings such as classrooms or playgrounds, but few of them focus on aiding orchestration. This paper presents a systematic evaluation of the signal orchestration system (SOS) used by students for a jigsaw…

  20. Supporting Conservatoire Students towards Professional Integration: One-to-One Tuition and the Potential of Mentoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaunt, Helena; Creech, Andrea; Long, Marion; Hallam, Susan

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on qualitative research undertaken at a conservatoire in the United Kingdom, exploring students' perceptions of how they were supported in realising their aspirations as professional musicians and making the transition to professional life. In particular, the research explored students' perceptions of the role played by their…

  1. Error management for musicians: an interdisciplinary conceptual framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke eKruse-Weber

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Musicians tend to strive for flawless performance and perfection, avoiding errors at all costs. Dealing with errors while practicing or performing is often frustrating and can lead to anger and despair, which can explain musicians’ generally negative attitude toward errors and the tendency to aim for errorless learning in instrumental music education. But even the best performances are rarely error-free, and research in general pedagogy and psychology has shown that errors provide useful information for the learning process. Research in instrumental pedagogy is still neglecting error issues; the benefits of risk management (before the error and error management (during and after the error are still underestimated. It follows that dealing with errors is a key aspect of music practice at home, teaching, and performance in public. And yet, to be innovative, or to make their performance extraordinary, musicians need to risk errors. Currently, most music students only acquire the ability to manage errors implicitly - or not at all. A more constructive, creative and differentiated culture of errors would balance error tolerance and risk-taking against error prevention in ways that enhance music practice and music performance. The teaching environment should lay the foundation for the development of these abilities. In this contribution, we survey recent research in aviation, medicine, economics, psychology, and interdisciplinary decision theory that has demonstrated that specific error-management training can promote metacognitive skills that lead to better adaptive transfer and better performance skills. We summarize how this research can be applied to music, and survey relevant research that is specifically tailored to the needs of musicians, including generic guidelines for risk and error management in music teaching and performance. On this basis, we develop a conceptual framework for risk management that can provide orientation for further

  2. Musicians' Cognitive Processing of Imagery-Based Instructions for Expressive Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, Robert H.

    2006-01-01

    This study addressed the cognitive processes of musicians using imagery to improve expressive performance. Specifically, it was an examination of the extent to which musicians translate imagery into explicit plans for the sound properties of music. Eighty-four undergraduate and graduate music majors completed a research packet during individual…

  3. In Their Own Words: Interviews with Musicians Reveal the Advantages and Disadvantages of Wearing Earplugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Elizabeth F; O'Brien, Ian

    2017-06-01

    Musicians are at risk of hearing loss from sound exposure, and earplugs form part of many musicians' hearing conservation practices. Although musicians typically report a range of difficulties when wearing earplugs, there are many who have managed to successfully incorporate earplugs into their practice of music. The study aim was to provide a detailed account of earplug usage from the perspective of the musician, including motivating factors, practical strategies, and attitudes. In-depth interviews with 23 musicians were transcribed and content analysis was performed. Responses were coded and classified into three main themes: advantages, disadvantages, and usage patterns and strategies, together with an overlapping fourth theme, youth perspectives. Several positive aspects of wearing earplugs were identified, including long-term hearing protection and reduced levels of fatigue and pain. Musicians reported that earplugs present few problems for communication, improve sound clarity in ensembles, are discreet, and are easy to handle. However, earplugs also present challenges, including an overall dullness of sound, reduced immediacy, and an impaired ability to judge balance and intonation due to the occlusion effect, all of which influence usage habits and patterns. The experiences of the younger musicians and long-term users of earplugs indicate that practice, persistence, and a flexible approach are required for successful earplug usage. In time, there may be greater acceptance of earplugs, particularly amongst a new generation of musicians, some of whom regard the earplugs as a performance enhancement tool as well as a protective device.

  4. Learning Not to Listen: The Experiences of Musicians with Hearing Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulford, Robert; Ginsborg, Jane; Goldbart, Juliet

    2011-01-01

    The journey from playful musical exploration in childhood to an adult identity as a skilled musician is likely to be problematic for people with hearing impairments. Although a number of subjective accounts have been published, there is a lack of empirical research in the area. In this study, twelve musicians with hearing impairments were…

  5. Affirmation, Validation, and Empowerment: Influences of a Composition Competition on Students' Self-Concepts as Musicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Daniel J.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if participation in a composition competition influenced four K-12 students' self-concepts as musicians. Research questions explored motivations for these four students to enter into a composition competition, influences of the competition on students' self-concepts as musicians (if at all), and effects…

  6. East Meets West: Learning-Practices and Attitudes Towards Music-Making of Popular Musicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Annie O.

    2014-01-01

    Learning-practices of popular musicians are a prominent theme in Western music education literature; however, there appears to be a shortage of such literature in Asian countries. With the aim of comparing East and West, a qualitative study was conducted to investigate the learning-practices and involvement in music of Hong Kong popular musicians.…

  7. Auditory profiles of classical, jazz, and rock musicians: Genre-specific sensitivity to musical sound features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari eTervaniemi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available When compared with individuals without explicit training in music, adult musicians have facilitated neural functions in several modalities. They also display structural changes in various brain areas, these changes corresponding to the intensity and duration of their musical training. Previous studies have focused on investigating musicians with training in Western classical music. However, musicians involved in different musical genres may display highly differentiated auditory profiles according to the demands set by their genre, i.e. varying importance of different musical sound features. This hypothesis was tested in a novel melody paradigm including deviants in tuning, timbre, rhythm, melody transpositions, and melody contour. Using this paradigm while the participants were watching a silent video and instructed to ignore the sounds, we compared classical, jazz, and rock musicians’ and non-musicians’ accuracy of neural encoding of the melody. In all groups of participants, all deviants elicited an MMN response, which is a cortical index of deviance discrimination. The strength of the MMN and the subsequent attentional P3a responses reflected the importance of various sound features in each music genre: these automatic brain responses were selectively enhanced to deviants in tuning (classical musicians, timing (classical and jazz musicians, transposition (jazz musicians, and melody contour (jazz and rock musicians. Taken together, these results indicate that musicians with different training history have highly specialized cortical reactivity to sounds which violate the neural template for melody content.

  8. Old and New Generation Music and Musicians Exemplified Eunice U. I

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tracie1

    discovered that most of the old generation music and musicians fulfill societal expectations ... “Africa conceptualizes music in two primary and ... death, life, social relationships and retribution are persistent features. A few of them are on love, praise and nationalism”. It can also be said that musicians are often prophetic when.

  9. The Effects of Score Use on Musicians' Ratings of Choral Performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoles, Jessica

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether viewing a musical score while listening (as opposed to not viewing the score) would affect musicians' ratings of choral performance excerpts. University musicians (N = 240) listened to four excerpts of choral music (from Vivaldi's "Gloria") and rated them on a 10-point Likert-type scale for…

  10. Sound experiences: the vision of experimental musician on the folkloric music in modern society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rieko Tanaka

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This work begins narrating how folk music has always been a remnant in the influence on classical composers. It makes special mention of origin Hungarian musicians Bela Bartok, Zoltan Kodaly. This Musicians are considerate in this work as the most immediate ancestors of an experimental musicians northamericans, because both are influenced by their passion for folk music. We select as musicians principals exponents of American experimental music to John Cage, Lou Harrison and Carl Ruggles. Their works will be considered and analyzed in this text as the sounds as the experiences. Composers that will analyze the sound as experience, as feeling, as emotion, as time and origin. related traits in folk music and experimental music. Not forgetting in this work, and in his final considerations, the relationship between the musician, creation, society and art.

  11. A study into the neural processing of natural music in the brains of musicians and non-musicians by means of magnetoencephalography

    OpenAIRE

    Saghafifar, Houra

    2015-01-01

    Studying music processing in the brain is a complex task, which involves multidisciplinary skills to achieve the most constructive results. The current experiment investigated MEG brain signals of musicians, music amateurs and non-musicians while they were listening to three different complete music pieces. Brain signals were also recorded while the subjects were resting with their eyes closed and eyes open. The present study aimed to investigate possible differences between neural respons...

  12. Instrument specific use-dependent plasticity shapes the anatomical properties of the corpus callosum: a comparison between musicians and non-musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmann, Henning; Ragert, Patrick; Conde, Virginia; Villringer, Arno; Classen, Joseph; Witte, Otto W; Steele, Christopher J

    2014-01-01

    Long-term musical expertise has been shown to be associated with a number of functional and structural brain changes, making it an attractive model for investigating use-dependent plasticity in humans. Physiological interhemispheric inhibition (IHI) as examined by transcranial magnetic stimulation has been shown to be correlated with anatomical properties of the corpus callosum as indexed by fractional anisotropy (FA). However, whether or not IHI or the relationship between IHI and FA in the corpus callosum can be modified by different musical training regimes remains largely unknown. We investigated this question in musicians with different requirements for bimanual finger movements (piano and string players) and non-expert controls. IHI values were generally higher in musicians, but differed significantly from non-musicians only in string players. IHI was correlated with FA in the posterior midbody of the corpus callosum across all participants. Interestingly, subsequent analyses revealed that this relationship may indeed be modulated by different musical training regimes. Crucially, while string players had greater IHI than non-musicians and showed a positive structure-function relationship, the amount of IHI in pianists was comparable to that of non-musicians and there was no significant structure-function relationship. Our findings indicate instrument specific use-dependent plasticity in both functional (IHI) and structural (FA) connectivity of motor related brain regions in musicians.

  13. Instrument specific use-dependent plasticity shapes the anatomical properties of the corpus callosum: A comparison between musicians and non-musicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning eVollmann

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Long-term musical expertise has been shown to be associated with a number of functional and structural brain changes, making it an attractive model for investigating use-dependent plasticity in humans. Physiological interhemispheric inhibition (IHI as examined by transcranial magnetic stimulation has been shown to be correlated with anatomical properties of the corpus callosum as indexed by fractional anisotropy (FA. However, whether or not IHI or the relationship between IHI and FA in the corpus callosum can be modified by different musical training regimes remains largely unknown. We investigated this question in musicians with different requirements for bimanual finger movements (piano and string players and non-expert controls. IHI values were generally higher in musicians, but differed significantly from non-musicians only in string players. IHI was correlated with FA in the posterior midbody of the corpus callosum across all participants. Interestingly, subsequent analyses revealed that this relationship may indeed be modulated by different musical training regimes. Crucially, while string players had greater IHI than non-musicians and showed a positive structure-function relationship, the amount of IHI in pianists was comparable to that of non-musicians and there was no significant structure-function relationship. Our findings indicate instrument specific use-dependent plasticity in both functional (IHI and structural (FA connectivity of motor related brain regions in musicians.

  14. ISOMP: An Instant Service-Orchestration Mobile M2M Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cholhong Im

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Smartphones have greater computing power than ever before, providing convenient applications to improve our lives. In general, people find it difficult to locate suitable applications and implementing new applications often requires professional skills. In this paper, we propose a new service platform that facilitates the implementation of new applications by composing prebuilt components that provide the context information of mobile devices such as location and contacts. Our platform introduces an innovative concept named context collaboration, in which smartphones exchange context information with each other, which in turn is used to deduct useful inferences. The concept is realized by instant orchestration, which assembles some components and implements a composite component. The interactive communication interface helps a mobile device to communicate with other devices using open APIs, such as SOAP and HTTP (REST. The platform also works in heterogeneous environments, for example, between Android and iOS operating systems. Throughout the platform, mobile devices can act as smart M2M machines with context awareness, enabling intelligent tasks on behalf of users. Our platform will open up a new and innovative pathway for both enhanced mobile context awareness and M2M, which is expected to be a fundamental feature of the next generation of mobile devices.

  15. Space Weather Sonification for scientists, educators, and musicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peticolas, L. M.; Morales Manzanares, R.; Bithell, D.; Craig, N.; Luhmann, J. G.; Bale, S.

    2005-05-01

    The Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) Mission will be launched in 2006 in order to understand the origin and consequences of Coronal Mass Ejections (CME's). Two spacecrafts will orbit the Sun with instruments imaging the Sun and instruments measuring in-situ particle and fields. In preparation for the data gathered by the STEREO instruments, we have developed software to convert this space weather data into sound, a process known as sonification. We will show how this sonification project has been adapted to serve not only educators and the public wanting to hear data gathered from space, but also to serve the needs of scientists and musicians. Three separate software programs have been created in the Max/MSP programming language to map bins of data to musical sounds. This mapping varies from converting data to simple frequencies to converting the data to complicated filtered musical resonances. One program is designed for use in the classroom as well as for use as a tutorial for those new to sonification. A second program is designed for use by scientists who want to study data from the two STEREO spacecraft. And a third program is designed for use by musicians to use space weather data as an input to musical compositions. This project is part of the Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) component of the STEREO In-situ Measurements of Particles and CME Transients (IMPACT) suite of seven instruments with additional support from the STEREO/WAVES instrument suite.

  16. Encoding of motor skill in the corticomuscular system of musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentner, Reinhard; Gorges, Susanne; Weise, David; aufm Kampe, Kristin; Buttmann, Mathias; Classen, Joseph

    2010-10-26

    How motor skills are stored in the nervous system represents a fundamental question in neuroscience. Although musical motor skills are associated with a variety of adaptations [1-3], it remains unclear how these changes are linked to the known superior motor performance of expert musicians. Here we establish a direct and specific relationship between the functional organization of the corticomuscular system and skilled musical performance. Principal component analysis was used to identify joint correlation patterns in finger movements evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation over the primary motor cortex while subjects were at rest. Linear combinations of a selected subset of these patterns were used to reconstruct active instrumental playing or grasping movements. Reconstruction quality of instrumental playing was superior in skilled musicians compared to musically untrained subjects, displayed taxonomic specificity for the trained movement repertoire, and correlated with the cumulated long-term training exposure, but not with the recent past training history. In violinists, the reconstruction quality of grasping movements correlated negatively with the long-term training history of violin playing. Our results indicate that experience-dependent motor skills are specifically encoded in the functional organization of the primary motor cortex and its efferent system and are consistent with a model of skill coding by a modular neuronal architecture [4]. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Seeing Music? What musicians need to know about vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Schutz

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Music is inherently an auditory art form, rooted in sound, and generally analyzed in terms of its acoustic properties. However, as the process of hearing is affected by seeing, visual information does in fact play an important role in the musical experience. Vision influences many aspects of music – from evaluations of performance quality and audience interest to the perception of loudness, timbre, and note duration. Moreover, it can be used to achieve musical goals that are in fact acoustically impossible. As such, understanding the benefits of embracing (and the costs of ignoring vision’s role is essential for all musicians. Furthermore, since music represents a pervasive and ubiquitous human practice, this topic serves as an ideal case study for understanding how auditory and visual information are integrated. Given that some musically-based studies have challenged and even contributed to updating psychological theories of sensory integration, this topic represents a rich area of research, relevant to musicians and psychologists alike.

  18. Orchestration of Globally Distributed Knowledge within MNC Network: A Collaborative-oriented View

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sajadirad, Solmaz; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann; Søberg, Peder Veng

    2017-01-01

    -firm objects and the characteristics of knowledge orchestration processes. To this end, a conceptual framework is applied to eleven case studies from Danish industries. The findings suggest that adopting a collaborative-oriented view of the use of inter-firm objects facilitates orchestration of globally...... of headquarters’ control over knowledge flow and subsidiaries’ operation. Additionally, our findings propose that different approaches to knowledge orchestration can result in different degrees of innovation performance. This study extends existing literature on global knowledge management by focusing exclusively...... and effectiveness of globally distributed network....

  19. Music performance anxiety in young musicians: comparison of playing classical or popular music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusseck, Manfred; Zander, Mark; Spahn, Claudia

    2015-03-01

    Music performance anxiety (MPA) is an issue frequently experienced by musicians. It occurs not only in experienced musicians but also in children and adolescents. Furthermore, most research on MPA has been done with musicians who specialized in classical music. This study investigated the development of MPA across the ages in young musicians focusing on the classical and popular genres. In a cross-sectional survey, 239 students at German music schools, aged between 7 and 20 yrs, were asked about their perceived MPA and musical background. The data were analyzed according to musical genre and age. Multiple regression analyses were performed to investigate the influences of musical experiences on MPA. The analyses yielded high levels of MPA for classical musicians between 7 and 16 yrs, which was reduced in older students; for popular musicians, low MPA was seen in the younger (7-11 yrs) and high MPA in the older (16+ yrs) musicians. MPA was influenced by gender and the number of performances in the classical music group and only by gender and age in the popular music group. The results showed clear different trends for the development of MPA between musical genres that should be taken into account for educational aspects in musical training.

  20. Predicting protein amidation sites by orchestrating amino acid sequence features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shuqiu; Yu, Hua; Gong, Xiujun

    2017-08-01

    Amidation is the fourth major category of post-translational modifications, which plays an important role in physiological and pathological processes. Identifying amidation sites can help us understanding the amidation and recognizing the original reason of many kinds of diseases. But the traditional experimental methods for predicting amidation sites are often time-consuming and expensive. In this study, we propose a computational method for predicting amidation sites by orchestrating amino acid sequence features. Three kinds of feature extraction methods are used to build a feature vector enabling to capture not only the physicochemical properties but also position related information of the amino acids. An extremely randomized trees algorithm is applied to choose the optimal features to remove redundancy and dependence among components of the feature vector by a supervised fashion. Finally the support vector machine classifier is used to label the amidation sites. When tested on an independent data set, it shows that the proposed method performs better than all the previous ones with the prediction accuracy of 0.962 at the Matthew's correlation coefficient of 0.89 and area under curve of 0.964.

  1. Subjectivity of Time Perception: A Visual Emotional Orchestration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eLambrechts

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine how visual emotional content could orchestrate time perception. The experimental design allowed us to single out the share of emotion in the specific processing of content-bearing pictures, i.e. real-life scenes. Two groups of participants had to reproduce the duration (2, 4 or 6s of content-deprived stimuli (grey squares or differentially valenced content-bearing stimuli, which included neutral, pleasant and unpleasant pictures (IAPS. Results showed that the effect of content differed according to duration: for 2s, the reproduced duration was longer for content-bearing than content-deprived stimuli, but the difference between the two types of stimuli decreased as duration increased and was not significant for the longest duration (6s. For 4s, emotional (pleasant and unpleasant stimuli were judged longer than neutral pictures. Furthermore, whatever the duration, the precision of the reproduction was greater for non-emotional than emotional stimuli (pleasant and unpleasant. These results suggest a dissociation within content effect on timing: relative overestimation of all content-bearing pictures limited to short durations (2s, and delayed overestimation of emotional relative to neutral pictures at 4s, as well as a lesser precision in the temporal judgment of emotional pictures whatever the duration. The angle of emotion processing in time perception allows us to discuss a few theoretical models proposed in the timing literature.

  2. Lipid-cytokine-chemokine cascades orchestrate leukocyte recruitment in inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadik, Christian D; Luster, Andrew D

    2012-02-01

    Chemoattractants are pivotal mediators of host defense, orchestrating the recruitment of immune cells into sites of infection and inflammation. Chemoattractants display vast chemical diversity and include bioactive lipids, proteolytic fragments of serum proteins, and chemokines (chemotactic cytokines). All chemoattractants induce chemotaxis by activating seven-transmembrane-spanning GPCRs expressed on immune cells, establishing the concept that all chemoattractants are related in function. However, although chemoattractants have overlapping functions in vitro, recent in vivo data have revealed that they function, in many cases, nonredundantly in vivo. The chemically diverse nature of chemoattractants contributes to the fine control of leukocyte trafficking in vivo, with sequential chemoattractant use guiding immune cell recruitment into inflammatory sites. Lipid mediators frequently function as initiators of leukocyte recruitment, attracting the first immune cells into tissues. These initial responding immune cells produce cytokines locally, which in turn, induce the local release of chemokines. Local chemokine production then markedly amplifies subsequent waves of leukocyte recruitment. These new discoveries establish a paradigm for leukocyte recruitment in inflammation--described as lipid-cytokine-chemokine cascades--as a driving force in the effector phase of immune responses.

  3. Automation Hooks Architecture Trade Study for Flexible Test Orchestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansdowne, Chatwin A.; Maclean, John R.; Graffagnino, Frank J.; McCartney, Patrick A.

    2010-01-01

    We describe the conclusions of a technology and communities survey supported by concurrent and follow-on proof-of-concept prototyping to evaluate feasibility of defining a durable, versatile, reliable, visible software interface to support strategic modularization of test software development. The objective is that test sets and support software with diverse origins, ages, and abilities can be reliably integrated into test configurations that assemble and tear down and reassemble with scalable complexity in order to conduct both parametric tests and monitored trial runs. The resulting approach is based on integration of three recognized technologies that are currently gaining acceptance within the test industry and when combined provide a simple, open and scalable test orchestration architecture that addresses the objectives of the Automation Hooks task. The technologies are automated discovery using multicast DNS Zero Configuration Networking (zeroconf), commanding and data retrieval using resource-oriented Restful Web Services, and XML data transfer formats based on Automatic Test Markup Language (ATML). This open-source standards-based approach provides direct integration with existing commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) analysis software tools.

  4. Slow oscillations orchestrating fast oscillations and memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mölle, Matthias; Born, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Slow-wave sleep (SWS) facilitates the consolidation of hippocampus-dependent declarative memory. Based on the standard two-stage memory model, we propose that memory consolidation during SWS represents a process of system consolidation which is orchestrated by the neocortical memory. The slow oscillations temporally group neuronal activity into up-states of strongly enhanced neuronal activity and down-states of neuronal silence. In a feed-forward efferent action, this grouping is induced not only in the neocortex but also in other structures relevant to consolidation, namely the thalamus generating 10-15Hz spindles, and the hippocampus generating sharp wave-ripples, with the latter well known to accompany a replay of newly encoded memories taking place in hippocampal circuitries. The feed-forward synchronizing effect of the slow oscillation enables the formation of spindle-ripple events where ripples and accompanying reactivated hippocampal memory information become nested into the single troughs of spindles. Spindle-ripple events thus enable reactivated memory-related hippocampal information to be fed back to neocortical networks in the excitable slow oscillation up-state where they can induce enduring plastic synaptic changes underlying the effective formation of long-term memories. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The nucleosome: orchestrating DNA damage signaling and repair within chromatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Poonam; Miller, Kyle M

    2016-10-01

    DNA damage occurs within the chromatin environment, which ultimately participates in regulating DNA damage response (DDR) pathways and repair of the lesion. DNA damage activates a cascade of signaling events that extensively modulates chromatin structure and organization to coordinate DDR factor recruitment to the break and repair, whilst also promoting the maintenance of normal chromatin functions within the damaged region. For example, DDR pathways must avoid conflicts between other DNA-based processes that function within the context of chromatin, including transcription and replication. The molecular mechanisms governing the recognition, target specificity, and recruitment of DDR factors and enzymes to the fundamental repeating unit of chromatin, i.e., the nucleosome, are poorly understood. Here we present our current view of how chromatin recognition by DDR factors is achieved at the level of the nucleosome. Emerging evidence suggests that the nucleosome surface, including the nucleosome acidic patch, promotes the binding and activity of several DNA damage factors on chromatin. Thus, in addition to interactions with damaged DNA and histone modifications, nucleosome recognition by DDR factors plays a key role in orchestrating the requisite chromatin response to maintain both genome and epigenome integrity.

  6. The Effect of Tactile Cues on Auditory Stream Segregation Ability of Musicians and Nonmusicians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slater, Kyle D.; Marozeau, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    , we test whether tactile cues can be used to segregate 2 interleaved melodies. Twelve musicians and 12 nonmusicians were asked to detect changes in a 4-note repeated melody interleaved with a random melody. In order to perform this task, the listener must be able to segregate the target melody from...... the random melody. Tactile cues were applied to the listener’s fingers on half of the blocks. Results showed that tactile cues can significantly improve the melodic segregation ability in both musician and nonmusician groups in challenging listening conditions. Overall, the musician group performance...

  7. The correspondence between Miodrag Vasiljević and Bulgarian Musicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Jelena L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The Serbian ethnomusicologist and music pedagogue Miodrag A. Vasiljević corresponded with colleagues from neighboring Bulgaria between 1934 and 1962. This exchange of letters went through three phases. The first phase was linked with his stay in Skopje until the breakout of World War II; during the second phase - in the course of the 1940's - he was active in the Department for Folk Music at Radio Belgrade and he founded his method of music teaching on traditional Serbian music; in the third phase (the 1950's and beginning of 1960's Vasiljević aimed at a closer cooperation with Bulgarian musicians. All the phases are characterized by his pronounced interest in the folk music heritage of Balkan peoples. At the beginning that interest was focused on popularizing art music that was based on folk music. Later, he enthusiastically carried out his reforms of music teaching in Serbia, as well as improvements of methods in Serbian ethnomusicology.

  8. Neurological problems of famous musicians: the classical genre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newmark, Jonathan

    2009-08-01

    Neurological histories of great musicians allow for a unique perspective on music physiology. Bedrich Smetana's autobiographical string quartet ends with the musical equivalent of tinnitus in the fourth movement, rendering the youthful and passionate themes of earlier movements moot as the piece ends depicting his ultimately fatal disease, neurosyphilis. Dmitri Shostakovich survived the censorship of Joseph Stalin's apparatchiks but suffered a prolonged form of paralysis attributable to slowly progressive motor neuron disease, although the viola sonata he wrote on his deathbed has become standard repertoire. Glenn Gould was a hypochondriacal pianist with obsessive-compulsive disorder and suspected Asperger syndrome. Vissarion Shebalin and (Ira) Randall Thompson had strokes followed by aphasia without amusia. Domenico Scarlatti provides an example of how even great composers must alter their technical expectations depending upon the skills and body habitus of their chief patrons. The focal dystonia afflicting Leon Fleisher and Gary Graffman catalyzed the discipline of performing arts medicine.

  9. The Link Between Entrepreneurial Attributes And Ecosystem Orchestration: The Case Of Q-Search

    OpenAIRE

    Pop, Oana; Rus, Diana; Roijakkers, Nadine; Hins, Marjolein

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the internal dynamics of entrepreneurial ecosystems and the entrepreneur's role in creating and orchestrating a framework for shared value creation by means of qualitative data capturing 15 years of development of an HR services ecosystem in The Netherlands. Specifically, the focus rests on the complex interplay between ecosystem goals, entrepreneurial attributes, orchestration actions, value creation for the ecosystem partners, and ecosystem outcomes over time. Our findin...

  10. Action and familiarity effects on self and other expert musicians' Laban effort-shape analyses of expressive bodily behaviors in instrumental music performance: a case study approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughton, Mary C; Davidson, Jane W

    2014-01-01

    Self-reflective performance review and expert evaluation are features of Western music performance practice. While music is usually the focus, visual information provided by performing musicians' expressive bodily behaviors communicates expressiveness to musically trained and untrained observers. Yet, within a seemingly homogenous group, such as one of musically trained individuals, diversity of experience exists. Individual differences potentially affect perception of the subtleties of expressive performance, and performers' effective communication of their expressive intentions. This study aimed to compare self- and other expert musicians' perception of expressive bodily behaviors observed in marimba performance. We hypothesized that analyses of expressive bodily behaviors differ between expert musicians according to their specialist motor expertise and familiarity with the music. Two professional percussionists and experienced marimba players, and one professional classical singer took part in the study. Participants independently conducted Laban effort-shape analysis - proposing that intentions manifest in bodily activity are understood through shared embodied processes - of a marimbists' expressive bodily behaviors in an audio-visual performance recording. For one percussionist, this was a self-reflective analysis. The work was unfamiliar to the other percussionist and singer. Perception of the performer's expressive bodily behaviors appeared to differ according to participants' individual instrumental or vocal motor expertise, and familiarity with the music. Furthermore, individual type of motor experience appeared to direct participants' attention in approaching the analyses. Findings support forward and inverse perception-action models, and embodied cognitive theory. Implications offer scientific rigor and artistic interest for how performance practitioners can reflectively analyze performance to improve expressive communication.

  11. Job-Related Stressors of Classical Instrumental Musicians: A Systematic Qualitative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervainioti, A; Alexopoulos, E C

    2015-12-01

    Epidemiological studies among performing artists have found elevated stress levels and health effects, but scarcely the full range of stressors has been reported. We review here the existing literature on job-related stressors of classical instrumental musicians (orchestra musicians). PubMed, Google Scholar and JSTOR databases were screened for relevant papers indexed up to August 2012. A total of 122 papers was initially identified which, after exclusion of duplicates and those not meeting eligibility criteria, yielded 67 articles for final analysis. We identified seven categories of stressors affecting musicians in their everyday working lives: public exposure, personal hazards, repertoire, competition, job context, injury/illness, and criticism, but with interrelated assigned factors. The proposed categories provide a framework for future comprehensive research on the impact and management of musician stressors.

  12. Revisiting the "enigma" of musicians with dyslexia: Auditory sequencing and speech abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuk, Jennifer; Bishop-Liebler, Paula; Ozernov-Palchik, Ola; Moore, Emma; Overy, Katie; Welch, Graham; Gaab, Nadine

    2017-04-01

    Previous research has suggested a link between musical training and auditory processing skills. Musicians have shown enhanced perception of auditory features critical to both music and speech, suggesting that this link extends beyond basic auditory processing. It remains unclear to what extent musicians who also have dyslexia show these specialized abilities, considering often-observed persistent deficits that coincide with reading impairments. The present study evaluated auditory sequencing and speech discrimination in 52 adults comprised of musicians with dyslexia, nonmusicians with dyslexia, and typical musicians. An auditory sequencing task measuring perceptual acuity for tone sequences of increasing length was administered. Furthermore, subjects were asked to discriminate synthesized syllable continua varying in acoustic components of speech necessary for intraphonemic discrimination, which included spectral (formant frequency) and temporal (voice onset time [VOT] and amplitude envelope) features. Results indicate that musicians with dyslexia did not significantly differ from typical musicians and performed better than nonmusicians with dyslexia for auditory sequencing as well as discrimination of spectral and VOT cues within syllable continua. However, typical musicians demonstrated superior performance relative to both groups with dyslexia for discrimination of syllables varying in amplitude information. These findings suggest a distinct profile of speech processing abilities in musicians with dyslexia, with specific weaknesses in discerning amplitude cues within speech. Because these difficulties seem to remain persistent in adults with dyslexia despite musical training, this study only partly supports the potential for musical training to enhance the auditory processing skills known to be crucial for literacy in individuals with dyslexia. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Revisiting the 'enigma' of musicians with dyslexia: auditory sequencing and speech abilities

    OpenAIRE

    Zuk, J.; Bishop-Liebler, P.; Ozernov-Palchik, O.; Moore, E.; Overy, K.; Welch, G.; Gaab, N.

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has suggested a link between musical training and auditory processing skills. Musicians have shown enhanced perception of auditory features critical to both music and speech, suggesting that this link extends beyond basic auditory processing. It remains unclear to what extent musicians who also have dyslexia show these specialized abilities, considering often-observed persistent deficits that coincide with reading impairments. The present study evaluated auditory sequencing ...

  14. Profiling the Location and Extent of Musicians' Pain Using Digital Pain Drawings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruder, Cinzia; Falla, Deborah; Mangili, Francesca; Azzimonti, Laura; Araújo, Liliana S; Williamon, Aaron; Barbero, Marco

    2017-05-02

    According to existing literature, musicians are at risk of experiencing a range of painful musculoskeletal conditions. Recently, a novel digital technology was developed to investigate pain location and pain extent. The aim of this study was to describe pain location and pain extent in musicians using a digital method for pain drawing (PD) analysis. Additionally, the association between PD variables and clinical features were explored in musicians with pain. One hundred and fifty-eight musicians (90 women and 68 men; aged 22.4 ± 3.6 years) were recruited from Swiss and U.K. conservatories. Participants were asked to complete a survey including both background musical information and clinical features, the QuickDASH (QD) questionnaire, and the digital PDs. Of the 158 participants, 126 musicians (79.7%) reported having pain, with higher prevalence in the areas of the neck and shoulders, the lower back, and the right arm. The mean percentage of pain extent was 3.1% ± 6.5%. The mean QD score was higher for musicians with pain than for those without pain. Additionally, the results indicated a positive correlation between the QD score and pain extent, and there were significant correlations between age and pain intensity, as well as between pain extent and pain intensity. The high prevalence of pain among musicians has been confirmed using a digital technique for PD acquisition and analysis. In addition, positive correlations between pain extent and upper limb disability have been demonstrated. Our findings highlight the need for effective prevention and treatment strategies for musicians. © 2017 World Institute of Pain.

  15. Effects of practice and experience on the arcuate fasciculus: comparing singers, instrumentalists, and non-musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halwani, Gus F; Loui, Psyche; Rüber, Theodor; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2011-01-01

    Structure and function of the human brain are affected by training in both linguistic and musical domains. Individuals with intensive vocal musical training provide a useful model for investigating neural adaptations of learning in the vocal-motor domain and can be compared with learning in a more general musical domain. Here we confirm general differences in macrostructure (tract volume) and microstructure (fractional anisotropy, FA) of the arcuate fasciculus (AF), a prominent white-matter tract connecting temporal and frontal brain regions, between singers, instrumentalists, and non-musicians. Both groups of musicians differed from non-musicians in having larger tract volume and higher FA values of the right and left AF. The AF was then subdivided in a dorsal (superior) branch connecting the superior temporal gyrus and the inferior frontal gyrus (STG ↔ IFG), and ventral (inferior) branch connecting the middle temporal gyrus and the inferior frontal gyrus (MTG ↔ IFG). Relative to instrumental musicians, singers had a larger tract volume but lower FA values in the left dorsal AF (STG ↔ IFG), and a similar trend in the left ventral AF (MTG ↔ IFG). This between-group comparison controls for the general effects of musical training, although FA was still higher in singers compared to non-musicians. Both musician groups had higher tract volumes in the right dorsal and ventral tracts compared to non-musicians, but did not show a significant difference between each other. Furthermore, in the singers' group, FA in the left dorsal branch of the AF was inversely correlated with the number of years of participants' vocal training. Our findings suggest that long-term vocal-motor training might lead to an increase in volume and microstructural complexity of specific white-matter tracts connecting regions that are fundamental to sound perception, production, and its feedforward and feedback control which can be differentiated from a more general musician

  16. Effects of practice and experience on the arcuate fasciculus: comparing singers, instrumentalists, and non-musicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gus F. Halwani

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Structure and function of the human brain are affected by training in both linguistic and musical domains. Individuals with intensive vocal musical training provide a useful model for investigating neural adaptations of learning in the vocal-motor domain and can be compared with learning in a more general musical domain. Here we confirm general differences in macrostructure (tract volume and microstructure (fractional anisotropy (FA of the arcuate fasciculus (AF, a prominent white-matter tract connecting temporal and frontal brain regions, between singers, instrumentalists, and non-musicians. Both groups of musicians differed from non-musicians in having larger tract volume and higher FA values of the right and left AF. The AF was then subdivided in a dorsal (superior branch connecting the superior temporal gyrus and the inferior frontal gyrus (STG<–>IFG, and ventral (inferior branch connecting the middle temporal gyrus and the inferior frontal gyrus (MTG<–>IFG. Relative to instrumental musicians, singers had a larger tract volume but lower FA values in the left dorsal AF (STG<–>IFG, and a similar trend in the left ventral AF (MTG<–>IFG. This between-group comparison controls for the general effects of musical training, although FA was still higher in singers compared to non-musicians. Both musician groups had higher tract volumes in the right dorsal and ventral tracts compared to non-musicians, but did not show a significant difference between each other. Furthermore, in the singers’ group, FA in the left dorsal branch of the AF was inversely correlated with the number of years of participants’ vocal training. Our findings suggest that long-term vocal-motor training might lead to an increase in volume and microstructural complexity of specific white matter tracts connecting regions that are fundamental to sound perception, production, and its feedforward and feedback control which can be differentiated from a more general musician

  17. Incorporating Wind Excerpts in the School Band Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Professional musicians and college students commonly study orchestral excerpts, but a similar practice has yet to be implemented in the band field. Due to their widespread use in orchestral auditions, excerpts have been incorporated as a tool for musical development. Many college professors regularly assign excerpt study as part of their…

  18. Sonographic alteration of lenticular nucleus in focal task-specific dystonia of musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Uwe; Buttkus, Franziska; Benecke, Reiner; Grossmann, Annette; Dressler, Dirk; Altenmüller, Eckart

    2012-01-01

    In distinct movement disorders, transcranial sonography detects alterations of deep brain structures with higher sensitivity than other neuroimaging methods. Lenticular nucleus hyperechogenicity on transcranial sonography, thought to be caused by increased local copper content, has been reported as a characteristic finding in primary spontaneous dystonia. Here, we wanted to find out whether deep brain structures are altered in task-specific dystonia. The frequency of sonographic brainstem and basal ganglia changes was studied in an investigator-blinded setting in 15 musicians with focal task-specific hand dystonia, 15 musicians without dystonia, and 15 age- and sex-matched nonmusicians without dystonia. Lenticular nucleus hyperechogenicity was found in 12 musicians with task-specific dystonia, but only in 3 nondystonic musicians (Fisher's exact test, p = 0.001) and 2 nonmusicians (p musicians correlated with age, but not with duration of music practice or duration of dystonia. In 2 of 3 affected musicians with normal echogenic lenticular nucleus, substantia nigra hyperechogenicity was found. Our findings support the idea of a pathogenetic link between primary spontaneous and task-specific dystonia. Sonographic basal ganglia alteration might indicate a risk factor that in combination with extensive fine motor training promotes the manifestation of task-specific dystonia. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Modulation of Functional Connectivity in Auditory-Motor Networks in Musicians Compared with Nonmusicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomar-García, María-Ángeles; Zatorre, Robert J; Ventura-Campos, Noelia; Bueichekú, Elisenda; Ávila, César

    2017-05-01

    Correlation of spontaneous fluctuations at rest between anatomically distinct brain areas are proposed to reflect the profile of individual a priori cognitive biases, coded as synaptic efficacies in cortical networks. Here, we investigate functional connectivity at rest (rs-FC) in musicians and nonmusicians to test for differences in auditory, motor, and audiomotor connectivity. As expected, musicians had stronger rs-FC between the right auditory cortex (AC) and the right ventral premotor cortex than nonmusicians, and this stronger rs-FC was greater in musicians with more years of practice. We also found reduced rs-FC between the motor areas that control both hands in musicians compared with nonmusicians, which was more evident in the musicians whose instrument required bimanual coordination and as a function of hours of practice. Finally, we replicated previous morphometric data to show an increased volume in the right AC in musicians, which was greater in those with earlier musical training, and that this anatomic feature was in turn related to greater rs-FC between auditory and motor systems. These results show that functional coupling within the motor system and between motor and auditory areas is modulated as a function of musical training, suggesting a link between anatomic and functional brain features. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Osteocytes: mechanosensors of bone and orchestrators of mechanical adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein-Nulend, J.; Bakker, A.D.

    2007-01-01

    Significant progress has been made in the field of mechanotransduction in bone cells. The knowledge about the role of osteocytes as the professional mechanosensor cells of bone as well as the lacuno-canalicular porosity as the structure that mediates mechanosensing is increasing. New insights might

  1. Understanding how discrete populations of hypothalamic neurons orchestrate complicated behavioral states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison eGraebner

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A major question in systems neuroscience is how a single population of neurons can interact with the rest of the brain to orchestrate complex behavioral states. The hypothalamus contains many such discrete neuronal populations that individually regulate arousal, feeding, and drinking. For example, hypothalamic neurons that express hypocretin (Hcrt neuropeptides can sense homeostatic and metabolic factors affecting wakefulness and orchestrate organismal arousal. Neurons that express agouti-related protein (AgRP can sense the metabolic needs of the body and orchestrate a state of hunger. The organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT can detect the hypertonicity of blood and orchestrate a state of thirst. Each hypothalamic population is sufficient to generate complicated behavioral states through the combined efforts of distinct efferent projections. The principal challenge to understanding these brain systems is therefore to determine the individual roles of each downstream projection for each behavioral state. In recent years, the development and application of temporally precise, genetically encoded tools have greatly improved our understanding of the structure and function of these neural systems. This review will survey recent advances in our understanding of how these individual hypothalamic populations can orchestrate complicated behavioral states due to the combined efforts of individual downstream projections.

  2. What Classical Musicians Can Learn from Working with Actors: Conceptual and Pedagogic Foundations and Outcomes of Bringing Musicians to Integrate in a Drama Training Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rea, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Effective teaching in a music conservatoire needs a continual quest to find new and better ways of delivering excellence. The challenge is to keep the work innovative. In this article I argue that, for a classical musician the communication of personality is a vital component of excellence in performance and I give reasons why an authentic,…

  3. Noise exposure of musicians of a ballet orchestra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Liang Qian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available With over 70 dancers and its own orchestra, The National Ballet of Canada ranks amongst the world′s top dance companies. It performs three seasons annually: fall, winter and summer, plus many shows of Tchaikovsky′s Nutcracker. The 70-strong orchestra plays an average of 360 hours/year including rehearsals and performances. Rehearsals are held at two locations: one in a ballet rehearsal room with little or no absorption, and the other in an acoustically treated location. Performances are held in the Four Seasons Centre for the Performing Arts in Toronto. The present survey was done at the request of the National Ballet, since the musicians complained of excessive sound levels and were concerned about possible hearing losses. The survey was performed using five dosimeters Quest Mod 300 during 10 performances of the ballet Romeo and Juliet by Sergei Prokofiev, deemed as the noisiest in the whole repertoire. Results of the survey indicate that the noise exposure levels from only the orchestra′s activities do not present risk of hearing loss. Exposure due to other musical activities was, however, not included.

  4. Musicians, postural quality and musculoskeletal health: A literature's review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Piñeiro, Patricia; Díaz-Pereira, M Pino; Martínez, Aurora

    2017-01-01

    An analysis of the salient characteristics of research papers published between 1989 and 2015 that evaluate the relationship between postural quality during musical performance and various performance quality and health factors, with emphasis on musculoskeletal health variables. Searches of Medline, Scopus and Google Scholar for papers that analysed the subject of the study objective. The following MeSH descriptors were used: posture; postural balance; muscle, skeletal; task performance and analysis; back; and spine and music. A descriptive statistical analysis of their methodology (sample types, temporal design, and postural, health and other variables analysed) and findings has been made. The inclusion criterion was that the body postural quality of the musicians during performance was included among the target study variables. Forty-one relevant empirical studies were found, written in English. Comparison and analysis of their results was hampered by great disparities in measuring instruments and operationalization of variables. Despite the growing interest in the relationships among these variables, the empirical knowledge base still has many limitations, making rigorous comparative analysis difficult. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Seeking creativity: A case study on information problem solving in professional music

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wopereis, Iwan; Derix, Egbert

    2018-01-01

    This study explored the information problem solving behavior of a professional jazz musician during creative work. It aimed at revealing information seeking activities necessary to execute present-day musical projects. A single case was studied in depth. First, a narrative interview was conducted to

  6. Seeking creativity: A case study on information problem solving in professional music

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wopereis, Iwan; Derix, Egbert

    2017-01-01

    This study explored the information seeking behavior of a professional jazz musician during creative work. It aimed at revealing information seeking activities necessary to execute present-day musical projects. A single case was studied in depth. First, a narrative interview was conducted to reveal

  7. Coordinated plasticity in brainstem and auditory cortex contributes to enhanced categorical speech perception in musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidelman, Gavin M; Weiss, Michael W; Moreno, Sylvain; Alain, Claude

    2014-08-01

    Musicianship is associated with neuroplastic changes in brainstem and cortical structures, as well as improved acuity for behaviorally relevant sounds including speech. However, further advance in the field depends on characterizing how neuroplastic changes in brainstem and cortical speech processing relate to one another and to speech-listening behaviors. Here, we show that subcortical and cortical neural plasticity interact to yield the linguistic advantages observed with musicianship. We compared brainstem and cortical neuroelectric responses elicited by a series of vowels that differed along a categorical speech continuum in amateur musicians and non-musicians. Musicians obtained steeper identification functions and classified speech sounds more rapidly than non-musicians. Behavioral advantages coincided with more robust and temporally coherent brainstem phase-locking to salient speech cues (voice pitch and formant information) coupled with increased amplitude in cortical-evoked responses, implying an overall enhancement in the nervous system's responsiveness to speech. Musicians' subcortical and cortical neural enhancements (but not behavioral measures) were correlated with their years of formal music training. Associations between multi-level neural responses were also stronger in musically trained listeners, and were better predictors of speech perception than in non-musicians. Results suggest that musicianship modulates speech representations at multiple tiers of the auditory pathway, and strengthens the correspondence of processing between subcortical and cortical areas to allow neural activity to carry more behaviorally relevant information. We infer that musicians have a refined hierarchy of internalized representations for auditory objects at both pre-attentive and attentive levels that supplies more faithful phonemic templates to decision mechanisms governing linguistic operations. © 2014 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley

  8. A Comparative Case Study of Learning Strategies and Recommendations of Five Professional Musicians with Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Kent Peter; Hourigan, Ryan M.

    2016-01-01

    Many of the characteristics of dyslexia--such as difficulties with decoding written symbols, phonemic awareness, physical coordination, and readable handwriting--may adversely affect music learning. Despite challenges, individuals with dyslexia can succeed in music. The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of five professional…

  9. Variations on the theme of musical expertise: cognitive and sensory processing in percussionists, vocalists and non-musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Jessica; Azem, Andrea; Nicol, Trent; Swedenborg, Britta; Kraus, Nina

    2017-04-01

    Comparisons of musicians and non-musicians have revealed enhanced cognitive and sensory processing in musicians, with longitudinal studies suggesting these enhancements may be due in part to experience-based plasticity. Here, we investigate the impact of primary instrument on the musician signature of expertise by assessing three groups of young adults: percussionists, vocalists, and non-musician controls. We hypothesize that primary instrument engenders selective enhancements reflecting the most salient acoustic features to that instrument, whereas cognitive functions are enhanced regardless of instrument. Consistent with our hypotheses, percussionists show more precise encoding of the fast-changing acoustic features of speech than non-musicians, whereas vocalists have better frequency discrimination and show stronger encoding of speech harmonics than non-musicians. There were no strong advantages to specialization in sight-reading vs. improvisation. These effects represent subtle nuances to the signature since the musician groups do not differ from each other in these measures. Interestingly, percussionists outperform both non-musicians and vocalists in inhibitory control. Follow-up analyses reveal that within the vocalists and non-musicians, better proficiency on an instrument other than voice is correlated with better inhibitory control. Taken together, these outcomes suggest the more extensive engagement of motor systems during instrumental practice may be an important factor for enhancements in inhibitory control, consistent with evidence for overlapping neural circuitry involved in both motor and cognitive control. These findings contribute to the ongoing refinement of the musician signature of expertise and may help to inform the use of music in training and intervention to strengthen cognitive function. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Neuroarchitecture of verbal and tonal working memory in nonmusicians and musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Katrin; Zysset, Stefan; Mueller, Karsten; Friederici, Angela D; Koelsch, Stefan

    2011-05-01

    Working memory (WM) for auditory information has been thought of as a unitary system, but whether WM for verbal and tonal information relies on the same or different functional neuroarchitectures has remained unknown. This fMRI study examines verbal and tonal WM in both nonmusicians (who are trained in speech, but not in music) and highly trained musicians (who are trained in both domains). The data show that core structures of WM are involved in both tonal and verbal WM (Broca's area, premotor cortex, pre-SMA/SMA, left insular cortex, inferior parietal lobe), although with significantly different structural weightings, in both nonmusicians and musicians. Additionally, musicians activated specific subcomponents only during verbal (right insular cortex) or only during tonal WM (right globus pallidus, right caudate nucleus, and left cerebellum). These results reveal the existence of two WM systems in musicians: A phonological loop supporting rehearsal of phonological information, and a tonal loop supporting rehearsal of tonal information. Differences between groups for tonal WM, and between verbal and tonal WM within musicians, were mainly related to structures involved in controlling, programming and planning of actions, thus presumably reflecting differences in action-related sensorimotor coding of verbal and tonal information. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Differential parietal and temporal contributions to music perception in improvising and score-dependent musicians, an fMRI study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harris, Robert; de Jong, Bauke M.

    2015-01-01

    Using fMRI, cerebral activations were studied in 24 classically-trained keyboard performers and 12 musically unskilled control subjects. Two groups of musicians were recruited: improvising (n=12) and score-dependent (non-improvising) musicians (n=12). While listening to both familiar and unfamiliar

  12. Musicians do not benefit from differences in fundamental frequency when listening to speech in competing speech backgrounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Sara Miay Kim; Whiteford, Kelly L.; Oxenham, Andrew J.

    2017-01-01

    . Here we studied a relatively large (N=60) cohort of young adults, equally divided between nonmusicians and highly trained musicians, to test whether the musicians were better able to understand speech either in noise or in a two-talker competing speech masker. The target speech and competing speech...... that musical training leads to improved speech intelligibility in complex speech or noise backgrounds....

  13. Action in Perception: Prominent Visuo-Motor Functional Symmetry in Musicians during Music Listening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burunat, Iballa; Brattico, Elvira; Puoliväli, Tuomas; Ristaniemi, Tapani; Sams, Mikko; Toiviainen, Petri

    2015-01-01

    Musical training leads to sensory and motor neuroplastic changes in the human brain. Motivated by findings on enlarged corpus callosum in musicians and asymmetric somatomotor representation in string players, we investigated the relationship between musical training, callosal anatomy, and interhemispheric functional symmetry during music listening. Functional symmetry was increased in musicians compared to nonmusicians, and in keyboardists compared to string players. This increased functional symmetry was prominent in visual and motor brain networks. Callosal size did not significantly differ between groups except for the posterior callosum in musicians compared to nonmusicians. We conclude that the distinctive postural and kinematic symmetry in instrument playing cross-modally shapes information processing in sensory-motor cortical areas during music listening. This cross-modal plasticity suggests that motor training affects music perception. PMID:26422790

  14. Action in Perception: Prominent Visuo-Motor Functional Symmetry in Musicians during Music Listening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iballa Burunat

    Full Text Available Musical training leads to sensory and motor neuroplastic changes in the human brain. Motivated by findings on enlarged corpus callosum in musicians and asymmetric somatomotor representation in string players, we investigated the relationship between musical training, callosal anatomy, and interhemispheric functional symmetry during music listening. Functional symmetry was increased in musicians compared to nonmusicians, and in keyboardists compared to string players. This increased functional symmetry was prominent in visual and motor brain networks. Callosal size did not significantly differ between groups except for the posterior callosum in musicians compared to nonmusicians. We conclude that the distinctive postural and kinematic symmetry in instrument playing cross-modally shapes information processing in sensory-motor cortical areas during music listening. This cross-modal plasticity suggests that motor training affects music perception.

  15. Action in Perception: Prominent Visuo-Motor Functional Symmetry in Musicians during Music Listening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burunat, Iballa; Brattico, Elvira; Puoliväli, Tuomas; Ristaniemi, Tapani; Sams, Mikko; Toiviainen, Petri

    2015-01-01

    Musical training leads to sensory and motor neuroplastic changes in the human brain. Motivated by findings on enlarged corpus callosum in musicians and asymmetric somatomotor representation in string players, we investigated the relationship between musical training, callosal anatomy, and interhemispheric functional symmetry during music listening. Functional symmetry was increased in musicians compared to nonmusicians, and in keyboardists compared to string players. This increased functional symmetry was prominent in visual and motor brain networks. Callosal size did not significantly differ between groups except for the posterior callosum in musicians compared to nonmusicians. We conclude that the distinctive postural and kinematic symmetry in instrument playing cross-modally shapes information processing in sensory-motor cortical areas during music listening. This cross-modal plasticity suggests that motor training affects music perception.

  16. Enhanced phase synchrony in the electroencephalograph γ band for musicians while listening to music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Joydeep; Petsche, Hellmuth

    2001-07-01

    Multichannel electroencephalograph signals from two broad groups, 10 musicians and 10 nonmusicians, recorded in different states (in resting states or no task condition, with eyes opened and eyes closed, and with two musical tasks, listening to two different pieces of music) were studied. Degrees of phase synchrony in various frequency bands were assessed. No differences in the degree of synchronization in any frequency band were found between the two groups in resting conditions. Yet, while listening to music, significant increases of synchronization were found only in the γ-frequency range (>30 Hz) over large cortical areas for the group of musicians. This high degree of synchronization elicited by music in the group of musicians might be due to their ability to host long-term memory representations of music and mediate access to these stored representations.

  17. Behavioral Quantification of Audiomotor Transformations in Improvising and Score-Dependent Musicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Robert; van Kranenburg, Peter; de Jong, Bauke M.

    2016-01-01

    The historically developed practice of learning to play a music instrument from notes instead of by imitation or improvisation makes it possible to contrast two types of skilled musicians characterized not only by dissimilar performance practices, but also disparate methods of audiomotor learning. In a recent fMRI study comparing these two groups of musicians while they either imagined playing along with a recording or covertly assessed the quality of the performance, we observed activation of a right-hemisphere network of posterior superior parietal and dorsal premotor cortices in improvising musicians, indicating more efficient audiomotor transformation. In the present study, we investigated the detailed performance characteristics underlying the ability of both groups of musicians to replicate music on the basis of aural perception alone. Twenty-two classically-trained improvising and score-dependent musicians listened to short, unfamiliar two-part excerpts presented with headphones. They played along or replicated the excerpts by ear on a digital piano, either with or without aural feedback. In addition, they were asked to harmonize or transpose some of the excerpts either to a different key or to the relative minor. MIDI recordings of their performances were compared with recordings of the aural model. Concordance was expressed in an audiomotor alignment score computed with the help of music information retrieval algorithms. Significantly higher alignment scores were found when contrasting groups, voices, and tasks. The present study demonstrates the superior ability of improvising musicians to replicate both the pitch and rhythm of aurally perceived music at the keyboard, not only in the original key, but also in other tonalities. Taken together with the enhanced activation of the right dorsal frontoparietal network found in our previous fMRI study, these results underscore the conclusion that the practice of improvising music can be associated with enhanced

  18. The Alexander Technique and musicians: a systematic review of controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Sabine D; Bayard, Claudine; Wolf, Ursula

    2014-10-24

    Musculoskeletal disorders, stress and performance anxiety are common in musicians. Therefore, some use the Alexander Technique (AT), a psycho-physical method that helps to release unnecessary muscle tension and re-educates non-beneficial movement patterns through intentional inhibition of unwanted habitual behaviours. According to a recent review AT sessions may be effective for chronic back pain. This review aimed to evaluate the evidence for the effectiveness of AT sessions on musicians' performance, anxiety, respiratory function and posture. The following electronic databases were searched up to February 2014 for relevant publications: PUBMED, Google Scholar, CINAHL, EMBASE, AMED, PsycINFO and RILM. The search criteria were "Alexander Technique" AND "music*". References were searched, and experts and societies of AT or musicians' medicine contacted for further publications. 237 citations were assessed. 12 studies were included for further analysis, 5 of which were randomised controlled trials (RCTs), 5 controlled but not randomised (CTs), and 2 mixed methods studies. Main outcome measures in RCTs and CTs were music performance, respiratory function, performance anxiety, body use and posture. Music performance was judged by external experts and found to be improved by AT in 1 of 3 RCTs; in 1 RCT comparing neurofeedback (NF) to AT, only NF caused improvements. Respiratory function was investigated in 2 RCTs, but not improved by AT training. Performance anxiety was mostly assessed by questionnaires and decreased by AT in 2 of 2 RCTs and in 2 of 2 CTs. A variety of outcome measures has been used to investigate the effectiveness of AT sessions in musicians. Evidence from RCTs and CTs suggests that AT sessions may improve performance anxiety in musicians. Effects on music performance, respiratory function and posture yet remain inconclusive. Future trials with well-established study designs are warranted to further and more reliably explore the potential of AT in the

  19. Behavioral Quantification of Audiomotor Transformations in Improvising and Score-Dependent Musicians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Harris

    Full Text Available The historically developed practice of learning to play a music instrument from notes instead of by imitation or improvisation makes it possible to contrast two types of skilled musicians characterized not only by dissimilar performance practices, but also disparate methods of audiomotor learning. In a recent fMRI study comparing these two groups of musicians while they either imagined playing along with a recording or covertly assessed the quality of the performance, we observed activation of a right-hemisphere network of posterior superior parietal and dorsal premotor cortices in improvising musicians, indicating more efficient audiomotor transformation. In the present study, we investigated the detailed performance characteristics underlying the ability of both groups of musicians to replicate music on the basis of aural perception alone. Twenty-two classically-trained improvising and score-dependent musicians listened to short, unfamiliar two-part excerpts presented with headphones. They played along or replicated the excerpts by ear on a digital piano, either with or without aural feedback. In addition, they were asked to harmonize or transpose some of the excerpts either to a different key or to the relative minor. MIDI recordings of their performances were compared with recordings of the aural model. Concordance was expressed in an audiomotor alignment score computed with the help of music information retrieval algorithms. Significantly higher alignment scores were found when contrasting groups, voices, and tasks. The present study demonstrates the superior ability of improvising musicians to replicate both the pitch and rhythm of aurally perceived music at the keyboard, not only in the original key, but also in other tonalities. Taken together with the enhanced activation of the right dorsal frontoparietal network found in our previous fMRI study, these results underscore the conclusion that the practice of improvising music can be

  20. STTEPping in the Right Direction? Western Classical Music in an Orchestral Programme for Disadvantaged African Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Niekerk, Caroline; Salminen, Sanna

    2008-01-01

    This article looks at STTEP, an outreach project currently housed at the University of Pretoria, which concentrates on the teaching of western orchestral instruments, plus background areas such as music theory, to disadvantaged children and youth from a variety of townships around Pretoria, South Africa. STTEP's direction can well be described as…

  1. WPS orchestration using the Taverna workbench: The eScience approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jesus, J.; Walker, P.; Grant, M.; Groom, S.

    2012-10-01

    eScience is an umbrella concept which covers internet technologies, such as web service orchestration that involves manipulation and processing of high volumes of data, using simple and efficient methodologies. This concept is normally associated with bioinformatics, but nothing prevents the use of an identical approach for geoinfomatics and OGC (Open Geospatial Consortium) web services like WPS (Web Processing Service). In this paper we present an extended WPS implementation based on the PyWPS framework using an automatically generated WSDL (Web Service Description Language) XML document that replicates the WPS input/output document structure used during an Execute request to a server. Services are accessed using a modified SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol) interface provided by PyWPS, that uses service and input/outputs identifiers as element names. The WSDL XML document is dynamically generated by applying XSLT (Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformation) to the getCapabilities XML document that is generated by PyWPS. The availability of the SOAP interface and WSDL description allows WPS instances to be accessible to workflow development software like Taverna, enabling users to build complex workflows using web services represented by interconnecting graphics. Taverna will transform the visual representation of the workflow into a SCUFL (Simple Conceptual Unified Flow Language) based XML document that can be run internally or sent to a Taverna orchestration server. SCUFL uses a dataflow-centric orchestration model as opposed to the more commonly used orchestration language BPEL (Business Process Execution Language) which is process-centric.

  2. Observational Learning and Its Effects on the Orchestration of Writing Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braaksma, Martine A. H.; Rijlaarsdam, Gert; van den Bergh, Huub; van Hout-Wolters, Bernadette H. A. M

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we examined why observational learning positively affects learning outcomes of new writing tasks. In this study, we focused on the effects of observational learning on the temporal organization (i.e., orchestration) of writing processes and on the subsequent influence on text quality. An experiment was set up in which participants…

  3. Autocatalytic one pot orchestration for the synthesis of α-arylated, α-amino esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Stéphane P; Samanta, Shyam S; Gosselin, Marine M J

    2014-03-11

    A novel acetyl chloride-mediated cascade transformation involving three components (benzyl carbamate, ethyl glyoxylate and arene nucleophiles) is reported. Aryl orthogonally protected α-amino acids are obtained in a one pot cascade, using a mild AcOH-AcCl system, via a critical autocatalytic dehydration-activation step ensuring an original and efficient Friedel-Crafts orchestration.

  4. A checkpoint control orchestrates the replication of the two chromosomes of Vibrio cholerae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Val, Marie-Eve; Marbouty, Martial; Martins, Francisco de Lemos

    2016-01-01

    of the important differences between plasmids and chromosomes is that the latter replicate during a defined period of the cell cycle, ensuring a single round of replication per cell. Vibrio cholerae carries two circular chromosomes, Chr1 and Chr2, which are replicated in a well-orchestrated manner with the cell...

  5. Recurrent Routines: Analyzing and Supporting Orchestration in Technology-Enhanced Primary Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Luis P.; Villagra-Sobrino, Sara; Jorrin-Abellan, Ivan M.; Martinez-Mones, Alejandra; Dimitriadis, Yannis

    2011-01-01

    The increasing presence of multiple Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in the classroom does not guarantee an improvement of the learning experiences of students, unless it is also accompanied by pedagogically effective orchestration of those technologies. In order to help teachers in this endeavour, it can be useful to understand…

  6. Multimodality, Orchestration and Participation in the Context of Classroom Use of the Interactive Whiteboard: A Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twiner, Alison; Coffin, Caroline; Littleton, Karen; Whitelock, Denise

    2010-01-01

    This paper will offer a discussion of the literature concerning multimodality, orchestration and participation related to classroom use of the interactive whiteboard (IWB). Specifically, it will explore the place, or potential use, of the IWB to resource a multimodal approach to teaching and learning, emphasising the complex connections that need…

  7. Left-hemisphere activation is associated with enhanced vocal pitch error detection in musicians with absolute pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behroozmand, Roozbeh; Ibrahim, Nadine; Korzyukov, Oleg; Robin, Donald A; Larson, Charles R

    2014-02-01

    The ability to process auditory feedback for vocal pitch control is crucial during speaking and singing. Previous studies have suggested that musicians with absolute pitch (AP) develop specialized left-hemisphere mechanisms for pitch processing. The present study adopted an auditory feedback pitch perturbation paradigm combined with ERP recordings to test the hypothesis whether the neural mechanisms of the left-hemisphere enhance vocal pitch error detection and control in AP musicians compared with relative pitch (RP) musicians and non-musicians (NM). Results showed a stronger N1 response to pitch-shifted voice feedback in the right-hemisphere for both AP and RP musicians compared with the NM group. However, the left-hemisphere P2 component activation was greater in AP and RP musicians compared with NMs and also for the AP compared with RP musicians. The NM group was slower in generating compensatory vocal reactions to feedback pitch perturbation compared with musicians, and they failed to re-adjust their vocal pitch after the feedback perturbation was removed. These findings suggest that in the earlier stages of cortical neural processing, the right hemisphere is more active in musicians for detecting pitch changes in voice feedback. In the later stages, the left-hemisphere is more active during the processing of auditory feedback for vocal motor control and seems to involve specialized mechanisms that facilitate pitch processing in the AP compared with RP musicians. These findings indicate that the left hemisphere mechanisms of AP ability are associated with improved auditory feedback pitch processing during vocal pitch control in tasks such as speaking or singing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Thresholds of auditory-motor coupling measured with a simple task in musicians and non-musicians: was the sound simultaneous to the key press?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vugt, Floris T; Tillmann, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    The human brain is able to predict the sensory effects of its actions. But how precise are these predictions? The present research proposes a tool to measure thresholds between a simple action (keystroke) and a resulting sound. On each trial, participants were required to press a key. Upon each keystroke, a woodblock sound was presented. In some trials, the sound came immediately with the downward keystroke; at other times, it was delayed by a varying amount of time. Participants were asked to verbally report whether the sound came immediately or was delayed. Participants' delay detection thresholds (in msec) were measured with a staircase-like procedure. We hypothesised that musicians would have a lower threshold than non-musicians. Comparing pianists and brass players, we furthermore hypothesised that, as a result of a sharper attack of the timbre of their instrument, pianists might have lower thresholds than brass players. Our results show that non-musicians exhibited higher thresholds for delay detection (180 ± 104 ms) than the two groups of musicians (102 ±65 ms), but there were no differences between pianists and brass players. The variance in delay detection thresholds could be explained by variance i n sensorimotor synchronisation capacities as well as variance in a purely auditory temporal irregularity detection measure. This suggests that the brain's capacity to generate temporal predictions of sensory consequences can be decomposed into general temporal prediction capacities together with auditory-motor coupling. These findings indicate that the brain has a relatively large window of integration within which an action and its resulting effect are judged as simultaneous. Furthermore, musical expertise may narrow this window down, potentially due to a more refined temporal prediction. This novel paradigm provides a simple test to estimate the temporal precision of auditory-motor action-effect coupling, and the paradigm can readily be incorporated in

  9. Thresholds of auditory-motor coupling measured with a simple task in musicians and non-musicians: was the sound simultaneous to the key press?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floris T van Vugt

    Full Text Available The human brain is able to predict the sensory effects of its actions. But how precise are these predictions? The present research proposes a tool to measure thresholds between a simple action (keystroke and a resulting sound. On each trial, participants were required to press a key. Upon each keystroke, a woodblock sound was presented. In some trials, the sound came immediately with the downward keystroke; at other times, it was delayed by a varying amount of time. Participants were asked to verbally report whether the sound came immediately or was delayed. Participants' delay detection thresholds (in msec were measured with a staircase-like procedure. We hypothesised that musicians would have a lower threshold than non-musicians. Comparing pianists and brass players, we furthermore hypothesised that, as a result of a sharper attack of the timbre of their instrument, pianists might have lower thresholds than brass players. Our results show that non-musicians exhibited higher thresholds for delay detection (180 ± 104 ms than the two groups of musicians (102 ±65 ms, but there were no differences between pianists and brass players. The variance in delay detection thresholds could be explained by variance i n sensorimotor synchronisation capacities as well as variance in a purely auditory temporal irregularity detection measure. This suggests that the brain's capacity to generate temporal predictions of sensory consequences can be decomposed into general temporal prediction capacities together with auditory-motor coupling. These findings indicate that the brain has a relatively large window of integration within which an action and its resulting effect are judged as simultaneous. Furthermore, musical expertise may narrow this window down, potentially due to a more refined temporal prediction. This novel paradigm provides a simple test to estimate the temporal precision of auditory-motor action-effect coupling, and the paradigm can readily be

  10. Musicians Crossing Musical Instrument Gender Stereotypes: A Study of Computer-Mediated Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeles, Harold F.; Hafeli, Mary; Sears, Colleen

    2014-01-01

    This study examined computer-mediated communication (CMC) -- blogs and responses to YouTube postings -- to better understand how CMCs reflect adolescents' attitudes towards musicians playing instruments that cross gender stereotypes. Employing purposive sampling, we used specific search terms, such as "girl drummer", to identify a…

  11. Hybrid Spaces and Hyphenated Musicians: Secondary Students' Musical Engagement in a Songwriting and Technology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Evan S.

    2012-01-01

    This case study investigates how secondary students (three individuals and three groups) engaged with music and acted as musicians in a Songwriting and Technology Class (STC), a course involving the creation, performance, recording and production of original music with instruments and music technology. The following research question guided the…

  12. Student Musicians' Ear-Playing Ability as a Function of Vernacular Music Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, Robert H.; Lehmann, Andreas C.

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the differences in ear-playing ability between formal "classical" musicians and those with vernacular music experience (N = 24). Participants heard melodies and performed them back, either by singing or playing on their instruments. The authors tracked the number of times through the listen-then-perform cycle that each…

  13. Investigating Musical Performance: Commonality and Diversity among Classical and Non-Classical Musicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creech, Andrea; Papageorgi, Ioulia; Duffy, Celia; Morton, Frances; Hadden, Elizabeth; Potter, John; De Bezenac, Christophe; Whyton, Tony; Himonides, Evangelos; Welch, Graham

    2008-01-01

    The research project "Investigating Musical Performance: Comparative Studies in Advanced Musical Learning" was devised to investigate how classical, popular, jazz and Scottish traditional musicians deepen and develop their learning about performance in undergraduate, postgraduate and wider music community contexts. The aim of this paper is to…

  14. Adult Learner Perceptions: Perspectives from Beginning Musicians (Ages 60-86 Years)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugos, Jennifer A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to examine adult learning perceptions of a model music program with group piano instruction and group percussion ensemble for beginning-level musicians (ages 60-86 years). Participants were matched by age and education to two 16-week music programs. Forty participants completed a post-training questionnaire related…

  15. Working on a Dream: Careers of Pop Musicians in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaan, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    The studies presented in this dissertation are concerned with the question why a musician’s career can become a failure or a success. The central research question within this thesis is: What are the determinants of career success for Dutch pop musicians? The first study presents findings from a

  16. Pop-rock musicians: assessment of their satisfaction provided by hearing protectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoni, Cristiane Bolzachini; Fiorini, Ana Claudia

    2010-01-01

    Pop-rock musicians are at risk of developing hearing loss and other symptoms related to amplified music. The aim of the present study was to assess the satisfaction provided by the use of hearing protection in pop-rock musicians. Contemporary cohort study. A study of 23 male pop-rock musicians, aged between 25 to 45 years. After audiological evaluation (pure tone audiometry, middle ear analysis, TEOAE and DPOAE) hearing protective devices were provided to be used for three months. After that musicians answered a satisfaction assessment questionnaire. The prevalence of hearing loss was of 21.7%. The most common complaints about the hearing protectors were: autophonia, pressure in the ears, interference in high frequencies perception and full time use of the hearing protector during concerts. There was a positive correlation between a reduction in tinnitus after the use of the HPD with the following complaints: tinnitus after beginning the career (p= 0.044), discomfort with the sound intensity in the work place (p= 0.009) and intolerance to loud sound (p= 0.029). There was a high prevalence of hearing loss and a positive tendency towards the use of the ear protector device among the sample population.

  17. Pitch Memory in Nonmusicians and Musicians: Revealing Functional Differences Using Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaal, N K; Krause, V; Lange, K; Banissy, M J; Williamson, V J; Pollok, B

    2015-09-01

    For music and language processing, memory for relative pitches is highly important. Functional imaging studies have shown activation of a complex neural system for pitch memory. One region that has been shown to be causally involved in the process for nonmusicians is the supramarginal gyrus (SMG). The present study aims at replicating this finding and at further examining the role of the SMG for pitch memory in musicians. Nonmusicians and musicians received cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the left SMG, right SMG, or sham stimulation, while completing a pitch recognition, pitch recall, and visual memory task. Cathodal tDCS over the left SMG led to a significant decrease in performance on both pitch memory tasks in nonmusicians. In musicians, cathodal stimulation over the left SMG had no effect, but stimulation over the right SMG impaired performance on the recognition task only. Furthermore, the results show a more pronounced deterioration effect for longer pitch sequences indicating that the SMG is involved in maintaining higher memory load. No stimulation effect was found in both groups on the visual control task. These findings provide evidence for a causal distinction of the left and right SMG function in musicians and nonmusicians. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Differential Patterns of Music Listening: Focus of Attention of Musicians versus Nonmusicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Clifford K.; Geringer, John M.

    1990-01-01

    Reports a study designed to investigate patterns of music listening among music and nonmusic majors regarding four primary constituent elements of music--rhythm, dynamics, timbre, and melody. Finds that musicians do attend to listening in a significantly different manner than nonmusicians do. (DB)

  19. Behavioral Quantification of Audiomotor Transformations in Improvising and Score-Dependent Musicians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harris, Robert; van Kranenburg, Peter; de Jong, Bauke M.

    2016-01-01

    The historically developed practice of learning to play a music instrument from notes instead of by imitation or improvisation makes it possible to contrast two types of skilled musicians characterized not only by dissimilar performance practices, but also disparate methods of audiomotor learning.

  20. Getting "Capital" in the Music World: Musicians' Learning Experiences and Working Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulson, Susan

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses an exploration of the working lives of musicians working in a range of musical genres in the North East of England, revealing the factors that contribute to their ability to obtain a musical livelihood. These factors can be understood in terms of various forms of social, cultural and symbolic "capital" (Bourdieu,…

  1. Musicians' Memory for Verbal and Tonal Materials under Conditions of Irrelevant Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Victoria J.; Mitchell, Tom; Hitch, Graham J.; Baddeley, Alan D.

    2010-01-01

    Studying short-term memory within the framework of the working memory model and its associated paradigms (Baddeley, 2000; Baddeley & Hitch, 1974) offers the chance to compare similarities and differences between the way that verbal and tonal materials are processed. This study examined amateur musicians' short-term memory using a newly adapted…

  2. Trauma-Related Dissociation as a Factor Affecting Musicians' Memory for Music: Some Possible Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swart, Inette; van Niekerk, Caroline; Hartman, Woltemade

    2010-01-01

    An investigation of the influence of trauma on musicians revealed concentration and memory problems as two of the most common symptoms hampering the performance of affected individuals. In many instances where the causes of these problems were related to trauma sequelae, these could clearly be linked to dissociative symptoms. The following…

  3. Effects of Conductor Baton Use on Band and Choral Musicians' Perceptions of Conductor Expressivity and Clarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nápoles, Jessica; Silvey, Brian A.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine participants' (college band and choral musicians, N = 143) perceptions of conductor clarity and expressivity after viewing band and choral directors conducting with or without a baton. One band and one choral conductor each prepared and conducted two excerpts of Guy Forbes's "O Nata Lux", a piece…

  4. Enhanced Divergent Thinking and Creativity in Musicians: A Behavioral and Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Crystal; Folley, Bradley S.; Park, Sohee

    2009-01-01

    Empirical studies of creativity have focused on the importance of divergent thinking, which supports generating novel solutions to loosely defined problems. The present study examined creativity and frontal cortical activity in an externally-validated group of creative individuals (trained musicians) and demographically matched control…

  5. Embracing the digital in instrument making : Towards a musician-tailored mouthpiece by 3D printing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorenzoni, V.; Doubrovski, E.L.; Verlinden, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    At present, the manufacturing of musical instruments still strongly relies on the tacit knowledge of experienced handcrafts while is commonly based on standard machining or casting techniques. This limits the musician-tailoredness to a small group of players, while others take compromises by

  6. The parietal opercular auditory-sensorimotor network in musicians: A resting-state fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Shoji; Kirino, Eiji

    2018-02-01

    Auditory-sensorimotor coupling is critical for musical performance, during which auditory and somatosensory feedback signals are used to ensure desired outputs. Previous studies reported opercular activation in subjects performing or listening to music. A functional connectivity analysis suggested the parietal operculum (PO) as a connector hub that links auditory, somatosensory, and motor cortical areas. We therefore examined whether this PO network differs between musicians and non-musicians. We analyzed resting-state PO functional connectivity with Heschl's gyrus (HG), the planum temporale (PT), the precentral gyrus (preCG), and the postcentral gyrus (postCG) in 35 musicians and 35 non-musicians. In musicians, the left PO exhibited increased functional connectivity with the ipsilateral HG, PT, preCG, and postCG, whereas the right PO exhibited enhanced functional connectivity with the contralateral HG, preCG, and postCG and the ipsilateral postCG. Direct functional connectivity between an auditory area (the HG or PT) and a sensorimotor area (the preCG or postCG) did not significantly differ between the groups. The PO's functional connectivity with auditory and sensorimotor areas is enhanced in musicians relative to non-musicians. We propose that the PO network facilitates musical performance by mediating multimodal integration for modulating auditory-sensorimotor control. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Differential parietal and temporal contributions to music perception in improvising and score-dependent musicians, an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Robert; de Jong, Bauke M

    2015-10-22

    Using fMRI, cerebral activations were studied in 24 classically-trained keyboard performers and 12 musically unskilled control subjects. Two groups of musicians were recruited: improvising (n=12) and score-dependent (non-improvising) musicians (n=12). While listening to both familiar and unfamiliar music, subjects either (covertly) appraised the presented music performance or imagined they were playing the music themselves. We hypothesized that improvising musicians would exhibit enhanced efficiency of audiomotor transformation reflected by stronger ventral premotor activation. Statistical Parametric Mapping revealed that, while virtually 'playing along׳ with the music, improvising musicians exhibited activation of a right-hemisphere distribution of cerebral areas including posterior-superior parietal and dorsal premotor cortex. Involvement of these right-hemisphere dorsal stream areas suggests that improvising musicians recruited an amodal spatial processing system subserving pitch-to-space transformations to facilitate their virtual motor performance. Score-dependent musicians recruited a primarily left-hemisphere pattern of motor areas together with the posterior part of the right superior temporal sulcus, suggesting a relationship between aural discrimination and symbolic representation. Activations in bilateral auditory cortex were significantly larger for improvising musicians than for score-dependent musicians, suggesting enhanced top-down effects on aural perception. Our results suggest that learning to play a music instrument primarily from notation predisposes musicians toward aural identification and discrimination, while learning by improvisation involves audio-spatial-motor transformations, not only during performance, but also perception. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Remote Music Tuition

    OpenAIRE

    Duffy, S.; Williams, D; Kegel, I.; Stevens, T.; Jansen, Jack; Cesar Garcia, Pablo Santiago; Healey, P.

    2012-01-01

    htmlabstractIt is common to learn to play an orchestral musical instrument through one-to-one lessons with an experienced tutor. For musicians who choose to study performance at an undergraduate level and beyond, their tutor is an important part of their professional musical development. For many musicians, travel is part of their professional lives due to touring, auditioning and teaching, often overseas. This makes temporary separation of students from their tu- tor inevitable. A solution u...

  9. Effective Connectivity Associated With Auditory Error Detection In Musicians With Absolute Pitch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy L Parkinson

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available It is advantageous to study a wide range of vocal abilities in order to fully understand how vocal control measures vary across the full spectrum. Individuals with absolute pitch (AP are able to assign a verbal label to musical notes and have enhanced abilities in pitch identification without reliance on an external referent. In this study we used dynamic causal modeling (DCM to model effective connectivity of ERP responses to pitch perturbation in voice auditory feedback in musicians with relative pitch (RP, absolute pitch and non-musician controls. We identified a network compromising left and right hemisphere superior temporal gyrus (STG, primary motor cortex (M1 and premotor cortex (PM. We specified nine models and compared two main factors examining various combinations of STG involvement in feedback pitch error detection/correction process. Our results suggest that modulation of left to right STG connections are important in the identification of self-voice error and sensory motor integration in AP musicians. We also identify reduced connectivity of left hemisphere PM to STG connections in AP and RP groups during the error detection and corrections process relative to non-musicians. We suggest that this suppression may allow for enhanced connectivity relating to pitch identification in the right hemisphere in those with more precise pitch matching abilities. Musicians with enhanced pitch identification abilities likely have an improved auditory error detection and correction system involving connectivity of STG regions. Our findings here also suggest that individuals with AP are more adept at using feedback related to pitch from the right hemisphere.

  10. Effective connectivity associated with auditory error detection in musicians with absolute pitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Amy L.; Behroozmand, Roozbeh; Ibrahim, Nadine; Korzyukov, Oleg; Larson, Charles R.; Robin, Donald A.

    2014-01-01

    It is advantageous to study a wide range of vocal abilities in order to fully understand how vocal control measures vary across the full spectrum. Individuals with absolute pitch (AP) are able to assign a verbal label to musical notes and have enhanced abilities in pitch identification without reliance on an external referent. In this study we used dynamic causal modeling (DCM) to model effective connectivity of ERP responses to pitch perturbation in voice auditory feedback in musicians with relative pitch (RP), AP, and non-musician controls. We identified a network compromising left and right hemisphere superior temporal gyrus (STG), primary motor cortex (M1), and premotor cortex (PM). We specified nine models and compared two main factors examining various combinations of STG involvement in feedback pitch error detection/correction process. Our results suggest that modulation of left to right STG connections are important in the identification of self-voice error and sensory motor integration in AP musicians. We also identify reduced connectivity of left hemisphere PM to STG connections in AP and RP groups during the error detection and corrections process relative to non-musicians. We suggest that this suppression may allow for enhanced connectivity relating to pitch identification in the right hemisphere in those with more precise pitch matching abilities. Musicians with enhanced pitch identification abilities likely have an improved auditory error detection and correction system involving connectivity of STG regions. Our findings here also suggest that individuals with AP are more adept at using feedback related to pitch from the right hemisphere. PMID:24634644

  11. Brain processing of consonance/dissonance in musicians and controls: a hemispheric asymmetry revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proverbio, Alice Mado; Orlandi, Andrea; Pisanu, Francesca

    2016-09-01

    It was investigated to what extent musical expertise influences the auditory processing of harmonicity by recording event-related potentials. Thirty-four participants (18 musicians and 16 controls) were asked to listen to hundreds of chords, differing in their degree of consonance, their complexity (from two to six composing sounds) and their range (distance of two adjacent pitches, from quartertones to more than 18 semitone steps). The task consisted of detecting rare targets. An early auditory N1 was observed that was modulated by chord dissonance in both groups. The response was generated in the right medial temporal gyrus (MTG) for consonant chords but in the left MTG for dissonant chords according to swLORETA reconstruction performed. An anterior negativity (N2) was enhanced only in musicians in response to chords featuring quartertones, thus suggesting a greater pitch sensitivity for simultaneous pure tones in the skilled brain. The P300 was affected by the frequency range only in musicians, who also showed a greater sensitivity to sound complexity. A strong left hemispheric specialization for processing quartertones in the left temporal cortex of musicians was observed at N2 level (250-350 ms), which was observed on the right side in controls. Additionally, in controls, widespread activity of the right limbic area was associated with listening to close frequencies causing disturbing beats, possibly suggesting a negative aesthetic appreciation for these stimuli. Overall, the data show a finer and more tuned neural representation of pitch intervals in musicians, linked to a marked specialization of their left temporal cortex (BA21/38). © 2016 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Resting state functional connectivity of the ventral auditory pathway in musicians with absolute pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung-Goo; Knösche, Thomas R

    2017-08-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is the ability to recognize pitch chroma of tonal sound without external references, providing a unique model of the human auditory system (Zatorre: Nat Neurosci 6 () 692-695). In a previous study (Kim and Knösche: Hum Brain Mapp () 3486-3501), we identified enhanced intracortical myelination in the right planum polare (PP) in musicians with AP, which could be a potential site for perceptional processing of pitch chroma information. We speculated that this area, which initiates the ventral auditory pathway, might be crucially involved in the perceptual stage of the AP process in the context of the "dual pathway hypothesis" that suggests the role of the ventral pathway in processing nonspatial information related to the identity of an auditory object (Rauschecker: Eur J Neurosci 41 () 579-585). To test our conjecture on the ventral pathway, we investigated resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) from musicians with varying degrees of AP. Should our hypothesis be correct, RSFC via the ventral pathway is expected to be stronger in musicians with AP, whereas such group effect is not predicted in the RSFC via the dorsal pathway. In the current data, we found greater RSFC between the right PP and bilateral anteroventral auditory cortices in musicians with AP. In contrast, we did not find any group difference in the RSFC of the planum temporale (PT) between musicians with and without AP. We believe that these findings support our conjecture on the critical role of the ventral pathway in AP recognition. Hum Brain Mapp 38:3899-3916, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Context-Based Orchestration for Control of Resource-Efficient Manufacturing Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Schwarz

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The increasing competition between manufacturers, the shortening of innovation cycles and the growing importance of resource-efficient manufacturing demand a higher versatility of factory automation. Service-oriented approaches depict a promising possibility to realize new control architectures by encapsulating the functionality of mechatronic devices into services. An efficient discovery, context-based selection and dynamic orchestration of these services are the key features for the creation of highly adaptable manufacturing processes. We describe a semantic service discovery and ad-hoc orchestration system, which is able to react to new process variants and changed contextual information (e.g., failure of field devices, requirements on the consumption of resources. Because a standardized vocabulary, especially for the description of mechatronic functionalities, is still missing in the manufacturing domain, the semantic description of services, processes and manufacturing plants as well as the semantic interpretation of contextual information play an important part.

  14. DECENTRALIZED ORCHESTRATION OF COMPOSITE OGC WEB PROCESSING SERVICES IN THE CLOUD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Xiao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Current web-based GIS or RS applications generally rely on centralized structure, which has inherent drawbacks such as single points of failure, network congestion, and data inconsistency, etc. The inherent disadvantages of traditional GISs need to be solved for new applications on Internet or Web. Decentralized orchestration offers performance improvements in terms of increased throughput and scalability and lower response time. This paper investigates build time and runtime issues related to decentralized orchestration of composite geospatial processing services based on OGC WPS standard specification. A case study of dust storm detection was demonstrated to evaluate the proposed method and the experimental results indicate that the method proposed in this study is effective for its ability to produce the high quality solution at a low cost of communications for geospatial processing service composition problem.

  15. Decentralized Orchestration of Composite Ogc Web Processing Services in the Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, F.; Shea, G. Y. K.; Cao, J.

    2016-09-01

    Current web-based GIS or RS applications generally rely on centralized structure, which has inherent drawbacks such as single points of failure, network congestion, and data inconsistency, etc. The inherent disadvantages of traditional GISs need to be solved for new applications on Internet or Web. Decentralized orchestration offers performance improvements in terms of increased throughput and scalability and lower response time. This paper investigates build time and runtime issues related to decentralized orchestration of composite geospatial processing services based on OGC WPS standard specification. A case study of dust storm detection was demonstrated to evaluate the proposed method and the experimental results indicate that the method proposed in this study is effective for its ability to produce the high quality solution at a low cost of communications for geospatial processing service composition problem.

  16. Polyfocal classroom interactions and teaching gestures. An analysis of nonverbal orchestration

    OpenAIRE

    Azaoui, Brahim

    2015-01-01

    International audience; While a growing body of research suggests that gestures have an impact in the teaching/learning process, few have explored gestures produced by teachers to understand how instructors cope with the intrinsically polyfocal dimension of class interactions. This paper reports on an empirically grounded account of both how and in what circumstances teachers conduct multimodal orchestration, and the interactional issues it raises. Because it is based on video-recorded corpor...

  17. Software Defined Resource Orchestration System for Multitask Application in Heterogeneous Mobile Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Qi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The mobile cloud computing (MCC that combines mobile computing and cloud concept takes wireless access network as the transmission medium and uses mobile devices as the client. When offloading the complicated multitask application to the MCC environment, each task executes individually in terms of its own computation, storage, and bandwidth requirement. Due to user’s mobility, the provided resources contain different performance metrics that may affect the destination choice. Nevertheless, these heterogeneous MCC resources lack integrated management and can hardly cooperate with each other. Thus, how to choose the appropriate offload destination and orchestrate the resources for multitask is a challenge problem. This paper realizes a programming resource provision for heterogeneous energy-constrained computing environments, where a software defined controller is responsible for resource orchestration, offload, and migration. The resource orchestration is formulated as multiobjective optimal problem that contains the metrics of energy consumption, cost, and availability. Finally, a particle swarm algorithm is used to obtain the approximate optimal solutions. Simulation results show that the solutions for all of our studied cases almost can hit Pareto optimum and surpass the comparative algorithm in approximation, coverage, and execution time.

  18. An Orchestrating Evaluation of Complex Educational Technologies: a Case Study of a CSCL System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis P. Prieto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As digital technologies permeate every aspect of our lives, the complexity of the educational settings, and of the technological support we use within them, unceasingly rises. This increased complexity, along with the need for educational practitioners to apply such technologies within multi-constraint authentic settings, has given rise to the notion of technology-enhanced learning practice as “orchestration of learning”. However, at the same time, the complexity involved in evaluating the benefits of such educational technologies has also increased, prompting questions about the way evaluators can cope with the different places, technologies, informants and issues involved in their evaluation activity. By proposing the notion of “orchestrating evaluation”, this paper tries to reconcile the often disparate “front office accounts” of research publications and the “shop floor practice” of evaluation of educational technology, through the case study of evaluating a system to help teachers in coordinating computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL scenarios. We reuse an internationally-evaluated conceptual framework of “orchestration aspects” (design, management, adaptation, pragmatism, etc. to structure the case‟s narrative, showing how the original evaluation questions and methods were modulated in the face of the multiple (authentic evaluation setting constraints.

  19. Ocorrência de sinais e sintomas de disfunção temporomandibular em músicos Occurrence of signs and symptoms of temporomandibular dysfunction in musicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Stechman Neto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a prevalência de sinais e sintomas de disfunção temporomandibular em grupos de músicos profissionais, intérpretes de instrumentos de sopro e de cordas. MÉTODOS: Participaram 92 músicos, com idades entre 18 e 58 anos. Foram entrevistados 70 músicos intérpretes de instrumentos de sopro (76,08% e 22 músicos intérpretes de instrumentos de cordas (23,91% pertencentes à Orquestra Sinfônica do Paraná, à Banda da Polícia Militar do Paraná ou à Banda do Exército. Foi realizada entrevista que constou de questões referentes à identificação, tempo de prática do instrumento e presença de sinais, sintomas e hábitos relacionados às disfunções temporomandibulares. Comparou-se as respostas dos músicos por meio do teste de diferença de proporções. RESULTADOS: Trinta e nove músicos (42,3% percebem que rangem e/ou apertam os dentes, 23 (25% reportaram sentir dor na articulação temporomandibular, 39 músicos (42% relataram escutar ruídos na articulação temporomandibular, 37 (40% sensação de plenitude auricular e 33 (35% presença de zumbido. Não houve diferença significativa entre os instrumentistas de sopro e de corda no que se refere à presença de sinais e sintomas de disfunção temporomandibular. CONCLUSÃO: A somatória dos fatores apresentados coloca os praticantes de determinados instrumentos musicais como um grupo suscetível a apresentar sinais e sintomas de disfunção temporomandibular, incluindo sintomas auditivos, podendo tal prática ser considerada tanto um fator desencadeante, quanto um fator agravante ou perpetuador de um problema já existente.PURPOSE: To verify the prevalence of signs and symptoms of temporomandibular dysfunction in groups of professional musicians, interpreters of brass and string instruments. METHODS: Ninety two musicians, with ages varying from 18 to 58 years, participated on the study. Seventy musicians who played brass instruments (76.08% and 22 musicians who

  20. Musculoskeletal Problems in Pianists and Their Influence on Professional Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciurana Moñino, María R; Rosset-Llobet, Jaume; Cibanal Juan, Luis; García Manzanares, María D; Ramos-Pichardo, Juan D

    2017-06-01

    Professional musical performance requires static postures and repetitive movements that may cause musculoskeletal problems in performers. Elite pianists are especially at risk for these disorders, which may cause discomfort but also affect their work. The objective of this study was to describe the most frequent musculoskeletal problems observed in pianists, and to explore the influence of these disorders on their professional activities from the perspective of the pianists themselves. Musculoskeletal problems were defined in accordance with the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10), and an analysis was conducted of medical records of 183 professional pianists held by a performing arts clinic (Terrassa, Spain). In addition, in-depth interviews were conducted with 20 pianists (6 students, 12 teachers, and 2 performers), followed by content analysis of the transcripts to explore musicians' perceptions. We identified a total of 20 different problems, which principally involved the upper body (arms and back). Regardless of occupation or age, all respondents reported having musculoskeletal problems and that these impacted on their professional activity. Interviewees also identified a lack of support or advice on how to prevent these problems. Musculoskeletal problems, principally those involving the upper body, are very common among pianists and affect their professional activity. It is necessary to include risk prevention information starting in the early stages of musicians' training programs.

  1. SDN/NFV orchestration for dynamic deployment of virtual SDN controllers as VNF for multi-tenant optical networks

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz, Raül; Vilalta, Ricard; Casellas, Ramon; Martínez, Ricardo; Szyrkowiec, T.; Autenrieth, A.; López, Víctor; López, D.

    2015-01-01

    We propose to virtualize the SDN control functions and move them to the cloud. We experimentally evaluate the first SDN/NFV orchestration architecture to dynamically deploy independent SDN controller instances for each deployed virtual optical network.

  2. An Interactive Learning-aid System for Analytical Comprehension of Music by Highlighting Orchestral Score in Colors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Masaki Matsubara; Masaki Suwa; Hiroaki Saito

    2012-01-01

      This paper describes an interactive learning-aid system for analytical comprehension of music by highlighting orchestral score in colors, and classifies and evaluates the learning process on the system...

  3. Processing of self-initiated speech-sounds is different in musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Cyrill G M; Jäncke, Lutz

    2013-01-01

    Musicians and musically untrained individuals have been shown to differ in a variety of functional brain processes such as auditory analysis and sensorimotor interaction. At the same time, internally operating forward models are assumed to enable the organism to discriminate the sensory outcomes of self-initiated actions from other sensory events by deriving predictions from efference copies of motor commands about forthcoming sensory consequences. As a consequence, sensory responses to stimuli that are triggered by a self-initiated motor act are suppressed relative to the same but externally initiated stimuli, a phenomenon referred to as motor-induced suppression (MIS) of sensory cortical feedback. Moreover, MIS in the auditory domain has been shown to be modulated by the predictability of certain properties such as frequency or stimulus onset. The present study compares auditory processing of predictable and unpredictable self-initiated 0-delay speech sounds and piano tones between musicians and musical laymen by means of an event-related potential (ERP) and topographic pattern analysis (TPA) [microstate analysis or evoked potential (EP) mapping] approach. As in previous research on the topic of MIS, the amplitudes of the auditory event-related potential (AEP) N1 component were significantly attenuated for predictable and unpredictable speech sounds in both experimental groups to a comparable extent. On the other hand, AEP N1 amplitudes were enhanced for unpredictable self-initiated piano tones in both experimental groups similarly and MIS did not develop for predictable self-initiated piano tones at all. The more refined EP mapping revealed that the microstate exhibiting a typical auditory N1-like topography was significantly shorter in musicians when speech sounds and piano tones were self-initiated and predictable. In contrast, non-musicians only exhibited shorter auditory N1-like microstate durations in response to self-initiated and predictable piano tones

  4. Musicians' enhanced neural differentiation of speech sounds arises early in life: developmental evidence from ages 3 to 30.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strait, Dana L; O'Connell, Samantha; Parbery-Clark, Alexandra; Kraus, Nina

    2014-09-01

    The perception and neural representation of acoustically similar speech sounds underlie language development. Music training hones the perception of minute acoustic differences that distinguish sounds; this training may generalize to speech processing given that adult musicians have enhanced neural differentiation of similar speech syllables compared with nonmusicians. Here, we asked whether this neural advantage in musicians is present early in life by assessing musically trained and untrained children as young as age 3. We assessed auditory brainstem responses to the speech syllables /ba/ and /ga/ as well as auditory and visual cognitive abilities in musicians and nonmusicians across 3 developmental time-points: preschoolers, school-aged children, and adults. Cross-phase analyses objectively measured the degree to which subcortical responses differed to these speech syllables in musicians and nonmusicians for each age group. Results reveal that musicians exhibit enhanced neural differentiation of stop consonants early in life and with as little as a few years of training. Furthermore, the extent of subcortical stop consonant distinction correlates with auditory-specific cognitive abilities (i.e., auditory working memory and attention). Results are interpreted according to a corticofugal framework for auditory learning in which subcortical processing enhancements are engendered by strengthened cognitive control over auditory function in musicians. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. [Questionnaire survey of musician's dystonia among students of a music college].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konaka, Kuni; Mochizuki, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    Musician's dystonia is known as a task specific dystonia. Though it is thought to occur during a long course of repetitive performance, the actual circumstances that precipitate this condition are not clear. According to factual reports this disease is not commonly known, probably because many of these patients may not have been visiting a hospital. We prepared a questionnaire and did a survey among the students of a music college. This is the first questionnaire survey aimed at finding out the prevalence of musician's dystonia among the students of music. Among the 480 participants of this survey, 29% of the students had knowledge of this disorder and 1.25% of the students had dystonia while performing music.

  6. A discourse on the master musician and informal music education in yoruba Traditional culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLUSOJI STEPHEN Ph.D

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses issues relating to informal education in Yoruba traditional music using the master musician as an important agent for propagating traditional knowledge and values. The study is an ethnographic research and uses oral interviews and other qualitative techniques for eliciting information. As part of its findings, the study found out that informal education in Yoruba culture follows a typical pattern of instruction which is acquired through heredity, apprentice under a well-known artist, observation and participation in communal activities. In the case of music, which is the focus of the study, it is promoted by the master musician, a position that could be occupied by men or women depending on the nature of the ensemble and the societal norms approved for such groups. In conclusion, it was suggested in the study that contemporary music educators and curriculum planners should tailor their curriculum to reflect the traditional values and practices of their people.

  7. A discourse on the master musician and informal music education in yoruba Traditional culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLUSOJI STEPHEN Ph.D

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available  This paper discusses issues relating to informal education in Yoruba traditional music using the master musician as an important agent for propagating traditional knowledge and values. The study is an ethnographic research and uses oral interviews and other qualitative techniques for eliciting information. As part of its findings, the study found out that informal education in Yoruba culture follows a typical pattern of instruction which is acquired through heredity, apprentice under a well-known artist, observation and participation in communal activities. In the case of music, which is the focus of the study, it is promoted by the master musician, a position that could be occupied by men or women depending on the nature of the ensemble and the societal norms approved for such groups. In conclusion, it was suggested in the study that contemporary music educators and curriculum planners should tailor their curriculum to reflect the traditional values and practices of their people.

  8. Cathodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Improves Focal Hand Dystonia in Musicians: A Two-Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Marceglia

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Focal hand dystonia (FHD in musicians is a movement disorder causing abnormal movements and irregularities in playing. Since weak electrical currents applied to the brain induce persistent excitability changes in humans, cathodal tDCS was proposed as a possible non-invasive approach for modulating cortical excitability in patients with FHD. However, the optimal targets and modalities have still to be determined. In this pilot study, we delivered cathodal (2 mA, anodal (2 mA and sham tDCS over the motor areas bilaterally for 20 min daily for five consecutive days in two musicians with FHD. After cathodal tDCS, both patients reported a sensation of general wellness and improved symptoms of FHD. In conclusion, our pilot results suggest that cathodal tDCS delivered bilaterally over motor-premotor (M-PM cortex for 5 consecutive days may be effective in improving symptoms in FHD.

  9. Specific demands and resources in the career of the Norwegian freelance musician

    OpenAIRE

    Vaag, Jonas; Giæver, Fay; Bjerkeset, Ottar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Research indicates that there is a higher degree of mental health problems, family/work conflicts and sleep-related problems among workers in creative occupations than in other professions. Research also reveals that musicians have to deal with a relatively high degree of occupational stress. There is, however, a lack of research investigating the qualities of freelance musicians’ psychosocial work environment, as well as possible protective factors for maintaining ...

  10. Rhythm synchronization performance and auditory working memory in early- and late-trained musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Jennifer A; Penhune, Virginia B

    2010-07-01

    Behavioural and neuroimaging studies provide evidence for a possible "sensitive" period in childhood development during which musical training results in long-lasting changes in brain structure and auditory and motor performance. Previous work from our laboratory has shown that adult musicians who begin training before the age of 7 (early-trained; ET) perform better on a visuomotor task than those who begin after the age of 7 (late-trained; LT), even when matched on total years of musical training and experience. Two questions were raised regarding the findings from this experiment. First, would this group performance difference be observed using a more familiar, musically relevant task such as auditory rhythms? Second, would cognitive abilities mediate this difference in task performance? To address these questions, ET and LT musicians, matched on years of musical training, hours of current practice and experience, were tested on an auditory rhythm synchronization task. The task consisted of six woodblock rhythms of varying levels of metrical complexity. In addition, participants were tested on cognitive subtests measuring vocabulary, working memory and pattern recognition. The two groups of musicians differed in their performance of the rhythm task, such that the ET musicians were better at reproducing the temporal structure of the rhythms. There were no group differences on the cognitive measures. Interestingly, across both groups, individual task performance correlated with auditory working memory abilities and years of formal training. These results support the idea of a sensitive period during the early years of childhood for developing sensorimotor synchronization abilities via musical training.

  11. The Alexander Technique and musicians: a systematic review of controlled trials

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, Sabine; Bayard, Claudine; Wolf, Ursula

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Musculoskeletal disorders, stress and performance anxiety are common in musicians. Therefore, some use the Alexander Technique (AT), a psycho-physical method that helps to release unnecessary muscle tension and re-educates non-beneficial movement patterns through intentional inhibition of unwanted habitual behaviours. According to a recent review AT sessions may be effective for chronic back pain. This review aimed to evaluate the evidence for the effectiveness of AT sessions o...

  12. Amplified induced neural oscillatory activity predicts musicians' benefits in categorical speech perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidelman, Gavin M

    2017-04-21

    Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) reveal musical experience refines neural encoding and confers stronger categorical perception (CP) and neural organization for speech sounds. In addition to evoked brain activity, the human EEG can be decomposed into induced (non-phase-locked) responses whose various frequency bands reflect different mechanisms of perceptual-cognitive processing. Here, we aimed to clarify which spectral properties of these neural oscillations are most prone to music-related neuroplasticity and which are linked to behavioral benefits in the categorization of speech. We recorded electrical brain activity while musicians and nonmusicians rapidly identified speech tokens from a sound continuum. Time-frequency analysis parsed evoked and induced EEG into alpha- (∼10Hz), beta- (∼20Hz), and gamma- (>30Hz) frequency bands. We found that musicians' enhanced behavioral CP was accompanied by improved evoked speech responses across the frequency spectrum, complementing previously observed enhancements in evoked potential studies (i.e., ERPs). Brain-behavior correlations implied differences in the underlying neural mechanisms supporting speech CP in each group: modulations in induced gamma power predicted the slope of musicians' speech identification functions whereas early evoked alpha activity predicted behavior in nonmusicians. Collectively, findings indicate that musical training tunes speech processing via two complementary mechanisms: (i) strengthening the formation of auditory object representations for speech signals (gamma-band) and (ii) improving network control and/or the matching of sounds to internalized memory templates (alpha/beta-band). Both neurobiological enhancements may be deployed behaviorally and account for musicians' benefits in the perceptual categorization of speech. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Processing of self-initiated speech-sounds is different in musicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyrill Guy Martin Ott

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Musicians and musically untrained individuals have been shown to differ in a variety of functional brain processes such as auditory analysis and sensorimotor interaction. At the same time, internally operating forward models are assumed to enable the organism to discriminate the sensory outcomes of self-initiated actions from other sensory events by deriving predictions from efference copies of motor commands about forthcoming sensory consequences. As a consequence, sensory responses to stimuli that are triggered by a self-initiated motor act are suppressed relative to the same but externally-initiated stimuli, a phenomenon referred to as motor-induced suppression (MIS of sensory cortical feedback. Moreover, MIS in the auditory domain has been shown to be modulated by the predictability of certain properties such as frequency or stimulus onset. The present study compares auditory processing of predictable and unpredictable self-initiated zero-delay speech sounds and piano tones between musicians and musical laymen by means of an event-related potential (ERP and topographic pattern analysis (microstate analysis or EP mapping approach. Taken together, our findings suggest that besides the known effect of MIS, internally operating forward models also facilitate early acoustic analysis of complex tones by means of faster processing time as indicated by shorter auditory N1-like microstate durations in the first ~ 200 ms after stimulus onset. In addition, musicians seem to profit from this facilitation also during the analysis of speech sounds as indicated by comparable auditory N1-like microstate duration patterns between speech and piano conditions. In contrast, non-musicians did not show such an effect.

  14. Timing skills and expertise: discrete and continuous timed movements among musicians and athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thenille eBraun Janzen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Movement-based expertise relies on precise timing of movements and the capacity to predict the timing of events. Music performance involves discrete rhythmic actions that adhere to regular cycles of timed events, whereas many sports involve continuous movements that are not timed in a cyclical manner. It has been proposed that the precision of discrete movements relies on event timing (clock mechanism, whereas continuous movements are controlled by emergent timing. We examined whether movement-based expertise influences the timing mode adopted to maintain precise rhythmic actions. Materials and Method: Timing precision was evaluated in musicians, athletes and control participants. Discrete and continuous movements were assessed using finger-tapping and circle-drawing tasks, respectively, based on the synchronization-continuation paradigm. In Experiment 1, no auditory feedback was provided in the continuation phase of the trials, whereas in Experiment 2 every action triggered a feedback tone. Results: Analysis of precision in the continuation phase indicated that athletes performed significantly better than musicians and controls in the circle-drawing task, whereas musicians were more precise than controls in the finger tapping task. Interestingly, musicians were also more precise than controls in the circle-drawing task. Results also showed that the timing mode adopted was dependent on expertise and the presence of auditory feedback. Discussion: Results showed that movement-based expertise is associated with enhanced timing, but these effects depend on the nature of the training. Expertise was found to influence the timing strategy adopted to maintain precise rhythmic movements, suggesting that event and emergent timing mechanisms are not strictly tied to specific tasks, but can both be adopted to achieve precise timing.

  15. Musicians have enhanced audiovisual multisensory binding: experience-dependent effects in the double-flash illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidelman, Gavin M

    2016-10-01

    Musical training is associated with behavioral and neurophysiological enhancements in auditory processing for both musical and nonmusical sounds (e.g., speech). Yet, whether the benefits of musicianship extend beyond enhancements to auditory-specific skills and impact multisensory (e.g., audiovisual) processing has yet to be fully validated. Here, we investigated multisensory integration of auditory and visual information in musicians and nonmusicians using a double-flash illusion, whereby the presentation of multiple auditory stimuli (beeps) concurrent with a single visual object (flash) induces an illusory perception of multiple flashes. We parametrically varied the onset asynchrony between auditory and visual events (leads and lags of ±300 ms) to quantify participants' "temporal window" of integration, i.e., stimuli in which auditory and visual cues were fused into a single percept. Results show that musically trained individuals were both faster and more accurate at processing concurrent audiovisual cues than their nonmusician peers; nonmusicians had a higher susceptibility for responding to audiovisual illusions and perceived double flashes over an extended range of onset asynchronies compared to trained musicians. Moreover, temporal window estimates indicated that musicians' windows (multisensory integration and audiovisual binding. Collectively, findings indicate a more refined binding of auditory and visual cues in musically trained individuals. We conclude that experience-dependent plasticity of intensive musical experience extends beyond simple listening skills, improving multimodal processing and the integration of multiple sensory systems in a domain-general manner.

  16. Perceptual evaluation of violins: A psycholinguistic analysis of preference verbal descriptions by experienced musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitis, Charalampos; Fritz, Claudia; Scavone, Gary P; Guastavino, Catherine; Dubois, Danièle

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, how the notion of violin quality is conveyed in spontaneous verbalizations by experienced violinists during preference judgments is investigated. The aims of the study were to better understand how musicians conceptualize violin quality, what aspects of the sound and the playing experience are essential, and what associations are formed between perceptual evaluation and physical description. Upon comparing violins of varying make and age, players were interviewed about their preferences using open-ended questions. Concepts of violin quality were identified and categorized based on the syntactic and linguistic analysis of musicians' responses. While perceived variations in how a violin sounds and feels, and consequently conceptualization structures, rely on the variations in style and expertise of different violinists, the broader semantic categories emerging from sensory descriptions remain common across performers with diverse musical profiles, reflecting a shared perception of physical parameter patterns that allowed the development of a musician-driven framework for understanding how the dynamic behavior of a violin might relate to its perceived quality. Implications for timbre perception and the crossmodal audio-tactile sensation of sound in music performance are discussed.

  17. Secrets of virtuoso: neuromuscular attributes of motor virtuosity in expert musicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, Shinichi; Oku, Takanori; Miyazaki, Fumio; Kinoshita, Hiroshi

    2015-10-01

    Musical performance requires extremely fast and dexterous limb movements. The underlying biological mechanisms have been an object of interest among scientists and non-scientists for centuries. Numerous studies of musicians and non-musicians have demonstrated that neuroplastic adaptations through early and deliberate musical training endowed superior motor skill. However, little has been unveiled about what makes inter-individual differences in motor skills among musicians. Here we determined the attributes of inter-individual differences in the maximum rate of repetitive piano keystrokes in twenty-four pianists. Among various representative factors of neuromuscular functions, anatomical characteristics, and training history, a stepwise multiple regression analysis and generalized linear model identified two predominant predictors of the maximum rate of repetitive piano keystrokes; finger tapping rate and muscular strength of the elbow extensor. These results suggest a non-uniform role of individual limb muscles in the production of extremely fast repetitive multi-joint movements. Neither age of musical training initiation nor the amount of extensive musical training before age twenty was a predictor. Power grip strength was negatively related to the maximum rate of piano keystrokes only during the smallest tone production. These findings highlight the importance of innate biological nature and explicit training for motor virtuosity.

  18. Hearing Health in College Instrumental Musicians and Prevention of Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Anna D; Gooding, Lori F; Shikoh, Fara; Graf, Julie

    2016-03-01

    College musicians exhibit greater declines in hearing than the general population and are at particular risk because they rehearse and perform daily in loud environments. Also, they engage in use of personal listening devices which increases the amount of "exposure" time. Despite increased risk, many do not use hearing protection devices (HPD). The purpose of this study was to (1) to identify the present level of education about hearing health, (2) identify the perceived advantages and disadvantages of using HPD, and (3) evaluate results among different musical instrument groups. A mixed-methods group design was used including both quantitative and qualitative instruments. SPSS was used to generate descriptive statistics, and non-parametric statistical analysis was performed on quantitative data. NVivo software was used to evaluate qualitative responses. Of the 90 college instrumental music students who participated, 12% reported a history of hearing loss, and over one-third reported tinnitus. Seventy-seven percent of participants had never received any training about hearing health and only a small percentage of students used HPD. The most cited reason for lack of protection use was its negative impact on sound quality. However, group differences were noted between brass, woodwind, and percussion musicians in terms of HPD uptake. Improving the type of information disseminated to college musicians may reduce the risk of ear-related deficits. Noise dosage information, HPD information, and prevention education grounded in theories like the Health Belief Model may increase awareness and promote greater use of HPDs in this population.

  19. Inhibitory control in bilinguals and musicians: event related potential (ERP) evidence for experience-specific effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Sylvain; Wodniecka, Zofia; Tays, William; Alain, Claude; Bialystok, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Bilinguals and musicians exhibit behavioral advantages on tasks with high demands on executive functioning, particularly inhibitory control, but the brain mechanisms supporting these differences are unclear. Of key interest is whether these forms of experience influence cognition through similar or distinct information processing mechanisms. Here, we recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) in three groups - bilinguals, musicians, and controls - who completed a visual go-nogo task that involved the withholding of key presses to rare targets. Participants in each group achieved similar accuracy rates and responses times but the analysis of cortical responses revealed significant differences in ERP waveforms. Success in withholding a prepotent response was associated with enhanced stimulus-locked N2 and P3 wave amplitude relative to go trials. For nogo trials, there were altered timing-specific ERP differences and graded amplitude differences observed in the neural responses across groups. Specifically, musicians showed an enhanced early P2 response accompanied by reduced N2 amplitude whereas bilinguals showed increased N2 amplitude coupled with an increased late positivity wave relative to controls. These findings demonstrate that bilingualism and music training have differential effects on the brain networks supporting executive control over behavior.

  20. Inhibitory control in bilinguals and musicians: event related potential (ERP evidence for experience-specific effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain Moreno

    Full Text Available Bilinguals and musicians exhibit behavioral advantages on tasks with high demands on executive functioning, particularly inhibitory control, but the brain mechanisms supporting these differences are unclear. Of key interest is whether these forms of experience influence cognition through similar or distinct information processing mechanisms. Here, we recorded event-related potentials (ERPs in three groups - bilinguals, musicians, and controls - who completed a visual go-nogo task that involved the withholding of key presses to rare targets. Participants in each group achieved similar accuracy rates and responses times but the analysis of cortical responses revealed significant differences in ERP waveforms. Success in withholding a prepotent response was associated with enhanced stimulus-locked N2 and P3 wave amplitude relative to go trials. For nogo trials, there were altered timing-specific ERP differences and graded amplitude differences observed in the neural responses across groups. Specifically, musicians showed an enhanced early P2 response accompanied by reduced N2 amplitude whereas bilinguals showed increased N2 amplitude coupled with an increased late positivity wave relative to controls. These findings demonstrate that bilingualism and music training have differential effects on the brain networks supporting executive control over behavior.

  1. Electrophysiological evidences demonstrating differences in brain functions between nonmusicians and musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Peng, Weiwei; Chen, Jie; Hu, Li

    2015-09-04

    Long-term music training can improve sensorimotor skills, as playing a musical instrument requires the functional integration of information related to multimodal sensory perception and motor execution. This functional integration often leads to functional reorganization of cerebral cortices, including auditory, visual, and motor areas. Moreover, music appreciation can modulate emotions (e.g., stress relief), and long-term music training can enhance a musician's self-control and self-evaluation ability. Therefore, the neural processing of music can also be related to certain higher brain cognitive functions. However, evidence demonstrating that long-term music training modulates higher brain functions is surprisingly rare. Here, we aimed to comprehensively explore the neural changes induced by long-term music training by assessing the differences of transient and quasi-steady-state auditory-evoked potentials between nonmusicians and musicians. We observed that compared to nonmusicians, musicians have (1) larger high-frequency steady-state responses, which reflect the auditory information processing within the sensory system, and (2) smaller low-frequency vertex potentials, which reflect higher cognitive information processing within the novelty/saliency detection system. Therefore, we speculate that long-term music training facilitates "bottom-up" auditory information processing in the sensory system and enhances "top-down" cognitive inhibition of the novelty/saliency detection system.

  2. Intracortical myelination in musicians with absolute pitch: Quantitative morphometry using 7‐T MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knösche, Thomas R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Absolute pitch (AP) is known as the ability to recognize and label the pitch chroma of a given tone without external reference. Known brain structures and functions related to AP are mainly of macroscopic aspects. To shed light on the underlying neural mechanism of AP, we investigated the intracortical myeloarchitecture in musicians with and without AP using the quantitative mapping of the longitudinal relaxation rates with ultra‐high‐field magnetic resonance imaging at 7 T. We found greater intracortical myelination for AP musicians in the anterior region of the supratemporal plane, particularly the medial region of the right planum polare (PP). In the same region of the right PP, we also found a positive correlation with a behavioral index of AP performance. In addition, we found a positive correlation with a frequency discrimination threshold in the anterolateral Heschl's gyrus in the right hemisphere, demonstrating distinctive neural processes of absolute recognition and relative discrimination of pitch. Regarding possible effects of local myelination in the cortex and the known importance of the anterior superior temporal gyrus/sulcus for the identification of auditory objects, we argue that pitch chroma may be processed as an identifiable object property in AP musicians. Hum Brain Mapp 37:3486–3501, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27160707

  3. Intracortical myelination in musicians with absolute pitch: Quantitative morphometry using 7-T MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung-Goo; Knösche, Thomas R

    2016-10-01

    Absolute pitch (AP) is known as the ability to recognize and label the pitch chroma of a given tone without external reference. Known brain structures and functions related to AP are mainly of macroscopic aspects. To shed light on the underlying neural mechanism of AP, we investigated the intracortical myeloarchitecture in musicians with and without AP using the quantitative mapping of the longitudinal relaxation rates with ultra-high-field magnetic resonance imaging at 7 T. We found greater intracortical myelination for AP musicians in the anterior region of the supratemporal plane, particularly the medial region of the right planum polare (PP). In the same region of the right PP, we also found a positive correlation with a behavioral index of AP performance. In addition, we found a positive correlation with a frequency discrimination threshold in the anterolateral Heschl's gyrus in the right hemisphere, demonstrating distinctive neural processes of absolute recognition and relative discrimination of pitch. Regarding possible effects of local myelination in the cortex and the known importance of the anterior superior temporal gyrus/sulcus for the identification of auditory objects, we argue that pitch chroma may be processed as an identifiable object property in AP musicians. Hum Brain Mapp 37:3486-3501, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Distinct digit kinematics by professional and amateur pianists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winges, S A; Furuya, S

    2015-01-22

    Many everyday tasks such as typing, grasping, and object manipulation require coordination of dynamic movement across multiple joints and digits. Playing a musical instrument is also one such task where the precise movement of multiple digits is transformed into specific sounds defined by the instrument. Through extensive practice musicians are able to produce precisely controlled movements to interact with the instrument and produce specific sequences of sounds. The present study aimed to determine what aspects of these dynamic movement patterns differ between pianists who have achieved professional status compared to amateur pianists that have also trained extensively. Common patterns of movement for each digit strike were observed for both professional and amateur pianists that were sequence specific, i.e. influenced by the digit performing the preceding strike. However, group differences were found in multi-digit movement patterns for sequences involving the ring or little finger. In some sequences, amateur subjects tended to work against the innate connectivity between digits while professionals allowed slight movement at non-striking digits (covariation) which was a more economical strategy. In other sequences professionals used more individuated finger movements for performance. Thus the present study provided evidence in favor of enhancement of both movement covariation and individuation across fingers in more skilled musicians, depending on fingering and movement sequence. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Distal interphalangeal joint implant arthroplasty in a musician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, D A; Peimer, C A

    1998-01-01

    Degenerative joint disease commonly affects the distal interphalangeal (DIP) joints, causing articular destruction and marginal bone formation. Treatment for pain relief and function is most often done through arthrodesis. The case of a 70-year-old concert violinist with left index finger DIP joint osteoarthritis is presented. Arthritis in the involved joint caused pain and deformity and interfered with the patient's ability to play music. Trial arthrodesis with K-wires proved impossible because of the patient's need for continued mobility. Swanson hinge implant arthroplasty was performed on the affected DIP joint. The patient eventually achieved an excellent result and was able to return to playing the violin professionally. Treatment and therapy guidelines are presented.

  6. Musculoskeletal disorders in professional violinists and violists. Systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Geraldo Fabiano de Souza; Antunes, Adriana Papini

    2012-01-01

    Due to the high physical and psychological demands of their work, musicians have a high risk of developing a range of health problems. The main causes of musculoskeletal disorders seen in instrumentalists are overuse, nerve compression and focal dystonia. The aim of this paper is to identify the musculoskeletal disorders that most frequently affect professional violinists and violists. 50 articles were read, of which 24 were used. The PEDro scale was used to determine the quality of the articles. The definition of risk factors can help in the development of prevention programs. Playing a musical instrument involves a combination of actions, including rapid, repetitive and complicated movements of the hands and fingers. The chairs used offer no other option than to adapt to the demands of body posture. To achieve the necessary skills to become a musician of a high standard, many hours of training and perfection are required. The neck, shoulder and temporomandibular joints are the most commonly affected areas, due to prolonged flexion of the head and shoulder required to hold the violin. The elbow and fingers are also common sites of disorders. It is necessary to warn musicians of the initial symptoms, and how they can prevent the disorder from worsening. Level I Evidence (Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine, Oxford, UK).

  7. Concurrent Timbres in Orchestration: a Perceptual Study of Factors Determining "blend"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandell, Gregory John

    Orchestration often involves selecting instruments for concurrent presentation, as in melodic doubling or chords. One evaluation of the aural outcome of such choices is along the continuum of "blend": whether the instruments fuse into a single composite timbre, segregate into distinct timbral entities, or fall somewhere in between the two extremes. This study investigates, through perceptual experimentation, the acoustical correlates of blend for 15 natural-sounding orchestral instruments presented in concurrently-sounding pairs (e.g. flute-cello, trumpet -oboe, etc.). Ratings of blend showed primary effects for centroid (the location of the midpoint of the spectral energy distribution) and duration of the onset for the tones. Lower average values of both centroid and onset duration for a pair of tones led to increased blends, as did closeness in value for the two factors. Blend decreased (instruments segregated) with higher average values or increased difference in value for the two factors. The musical interval of presentation slightly affected the relative importance of these two mechanisms, with unison intervals determined more by lower average centroid, and minor thirds determined more by closeness in centroid. The contribution of onset in general was slightly more pronounced in the unison conditions than in the minor third condition. Additional factors contributing to blend were correlation of amplitude and centroid envelopes (blend increased as temporal patterns rose and fell in synchrony) and similarity in the overall amount of fundamental frequency perturbation (decreased blend with increasing jitter from both tones). To confirm the importance of centroid as an independent factor determining blend, pairs of tones including instruments with artificially changed centroids were rated for blend. Judgments for several versions of the same instrument pair showed that blend decreased as the altered instrument increased in centroid, corroborating the earlier

  8. Automation Hooks Architecture for Flexible Test Orchestration - Concept Development and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansdowne, C. A.; Maclean, John R.; Winton, Chris; McCartney, Pat

    2011-01-01

    The Automation Hooks Architecture Trade Study for Flexible Test Orchestration sought a standardized data-driven alternative to conventional automated test programming interfaces. The study recommended composing the interface using multicast DNS (mDNS/SD) service discovery, Representational State Transfer (Restful) Web Services, and Automatic Test Markup Language (ATML). We describe additional efforts to rapidly mature the Automation Hooks Architecture candidate interface definition by validating it in a broad spectrum of applications. These activities have allowed us to further refine our concepts and provide observations directed toward objectives of economy, scalability, versatility, performance, severability, maintainability, scriptability and others.

  9. Ethnomusicological biography of the traditional folk musician: Biography of the gusle-player

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lajić-Mihajlović Danka

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of ethnomusicology from a comparative discipline to an anthropologically oriented science there has been an increase in the significance of the biography of folk musicians as scientific sources. The intention of the anthropological thought to accept and theoretically consider human nature as open and dynamic, has been realized in the ethnomusicological plane through the understanding of music as a product of thinking and behaviour of a particular musician in given circumstances. The concept of an artist is especially complex in the field of oral music culture, where creation and performance are connected in one person and the transferring process involves direct communication. The attempt to overcome the dichotomy of the musicological and sociological, i. e. anthropological attitude in ethnomusicology by synthesizing concepts which involve music, culture and man has brought particular importance to the relations between individual biographies and 'biographies of the collective' - relevant historical ethnological, anthropological, sociological, culturological, religion ideological and other types of data. Observations enlightening the social side of the folk musician's personality make the necessary 'frame' for the biography: from 'objective' social circumstances which modelled it to the opinion of the cultural environment about his performing. The folk musician's biography oriented towards ethnomusicology involves the result of a critical evaluation of the picture based on the emic and ethic vision autobiographical data and the observations of others, primarily researchers. The complexity of a biographical discourse in ethnomusicology can be perfectly seen in the example of the gusle-player's biography, as a genre-determined solo role in the tradition. For studying the relation between a person and a style of music expression, concerning gusle-players it is important to bear in mind the change in the profile of gusle

  10. Musicians: Cultural Workers or Spreaders of Musical Sounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esperanza Londoño La Rotta

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Taking account of the object of study and of the type of musical and pedagogical practices found in the monographies written by undergraduate students from the professionalization program Creative Colombia (first cohort, it could be argued that their musical and pedagogical knowledge is not egocentrically centered in themselves, and that, on the contrary, they try to build bridges and interconnections with other arts and areas of knowledge, proving thus that the musical art is an essential part of their daily work and constitutes a vivid experience in terms of cultural transformation. There were then proposed several processes of social change in the realm of the school’s micro-universe, the classroom, the town’s Cultural House, its municipal band, etc. In those various processes, the music teacher was seen as a political person capable of using his musical knowledge to mediate in social realities, as a musicianmediator. So, it became clear that the real task was not to form mere musical trainers, but cultural mediators who may understand their artistic practice and teaching as an opportunity to acquire a deeper understanding of culture, as well as the means to transform it. Along the whole process, the students leaned on the trend and perspective of constructivism.

  11. Musicians' working memory for tones, words, and pseudowords.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benassi-Werke, Mariana E; Queiroz, Marcelo; Araújo, Rúben S; Bueno, Orlando F A; Oliveira, Maria Gabriela M

    2012-01-01

    Studies investigating factors that influence tone recognition generally use recognition tests, whereas the majority of the studies on verbal material use self-generated responses in the form of serial recall tests. In the present study we intended to investigate whether tonal and verbal materials share the same cognitive mechanisms, by presenting an experimental instrument that evaluates short-term and working memories for tones, using self-generated sung responses that may be compared to verbal tests. This paradigm was designed according to the same structure of the forward and backward digit span tests, but using digits, pseudowords, and tones as stimuli. The profile of amateur singers and professional singers in these tests was compared in forward and backward digit, pseudoword, tone, and contour spans. In addition, an absolute pitch experimental group was included, in order to observe the possible use of verbal labels in tone memorization tasks. In general, we observed that musical schooling has a slight positive influence on the recall of tones, as opposed to verbal material, which is not influenced by musical schooling. Furthermore, the ability to reproduce melodic contours (up and down patterns) is generally higher than the ability to reproduce exact tone sequences. However, backward spans were lower than forward spans for all stimuli (digits, pseudowords, tones, contour). Curiously, backward spans were disproportionately lower for tones than for verbal material-that is, the requirement to recall sequences in backward rather than forward order seems to differentially affect tonal stimuli. This difference does not vary according to musical expertise.

  12. Wisdom. A metaheuristic (pragmatic) to orchestrate mind and virtue toward excellence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltes, P B; Staudinger, U M

    2000-01-01

    The primary focus of this article is on the presentation of wisdom research conducted under the heading of the Berlin wisdom paradigm. Informed by a cultural-historical analysis, wisdom in this paradigm is defined as an expert knowledge system concerning the fundamental pragmatics of life. These include knowledge and judgment about the meaning and conduct of life and the orchestration of human development toward excellence while attending conjointly to personal and collective well-being. Measurement includes think-aloud protocols concerning various problems of life associated with life planning, life management, and life review. Responses are evaluated with reference to a family of 5 criteria: rich factual and procedural knowledge, lifespan contextualism, relativism of values and life priorities, and recognition and management of uncertainty. A series of studies is reported that aim to describe, explain, and optimize wisdom. The authors conclude with a new theoretical perspective that characterizes wisdom as a cognitive and motivational metaheuristic (pragmatic) that organizes and orchestrates knowledge toward human excellence in mind and virtue, both individually and collectively.

  13. Modulation of RNA polymerase II phosphorylation downstream of pathogen perception orchestrates plant immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fangjun; Cheng, Cheng; Cui, Fuhao; de Oliveira, Marcos V V; Yu, Xiao; Meng, Xiangzong; Intorne, Aline C; Babilonia, Kevin; Li, Maoying; Li, Bo; Chen, Sixue; Ma, Xianfeng; Xiao, Shunyuan; Zheng, Yi; Fei, Zhangjun; Metz, Richard P; Johnson, Charles D; Koiwa, Hisashi; Sun, Wenxian; Li, Zhaohu; de Souza Filho, Gonçalo A; Shan, Libo; He, Ping

    2014-12-10

    Perception of microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) elicits host transcriptional reprogramming as part of the immune response. Although pathogen perception is well studied, the signaling networks orchestrating immune gene expression remain less clear. In a genetic screen for components involved in the early immune gene transcription reprogramming, we identified Arabidopsis RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain (CTD) phosphatase-like 3 (CPL3) as a negative regulator of immune gene expression. MAMP perception induced rapid and transient cyclin-dependent kinase C (CDKC)-mediated phosphorylation of Arabidopsis CTD. The CDKCs, which are in turn phosphorylated and activated by a canonical MAP kinase (MAPK) cascade, represent a point of signaling convergence downstream of multiple immune receptors. CPL3 directly dephosphorylated CTD to counteract MAPK-mediated CDKC regulation. Thus, modulation of the phosphorylation dynamics of eukaryotic RNA polymerase II transcription machinery by MAPKs, CTD kinases, and phosphatases constitutes an essential mechanism for rapid orchestration of host immune gene expression and defense upon pathogen attacks. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Non-musicians also have a piano in the head: evidence for spatial-musical associations from line bisection tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Matthias

    2017-02-01

    The spatial representation of ordinal sequences (numbers, time, tones) seems to be a fundamental cognitive property. While an automatic association between horizontal space and pitch height (left-low pitch, right-high pitch) is constantly reported in musicians, the evidence for such an association in non-musicians is mixed. In this study, 20 non-musicians performed a line bisection task while listening to irrelevant high- and low-pitched tones and white noise (control condition). While pitch height had no influence on the final bisection point, participants' movement trajectories showed systematic biases: When approaching the line and touching the line for the first time (initial bisection point), the mouse cursor was directed more rightward for high-pitched tones compared to low-pitched tones and noise. These results show that non-musicians also have a subtle but nevertheless automatic association between pitch height and the horizontal space. This suggests that spatial-musical associations do not necessarily depend on constant sensorimotor experiences (as it is the case for musicians) but rather reflect the seemingly inescapable tendency to represent ordinal information on a horizontal line.

  15. Neural correlates of perceptual grouping effects in the processing of sound omission by musicians and nonmusicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Kentaro; Altmann, Christian F; Matsuhashi, Masao; Mima, Tatsuya; Fukuyama, Hidenao

    2015-01-01

    Perceptual grouping is the process of organizing sounds into perceptually meaningful elements. Psychological studies have found that tones presented as a regular frequency or temporal pattern are grouped according to gestalt principles, such as similarity, proximity, and good continuity. Predictive coding theory suggests that this process helps create an internal model for the prediction of sounds in a tone sequence and that an omission-related brain response reflects the violation of this prediction. However, it remains unclear which brain areas are related to this process, especially in paying attention to the stimuli. To clarify this uncertainty, the present study investigated the neural correlates of perceptual grouping effects. Using magnetoencephalography (MEG), we recorded the evoked response fields (ERFs) of amateur musicians and nonmusicians to sound omissions in tone sequences with a regular or random pattern of three different frequencies during an omission detection task. Omissions in the regular sequences were detected faster and evoked greater activity in the left Heschl's gyrus (HG), right postcentral gyrus, and bilateral superior temporal gyrus (STG) than did omissions in the irregular sequences. Additionally, an interaction between musical experience and regularity was found in the left HG/STG. Tone-evoked responses did not show this difference, indicating that the expertise effect did not reflect the superior tone processing acquired by amateur musicians due to musical training. These results suggest that perceptual grouping based on repetition of a pattern of frequencies affects the processing of omissions in tone sequences and induces more activation of the bilateral auditory cortex by violating internal models. The interaction in the left HG/STG may suggest different styles of processing for musicians and nonmusicians, although this difference was not reflected at the behavioral level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. THE ROLE OF MELODIC AND TEMPORAL MEANS IN CREATING PROSODIC PORTRAIT OF A POP MUSICIAN

    OpenAIRE

    Унтілова, О. Є.

    2016-01-01

    The present article is dedicated to prosodic speech peculiarities of female older generation representatives of British pop music. Variation of melodic and temporal characteristics and their influence on prosodic portrait of a pop musician are presented in the article. Mass culture is an important and powerful impact tool in modern society, and oral speech plays a big role in realization of image in mass media. The material of our investigation consists of British pop musicians’ (Joan Armatra...

  17. Music genre preference and tempo alter alpha and beta waves in human non-musicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunter Gentry

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of music genre and tempo on brain activation patterns in 10 nonmusicians.Two genres (rock and jazz and three tempos (slowed, medium/normal, andquickened were examined using EEG recording and analyzed through Fast Fourier Transform(FFT analysis. When participants listened to their preferred genre, an increase in alpha waveamplitude was observed. Alpha waves were not significantly affected by tempo. Beta waveamplitude increased significantly as the tempo increased. Genre had no effect on beta waves. Thefindings of this study indicate that genre preference and artificially modified tempo do affectalpha and beta wave activation in non-musicians listening to preselected songs.

  18. Using container orchestration to improve service management at the RAL Tier-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiff, Andrew; Collier, Ian

    2017-10-01

    In recent years container orchestration has been emerging as a means of gaining many potential benefits compared to a traditional static infrastructure, such as increased utilisation through multi-tenancy, improved availability due to self-healing, and the ability to handle changing loads due to elasticity and auto-scaling. To this end we have been investigating migrating services at the RAL Tier-1 to an Apache Mesos cluster. In this model the concept of individual machines is abstracted away and services are run in containers on a cluster of machines, managed by schedulers, enabling a high degree of automation. Here we describe Mesos, the infrastructure deployed at RAL, and describe in detail the explicit example of running a batch farm on Mesos.

  19. Dynamic Mechanism for the Transcription Apparatus Orchestrating Reliable Responses to Activators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaolai; Liu, Feng; Wang, Wei

    2012-05-01

    The transcription apparatus (TA) is a huge molecular machine. It detects the time-varying concentrations of transcriptional activators and initiates mRNA transcripts at appropriate rates. Based on the general structural organizations of the TA, we propose how the TA dynamically orchestrates transcriptional responses. The activators rapidly cycle in and out of a clamp-like space temporarily formed between the enhancer and the Mediator, with the concentration of activators encoded as their temporal occupancy rate (RTOR) within the space. The entry of activators into this space induces allostery in the Mediator, resulting in a facilitated circumstance for transcriptional reinitiation. The reinitiation rate is much larger than the cycling rate of activators, thereby RTOR guiding the amount of transcripts. Based on this mechanism, stochastic simulations can qualitatively reproduce and interpret multiple features of gene expression, e.g., transcriptional bursting is not mere noise as traditionally believed, but rather the basis of reliable transcriptional responses.

  20. HLA-G Orchestrates the Early Interaction of Human Trophoblasts with the Maternal Niche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregori, Silvia; Amodio, Giada; Quattrone, Federica; Panina-Bordignon, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Extravillous trophoblasts (EVTs) play a central role in educating maternal leukocytes, endometrial stromal and endothelial cells to generate a receptive decidual microenvironment tailored to accept the semi-allogeneic fetus. HLA-G, a non-classical HLA class I molecule endowed with immune-regulatory functions, is primarily expressed on EVTs lining the placenta and on the naturally occurring tolerogenic dendritic cells, named DC-10, which are enriched in the human first trimester decidua. Decidual DC-10 are involved in HLA-G-mediated tolerance at the maternal-fetal interface. EVTs not only establish a tolerogenic microenvironment through the interaction with maternal innate and adaptive cells but also orchestrate placenta vascular and tissue remodeling, leading to a successful pregnancy. Here, we discuss the potential implications of the HLA-G-mediated cross-talk among the cells present at the maternal-fetal interface, and its role in maintaining a positive relationship between the mother and the fetus.

  1. Management of natural crises with choreography and orchestration of federated warning-systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haener, Rainer; Waechter, Joachim; Hammitzsch, Martin

    2013-04-01

    The project Collaborative, Complex and Critical Decision-Support in Evolving Crises (TRIDEC), co-funded by the European Commission in its Seventh Framework Programme focuses on real-time intelligent information management in earth management. The addressed challenges include the design and implementation of a robust and scalable service infrastructure supporting the integration of existing resources, components and systems. Key challenge for TRIDEC is establishing a network of independent systems, cooperatively interacting as a collective in a system-of-systems (SoS). For this purpose TRIDEC adopts enhancements of service-oriented architecture (SOA) principles in terms of an event-driven architecture (EDA) design (SOA 2.0). In this way TRIDEC establishes large-scale concurrent and intelligent information management of a manifold of crisis types by focusing on the integration of autonomous, task-oriented and geographically distributed systems. To this end TRIDEC adapts both ways SOA 2.0 offers: orchestration and choreography. In orchestration, a central knowledge-based processing framework takes control over the involved services and coordinates their execution. Choreography on the other hand avoids central coordination. Rather, each system involved in the SoS follows a global scenario without a single point of control but specifically defined (enacted, agreed upon) trigger conditions. More than orchestration choreography allows collaborative business processes of various heterogeneous sub-systems (e.g. cooperative decision making) by concurrent Complex Event Processing (CEP) and asynchronous communication. These types of interaction adapt the concept of decoupled relationships between information producers (e.g. sensors and sensor systems) and information consumers (e.g. warning systems and warning dissemination systems). Asynchronous communication is useful if a participant wants to trigger specific actions by delegating the responsibility (separation of concerns

  2. Diverse synaptic plasticity mechanisms orchestrated to form and retrieve memories in spiking neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenke, Friedemann; Agnes, Everton J; Gerstner, Wulfram

    2015-04-21

    Synaptic plasticity, the putative basis of learning and memory formation, manifests in various forms and across different timescales. Here we show that the interaction of Hebbian homosynaptic plasticity with rapid non-Hebbian heterosynaptic plasticity is, when complemented with slower homeostatic changes and consolidation, sufficient for assembly formation and memory recall in a spiking recurrent network model of excitatory and inhibitory neurons. In the model, assemblies were formed during repeated sensory stimulation and characterized by strong recurrent excitatory connections. Even days after formation, and despite ongoing network activity and synaptic plasticity, memories could be recalled through selective delay activity following the brief stimulation of a subset of assembly neurons. Blocking any component of plasticity prevented stable functioning as a memory network. Our modelling results suggest that the diversity of plasticity phenomena in the brain is orchestrated towards achieving common functional goals.

  3. iNKT cell development is orchestrated by different branches of TGF-β signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doisne, Jean-Marc; Bartholin, Laurent; Yan, Kai-Ping; Garcia, Céline N.; Duarte, Nadia; Le Luduec, Jean-Benoît; Vincent, David; Cyprian, Farhan; Horvat, Branka; Martel, Sylvie; Rimokh, Ruth; Losson, Régine; Benlagha, Kamel

    2009-01-01

    Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells constitute a distinct subset of T lymphocytes exhibiting important immune-regulatory functions. Although various steps of their differentiation have been well characterized, the factors controlling their development remain poorly documented. Here, we show that TGF-β controls the differentiation program of iNKT cells. We demonstrate that TGF-β signaling carefully and specifically orchestrates several steps of iNKT cell development. In vivo, this multifaceted role of TGF-β involves the concerted action of different pathways of TGF-β signaling. Whereas the Tif-1γ branch controls lineage expansion, the Smad4 branch maintains the maturation stage that is initially repressed by a Tif-1γ/Smad4-independent branch. Thus, these three different branches of TGF-β signaling function in concert as complementary effectors, allowing TGF-β to fine tune the iNKT cell differentiation program. PMID:19451264

  4. Collaborative Generalisation: Formalisation of Generalisation Knowledge to Orchestrate Different Cartographic Generalisation Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touya, Guillaume; Duchêne, Cécile; Ruas, Anne

    Cartographic generalisation seeks to summarise geographical information from a geographic database to produce a less detailed and readable map. This paper deals with the problem of making different automatic generalisation processes collaborate to generalise a complete map. A model to orchestrate the generalisation of different areas (cities, countryside, mountains) by different adapted processes is proposed. It is based on the formalisation of cartographic knowledge and specifications into constraints and rules sets while processes are described to formalise their capabilities. The formalised knowledge relies on generalisation domain ontology. For each available generalisation process, the formalised knowledge is then translated into process parameters by an adapted translator component. The translators allow interoperable triggers and allow the choice of the proper process to apply on each part of the space. Applications with real processes illustrate the usability of the proposed model.

  5. Diverse synaptic plasticity mechanisms orchestrated to form and retrieve memories in spiking neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenke, Friedemann; Agnes, Everton J.; Gerstner, Wulfram

    2015-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity, the putative basis of learning and memory formation, manifests in various forms and across different timescales. Here we show that the interaction of Hebbian homosynaptic plasticity with rapid non-Hebbian heterosynaptic plasticity is, when complemented with slower homeostatic changes and consolidation, sufficient for assembly formation and memory recall in a spiking recurrent network model of excitatory and inhibitory neurons. In the model, assemblies were formed during repeated sensory stimulation and characterized by strong recurrent excitatory connections. Even days after formation, and despite ongoing network activity and synaptic plasticity, memories could be recalled through selective delay activity following the brief stimulation of a subset of assembly neurons. Blocking any component of plasticity prevented stable functioning as a memory network. Our modelling results suggest that the diversity of plasticity phenomena in the brain is orchestrated towards achieving common functional goals. PMID:25897632

  6. A study of an adaptive replication framework for orchestrated composite web services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Marwa F; Elyamany, Hany F; Nassar, Hamed M

    2013-01-01

    Replication is considered one of the most important techniques to improve the Quality of Services (QoS) of published Web Services. It has achieved impressive success in managing resource sharing and usage in order to moderate the energy consumed in IT environments. For a robust and successful replication process, attention should be paid to suitable time as well as the constraints and capabilities in which the process runs. The replication process is time-consuming since outsourcing some new replicas into other hosts is lengthy. Furthermore, nowadays, most of the business processes that might be implemented over the Web are composed of multiple Web services working together in two main styles: Orchestration and Choreography. Accomplishing a replication over such business processes is another challenge due to the complexity and flexibility involved. In this paper, we present an adaptive replication framework for regular and orchestrated composite Web services. The suggested framework includes a number of components for detecting unexpected and unhappy events that might occur when consuming the original published web services including failure or overloading. It also includes a specific replication controller to manage the replication process and select the best host that would encapsulate a new replica. In addition, it includes a component for predicting the incoming load in order to decrease the time needed for outsourcing new replicas, enhancing the performance greatly. A simulation environment has been created to measure the performance of the suggested framework. The results indicate that adaptive replication with prediction scenario is the best option for enhancing the performance of the replication process in an online business environment.

  7. Professional Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    WaterSense recognizes certification programs for irrigation professionals that meet the specification criteria. Certification programs cover three areas: irrigation system design, installation and maintenance, and system auditing.

  8. Secure NFV Orchestration Over an SDN-Controlled Optical Network With Time-Shared Quantum Key Distribution Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguado, Alejandro; Hugues-Salas, Emilio; Haigh, Paul Anthony; Marhuenda, Jaume; Price, Alasdair B.; Sibson, Philip; Kennard, Jake E.; Erven, Chris; Rarity, John G.; Thompson, Mark Gerard; Lord, Andrew; Nejabati, Reza; Simeonidou, Dimitra

    2017-04-01

    We demonstrate, for the first time, a secure optical network architecture that combines NFV orchestration and SDN control with quantum key distribution (QKD) technology. A novel time-shared QKD network design is presented as a cost-effective solution for practical networks.

  9. Siim Nestor soovitab : Bell Orchestre. DJ Deep ja TRL. Akrobatik ja MC Mr.Lif. Black Dice / Siim Nestor

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nestor, Siim, 1974-

    2008-01-01

    Muusikaüritustest: Kanada post-rock ansambel Bell Orchestre12. sept. Tallinnas klubis Juuksur, DJ Deep 12. sept. Tallinna Linnahalli ruumides Plektrumi klubiööl (vt. www.plektrumfestival.ee), Akrobatik ja Mr.Lif 12. sept. Tartus klubis Illusion, New Yorgi kollektiiv Black Dice 17. sept. Tallinnas Von Krahlis

  10. Hearing loss induced by loud music among musicians of symphonic orchestra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Carli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Noise-induced hearing loss is an important public health issue, especially among musicians who are, more than any other occupation, dependent on their hearing. For them, hearing impairment is due to too loud music, the effect of which, if exceeding the limit depending on the individual sensitivity of one’s ear, can be compared with theeffect of noise on the ear. Risk factors for its development are: the type of musical instrument and sound character, the way of playing, music genre or composition, duration of exposure to loud music, sound source and its distance from the ear, intervals of acoustic stimuli, individual factors and the musician’s position in the orchestra. Hearing impairment is greater at higher frequencies; in pure tone audiogram it is shown as notches between 3000 and 6000 Hz and is most frequent in the wind and brass section. Hearing loss is greater among violinists and typically affects the left ear owing to the sound source proximity and their position in the orchestra. The most common health problems take the form of diplacusis, algiacusis and tinnitus, as exposure to the loud acoustic stimulus above 90 dB(A cause damage to the inner ear, the so-called acoustic trauma. Use of personal protective equipment among musicians is low especially because of too much high-frequency attenuation and occlusion effect.

  11. Beijing Experimental Electronic Musicians on the Phenomenon of Commercialization and Tourism in the Contemporary Chinese Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matic Urbanija

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article provides opinions of some Beijing experimental electronic musicians about the situation of contemporary art in China and in the world, primarily about the background of the so called Christmas performance in Art District 798's gallery UCCA in Beijing. This was a sort of protest against destroying art with commercialization as the only measure of art gallery's success. The article first describes the situation of contemporary art in the world at the beginning of 21st century as it is described in Julian Stallabrass' book Art Incorporated. It can be deduced from the words of experimental electronic musicians in Beijing that the situation is similar in China. During the debate about the Christmas performance in UCCA gallery, a problem with galleries was emphasize. These became more similar to tourist venues than places for enriching one's thoughts and awareness about the world surrounding us, through artwork. Therefore, the Christmas performance tried to express this sentiment. It offered visitors a tourist show brought to the point of absurd. The employees and the leader of UCCA couldn't comprehend the symbolic meaning of this happening, which, symbolically, took place on Christmas, the most commercialized holiday in the West as well as in China.

  12. Stage acoustics for musicians: A multidimensional approach using 3D ambisonic technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Anne

    In this research, a method was outlined and tested for the use of 3D Ambisonic technology to inform stage acoustics research and design. Stage acoustics for musicians as a field has yet to benefit from recent advancements in auralization and spatial acoustic analysis. This research attempts to address common issues in stage acoustics: subjective requirements for performers in relation to feelings of support, quality of sound, and ease of ensemble playing in relation to measurable, objective characteristics that can be used to design better stage enclosures. While these issues have been addressed in previous work, this research attempts to use technological advancements to improve the resolution and realism of the testing and analysis procedures. Advancements include measurement of spatial impulse responses using a spherical microphone array, higher-order ambisonic encoding and playback for real-time performer auralization, high-resolution spatial beamforming for analysis of onstage impulse responses, and multidimensional scaling procedures to determine subjective musician preferences. The methodology for implementing these technologies into stage acoustics research is outlined in this document and initial observations regarding implications for stage enclosure design are proposed. This research provides a robust method for measuring and analyzing performer experiences on multiple stages without the costly and time-intensive process of physically surveying orchestras on different stages, with increased repeatability while maintaining a high level of immersive realism and spatial resolution. Along with implications for physical design, this method provides possibilities for virtual teaching and rehearsal, parametric modeling and co-located performance.

  13. Early auditory processing in musicians and dancers during a contemporary dance piece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poikonen, Hanna; Toiviainen, Petri; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2016-09-09

    The neural responses to simple tones and short sound sequences have been studied extensively. However, in reality the sounds surrounding us are spectrally and temporally complex, dynamic and overlapping. Thus, research using natural sounds is crucial in understanding the operation of the brain in its natural environment. Music is an excellent example of natural stimulation which, in addition to sensory responses, elicits vast cognitive and emotional processes in the brain. Here we show that the preattentive P50 response evoked by rapid increases in timbral brightness during continuous music is enhanced in dancers when compared to musicians and laymen. In dance, fast changes in brightness are often emphasized with a significant change in movement. In addition, the auditory N100 and P200 responses are suppressed and sped up in dancers, musicians and laymen when music is accompanied with a dance choreography. These results were obtained with a novel event-related potential (ERP) method for natural music. They suggest that we can begin studying the brain with long pieces of natural music using the ERP method of electroencephalography (EEG) as has already been done with functional magnetic resonance (fMRI), these two brain imaging methods complementing each other.

  14. Musicians and music making as a model for the study of brain plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaug, Gottfried

    2015-01-01

    Playing a musical instrument is an intense, multisensory, and motor experience that usually commences at an early age and requires the acquisition and maintenance of a range of sensory and motor skills over the course of a musician's lifetime. Thus, musicians offer an excellent human model for studying behavioral-cognitive as well as brain effects of acquiring, practicing, and maintaining these specialized skills. Research has shown that repeatedly practicing the association of motor actions with specific sound and visual patterns (musical notation), while receiving continuous multisensory feedback will strengthen connections between auditory and motor regions (e.g., arcuate fasciculus) as well as multimodal integration regions. Plasticity in this network may explain some of the sensorimotor and cognitive enhancements that have been associated with music training. Furthermore, the plasticity of this system as a result of long term and intense interventions suggest the potential for music making activities (e.g., forms of singing) as an intervention for neurological and developmental disorders to learn and relearn associations between auditory and motor functions such as vocal motor functions. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The Cultural Management in the Music Societies of Valencia. Towards Professionalization of Musical Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Gómez Asensio

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Musical Societies are the cultural agent that produces most musical events in Valencia, gathering around them the vast majorities of local amateur musicians, who are the main support that conforms them and at the same time leads its management. Its rise and proliferation has led to the growth and complexity of their structures, making it increasingly difficult operation with management based on volunteerism. In this study we analyzed each of the areas of Music Societies from the perspective of its managers in charge, aware of its management, and its musicians, who are aware of the real effects of it. Thus checking to what extent each structural framework needs an increasingly dedicated and expert figure, we also show to the Musical Societies some operating possibilities at their fingertips and finally we enable a self-analysis that objectively will assess the advantages of professionalism in management.

  16. "Turkish Five": Their Contributions to Contemporary Piano Music and Piano Education in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbulut, Sirin

    2011-01-01

    First musicians using polyphony and homophony in their compositions can be seen during the 19th century in Turkey. These talented amateur composers, who worked in simple forms, such as marches or educational music, were not actually professional composers but either orchestral or choral directors. Later, during the Republic period (after 1923),…

  17. Remote Music Tuition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Duffy; D. Williams; I. Kegel; T. Stevens; A.J. Jansen (Jack); P.S. Cesar Garcia (Pablo Santiago); P. Healey

    2012-01-01

    htmlabstractIt is common to learn to play an orchestral musical instrument through one-to-one lessons with an experienced tutor. For musicians who choose to study performance at an undergraduate level and beyond, their tutor is an important part of their professional musical development. For many

  18. The Song of the Other/Public Space as a Learning Environment and Gypsy Musicians in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Ulas

    2013-01-01

    This work focuses on both public musical practices of Gypsy musicians who live in the Thracian land lying within the northwest of Turkey, and musical learning that takes place here. I primarily highlight the historic dimensions of the relation between Gypsies and music and emphasized musicianship in the lives of Gypsies as a fundamental class…

  19. "They Wasn't Makin' My Kinda Music": A Hip-Hop Musician's Perspective on School, Schooling, and School Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Adam J.

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on a hip-hop perspective of school, schooling, and school music. The study involves applications of ethnographic (including autoethnographic) techniques within the framework of a holistic multiple case study. One case is an adult amateur hip-hop musician named Terrence (pseudonym), and the other is myself (a traditionally…

  20. Gilles Apap's Mozart Cadenza and Expanding Musical Competences of Twenty-First-Century Musicians and Music Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Michael

    2008-01-01

    In western musical contexts at global and local levels, musicians are becoming increasingly involved in what might be termed multicode music making and are expanding their musical competences. In this article I consider the practical and cognitive implications of such an expanding of competences for music education at various levels. Combining…