WorldWideScience

Sample records for professional opera singing

  1. Acoustical study of classical Peking Opera singing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundberg, Johan; Gu, Lide; Huang, Qiang; Huang, Ping

    2012-03-01

    Acoustic characteristics of classical opera singing differ considerably between the Western and the Chinese cultures. Singers in the classical Peking opera tradition specialize on one out of a limited number of standard roles. Audio and electroglottograph signals were recorded for four performers of the Old Man role and three performers of the Colorful Face role. Recordings were made of the singers' speech and when they sang recitatives and songs from their roles. Sound pressure level, fundamental frequency, and spectrum characteristics were analyzed. Histograms showing the distribution of fundamental frequency showed marked peaks for the songs, suggesting a scale tone structure. Some of the intervals between these peaks were similar to those used in Western music. Vibrato rate was about 3.5Hz, that is, considerably slower than in Western classical singing. Spectra of vibrato-free tones contained unbroken series of harmonic partials sometimes reaching up to 17 000Hz. Long-term-average spectrum (LTAS) curves showed no trace of a singer's formant cluster. However, the Colorful Face role singers' LTAS showed a marked peak near 3300Hz, somewhat similar to that found in Western pop music singers. The mean LTAS spectrum slope between 700 and 6000Hz decreased by about 0.2dB/octave per dB of equivalent sound level. Copyright © 2012 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Acoustic Analyses of the Singing Vibrato in Traditional Peking Opera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qichao; Zhang, Ruifeng

    2017-07-01

    China's traditional Peking Opera has four standard categories of roles: Sheng, Dan, Jing, and Chou, the singing vibrato of each displaying a different auditory effect. The audio and respiratory signals were recorded for two performers of the Qing Yi role, one of the Jing role, one of the Chou role, one of the Lao Sheng role, one of the Xiao Sheng role, and one of the Lao Dan role. The recordings gained eventually consisted of 24 representative songs from six roles. The rates and extents of vibrato, fundamental frequency, and rib cage signals were analyzed. Two findings were obtained: (1) the classical opera singing vibratos of China and Western countries are acoustically different from each other; and (2) in Peking Opera, the singing vibratos of different roles show significant acoustic differences. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Brain and Music: An Intraoperative Stimulation Mapping Study of a Professional Opera Singer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Marco; Casarotti, Alessandra; Comi, Alessandro; Pessina, Federico; Bello, Lorenzo

    2016-09-01

    Music is one of the most sophisticated and fascinating functions of the brain. Yet, how music is instantiated within the brain is not fully characterized. Singing is a peculiar aspect of music, in which both musical and linguistic skills are required to provide a merged vocal output. Identifying the neural correlates of this process is relevant for both clinical and research purposes. An adult white man with a presumed left temporal glioma was studied. He is a professional opera singer. A tailored music evaluation, the Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia, was performed preoperatively and postoperatively, with long-term follow-up. Intraoperative stimulation mapping (ISM) with awake surgery with a specific music evaluation battery was used to identify and preserve the cortical and subcortical structures subserving music, along with standard motor-sensory and language mapping. A total resection of a grade I glioma was achieved. The Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia reported an improvement in musical scores after the surgery. ISM consistently elicited several types of errors in the superior temporal gyrus and, to a lesser extent, in the inferior frontal operculum. Most errors occurred during score reading; fewer errors were elicited during the assessment of rhythm. No spontaneous errors were recorded. These areas did not overlap with eloquent sites for counting or naming. ISM and a tailored music battery enabled better characterization of a specific network within the brain subserving score reading independently from speech with long-term clinical impact. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The singer's voice range profile: female professional opera soloists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamarche, Anick; Ternström, Sten; Pabon, Peter

    2010-07-01

    This work concerns the collection of 30 voice range profiles (VRPs) of female operatic voice. We address the questions: Is there a need for a singer's protocol in VRP acquisition? Are physiological measurements sufficient or should the measurement of performance capabilities also be included? Can we address the female singing voice in general or is there a case for categorizing voices when studying phonetographic data? Subjects performed a series of structured tasks involving both standard speech voice protocols and additional singing tasks. Singers also completed an extensive questionnaire. Physiological VRPs differ from performance VRPs. Two new VRP metrics, the voice area above a defined level threshold and the dynamic range independent from the fundamental frequency (F(0)), were found to be useful in the analysis of singer VRPs. Task design had no effect on performance VRP outcomes. Voice category differences were mainly attributable to phonation frequency-based information. Results support the clinical importance of addressing the vocal instrument as it is used in performance. Equally important is the elaboration of a protocol suitable for the singing voice. The given context and instructions can be more important than task design for performance VRPs. Yet, for physiological VRP recordings, task design remains critical. Both types of VRPs are suggested for a singer's voice evaluation. Copyright (c) 2010 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Three Young Kun Opera Performers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    KUN opera has a history of 5,000 years. It is a classic opera, famous for its festive singing and dancing. It boasts an extensive literature. In thousands of librettos, it has adapted the essence of different types of Chinese poems,and songs. The more than 4,000 Kun songs include ancient Chinese music, religious, folk, ethnic and foreign music. It combines singing, dancing, acrobatics, wushu, pantomime and many other forms of

  6. INNOVATIVE TENDENCIES OF FUTURE MUSIC TEACHERS’ SINGING TRAINING IN THE PROCESS OF PROFESSIONAL TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si Daofen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In the article the innovative tendencies of singing training of Art institutes students at pedagogical universities is presented. The issue introduced in the article is relevant as processes of modernization of higher art and pedagogical education require implementing new scientific approaches and innovative technologies into future music teachers’ training to ensure the comprehensive development of a young generation in modern conditions. So the aim of the article is to disclose the main features of implementing innovative technologies into future music teachers’ training. The analysis of pedagogical and psychological literature shows that the main features of methodological training to work with schoolchildren are the following: mastering professional knowledge, taking into account characteristics of adults’ and children’s phonation; considering aesthetical and value qualities of vocal sound according to modern standards of singers’ training; comprehensive development of vocal, melodic and harmonic hearing; an ability to get schoolchildren’s correct vocal sound; developing skills of methodological analysis of singing process. Due to analysis of scientific works by V. Antoniuk, N. Hrebeniuk, V. Morozov it is reported that efficiency of students and singers’ performance depends on their readiness to make independent decisions in practical creative and performing process, that is a general tendency in the singing training. That’s why one of the main objectives of future music teacher training to performing activities during the years of study is thought to be developing singers’ independence. Among the most effective innovative technologies of future music teachers’ singing training the author proposes technologies of vocal and choral performance by V. Yemelianova, V. Morozova, H. Struve. It is proved that none of innovative concepts, discussed in the article, cannot be mechanically implemented in current national conditions

  7. Sing, immer sing

    OpenAIRE

    Woll, Erna

    1993-01-01

    Sing, immer sing : fünf Chorlieder für Frauenst. nach Worten von William Shakespeare. - In: Deutscher Chor-Wettbewerb : 3. Deutscher Chor-Wettbewerb ´90. - Freiburg : dt. harmonia mundi. - Vol. 3. (p 1993). - Compact disc (digital). - Best.-Nr. HM/DMR 2052-2

  8. Automatic Assessment of Acoustic Parameters of the Singing Voice: Application to Professional Western Operatic and Jazz Singers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredi, Claudia; Barbagallo, Davide; Baracca, Giovanna; Orlandi, Silvia; Bandini, Andrea; Dejonckere, Philippe H

    2015-07-01

    The obvious perceptual differences between various singing styles like Western operatic and jazz rely on specific dissimilarities in vocal technique. The present study focuses on differences in vibrato acoustics and in singer's formant as analyzed by a novel software tool, named BioVoice, based on robust high-resolution and adaptive techniques that have proven its validity on synthetic voice signals. A total of 48 professional singers were investigated (29 females; 19 males; 29 Western operatic; and 19 jazz). They were asked to sing "a cappella," but with artistic expression, a well-known musical phrase from Gershwin's Porgy and Bess, in their own style: either operatic or jazz. A specific sustained note was extracted for detailed vibrato analysis. Beside rate (s(-1)) and extent (cents), duration (seconds) and regularity were computed. Two new concepts are introduced: vibrato jitter and vibrato shimmer, by analogy with the traditional jitter and shimmer of voice signals. For the singer's formant, on the same sustained tone, the ratio of the acoustic energy in formants 1-2 to the energy in formants 3, 4, and 5 was automatically computed, providing a quality ratio (QR). Vibrato rates did not differ among groups. Extent was significantly larger in operatic singers, particularly females. Vibrato jitter and vibrato shimmer were significantly smaller in operatic singers. Duration of vibrato was also significantly longer in operatic singers. QR was significantly lower in male operatic singers. Some vibrato characteristics (extent, regularity, and duration) very clearly differentiate the Western operatic singing style from the jazz singing style. The singer's formant is typical of male operatic singers. The new software tool is well suited to provide useful feedback in a pedagogical context. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. OPERA's overture

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    When neutrinos interact, they mainly produce one muon and a shower of hadrons. Here we see two interactions in the heart of the OPERA detector: one in the steel plates of the first magnet (left), the other in the target's scintillation counters (right). OPERA's opening score has been played at the Gran Sasso Laboratory in Italy, and it's in perfect harmony with the melody of the CNGS neutrino beam from CERN, 730 kilometres away. OPERA's overture was played on 18 August 2006, when the first tracks, corresponding to interactions with CNGS neutrinos, were recorded in its detectors. To the great satisfaction of the teams on both of the Alps, the quality of the CNGS beam is fully in line with expectations, as are the first tracks observed by OPERA, which records data with hardly any down time. Over a five-day period, a little over 300 interactions correlated with the CNGS beam were identified, just as predicted. During this first run it has been possible to verify the correct operation of the electronic detector...

  10. Trends in Singing Voice Research: An Innovative Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestana, Pedro Melo; Vaz-Freitas, Susana; Manso, Maria Conceição

    2018-01-11

    The objectives of this study were to trace and describe research patterns in singing voice, to compare the amount of published research over time, to identify journals that published most papers on "singing voice," and to establish the most frequent research topics. The study uses qualitative and quantitative approaches through descriptive statistics, text mining, and clustering. The authors conducted a search to identify scientific papers. The titles and abstracts were analyzed regarding word frequency and relations between them, through hierarchical cluster analysis and co-occurrence networks. The frequency of journals was calculated, as well as the amount of papers across time. Since 1949, 754 papers were published and an increase was noticed. Even though 162 journals were identified by the authors, the Journal of Voice holds the majority of papers, in every analyzed period. An evolution of studied topics is described. Up to 2010, the main theme was professional singers, especially classical and opera interpreters. Since then, voice quality and the effects of training gathered more attention. The growing interest in singing has been conspicuous since the first indexed paper. However, it has been slightly slowing down. Until 2010, great importance was given to the voice quality of singers and their occupational demands. Acoustic analysis was widely used to study the effects of training. Since 2010, the concern with functionality is increasing, rather than the organic voice structures. Musical perception studies have been a trend, as well as the use of electroglottography. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Sydney Opera House Rise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    Sydney Opera House Exhibition (2013) A CITA research and exhibition project, for Sydney Opera House exhibition "Danish Design at the House".......Sydney Opera House Exhibition (2013) A CITA research and exhibition project, for Sydney Opera House exhibition "Danish Design at the House"....

  12. [Singing as an aid in neonatology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medrano Poullain, Chrystelle; Milou, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Health professionals expect the beneficial effects of singing in neonatology, but remain reluctant to use it. The sensorimotor behaviour of newborns has been analysed when a professional or a mother sings. The results of a qualitative study show that singing before performing a care procedure can modify alertness by favouring interaction and have a positive impact on the behavioural assessment score. During the procedure, singing can help the baby's stability. A factor of well-being for the newborn, this practice could be developed on a wider scale. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Lawyers in opera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høedt-Rasmussen, Inger; Nielsen, Lise-Lotte

    2014-01-01

    . At three levels of analysis, this explorative study searches for connections between societal requirements (what to do), professional requirements (how to act) and legal and ethical expectations of specific lawyer-like behaviour, morality and good citizenship (who to be). The article brings into a dialogue...... figures, judges, notaries, lawyers, courtrooms, prisons and legal cultures are exposed. These conditions have influenced the reputation of lawyers. This article contributes with reflections about lawyers’ identity through a fruitful inspiring collaboration between an opera singer and a legal scholar...

  14. Social Theory, Sacred Text, and Sing-Sing Prison: A Sociology of Community-Based Reconciliation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Victoria Lee

    2002-01-01

    Examines the sociological component of the urban community-based professional education programs at New York Theological Seminary offered at Sing-Sing Prison. Explores the simultaneous use of social theory and sacred texts as teaching tools and intervention strategies in the educational and personal transformation processes of men incarcerated for…

  15. Vocal tract shapes in different singing functions used in musical theater singing-a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echternach, Matthias; Popeil, Lisa; Traser, Louisa; Wienhausen, Sascha; Richter, Bernhard

    2014-09-01

    Singing styles in Musical Theater singing might differ in many ways from Western Classical singing. However, vocal tract adjustments are not understood in detail. Vocal tract shapes of a single professional Music Theater female subject were analyzed concerning different aspects of singing styles using dynamic real-time magnetic resonance imaging technology with a frame rate of 8 fps. The different tasks include register differences, belting, and vibrato strategies. Articulatory differences were found between head register, modal register, and belting. Also, some vibrato strategies ("jazzy" vibrato) do involve vocal tract adjustments, whereas others (classical vibrato) do not. Vocal tract shaping might contribute to the establishment of different singing functions in Musical Theater singing. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Factors associated with singers' perceptions of choral singing well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsh, Elliana R; van Leer, Eva; Phero, Heidi J; Xie, Changchun; Khosla, Sid

    2013-11-01

    Choral singing is a popular vocational pastime across cultures. The potential health benefits associated with choral singing, including positive effect on well-being, are a topic of interest in health research. However, anecdotal reports from voice professionals suggest that the unique demands of choral singing may enforce unhealthy singing habits. This study explores suboptimal vocal behaviors that are sometimes associated with choral singing, which include singing outside comfortable pitch range, singing too loudly, and singing too softly for blend. The relationships between suboptimal choral singing habits, vocal warm-ups (WUs), vocal fatigue, and singing-related well-being were assessed via a 14-item Likert-based response format questionnaire. Participants consisted of 196 attendees of the international World Choir Games. The final study group consisted of 53 male and 143 female international amateur singers aged 10-70. Results indicated a positive correlation between vocal fatigue and suboptimal singing behaviors (r = 0.34, P singing behavior experienced increased singing-related well-being (r = -0.32, P singing well-being. Substantially, more participants from this demographic preferred choir over solo singing (X²[1, N = 196] = 22.93, P singing behaviors may result in vocal fatigue and reduction of choral singing well-being and should therefore be considered when examining the effect of choral singing on singing-related well-being and health. Future research will compare the amateurs' perceptions of choral singing with perceptions from professional singers and will look at determinants of choral singing well-being. Copyright © 2013 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Singing proficiency in the majority: normality and "phenotypes" of poor singing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Bella, Simone; Berkowska, Magdalena

    2009-07-01

    Recent evidence indicates that the majority of occasional singers can carry a tune. For example, when asked to sing a well-known song (e.g., "Happy Birthday"), nonmusicians performing at a slow tempo are as proficient as professional singers. Yet, some occasional singers are poor singers, mostly in the pitch domain, and sometimes despite not having impoverished perception. Poor singing is not a monolithic deficit, but is likely to be characterized by a diversity of singing "phenotypes." Here we systematically examined singing proficiency in a group of occasional singers, with the goal of characterizing the different patterns of poor singing. Participants sang three well-known melodies (e.g., "Jingle Bells") at a natural tempo and at a slow tempo, as indicated by a metronome. For each rendition, we computed objective measures of pitch and time accuracy with an acoustical method. The results confirmed previous observations that the majority of occasional singers can sing in tune and in time. Moreover, singing at a slow tempo after the target melody to be imitated was presented with a metronome improved pitch and time accuracy. In general, poor singers were mostly impaired on the pitch dimension, although various patterns of impairment emerged. Pitch accuracy or time accuracy could be selectively impaired; moreover, absolute measures of singing proficiency (pitch or tempo transposition) dissociated from relative measures of proficiency (pitch intervals, relative duration). These patterns of dissociations point to a multicomponent system underlying proficient singing that fractionates as a result of a developmental anomaly.

  18. Artistic quality in an opera company : toward the development of a concept

    OpenAIRE

    Boerner, Sabine

    2004-01-01

    This article elaborates a first concept for defining artistic quality in a nonprofit professional opera company. To specify the artistic quality of an opera company, we identify two components: profile quality and performance quality. The article discusses the limitations of this preliminary concept and considerations for further research on artistic quality in an opera company.

  19. OPERA goes on camera

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    OPERA, the experiment which uses the neutrino beam of CERN’s CNGS facility, has delivered its first neutrino "photos". The core of the detector has been commissioned and has produced images of events resulting from neutrino collisions. The reconstruction of the core (a few cubic millimetres!) of a neutrino interaction at OPERA. The neutrino arriving from the left of the image has interacted with the lead of a brick, producing various particles identifiable by their tracks visible in the emulsion.The snapshot is tiny but it was greeted with enthusiasm by the physicists of OPERA. On 2 October, for the first time, the experiment at the Gran Sasso Laboratory in Italy "photographed" an event produced by the beam of neutrinos sent from CERN, 732 kilometres away. One of the 60,000 photosensitive bricks already installed at the heart of the experiment had produced its first particle track. The commissioning of the OPERA experiment began la...

  20. Touching base with OPERA

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    Three seminars – at CERN, at Gran Sasso and in Japan – and an article calling for the scrutiny of the scientific community: the OPERA Collaboration opened its research publicly. In addition to huge press coverage, this triggered welcome reactions from colleagues around the world, many of whom will attempt to independently interpret and reproduce the measurement. OPERA’s Spokesperson touches base with the Bulletin.   The CERN Main Auditorium was crowded as OPERA Physics co-ordinator Dario Autiero presented the results of their research (23 September 2011). According to the OPERA strategy, the results of the measurements are in the hands of the scientific community and, as for any other scientific result, several months will be needed before other groups will be able to perform an independent measurement. In the meantime, the OPERA Collaboration is dealing with an avalanche of emails from the scientific community, members of the general public, and the press. &...

  1. Backstage at OPERA

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    In the latest in our series of articles on the neutrino beam to Gran Sasso we turn the spotlight this week onto the two experiments under construction at the Gran Sasso Laboratory - OPERA and ICARUS. In March 2003, installation of the OPERA (Oscillation Project with Emulsion tRacking Apparatus) detector began in Hall C of the INFN's Gran Sasso Laboratory in Italy. The OPERA-CNGS1 Collaboration comprises 170 physicists from 35 research institutes and universities worldwide. It is expected that the complete detector will be ready to receive the CNGS neutrino beam and start data acquisition in August 2006. This article gives an overview of the OPERA experiment. The OPERA experiment aims to clear up the mystery of neutrino oscillation. But what are more precisely its objectives ? When cosmic rays interact in the atmosphere, two kinds of neutrino - muon-neutrinos and electron-neutrinos - are produced. In theory there should be twice as many muon-neutrinos as electron-neutrinos, but experiments find too few of the...

  2. Singing voice outcomes following singing voice therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastolfo-Hromack, Christina; Thomas, Tracey L; Rosen, Clark A; Gartner-Schmidt, Jackie

    2016-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe singing voice therapy (SVT), describe referred patient characteristics, and document the outcomes of SVT. Retrospective. Records of patients receiving SVT between June 2008 and June 2013 were reviewed (n = 51). All diagnoses were included. Demographic information, number of SVT sessions, and symptom severity were retrieved from the medical record. Symptom severity was measured via the 10-item Singing Voice Handicap Index (SVHI-10). Treatment outcome was analyzed by diagnosis, history of previous training, and SVHI-10. SVHI-10 scores decreased following SVT (mean change = 11, 40% decrease) (P singing lessons (n = 10) also completed an average of three SVT sessions. Primary muscle tension dysphonia (MTD1) and benign vocal fold lesion (lesion) were the most common diagnoses. Most patients (60%) had previous vocal training. SVHI-10 decrease was not significantly different between MTD and lesion. This is the first outcome-based study of SVT in a disordered population. Diagnosis of MTD or lesion did not influence treatment outcomes. Duration of SVT was short (approximately three sessions). Voice care providers are encouraged to partner with a singing voice therapist to provide optimal care for the singing voice. This study supports the use of SVT as a tool for the treatment of singing voice disorders. 4 Laryngoscope, 126:2546-2551, 2016. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  3. Singing in Shakespeare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovmand, Michael

      Abstract: Singing in Shakespeare Songs in Shakespeare's plays are just one element of a whole array of discourses at the playwright's disposal In the title of this essay I've chosen the gerund form ‘singing' rather than the noun ‘songs', because  whereas most  studies  focuses on the provenance...... of dramatic uses of singing found in Shakespeare's plays....

  4. SOME METHODIC ASPECTS OF VOCAL RESPIRATION WITHIN ACADEMIC SINGING TEACHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AGA LUDMILA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the author’s reflections on the methodical problems of vocal respiration treated by Ludmila Aga as one of the essential elements of vocal technique. Based on her own rich experience as opera soloist and vocal teacher, the author reviews some theoretical principles which treat this problem. Besides, L. Aga proposes some helpful exercises for developing vocal respiration abilities. The article combines data from physiology, history and the theory of performing arts, methods of singing. Having an applied character, this work might be helpful for the singing teachers from the colleges and higher instituti­ons of music proile, as well as for the students of the Academic Singing Department.

  5. "Ring" in the solo child singing voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, David M; Williams, Jenevora; Herbst, Christian T

    2014-03-01

    Listeners often describe the voices of solo child singers as being "pure" or "clear"; these terms would suggest that the voice is not only pleasant but also clearly audible. The audibility or clarity could be attributed to the presence of high-frequency partials in the sound: a "brightness" or "ring." This article aims to investigate spectrally the acoustic nature of this ring phenomenon in children's solo voices, and in particular, relating it to their "nonring" production. Additionally, this is set in the context of establishing to what extent, if any, the spectral characteristics of ring are shared with those of the singer's formant cluster associated with professional adult opera singers in the 2.5-3.5kHz region. A group of child solo singers, acknowledged as outstanding by a singing teacher who specializes in teaching professional child singers, were recorded in a major UK concert hall performing Come unto him, all ye that labour, from the aria He shall feed his flock from The Messiah by GF Handel. Their singing was accompanied by a recording of a piano played through in-ear headphones. Sound pressure recordings were made from well within the critical distance in the hall. The singers were observed to produce notes with and without ring, and these recordings were analyzed in the frequency domain to investigate their spectra. The results indicate that there is evidence to suggest that ring in child solo singers is carried in two areas of the output spectrum: first in the singer's formant cluster region, centered around 4kHz, which is more than 1000Hz higher than what is observed in adults; and second in the region around 7.5-11kHz where a significant strengthening of harmonic presence is observed. A perceptual test has been carried out demonstrating that 94% of 62 listeners label a synthesized version of the calculated overall average ring spectrum for all subjects as having ring when compared with a synthesized version of the calculated overall average nonring

  6. Effects of Chinese opera on the reproductions of Ibsen's plays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Leung Che LAU

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available As part of a globalized phenomenon, the reproductions of Ibsen’s plays on the Chinese theatrical stage increasingly focus upon the exploration and expansion of new cultural forms, as Patrice Pavis defines interculturalism as “grasping the dialectical of exchanges of civilities between cultures”. However, how do we evaluate the effectiveness of the many “intercultural” productions that surround us today? I attempt to answer this question by comparing two Chinese reproductions of Ibsen’s plays that employ elements of Chinese opera on varying scales. The first one is a total transformation of Hedda Gabler into a Hangzhou yue opera form, Xin Bi Tian Gao (Aspirations Higher than the Sky, 心比天高 in 2006. As part of the yue opera tradition, Hedda Gabler was staged in an all-female cast. The second one is a fragmented insertion of a Peking opera excerpt into the staging of A Doll’s House by the National Experimental Theatre of China in 1998. One of the highlights of the play is a Norwegian actress, who plays Nora, singing and dancing a short Peking opera excerpt, thus replacing the tarantella dance in the original play. Contextualising the multiple perspectives towards interculturalism by Patrice Pavis, Richard Schechner and Rustom Bharucha, I aim to explore how the appropriation of Chinese opera in such performances might strengthen or weaken the reciprocal flows between the source and target cultures in Pavis’s “hourglass model”, and whether the initial attempt of revitalising both Chinese and Western art forms has backfired and misproduced Bertolt Brecht’s alienation effect directed at the contemporary audience.

  7. Opera and neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorusso, Lorenzo; Franchini, Antonia Francesca; Porro, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Opera is the most complete form of theatrical representation, characterized by musical accompaniment, both instrumental and vocal. It has played an important role in sociocultural spheres, affecting the various social strata and reflecting customs and ideas in different centuries. Composers have created pieces that have also shown the development of medicine. Since the birth of opera in seventeenth century in Italy, neuroscience has played an important role in influencing the representation of madness and neurological aspects. From the Folly of the Renaissance, a path toward a representation of madness was developed, initially linked to the myths of classical antiquity. In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, madness was represented as comical or funny, of a loving nature and influenced by the spread of the Commedia dell'Arte (Comedy of Art). In the nineteenth century, with the rise of the first scientific theories of the mind, insanity took more precise connotations and was separated from other psychiatric and neurological diseases. The operas of the twentieth century depicted psychiatric and neurological diseases, taking into account newer medical and scientific discoveries. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. [How did the castratos sing? Historical observations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Deuster, Christian

    2006-01-01

    Historical observations In Church music from the early beginnings to the 19th century, women were not allowed to sing, because of a wrongly interpreted quote of the Apostle Paul. Paul had ordered women to keep silence in ecclesia, it means: in the community and in the congregation, but he himself never mentioned a ban on singing in church. The castratos gradually replaced the men singing falsetto due to the latter's weaker singing performance from the 17th century onwards. They originated mostly from simple social backgrounds. Many poor families in Italy in the 17th and 18th centuries had up to 15 children and there was far too little work for the population. Some castratos were the stars of the opera. But as human beings they were discriminated. The castration took place mostly between the 7th and 12th years of their lives and many died as a result of the operation. The singing-lessons thereafter lasted 5-6 years. In the 18th century, the most famous castrato was Carlo Broschi, named Farinelli (1705-1782). Numerous arias sung by him are still in existence as scores, some are high quality concert pieces. There are modem versions on CD sung by a counter-tenor or a mezzo-soprano as soloists. Farinelli was able, during a visit to Spain, to improve with his singing the mood of two severely depressive kings. In the late 18th and in the 19th century, the castratos were increasingly replaced by tenors and women singers. The only historical sound recordings were sung by one of the last castratos, Alessandro Moreschi (1858-1922). The recordings were made in 1902 and 1904 in the Vatican. The arias are in the style of the end of the 19th century and contain no longer anything of the bravura arias so admired by the audiences in the 18th century. Since the end of World War II, the high male voices have experienced a renaissance.

  9. Operator reliability assessment system (OPERAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spurgin, A.J.; Hallam, J.W.; Spurgin, J.P.; Singh, A.

    1991-01-01

    The paper gives an overview of the OPERAS project. It discusses the background which led to the design of the PC-based data collection and analysis system connected to plant training simulators including those used for nuclear power plants. The usefulness of a system like OPERAS was perceived during an earlier EPRI project, the Operator Reliability Experiments project, by EPRI and PG and E. The data collection and analysis approaches used in OPERAS were developed during the ORE project. The paper not only discusses the design of OPERAS but discusses the functions performed and the current experiences with the two prototype systems. Also listed are potential uses of OPERAS by utility personnel in Operations, Training and PRA groups

  10. Singing and social inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Graham F.; Himonides, Evangelos; Saunders, Jo; Papageorgi, Ioulia; Sarazin, Marc

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing body of neurological, cognitive, and social psychological research to suggest the possibility of positive transfer effects from structured musical engagement. In particular, there is evidence to suggest that engagement in musical activities may impact on social inclusion (sense of self and of being socially integrated). Tackling social exclusion and promoting social inclusion are common concerns internationally, such as in the UK and the EC, and there are many diverse Government ministries and agencies globally that see the arts in general and music in particular as a key means by which social needs can be addressed. As part of a wider evaluation of a national, Government-sponsored music education initiative for Primary-aged children in England (“Sing Up”), opportunity was taken by the authors, at the request of the funders, to assess any possible relationship between (a) children's developing singing behavior and development and (b) their social inclusion (sense of self and of being socially integrated). Subsequently, it was possible to match data from n = 6087 participants, drawn from the final 3 years of data collection (2008–2011), in terms of each child's individually assessed singing ability (based on their singing behavior of two well-known songs to create a “normalized singing score”) and their written responses to a specially-designed questionnaire that included a set of statements related to children's sense of being socially included to which the children indicated their level of agreement on a seven-point Likert scale. Data analyses suggested that the higher the normalized singing development rating, the more positive the child's self-concept and sense of being socially included, irrespective of singer age, sex and ethnicity. PMID:25120514

  11. Singing and social inclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Graham F; Himonides, Evangelos; Saunders, Jo; Papageorgi, Ioulia; Sarazin, Marc

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing body of neurological, cognitive, and social psychological research to suggest the possibility of positive transfer effects from structured musical engagement. In particular, there is evidence to suggest that engagement in musical activities may impact on social inclusion (sense of self and of being socially integrated). Tackling social exclusion and promoting social inclusion are common concerns internationally, such as in the UK and the EC, and there are many diverse Government ministries and agencies globally that see the arts in general and music in particular as a key means by which social needs can be addressed. As part of a wider evaluation of a national, Government-sponsored music education initiative for Primary-aged children in England ("Sing Up"), opportunity was taken by the authors, at the request of the funders, to assess any possible relationship between (a) children's developing singing behavior and development and (b) their social inclusion (sense of self and of being socially integrated). Subsequently, it was possible to match data from n = 6087 participants, drawn from the final 3 years of data collection (2008-2011), in terms of each child's individually assessed singing ability (based on their singing behavior of two well-known songs to create a "normalized singing score") and their written responses to a specially-designed questionnaire that included a set of statements related to children's sense of being socially included to which the children indicated their level of agreement on a seven-point Likert scale. Data analyses suggested that the higher the normalized singing development rating, the more positive the child's self-concept and sense of being socially included, irrespective of singer age, sex and ethnicity.

  12. Singing and social inclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Frederick Welch

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing body of neurological, cognitive and social psychological research to suggest the possibility of positive transfer effects from structured musical engagement. In particular, there is evidence to suggest that engagement in musical activities may impact on social inclusion (sense of self and of being socially integrated. Tackling social exclusion and promoting social inclusion are common concerns internationally, such as in the UK and the EC, and there are many diverse Government ministries and agencies globally that see the arts in general and music in particular as a key means by which social needs can be addressed. As part of a wider evaluation of a national, Government-sponsored music education initiative for Primary-aged children in England (‘Sing Up’, opportunity was taken by the authors, at the request of the funders, to assess any possible relationship between (a children’s developing singing behaviour and development and (b their social inclusion (sense of self and of being socially integrated. Subsequently, it was possible to match data from n=6087 participants, drawn from the final three years of data collection (2008-2011, in terms of each child’s individually assessed singing ability (based on their singing behaviour of two well-known songs to create a 'normalised singing score' and their written responses to a specially-designed questionnaire that included a set of statements related to children’s sense of being socially included to which the children indicated their level of agreement on a seven-point Likert scale. Data analyses suggested that the higher the normalized singing development rating, the more positive the child’s self-concept and sense of being socially included, irrespective of singer age, sex and ethnicity.

  13. A scale value for the balance between stage and pit and inside an historical opera house

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodi, Nicola; Velecka, Sylvia

    2004-05-01

    Despite its recognized importance, the balance between the singer and the orchestra inside an opera house has received minor attention in the past. In fact, after the fundamental work of Meyer [J. Meyer, ``Some problems of opera house acoustics,'' Proceedings of 12th I.C.A., Vancouver, 1986, pp. 13-18], who explained why the solo singing voice can compete with the orchestra, only partial results were reported on this perceived attribute. In this work a reference scale to assess the balance inside an historical opera house is achieved by means of listening tests inside a controlled room. Two scaling experiments were performed based on the acoustical data measured inside an historical opera house, the Teatro Comunale di Ferrara, Italy. By doing so all of the relevant acoustical characteristics of a typical Italian-style opera house could be exactly reproduced. Acceptable values do not differ much in the stalls and in the boxes and are within 2 dB(A) to +2.3 dB(A). The transfer of the findings to other types of opera houses is discussed, too.

  14. The OPERA magnetic spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosio, M; Dusini, S; Dulach, B; Fanin, C; Felici, G; Corso, F D; Garfagnini, A; Grianti, F; Gustavino, C; Monacelli, P; Paoloni, A; Stanco, L; Spinetti, M; Terranova, F; Votano, L

    2004-01-01

    The OPERA neutrino oscillation experiment foresees the construction of two magnetized iron spectrometers located after the lead-nuclear emulsion targets. The magnet is made up of two vertical walls of rectangular cross section connected by return yokes. The particle trajectories are measured by high precision drift tubes located before and after the arms of the magnet. Moreover, the magnet steel is instrumented with Resistive Plate Chambers that ease pattern recognition and allow a calorimetric measurement of the hadronic showers. In this paper we review the construction of the spectrometers. In particular, we describe the results obtained from the magnet and RPC prototypes and the installation of the final apparatus at the Gran Sasso laboratories. We discuss the mechanical and magnetic properties of the steel and the techniques employed to calibrate the field in the bulk of the magnet. Moreover, results of the tests and issues concerning the mass production of the Resistive Plate Chambers are reported. Final...

  15. When Instrumentalists Sing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the impact that choral singing has on instrumental students' development as musicians. Instrumental music students (N = 23) enrolled in a choral elective module at a tertiary music conservatory completed an eight-item questionnaire. Descriptive answers were collated and interpreted revealing six…

  16. Singing Smoothes Classroom Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Sarah E.

    2012-01-01

    Just as humming a merry tune helped Snow White and her furry animal friends to quickly clean a filthy cottage in the movie "Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs" (Disney & Cottrell, 1937), singing can be an effective way to help keep young children fully engaged during classroom transitions. The purposes of this article are to: (1) consider why…

  17. The neural control of singing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Mary eZarate

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Singing provides a unique opportunity to examine music performance—the musical instrument is contained wholly within the body, thus eliminating the need for creating artificial instruments or tasks in neuroimaging experiments. Here, more than two decades of voice and singing research will be reviewed to give an overview of the sensory-motor control of the singing voice, starting from the vocal tract and leading up to the brain regions involved in singing. Additionally, to demonstrate how sensory feedback is integrated with vocal motor control, recent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI research on somatosensory and auditory feedback processing during singing will be presented. The relationship between the brain and singing behavior will be explored also by examining: 1 neuroplasticity as a function of various lengths and types of training, 2 vocal amusia due to a compromised singing network, and 3 singing performance in individuals with congenital amusia. Finally, the auditory-motor control network for singing will be considered alongside dual-stream models of auditory processing in music and speech to refine both these theoretical models and the singing network itself.

  18. Singing, Sissies, and Sexual Identity: How LGBTQ Choral Directors Negotiate Gender Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Nicholas R.

    2016-01-01

    This article explores how choral directors negotiate personal and professional identity in relation to gender discourse. Many music teachers have tried hypermasculine messages, such as "Real men sing," used as recruitment tools for getting adolescent boys to join choir. Designed to counter the perception that "singing is for…

  19. Finnish Play Becomes Chinese Local Opera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    IN the fall of 1992 an unusualpremiere took place in Xi′an:Totisesti totisesti,adapted from aFinnish stage play,was performed asan opera in Chinese by the HuaOpera Troupe,a part of the ShaanxiOpera Research Institute.Ms.InkeriKilpinen,the playwright,and Ms.Leena Laulajainen,vice-chairman ofFinland Writers′Association,cameto see the performance.Hua opera,also known as“Wanwan Opera,”is one of the localforms of opera in Shaanxi Province.It was originally performed in theform of shadow play,and was for-

  20. A Review of Training Opportunities for Singing Voice Rehabilitation Specialists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhard, Julia

    2016-05-01

    Training opportunities for singing voice rehabilitation specialists are growing and changing. This is happening despite a lack of agreed-on guidelines or an accredited certification acknowledged by the governing bodies in the fields of speech-language pathology and vocal pedagogy, the American Speech-Language Hearing Association and the National Association of Teachers of Singing, respectively. The roles of the speech-language pathologist, the singing teacher, and the person who bridges this gap, the singing voice rehabilitation specialist, are now becoming better defined and more common among the voice care community. To that end, this article aims to review the current opportunities for training in the field of singing voice rehabilitation. A review of available university training programs, private training programs and mentorships, clinical fellowships, professional organizations, conferences, vocal training across genres, and self-study opportunities was conducted. All institutional listings are with permission from program leaders. Although many avenues are available for training of singing voice rehabilitation specialists, there is no accredited comprehensive training program at this point. This review gathers information on current training opportunities from across various modalities. The listings are not intended to be comprehensive but rather representative of possibilities for interested practitioners. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The OPERA Experiment. Latest results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollnagel, Annika [Universitaet Hamburg, Institut fuer Experimentalphysik (Germany); Collaboration: OPERA-Hamburg-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment OPERA has been designed for the direct observation of ν{sub τ} appearance in the CNGS ν{sub μ} beam. The OPERA detector is located at the LNGS underground laboratory, with a distance of 730 km from the neutrino source at CERN. It is a hybrid detector, combining the micrometric precision of emulsion cloud chambers with electronic detector elements for online readout. While CNGS beam data taking lasted from 2008 to 2012, the neutrino oscillation analysis is still ongoing. Updated results with increased statistics are presented, including the recent observation of ν{sub τ} appearance.

  2. Tuvan Throat Singing and Harmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Michael J.; Wilken, David

    2018-01-01

    Tuvan throat singing, also called overtone singing, provides for an exotic demonstration of the physics of harmonics as well as introducing an Asian musical aesthetic. A low fundamental is sung and the singer skillfully alters the resonances of the vocal system to enhance an overtone (harmonic above the fundamental). The result is that the…

  3. Enlightenment Christianity, History and Opera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Nils Holger

    2010-01-01

    Historisk præsentation af Kunzens og Baggesens opera "Erik Eiegod", litterært og musikalsk med vægt på balancen mellem oplysningsideologi og kristendomsforståelse i Baggesens libretto og på Kunzens musikalske underbygning heraf. Udgivelsesdato: 2010...

  4. Peking Opera at Laoshe Teahouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    LAOSHE Teahouse. located southwest of the Arrow Tower in Beijing, brings back memories of the past. The teahouse is decorated by palace lamps winding corridors along the walls and traditional black hardwood tables and chairs. This is a place to listen lo Peking opera while sipping scented tea and soaking in an atmosphere of

  5. Status of the OPERA Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmermann, R.

    2006-01-01

    In this article the physics motivation and the detector design of the OPERA experiment will be reviewed. The construction status of the detector, which will be situated in the CNGS beam from CERN to the Gran Sasso laboratory, will be reported. A survey on the physics performance will be given and the physics plan in 2006 will be presented.

  6. Singing comet changes its song

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volwerk, M.; Goetz, C.; Delva, M.; Richter, I.; Tsurutani, B. T.; Eriksson, A.; Odelstad, E.; Meier, P.; Nilsson, H.; Glassmeier, K.-H.

    2017-09-01

    The singing comet was discovered at the beginning of the Rosetta mission around comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Large amplitude compressional waves with frequencies between 10 and 100 mHz were observed. When the comet became more active this signal was no longer measured. During the so-called tail excursion, late in the mission after perihelion, with again a less active comet, the singing was observed again and interestingly, going from 26 March to 27 March 2016 the character of the singing changed.

  7. Tibetan singing bowls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terwagne, Denis; Bush, John W M

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of an experimental investigation of the acoustics and fluid dynamics of Tibetan singing bowls. Their acoustic behaviour is rationalized in terms of the related dynamics of standing bells and wine glasses. Striking or rubbing a fluid-filled bowl excites wall vibrations, and concomitant waves at the fluid surface. Acoustic excitation of the bowl's natural vibrational modes allows for a controlled study in which the evolution of the surface waves with increasing forcing amplitude is detailed. Particular attention is given to rationalizing the observed criteria for the onset of edge-induced Faraday waves and droplet generation via surface fracture. Our study indicates that drops may be levitated on the fluid surface, induced to bounce on or skip across the vibrating fluid surface. (invited article)

  8. Evaluation of the Supraglottic and Subglottic Activities Including Acoustic Assessment of the Opera-Chant Singers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petekkaya, Emine; Yücel, Ahmet Hilmi; Sürmelioğlu, Özgür

    2017-12-28

    Opera and chant singers learn to effectively use aerodynamic components by breathing exercises during their education. Aerodynamic components, including subglottic air pressure and airflow, deteriorate in voice disorders. This study aimed to evaluate the changes in aerodynamic parameters and supraglottic structures of men and women with different vocal registers who are in an opera and chant education program. Vocal acoustic characteristics, aerodynamic components, and supraglottic structures were evaluated in 40 opera and chant art branch students. The majority of female students were sopranos, and the male students were baritone or tenor vocalists. The acoustic analyses revealed that the mean fundamental frequency was 152.33 Hz in the males and 218.77 Hz in the females. The estimated mean subglottal pressures were similar in females (14.99 cmH 2 O) and in males (14.48 cmH 2 O). Estimated mean airflow rates were also similar in both groups. The supraglottic structure compression analyses revealed partial anterior-posterior compressions in 2 tenors and 2 sopranos, and false vocal fold compression in 2 sopranos. Opera music is sung in high-pitched sounds. Attempts to sing high-pitched notes and frequently using register transitions overstrain the vocal structures. This intense muscular effort eventually traumatizes the vocal structures and causes supraglottic activity. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The OPERA neutrino velocity measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wonsak, Bjoern [Universitaet Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    OPERA is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment designed to find tau neutrinos appearing in a pure muon neutrino beam. Recently, a measurement of the flight time of the neutrinos between the CNGS at CERN and the OPERA detector at the LNGS has been performed. It was found that the neutrinos arrive at the detector significantly earlier in time than expected if travelling at the speed of light. In this talk, the main aspects of this measurement are presented, including timing and geodesy issues and the analysis procedure. An update concerning results with a fine structured time distribution of the beam is given, as well as latest information on some additional cross checks.

  10. Operator reliability assessment system (OPERAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, A.; Spurgin, A.J.; Martin, T.; Welsch, J.; Hallam, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    OPERAS is a personal-computer (PC) based software to collect and process simulator data on control-room operators responses during requalification training scenarios. The data collection scheme is based upon approach developed earlier during the EPRI Operator Reliability Experiments project. The software allows automated data collection from simulator, thus minimizing simulator staff time and resources to collect, maintain and process data which can be useful in monitoring, assessing and enhancing the progress of crew reliability and effectiveness. The system is designed to provide the data and output information in the form of user-friendly charts, tables and figures for use by plant staff. OPERAS prototype software has been implemented at the Diablo Canyon (PWR) and Millstone (BWR) plants and is currently being used to collect operator response data. Data collected from similator include plant-state variables such as reactor pressure and temperature, malfunction, times at which annunciators are activated, operator actions and observations of crew behavior by training staff. The data and systematic analytical results provided by the OPERAS system can contribute to increase objectivity by the utility probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) and training staff in monitoring and assessing reliability of their crews

  11. Levi-Strauss and the Opera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlado Kotnik

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper is dedicated to Claude Levi-Strauss and his structural reading of opera as metaphorical ‘composing’ of an anthropological grand opera, materialized in the four-volume study of Mythologiques, which refers to Wagner’s tetralogy of The Ring. He created a type of comparative view of the function and structure of myth schemes in Amerindian culture and the orchestral scores of Wagner’s operas, and implicitly signalled that European music, with its eminent representation – opera – has had the same value or similar symbolic position in the mind and life of a contemporary European that myth has had in ‘the savage mind’. Through this, he can lead us to the understanding of opera as myth and metaphor. However, the paper extends the discussion on Levi-Strauss to a broader historical picture of the relationship between opera and mythology as two symbolic systems of European culture.

  12. Multimeediaetendus : Opera Gets Plugged / Eve Arpo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Arpo, Eve

    2008-01-01

    Eesti Muusika- ja Teatriakadeemia lühiooperite õhtul "Opera Gets Plugged" etendunud lavastustest - Monika Mattieseni "DMeeter" ja Age Hirve "Tuleloitsija": Mõlema lavastaja ja projektijuht Liis Kolle

  13. The OPERA experiment Target Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, T; Borer, K.; Campagne, Jean-Eric; Con-Sen, N.; de La Taille, C.; Dick, N.; Dracos, M.; Gaudiot, G.; Goeltzenlichter, T.; Gornushkin, Y.; Grapton, J.-N.; Guyonnet, J.-L.; Hess, M.; Igersheim, R.; Janicsko Csathy, J.; Jollet, C.; Juget, F.; Kocher, H.; Krasnoperov, A.; Krumstein, Z.; Martin-Chassard, G.; Moser, U.; Nozdrin, A.; Olchevski, A.; Porokhovoi, S.; Raux, L.; Sadovski, A.; Schuler, J.; Schutz, H.-U.; Schwab, C.; Smolnikov, A.; Van Beek, G.; Vilain, P.; Walchli, T.; Wilquet, G.; Wurtz, J.

    2007-01-01

    The main task of the Target Tracker detector of the long baseline neutrino oscillation OPERA experiment is to locate in which of the target elementary constituents, the lead/emulsion bricks, the neutrino interactions have occurred and also to give calorimetric information about each event. The technology used consists in walls of two planes of plastic scintillator strips, one per transverse direction. Wavelength shifting fibres collect the light signal emitted by the scintillator strips and guide it to both ends where it is read by multi-anode photomultiplier tubes. All the elements used in the construction of this detector and its main characteristics are described.

  14. Fun with singing wine glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Christine; Galloway, Melodie; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2018-05-01

    A fun activity is presented using singing wine glasses for introductory physics students. Students tune a white wine glass and a red wine glass to as many semitones as possible by filling the glasses with the appropriate amounts of water. A smart phone app is used to measure the frequencies of equal-temperament tones. Then plots of frequency against water volume percent are made using a spreadsheet. Students can also play combinations of pitches with several glasses. A video (Ruiz 2018 Video: Singing glasses http://mjtruiz.com/ped/wineglasses/) is provided which includes an excerpt of a beautiful piece written for singing glasses and choir: Stars by Latvian composer Ēriks Ešenvalds.

  15. Tuvan throat singing and harmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Michael J.; Wilken, David

    2018-05-01

    Tuvan throat singing, also called overtone singing, provides for an exotic demonstration of the physics of harmonics as well as introducing an Asian musical aesthetic. A low fundamental is sung and the singer skillfully alters the resonances of the vocal system to enhance an overtone (harmonic above the fundamental). The result is that the listener hears two pitches simultaneously. Harmonics such as H8, H9, H10, and H12 form part of a pentatonic scale and are commonly selected for melody tones by Tuvan singers. A real-time spectrogram is provided in a video (Ruiz M J 2018 Video: Tuvan Throat Singing and Harmonics http://mjtruiz.com/ped/tuva/) so that Tuvan harmonics can be visualized as they are heard.

  16. The KTH synthesis of singing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Sundberg

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This is an overview of the work with synthesizing singing that has been carried out at the Speech Music Hearing Department, KTH since 1977. The origin of the work, a hardware synthesis machine, is described and some aspects of the control program, a modified version of a text-to-speech conversion system are reviewed. Three applications are described in which the synthesis system has paved the way for investigations of specific aspects of the singing voice. One concerns the perceptual relevance of the center frequency of the singer's formant, one deals with characteristics of an ugly voice, and one regards intonation. The article is accompanied by 18 sound examples, several of which were not published before. Finally, limitations and advantages of singing synthesis are discussed.

  17. Profiling the Adolescent Soap Opera Viewer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Alison; And Others

    Observing that plot and character changes in the daytime television serials has increased the teen and preteen share of soap opera audiences, a study compared demographic, personal experience, and attitudinal variables among adolescent soap opera fans, occasional viewers, and nonviewers. Data were collected from 230 students in the classrooms of…

  18. "CHEM"opera for Chemistry Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yong Hee

    2013-01-01

    "CHEM"opera is an opera blended with demonstrations of chemical reactions. It has been produced and performed twice by chemistry undergraduate students at Hallym University in South Korea. It aims to demonstrate interesting chemical reactions to chemistry students, children and the public and to facilitate their understanding of the role…

  19. "The mute who can sing": a cortical stimulation study on singing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Franck-Emmanuel; Borsa, Stefano; Démonet, Jean-François

    2009-02-01

    In an attempt to identify cortical areas involved in singing in addition to language areas, the authors used a singing task during direct cortical mapping in 5 patients who were amateur singers and had undergone surgery for brain tumors. The organization of the cortical areas involved in language and singing was analyzed in relation with these surgical data. One left-handed and 4 right-handed patients with brain tumors in left (2 cases) and right (3 cases) hemispheres and no significant language or singing deficits underwent surgery with the "awake surgery" technique. All patients had a special interest in singing and were involved in amateur singing activities. They were tested using naming, reading, and singing tasks. Outside primary sensorimotor areas, singing interferences were rare and were exclusively localized in small cortical areas (singing in the Broca region. In the Broca region, no singing interference was found in areas in which interference in naming and reading tasks were detected. Conversely, a specific singing interference was found in nondominant middle frontal gyri in one patient. This interference consisted of abrupt singing arrest without apparent face, mouth, and tongue contraction. Finally, nonspecific singing interferences were found in the right and left precentral gyri in all patients (probably by interference in final articulatory mechanisms of singing). Dissociations between speech and singing found outside primary sensorimotor areas showed that these 2 functions use, in some cortical stages, different cerebral pathways.

  20. 67P, Singing Comet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, Ekaterina

    2017-04-01

    I would like to propose to present a short science-art-music collaboration film called "67P, Singing Comet" (5:27 min). If time of the session will allow, prior to the film I would like to make a slide show introduction to this project, highlighting the inspiration - the mission Rosetta by the European Space Agency (ESA) - and the artistic collaboration that took place in creating this piece. Inspired by the ESA Rosetta mission to the comet 67P, Ekaterina Smirnova (artist and project director, New York), Lee Mottram (clarinetist, Wales), Takuto Fukuda (composer, Japan) and Brian Hekker (video editor, New York) collaborated to create a unique atmospheric piece. Water and the origins of life throughout the Universe (specifically the Earth) is an element of the mission and the focus of Ekaterina's artistic vision. Ekaterina literally and figuratively paints a sensory assemblage using a combination of synthetic and natural elements to shape this artistic creation. To paint her watercolor works she is using a replica of the water found on the comet and implementing her own heartbeat into the music to create a recognizable inward sound of life. The Electro-Acoustic composition by Takuto Fukuda features an electronically manipulated performance by clarinetist Lee Mottram. The piece ceremoniously begins with reverberant bursts of low-register atonal bells transporting the listener to their ethereal inner origins of body and mind. The imagination takes the experience to an unknown destination as it gains speed gliding through the visual and audible textures of space and time. The comet's water similarly reacts with an ebb and flow thawing ice to potentially give life a chance as it is thrust along an orbit around the Sun. Near then far from the heat the comet forms frozen particles from vapors as it reaches it's furthest stretches creating an aerodynamic tail of icicles that slowly dissipate in a cycle that repeats itself until the comet's ultimate collision with an

  1. Whoever Can Speak, Can Sing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargeant, Lynn M.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the rhetoric of failure inherent in the long-lasting debates over school music instruction in Russia, the practice of school singing teaching in Russian schools, especially those serving peasants and the urban lower classes, satisfied to a large degree the needs of the community. However, the limited role for school music and singing…

  2. Fun with Singing Wine Glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Christine; Galloway, Melodie; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2018-01-01

    A fun activity is presented using singing wine glasses for introductory physics students. Students tune a white wine glass and a red wine glass to as many semitones as possible by filling the glasses with the appropriate amounts of water. A smart phone app is used to measure the frequencies of equal-temperament tones. Then plots of frequency…

  3. Recent results from the OPERA experiment

    CERN Document Server

    del Amo Sanchez, P

    2013-01-01

    The OPERA neutrino experiment recently nished data-taking, its recorded sample compris- ing 18 : 0 10 19 POT delivered by the CERN CNGS beam from 2008 to 2012. The goal of the OPERA experiment is to establish ! oscillations in appearance mode by observing the leptons produced in Charged Current interactions. Here we report on the status of the data analysis, and describe, in particular, two ! candidate events. Results on ! e oscillations are also presented.

  4. So What's New? A Survey of the Educational Policies of Orchestras and Opera Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterson, Julia

    2010-01-01

    The creative music workshop involving professional players was intended to give direct support to school teachers and to enhance music in the classroom. However, today's large-scale, high-profile projects mounted by orchestras and opera companies appear to be developing into a full-scale industry on their own, their role in partnership with…

  5. Blindness and visual impairment in opera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Pinar; Ritch, Robert; O'Dwyer, John

    2018-01-01

    The performing arts mirror the human condition. This study sought to analyze the reasons for inclusion of visually impaired characters in opera, the cause of the blindness or near blindness, and the dramatic purpose of the blindness in the storyline. We reviewed operas from the 18 th century to 2010 and included all characters with ocular problems. We classified the cause of each character's ocular problem (organic, nonorganic, and other) in relation to the thematic setting of the opera: biblical and mythical, blind beggars or blind musicians, historical (real or fictional characters), and contemporary or futuristic. Cases of blindness in 55 characters (2 as a choir) from 38 operas were detected over 3 centuries of repertoire: 11 had trauma-related visual impairment, 5 had congenital blindness, 18 had visual impairment of unknown cause, 9 had psychogenic or malingering blindness, and 12 were symbolic or miracle-related. One opera featured an ophthalmologist curing a patient. The research illustrates that visual impairment was frequently used as an artistic device to enhance the intent and situate an opera in its time.

  6. Objective Identification of Prepubertal Female Singers and Non-singers by Singing Power Ratio Using Matlab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usha, M; Geetha, Y V; Darshan, Y S

    2017-03-01

    The field of music is increasingly gaining scope and attracting researchers from varied fields in terms of improvising the art of voice modulation in singing. There has been a lot of competition, and young budding singers are emerging with more talent. This study is aimed to develop software to differentiate a prepubertal voice as that of a singer or a non-singer using an objective tool-singing power ratio (SPR)-as an objective measure to quantify the resonant voice quality. Recordings of singing and phonation were obtained from 30 singers and 30 non-singer girls (8-10 years). Three professional singers perceptually evaluated all samples using a rating scale and categorized them as singers or non-singers. Using Matlab, a program was developed to automatically calculate the SPR of a particular sample and classify it into either of two groups based on the normative values of SPR developed manually. Positive correlation for SPR of phonation or singing was found between perceptual and manual ratings, and objective values of SPR. Software could automatically give the SPR values for samples that are fed and could further differentiate them as singer or non-singer. Researchers need not depend on professional singers or musicians for the judgment of voice for research purposes. This software uses an objective tool, which serves as an instrument to judge singing talent using singing and phonation samples of children. Also, it can be used as a first line of judgment in any singing audition process, which could ease the work of professionals. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. All rights reserved.

  7. Singing can facilitate foreign language learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludke, Karen M; Ferreira, Fernanda; Overy, Katie

    2014-01-01

    This study presents the first experimental evidence that singing can facilitate short-term paired-associate phrase learning in an unfamiliar language (Hungarian). Sixty adult participants were randomly assigned to one of three "listen-and-repeat" learning conditions: speaking, rhythmic speaking, or singing. Participants in the singing condition showed superior overall performance on a collection of Hungarian language tests after a 15-min learning period, as compared with participants in the speaking and rhythmic speaking conditions. This superior performance was statistically significant (p sing" learning method can facilitate verbatim memory for spoken foreign language phrases.

  8. Bipolar patients sing more in singapore: singing as a signal for mania in psychotic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Leslie; Leow, Me Lye; Soh, Bee Leng; Chan, Yiong Huak; Parker, Gordon

    2013-10-01

    Singing in psychotic patients has received little attention in the psychiatric literature. In this preliminary study, we test the hypothesis that manic patients sing more than schizophrenic patients (SPs). Manic patients and SP inpatients and outpatients were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire which included questions on musical interests, and how much they felt like singing prior to their most recent admission to hospital. They were asked if they were willing to sing during the interview and responses were observed. Of the 69 manic patients and 68 SPs interviewed, manic patients were more likely to report singing than SPs (76% vs 24%) prior to their most recent admission to hospital. There was a trend for manic inpatients to be more willing to sing during the interview. Increased singing is suggested as a useful symptom and sign in patients suffering from a manic illness.

  9. From cosmic OPERA to neutrino ballet

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    View of the OPERA detector (on the CNGS facility) with its two identical Super Modules, each of which contains one target section and one spectrometer.As the CNGS (CERN Neutrinos to Gran Sasso) project prepares to send its high intensity neutrino beam, some 730 km away in Italy, the OPERA collaboration is beginning to commission its electronic detectors in the underground Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS). OPERA is ready to come on stage. Based in the INFN Gran Sasso National Laboratory, 732 km from CERN, the experiment will commission its electronic detectors with the high intensity neutrino beam sent by CNGS (see Bulletin n°29-30/2006). The OPERA Collaboration, which comprises 170 physicists from 35 research institutes and universities worldwide, aims to clear up the mystery of neutrino oscillation. The installation of the OPERA detector began in 2003 in Hall C of the underground laboratory at the LNGS. The detector is made of two identical Super Modules, each one containing one target section and ...

  10. Breathing and Singing: Objective Characterization of Breathing Patterns in Classical Singers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomoni, Sauro; van den Hoorn, Wolbert; Hodges, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Singing involves distinct respiratory kinematics (i.e. movements of rib cage and abdomen) to quiet breathing because of different demands on the respiratory system. Professional classical singers often advocate for the advantages of an active control of the abdomen on singing performance. This is presumed to prevent shortening of the diaphragm, elevate the rib cage, and thus promote efficient generation of subglottal pressure during phonation. However, few studies have investigated these patterns quantitatively and inter-subject variability has hindered the identification of stereotypical patterns of respiratory kinematics. Here, seven professional classical singers and four untrained individuals were assessed during quiet breathing, and when singing both a standard song and a piece of choice. Several parameters were extracted from respiratory kinematics and airflow, and principal component analysis was used to identify typical patterns of respiratory kinematics. No group differences were observed during quiet breathing. During singing, both groups adapted to rhythmical constraints with decreased time of inspiration and increased peak airflow. In contrast to untrained individuals, classical singers used greater percentage of abdominal contribution to lung volume during singing and greater asynchrony between movements of rib cage and abdomen. Classical singers substantially altered the coordination of rib cage and abdomen during singing from that used for quiet breathing. Despite variations between participants, principal component analysis revealed consistent pre-phonatory inward movements of the abdominal wall during singing. This contrasted with untrained individuals, who demonstrated synchronous respiratory movements during all tasks. The inward abdominal movements observed in classical singers elevates intra-abdominal pressure and may increase the length and the pressure-generating capacity of rib cage expiratory muscles for potential improvements in voice

  11. Gender and Boys' Singing in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Clare

    2005-01-01

    This article derives from a research project investigating the singing behaviour of a group of Australian boys in their first year of school. The project showed that the genesis of the "missing male" trend in singing at school may be occurring in early childhood. The impact of hegemonic masculinity in early childhood is explored here by…

  12. Drawing melodies: evaluation of chironomic singing synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Alessandro, Christophe; Feugère, Lionel; Le Beux, Sylvain; Perrotin, Olivier; Rilliard, Albert

    2014-06-01

    Cantor Digitalis, a real-time formant synthesizer controlled by a graphic tablet and a stylus, is used for assessment of melodic precision and accuracy in singing synthesis. Melodic accuracy and precision are measured in three experiments for groups of 20 and 28 subjects. The task of the subjects is to sing musical intervals and short melodies, at various tempi, using chironomy (hand-controlled singing), mute chironomy (without audio feedback), and their own voices. The results show the high accuracy and precision obtained by all the subjects for chironomic control of singing synthesis. Some subjects performed significantly better in chironomic singing compared to natural singing, although other subjects showed comparable proficiency. For the chironomic condition, mean note accuracy is less than 12 cents and mean interval accuracy is less than 25 cents for all the subjects. Comparing chironomy and mute chironomy shows that the skills used for writing and drawing are used for chironomic singing, but that the audio feedback helps in interval accuracy. Analysis of blind chironomy (without visual reference) indicates that a visual feedback helps greatly in both note and interval accuracy and precision. This study demonstrates the capabilities of chironomy as a precise and accurate mean for controlling singing synthesis.

  13. Masculinity and Choral Singing: An Australian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Sarah J.

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on the perceptions of masculinity amongst male participants in choral singing, drawing on data that form part of a larger project where the overarching aim was to explore how these perceptions influenced male participation in choir. Masculinity was considered in terms of the stereotypes associated with being a male singing in…

  14. Singer's preferred acoustic condition in performance in an opera house and self-perception of the singer's voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noson, Dennis; Kato, Kosuke; Ando, Yoichi

    2004-05-01

    Solo singers have been shown to over estimate the relative sound pressure level of a delayed, external reproduction of their own voice, singing single syllables, which, in turn, appears to influence the preferred delay of simulated stage reflections [Noson, Ph.D. thesis, Kobe University, 2003]. Bone conduction is thought to be one factor separating singer versus instrumental performer judgments of stage acoustics. Using a parameter derived from the vocal signal autocorrelation function (ACF envelope), the changes in singer preference for delayed reflections is primarily explained by the ACF parameter, rather than internal bone conduction. An auditory model of a singer's preferred reflection delay is proposed, combining the effects of acoustical environment (reflection amplitude), bone conduction, and performer vocal overestimate, which may be applied to the acoustic design of reflecting elements in both upstage and forestage environments of opera stages. For example, soloists who characteristically underestimate external voice levels (or overestimate their own voice) should be provided shorter distances to reflective panels-irrespective of their singing style. Adjustable elements can be deployed to adapt opera houses intended for bel canto style performances to other styles. Additional examples will also be discussed. a)Now at Kumamoto Univ., Kumamoto, Japan. b)Now at: 1-10-27 Yamano Kami, Kumamoto, Japan.

  15. Relationship between aerodynamic measures of glottal efficiency and stroboscopic findings in asymptomatic singing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundy, D S; Roy, S; Casiano, R R; Evans, J; Sullivan, P A; Xue, J W

    2000-06-01

    Singing requires exquisite coordination between the respiratory and phonatory systems to efficiently control glottal airflow. Asymptomatic singing students underwent pulmonary function testing (PFT), videostrobolaryngoscopic examination, and measures of glottal efficiency (maximum phonation time [MPT], glottal flow rate [GFR], and phonation quotient [PQ]) performed in both a sung and spoken tone. Pulmonary function and glottal efficiency values were within reported normative data for professional singers. However, sung tones were made with significantly higher GFR and PQ and lower PQ than spoken tones. The mean GFR was not related to the degree of glottal closure (by videostrobolaryngoscopy) or underlying pulmonary support.

  16. Creating an Opera with Seventh Graders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hower, Eileen

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the collaboration between an art and a music teacher whose seventh grade students wrote an opera based on the children's story "The Egyptian Cinderella." Addresses familiarizing students with composing music, student roles, and writing the compositions. Provides helpful hints and considers the benefits of this project. (CMK)

  17. Kierkegaard's Notions of Drama and Opera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Nils Holger

    2018-01-01

    The essay focuses on Kierkegaard's treatise on Mozart's Don Giovanni (in the first volume of his Either/Or (1843), ascribed to the pseudonymous aestitician "A". It discusses the aesthetics of drama and opera, not least through A's understanding of (and comparison between) language and music...

  18. Emotion Recognition From Singing Voices Using Contemporary Commercial Music and Classical Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakanpää, Tua; Waaramaa, Teija; Laukkanen, Anne-Maria

    2018-02-22

    This study examines the recognition of emotion in contemporary commercial music (CCM) and classical styles of singing. This information may be useful in improving the training of interpretation in singing. This is an experimental comparative study. Thirteen singers (11 female, 2 male) with a minimum of 3 years' professional-level singing studies (in CCM or classical technique or both) participated. They sang at three pitches (females: a, e1, a1, males: one octave lower) expressing anger, sadness, joy, tenderness, and a neutral state. Twenty-nine listeners listened to 312 short (0.63- to 4.8-second) voice samples, 135 of which were sung using a classical singing technique and 165 of which were sung in a CCM style. The listeners were asked which emotion they heard. Activity and valence were derived from the chosen emotions. The percentage of correct recognitions out of all the answers in the listening test (N = 9048) was 30.2%. The recognition percentage for the CCM-style singing technique was higher (34.5%) than for the classical-style technique (24.5%). Valence and activation were better perceived than the emotions themselves, and activity was better recognized than valence. A higher pitch was more likely to be perceived as joy or anger, and a lower pitch as sorrow. Both valence and activation were better recognized in the female CCM samples than in the other samples. There are statistically significant differences in the recognition of emotions between classical and CCM styles of singing. Furthermore, in the singing voice, pitch affects the perception of emotions, and valence and activity are more easily recognized than emotions. Copyright © 2018 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. [Production of accentuated personality traits in baroque opera : Opera buffa Arcifanfano-Re dei matti (1749)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, J; Hirsch, T; Steger, F

    2016-05-01

    Madness served primarily as a form of amusement for the spectators in operas of the seventeenth century. This representation was far removed from clinical reality. This circumstance changed in the eighteenth century at the time when tragic madness emerged in numerous operas. The opera buffa Arcifanfano-Re dei matti (Arcifanfano-King of fools, premiered in 1749 in Venice, text by Carlo Goldoni 1707-1793 and music by Baldassare Galuppi 1706-1785), which continuously enacts a realm of fools and is meant to appear amusing, is riddled with psychopathological abnormalities for which a retrospective diagnosis is methodologically rejected. However, the opera presents many subjects for working out a typology of fools based on outlasting personality traits of the protagonists. The libretto is investigated. A musical analysis is spared. The conceptualized typology of fools in the opera, which is oriented towards the seven main vices or deadly sins serves, in the tradition of moral satire, to critically hold up a mirror to the audience to reflect their own vices by an amusing characterization of the latter. Historically classified, the treatment of fools by means of isolation, custody, locking up in cages as well as authoritarian measures of submission reflects the custom in those days before humanizing the treatment of people with mental illness in the course of the Enlightenment and the French Revolution. The opera Arcifanfano is essentially characterized by continuous madness. A typology of the fools can be worked out from the precise depiction of the personalities. A mirror is held up to the spectators in terms of vices, in the tradition of the contemporary baroque opera. At the same time, the opera can be classified psychiatrically and historically as a seismograph of its time when in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries people with mental illness were isolated and incarcerated.

  20. Four-part choral synthesis system for investigating intonation in a cappella choral singing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, David M; Daffern, Helena; Brereton, Jude

    2013-10-01

    Accurate tuning is an important aspect of singing in harmony in the context of a choir or vocal ensemble. Tuning and 'pitch drift' are concerning factors in performance for even the most accomplished professional choirs when singing a cappella (unaccompanied). In less experienced choirs tuning often lacks precision, typically because individual singers have not developed appropriate listening skills. In order to investigate accuracy of tuning in ensemble singing situations, a chorally appropriate reference is required against which frequency measurements can be made. Since most basic choral singing involves chords in four parts, a four-part reference template is used in which the fundamental frequencies of the notes in each chord can be accurately set. This template can now be used in experiments where three of the reference parts are tuned in any musical temperament (tuning system), in this case equal and just temperaments, and played over headphones to a singer to allow her/his tuning strategy to be investigated. This paper describes a practical implementation of a four-part choral synthesis system in Pure Data (Pd) and its use in an investigation of tuning of notes by individual singers using an exercise originally written to explore pitch drift in a cappella choral singing.

  1. Effects of melody and technique on acoustical and musical features of western operatic singing voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrouy-Maestri, Pauline; Magis, David; Morsomme, Dominique

    2014-05-01

    The operatic singing technique is frequently used in classical music. Several acoustical parameters of this specific technique have been studied but how these parameters combine remains unclear. This study aims to further characterize the Western operatic singing technique by observing the effects of melody and technique on acoustical and musical parameters of the singing voice. Fifty professional singers performed two contrasting melodies (popular song and romantic melody) with two vocal techniques (with and without operatic singing technique). The common quality parameters (energy distribution, vibrato rate, and extent), perturbation parameters (standard deviation of the fundamental frequency, signal-to-noise ratio, jitter, and shimmer), and musical features (fundamental frequency of the starting note, average tempo, and sound pressure level) of the 200 sung performances were analyzed. The results regarding the effect of melody and technique on the acoustical and musical parameters show that the choice of melody had a limited impact on the parameters observed, whereas a particular vocal profile appeared depending on the vocal technique used. This study confirms that vocal technique affects most of the parameters examined. In addition, the observation of quality, perturbation, and musical parameters contributes to a better understanding of the Western operatic singing technique. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Tuning Features of Chinese Folk Song Singing: A Case Study of Hua'er Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Welch, Graham; Sundberg, Johan; Himonides, Evangelos

    2015-07-01

    The learning and teaching of different singing styles, such as operatic and Chinese folk singing, was often found to be very challenging in professional music education because of the complexity of varied musical properties and vocalizations. By studying the acoustical and musical parameters of the singing voice, this study identified distinctive tuning characteristics of a particular folk music in China-Hua'er music-to inform the ineffective folk singing practices, which were hampered by the neglect of inherent tuning issues in music. Thirteen unaccompanied folk song examples from four folk singers were digitally audio recorded in a sound studio. Using an analyzing toolkit consisting of Praat, PeakFit, and MS Excel, the fundamental frequencies (F0) of these song examples were extracted into sets of "anchor pitches" mostly used, which were further divided into 253 F0 clusters. The interval structures of anchor pitches within each song were analyzed and then compared across 13 examples providing parameters that indicate the tuning preference of this particular singing style. The data analyses demonstrated that all singers used a tuning pattern consisting of five major anchor pitches suggesting a nonequal-tempered bias in singing. This partly verified the pentatonic scale proposed in previous empirical research but also argued a potential misunderstanding of the studied folk music scale that failed to take intrinsic tuning issues into consideration. This study suggests that, in professional music training, any tuning strategy should be considered in terms of the reference pitch and likely tuning systems. Any accompanying instruments would need to be tuned to match the underlying tuning bias. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Vocal fold hemorrhage associated with coumadin therapy in an opera singer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neely, J L; Rosen, C

    2000-06-01

    Vocal fold hemorrhage can represent a disastrous and potentially career ending injury to a singer or professional voice user. The risk factors of vocal fold hemorrhage, including laryngeal trauma, phonotrauma, aspirin and nonsteroidal antiinflammatories, and hormonal imbalances are well known. We present a case of an opera singer who developed recurrent vocal fold hemorrhage associated with coumadin anticoagulation therapy. This case highlights the importance of the risk of vocal fold hemorrhage to professional singers and professional voice users and offers an alternative to long-term coumadin therapy in this select population.

  4. Voice source comparison between modern singers of early music and opera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daffern, Helena; Howard, David M

    2010-07-01

    An experiment was conducted comparing two subject groups, each comprised of eight professional singers specializing in a genre of classical music: early music or grand opera. Electroglottography was used to consider vocal characteristics idiomatic to each genre. Whilst there are clear differences in contact quotient between subjects, particularly when relationships between fundamental frequency (f0) and contact quotient (Qx) are considered, there is no apparent link between contact quotient behaviour and performance specialism based on the results of this sample.

  5. Neutrino oscillations with the OPERA experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Galati, Giuliana

    2016-01-01

    OPERA (Oscillation Project with Emulsion tRacking Apparatus) was a long-baseline experiment at the Gran Sasso laboratory (LNGS) designed to search for ν μ → ν τ oscillations in appearance mode. OPERA took data from 2008 to 2012 with the CNGS neutrino beam from CERN. The observation of five ν τ candidates allowed assessing the discovery of ν μ → ν τ appearance in the CNGS neutrino beam with a significance of 5 . 1 σ . The data analysis is still ongoing, with the goal of improving the sensitivity to the sterile neutrino search in the ν μ → ν τ and ν μ → ν e appearance channels and oscillation parameters with reduced statistical uncertainties. Current results will be presented and perspectives discussed.

  6. Interpreting OPERA results on superluminal neutrino

    CERN Document Server

    Giudice, Gian F; Strumia, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    OPERA has claimed the discovery of superluminal propagation of neutrinos. We analyze the consistency of this claim with previous tests of special relativity. We find that reconciling the OPERA measurement with information from SN1987a and from neutrino oscillations requires stringent conditions. The superluminal limit velocity of neutrinos must be nearly flavor independent, must decrease steeply in the low-energy domain, and its energy dependence must depart from a simple power law. We construct illustrative models that satisfy these conditions, by introducing Lorentz violation in a sector with light sterile neutrinos. We point out that, quite generically, electroweak quantum corrections transfer the information of superluminal neutrino properties into Lorentz violations in the electron and muon sector, in apparent conflict with experimental data.

  7. Particles identification using nuclear emulsion in OPERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manai, K.

    2007-10-01

    The Opera experiment will try to confirm the ν μ → ν τ oscillations by the appearance of the ν τ in a pure ν μ beam. Indeed, a neutrino beam almost pure is produced at CERN (CNGS Beam) and sent to the Opera detector. The detector is composed of two muons spectrometers and a target formed by walls of bricks. Each brick is an alternation of lead plates and emulsions. This modular structure allows to reconstruct the kink topology of the τ lepton decay with a high spatial resolution. The great challenge of the Opera experiment is to detect the ν τ interactions with the less uncertainty. To reduce this uncertainty it is essential to identify with the greatest efficiency any background event not including a tau particle. My work permits to reduce background. My principal contribution concerns the selection development, the reconstruction and the muons identification at low energy. This work is based on the setting of variables related to the deposit energy and the multiple scattering. Previously, only deposit energy was used in the analyses of pion/muon separation. This study allows doubling the muon identification efficiency at low energy. This leads to increase the background events rejection in Opera and to decrease the contamination by 30%. I also studied the nuclear emulsions capacity to identify charged particles through the analysis of a test beam carried out by the Nagoya group. This test contains protons and pions with different energies. My work proves that the European scan system gives comparable results with those obtained by the Japanese scan system. (author)

  8. The neutrino interaction analysis chain in OPERA

    CERN Document Server

    Rescigno, Regina

    Th e aim of the OPERA experiment i s to provide a “smoking - gun” proof of neutrino oscillation s, through the detecti on of the appearance signal of ν τ ’s in an initially pure ν μ beam. The beam is produced at CERN, 732 Km fa r from the detector , which is located underground in t he Gran Sasso laboratory. The evidence of the appearance signal will be provided by the detection of the daughter particles produced in the decay of the τ lepton. A micro - metric spatial resolution is needed in order to measure a nd study the topology of the ν τ - induced events. With this goal, n uclear emulsions, the highest resolution tracking detector , were chosen to be the core of the OPERA apparatus. The analysis of the large amount of nuclear emulsions used in the OPERA experime n t has required the development of a new generation of fast automatic mi croscopes , featuring a scanning speed more than one order of magnitude hi g h er than in p...

  9. The influence of caregiver singing and background music on vocally expressed emotions and moods in dementia care: a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götell, Eva; Brown, Steven; Ekman, Sirkka-Liisa

    2009-04-01

    Music and singing are considered to have a strong impact on human emotions. Such an effect has been demonstrated in caregiving contexts with dementia patients. The aim of the study was to illuminate vocally expressed emotions and moods in the communication between caregivers and persons with severe dementia during morning care sessions. Three types of caring sessions were compared: the "usual" way, with no music; with background music playing; and with the caregiver singing to and/or with the patient. Nine persons with severe dementia living in a nursing home in Sweden and five professional caregivers participated in this study. Qualitative content analysis was used to examine videotaped recordings of morning care sessions, with a focus on vocally expressed emotions and moods during verbal communication. Compared to no music, the presence of background music and caregiver singing improved the mutuality of the communication between caregiver and patient, creating a joint sense of vitality. Positive emotions were enhanced, and aggressiveness was diminished. Whereas background music increased the sense of playfulness, caregiver singing enhanced the sense of sincerity and intimacy in the interaction. Caregiver singing and background music can help the caregiver improve the patient's ability to express positive emotions and moods, and to elicit a sense of vitality on the part of the person with severe dementia. The results further support the value of caregiver singing as a method to improve the quality of dementia care.

  10. Development and preliminary validation of the EASE: a tool to measure perceived singing voice function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phyland, Debra J; Pallant, Julie F; Benninger, Michael S; Thibeault, Susan L; Greenwood, Ken M; Smith, Julian A; Vallance, Neil

    2013-07-01

    Most voice self-rating tools are disease-specific measures and are not suitable for use with healthy voice users. There is a need for a tool that is sensitive to the subtleties of a singer's voice and to perceived physical changes in the singing voice mechanism as a function of load. The aim of this study was to devise and validate a scale to assess singer's perceptions of the current status of their singing voice. Ninety-five vocal health descriptors were collected from focus group interviews of singers. These were reviewed by 25 currently performing music theater (MT) singers. Based on a consensus technique, the number of descriptors was decreased to 42 items. These were administered to a sample of 284 professional MT singers using an online survey to evaluate their perception of current singing voice status. Principal component analysis identified two subsets of items. Rasch analysis was used to evaluate and refine these sets of items to form two 10-item subscales. Both subscales demonstrated good overall fit to the Rasch model, no differential item functioning by sex or age, and good internal consistency reliability. The two subscales were strongly correlated and subsequent Rasch analysis supported their combination to form a single 20-item scale with good psychometric properties. The Evaluation of the Ability to Sing Easily (EASE) is a concise clinical tool to assess singer's perceptions of the current status of their singing voice with good measurement properties. EASE may prove a useful tool to measure changes in the singing voice as indicators of the effect of vocal load. Furthermore, it may offer a valuable means for the prediction or screening of singers "at risk" of developing voice disorders. Copyright © 2013 The Voice Foundation. All rights reserved.

  11. Braid My Hair - Randy Owen sings out for sick children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issue Past Issues Braid My Hair - Randy Owen sings out for sick children Past Issues / Spring 2008 ... to it. Former Alabama lead singer Randy Owen sings his new song, "Braid My Hair." Photo courtesy ...

  12. THE DAILY CLASSROOM AS A SPACE FOR NARRATIVE SELF INSIDE OF CORAL SINGING LESSONS IN A SOCIAL PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Doris Sala

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article shows a reflection on the teaching of music, highlighting issues related to social projects. The musical educator narrates their dilemmas, written between April 2010 and December 2012, as a teacher of choral singing for teenager in a social project, whose methodology "own narrative" and "self-narratives" (OLIVEIRA, 2009 that is reflected through the diaries of class (ZABALZA, 2004. The study aims to investigate the role of the teacher and the ways these in their teaching, using the tool of the daily class as a place to "write itself" and "narrative of oneself", promoting reflections in order to understand and modify their practices and thus shape their professional identity. The text also examines the conflicts present in practice in social projects (KATER, 2004; KLEBER, 2006, 2008;; questions the practice of choral singing (AMATO, 2007; TEIXEIRA, 2008, recounts classroom situations, focusing on professional identities involved in changing practices for achieving teenagers to class percussionists of choral singing.

  13. ABOUT THE SINTHETIC NATURE OF AN OPERA CHARACTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AGA LUDMILA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The work of an opera singer on the opera part has a synthetic nature and combines the efforts of the singer, conductor, director, stage scenographer. The author of this article studies different aspects of this process on the basis of her experience as a soloist of the National Opera. These aspects include individual work on vocal techniques, breathing, articulation, sound qualities, detailed analyses of the score, dramaturgy, the parts of other characters etc.

  14. A Dual-Stream Neuroanatomy of Singing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loui, Psyche

    2015-02-01

    Singing requires effortless and efficient use of auditory and motor systems that center around the perception and production of the human voice. Although perception and production are usually tightly coupled functions, occasional mismatches between the two systems inform us of dissociable pathways in the brain systems that enable singing. Here I review the literature on perception and production in the auditory modality, and propose a dual-stream neuroanatomical model that subserves singing. I will discuss studies surrounding the neural functions of feedforward, feedback, and efference systems that control vocal monitoring, as well as the white matter pathways that connect frontal and temporal regions that are involved in perception and production. I will also consider disruptions of the perception-production network that are evident in tone-deaf individuals and poor pitch singers. Finally, by comparing expert singers against other musicians and nonmusicians, I will evaluate the possibility that singing training might offer rehabilitation from these disruptions through neuroplasticity of the perception-production network. Taken together, the best available evidence supports a model of dorsal and ventral pathways in auditory-motor integration that enables singing and is shared with language, music, speech, and human interactions in the auditory environment.

  15. Speech-Language Pathology production regarding voice in popular singing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drumond, Lorena Badaró; Vieira, Naymme Barbosa; Oliveira, Domingos Sávio Ferreira de

    2011-12-01

    To present a literature review about the Brazilian scientific production in Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology regarding voice in popular singing in the last decade, as for number of publications, musical styles studied, focus of the researches, and instruments used for data collection. Cross-sectional descriptive study carried out in two stages: search in databases and publications encompassing the last decade of researches in this area in Brazil, and reading of the material obtained for posterior categorization. The databases LILACS and SciELO, the Databasis of Dissertations and Theses organized by CAPES, the online version of Acta ORL, and the online version of OPUS were searched, using the following uniterms: voice, professional voice, singing voice, dysphonia, voice disorders, voice training, music, dysodia. Articles published between the years 2000 and 2010 were selected. The researches found were classified and categorized after reading their abstracts and, when necessary, the whole study. Twenty researches within the proposed theme were selected, all of which were descriptive, involving several musical styles. Twelve studies focused on the evaluation of the popular singer's voice, and the most frequently used data collection instrument was the auditory-perceptual evaluation. The results of the publications found corroborate the objectives proposed by the authors and the different methodologies. The number of studies published is still restricted when compared to the diversity of musical genres and the uniqueness of popular singer.

  16. Singing and Cultural Understanding: A Music Education Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilari, Beatriz; Chen-Hafteck, Lily; Crawford, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between singing and cultural understanding. Singing emerges in infancy and develops through processes of enculturation and socialization. When we sing songs from diverse cultures, we are granted with opportunities to learn about the cultures of others, and gain a better understanding of our own. Thus, singing…

  17. Nargen Opera esimene festivalisuvi / Kersti Inno

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Inno, Kersti, 1954-

    2006-01-01

    Dirigent Tõnu Kaljuste asutatud Nargen Opera avas 15. juunil Naissaarel oma esimese suure festivalisuve Veljo Tormise "Eesti naiste lauludega" (etendused 16., 17., 19-22. juunil), Nargen Festivali kontsertidest: "Merelaulud", Marko Matvere 4. juulil Viimsi mõisa õues, 8.-10. aug. Naissaarel, 14., 15. aug. Viinistu kunstimuuseumis, "Õhtud Jaan Tättega" 6., 9. juulil Reiu jõekäärus, "Vastutuulelaev" 22, 23, 26-30. juulil Naissaarel, "Õhtud Arvo Pärdiga" 3., 4. aug. Naissaarel, Joseph Haydni ooper "Üksik saar" 16., 17. aug. Viinistu kunstimuuseumis (info: www.nargenopera.ee)

  18. Singing Voice Analysis, Synthesis, and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngmoo E.

    The singing voice is the oldest musical instrument, but its versatility and emotional power are unmatched. Through the combination of music, lyrics, and expression, the voice is able to affect us in ways that no other instrument can. The fact that vocal music is prevalent in almost all cultures is indicative of its innate appeal to the human aesthetic. Singing also permeates most genres of music, attesting to the wide range of sounds the human voice is capable of producing. As listeners we are naturally drawn to the sound of the human voice, and, when present, it immediately becomes the focus of our attention.

  19. "I Can't Sing!" the Concept of Teacher Confidence in Singing and the Use within Their Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyning, Lyndell

    2011-01-01

    When teachers become more confident and competent in relation to singing, then they are more likely to use singing and to use it successfully. Teachers are expected to gain such skills in pre-service teacher education, to enhance their capability in teaching music, so that singing can be utilised and supported in schools. Confidence is definitely…

  20. Archetypes of memory and amnesia in South African soap opera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Archetypes of memory and amnesia in South African soap opera [English] This essay investigates the relationship between memory, or rather amnesia, in the South African context and soap opera. South Africa has only recently celebrated ten years of democracy and the past still affects the lives of its inhabitants.

  1. The acoustics of the Amsterdam Opera House 'Het Muziektheater'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, P.A. de; Luxemburg, L.C.J. van; Muchall, R.C.

    1996-01-01

    The first opera house ever to be built in the Netherlands opened its doors on 26 Septem-ber 1986. Erected in the heart of old Am-sterdam, the building houses the Dutch Op-era Company, the National Ballet and the Ballet Orchestra. The design and planning of the building has an interesting history.

  2. Looking Back at Orpheus: Opera and Cultural Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Patricia Anne

    2013-01-01

    The myth of Orpheus is intricately implicated in the origin of song. For centuries, myth and music have cooperated in a variety of genres, foremost among them in opera. The myth, open to reinterpretation across linguistic, national, and temporal boundaries, served as a starting point for an extracurricular opera project in the metropolitan region…

  3. Nargen Opera toob vaataja ette uue eesti kammerooperi / Priit Pruul

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pruul, Priit

    2006-01-01

    20. apr. esietendub Von Krahli Teatris Peeter Jalaka lavastuses Tõnu Kõrvitsa kammerooper "Mu luiged, mu mõtted", mille aluseks on luuletaja Marie Heibergi saatus. Libreto autor on Maarja Kangro. Kammerooper tuleb lavale Von Krahli Teatri ja Nargen Opera koostöös. Esitavad Kädy Plaas, Helen Lokuta, Nargen Opera koor ja Tallinna Kammerorkester, dirigent Tõnu Kaljuste

  4. Can OPERA help in constraining neutrino non-standard interactions?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteban-Pretel, A.; Valle, J.W.F. [AHEP Group, Institut de Fisica Corpuscular, C.S.I.C./Universitat de Valencia, Edificio Institutos de Paterna, Apt 22085, E-46071 Valencia (Spain); Huber, P. [Theory Division, Department of Physics, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Institute for Particle, Nuclear and Astronomical Sciences, Physics Department, Virgina Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24062 (United States)], E-mail: pahuber@vt.edu

    2008-10-09

    We study how much the unique ability of the OPERA experiment to directly detect {nu}{sub {tau}} can help in probing new, non-standard contact interactions of the third family of neutrinos. We perform a combined analysis of future, high-statistics MINOS and OPERA data. For the case of non-standard interactions in {nu}{sub {mu}} to {nu}{sub e} transitions we also include the impact of possible Double Chooz data. In all cases we find that the {nu}{sub {tau}} sample of OPERA is too small to be statistically significant, even if one doubles the nominal exposure of OPERA to 9x10{sup 19} pot. OPERA's real benefit for this measurement lies in its very high neutrino energy and hence very different L/E compared to MINOS.

  5. Violations of Lorentz invariance in the neutrino sector after OPERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maccione, Luca [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Liberati, Stefano [Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati (SISSA), Trieste (Italy); INFN, Sezione de Trieste (Italy); Mattingly, David M. [New Hampshire Univ., Durham (United States). Dept. of Physics

    2011-10-15

    The OPERA collaboration has recently reported that neutrinos travel faster than light. We review the theoretical situation of constraints on violations of Lorentz invariance, focusing in particular on the compatibility between the OPERA results with both previous constraints and recently obtained ones. We generalize to higher order operators the recent constraint provided by the absence of neutrino energy loss, via electron-positron pair production at OPERA energies, and show that no modi ed in vacuo dispersion relation within an effective field theory context is compatible with OPERA results. We conclude that the OPERA result is incompatible with current observations, at least without resorting to models beyond effective field theory, possibly with local environmental effects. (orig.)

  6. Violations of Lorentz invariance in the neutrino sector after OPERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maccione, Luca; Liberati, Stefano; Mattingly, David M.

    2011-10-01

    The OPERA collaboration has recently reported that neutrinos travel faster than light. We review the theoretical situation of constraints on violations of Lorentz invariance, focusing in particular on the compatibility between the OPERA results with both previous constraints and recently obtained ones. We generalize to higher order operators the recent constraint provided by the absence of neutrino energy loss, via electron-positron pair production at OPERA energies, and show that no modi ed in vacuo dispersion relation within an effective field theory context is compatible with OPERA results. We conclude that the OPERA result is incompatible with current observations, at least without resorting to models beyond effective field theory, possibly with local environmental effects. (orig.)

  7. Singing in the key of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bjørn; Mortensen, Malene Vejby; Hansen, Mads

    2012-01-01

    for the musical ear training, particularly singing-related activities. If implemented as part of aural/oral rehabilitation therapy, the proposed musical ear-training program could form a valuable complementary method of auditory rehabilitation, and, in the long term, contribute to an improved general quality...

  8. Speech versus singing: Infants choose happier sounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieve eCorbeil

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Infants prefer speech to non-vocal sounds and to non-human vocalizations, and they prefer happy-sounding speech to neutral speech. They also exhibit an interest in singing, but there is little knowledge of their relative interest in speech and singing. The present study explored infants’ attention to unfamiliar audio samples of speech and singing. In Experiment 1, infants 4-13 months of age were exposed to happy-sounding infant-directed speech versus hummed lullabies by the same woman. They listened significantly longer to the speech, which had considerably greater acoustic variability and expressiveness, than to the lullabies. In Experiment 2, infants of comparable age who heard the lyrics of a Turkish children’s song spoken versus sung in a joyful/happy manner did not exhibit differential listening. Infants in Experiment 3 heard the happily sung lyrics of the Turkish children’s song versus a version that was spoken in an adult-directed or affectively neutral manner. They listened significantly longer to the sung version. Overall, happy voice quality rather than vocal mode (speech or singing was the principal contributor to infant attention, regardless of age.

  9. Singing of Neoconocephalus robustus as an example

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We use nonlinear time series analysis methods to analyse the dynamics of the sound-producing apparatus of the katydid Neoconocephalus robustus. We capture the dynamics by analysing a recording of the singing activity. First, we reconstruct the phase space from the sound recording and test it against determinism and ...

  10. Metacognitive strategies in learning sight-singing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogunović Blanka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a part of a wider study that is based on interdisciplinary research of sight-singing (psychology and music education. Our intention was to join the psychological knowledge of cognitive processes on the one hand, and the practical approach of music teachers, based on methods, techniques and procedures of mastering sight-reading-singing skills on the other. We aimed: 1. to determine the kinds and levels of strategies that music students use in the cognitive processes involved during sight-singing; 2. to explore strategies of problem solving when difficulties appear; 3. to investigate the self-evaluation perspectives of students; and 4. to relate students' learning experience to the strategies used. The sample consisted of 89 music students from higher music education in Belgrade and The Hague. They filled in the questionnaire based on self-reports, covering general data about their music education background, different issues of sight-singing, such as planning, problem solving, monitoring and evaluation of outcomes, and three melodic examples written in different musical styles. Results showed that strategies used during sight-singing can be roughly sorted into three groups that differ according to the 'key accent' given: cognitive, intuitive and no-strategy. The music cognitive strategies involved cover three levels of musical organization and representation: a relying on smaller chunks of the musical piece, referring to existing knowledge and learning experience; b leaning on a slightly 'bigger picture' of familiar patterns; and c mental representation of melodic/rhythmic/harmonic structures. When faced with a problem, half of the students employed analytic approaches. Comparisons between sub-samples showed, for example, that future performing musicians more often used 'tone-to-tone' thinking and 'bottom-up' strategies in approaching musical structure, while music theory students had better insight into the whole and used

  11. Peter Konwitschny, Opera and Theatre Director Shaping the Profile of the Bratislava Opera of a New Millennium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojžišová Michaela

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the work of the acclaimed German opera and theatre director Peter Konwitschny at the Opera of the Slovak National Theatre. The authoress bases herself on an analysis of the productions of Eugen Onegin (2005 [Eugene Onegin], by Tchaikovsky, Puccini’s Madama Butterfly (2007 and Bohéma (2013 [La bohème], Janáček‘s Vec Makropulos (2015 [The Makropulos Affair], and Halévy‘s Židovka (2017 [La Juive], all of which, save for Janáček‘s opera, the Opera of the Slovak National Theatre has borrowed from foreign theatre scenes. The authoress makes a stocklist of the basic principles of Konwitschny’s direction signature and his contribution to theatre production, as well as to the artistic ensemble of the Bratislava Opera.

  12. A Case Study: Middle School Boys' Perceptions of Singing and Participation in Choir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Bridget

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this intrinsic case study was to learn about the perceptions of singing and participation in choir of the author's eighth grade choir students. Specific areas of focus included insight on why the eighth grade boys sing and enjoy singing, perceptions of singing in a daily choir class, and perceptions of singing in an auditioned…

  13. The National Singing Programme for Primary Schools in England: An Initial Baseline Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, G. F.; Himonides, E.; Papageorgi, I.; Saunders, J.; Rinta, T.; Stewart, C.; Preti, C.; Lani, J.; Vraka, M.; Hill, J.

    2009-01-01

    The "Sing Up" National Singing Programme for primary schools in England was launched in November 2007 under the UK government's "Music Manifesto". "Sing Up" is a four-year programme whose overall aim is to raise the status of singing and increase opportunities for children throughout the country to enjoy singing as…

  14. Particles identification using nuclear emulsion in OPERA; Identification des particules par les emulsions nucleaires dans OPERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manai, K

    2007-10-15

    The Opera experiment will try to confirm the {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub {tau}} oscillations by the appearance of the {nu}{sub {tau}} in a pure {nu}{sub {mu}} beam. Indeed, a neutrino beam almost pure is produced at CERN (CNGS Beam) and sent to the Opera detector. The detector is composed of two muons spectrometers and a target formed by walls of bricks. Each brick is an alternation of lead plates and emulsions. This modular structure allows to reconstruct the kink topology of the {tau} lepton decay with a high spatial resolution. The great challenge of the Opera experiment is to detect the {nu}{sub {tau}} interactions with the less uncertainty. To reduce this uncertainty it is essential to identify with the greatest efficiency any background event not including a tau particle. My work permits to reduce background. My principal contribution concerns the selection development, the reconstruction and the muons identification at low energy. This work is based on the setting of variables related to the deposit energy and the multiple scattering. Previously, only deposit energy was used in the analyses of pion/muon separation. This study allows doubling the muon identification efficiency at low energy. This leads to increase the background events rejection in Opera and to decrease the contamination by 30%. I also studied the nuclear emulsions capacity to identify charged particles through the analysis of a test beam carried out by the Nagoya group. This test contains protons and pions with different energies. My work proves that the European scan system gives comparable results with those obtained by the Japanese scan system. (author)

  15. Enhancements to the opera-3d suite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riley, C.P.

    1997-01-01

    The OPERA-3D suite of programs has been enhanced to include 2 additional 3 dimensional finite element based solvers, with complimentary features in the pre- and postprocessing. SOPRANO computes electromagnetic fields at high frequency including displacement current effects. It has 2 modules emdash a deterministic solution at a user defined frequency and an eigenvalue solution for modal analysis. It is suitable for designing microwave structures and cavities found in particle accelerators. SCALA computes electrostatic fields in the presence of space charge from charged particle beams. The user may define the emission characteristics of electrodes or plasma surfaces and compute the resultant space charge limited beams, including the presence of magnetic fields. Typical applications in particle accelerators are electron guns and ion sources. Other enhancements to the suite include additional capabilities in TOSCA and ELEKTRA, the static and dynamic solvers. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  16. Upstream from OPERA: extreme attention to detail

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    Two weeks ago, at a seminar held at CERN, the OPERA collaboration revealed their astonishing observation: neutrinos might move faster than light. The finding is currently under scrutiny in the scientific community. While the result downstream at Gran Sasso speaks for itself, upstream at CERN things are no less intriguing, with high-tech GPS systems, novel techniques for accurately measuring the time, and unique ways keeping the initial particle beam stable. Take away one ingredient and the accuracy needed for the final measurement is spoiled.   Underground installations of the CERN Neutrinos to Gran Sasso (CNGS) project. First ingredient: a stable beam CERN produces neutrinos by sending a beam of protons to hit a target. The collisions produce a secondary beam, which mostly consists of pions and kaons that decay in flight within an evacuated tunnel. Their decay products are muons and muon-neutrinos. An absorber stops the pions and kaons that do not decay, while the resulting muons are absorb...

  17. Making non-fluent aphasics speak: sing along!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racette, Amélie; Bard, Céline; Peretz, Isabelle

    2006-10-01

    A classic observation in neurology is that aphasics can sing words they cannot pronounce otherwise. To further assess this claim, we investigated the production of sung and spoken utterances in eight brain-damaged patients suffering from a variety of speech disorders as a consequence of a left-hemisphere lesion. In Experiment 1, the patients were tested in the repetition and recall of words and notes of familiar material. Lyrics of familiar songs, as well as words of proverbs and prayers, were not better pronounced in singing than in speaking. Notes were better produced than words. In Experiment 2, the aphasic patients repeated and recalled lyrics from novel songs. Again, they did not produce more words in singing than in speaking. In Experiment 3, when allowed to sing or speak along with an auditory model while learning novel songs, aphasics repeated and recalled more words when singing than when speaking. Reduced speed or shadowing cannot account for this advantage of singing along over speaking in unison. The results suggest that singing in synchrony with an auditory model--choral singing--is more effective than choral speech, at least in French, in improving word intelligibility because choral singing may entrain more than one auditory-vocal interface. Thus, choral singing appears to be an effective means of speech therapy.

  18. From Opera to Real Democracy: Popular Constitutionalism and Web 2.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Dale

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available On March 17, 2011 the conductor Riccardo Muti stood in the orchestra pit at the Teatro dell’Opera di Roma and, in the presence of the Italian Prime Minister, Silvio Berlusconi, and the Italian President, Giorgio Napolitano, denounced the Italian government’s cuts to funding for the arts and culture. He then invited the entire audience to join the opera’s chorus in an encore of Va’ Pensiero, the hymn of the Hebrew slaves in Nabucco, to protest the cuts. Within two days of the sing-a-long, the Italian government reversed the course it set more than ten months before and agreed to a tax that would be used to restore funds to the arts and culture budget. This article traces how and why these acts of protest in Italy developed, succeeded, and then were appropriated by transnational activists interested in encouraging popular constitutionalism. Because the entire process made considerable use of Facebook, blogs, YouTube, and Twitter, this case study simultaneously explores how a popular protest became a successful expression of popular constitutionalism, and considers how the messages of that protest evolved across a transnational public sphere that encompassed Web 2.0.

  19. Electromagnetic Simulation Seminar and Opera/Tosca update Seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2012-01-01

    9 May 2012 Kjell Johnsen Auditorium – Room 30-7-018 Electromagnetic Simulation Seminar & Opera/Tosca update Seminar By Cobham Technical Services – Vector Fields Software Virtual prototyping using electromagnetic simulation software plays an important role in the design stage of many devices and the Opera software has been in use for this purpose at CERN for over a decade. A technical seminar will take place concerning the latest developments in electromagnetic design, analysis and multi-physics applications for large scientific experiments.  Information will be presented on applications such as superconducting magnets and ion-beam sources. The seminar will be presented by engineers/physicists from Cobham Technical Services – Vector Fields Software who develop the Opera program.  It is FREE to attend and is open to both current Opera software users and also those who wish to expand their knowledge and understand better the capabilities on offer. Prog...

  20. Don Giovanni Goes to Prison: Teaching Opera behind Bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierpaolo Polzonetti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Teaching opera in prison presents challenges, such as limits imposed on printed and recorded material to study it, or the audio-visual technology in the classroom space, yet, no other experience can be so inspiring and rewarding for everybody involved. This essay focuses on teaching opera, in particular Mozart’s Don Giovanni, to imprisoned students in America. It addresses pedagogical challenges on how to teach opera in prison and advocates for the need to leave the ivory tower of academia and engage in social action. If opera is still perceived as an elitist art form, it is because it is artificially kept that way by being practiced, taught, studied, and promoted only among an exclusive sector of our population.

  1. Farmers' Information Needs in Soap Opera Utilisation for Agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... to cover crop planting procedure (95.3%), marketing strategies (91.3%), rural ... Keywords: Soap Opera, Agricultural Enterprise, Agricultural Information Dissemination, Agro-processors ...

  2. Farmers' Information Needs in Soap Opera Utilisation for Agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    schedule on farmers' enterprise characteristics, information needs and perceived ... Like diffusion theory, soap opera uses a typical EE model to have appropriate entertainment and ... process, the narrative does eventually close (Allen, 2014).

  3. Exploring the perceived health benefits of singing in a choir: an international cross-sectional mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Hilary; Lynch, Julie; O'Donoghue, Jessica

    2018-05-01

    This mixed-methods exploratory study investigates the perceived health benefits of singing in a choir from an international sample of choristers. An online questionnaire including demographic information, 28 quantitative statements and two qualitative questions relating to the perceived health benefits of singing in a choir was distributed via email and social media over a period of 4 months to a sample of 1,779 choristers. Basic descriptives and comparisons between subgroups of the sample are presented along with thematic analysis of qualitative comments. Basic descriptives suggest an overwhelmingly positive response. Females scored significantly higher than males on physical benefits, social benefits and emotional benefits. Professional singers reported significantly more physical, social and spiritual benefits than amateur singers. Bias may be present in these findings as the results were entirely self-reported by people who already sing in choirs. Qualitative thematic analysis identified six key themes which may counter this bias by providing deeper understanding of the perceived benefits for choir singers. These include social connection, physical and physiological benefits (specifically respiratory health), cognitive stimulation, mental health, enjoyment and transcendence. Choral singing elicits a positive response in the chorister across a plethora of domains. This research confirms previous findings on the health benefits of singing but offers evidence from the largest sample of singers to date. However, results are based on self-perceptions of choristers, and findings are, therefore, limited. Results may be used as a base on which to develop further research in this area. It also provides confirmatory evidence to support choral singing as a means of improving wellbeing in many populations, including but not limited to workplaces, schools, nursing homes, communities and churches.

  4. Persons with dementia “are given a voice” when music and singing are included as part of their everyday life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottesen, Aase Marie

    During a post-doctoral project person with dementia and their relatives are involved in the research-process. The aim is to explore their experiences and what importance it has for them that singing and music are part of their everyday life and the rehabilitation effort. The research is carried out...... and their relatives, also have focus on an professional and interdisciplinary perspective and an organizational perspective aimed at the conditions for implementation of singing and music in practice. Following research question will be elucidated: a) What experiences does persons with dementia and their relatives...... have when singing and music are used as a communicative form of intervention in everyday life and in their interaction and relationship with caregivers and what impact does it have on their quality of life and well-being? b) What impact does it have, from a professional and an interdisciplinary...

  5. Singing with yourself: evidence for an inverse modeling account of poor-pitch singing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfordresher, Peter Q; Mantell, James T

    2014-05-01

    Singing is a ubiquitous and culturally significant activity that humans engage in from an early age. Nevertheless, some individuals - termed poor-pitch singers - are unable to match target pitches within a musical semitone while singing. In the experiments reported here, we tested whether poor-pitch singing deficits would be reduced when individuals imitate recordings of themselves as opposed to recordings of other individuals. This prediction was based on the hypothesis that poor-pitch singers have not developed an abstract "inverse model" of the auditory-vocal system and instead must rely on sensorimotor associations that they have experienced directly, which is true for sequences an individual has already produced. In three experiments, participants, both accurate and poor-pitch singers, were better able to imitate sung recordings of themselves than sung recordings of other singers. However, this self-advantage was enhanced for poor-pitch singers. These effects were not a byproduct of self-recognition (Experiment 1), vocal timbre (Experiment 2), or the absolute pitch of target recordings (i.e., the advantage remains when recordings are transposed, Experiment 3). Results support the conceptualization of poor-pitch singing as an imitative deficit resulting from a deficient inverse model of the auditory-vocal system with respect to pitch. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. An Overview of Existing Research about Children's Singing and the Implications for Teaching Children to Sing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedden, Debra

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to identify the findings of the studies devoted to the child voice, most of which have occurred in the past 25 years, and to present a synthesis of these findings with respect to the pedagogy, or art and science, of teaching children to sing. The data suggest that a philosophical disparity exists about…

  7. Contemporary Commercial Music Singing Students-Voice Quality and Vocal Function at the Beginning of Singing Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sielska-Badurek, Ewelina M; Sobol, Maria; Olszowska, Katarzyna; Niemczyk, Kazimierz

    2017-10-03

    The purpose of this study was to assess the voice quality and the vocal tract function in popular singing students at the beginning of their singing training at the High School of Music. This is a retrospective cross-sectional study. The study consisted of 45 popular singing students (35 females and 10 males, mean age: 19.9 ± 2.8 years). They were assessed in the first 2 months of their 4-year singing training at the High School of Music, between 2013 and 2016. Voice quality and vocal tract function were evaluated using videolaryngostroboscopy, palpation of the vocal tract structures, the perceptual speaking and singing voice assessment, acoustic analysis, maximal phonation time, the Voice Handicap Index, and the Singing Voice Handicap Index (SVHI). Twenty-two percent of Contemporary Commercial Music singing students began their education in the High School, with vocal nodules. Palpation of the vocal tract structure showed in 50% correct motions and tension in speaking and in 39.3% in singing. Perceptual voice assessment showed in 80% proper speaking voice quality and in 82.4% proper singing voice quality. The mean vocal fundamental frequency while speaking in females was 214 Hz and in males was 116 Hz. Dysphonia Severity Index was at the level of 2, and maximum phonation time was 17.7 seconds. The Voice Handicap Index and the SVHI remained within the normal range: 7.5 and 19, respectively. Perceptual singing voice assessment correlated with the SVHI (P = 0.006). Twenty-two percent of the Contemporary Commercial Music singing students began their education in the High School, with organic vocal fold lesions. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Teaching Young Children How to Sing: One School's Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Susan

    2011-01-01

    In many schools, classroom teachers are responsible for the music experiences of young children. Children may learn songs, but may not learn "how" to sing. This article outlines simple teaching strategies to help young children develop listening and vocal habits leading to beautiful singing. The article discusses how the kindergarten classes at…

  9. Read, Sing, Play, and Create a Musical Storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardany, Audrey Berger

    2012-01-01

    Dayle Ann Dodds and Rosanne Litzinger's children's book, "Sing, Sophie!" provides the elementary general music teacher with an opportunity to read a captivating children's story, sing the main character's song and play her guitar, and create a song as well as instrumental music. Lessons outlined in this article may culminate in a veritable musical…

  10. Singing Video Games May Help Improve Pitch-Matching Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paney, Andrew S.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of singing video games on the pitch-matching skills of undergraduate students. Popular games like "Rock Band" and "Karaoke Revolutions" rate players' singing based on the correctness of the frequency of their sung response. Players are motivated to improve their…

  11. Vocal ontogeny in neotropical singing mice (Scotinomys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polly Campbell

    Full Text Available Isolation calls produced by dependent young are a fundamental form of communication. For species in which vocal signals remain important to adult communication, the function and social context of vocal behavior changes dramatically with the onset of sexual maturity. The ontogenetic relationship between these distinct forms of acoustic communication is surprisingly under-studied. We conducted a detailed analysis of vocal development in sister species of Neotropical singing mice, Scotinomys teguina and S. xerampelinus. Adult singing mice are remarkable for their advertisement songs, rapidly articulated trills used in long-distance communication; the vocal behavior of pups was previously undescribed. We recorded 30 S. teguina and 15 S. xerampelinus pups daily, from birth to weaning; 23 S. teguina and 11 S. xerampelinus were recorded until sexual maturity. Like other rodent species with poikilothermic young, singing mice were highly vocal during the first weeks of life and stopped vocalizing before weaning. Production of first advertisement songs coincided with the onset of sexual maturity after a silent period of ≧2 weeks. Species differences in vocal behavior emerged early in ontogeny and notes that comprise adult song were produced from birth. However, the organization and relative abundance of distinct note types was very different between pups and adults. Notably, the structure, note repetition rate, and intra-individual repeatability of pup vocalizations did not become more adult-like with age; the highly stereotyped structure of adult song appeared de novo in the first songs of young adults. We conclude that, while the basic elements of adult song are available from birth, distinct selection pressures during maternal dependency, dispersal, and territorial establishment favor major shifts in the structure and prevalence of acoustic signals. This study provides insight into how an evolutionarily conserved form of acoustic signaling provides

  12. Sing Your Heart Out: community singing as part of mental health recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakespeare, Tom; Whieldon, Alice

    2017-11-25

    This paper reports on a qualitative evaluation of a Norfolk-based network of community singing workshops aimed at people with mental health conditions and the general public. The aims of the study were (a) to evaluate the effectiveness of the Sing Your Heart Out (SYHO) project and (b) to identify the key features which made the project distinctive. The study draws on 20 interviews with participants, two focus groups with organisers and workshop leaders, and participative observation over a 6-month period. Interviewees all reported improvement in or maintenance of their mental health and well-being as a direct result of engagement in the singing workshops. For most it was a key component, and for some the only and sufficient component in their recovery and ongoing psychological stability. SYHO was regarded as different from choirs and from most other social groups and also different from therapy groups, music or otherwise. The combination of singing with an inclusive social aspect was regarded as essential in effecting recovery. The lack of pressure to discuss their condition and the absence of explicit therapy was also mentioned by most participants as an important and welcome element in why SYHO worked for them. The combination of singing and social engagement produced an ongoing feeling of belonging and well-being. Attendance provided them with structure, support and contact that improved functioning and mood. We conclude that the SYHO model offers a low-commitment, low-cost tool for mental health recovery within the community. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. Learning to sing with the accompaniment of the gusle in Serbia in the XXI century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lajić-Mihajlović Danka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, learning to sing with the accompaniment of the gusle is reconsidered within the concept of the preservation of traditional folk music as an intangible cultural heritage, that is, as a specific form of music education. Having dealt with a traditional way of providing continuity in the practice of guslars` (i. e. gusle players - which is learning by observing and imitating more experienced family members or guslars from nearby surrounding - some crucial moments in the history of singing with the accompaniment of the gusle, which also influenced the process of transmitting this skill, are demonstrated. In recent times, singing with the accompaniment of the gusle has been mastered not only within family circles but also in associations of guslars, at private schools of music, and lately there has also been an opportunity to learn this skill at some state schools of music. Accordingly, interviews with the members of an Association of guslars association that is particularly distinguished by the fostering young guslars, and interviews with gusle teachers and pupils who attend schools of music were used as primary sources for this paper, together with the specific experience of the author as a president of the jury in a young guslars’ competition. Since the poetic content of the songs is primarily learnt from printed collections or audio recordings, future guslars in fact master the musical skills of playing and singing along the instrument, that is, the skill of the vocal interpretation of a chosen written poetic text. Concerning these, some programmes and methods are discussed, as well as their effects on young guslars’ competence, principally from the point of style and aesthetics. Attention is particularly drawn to flaws in the teaching concept of future gusle players at state schools of music. In conclusion, the necessity of applying ethnomusicological findings to activities concerning the preservation of an intangible cultural

  14. Developing Singing Confidence in Early Childhood Teachers Using Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and Group Singing: A Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Nicola; Bodkin-Allen, Sally

    2017-01-01

    Early childhood teachers are often required to sing, which requires confidence. The purpose of the present study was to treat early childhood teachers who self-identified as uncertain singers using either a group singing (GS) approach, or a talking approach, based on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT). The aim of the study was to increase…

  15. A Pilot Study: The Effect of Singing and Non-Singing--Instructional Strategies on Harmonic Listening Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Cynthia I.; Brinckmeyer, Lynn; Beckman, Amy A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to examine the effects of singing and non-singing experiences when students develop harmonic listening skills. Participants were children and adolescents who participate in a community youth choir (N = 21). Ages ranged from 9-16 years. The subjects were organized into four separate groups. All subjects attended…

  16. Opera as Social Showcase: Rituals of “Magic Mirrors” at the Margravial Opera House in Mid-Eighteenth-Century Bayreuth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlado Kotnik

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a ritualistic approach to opera in the historical case of the mid-eighteenth-century Margravial Opera House in Bavarian Bayreuth to argue that court opera can be understood as a variety of social showcase. In this view, court opera is a specific form of communication through which opera established the various types of relationship between itself and the social worlds in which, and for which, it was created. By referring to the operatic rituals under the leadership and sponsorship of Wilhelmina of Bayreuth and her husband Frederick, it will be established how the Bayreuth’s ruling couple used opera for several social and political purposes. As both genre and institution, the margravial opera production is interpreted by the analytical models of anthropologists of ritual and theatre, like Victor Turner, Clifford Geertz, Maurice Bloch, Stanley Tambiah, Catherine Bell, employing their ritual theory, especially Turner’s concept of a “hall of magic mirrors”.

  17. Electron characterization in OPERA Experiment; Caracterisation des electrons dans l'experience OPERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caffari, Yvan [Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon, 4, Rue Enrico Fermi, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Universite Claude Bernard Lyon-I, 43 boulevard du 11 Novembre 1918, 69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France)

    2006-09-15

    In 1998 by making use of a water Cherenkov detector the Super-Kamiokande Experiment in Japan has measured a deficit of {nu}{sub {tau}} atmospheric neutrinos without observing a corresponding rise in the {nu}{sub e} flux. This phenomenon is understood as neutrino oscillations, a mechanism implying a non vanishing neutrino mass. In 1999 the CHOOZ Experiment has definitely excluded the oscillations {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub e} within atmosphere. The OPERA Experiment aims at evidencing the {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub {tau}}oscillations through occurrence of {nu}{sub {tau}} and of {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub e} oscillations by occurrence of {nu}{sub e} starting from a muon neutrino beam almost totally clean. Such a beam is actually produced at CERN (CNGS beam) in Switzerland and then directed upon the OPERA detector located 732 km southward under Gran Sasso mountains in Italy. The detector consists of more than 200,000 bricks (what amounts to a total mass of 1,800 tons made up of a nuclear emulsion foils / lead foils sandwich. This module structure allows reconstructing with a high spatial resolution ({delta}{sub {theta}} {approx_equal} 1 mrad and {delta}{sub r} {approx_equal} 1 {mu}m) the kink topology created by the {tau} lepton (issued from charged current interaction of a {nu}{sub {tau}} lepton with a lead nucleus) and its decay products. The work reported in this thesis consists in characterization of the electrons needed in the study of {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub {tau}}oscillations, with {tau} {yields} e, and the {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub e} oscillations, the {nu}{sub e} interacting through charged currents with a lead nucleus and producing an electron. A reconstruction algorithm of the electromagnetic cascades in nuclear emulsion was developed. This algorithm allows reproducing the longitudinal and transverse profiles used in evaluating the electron energies and their identification as well ({pi}/e separation by mean of a neuron

  18. An Investigation of Singing, Health and Well-Being as a Group Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, Liz

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore perceptions of singing as a group process deriving from two research studies: (i) Study 1: CETL (Centre for Excellence in Teaching and Learning): C4C (Collaboration for Creativity) Research Project called Singing, Health and Well-being and (ii) Study 2: iSING. The studies consider singing in relation to health…

  19. Singing and Vocal Instruction in Primary Schools: An Analysis from Six Case Studies in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadrado, Albina; Rusinek, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    This is an analysis of how specialist music teachers sing and teach how to sing, based on data collected from six case studies carried out in Spanish primary schools. The study aimed at understanding classroom singing practices, and in particular the provision or absence of vocal instruction in relation with teachers' singing models. The findings…

  20. Status and oscillation results of the OPERA experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunet, F.

    2014-01-01

    The OPERA experiment, placed 730 km downstream the CERN neutrino beam to Gran Sasso (CNGS) in the LNGS underground laboratory, is designed to measure muon-neutrino to tau-neutrino oscillations in a direct appearance mode. The hybrid apparatus consists of an emulsion/lead target complemented by electronic detectors. Due to the target structure made of thin lead plates, OPERA is able to detect electromagnetic showers, allowing searches for tau electronic decays and for oscillations from muon-neutrino to electron-neutrino. The experimental set-up and associated facilities used to extract data recorded in the emulsion will be described, with the special procedures aimed at locating interaction vertices and detect short decay topologies. OPERA is taking data since 2008. A first nu-tau interaction candidate was already published in 2010. New results with increased statistics will be presented. In particular, an overview of the studies related to electrons will be shown. (author)

  1. The ice-breaker effect: singing mediates fast social bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Eiluned; Launay, Jacques; Dunbar, Robin I M

    2015-10-01

    It has been proposed that singing evolved to facilitate social cohesion. However, it remains unclear whether bonding arises out of properties intrinsic to singing or whether any social engagement can have a similar effect. Furthermore, previous research has used one-off singing sessions without exploring the emergence of social bonding over time. In this semi-naturalistic study, we followed newly formed singing and non-singing (crafts or creative writing) adult education classes over seven months. Participants rated their closeness to their group and their affect, and were given a proxy measure of endorphin release, before and after their class, at three timepoints (months 1, 3 and 7). We show that although singers and non-singers felt equally connected by timepoint 3, singers experienced much faster bonding: singers demonstrated a significantly greater increase in closeness at timepoint 1, but the more gradual increase shown by non-singers caught up over time. This represents the first evidence for an 'ice-breaker effect' of singing in promoting fast cohesion between unfamiliar individuals, which bypasses the need for personal knowledge of group members gained through prolonged interaction. We argue that singing may have evolved to quickly bond large human groups of relative strangers, potentially through encouraging willingness to coordinate by enhancing positive affect.

  2. Contributions of neuroimaging in singing voice studies: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geová Oliveira de Amorim

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT It is assumed that singing is a highly complex activity, which requires the activation and interconnection of sensorimotor areas. The aim of the current research was to present the evidence from neuroimaging studies in the performance of the motor and sensory system in the process of singing. Research articles on the characteristics of human singing analyzed by neuroimaging, which were published between 1990 and 2016, and indexed and listed in databases such as PubMed, BIREME, Lilacs, Web of Science, Scopus, and EBSCO were chosen for this systematic review. A total of 9 articles, employing magnetoencephalography, functional magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, and electrocorticography were chosen. These neuroimaging approaches enabled the identification of a neural network interconnecting the spoken and singing voice, to identify, modulate, and correct pitch. This network changed with the singer's training, variations in melodic structure and harmonized singing, amusia, and the relationship among the brain areas that are responsible for speech, singing, and the persistence of musicality. Since knowledge of the neural networks that control singing is still scarce, the use of neuroimaging methods to elucidate these pathways should be a focus of future research.

  3. Social uses of commercial soap operas: a conversation with Miguel Sabido.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, A; Obregon, R

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents an interview with Miguel Sabido, a writer-producer-director of theater and soap operas in Mexico concerning the social uses of commercial soap operas. According to Sabido, television soap operas can play multiple roles in educating the public: 1) melodramatic soap operas represent a mediation between good and bad; 2) soap operas allow people to gossip on different characters, their dilemmas, and create a climate for social change, especially if it centers on key social issues; and 3) soap operas provide role models to emulate. Sabido stressed the importance of a theory-based method for producing drama and mentioned how theoreticians Bentley, Bandura, Maclean, and Jung influenced his writing and production of soap operas. According to Sabido, the social uses of commercial television are possible with socially responsible soap operas.

  4. FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS OF FUTURE MUSIC ART TEACHERS’ TRAINING FOR SINGING ACTIVITY OF COMPREHENSIVE SCHOOL SENIOR STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Chen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In the article the functional analysis of future music art teachers’ training for singing activity of comprehensive school senior students is depicted. This issue is very important because improving educators and musicians’ training contributes not only to professional selfactualisation, but also to young generation’s encouraging for thorough learning music art works and their creative development in the process of group music tuitions. Extracurricular singing activity also plays an important part. It reveals art images to students, enriching creativity experience, forms the spiritual world, develops independent thinking, awakens creativity. The author points out the main functions of future music art teachers’ training. They are system and value, information, communication, creative and transformative, projective functions. The special attention is paid to characterizing the features of each function. The author claims that system and value function relates to the necessity to analyze the results of the educational process that contributes to productive solving problems by students and main tasks of music training. Information function is a subject background of art music teachers’ and pedagogical activities. Communicative function is realized in a teacher’s ability to develop the student’ initiative to plan cooperative activities, to be able to distribute duties, to carry out instructions, to coordinate cooperative activities, to create special situations for the implementation of educational influence. The analysis of pedagogical and methodological literature shows that The creative and transformative function is manifested in the creative use of pedagogical and methodological ideas in specific pedagogical conditions. The projective function is thought to promote the most complete realization of content of comprehensive and art education. Functional analysis of students’ training of art faculties at pedagogical universities to

  5. Mini soap operas foster financial education and inclusion of women ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-05-04

    May 4, 2016 ... Mini soap operas foster financial education and inclusion of women in Peru ... they are less vulnerable to external shocks and can invest in health, education, ... was launched to encourage saving among women who received benefits under ... Evaluating vocational training program for women in Brazil.

  6. Soap opera families: some elements of social representations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Rogério Meira Menandro

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Soap operas are a cultural phenomenon of recognized importance in Brazilian society. They have come into the atention of investigators since they represent concrete social processes that are not strange to the spectator´s reality. A large variety of social themes have already been discussed in soap operas, characterizing a broad spectrum which covers from daily ordinary events up to controversial situation of rupture, forcing public debate. This investigation at empted to identify and analyze how family arrangements, as well as familial and conjugal daily routine, were portrayed in six soap opera plots exhibited between 2003 and 2008 by Rede Globo network. The data collection was performed by the analysis of the soap operas chapter synopses, and the data was organized and discussed using the classic content analysis technique. The way Brazilian family is portrayed in the weekly TV fiction incorporates new family arrangements, presenting new relationship construction possibilities originated during the last decades, in opposition to the conservative raditions

  7. Dramatic music brings the opera to Estonia / Joel Alas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alas, Joel

    2006-01-01

    Etendustest Birgitta Festivali raames 11.-22. aug. Tallinnas Pirita kloostris: Astor Piazzolla tango-ooperist "Maria de Buenos Aires" 11. aug., W. A. Mozarti ooper "Tituse halastus" Moskva Helikon Opera esituses 15. aug., Shostakovitshi ooper "Mtsenski maakonna Lady Macbeth" 17. augustil

  8. Measurement of the neutrino velocity in OPERA experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dracos, M., E-mail: marcos.dracos@in2p3.fr [IPHC, Université de Strasbourg, CNRS/IN2P3, F-67037 Strasbourg (France)

    2013-02-15

    The OPERA neutrino experiment has measured the neutrino velocity using the CERN CNGS beam over a baseline of 730 km. The measurement is based on data taken by OPERA in the years 2009, 2010, 2011. An arrival time of CNGS muon neutrinos with respect to the one computed assuming the speed of light in vacuum of (6.5±7.4(stat.){sub −8.0}{sup +8.3}(sys.))ns was measured corresponding to a relative difference of the muon neutrino velocity with respect to the speed of light (v−c)/c=(2.7±3.1(stat.){sub −3.3}{sup +3.4}(sys.))×10{sup −6}. During spring 2012 the CNGS provided during two weeks a short proton bunched beam dedicated to the neutrino velocity measurement. The OPERA neutrino experiment at the underground Gran Sasso Laboratory has measured the velocity of neutrinos with slightly modified setup compared to 2011 measurements. These modifications increased the timing accuracy and also fixed previous problems. The arrival time of CNGS muon neutrinos with respect to the one computed assuming the speed of light in vacuum has been found to be in agreement with the previous measurement. This result confirms the revised OPERA result and that indeed the neutrino anticipation announced in September 2011 was due to technical problems.

  9. Validation of OPERA3D PCMI Analysis Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeun, Ji Hoon; Choi, Jae Myung; Yoo, Jong Sung [KEPCO Nuclear Fuel Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cheng, G.; Sim, K. S.; Chassie, Girma [Candu Energy INC.,Ontario (Canada)

    2013-10-15

    This report will describe introduction of validation of OPERA3D code, and validation results that are directly related with PCMI phenomena. OPERA3D was developed for the PCMI analysis and validated using the in-pile measurement data. Fuel centerline temperature and clad strain calculation results shows close expectations with measurement data. Moreover, 3D FEM fuel model of OPERA3D shows slight hour glassing behavior of fuel pellet in contact case. Further optimization will be conducted for future application of OPERA3D code. Nuclear power plant consists of many complicated systems, and one of the important objects of all the systems is maintaining nuclear fuel integrity. However, it is inevitable to experience PCMI (Pellet Cladding Mechanical Interaction) phenomena at current operating reactors and next generation reactors for advanced safety and economics as well. To evaluate PCMI behavior, many studies are on-going to develop 3-dimensional fuel performance evaluation codes. Moreover, these codes are essential to set the safety limits for the best estimated PCMI phenomena aimed for high burnup fuel.

  10. Everyday Talk and the Conversational Pattern of the Soap Opera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    From, Unni

    2006-01-01

    The soap opera has been explored from many different angles. This article examines the relationship between one of the general characteristics of the genre, the fact that there is far more talk than action, and the ways people actually talk in the soap. The article uses Bakhtin's concept of speech...

  11. A classical model explaining the OPERA velocity paradox

    CERN Document Server

    Broda, Boguslaw

    2011-01-01

    In the context of the paradoxical results of the OPERA Collaboration, we have proposed a classical mechanics model yielding the statistically measured velocity of a beam higher than the velocity of the particles constituting the beam. Ingredients of our model necessary to obtain this curious result are a non-constant fraction function and the method of the maximum-likelihood estimation.

  12. Cardiac and Respiratory Patterns Synchronize between Persons during Choir Singing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Viktor; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2011-01-01

    Dyadic and collective activities requiring temporally coordinated action are likely to be associated with cardiac and respiratory patterns that synchronize within and between people. However, the extent and functional significance of cardiac and respiratory between-person couplings have not been investigated thus far. Here, we report interpersonal oscillatory couplings among eleven singers and one conductor engaged in choir singing. We find that: (a) phase synchronization both in respiration and heart rate variability increase significantly during singing relative to a rest condition; (b) phase synchronization is higher when singing in unison than when singing pieces with multiple voice parts; (c) directed coupling measures are consistent with the presence of causal effects of the conductor on the singers at high modulation frequencies; (d) the different voices of the choir are reflected in network analyses of cardiac and respiratory activity based on graph theory. Our results suggest that oscillatory coupling of cardiac and respiratory patterns provide a physiological basis for interpersonal action coordination. PMID:21957466

  13. "I'm Not Sure if I Can...But I Want to Sing!" Research on Singing as a Soloist through the Art of Improvising Verses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casals, Albert; Vilar, Merce; Ayats, Jaume

    2011-01-01

    Singing individually is both a necessary activity within the music class and an essential part of the cultural activity of improvising verses through singing. In this article we show how the introduction of this activity in the educational system of Catalonia has made it possible to obtain positive results with regard to participation in singing,…

  14. Singing modulates parvalbumin interneurons throughout songbird forebrain vocal control circuitry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zengin-Toktas, Yildiz

    2017-01-01

    Across species, the performance of vocal signals can be modulated by the social environment. Zebra finches, for example, adjust their song performance when singing to females (‘female-directed’ or FD song) compared to when singing in isolation (‘undirected’ or UD song). These changes are salient, as females prefer the FD song over the UD song. Despite the importance of these performance changes, the neural mechanisms underlying this social modulation remain poorly understood. Previous work in finches has established that expression of the immediate early gene EGR1 is increased during singing and modulated by social context within the vocal control circuitry. Here, we examined whether particular neural subpopulations within those vocal control regions exhibit similar modulations of EGR1 expression. We compared EGR1 expression in neurons expressing parvalbumin (PV), a calcium buffer that modulates network plasticity and homeostasis, among males that performed FD song, males that produced UD song, or males that did not sing. We found that, overall, singing but not social context significantly affected EGR1 expression in PV neurons throughout the vocal control nuclei. We observed differences in EGR1 expression between two classes of PV interneurons in the basal ganglia nucleus Area X. Additionally, we found that singing altered the amount of PV expression in neurons in HVC and Area X and that distinct PV interneuron types in Area X exhibited different patterns of modulation by singing. These data indicate that throughout the vocal control circuitry the singing-related regulation of EGR1 expression in PV neurons may be less influenced by social context than in other neuron types and raise the possibility of cell-type specific differences in plasticity and calcium buffering. PMID:28235074

  15. Singing for respiratory health: theory, evidence and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gick, Mary L; Nicol, Jennifer J

    2016-09-01

    The premise that singing is a health promoting activity for people with respiratory conditions of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma is a growing area of interest being investigated by researchers from various disciplines. The preliminary evidence, a theoretical framework and identification of methodological challenges are discussed in this perspective article with an eye to recommendations for further research to advance knowledge. After a brief summary of main research findings on singing in healthy people to provide background context, research is reviewed on singing in people with COPD and asthma. Studies include published research and as yet unpublished work by the authors. Methodological challenges arising from the reviewed studies are identified such as attrition from singing or control groups based on weak and strong, respectively, beliefs about singing's effectiveness. Potential solutions for these problems are considered with further recommendations made for other singing research. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. The Effect of Traditional Singing Warm-Up Versus Semioccluded Vocal Tract Exercises on the Acoustic Parameters of Singing Voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Emily; Plexico, Laura W; Sandage, Mary J; Hoch, Matthew

    2015-11-01

    This study investigated the effect of traditional vocal warm-up versus semioccluded vocal tract exercises on the acoustic parameters of voice through three questions: does vocal warm-up condition significantly alter the singing power ratio of the singing voice? Is singing power ratio dependent upon vowel? Is perceived phonatory effort affected by warm-up condition? Hypotheses were that vocal warm-up would alter the singing power ratio, and that semioccluded vocal tract warm-up would affect the singing power ratio more than no warm-up or traditional warm-up, that singing power ratio would vary across vowel, and that perceived phonatory effort would vary with warm-up condition. This study was a within-participant repeated measures design with counterbalanced conditions. Thirteen male singers were recorded under three different conditions: no warm-up, traditional warm-up, and semioccluded vocal tract exercise warm-up. Recordings were made of these singers performing the Star Spangled Banner, and singing power ratio (SPR) was calculated from four vowels. Singers rated their perceived phonatory effort (PPE) singing the Star Spangled Banner after each warm-up condition. Warm-up condition did not significantly affect SPR. SPR was significantly different for /i/ and /e/. PPE was not significantly different between warm-up conditions. The present study did not find significant differences in SPR between warm-up conditions. SPR differences for /i/, support previous findings. PPE did not differ significantly across warm-up condition despite the expectation that traditional or semioccluded warm-up would cause a decrease. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Is there potential for learning in amusia? A study of the effect of singing intervention in congenital amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Susan; Himonides, Evangelos; Wise, Karen; Welch, Graham; Stewart, Lauren

    2012-04-01

    Congenital amusia is a neurodevelopmental disorder of musical perception and production. Much research has focused on characterizing the deficits within this special population; however, it is also important from both a psychological and educational perspective to determine which aspects of the disorder may be subject to change because this will also constrain theorizing about the nature of the disorder, as well as facilitating possible future remediation programs. In this small-scale study, a professional singing teacher used a broad-brush intervention approach with five individuals diagnosed with congenital amusia. The compensatory elements were designed to enhance vocal efficiency and health, singing technique, musical understanding, pitch perception, and production. Improvements were observed in most individuals in perception, indexed via the Montreal Battery for the Evaluation of Amusia scale subtest and in the vocal performance of familiar songs. The workshop setting gave a unique opportunity for observation and discussion to inform further investigations of this disorder. © 2012 New York Academy of Sciences.

  18. Singing together or apart: The effect of competitive and cooperative singing on social bonding within and between sub-groups of a university Fraternity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Eiluned; Launay, Jacques; van Duijn, Max; Rotkirch, Anna; David-Barrett, Tamas; Dunbar, Robin I M

    2016-01-01

    Singing together seems to facilitate social bonding, but it is unclear whether this is true in all contexts. Here we examine the social bonding outcomes of naturalistic singing behaviour in a European university Fraternity composed of exclusive ‘Cliques’: recognised sub-groups of 5-20 friends who adopt a special name and identity. Singing occurs frequently in this Fraternity, both ‘competitively’ (contests between Cliques) and ‘cooperatively’ (multiple Cliques singing together). Both situations were re-created experimentally in order to explore how competitive and cooperative singing affects feelings of closeness towards others. Participants were assigned to teams of four and were asked to sing together with another team either from the same Clique or from a different Clique. Participants (N = 88) felt significantly closer to teams from different Cliques after singing with them compared to before, regardless of whether they cooperated with (singing loudly together) or competed against (trying to singing louder than) the other team. In contrast, participants reported reduced closeness with other teams from their own Clique after competing with them. These results indicate that group singing can increase closeness to less familiar individuals regardless of whether they share a common motivation, but that singing competitively may reduce closeness within a very tight-knit group. PMID:27777494

  19. Radiation protection and antitumor effects in Hatakeshimeji (Lyophyllum decastes sing)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ukawa, Yuuichi; Gu, Yeunhwa; Suzuki, Ikukatsu; Park, Sangrae; Hasegawa, Takeo; Tsukada, Sekihito; Terai, Kaoru; Tawaraya, Hitoshi

    2002-01-01

    The effect on an anti-tumor is admitted in the lyophyllum decastes sing extraction thing, and it has the action mechanism cleared to depend on the immunity action. The existence of the synergistic effect in effect on an anti-tumor radiation irradiation, an individual with the medication of lyophyllum decastes sing and effect on combination and the effect on protection of the leukocyte decrease by the radiation was examined by this research. After about 2x10 6 inoculated sarcoma 180 on the ICR mice, a lyophyllum decastes sing extraction thing gave 100mg/kg for 2 weeks in endoceliac at the every other day. After that, the radiation irradiation of 2 Gy was done three times, and it went to the sutra time target the number of the leukocytes, the lymph node ball some prizes of measurement. And, weight and tumor size were measured after the cancer cell inoculation two weeks. The decrease of the clear tumor size was recognized by the group that only a cancer cell was inoculated by the radiation independent irradiation group, lyophyllum decastes sing and the radiation combination group though tumor size increased as it passed. It faced by the group that only a cancer cell was inoculated after the irradiation 15 days though it died the precedent, and a half existed by lyophyllum decastes sing and the radiation combination group. And, the numbers of the leukocytes, the number of the lymphocyte were on the increase regardless of the existence of the radiation irradiation by the medication of lyophyllum decastes sing. It thinks with the thing that the effect is shown for the effect on immunity recovery in the radiotherapy and the prevention of a side effect of the radiation from this result. Showing the effect for not only effect on prevention of the cancer and effect on healing but also the effect on immunity recovery in the radiotherapy, the prevention of a side effect by taking lyophyllum decastes sing is considered

  20. Singing for adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Renae J; Epsley, Charlotte; Coren, Esther; McKeough, Zoe J

    2017-12-19

    Singing is a complex physical activity dependent on the use of the lungs for air supply to regulate airflow and create large lung volumes. In singing, exhalation is active and requires active diaphragm contraction and good posture. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive, chronic lung disease characterised by airflow obstruction. Singing is an activity with potential to improve health outcomes in people with COPD. To determine the effect of singing on health-related quality of life and dyspnoea in people with COPD. We identified trials from the Cochrane Airways Specialised Register, ClinicalTrials.gov, the World Health Organization trials portal and PEDro, from their inception to August 2017. We also reviewed reference lists of all primary studies and review articles for additional references. We included randomised controlled trials in people with stable COPD, in which structured supervised singing training of at least four sessions over four weeks' total duration was performed. The singing could be performed individually or as part of a group (choir) facilitated by a singing leader. Studies were included if they compared: 1) singing versus no intervention (usual care) or another control intervention; or 2) singing plus pulmonary rehabilitation versus pulmonary rehabilitation alone. Two review authors independently screened and selected trials for inclusion, extracted outcome data and assessed risk of bias. We contacted authors of trials for missing data. We calculated mean differences (MDs) using a random-effects model. We were only able to analyse data for the comparison of singing versus no intervention or a control group. Three studies (a total of 112 participants) were included. All studies randomised participants to a singing group or a control group. The comparison groups included a film workshop, handcraft work, and no intervention. The frequency of the singing intervention in the studies ranged from 1 to 2 times a week over a 6 to 24

  1. Birds reveal their personality when singing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    László Zsolt Garamszegi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Individual differences in social behaviour may have consequences for mate choice and sexual signalling, because partners should develop preferences for personalities that maximize reproductive output. Here we propose that behavioural traits involved in sexual advertisement may serve as good indicators of personality, which is fundamental for sexual selection to operate on temperament. Bird song has a prominent and well-established role in sexual selection, and it displays considerable variation among individuals with a potentially strong personality component. Therefore, we predicted that features of song would correlate with estimates of personality. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a field study of free-living male collared flycatchers, Ficedula albicollis, we characterised personality based on the exploration of an altered breeding environment, and based on the risk taken when a potential predator was approaching during a simulated territorial interaction. We found that explorative and risk-taker individuals consistently sang at lower song posts than shy individuals in the presence of a human observer. Moreover, males from lower posts established pair-bonds relatively faster than males from higher posts. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results may demonstrate that risk taking during singing correlates with risk taking during aggression and with exploration, thus personality may be manifested in different contexts involving sexual advertisement. These findings are in accordance with the hypothesis that the male's balance between investment in reproduction and risk taking is reflected in sexual displays, and it may be important information for choosy females that seek partners with personality traits enhancing breeding success.

  2. Birds reveal their personality when singing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garamszegi, László Zsolt; Eens, Marcel; Török, János

    2008-07-09

    Individual differences in social behaviour may have consequences for mate choice and sexual signalling, because partners should develop preferences for personalities that maximize reproductive output. Here we propose that behavioural traits involved in sexual advertisement may serve as good indicators of personality, which is fundamental for sexual selection to operate on temperament. Bird song has a prominent and well-established role in sexual selection, and it displays considerable variation among individuals with a potentially strong personality component. Therefore, we predicted that features of song would correlate with estimates of personality. In a field study of free-living male collared flycatchers, Ficedula albicollis, we characterised personality based on the exploration of an altered breeding environment, and based on the risk taken when a potential predator was approaching during a simulated territorial interaction. We found that explorative and risk-taker individuals consistently sang at lower song posts than shy individuals in the presence of a human observer. Moreover, males from lower posts established pair-bonds relatively faster than males from higher posts. Our results may demonstrate that risk taking during singing correlates with risk taking during aggression and with exploration, thus personality may be manifested in different contexts involving sexual advertisement. These findings are in accordance with the hypothesis that the male's balance between investment in reproduction and risk taking is reflected in sexual displays, and it may be important information for choosy females that seek partners with personality traits enhancing breeding success.

  3. Emulsion sheet doublets as interface trackers for the OPERA experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Anokhina, A.; Ariga, A.; Arrabito, L.; Autiero, D.; Badertscher, A.; Bay, F.; Greggio, F.Bersani; Bertolin, A.; Besnier, M.; Bick, D.; Bozza, C.; Brugiere, T.; Brugnera, R.; Brunetti, G.; Buontempo, S.; Carrara, E.; Cazes, A.; Chaussard, L.; Chernyavsky, M.; Chiarella, V.; Chon-Sen, N.; Chukanov, A.; Consiglio, L.; Cozzi, M.; Cuha, V.; Dal Corso, F.; D'Amato, G.; D'Ambrosio, N.; De Lellis, G.; Declais, Y.; De Serio, M.; Di Capua, F.; Di Ferdinando, D.; Di Giovanni, A.; Di Marco, N.; Di Troia, C.; Dmitrievski, S.; Dominjon, A.; Dracos, Marcos; Duchesneau, D.; Dusini, S.; Ebert, J.; Egorov, O.; Enikeev, R.; Ereditato, Antonio; Esposito, L.S.; Favier, J.; Felici, G.; Ferber, T.; Fini, R.; Frekers, D.; Fukuda, T.; Galkin, V.I.; Galkin, V.A.; Garfagnini, A.; Giacomelli, G.; Giorgini, M.; Goellnitz, C.; Goldberg, J.; Golubkov, D.; Gornushkin, Y.; Grella, G.; Grianti, F.; Guler, M.; Gusev, G.; Gustavino, C.; Hagner, Caren; Hara, T.; Hierholzer, M.; Hiramatsu, S.; Hoshino, Kaoru; Ieva, M.; Jakovcic, K.; Janicsko Csathy, J.; Janutta, B.; Jollet, C.; Juget, F.; Kawai, T.; Kazuyama, M.; Kim, S.H.; Knuesel, J.; Kodama, K.; Komatsu, M.; Kose, U.; Kreslo, I.; Laktineh, I.; Lazzaro, C.; Lenkeit, J.; Ljubicic, A.; Longhin, Andrea; Lutter, G.; Manai, K.; Mandrioli, G.; Marotta, A.; Marteau, J.; Matsuo, T.; Matsuoka, H.; Mauri, N.; Meisel, F.; Meregaglia, A.; Messina, M.; Migliozzi, P.; Mikado, S.; Miyamoto, S.; Monacelli, Piero; Morishima, Kunihiro; Moser, U.; Muciaccia, Maria Teresa; Naganawa, N.; Naka, T.; Nakamura, M.; Nakamura, T.; Nakano, T.; Nikitina, V.; Niwa, K.; Nonoyama, Y.; Ogawa, S.; Osedlo, V.; Ossetski, D.; Paoloni, A.; Park, B.D.; Park, I.G.; Pastore, A.; Patrizii, L.; Pennacchio, E.; Pessard, H.; Pilipenko, V.; Pistillo, C.; Polukhina, N.; Pozzato, M.; Pretzl, Klaus P.; Publichenko, P.; Pupilli, F.; Roganova, T.; Rosa, G.; Rostovtseva, I.; Rubbia, A.; Russo, A.; Ryazhskaya, O.; Ryzhikov, D.; Sato, O.; Sato, Y.; Saveliev, V.; Sazhina, G.; Schembri, A.; Scotto Lavina, L.; Shibuya, H.; Simone, S.; Sioli, Max; Sirignano, C.; Sirri, G.; Song, J.S.; Spinetti, M.; Stanco, L.; Starkov, N.; Stipcevic, M.; Strauss, T.; Strolin, Paolo Emilio; Sugonyaev, V.; Taira, Y.; Takahashi, S.; Tenti, M.; Terranova, F.; Tezuka, I.; Tioukov, V.; Tolun, P.; Tsarev, V.; Tufanli, S.; Ushida, N.; Vilain, P.; Vladimirov, M.; Votano, L.; Vuilleumier, J.L.; Wilquet, G.; Wonsak, B.; Wurtz, J.; Yoon, C.S.; Yoshida, J.; Zaitsev, Y.; Zemskova, S.; Zghiche, Amina; Zimmermann, R.

    2008-01-01

    New methods for efficient and unambiguous interconnection between electronic counters and target units based on nuclear photographic emulsion films have been developed. The application to the OPERA experiment, that aims at detecting oscillations between mu neutrino and tau neutrino in the CNGS neutrino beam, is reported in this paper. In order to reduce background due to latent tracks collected before installation in the detector, on-site large-scale treatments of the emulsions ("refreshing") have been applied. Changeable Sheet (CSd) packages, each made of a doublet of emulsion films, have been designed, assembled and coupled to the OPERA target units ("ECC bricks"). A device has been built to print X-ray spots for accurate interconnection both within the CSd and between the CSd and the related ECC brick. Sample emulsion films have been extensively scanned with state-of-the-art automated optical microscopes. Efficient track-matching and powerful background rejection have been achieved in tests with electronic...

  4. Spettrometro e la segnatura muonica dell'esperimento OPERA

    CERN Document Server

    Di troia, Claudio

    OPERA è un esperimento in fase di installazione presso i Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso che investiga sulla apparizione di neutrino tauonico generato per oscillazione di sapore da un fascio di neutrini muonici inviati dal CERN verso il Gran Sasso: il fascio di long baseline CNGS. OPERA è dotato di 2 spettrometri per l'identificazione dei muoni, la determinazione del momento e l'assegnazione della carica. Sono riportati i risultati dello studio delle proprietà e delle performance degli spettrometri. Per il magnete dipolare sono mostrate le proprietà chimiche, meccaniche e magnetiche; le mappe di campo magnetico atteso sono state simulate e viene descritto come il campo magnetico possa venir monitorato durante la presa dati. Sono descritti i test (i controlli di qualità) eseguiti sui Resistive Plate Chambers, i rivelatori traccianti all'interno del magnete. I test hanno selezionato gli RPC con adeguate proprieta' meccaniche (tramite test pneumatici) ed elettriche (tramite test di condizionamento). Dal...

  5. The OPERA Long Baseline Experiment: Status and First Results

    CERN Document Server

    Duchesneau, Dominique

    2008-01-01

    OPERA (Oscillation Project with Emulsion tRacking Apparatus)is an international collaboration between Europe and Asia, aiming to give the first direct proof of tau neutrino appearance in a pure muon neutrino beam, in order to validate the hypothesis for atmospheric neutrino oscillations. The first european long baseline neutrino beam called CNGS is produced at CERN and sent in the direction of the Gran Sasso underground laboratory 730 km away, where the OPERA detector is located. Since 2006 the electronic detector part is fully commissioned and running. Cosmic ray events have been recorded on a regular basis and the first neutrino beam events have been observed in the target elements made of very precise emulsion films and lead sheets during the last run in autumn 2007. This paper reviews the status of the detector, the beam performances, the first results from the neutrino event analysis and the prospects.

  6. Neutrino oscillations make their first appearance in OPERA

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    1400 metres underground in the INFN Gran Sasso Laboratory, the Opera experiment has just observed its first candidate for neutrino oscillation – the phenomenon that confirms that neutrinos have mass. It is the first time that an experiment has observed the direct appearance of the new type of neutrinos produced in the oscillation. Opera uses a dedicated beam produced at CERN’s Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS).   Tracks of first candidate event observed by the OPERA experiment. Neutrinos, abundant in cosmic rays, are involved in several of the nuclear reactions that take place in the Sun, and also in radioactive decays. Numerous as they are, they continue to hold many secrets for scientists. One is the fact that the three types of neutrinos—electron, muon and tau neutrinos—can change into each another. This physical phenomenon, known as neutrino ‘oscillations’, was originally described in an article by Bruno Pontecorvo and Vla...

  7. Studien zu den Nachweiseigenschaften des OPERA-Driftroehrenspektrometers

    CERN Document Server

    Oldorf, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Within the framework of this diploma thesis the density dependent detection characteristics of the OPERA Precision Tracker are studied at a test set up with two drift tube modules. Measurements of gain, hit eciency, spatial resolution and time{to{distance relation are presented depending on the density, anode voltage and discriminator thresholds. At a constant anode voltage the gain falls with increasing density. Therefore the hit eciency and the spatial resolution decrease with increasing density above 1,70 kg/m 3 . Within the temperature{ uctuations of 6 K inside the LNGS, an uncertainty of the spatial resolution up to 75 m is found. Within these temperature{ uctuations the upper limit for the variation of the drift distance at a drift time of 1200 ns is about 220 m. Both eects are tolerable for the spatial resolution of the OPERA Drift Tubes.

  8. A short comment on OPERA neutrino velocity measuerement

    CERN Document Server

    Frabetti, Pierluigi

    2011-01-01

    In this report a potential problem in the data analysis of the OPERA experiment is discussed: the main issue is that the quantity "\\partialt" used in the maximum likelihood procedure is not a "true" parameter of the parent-distribution (called PDF in the apaper) but a shift in the x-axis (time scale). This means that the quantity "\\partialt" has to be considered only as systematic effect these error in not simply deducible from a gaussian distribution as stated.

  9. Particle identification by nuclear emulsions in the OPERA experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manai, Kais

    2007-01-01

    The OPERA experiment will try to confirm the ν μ →ν τ oscillations by the appearance of the ν τ in a pure ν μ beam. Indeed, a neutrino beam almost pure is produced at CERN (CNGS Beam) and sent to the OPERA detector. The detector is composed of two muons spectrometers and a target formed by walls of bricks. Each brick is an alternation of lead plates and emulsions. This modular structure allows to reconstruct the kink topology of the τ lepton decay with a high spatial resolution. The great challenge of the OPERA experiment is to detect the ν τ interactions with the less uncertainty. To reduce this uncertainty it is essential to identify with the greatest efficiency any background event not including a tau particle. My work permits to reduce background. My principal contribution concerns the selection development, the reconstruction and the muons identification at low energy. This work is based on the setting of variables related to the deposit energy and the multiple scattering. Previously, only deposit energy was used in the analyses of pion/muon separation. This study allows doubling the muon identification efficiency at low energy. This leads to increase the background events rejection in OPERA and to decrease the contamination by 30 pour cent. I also studied the nuclear emulsions capacity to identify charged particles through the analysis of a test beam carried out by the Nagoya group. This test contains protons and pions with different energies. My work proves that the European scan system gives comparable results with those obtained by the Japanese scan system. (Author)

  10. Operação Liberdade Duradoura: A Segunda Fase?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Soreanu Pecequilo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo tem como tema as recentes afirmações por parte dos EUA e seus aliados com relação à instauração da segunda fase da Operação Liberdade Duradoura e dos impactos que essa terá para a atual política de combate ao terrorismo e de para a ocupação do Afeganistão.

  11. Projecting the voice: observations of audience behaviours in ICT-mediated contemporary opera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Wei; Williams, Alan E.

    2014-07-01

    This paper examines how audiences experience live opera performance and the behaviours they exhibit during live-streaming of the performance. It aims to contribute to our understanding of how audiences, who increasingly inhabit an environment saturated with digital media, respond to contemporary opera performance. Based on a comparative study of audience experiences and behaviours during a live opera performance and the streamed opera screening, we investigate whether digital mediation affects audience appreciation, and whether streaming live opera means the same thing to an audience as the unmediated performance. We firstly outline the conception, design and performance of a contemporary opera and its simultaneous streaming to nearby digital screens. Then, we report the evaluation of the project as measured by a mix of qualitative and quantitative methods during the rehearsals, the live performance and the screening. As one of the few social studies of contemporary classical music in Britain, our study of opera audience behaviours sheds light on the challenges and opportunities afforded by digital technologies for opera companies. Understanding how audiences appreciate digital operas offers practical advice on how theatres and opera companies could respond to new forms of digital activities.

  12. Partially Overlapping Brain Networks for Singing and Cello Playing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segado, Melanie; Hollinger, Avrum; Thibodeau, Joseph; Penhune, Virginia; Zatorre, Robert J

    2018-01-01

    This research uses an MR-Compatible cello to compare functional brain activation during singing and cello playing within the same individuals to determine the extent to which arbitrary auditory-motor associations, like those required to play the cello, co-opt functional brain networks that evolved for singing. Musical instrument playing and singing both require highly specific associations between sounds and movements. Because these are both used to produce musical sounds, it is often assumed in the literature that their neural underpinnings are highly similar. However, singing is an evolutionarily old human trait, and the auditory-motor associations used for singing are also used for speech and non-speech vocalizations. This sets it apart from the arbitrary auditory-motor associations required to play musical instruments. The pitch range of the cello is similar to that of the human voice, but cello playing is completely independent of the vocal apparatus, and can therefore be used to dissociate the auditory-vocal network from that of the auditory-motor network. While in the MR-Scanner, 11 expert cellists listened to and subsequently produced individual tones either by singing or cello playing. All participants were able to sing and play the target tones in tune (singing in many areas within the auditory-vocal network. These include primary motor, dorsal pre-motor, and supplementary motor cortices (M1, dPMC, SMA),the primary and periprimary auditory cortices within the superior temporal gyrus (STG) including Heschl's gyrus, anterior insula (aINS), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and intraparietal sulcus (IPS), and Cerebellum but, notably, exclude the periaqueductal gray (PAG) and basal ganglia (Putamen). Second, we found that activity within the overlapping areas is positively correlated with, and therefore likely contributing to, both singing and playing in tune determined with performance measures. Third, we found that activity in auditory areas is functionally

  13. Partially Overlapping Brain Networks for Singing and Cello Playing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Segado

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This research uses an MR-Compatible cello to compare functional brain activation during singing and cello playing within the same individuals to determine the extent to which arbitrary auditory-motor associations, like those required to play the cello, co-opt functional brain networks that evolved for singing. Musical instrument playing and singing both require highly specific associations between sounds and movements. Because these are both used to produce musical sounds, it is often assumed in the literature that their neural underpinnings are highly similar. However, singing is an evolutionarily old human trait, and the auditory-motor associations used for singing are also used for speech and non-speech vocalizations. This sets it apart from the arbitrary auditory-motor associations required to play musical instruments. The pitch range of the cello is similar to that of the human voice, but cello playing is completely independent of the vocal apparatus, and can therefore be used to dissociate the auditory-vocal network from that of the auditory-motor network. While in the MR-Scanner, 11 expert cellists listened to and subsequently produced individual tones either by singing or cello playing. All participants were able to sing and play the target tones in tune (<50C deviation from target. We found that brain activity during cello playing directly overlaps with brain activity during singing in many areas within the auditory-vocal network. These include primary motor, dorsal pre-motor, and supplementary motor cortices (M1, dPMC, SMA,the primary and periprimary auditory cortices within the superior temporal gyrus (STG including Heschl's gyrus, anterior insula (aINS, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, and intraparietal sulcus (IPS, and Cerebellum but, notably, exclude the periaqueductal gray (PAG and basal ganglia (Putamen. Second, we found that activity within the overlapping areas is positively correlated with, and therefore likely contributing to

  14. Emulsion sheet doublets as interface trackers for the OPERA experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anokhina, A; Aoki, S; Ariga, A; Arrabito, L; Autiero, D; Brugiere, T; Chaussard, L; Badertscher, A; Bay, F; Greggio, F Bersani; Bertolin, A; Besnier, M; Bick, D; Bozza, C; Brugnera, R; Carrara, E; Brunetti, G; Buontempo, S; Cazes, A; Chernyavsky, M

    2008-01-01

    New methods for efficient and unambiguous interconnection between electronic position sensitive detectors and target units based on nuclear photographic emulsion films have been developed. The application to the OPERA experiment, that aims at detecting ν μ ν τ oscillations in the CNGS neutrino beam, is reported in this paper. In order to reduce background due to latent tracks collected before installation in the detector, on-site large-scale treatments of the emulsions (''refreshing'') have been applied. Changeable Sheet (CSd) packages, each made of a doublet of emulsion films, have been designed, assembled and coupled to the OPERA target units (''ECC bricks''). A device has been built to print X-ray spots for accurate interconnection both within the CSd and between the CSd and the related ECC brick. Sample emulsion films have been extensively scanned with state-of-the-art automated optical microscopes. Efficient track-matching and powerful background rejection have been achieved in tests with electronically tagged penetrating muons. Further improvement of in-doublet film alignment was obtained by matching the pattern of low-energy electron tracks. The commissioning of the overall OPERA alignment procedure is in progress

  15. Some early cases of aphasia and the capacity to sing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Julene K; Graziano, Amy B

    2015-01-01

    This chapter examines early cases of aphasia that include observations of the capacity to sing. Although the majority of these cases were published in the late nineteenth century, earlier reports exist and provide insights into the early thinking about the capacity to sing in aphasia, a topic that continues to the present day. The observation that some patients with aphasia and limited speech output were able to sing the texts of songs inspired scholars to examine the relationship between music and language. Early ideas about the capacity to sing were provided by well-known neurologists, such as John Hughlings Jackson and Adolf Kussmaul. The work of Herbert Spencer about the origins and function of music heavily influenced Jackson and others in their thinking about aphasia. This work also led to an increased interest in understanding music abilities in persons with aphasia and, later, in the brain mechanisms of music. The chapter provides a background as to why there was an interest in the capacity to sing in persons with aphasia and what influenced early thinking on this topic. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of Spinal Manipulative Therapy on the Singing Voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fachinatto, Ana Paula A; Duprat, André de Campos; Silva, Marta Andrada E; Bracher, Eduardo Sawaya Botelho; Benedicto, Camila de Carvalho; Luz, Victor Botta Colangelo; Nogueira, Maruan Nogueira; Fonseca, Beatriz Suster Gomes

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the effect of spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) on the singing voice of male individuals. Randomized, controlled, case-crossover trial. Twenty-nine subjects were selected among male members of the Heralds of the Gospel. This association was chosen because it is a group of persons with similar singing activities. Participants were randomly assigned to two groups: (A) chiropractic SMT procedure and (B) nontherapeutic transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) procedure. Recordings of the singing voice of each participant were taken immediately before and after the procedures. After a 14-day period, procedures were switched between groups: participants who underwent SMT on the first day were subjected to TENS and vice versa. Recordings were subjected to perceptual audio and acoustic evaluations. The same recording segment of each participant was selected. Perceptual audio evaluation was performed by a specialist panel (SP). Recordings of each participant were randomly presented thus making the SP blind to intervention type and recording session (before/after intervention). Recordings compiled in a randomized order were also subjected to acoustic evaluation. No differences in the quality of the singing on perceptual audio evaluation were observed between TENS and SMT. No differences in the quality of the singing voice of asymptomatic male singers were observed on perceptual audio evaluation or acoustic evaluation after a single spinal manipulative intervention of the thoracic and cervical spine. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Studies on the detection characteristics of the OPERA drift tube spectrometer; Studien zu den Nachweiseigenschaften des OPERA-Driftroehrenspektrometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oldorf, Christian

    2009-07-15

    Within the framework of this diploma thesis the density dependent detection characteristics of the OPERA Precision Tracker are studied at a test set up with two drift tube modules. Measurements of gain, hit efficiency, spatial resolution and time-to-distance relation are presented depending on the density, anode voltage and discriminator thresholds. At a constant anode voltage the gain falls with increasing density. Therefore the hit efficiency and the spatial resolution decrease with increasing density above 1,70 kg/m{sup 3}. Within the temperature-fluctuations of 6 K inside the LNGS, an uncertainty of the spatial resolution up to 75 {mu}m is found. Within these temperature-fluctuations the upper limit for the variation of the drift distance at a drift time of 1200 ns is about 220 {mu}m. Both effects are tolerable for the spatial resolution of the OPERA Drift Tubes. (orig.)

  18. Morphometric Differences of Vocal Tract Articulators in Different Loudness Conditions in Singing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Echternach

    Full Text Available Dynamic MRI analysis of phonation has gathered interest in voice and speech physiology. However, there are limited data addressing the extent to which articulation is dependent on loudness.12 professional singer subjects of different voice classifications were analysed concerning the vocal tract profiles recorded with dynamic real-time MRI with 25fps in different pitch and loudness conditions. The subjects were asked to sing ascending scales on the vowel /a/ in three loudness conditions (comfortable=mf, very soft=pp, very loud=ff, respectively. Furthermore, fundamental frequency and sound pressure level were analysed from the simultaneously recorded optical audio signal after noise cancellation.The data show articulatory differences with respect to changes of both pitch and loudness. Here, lip opening and pharynx width were increased. While the vertical larynx position was rising with pitch it was lower for greater loudness. Especially, the lip opening and pharynx width were more strongly correlated with the sound pressure level than with pitch.For the vowel /a/ loudness has an effect on articulation during singing which should be considered when articulatory vocal tract data are interpreted.

  19. Morphometric Differences of Vocal Tract Articulators in Different Loudness Conditions in Singing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echternach, Matthias; Burk, Fabian; Burdumy, Michael; Traser, Louisa; Richter, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic MRI analysis of phonation has gathered interest in voice and speech physiology. However, there are limited data addressing the extent to which articulation is dependent on loudness. 12 professional singer subjects of different voice classifications were analysed concerning the vocal tract profiles recorded with dynamic real-time MRI with 25fps in different pitch and loudness conditions. The subjects were asked to sing ascending scales on the vowel /a/ in three loudness conditions (comfortable=mf, very soft=pp, very loud=ff, respectively). Furthermore, fundamental frequency and sound pressure level were analysed from the simultaneously recorded optical audio signal after noise cancellation. The data show articulatory differences with respect to changes of both pitch and loudness. Here, lip opening and pharynx width were increased. While the vertical larynx position was rising with pitch it was lower for greater loudness. Especially, the lip opening and pharynx width were more strongly correlated with the sound pressure level than with pitch. For the vowel /a/ loudness has an effect on articulation during singing which should be considered when articulatory vocal tract data are interpreted.

  20. The Effect of Singing Education on Some Preschool Education Students' Music Achievements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaškovic, Jelena

    2015-01-01

    Singing education is an important segment of educating students--future preschool teachers at faculties of preschool teacher education. Singing is an elementary mode of children's music expression. The task of future preschool teachers is to gain knowledge and awareness about the importance and influence of singing on children's development.…

  1. Boys' Perceptions of Singing: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warzecha, Megan

    2013-01-01

    Boys seem to progress through phases in which they like to sing in early elementary school, they think that singing is for girls and, thus, unacceptable in late elementary school, and then, gradually, singing again becomes acceptable later in life. Studies speak to the difficulty that choir directors have in recruiting boys. Research shows that…

  2. 76 FR 38203 - Proposed Information Collection; North American Woodcock Singing Ground Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ...] Proposed Information Collection; North American Woodcock Singing Ground Survey AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... populations. The North American Woodcock Singing Ground Survey is an essential part of the migratory bird.... II. Data OMB Control Number: 1018-0019. Title: North American Woodcock Singing Ground Survey. Service...

  3. Tensile properties of cotton yarn as affected by different yarn singeing machine variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tausief, M.Q.; Mahmood, N.; Iqbal, W.

    2014-01-01

    The present study endeavours to optimise the yam quality in respect of its tensile properties by choosing the best combination of the yam singeing machine variables for excellent manufacture results. This research study revealed that different values of winding speed, gas pressure and air pressure of yam singeing machine put significant effect upon the tensile properties of cotton yam after singeing. (author)

  4. Sight-Singing Pedagogy: A Content Analysis of Choral Methods Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Eva G.; Haning, Marshall A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the sight-singing pedagogy content of choral methods textbooks, with the intent of determining what elements of sight-singing pedagogy are most commonly included in these resources. A content analysis was conducted to analyze information related to sight-singing pedagogy in 10 textbooks that are commonly…

  5. Music Therapy Using Singing Training Improves Psychomotor Speed in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease: A Neuropsychological and fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Masayuki; Yuba, Toru; Tabei, Ken-ichi; Okubo, Yukari; Kida, Hirotaka; Sakuma, Hajime; Tomimoto, Hidekazu

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims To investigate the effect of singing training on the cognitive function in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Methods Ten AD patients (mean age 78.1 years) participated in music therapy using singing training once a week for 6 months (music therapy group). Each session was performed with professional musicians using karaoke and a unique voice training method (the YUBA Method). Before and after the intervention period, each patient was assessed by neuropsychological batteries, and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed while the patients sang familiar songs with a karaoke device. As the control group, another 10 AD patients were recruited (mean age 77.0 years), and neuropsychological assessments were performed twice with an interval of 6 months. Results In the music therapy group, the time for completion of the Japanese Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices was significantly reduced (p = 0.026), and the results obtained from interviewing the patients' caregivers revealed a significant decrease in the Neuropsychiatric Inventory score (p = 0.042) and a prolongation of the patients' sleep time (p = 0.039). The fMRI study revealed increased activity in the right angular gyrus and the left lingual gyrus in the before-minus-after subtraction analysis of the music therapy intervention. Conclusion Music therapy intervention using singing training may be useful for dementia patients by improving the neural efficacy of cognitive processing. PMID:26483829

  6. Do singing rock hyraxes exploit conspecific calls to gain attention?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amiyaal Ilany

    Full Text Available Signal detection theory predicts that signals directed at distant or busy receivers in noisy backgrounds will begin with an alert component, in order to draw attention. Instead of an alert component, however, animals could get the same effect by using an external stimulus. Here we combined observations of free-living rock hyraxes (Procavia capensis with playback experiments to elucidate the circumstances under which males begin singing. We show that males sing following hyrax pup screams, which elicit a strong response from hyraxes within hearing distance, which are potential receivers. We hypothesize that singers enhance their singing display by exploiting the rarely emitted pup screams. To our knowledge, our findings are the first indication that animals may enhance signal reception by exploiting conspecifics' signals and the differential attention to these signals. We suggest that the utilization of external stimuli by signalers may be widespread, as an adaptive strategy for communication in complex environments.

  7. Sensorimotor Mismapping in Poor-pitch Singing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hao; Zhang, Wei-Dong

    2017-09-01

    This study proposes that there are two types of sensorimotor mismapping in poor-pitch singing: erroneous mapping and no mapping. We created operational definitions for the two types of mismapping based on the precision of pitch-matching and predicted that in the two types of mismapping, phonation differs in terms of accuracy and the dependence on the articulation consistency between the target and the intended vocal action. The study aimed to test this hypothesis by examining the reliability and criterion-related validity of the operational definitions. A within-subject design was used in this study. Thirty-two participants identified as poor-pitch singers were instructed to vocally imitate pure tones and to imitate their own vocal recordings with the same articulation as self-targets and with different articulation from self-targets. Definitions of the types of mismapping were demonstrated to be reliable with the split-half approach and to have good criterion-related validity with findings that pitch-matching with no mapping was less accurate and more dependent on the articulation consistency between the target and the intended vocal action than pitch-matching with erroneous mapping was. Furthermore, the precision of pitch-matching was positively associated with its accuracy and its dependence on articulation consistency when mismapping was analyzed on a continuum. Additionally, the data indicated that the self-imitation advantage was a function of articulation consistency. Types of sensorimotor mismapping lead to pitch-matching that differs in accuracy and its dependence on the articulation consistency between the target and the intended vocal action. Additionally, articulation consistency produces the self-advantage. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Singing abilities in children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain eCLEMENT

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Specific Language impairment (SLI is a heritable neurodevelopmental disorder diagnosed when a child has difficulties learning to produce and/or understand speech for no apparent reason (Bishop et al., 2012. The verbal difficulties of children with SLI have been largely documented, and a growing number of studies suggest that these children may also have difficulties in processing non-verbal complex auditory stimuli (Brandt et al., 2012; Corriveau et al., 2007. In a recent study, we reported that a large proportion of children with SLI present deficits in music perception (Planchou et al, submitted. Little is known, however, about the singing abilities of children with SLI. In order to investigate whether or not the impairments in expressive language extend to the musical domain, we assessed singing abilities in 8 children with SLI and 15 children with Typical Language Development (TLD matched for age and non-verbal intelligence. To this aim, we designed a ludic activity consisting of two singing tasks: a pitch-matching and a melodic reproduction task. In the pitch-matching task, the children were requested to sing single notes. In the melodic reproduction task, children were asked to sing short melodies that were either familiar (FAM-SONG and FAM-TUNE conditions or unfamiliar (UNFAM-TUNE condition. The analysis showed that children with SLI were impaired in the pitch-matching task, with a mean pitch error of 250 cents (mean pitch error for children with TLD: 154 cents. In the melodic reproduction task, we asked 30 healthy adults to rate the quality of the sung productions of the children on a continuous rating scale. The results revealed that singing of children with SLI received lower mean ratings than the children with TLD. Our findings thus indicate that children with SLI showed impairments in musical production and are discussed in light of a general auditory-motor dysfunction in children with SLI.

  9. THE ARTISTIC IMAGE OF THE OPERA CHARACTER AS AN OBJECT OF COMPOSITION INTERPRETATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BENDEROV VALERI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the methodologic problems of an all-round analysis of the image of an opera character as the object of compositional interpretation. For the first time in musicology there are examined the means of expression of a given character created by the librettist and composer — the authors of the opera. The author presents the main directions of this analysis that give the possibility to present the artistic image of the opera character in the most complex form. The main principles of the paper are illustrated by examples taken from world opera literature.

  10. Reviving Passions: A Brief Examination of Opera, Past and Present in Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Brunson, McKenna

    2017-01-01

    From its first recognized performance in Italy at a royal wedding in 1597, opera gained the reputation of being elite, the highest form of art. Walter B. Rudolph, program director of KBYU-FM radio in Utah and a renowned expert on opera and its history, gave a lecture at Utah State University in which he comically quoted from Armando Iannucci's book, Hear Me Out that opera is a "coming together of music, theatre, design, people, and coughing in the greatest synthesis of art." Opera has long be...

  11. Choral singing in the early years of elementary school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Biljana M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses choral singing as a form of extracurricular activity and teaching in elementary school. It considers the historical development of choral singing in order to highlight the continuity of its existence and importance in society and reviews the importance of choral singing in musical and overall upbringing and education of elementary school students. Authors analyze the curricula of grades I to IV in order to determine how much attention is given to choral singing. Didactic and methodological issues related to the formation of the choir in elementary school are reviewed, together with methodical approach for working with early grades choir, proper selection of the musical compositions and the role of teachers. Listed is the recommended choral literature to supplement the current curricula. Special attention was given to literature containing the Kosovo-Metohija folk songs, suitable for choral arrangement. Performing of these songs in a choral arrangement will contribute to stimulating the interest of students towards musical folklore of Kosovo and Metohija, and therefore its preservation and fostering. It is highlighted that singing in the choir contributes to the development of hearing, voice, harmonic feeling, a sense of rhythm, melody and group play. By mastering different compositions, students become familiar with valuable achievements of artist, spiritual and folk music. The significant meaning and importance of this kind of work is reflected in the possibilities of achieving the tasks of socio-moral education. Choral singing develops a sense of collective responsibility, conscious discipline, perseverance, endurance, helps establish a sense of understanding, mutual respect and tolerance, friendship and a sense of teamwork. Singing in the choir develops aesthetic attitude and taste in music. Students are trained to perceive and to value the true qualities of beauty, grace, harmony and authenticity in music. The value of

  12. Identification and localization of neutrino events in the OPERA detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heritier, C.

    2004-07-01

    The OPERA experiment is designed for the appearance search of ν μ → ν τ oscillations in the parameters indicated by the atmospheric neutrino anomaly. To prove the appearance of ν τ at 732 km from the CERN, an hybrid detector is under construction at the Gran Sasso laboratory. The target, composed by bricks made of lead plates and emulsion sheets, allows the direct observation of the τ lepton produced in ν τ charged current interactions. The tracking, the localization of neutrino events in the target and the muon identification are allowed by trackers located inside the target (scintillators) and in the spectrometer following the target (RPC). The development of algorithms, based on electronic detectors, is necessary to identify the neutrino interaction and to locate the bricks where the interaction occurred. A classification of neutrino events is performed using the identification of the muon produced in ν μ CC and ν τ CC with τ → μ decay. This classification is optimised with tracking informations and also with topological and calorimetric parameters which describe the nature of the interaction (quasi-elastic, deep inelastic); the algorithm of the localization of neutrino event is performed for each category. A tridimensional brick probability map is built and can be exploited to implement sophisticated extraction brick strategies. To conclude, a feasibility study of a test beam experiment OPERETTE is presented. The project was to install a similar OPERA detector in the COMPASS neutrino beam, in the CERN North Area. It was a good opportunity to prepare OPERA for the scanning emulsion films with neutrino events and to test the analysis procedures. (author)

  13. Conceptualizing how group singing may enhance quality of life with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buetow, Stephen A; Talmage, Alison; McCann, Clare; Fogg, Laura; Purdy, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Group singing could be a promising component of neurorehabilitative care. This article aims to conceptualize how group singing may enable people with Parkinson's disease (PD) to synchronize their movement patterns to musical rhythm and enhance quality of life. Spanning the medical and social sciences, the article draws conceptually on literature on PD, group singing and rhythm in music; personal experience; and reasoning. Conceptualizing PD in terms of disruptions to social and biological rhythms, we hypothesize how group singing may produce two socio-psychological states - connectedness and flow - that may entrain rhythm in people with PD. The states connect during group singing to elicit and enhance motor processes but may also reawaken after the group singing, through the recall and reactivation of the musical rhythms encoded during group singing. In people with PD, this continuity of flow is hypothesized to be conducive to rhythmic entrainment during and after group singing and in turn to reduced deficits in motor timing and emotional processing, and improvements in quality of life. Empirical studies are needed to test this hypothesis in people with movement disorders such as PD. Implications for Rehabilitation Musical rhythm in group singing may enhance quality of life, and rehabilitation, in people with PD. Use group singing to produce two socio-psychological states - connectedness and flow - that may yield these health benefits. Include people with PD in singing groups to facilitate perceptual exposure to familiar music with melodic distinctiveness and a regular beat.

  14. Opera house acoustics based on subjective preference theory

    CERN Document Server

    Ando, Yoichi

    2015-01-01

    This book focuses on opera house acoustics based on subjective preference theory; it targets researchers in acoustics and vision who are working in physics, psychology, and brain physiology. This book helps readers to understand any subjective attributes in relation to objective parameters based on the powerful and workable model of the auditory system. It is reconfirmed here that the well-known Helmholtz theory, which was based on a peripheral model of the auditory system, may not well describe pitch, timbre, and duration as well as the spatial sensations described in this book, nor overall responses such as subjective preference of sound fields and the annoyance of environmental noise.

  15. Singing Ability, Musical Self-Concept, and Future Music Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demorest, Steven M.; Kelley, Jamey; Pfordresher, Peter Q.

    2017-01-01

    Research on adults who identify as "tone deaf" suggest that their poor musical self-concept is shaped by a view of themselves as nonsingers even when their perceptual skills and singing ability are not significantly worse than the general population. Many of these adults self-selected out of further participation as children but…

  16. A Transactional Approach to "Sing" by Raposo and Lichtenheld

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardany, Audrey Berger

    2014-01-01

    Tom Lichtenheld shares a new story of the power of music by illustrating Joe Raposo's classic "Sesame Street" song "Sing." In addition to lesson suggestions for general music classes, a discussion of and application to the theory of transactional reading are included.

  17. Creative Futures: Act, Sing, Play. Evaluation Report and Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haywood, Sarah; Griggs, Julia; Lloyd, Cheryl; Morris, Stephen; Kiss, Zsolt; Skipp, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Act, Sing, Play (ASP) offered music and drama tuition to Year 2 pupils. The aim of the programme was to evaluate whether music workshops had a bigger impact than drama workshops in terms of pupils' maths and literacy attainment. The evaluation was based on the hypothesis that participation in high-quality music instruction promotes educational…

  18. Sing, Play, and Create: All in 20 Minutes!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Young teachers often struggle with pacing and the ability to cover more than one or two songs and activities in a single 30-minute general music class. Included in this article are lesson activities that show it is not only possible to include many of the National Standards in a single lesson, but also possible to sing, play, and create in every…

  19. Facial temperature data Sing-a-Song StressTest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    We here introduce a new experimental paradigm to induce mental stress in a quick and easy way while adhering to ethical standards and controlling for potential confounds resulting from sensory input, body movements and behavior of people involved in conducting the experiment. In our Sing-a-Song

  20. Sing a Song Please: Musical Contexts and Language Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howarth, Lisa M.; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

    1987-01-01

    Six language-impaired children, aged 4-7, were studied in two routinized contexts (a lesson without music and a singing session) and child-teacher talk was analyzed. Results showed that the addition of music to a routinized context has the potential to increase the language-impaired child's ability to interact non-verbally. (Author/JDD)

  1. Effects of a Preparatory Singing Pattern on Melodic Dictation Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonviri, Nathan O.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of a preparatory contextual singing pattern on melodic dictation test scores. Forty-nine undergraduate music education majors took melodic dictations under three conditions. After hearing an orienting chord sequence, they (1) sang a preparatory solfége pattern in the key, meter, and tempo of the…

  2. Singing Greeting Card Beeper as a Finger Pulse Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belusic, Gregor; Zupancic, Gregor

    2010-01-01

    We constructed a robust and low-priced finger pulse sensor from a singing greeting card beeper. The beeper outputs the plethysmographic signal, which is indistinguishable from that of commercial grade sensors. The sensor can be used in school for a number of experiments in human cardiovascular physiology.

  3. Respiratory Belt Transducer Constructed Using a Singing Greeting Card Beeper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskar, Anand; Subramani, Selvam; Ojha, Rajdeep

    2013-01-01

    An article by Belusic and Zupancic described the construction of a finger pulse sensor using a singing greeting card beeper. These authors felt that this beeper made of piezoelectric material could be easily modified to function as a respiratory belt transducer to monitor respiratory movements. Commercially available respiratory belt transducers,…

  4. Singing Well-Becoming: Student Musical Therapy Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphey, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Much research supports the everyday therapeutic and deeper social-neurophysiological influence of singing songs alone and in groups (Austin, 2008; Cozolino, 2013; Sacks, 2007). This study looks at what happens when Japanese students teach short English affirmation songlet-routines to others out of the classroom (clandestine folk music therapy). I…

  5. Task-Based Variability in Children's Singing Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Bryan E.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of task demands on children's singing accuracy. A 2 × 4 factorial design was used to examine the performance of fourth-grade children (N = 120) in solo and doubled response conditions. Each child sang four task types: single pitch, interval, pattern, and the song "Jingle Bells." The…

  6. Using singing to nurture children's hearing? A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Graham F; Saunders, Jo; Edwards, Sian; Palmer, Zoe; Himonides, Evangelos; Knight, Julian; Mahon, Merle; Griffin, Susanna; Vickers, Deborah A

    2015-09-01

    This article reports a pilot study of the potential benefits of a sustained programme of singing activities on the musical behaviours and hearing acuity of young children with hearing impairment (HI). Twenty-nine children (n=12 HI and n=17 NH) aged between 5 and 7 years from an inner-city primary school in London participated, following appropriate ethical approval. The predominantly classroom-based programme was designed by colleagues from the UCL Institute of Education and UCL Ear Institute in collaboration with a multi-arts charity Creative Futures and delivered by an experienced early years music specialist weekly across two school terms. There was a particular emphasis on building a repertoire of simple songs with actions and allied vocal exploration. Musical learning was also supported by activities that drew on visual imagery for sound and that included simple notation and physical gesture. An overall impact assessment of the pilot programme embraced pre- and post-intervention measures of pitch discrimination, speech perception in noise and singing competency. Subsequent statistical data analyses suggest that the programme had a positive impact on participant children's singing range, particularly (but not only) for HI children with hearing aids, and also in their singing skills. HI children's pitch perception also improved measurably over time. Findings imply that all children, including those with HI, can benefit from regular and sustained access to age-appropriate musical activities.

  7. Singing in groups for Parkinson's disease (SING-PD): a pilot study of group singing therapy for PD-related voice/speech disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Ludy C; Piel, Jordan; Warren, Amanda; Kraics, Lauren; Silver, Althea; Vanderhorst, Veronique; Simon, David K; Tarsy, Daniel

    2012-06-01

    Parkinson's disease related speech and voice impairment have significant impact on quality of life measures. LSVT(®)LOUD voice and speech therapy (Lee Silverman Voice Therapy) has demonstrated scientific efficacy and clinical effectiveness, but musically based voice and speech therapy has been underexplored as a potentially useful method of rehabilitation. We undertook a pilot, open-label study of a group-based singing intervention, consisting of twelve 90-min weekly sessions led by a voice and speech therapist/singing instructor. The primary outcome measure of vocal loudness as measured by sound pressure level (SPL) at 50 cm during connected speech was not significantly different one week after the intervention or at 13 weeks after the intervention. A number of secondary measures reflecting pitch range, phonation time and maximum loudness also were unchanged. Voice related quality of life (VRQOL) and voice handicap index (VHI) also were unchanged. This study suggests that a group singing therapy intervention at this intensity and frequency does not result in significant improvement in objective and subject-rated measures of voice and speech impairment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Identification and localization of neutrino events in the OPERA detector; Identification et localisation des evenements neutrino dans le detecteur OPERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heritier, C

    2004-07-15

    The OPERA experiment is designed for the appearance search of {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub {tau}} oscillations in the parameters indicated by the atmospheric neutrino anomaly. To prove the appearance of {nu}{sub {tau}} at 732 km from the CERN, an hybrid detector is under construction at the Gran Sasso laboratory. The target, composed by bricks made of lead plates and emulsion sheets, allows the direct observation of the {tau} lepton produced in {nu}{sub {tau}} charged current interactions. The tracking, the localization of neutrino events in the target and the muon identification are allowed by trackers located inside the target (scintillators) and in the spectrometer following the target (RPC). The development of algorithms, based on electronic detectors, is necessary to identify the neutrino interaction and to locate the bricks where the interaction occurred. A classification of neutrino events is performed using the identification of the muon produced in {nu}{sub {mu}} CC and {nu}{sub {tau}} CC with {tau} {yields} {mu} decay. This classification is optimised with tracking informations and also with topological and calorimetric parameters which describe the nature of the interaction (quasi-elastic, deep inelastic); the algorithm of the localization of neutrino event is performed for each category. A tridimensional brick probability map is built and can be exploited to implement sophisticated extraction brick strategies. To conclude, a feasibility study of a test beam experiment OPERETTE is presented. The project was to install a similar OPERA detector in the COMPASS neutrino beam, in the CERN North Area. It was a good opportunity to prepare OPERA for the scanning emulsion films with neutrino events and to test the analysis procedures. (author)

  9. Electronics design of the RPC system for the OPERA muon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acquafredda, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Consiglio, L.

    2004-01-01

    The present document describes the front-end electronics of the RPC system that instruments the magnet muon spectrometer of the OPERA experiment. The main task of the OPERA spectrometer is to provide particle tracking information for muon identification and simplify the matching between the Precision Trackers. As no trigger has been foreseen for the experiment, the spectrometer electronics must be self-triggered with single-plane readout capability. Moreover, precision time information must be added within each event frame for off-line reconstruction. The read-out electronics is made of three different stages: the Front-End Boards (FEBs) system, the Controller Boards (CBs) system and Trigger Boards (TBs) system. The FEB system provides discrimination of the strip incoming signals; a FAST-OR output of the input signals is also available for trigger plane signal generation. FEB signals are required by the CB system that provides the zero suppression and manages the communication to the DAQ and Slow Control. A Trigger Board allows to operate in both self-trigger mode (the FEB's FAST-OR signal starts the plane acquisition) or in external-trigger mode (different conditions can be set on the FAST-OR signals generated from different planes)

  10. Nuclear emulsion scanning in opera: methods and results

    CERN Document Server

    Bozza, C.

    2008-01-01

    The design of the OPERA experiment was also motivated and justified by the revival of nuclear emulsion handling and scanning in a modem, automatic fashion, as it took previously place, although at a smaller scale, for the CHORUS experiment. Nuclear emulsions are still the only detector to allow a very detailed topological study of an interaction/decay vertex at the sub-micrometer level. They are most suitable in experiments where topology is a non-ambiguous signature of a certain class of events. This is for instance the case of neutrino oscillation detection and measurement by the study of a tau-appearance signal. The design and performance of the two different scanning systems used in OPERA (ESS and S-UTS) are discussed. Their unique features in terms of speed, precision, background suppression, particle identification, and kinematical reconstruction are shown in close connection with the technical details that make them possible. Unequalled precision, almost vanishing background, and a wealth of informati...

  11. Popular soap opera helps raise contraceptive use. Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The latest Demographic and Health Surveys Report on Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practice documents an increase in the level of use of modern contraceptive methods in Tanzania between 1991 and 1994 from 5.9% to 11.3% of reproductive-age women. 53.2% of all women of reproductive age were exposed to mass media messages about family planning, which large majorities of men and women consider acceptable. 48.3% were exposed through radio, 22.9% reported listening to the US Agency for International Development-funded family planning promotional radio soap opera "Zinduka]", 22.5% read newspaper items, 17.5% saw posters, and 7.3% saw leaflets. 4.5% were visited by a family planning worker, 24.7% discussed family planning with a friend or relative, and 24.7% discussed family planning with health facility personnel. Zinduka], a popular 52-episode soap opera, depicts how the lives of Bomu wa Kabuma's family, in Msongano Town and Tawanya village in Tanzania, are affected because he is unable to provide for his eight children, parents, wife, mistress, and the mistress's child. The soap was produced with technical assistance from the Johns Hopkins University Center for Communication Programs Population Communication Services project. The 15-minute episodes were first broadcast in Swahili on Radio Tanzania from October 1993 through October 1994. The series was then resumed in September 1995 for another 12 months.

  12. On the Testing of Renovations Inside Historical Opera Houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fausti, P.; Prodi, N.

    2002-11-01

    Due to the large number of historical opera houses in Italy, many theatres have been renovated in the past, but still more will undergo major restoration in the near future. Unfortunately in this context, the quality and protection of acoustics is rarely considered as an issue of its own. As a consequence, the renovations are hardly ever accompanied by proper scientific and technical support. In this paper, the acoustical impact of works inside the Teatro Municipale "R.Valli" in Reggio Emilia, including the restoration of the main hall and the construction of a new acoustic shell, will be dealt with. Surveys were held in the theatre before renovation and were repeated with identical procedure and instruments after its completion. By means of a comparative analysis of the architectural project and of acoustical data, the impact of major changes in the theatre can be predicted. It is shown that this approach can help in drafting an operational scheme for safeguarding the acoustics of historical opera houses.

  13. Sing Your Lungs Out: a qualitative study of a community singing group for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNaughton, Amanda; Aldington, Sarah; Williams, Gayle; Levack, William M M

    2016-09-20

    To explore the ways in which participation in a community singing group contributed to the health and well-being of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Qualitative description, based on transcripts from individual interviews and a focus group meeting with people with COPD participating in the singing group, regarding their experience. Urban community, Wellington, New Zealand. 23 people (13 women and 10 men), 51-91 years with COPD (21) or interstitial lung disease (2). The weekly singing group was a well-attended activity, with self-reported benefits to health and well-being. 4 key themes were identified: being in the 'right space', connection, purpose and growth, and participation in a meaningful physical activity. This study helps us to better understand how participation in a community singing group can benefit the health and well-being of patients with COPD. ACTRN12615000736549; Results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  14. Aiming for the Singing Teacher: An Applied Study on Preservice Kindergarten Teachers' Singing Skills Development within a Music Methods Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neokleous, Rania

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a music methods course offered at a Cypriot university on the singing skills of 33 female preservice kindergarten teachers. To systematically measure and analyze student progress, the research design was both experimental and descriptive. As an applied study which was carried out "in situ," the normal…

  15. Can't Sing? Won't Sing? Aotearoa/New Zealand "Tone-Deaf" Early Childhood Teachers' Musical Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Nicola; Bodkin-Allen, Sally

    2014-01-01

    Singing is an important part of teaching for early childhood teachers. However, some teachers find this difficult and may even identify themselves as "tone-deaf". We invited a group of early childhood teachers who self-identified as "tone-deaf" to participate in a study to investigate their beliefs and behaviours about singing…

  16. Dialogue and cooperation in musical partnerships : evaluation report The Operaflat, a project by Yo! Opera Festival

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bressers, Hilde

    Yo! Opera asked the Lectorate Lifelong Learning in Music to evaluate the project The Operaflat, which was part of the fourth edition of the Yo! Opera Festival in Utrecht, in 2007. During the project primary school pupils of the public primary school ‘Openbare Basisschool Overvecht’, residents of the

  17. Nargen Opera lummas Kõrvitsa muusikaga / Ruth Alaküla, Andres Laasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alaküla, Ruth, 1957-

    2006-01-01

    Von Krahli Teatris Peeter Jalaka lavastuses esietendunud Tõnu Kõrvitsa uued kammerooperid "Tuleaed" ja "Mu luiged, mu mõtted", mille aluseks on luuletaja Marie Heibergi saatus. Libretode autor on Maarja Kangro. Kammerooperid tulevad lavale Von Krahli Teatri ja Nargen Opera koostöös. Esitavad Kädy Plaas, Helen Lokuta, Nargen Opera koor ja Tallinna Kammerorkester, dirigent Tõnu Kaljuste

  18. Integrated Conservation of the Cantonese Opera Art Museum and Intangible Cultural Heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Guo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cantonese Opera, as the sole cultural heritage of Guangdong Province of China so far, which was included in the World Intangible Cultural Heritage List by the UNESCO, bears the cultural memory of the Lingnan region and as well as the overseas Chinese worldwide. Located in the core historic urban area – Enning Road of Guangzhou, the Cantonese Opera Art Museum is designed in Lingnan traditional garden manner, through going deep into the Cantonese opera culture, Lingnan traditional garden culture and Lingnan cultural spirit. The design highlights the integrated conservation of tangible and intangible cultural heritage, to protect living history and build the historical environment and place spirit for the intangible cultural heritage. The Cantonese Opera Art Museum is not only a tangible space for exhibition, study, education and display of the Cantonese Opera art, but also a cultural space with the Lingnan cultural memory, gathering the Lingnan intangible heritage and closely linked with current life of successors and ordinary people.

  19. The Bracale Opera Company in Colombia (1922-1933: a music culture agent for the country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Cárdenas Velásquez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The opera company of Adolfo Bracale visited Colombia several times between 1922 and 1933. This opera company made contributions to the musical environment of that period. It brought opera singers, orchestral members and conductors internationally recognized at the time, and incorporated repertoire not heard before in Colombia. The musical environment of the country was also enriched by the mobilization of a series of cultural, social and commercial factors that had to do with these opera seasons. The last performance of the Bracale opera company took place in Medellín in 1933, some months before it went bankrupt. Because of this, some of its musicians, including Bracale, decided to stay in the country, and thus they contributed to the formation of musicians and orchestras that made part of the musical culture of the moment and of generations to come.

  20. Il dialogo nell’opera del primo Maeterlinck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliana Altamura

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Il saggio, dopo essersi soffermato sulla poetica del silenzio del drammaturgo belga, si propone di approfondire l’analisi del dialogo nell’opera del primo Maeterlinck. Al rifiuto della mimesi classica corrisponde un discorso che ricalca le dinamiche dell’inconscio per arricchirsi di un ulteriore livello di lettura che trascende la comunicazione superficiale necessitata dalla situazione, assumendo un significato universale. Si rileva come la parola recuperi una dimensione prima e si avvalga del non-detto per esprimere ciò che l’insufficienza del linguaggio non può carpire. Ne deriva un dialogo spersonalizzato e monologico, pregno di ripetizioni ed echi, logicamente sconnesso e frammentario, punteggiato da esclamazioni e sospensioni che ne evidenziano l’inquietudine e la di dinamismo.

  1. [Partiturogram: (new) tool in the evaluation of an opera roles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epron, J P; Coulombeau, B; Fussi, F

    2010-01-01

    The partiturogram is a tool that was defined in the 1990s by Franco Fussi. It aims to display all the music notes of an opera role as a histogram. Several parameters are then calculated in order to define the vocal profile of the role, as well as help the singer choose from various options. We have decided to use this tool to study Norma and Sonnambula, two roles which were specifically written for the same singer described as a dramatic soprano. Over time, both roles have been allocated to radically different voices. The partiturogram confirms the similarity of the vocal types of both roles, but gives no explanation as to the differences in the casting decisions. We have therefore established its limits, and we have submitted a study including new parameters in order to refine the characterization of roles.

  2. Case Study ;Women of Ilam and Faseleha Soap Opera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Mohammadi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This research is an attempt to study the interpretations and decodings of a soap opera called Faseleha by women of Elam. The theoretical approach of this research is that which has been developed in cultural studies to study television audiences. The main question is this: which ideas and values are dominant and taken for granted in Faseleha, and how do audiences (here, women of Elam interpret and decode the preferred reading of the text and which discourses are available for them and inform them in this process. In the first section, we have used semiology to to illuminate the preferred reading of the text and, in the second section, we have studied women readings by way of focused group interview. The findings showed that the audiences read Faseleha very differently and actively, they are not passive consumers.

  3. Nursing problem-based learning activity: song writing and singing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Zenobia C Y

    2014-08-01

    The function of song is not only to deliver individual's messages, but also to serve as a learning approach to facilitate students' learning. To observe the effectiveness of songs in facilitating students' learning, a Problem-based Learning (PBL) class with twenty students was divided into four groups with five students per group. Each group was asked to write a song based on two given scenarios, to sing the song out loud, and to participate in a follow-up focus group interview afterwards. The four songs reflected the students' understanding of academic knowledge and their perspectives toward the protagonists in the presented scenarios. Two songs are presented in this paper to demonstrate how the approach was carried out in the nursing PBL class. This paper aims to show the implication of song writing and singing in PBL and shed some light on teaching and learning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Living, Breathing Songs: Singing Along with Bob Dylan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Negus

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Taking issue with approaches to Bob Dylan’s art that are preoccupied with his lyrics, this article suggests a route into thinking about his music by focusing on how Dylan’s vocal melodies work at the intersection of speech and singing. Drawing on Gino Stefani’s work on popular melodies, this article explores this issue through a discussion of how people sing along with Dylan’s songs at concerts. The discussion focuses on the song “It Ain’t Me Babe,” and examines more general points about the ways in which Dylan’s melodies connect with the everyday lives of his listeners.

  5. Characterization of different options of trackers in OPERA detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moret, Guillaume

    2002-01-01

    Neutrinos were postulated by Pauli during the thirties. These spin-half and massless particles helped to solve the β decay problems. Their study started in the fifties and work is still going on nowadays. This study was lengthy due the difficulty to detect neutrinos and also to a 'strange' phenomenon: we always detect less neutrinos than expected for solar and atmospheric neutrinos. This phenomenon can be explained by oscillation between massive neutrino states. The OPERA project is intended to directly proved this oscillation. To this aim, a ν μ beam is produced at CERN and pointed to Gran-Sasso (Italy), 732 km away. The detector is optimised to reveal the tau neutrino coming from ν μ → ν τ oscillation. This detector of 30 meters length with 2,000 tonnes of target will be built with more than 200,000 bricks of lead and emulsion. Taus are observed after scanning of the emulsions. The bricks must be localized into the wall and this localization is possible with a tracker located downstream of each target wall. The present work was devoted to the determination of the best tracker for OPERA. Three options were studied and a tracker made of plastic scintillator slabs has been chosen. It allows obtaining an efficiency of the localization of the vertex wall of around 80% and an efficiency of the localization of the brick inside the wall of around 80%. As photo detector we have studies HPD with a self-triggerable readout. HPDs have displayed an excellent resolution, a cross talk lower than 2% and a uniformity higher then 98%. A DAQ based on Ethernet was proposed and accepted by the collaboration. In this option, each photon detector is node of the network and can be accessed in a web browser. A prototype with plastic oscillator, a HPD with an self triggerable readout and a DAQ based on Ethernet were built and validated during beam tests. (author)

  6. Alignment of the drift tube detector at the neutrino oscillation experiment OPERA; Alignment des Driftroehrendetektors am Neutrino-Oszillationsexperiment OPERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goellnitz, Christoph

    2012-09-15

    The present thesis was composed during the course of the OPERA experiment, which aims to give a direct evidence for neutrino oscillations in the channel {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub {tau}}. The OPERA detector is designed to observe the appearance of tau neutrinos in an originally pure muon neutrino beam, the CNGS beam. As important part of the detector the precision tracker (PT), a drift tube detector, consists of 9504 drift tubes in 198 modules. In this thesis, several parts of the slow control of the PT are developed and implemented to ensure operation during data taking over several years. The main part is the geometric calibration, the alignment of the detector. The alignment procedure contains both hardware and software parts, the software methods are developed and applied. Using straight particle tracks, the detector components are geometrically corrected. A special challenge for the alignment for the PT is the fact that at this kind of low-rate experiment only a small number of particle tracks is available. With software-based corrections of the module rotation, a systematic error of 0.2 mrad has been attained, for corrections of translation, a systematic error of 32 {mu}m is reached. For the alignment between two adjacent PT walls, the statistical error is less than 8 {mu}m. All results of the position monitoring system are considered. All developed methods are tested with Monte Carlo simulations. The detector requirements ({Delta}p/p {<=} 0.25 below 25 GeV) are met. The analysis of the momentum measurement for high energies above 25 GeV demonstrates the resulting improvement. The mean momentum is falling significantly using the new alignment values. The significance of the detector alignment becomes most evident in the analysis of cosmic particles. The muon charge ratio R{sub {mu}} is expected not to be angular dependent. The {chi}{sup 2} probability of the measured distribution improves up to 58%. The muon charge ratio was also investigated in

  7. Approaches to the mechanisms of song memorization and singing provide evidence for a procedural memory

    OpenAIRE

    Hultsch,Henrike; Todt,Dietmar

    2004-01-01

    There is growing evidence that, during song learning, birds do not only acquire 'what to sing' (the inventory of behavior), but also 'how to sing' (the singing program), including order-features of song sequencing. Common Nightingales Luscinia megarhynchos acquire such serial information by segmenting long strings of heard songs into smaller subsets or packages, by a process reminiscent of the chunking of information as a coding mechanism in short term memory. Here we report three tutoring ex...

  8. Moving to the Beat and Singing are Linked in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Bella, Simone; Berkowska, Magdalena; Sowiński, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    The abilities to sing and to move to the beat of a rhythmic auditory stimulus emerge early during development, and both engage perceptual, motor, and sensorimotor processes. These similarities between singing and synchronization to a beat may be rooted in biology. Patel (2008) has suggested that motor synchronization to auditory rhythms may have emerged during evolution as a byproduct of selection for vocal learning (“vocal learning and synchronization hypothesis”). This view predicts a strong link between vocal performance and synchronization skills in humans. Here, we tested this prediction by asking occasional singers to tap along with auditory pulse trains and to imitate familiar melodies. Both vocal imitation and synchronization skills were measured in terms of accuracy and precision or consistency. Accurate and precise singers tapped more in the vicinity of the pacing stimuli (i.e., they were more accurate) than less accurate and less precise singers. Moreover, accurate singers were more consistent when tapping to the beat. These differences cannot be ascribed to basic motor skills or to motivational factors. Individual differences in terms of singing proficiency and synchronization skills may reflect the variability of a shared sensorimotor translation mechanism. PMID:26733370

  9. Weight-bearing MR imaging as an option in the study of gravitational effects on the vocal tract of untrained subjects in singing phonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traser, Louisa; Burdumy, Michael; Richter, Bernhard; Vicari, Marco; Echternach, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of subjects in a supine position can be used to evaluate the configuration of the vocal tract during phonation. However, studies of speech phonation have shown that gravity can affect vocal tract shape and bias measurements. This is one of the reasons that MRI studies of singing phonation have used professionally trained singers as subjects, because they are generally considered to be less affected by the supine body position and environmental distractions. A study of untrained singers might not only contribute to the understanding of intuitive singing function and aid the evaluation of potential hazards for vocal health, but also provide insights into the effect of the supine position on singers in general. In the present study, an open configuration 0.25 T MRI system with a rotatable examination bed was used to study the effect of body position in 20 vocally untrained subjects. The subjects were asked to sing sustained tones in both supine and upright body positions on different pitches and in different register conditions. Morphometric measurements were taken from the acquired images of a sagittal slice depicting the vocal tract. The analysis concerning the vocal tract configuration in the two body positions revealed differences in 5 out of 10 measured articulatory parameters. In the upright position the jaw was less protruded, the uvula was elongated, the larynx more tilted and the tongue was positioned more to the front of the mouth than in the supine position. The findings presented are in agreement with several studies on gravitational effects in speech phonation, but contrast with the results of a previous study on professional singers of our group where only minor differences between upright and supine body posture were observed. The present study demonstrates that imaging of the vocal tract using weight-bearing MR imaging is a feasible tool for the study of sustained phonation in singing for vocally untrained subjects.

  10. Singing for Lung Health: a qualitative assessment of a British Lung Foundation programme for group leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Adam; Cave, Phoene; Hopkinson, Nicholas S

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Singing for Lung Health (SLH) groups are an increasingly popular intervention for people with respiratory disease. There are limited data as to how these groups should be developed and run. We aimed to evaluate the experience of singing leaders both to assess the training provided by the British Lung Foundation (BLF) and to provide information to guide future development of programmes. Methods A convenience sample of 15 leaders who had received BLF SLH training participated in the BLF service evaluation. Fifteen singing groups were observed, and singing leader interviews and questionnaires were collected. Inductive themes from the qualitative data were the primary outcome. The content of observed singing groups was also rated against the training leaders had received. Results Singing leaders valued the BLF training but felt that a significant level of expertise is required before joining. Singing leaders often found setting up groups challenging and some found clinician support beneficial. There were important technical aspects of running a lung health group including issues around content, for example, choice of repertoire to suit breathing pattern, and delivery, for example, pace, rhythm and management of group dynamics. Leaders said that group participants reported physical health improvements such as reduced breathlessness on activity. The content and delivery of singing classes observed displayed a good level of fidelity, suggesting that SLH training is effective. Conclusion The experience of the leaders highlights the requirements, support and technical skills needed to run SLH groups, which have features distinct from generic community singing groups. PMID:29071079

  11. Korean opera-film Chunhyang and the trans-cultural politics of the voice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe Jeongwon

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay examines a Korean opera-film Chunhyang (2000 to show how it departs from the standard practice of Western opera-film and how its uniqueness is generated by the characteristics of indigenous Korean opera P'ansori. In spite of its uniqueness, however, Chunhyang shows its affinities with its Western sisters by confirming what has been criticized by many feminist scholars as one of the most serious problems in the Western tradition of cinema, especially Hollywood's classical films: namely, the gendered politics of the voice.

  12. Impact of cercal air currents on singing motor pattern generation in the cricket (Gryllus bimaculatus DeGeer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The cercal system of crickets detects low-frequency air currents produced by approaching predators and self-generated air currents during singing, which may provide sensory feedback to the singing motor network. We analyzed the effect of cercal stimulation on singing motor pattern generation to reveal the response of a singing interneuron to predator-like signals and to elucidate the possible role of self-generated air currents during singing. In fictive singing males, we recorded an interneuron of the singing network while applying air currents to the cerci; additionally, we analyzed the effect of abolishing the cercal system in freely singing males. In fictively singing crickets, the effect of short air stimuli is either to terminate prematurely or to lengthen the interchirp interval, depending on their phase in the chirp cycle. Within our stimulation paradigm, air stimuli of different velocities and durations always elicited an inhibitory postsynaptic potential in the singing interneuron. Current injection in the singing interneuron elicited singing motor activity, even during the air current-evoked inhibitory input from the cercal pathway. The disruptive effects of air stimuli on the fictive singing pattern and the inhibitory response of the singing interneuron point toward the cercal system being involved in initiating avoidance responses in singing crickets, according to the established role of cerci in a predator escape pathway. After abolishing the activity of the cercal system, the timing of natural singing activity was not significantly altered. Our study provides no evidence that self-generated cercal sensory activity has a feedback function for singing motor pattern generation. PMID:26334014

  13. A singing choir: Understanding the dynamics of hope, hopelessness, and despair in palliative care patients. A longitudinal qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsman, Erik; Leget, Carlo; Duggleby, Wendy; Willems, Dick

    2015-12-01

    Hope, despair, and hopelessness are dynamic in nature; however, they have not been explored over time. The objective of the present study was to describe hope, hopelessness, and despair over time, as experienced by palliative care patients. We employed a qualitative longitudinal method based on narrative theories. Semistructured interviews with palliative care patients were prospectively conducted, recorded, and transcribed. Data on hope, hopelessness and despair were thematically analyzed, which led to similarities and differences between these concepts. The concepts were then analyzed over time in each case. During all stages, the researchers took a reflexive stance, wrote memos, and did member checking with participants. A total of 29 palliative care patients (mean age, 65.9 years; standard deviation, 14.7; 14 females) were included, 11 of whom suffered from incurable cancer, 10 from severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and 8 from severe heart failure. They were interviewed a maximum of three times. Participants associated hope with gains in the past or future, such as physical improvement or spending time with significant others. They associated hopelessness with past losses, like loss of health, income, or significant others, and despair with future losses, which included the possibility of losing the future itself. Over time, the nature of their hope, hopelessness, and despair changed when their condition changed. These dynamics could be understood as voices in a singing choir that can sing together, alternate with each other, or sing their own melody. Our findings offer insight into hope, hopelessness, and despair over time, and the metaphor of a choir helps to understand the coexistence of these concepts. The findings also help healthcare professionals to address hope, hopelessness, and despair during encounters with patients, which is particularly important when the patients' physical condition has changed.

  14. Uncovering phenotypes of poor-pitch singing: the Sung Performance Battery (SPB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowska, Magdalena; Dalla Bella, Simone

    2013-01-01

    Singing is as natural as speaking for humans. Increasing evidence shows that the layman can carry a tune (e.g., when asked to sing a well-known song or to imitate single pitches, intervals and short melodies). Yet, important individual differences exist in the general population with regard to singing proficiency. Some individuals are particularly inaccurate or imprecise in producing or imitating pitch information (poor-pitch singers), thus showing a variety of singing phenotypes. Unfortunately, so far there is not a standard set of tasks for assessing singing proficiency in the general population, allowing to uncover and characterize individual profiles of poor-pitch singing. Different tasks and analysis methods are typically used in various experiments, making the comparison of the results across studies arduous. To fill this gap we propose here a new tool for assessing singing proficiency (the Sung Performance Battery, SPB). The SPB starts from the assessment of participants' vocal range followed by five tasks: (1) single-pitch matching, (2) pitch-interval matching, (3) novel-melody matching, (4) singing from memory of familiar melodies (with lyrics and on a syllable), and (5) singing of familiar melodies (with lyrics and on a syllable) at a slow tempo indicated by a metronome. Data analysis via acoustical methods provides objective measures of pitch accuracy and precision in terms of absolute and relative pitch. The SPB has been tested in a group of 50 occasional singers. The results indicate that the battery is useful for characterizing proficient singing and for detecting cases of inaccurate and/or imprecise singing. PMID:24151475

  15. Changes in singing performance and fMRI activation following right temporal lobe surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Sarah J; Abbott, David F; Tailby, Chris; Gentle, Ellen C; Merrett, Dawn L; Jackson, Graeme D

    2013-10-01

    This study arose in the context of having to estimate risk to the musical abilities of a trained singer (patient A.M.) recommended for right anterior temporal lobectomy (RATL) to ameliorate medically intractable seizures. To date there has been no systematic investigation of reorganisation of musical functions in the presence of epileptogenic lesions, although it is well established that RATL can impair pitch processing in nonmusicians. Using fMRI, we compared the network activated by covert singing with lyrics in A.M. before and after surgery, while taking language activation and singing expertise into consideration. Before surgery, A.M. showed lower pitch accuracy of singing relative to individuals of similar experience (experts), thus we compared her to 12 healthy controls matched for singing pitch accuracy. We found atypical organisation of A.M.'s singing network before surgery in the presence of a malformation of cortical development, including partial activation of the singing network of pitch-matched controls, and diffuse activation along the midline spreading laterally into association cortex, typical of generalised cortical hyperexcitability in intractable epilepsy. After tailored RATL, A.M. showed striking behavioural and neuroimaging changes, including significant improvement in pitch accuracy of singing relative to controls (p = .026) and the subjective experience of being a more technically proficient singer. This was accompanied by a significant reduction in cortical activation (p singing activation emerging, including decreased involvement of frontal language regions. These changes were largely specific to singing, with A.M. showing language activation and performance similar to controls. This case provides evidence for selective disruption of the singing network that reorganised after successful resection of an epileptogenic lesion and likely occurred through decoupling of the singing and language networks. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by

  16. Uncovering phenotypes of poor-pitch singing: The Sung Performance Battery (SPB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena eBerkowska

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Singing is as natural as speaking for humans. Increasing evidence shows that the layman can carry a tune (e.g., when asked to sing a well-known song or to imitate single pitches, intervals and short melodies. Yet, important individual differences exist in the general population with regard to singing proficiency. Some individuals are particularly inaccurate or imprecise in producing or imitating pitch information (poor-pitch singers, thus showing a variety of singing phenotypes. Unfortunately, so far there is not a standard set of tasks for assessing singing proficiency in the general population, allowing to uncover and characterize individual profiles of poor-pitch singing. Different tasks and analysis methods are typically used in various experiments, making the comparison of the results across studies arduous. To fill this gap we propose here a new tool for assessing singing proficiency (the Sung Performance Battery, SPB. The SPB starts from the assessment of participants’ vocal range followed by five tasks: 1 single-pitch matching, 2 pitch-interval matching, 3 novel-melody matching, 4 singing from memory of familiar melodies (with lyrics and on a syllable, and 5 singing of familiar melodies (with lyrics and on a syllable at a slow tempo indicated by a metronome. Data analysis via acoustical methods provides objective measures of pitch accuracy and precision in terms of absolute and relative pitch. The SPB has been tested in a group of 50 occasional singers. The results indicate that the battery is useful for characterizing proficient singing and for detecting cases of inaccurate and/or imprecise singing.

  17. Sing Your Lungs Out—a community singing group for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a 1-year pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNaughton, Amanda; Weatherall, Mark; Williams, Mathew; McNaughton, Harry; Aldington, Sarah; Williams, Gayle; Beasley, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Objective Singing group participation may benefit patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Previous studies are limited by small numbers of participants and short duration of generally hospital-based singing group intervention. This study examines the feasibility of long-term participation in a community singing group for patients with COPD who had completed pulmonary rehabilitation (PR). Methods This was a feasibility cohort study. Patients with COPD who had completed PR and were enrolled in a weekly community exercise group were recruited to a new community-based singing group which met weekly for over 1 year. Measurements at baseline, 4 months and 1 year comprised comprehensive pulmonary function tests including lung volumes, 6 min walk test (6MWT), Clinical COPD Questionnaire (CCQ), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and hospital admission days for acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD) for 1 year before and after the first singing group session. Findings There were 28 participants with chronic lung disease recruited from 140 people approached. Five withdrew in the first month. 21 participants meeting Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease criteria for COPD completed 4-month and 18 completed 1-year assessments. The mean attendance was 85%. For the prespecified primary outcome measure, total HADS score, difference between baseline and 12 months was −0.9, 95% CI −3.0 to 1.2, p=0.37. Of the secondary measures, a significant reduction was observed for HADS anxiety score after 1 year of −0.9 (95% CI −1.8 to −0.1) points, p=0.038 and an increase in the 6MWT at 1 year, of 65 (95% CI 35 to 99) m compared with baseline psinging group for adults with COPD who have completed PR and are enrolled in a weekly community exercise group and provide evidence of improved exercise capacity and a reduction in anxiety. Trial registration number ACTRN12615000736549; Results. PMID:28119393

  18. Sing Your Lungs Out-a community singing group for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a 1-year pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNaughton, Amanda; Weatherall, Mark; Williams, Mathew; McNaughton, Harry; Aldington, Sarah; Williams, Gayle; Beasley, Richard

    2017-01-24

    Singing group participation may benefit patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Previous studies are limited by small numbers of participants and short duration of generally hospital-based singing group intervention. This study examines the feasibility of long-term participation in a community singing group for patients with COPD who had completed pulmonary rehabilitation (PR). This was a feasibility cohort study. Patients with COPD who had completed PR and were enrolled in a weekly community exercise group were recruited to a new community-based singing group which met weekly for over 1 year. Measurements at baseline, 4 months and 1 year comprised comprehensive pulmonary function tests including lung volumes, 6 min walk test (6MWT), Clinical COPD Questionnaire (CCQ), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and hospital admission days for acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD) for 1 year before and after the first singing group session. There were 28 participants with chronic lung disease recruited from 140 people approached. Five withdrew in the first month. 21 participants meeting Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease criteria for COPD completed 4-month and 18 completed 1-year assessments. The mean attendance was 85%. For the prespecified primary outcome measure, total HADS score, difference between baseline and 12 months was -0.9, 95% CI -3.0 to 1.2, p=0.37. Of the secondary measures, a significant reduction was observed for HADS anxiety score after 1 year of -0.9 (95% CI -1.8 to -0.1) points, p=0.038 and an increase in the 6MWT at 1 year, of 65 (95% CI 35 to 99) m compared with baseline psinging group for adults with COPD who have completed PR and are enrolled in a weekly community exercise group and provide evidence of improved exercise capacity and a reduction in anxiety. ACTRN12615000736549; Results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a

  19. Interpretive Viewers and Structured Programs: The Implicit Representation of Soap Opera Characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, Sonia M.

    1989-01-01

    Investigates regular viewers' representations of soap opera characters to discover the nature of these representations, the extent to which they reflect the application of social knowledge, and the extent to which they reflect the structure of the program. (MS)

  20. First neutrino events seen by the core of the OPERA experiment (CNGS) on 2 October 2007

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The reconstruction of the core of a neutrino interaction at OPERA. The neutrino arriving from the left of the image has interacted with the lead of a brick, producing various particles identifiable by their tracks visible in the emulsion.

  1. 1799-1999 Bicentenario dell'invenzione della pila ad opera di Alessandro Volta

    OpenAIRE

    Montalbetti, Claudia

    1998-01-01

    In questo articolo è descritto, dal punto di vista tecnico, il sito Web Volta99, sito ufficiale delle celebrazioni per il bicentenario dell'invenzione della pila ad opera di Alessandro Volta. Indirizzo: http://www.cilea.it/volta99.

  2. Soap Opera Viewing Motives among College Students in the Republic of Armenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flora Keshishian

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Soap operas are a popular culture phenomenon around the globe, including the Republic of Armenia (Armenia hereafter, a small ancient and changing society in post-Soviet era. A survey of 292 college students from Yerevan, the capital, as well as the provinces of Armenia was conducted in Yerevan. Employing uses and gratifications theory, this study investigated the students’ reported motives in viewing soap operas in relations to their demographics. The survey yielded three motives for viewing soap operas: to pass time, for pleasure, and for stimulation. Analysis showed that provincial students were more likely to watch soap operas to pass time. The study can serve as a foundation for future studies about media use in Armenia and possibly other post-Soviet societies.

  3. OPERA models for predicting physicochemical properties and environmental fate endpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Kamel; Grulke, Chris M; Judson, Richard S; Williams, Antony J

    2018-03-08

    -source, command-line application called OPEn structure-activity/property Relationship App (OPERA). OPERA models were applied to more than 750,000 chemicals to produce freely available predicted data on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's CompTox Chemistry Dashboard.

  4. Reflexões sobre a “Operação Carne Fraca”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Simões Villas Bôas

    2017-11-01

    Recentemente em nosso país, foi deflagrada a “Operação Carne Fraca”, que, supostamente, revelou um esquema de compra de licenças sanitárias por frigoríficos. Todas as notícias advindas dessa operação tiveram ampla divulgação na mídia nacional e internacional.

  5. Opera Antonia Salieriho Axur Re d'Ormus v Praze 1788

    OpenAIRE

    Bastlová, Eliška

    2012-01-01

    The master thesis deals with the Antonio Salieri's opera Axur, Re d'Ormus and its premiere in 1788 at Nostitz Theatre in Prague. First part of thesis represents source research. On the basis of printed librettos, playbills and periodicals we can observe presence of Salieri's operas in repertory of Prague theaters from 1773 to 1806. Main part of thesis constitute musical and dramatic analysis of Salieri's Axur. This analysis is focused to Prague "version", which represents printed libretto. Mu...

  6. The sociological investigation of the audience of the Opera of the National theater in Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadžibulić Sabina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Opera of the National Theater in Belgrade was founded in 1920, but it is well known that opera performances were held long before its official opening. Despite the fact that this is the sole opera house in Belgrade (and one of the only two in Serbia, as well as the fact that it did not face any strong audience fluctuation, it is unusual that no one ever tried to investigate and profile its audience. During the last decades we were witnessing the popularization of the opera via various medias, as well as development and extention of the music industry, which surely changed its social status. The aim of the investigation that is going to be presented is to discover if this social life of opera changed its audience and does it still consists of - according to stereotypes - elderly, high educated individuals of certain professions and high material standards, i.e. at which level the opera is present in the private and public sphere of their lives.

  7. OPERA-a human performance database under simulated emergencies of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jinkyun; Jung, Wondea

    2007-01-01

    In complex systems such as the nuclear and chemical industry, the importance of human performance related problems is well recognized. Thus a lot of effort has been spent on this area, and one of the main streams for unraveling human performance related problems is the execution of HRA. Unfortunately a lack of prerequisite information has been pointed out as the most critical problem in conducting HRA. From this necessity, OPERA database that can provide operators' performance data obtained under simulated emergencies has been developed. In this study, typical operators' performance data that are available from OPERA database are briefly explained. After that, in order to ensure the appropriateness of OPERA database, operators' performance data from OPERA database are compared with those of other studies and real events. As a result, it is believed that operators' performance data of OPERA database are fairly comparable to those of other studies and real events. Therefore it is meaningful to expect that OPERA database can be used as a serviceable data source for scrutinizing human performance related problems including HRA

  8. Psalm 98: Sing 'n nuwe lied tot lof van die Koning, Jahwe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Psalm 98: Sing 'n nuwe lied tot lof van die Koning, Jahwe. W S Prinsloo. Universiteit van Pretoria. Abstract. Sing a new song in praise of the king, Yahweh. This article surveys the problems of interpreting Psalm. 98. The chief problems are those concerned with determining the Gattung, the redactional history, strophic ...

  9. Tracking Preservice Kindergarten Teachers' Development of Singing Skills and Confidence: An Applied Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neokleous, Rania

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to (a) examine the effects of a music methods course on the singing skills of preservice kindergarten teachers, (b) document the nature and development of their skills during the course, and (c) trace any changes in their confidence levels toward singing as a result of the course. As an applied study which was carried…

  10. A Nationwide Overview of Sight-Singing Requirements of Large-Group Choral Festivals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Charles E.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine sight-singing requirements at junior and senior high school large-group ratings-based choral festivals throughout the United States. Responses to the following questions were sought from each state: (1) Are there ratings-based large-group choral festivals? (2) Is sight-singing a requirement? (3) Are there…

  11. Singing Maternity through Autoethnography: Making Visible the Musical World of Myself as a Mother

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackinlay, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    There is perhaps no image more maternal and musical than that of a young mother cradling a child to her breast as she softly sings a sweet lullaby. Yet the way that a mother experiences, relates to and renders meaningful the social and musical moment of singing to her children remains silent and hidden in popular and academic discourse. In this…

  12. The Role of Choral Singing in the Lives of Amateur Choral Singers in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einarsdottir, Sigrun Lilja; Gudmundsdottir, Helga Rut

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate what motivates people to sing in choirs as a leisure activity. Subjects were retrieved from members of 10 amateur choirs of various types in Iceland through a paper-based survey. Results indicated that participants gain both personal and social benefits from singing in a choir. Findings revealed…

  13. Singing Therapy Can Be Effective for a Patient with Severe Nonfluent Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Akanuma, Kyoko; Hatayama, Yuka; Otera, Masako; Meguro, Kenichi

    2012-01-01

    Patients with severe aphasia are rarely treated using speech therapy. We used music therapy to continue to treat a 79-year-old patient with chronic severe aphasia. Interventions 1, 2, and 3 were to practice singing a song that the patient knew, to practice singing a song with a therapist, and to practice saying a greeting using a song with lyrics,…

  14. Effect of singing training on total laryngectomees wearing a tracheoesophageal voice prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onofre, Fernanda; Ricz, Hilton Marcos Alves; Takeshita-Monaretti, Telma Kioko; Prado, Maria Yuka de Almeida; Aguiar-Ricz, Lílian Neto

    2013-02-01

    To assess the effect of a program of singing training on the voice of total laryngectomees wearing tracheoesophageal voice prosthesis, considering the quality of alaryngeal phonation, vocal extension and the musical elements of tunning and legato. Five laryngectomees wearing tracheoesophageal voice prosthesis completed the singing training program over a period of three months, with exploration of the strengthening of the respiratory muscles and vocalization and with evaluation of perceptive-auditory and singing voice being performed before and after 12 sessions of singing therapy. After the program of singing voice training, the quality of tracheoesophageal voice showed improvement or the persistence of the general degree of dysphonia for the emitted vowels and for the parameters of roughness and breathiness. For the vowel "a", the pitch was displaced to grave in two participants and to acute in one, and remained adequate in the others. A similar situation was observed also for the vowel "i". After the singing program, all participants presented tunning and most of them showed a greater presence of legato. The vocal extension improved in all participants. Singing training seems to have a favorable effect on the quality of tracheoesophageal phonation and on singing voice.

  15. Layò ÒGÚNLO LÁ Abstract Singing has become

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    love people have for singing is so great that we can relate it to the Yorùbá saying: “etí were ni .... Page 5 .... Singing and dancing to meet King Saul with tumbrels, with song .... heaven… Mr. Driver, limit your speed/2times. Life has no duplicate.

  16. Describing different styles of singing: a comparison of a female singer's voice source in "Classical", "Pop", "Jazz" and "Blues".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalén, M; Sundberg, J

    2001-01-01

    The voice is apparently used in quite different manners in different styles of singing. Some of these differences concern the voice source, which varies considerably with loudness, pitch, and mode of phonation. We attempt to describe voice source differences between Classical, Pop, Jazz and Blues styles of singing as produced in a triad melody pattern by a professional female singer in soft, middle and loud phonation. An expert panel was asked to identify these triads as examples of either Classical, Pop, Jazz or Blues. The voice source was analysed by inverse filtering. Subglottal pressure Ps, closed quotient QClosed, glottal compliance (ratio between the air volume contained in a voice pulse and Ps), and the level difference between the two lowest source spectrum partials were analysed in the styles and in four modes of phonation: breathy, flow, neutral, and pressed. The same expert panel rated the degree of pressedness in the entire material. Averages across pitch were calculated for each mode and style and related to their total range of variation in the subject. The glottogram data showed a high correlation with the ratings of pressedness. Based on these correlations a pressedness factor was computed from the glottogram data. A phonation map was constructed with the axes representing mean adduction factor and mean Ps, respectively. In this map Classical was similar to flow phonation, Pop and Jazz to neutral and flow phonation, and Blues to pressed phonation.

  17. Having Their Song Heard: Tracking Pre-Service Kindergarten Teachers' Perceptions and Confidence in Their Singing Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neokleous, Rania

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports a study investigating pre-service kindergarten teachers' confidence levels and perceptions regarding their singing skills, and the impact of a music methods course on these self-perceptions. The course incorporated singing instruction in 24 lectures and two 10-minute private singing tutorials at the beginning and middle of the…

  18. Possible Origin Of The Neutrino Speed Anomaly Reported By OPERA

    CERN Document Server

    Dado, Shlomo

    2011-01-01

    Recently the OPERA collaboration reported a measurement of a superluminal speed of muon neutrinos travelling through the Earth's crust between their production site at CERN and their detection site under Gran Sasso, ~730 km away. The measurement was based on the assumption that the pulse shape of the neutrinos from the decay of parent mesons produced in proton-target collisions is the same as that of the incident protons. Here we argue that the effective column density of the target along the beam direction decreases with time during the 10.5 microseconds duration of the proton pulse. This is because of the thermal expansion and expulsion of target material along the beam by the energy-momentum deposition during the 10.5 microseconds pulse. The progresive reduction in the effective column density during the pulse decreases the neutrino production rate per incident proton. It could have advanced the mean production time of the detected neutrinos relative to that calculated from the proton pulse-shape, by an am...

  19. Insegnare l'opera lirica all'università

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Gossett

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Insegnare l’opera lirica agli studenti di Musicologia non è più difficile che insegnare altre materie nell’àmbito della Storia della musica. Certo, per fare un buon lavoro occorre conoscere la letteratura, il teatro, le voci, la scenografia. Del resto, anche per insegnare dignitosamente il canto gregoriano si deve conoscere a fondo il latino, la storia della liturgia, la storia dell’arte eccetera. Siamo professionisti: sappiamo bene cos’è importante per noi – ci lavoriamo direttamente o attraverso i nostri studenti –, eppure non mancano gli studi in cui non crediamo molto. Volendo essere obiettivi, facciamo tuttavia del nostro meglio per far conoscere tutti gli studi di alto livello, senza dare giudizi negativi, al fine di preparare i nostri studenti alle diverse possibilità offerte dalla carriera professionale: potranno avere a che fare con i frequentatori degli archivi, con coloro che s’interessano soprattutto di drammaturgia, con i fans della new musicology, o con quei poverini che redigono edizioni critiche.

  20. arXiv Final results of the OPERA experiment on $\

    CERN Document Server

    Agafonova, N.; Anokhina, A.; Aoki, S.; Ariga, A.; Ariga, T.; Bertolin, A.; Bozza, C.; Brugnera, R.; Buonaura, A.; Buontempo, S.; Chernyavskiy, M.; Chukanov, A.; Consiglio, L.; D'Ambrosio, N.; De Lellis, G.; De Serio, M.; del Amo Sanchez, P.; Di Crescenzo, A.; Di Ferdinando, D.; Di Marco, N.; Dmitrievsky, S.; Dracos, M.; Duchesneau, D.; Dusini, S.; Dzhatdoev, T.; Ebert, J.; Ereditato, A.; Favier, J.; Fini, R.A.; Fornari, F.; Fukuda, T.; Galati, G.; Garfagnini, A.; Gentile, V.; Goldberg, J.; Gornushkin, Y.; Gorbunov, S.; Grella, G.; Guler, A.M.; Gustavino, C.; Hagner, C.; Hara, T.; Hayakawa, T.; Hollnagel, A.; Ishiguro, K.; Iuliano, A.; Jakovcic, K.; Jollet, C.; Kamiscioglu, C.; Kamiscioglu, M.; Kim, S.H.; Kitagawa, N.; Klicek, B.; Kodama, K.; Komatsu, M.; Kose, U.; Kreslo, I.; Laudisio, F.; Lauria, A.; Ljubicic, A.; Longhin, A.; Loverre, P.; Malgin, A.; Malenica, M.; Mandrioli, G.; Matsuo, T.; Matveev, V.; Mauri, N.; Medinaceli, E.; Meregaglia, A.; Mikado, S.; Miyanishi, M.; Mizutani, F.; Monacelli, P.; Montesi, M.C.; Morishima, K.; Muciaccia, M.T.; Naganawa, N.; Naka, T.; Nakamura, M.; Nakano, T.; Niwa, K.; Okateva, N.; Olchevsky, A.; Ogawa, S.; Ozaki, K.; Paoloni, A.; Paparella, L.; Park, B.D.; Pasqualini, L.; Pastore, A.; Patrizii, L.; Pessard, H.; Pistillo, C.; Podgrudkov, D.; Polukhina, N.; Pozzato, M.; Pupilli, F.; Roda, M.; Roganova, T.; Rokujo, H.; Rosa, G.; Ryazhskaya, O.; Sadovsky, A.; Sato, O.; Schembri, A.; Shakiryanova, I.; Shchedrina, T.; Shibuya, H.; Shibayama, E.; Shiraishi, T.; Simone, S.; Sirignano, C.; Sirri, G.; Sotnikov, A.; Spinetti, M.; Stanco, L.; Starkov, N.; Stellacci, S.M.; Stipcevic, M.; Strolin, P.; Takahashi, S.; Tenti, M.; Terranova, F.; Tioukov, V.; Tufanli, S.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Vasina, S.; Vilain, P.; Voevodina, E.; Votano, L.; Vuilleumier, J.L.; Wilquet, G.; Wonsak, B.; Yoon, C.S.

    2018-05-23

    The OPERA experiment was designed to study νμ→ντ oscillations in the appearance mode in the CERN to Gran Sasso Neutrino beam (CNGS). In this Letter, we report the final analysis of the full data sample collected between 2008 and 2012, corresponding to 17.97×1019 protons on target. Selection criteria looser than in previous analyses have produced ten ντ candidate events, thus reducing the statistical uncertainty in the measurement of the oscillation parameters and of ντ properties. A multivariate approach for event identification has been applied to the candidate events and the discovery of ντ appearance is confirmed with an improved significance level of 6.1σ. |Δm322| has been measured, in appearance mode, with an accuracy of 20%. The measurement of the ντ charged-current cross section, for the first time with a negligible contamination from ν¯τ, and the first direct evidence for the ντ lepton number are also reported.

  1. Evidence for opioid involvement in the motivation to sing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riters, Lauren V.

    2009-01-01

    Songbirds produce high rates of song within multiple social contexts, suggesting that they are highly motivated to sing and that song production itself may be rewarding. Progress has been made in understanding the neural basis of song learning and sensorimotor processing, however little is known about neurobiological mechanisms regulating the motivation to sing. Neural systems involved in motivation and reward have been conserved across species and in songbirds are neuroanatomically well-positioned to influence the song control system. Opioid neuropeptides within these systems play a primary role in hedonic reward, at least in mammals. In songbirds, opioid neuropeptides and receptors are found throughout the song control system and within several brain regions implicated in both motivation and reward, including the medial preoptic nucleus (POM) and ventral tegmental area (VTA). Growing research shows these regions to play a role in birdsong that differs depending upon whether song is sexually-motivated in response to a female, used for territorial defense or sung as part of a flock but not directed towards an individual (undirected song). Opioid pharmacological manipulations and immunocytochemical data demonstrate a role for opioid activity possibly within VTA and POM in the regulation of song production. Although future research is needed, data suggest that opioids may be most critically involved in reinforcing song that does not result in any obvious form of immediate externally-mediated reinforcement, such as undirected song produced in large flocks or during song learning. Data are reviewed supporting the idea that dopamine activity underlies the motivation or drive to sing, but that opioid release is what makes song production rewarding. PMID:19995531

  2. High-frequency energy in singing and speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monson, Brian Bruce

    While human speech and the human voice generate acoustical energy up to (and beyond) 20 kHz, the energy above approximately 5 kHz has been largely neglected. Evidence is accruing that this high-frequency energy contains perceptual information relevant to speech and voice, including percepts of quality, localization, and intelligibility. The present research was an initial step in the long-range goal of characterizing high-frequency energy in singing voice and speech, with particular regard for its perceptual role and its potential for modification during voice and speech production. In this study, a database of high-fidelity recordings of talkers was created and used for a broad acoustical analysis and general characterization of high-frequency energy, as well as specific characterization of phoneme category, voice and speech intensity level, and mode of production (speech versus singing) by high-frequency energy content. Directionality of radiation of high-frequency energy from the mouth was also examined. The recordings were used for perceptual experiments wherein listeners were asked to discriminate between speech and voice samples that differed only in high-frequency energy content. Listeners were also subjected to gender discrimination tasks, mode-of-production discrimination tasks, and transcription tasks with samples of speech and singing that contained only high-frequency content. The combination of these experiments has revealed that (1) human listeners are able to detect very subtle level changes in high-frequency energy, and (2) human listeners are able to extract significant perceptual information from high-frequency energy.

  3. Evidence for opioid involvement in the motivation to sing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riters, Lauren V

    2010-03-01

    Songbirds produce high rates of song within multiple social contexts, suggesting that they are highly motivated to sing and that song production itself may be rewarding. Progress has been made in understanding the neural basis of song learning and sensorimotor processing, however little is known about neurobiological mechanisms regulating the motivation to sing. Neural systems involved in motivation and reward have been conserved across species and in songbirds are neuroanatomically well-positioned to influence the song control system. Opioid neuropeptides within these systems play a primary role in hedonic reward, at least in mammals. In songbirds, opioid neuropeptides and receptors are found throughout the song control system and within several brain regions implicated in both motivation and reward, including the medial preoptic nucleus (POM) and ventral tegmental area (VTA). Growing research shows these regions to play a role in birdsong that differs depending upon whether song is sexually motivated in response to a female, used for territorial defense or sung as part of a flock but not directed towards an individual (undirected song). Opioid pharmacological manipulations and immunocytochemical data demonstrate a role for opioid activity possibly within VTA and POM in the regulation of song production. Although future research is needed, data suggest that opioids may be most critically involved in reinforcing song that does not result in any obvious form of immediate externally mediated reinforcement, such as undirected song produced in large flocks or during song learning. Data are reviewed supporting the idea that dopamine activity underlies the motivation or drive to sing, but that opioid release is what makes song production rewarding. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Singing by speechless (aphasic) children: Victorian medical observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorch, Marjorie Perlman; Greenblatt, Samuel H

    2015-01-01

    In the second half of the nineteenth century, British clinicians made observations regarding the ability of individuals with impaired language abilities to sing or hum. One notable publication was of two cases of children briefly observed by John Hughlings Jackson (1835-1911) in 1871. These children were speechless but could produce some musical expression. Other such cases attracted the attention of Victorian clinicians who were actively pursuing theoretical questions regarding the organization of brain function and laterality. The presence of musical expression in children who failed to develop spoken language was seen as a notable symptom for early practitioners of pediatric neurology. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Répertoire postural du singe Cercopithecus nictitans stampflii , dans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les cercopithèques sont des espèces de singe très actifs. A l\\'instar des autres espèces, ils adoptent la majeure partie du temps des postures diverses. Le but de notre étude est de décrire le comportement de posture du cercopithèque nictitans. La méthode instantanée de collecte des données a été utilisée de février 2002 ...

  6. Singing by male and female Kloss gibbons (Hylobates klossii) in the Peleonan Forest, Siberut Island, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, Helen M; Judge, Debra S; Schmitt, Lincoln H

    2013-01-01

    Kloss gibbons (Hylobates klossii) are endemic to the Mentawai Islands in Indonesia and are one of only two gibbon species in which mated pairs do not sing duets. This is the first long-term study of the factors influencing the singing activity of Kloss gibbons within a northern Siberut Island population and follows two previous studies in central Siberut nearly 30 years ago. We collected data on the presence/absence of male and female singing within the study area on 198 days and within a focal group on 47 days. Rainfall during the time period in which they normally sing inhibits singing in both males and females. Our study supports the hypothesis that male and female songs function in intrasexual resource defence, as singing is associated with singing by same-sex neighbours, and same-sex choruses are more likely to occur after one or more days of silence (from that sex), suggesting there is pressure for individuals to communicate with same-sex neighbours regularly. Singing was not coordinated within a mated pair, suggesting that vocal coordination of the pair has been lost with the loss of the duet and that Kloss gibbon songs do not convey information to neighbours about the strength of the pair bond. On days when males sang predawn, females were more likely to sing after dawn and earlier in the morning. Additionally, the number of groups singing in female choruses was positively associated with the number of males that had sung in the predawn male chorus. We suggest that female songs have an intersexual territory defence as well as an intrasexual function.

  7. Apoio respiratório na voz cantada: perspectiva de professores de canto e fonoaudiólogos Support and singing voice: perspective of singing teachers and speech language pathologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Gava Júnior

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: analisar a definição de apoio respiratório, assim como as estratégias de trabalho e benefícios de sua aplicação, segundo a perspectiva de professores de canto e fonoaudiólogos. MÉTODOS: seis profissionais com experiência em voz cantada foram entrevistados sobre questões relacionadas ao apoio respiratório no canto. As respostas foram submetidas à análise de conteúdo e definidas quatro categorias: definição de apoio respiratório, tipo de apoio, estratégias e benefícios. RESULTADOS: os aspectos mais mencionados pelos entrevistados foram: a definição de apoio está relacionada com a participação do músculo diafragma e dos intercostais; o tipo de apoio mais adequado é o intercostal e diafragmático; dentre as estratégias de trabalho, utilizadas para a adequação do apoio respiratório, as mais citadas foram propriocepção corporal, conscientização da musculatura envolvida, equilíbrio do fluxo aéreo, alívio de tensões e correção da postura. Há discrepâncias com relação à utilização da contração abdominal, do uso de objetos de apoio, de imagens mentais e realização de vocalizes. Para os entrevistados, o maior benefício do apoio respiratório está no alívio das tensões laríngeas e melhoria na coordenação pneumofonoarticulatória. Houve pouca concordância sobre a ação benéfica do apoio, principalmente quanto à sua melhoria na emissão cantada. CONCLUSÃO: os resultados apontam para uma convergência da maioria dos entrevistados quanto à definição, estratégias de trabalho e benefícios do apoio respiratório, porém ainda sem consenso.PURPOSE: to analyze the definition of breath support, as well as the strategies used to achieve it and their benefits according to both singing teachers and Speech Language Pathologists (SLP. METHODS: six professionals experienced in singing voice answered an interview on issues pertaining to singing breath support. The answers were submitted to

  8. Vocal handicap index in popular and erudite professional singers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiola-Barreiro, Camila Miranda; Silva, Marta Assumpção de Andrada E

    To compare the voice handicap index of popular and erudite professional singers according to gender, age, professional experience time, and presence or absence of self-reported vocal complaints. One hundred thirty-two professional singers, 74 popular and 58 erudite, who responded to a questionnaire with regards to identification, age, gender, professional experience time in singing, musical genres (for popular singers), vocal classification (for erudite singers), presence of self-reported vocal complaints, and the specific protocols for popular (Modern Singing Handicap Index - MSHI) and erudite (Classical Singing Handicap Index - CSHI) singing. Higher proportion of women and higher incidence of vocal complaints were observed in the popular singers compared with the erudite singers. Most of the popular singers belonged to the genre of Brazilian Popular Music. Regarding the classification of erudite singers, there was greater participation of sopranos and tenors. No statistical differences were observed with respect to age and professional experience time between the groups. Comparison of the MSHI and CSHI scores showed no statistically significant difference between these scores and genre or age in both groups of singers. Professional experience time was related to the total score and the subscales disability and impairment in the MSHI, only for popular singers with vocal complaints. There was no correlation between these variables and the CSHI for erudite singers. The impact of vocal difficulty/problem interferes differently in these two musical genres when related to vocal complaint and professional experience time. The MSHI and CSHI protocols proved to be important tools not only for the identification of problems, but also for the understanding of how these individuals relate their voices with this occupational activity.

  9. Spectral Envelope Transformation in Singing Voice for Advanced Pitch Shifting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L. Santacruz

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work is to perform a step towards more natural pitch shifting techniques in singing voice for its application in music production and entertainment systems. In this paper, we present an advanced method to achieve natural modifications when applying a pitch shifting process to singing voice by modifying the spectral envelope of the audio excerpt. To this end, an all-pole model has been selected to model the spectral envelope, which is estimated using a constrained non-linear optimization. The analysis of the global variations of the spectral envelope was carried out by identifying changes of the parameters of the model along with the changes of the pitch. With the obtained spectral envelope transformation functions, we applied our pitch shifting scheme to some sustained vowels in order to compare results with the same transformation made by using the Flex Pitch plugin of Logic Pro X and pitch synchronous overlap and add technique (PSOLA. This comparison has been carried out by means of both an objective and a subjective evaluation. The latter was done with a survey open to volunteers on our website.

  10. OPERA and MINOS Experimental Result Prove Big Bang Theory Invalid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressler, David E.

    2012-03-01

    The greatest error in the history of science is the misinterpretation of the Michelson-Morley Experiment. The speed of light was measured to travel at the same speed in all three directions (x, y, z axis) in ones own inertial reference system; however, c will always be measured as having an absolute different speed in all other inertial frames at different energy levels. Time slows down due to motion or a gravity field. Time is the rate of physical process. Speed = Distance/Time. If the time changes the distance must change. Therefore, BOTH mirrors must move towards the center of the interferometer and space must contract in all-three-directions; C-Space. Gravity is a C-Space condition, and is the cause of redshift in our universe-not motion. The universe is not expanding. OPERA results are directly indicated; at the surface of earth, the strength of the gravity field is at maximum-below the earth's surface, time and space is less distorted, C-Space; therefore, c is faster. Newtonian mechanics dictate that a spherical shell of matter at greater radii, with uniform density, produces no net force on an observer located centrally. An observer located on the sphere's surface, like our Earth's or a large sphere, like one located in a remote galaxy, will construct a picture centered on himself to be identical to the one centered inside the spherical shell of mass. Both observers will view the incoming radiation, emitted by the other observer, as redshifted, because they lay on each others radial line. The Universe is static and very old.

  11. Muusikamaailm : Wiesbadeni maifestival. Olukord Royal Operas rahuneb. Uus ooper Houstonis. Grame"i festival Lyonis / Priit Kuusk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuusk, Priit, 1938-

    1999-01-01

    Saksamaal toimuvast Wiesbadeni maifestivalist. Muutustest Londoni Kuninglikus Ooperiteatris. T. Machoveri ooperi "Resurrection" maailmaesiettekandest Houstoni Grand Operas. Grame'i uue muusika festivalist Lyonis

  12. Zora D. by Isidora Žebeljan: Towards the new opera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čičovački Borislav

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Opera Zora D., composed by Isidora Žebeljan during 2002 and 2003, and which was premiered in Amsterdam in June 2003, is the first Serbian opera that had a world premiere abroad. It is also the first Serbian opera that has been staged outside Serbia since 1935, after being acclaimed at a competition organized by the Genesis Foundation from London. Isidora Žebeljan was commissioned (granted financial backing to compose a complete opera with a secured stage realization. The Dutch Chamber Opera (Opera studio Nederland and the Viennese Chamber Opera (Wiener Kammeroper were the co-producers of the first production. The opera was directed by David Pountney, the renowned opera director, while an international team of young singers and celebrated artists assisted the co-production. The opera was played three times in Amsterdam. Winfried Maczewski conducted the Amsterdam Nieuw Ensemble whereas Daniel Hoyem Cavazza conducted the Wiener Kammeroper on twelve performances. The Viennese premier of Zora D. opened the season of celebrations, thus marking the 50th anniversary of the Wiener Kammeroper. The libretto, based on the script for a TV film by Dušan Ristić, was co-written by Isidora Žebeljan, Milica Žebeljan and Borislav Čičovački. Speaking of genre, the libretto represents a mélange of thriller, melodrama and mystery, with elements of fiction. The opera consists of the prologue and seven scenes. The story, set in the present-day Belgrade, also goes back to the 1930’s and the periods interweave. The opera was written for four vocalists: the soprano, the baritone, and two mezzo-sopranos. The chamber orchestra has fifteen musicians. The story: One summer day in 1935, Belgrade poetess Zora Dulijan mysteriously disappears. Sixty years later, Mina, an ordinary girl from Belgrade, quite unexpectedly becomes part of an incredible story, which gradually unravels as time goes by. Led by a dream (recurring night after night, with some vague verses about

  13. Collaboration of the Dutch research program for radioactive waste disposal (OPERA) and TU Delft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bykov, D.M.; Kloosterman, J.L. [TU Delft (Netherlands). Reactor Inst. Delft; Neeft, E.A.C.; Verhoef, E.V. [COVRA N.V., Nieuwdorp (Netherlands)

    2015-07-01

    Radioactive waste in the Netherlands is collected, treated and stored by COVRA (Centrale Organisatie Voor Radioactief Afval) in the interim storage facility for at least 100 a. After this period of long-term storage, geological disposal is foreseen. The policy is based on a step-wise decision process in which all decisions are taken to ensure safe disposal in a repository, but without excluding unforeseen alternative solutions that might develop in the future. OPERA is the Dutch acronym for research program into geological disposal of radioactive waste. It started in 2011 and is running for five years. The OPERA Research plan is developed by NRG in close collaboration with COVRA. Radioactive waste disposal in the Netherlands is at an early, conceptual phase. The aim of Opera is to develop a first preliminary safety case to structure the research necessary for the eventual deployment of a repository in the Netherlands. The OPERA research program aims at a close cooperation with the Belgian research program on radioactive waste disposal. The result of OPERA will be to detail a first roadmap for the long-term research on geological disposal of radioactive waste in the Netherlands, based initially on a re-evaluation of existing safety and feasibility studies conducted more than ten years ago, making use of present international and, wherever possible, national knowledge. This will be done by developing initial and conditional safety cases for generic GDFs in Zechstein rock salt and Boom Clay formations in the Netherlands. The goal in OPERA is to develop initial safety cases that are intended to mark the start of the research development process and to iterate these as knowledge grows to new developed insights. The safety case is conditional since plausible assumptions must later be confirmed in a safety case e.g. for site selection. Dutch, Belgian, German, English and French organizations participate in OPERA. These organizations can be found in the two documents with

  14. Collaboration of the Dutch research program for radioactive waste disposal (OPERA) and TU Delft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bykov, D.M.; Kloosterman, J.L.

    2015-01-01

    Radioactive waste in the Netherlands is collected, treated and stored by COVRA (Centrale Organisatie Voor Radioactief Afval) in the interim storage facility for at least 100 a. After this period of long-term storage, geological disposal is foreseen. The policy is based on a step-wise decision process in which all decisions are taken to ensure safe disposal in a repository, but without excluding unforeseen alternative solutions that might develop in the future. OPERA is the Dutch acronym for research program into geological disposal of radioactive waste. It started in 2011 and is running for five years. The OPERA Research plan is developed by NRG in close collaboration with COVRA. Radioactive waste disposal in the Netherlands is at an early, conceptual phase. The aim of Opera is to develop a first preliminary safety case to structure the research necessary for the eventual deployment of a repository in the Netherlands. The OPERA research program aims at a close cooperation with the Belgian research program on radioactive waste disposal. The result of OPERA will be to detail a first roadmap for the long-term research on geological disposal of radioactive waste in the Netherlands, based initially on a re-evaluation of existing safety and feasibility studies conducted more than ten years ago, making use of present international and, wherever possible, national knowledge. This will be done by developing initial and conditional safety cases for generic GDFs in Zechstein rock salt and Boom Clay formations in the Netherlands. The goal in OPERA is to develop initial safety cases that are intended to mark the start of the research development process and to iterate these as knowledge grows to new developed insights. The safety case is conditional since plausible assumptions must later be confirmed in a safety case e.g. for site selection. Dutch, Belgian, German, English and French organizations participate in OPERA. These organizations can be found in the two documents with

  15. Singing for Lung Health-a systematic review of the literature and consensus statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Adam; Cave, Phoene; Stern, Myra; Welch, Lindsay; Taylor, Karen; Russell, Juliet; Doyle, Anne-Marie; Russell, Anne-Marie; McKee, Heather; Clift, Stephen; Bott, Julia; Hopkinson, Nicholas S

    2016-12-01

    There is growing interest in Singing for Lung Health (SLH), an approach where patients with respiratory disease take part in singing groups, intended to improve their condition. A consensus group was convened in early 2016 to address issues including: the specific features that make SLH distinct from other forms of participation in singing; the existing evidence base via a systematic review; gaps in the evidence base including the need to define value-based outcome measures for sustainable commissioning of SLH; defining the measures needed to evaluate both individuals' responses to SLH and the quality of singing programmes. and core training, expertise and competencies required by singing group leaders to deliver high-quality programmes. A systematic review to establish the extent of the evidence base for SLH was undertaken. Electronic databases, including Pubmed, OVID Medline and Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane central register of controlled trials and PEDro, were used. Six studies were included in the final review. Quantitative data suggest that singing has the potential to improve health-related quality of life, particularly related to physical health, and levels of anxiety without causing significant side effects. There is a significant risk of bias in many of the existing studies with small numbers of subjects overall. Little comparison can be made between studies owing to their heterogeneity in design. Qualitative data indicate that singing is an enjoyable experience for patients, who consistently report that it helps them to cope with their condition better. Larger and longer-term trials are needed.

  16. Brain Activation During Singing: "Clef de Sol Activation" Is the "Concert" of the Human Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavridis, Ioannis N; Pyrgelis, Efstratios-Stylianos

    2016-03-01

    Humans are the most complex singers in nature, and the human voice is thought by many to be the most beautiful musical instrument. Aside from spoken language, singing represents a second mode of acoustic communication in humans. The purpose of this review article is to explore the functional anatomy of the "singing" brain. Methodologically, the existing literature regarding activation of the human brain during singing was carefully reviewed, with emphasis on the anatomic localization of such activation. Relevant human studies are mainly neuroimaging studies, namely functional magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography studies. Singing necessitates activation of several cortical, subcortical, cerebellar, and brainstem areas, served and coordinated by multiple neural networks. Functionally vital cortical areas of the frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes bilaterally participate in the brain's activation process during singing, confirming the latter's role in human communication. Perisylvian cortical activity of the right hemisphere seems to be the most crucial component of this activation. This also explains why aphasic patients due to left hemispheric lesions are able to sing but not speak the same words. The term clef de sol activation is proposed for this crucial perisylvian cortical activation due to the clef de sol shape of the topographical distribution of these cortical areas around the sylvian fissure. Further research is needed to explore the connectivity and sequence of how the human brain activates to sing.

  17. Maternal singing during kangaroo care led to autonomic stability in preterm infants and reduced maternal anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnon, Shmuel; Diamant, Chagit; Bauer, Sofia; Regev, Rivka; Sirota, Gisela; Litmanovitz, Ita

    2014-10-01

    Kangaroo care (KC) and maternal singing benefit preterm infants, and we investigated whether combining these benefitted infants and mothers. A prospective randomised, within-subject, crossover, repeated-measures study design was used, with participants acting as their own controls. We evaluated the heart rate variability (HRV) of stable preterm infants receiving KC, with and without maternal singing. This included low frequency (LF), high frequency (HF) and the LF/HF ratio during baseline (10 min), singing or quiet phases (20 min) and recovery (10 min). Physiological parameters, maternal anxiety and the infants' behavioural state were measured. We included 86 stable preterm infants, with a postmenstrual age of 32-36 weeks. A significant change in LF and HF, and lower LF/HF ratio, was observed during KC with maternal singing during the intervention and recovery phases, compared with just KC and baseline (all p-values singing than just KC (p = 0.04). No differences in the infants' behavioural states or physiological parameters were found, with or without singing. Maternal singing during KC reduces maternal anxiety and leads to autonomic stability in stable preterm infants. This effect is not detected in behavioural state or physiological parameters commonly used to monitor preterm infants. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Group Singing as a Therapy during Diabetes Training--A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groener, J B; Neus, I; Kopf, S; Hartmann, M; Schanz, J; Kliemank, E; Wetekam, B; Kihm, L; Fleming, T; Herzog, W; Nawroth, P P

    2015-11-01

    Comprehensive diabetes treatment has been shown to reduce quality of life in diabetic patients. However, there is evidence to suggest that group singing can have positive effects on quality of life in various clinical settings. In this randomized controlled pilot study, the effect of singing as a therapy to reduce stress and improve quality of life was investigated in insulin-dependent diabetic patients, undergoing a lifestyle intervention program. Patients from the singing group felt less discontented following treatment. This effect, however, was lost after 3 months. No effect on serum cortisol and plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels could be seen when comparing the singing group with the control group, although reduced levels of ACTH and cortisol 3 days after treatment could be found and were still present after 3 months within the group of patients who undertook singing as a therapy. Singing led to an increase in bodyweight, which interestingly had no effect on glucose control or methylglyoxal levels. Therefore, singing during a lifestyle intervention program for insulin-dependent diabetic patients had a short lasting and weak effect on patients' mood without affecting glucose control, but no significant effect on stress related hormones. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Possible benefits of singing to the mental and physical condition of the elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The evaluation and management of stress are important for the prevention of both depression and cardiovascular disease. In addition, the maintenance of the oral condition of the elderly is essential to enable them to stay healthy, especially to prevent aspiration pneumonia and improve mental health in an aging society. Therefore, we examined the efficacy of singing on the oral condition, mental health status, and immunity of the elderly to determine if singing could contribute to the improvement of their physical condition. Methods Forty-four subjects (10 men, 34 women), aged 60 years or older, participated in this study. The efficacy of singing on mental health status and immunocompetence was examined by swallowing function, oral condition, blood, and saliva tests, as well as through questionnaires taken before and after singing. Results The results showed that the amount of saliva increased and the level of cortisol, a salivary stress marker, decreased after singing. The Visual Analog Scale (VAS) scores for feeling refreshed, comfortable, pleasurable, light-hearted, relieved, and relaxed; the tension and confusion subscale score; and the total mood disturbance (TMD) score of the Profile of Mood States (POMS) all showed improvements. Furthermore, the same tendencies were shown regardless of whether or not the subjects liked singing. Conclusions Our results suggest that singing can be effective in improving the mental health and oral condition of the elderly. PMID:24864162

  20. Singing for Lung Health—a systematic review of the literature and consensus statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Adam; Cave, Phoene; Stern, Myra; Welch, Lindsay; Taylor, Karen; Russell, Juliet; Doyle, Anne-Marie; Russell, Anne-Marie; McKee, Heather; Clift, Stephen; Bott, Julia; Hopkinson, Nicholas S

    2016-01-01

    There is growing interest in Singing for Lung Health (SLH), an approach where patients with respiratory disease take part in singing groups, intended to improve their condition. A consensus group was convened in early 2016 to address issues including: the specific features that make SLH distinct from other forms of participation in singing; the existing evidence base via a systematic review; gaps in the evidence base including the need to define value-based outcome measures for sustainable commissioning of SLH; defining the measures needed to evaluate both individuals' responses to SLH and the quality of singing programmes. and core training, expertise and competencies required by singing group leaders to deliver high-quality programmes. A systematic review to establish the extent of the evidence base for SLH was undertaken. Electronic databases, including Pubmed, OVID Medline and Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane central register of controlled trials and PEDro, were used. Six studies were included in the final review. Quantitative data suggest that singing has the potential to improve health-related quality of life, particularly related to physical health, and levels of anxiety without causing significant side effects. There is a significant risk of bias in many of the existing studies with small numbers of subjects overall. Little comparison can be made between studies owing to their heterogeneity in design. Qualitative data indicate that singing is an enjoyable experience for patients, who consistently report that it helps them to cope with their condition better. Larger and longer-term trials are needed. PMID:27906158

  1. Choir versus Solo Singing: Effects on Mood, and Salivary Oxytocin and Cortisol Concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schladt, T Moritz; Nordmann, Gregory C; Emilius, Roman; Kudielka, Brigitte M; de Jong, Trynke R; Neumann, Inga D

    2017-01-01

    The quantification of salivary oxytocin (OXT) concentrations emerges as a helpful tool to assess peripheral OXT secretion at baseline and after various challenges in healthy and clinical populations. Both positive social interactions and stress are known to induce OXT secretion, but the relative influence of either of these triggers is not well delineated. Choir singing is an activity known to improve mood and to induce feelings of social closeness, and may therefore be used to investigate the effects of positive social experiences on OXT system activity. We quantified mood and salivary OXT and cortisol (CORT) concentrations before, during, and after both choir and solo singing performed in a randomized order in the same participants (repeated measures). Happiness was increased, and worry and sadness as well as salivary CORT concentrations were reduced, after both choir and solo singing. Surprisingly, salivary OXT concentrations were significantly reduced after choir singing, but did not change in response to solo singing. Salivary OXT concentrations showed high intra-individual stability, whereas salivary CORT concentrations fluctuated between days within participants. The present data indicate that the social experience of choir singing does not induce peripheral OXT secretion, as indicated by unchanged salivary OXT levels. Rather, the reduction of stress/arousal experienced during choir singing may lead to an inhibition of peripheral OXT secretion. These data are important for the interpretation of future reports on salivary OXT concentrations, and emphasize the need to strictly control for stress/arousal when designing similar experiments.

  2. Singing and Vocal Interventions in Palliative and Cancer Care: Music Therapists' Perceptions of Usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements-Cortés, Amy

    2017-11-01

    Music therapists in palliative and cancer care settings often use singing and vocal interventions. Although benefits for these interventions are emerging, more information is needed on what type of singing interventions are being used by credentialed music therapists, and what goal areas are being addressed. To assess music therapists' perceptions on how they use singing and vocal interventions in palliative and cancer care environments. Eighty credentialed music therapists from Canada and the United States participated in this two-part convergent mixed-methods study that began with an online survey, followed by individual interviews with 50% (n = 40) of the survey participants. In both palliative and cancer care, singing client-preferred music and singing for relaxation were the most frequently used interventions. In palliative care, the most commonly addressed goals were to increase self-expression, improve mood, and create a feeling of togetherness between individuals receiving palliative care and their family. In cancer care, the most commonly addressed goals were to support breathing, improve mood, and support reminiscence. Seven themes emerged from therapist interviews: containing the space, connection, soothing, identity, freeing the voice within, letting go, and honoring. Music therapists use singing to address the physical, emotional, social, and spiritual goals of patients, and described singing interventions as accessible and effective. Further research is recommended to examine intervention efficacy and identify factors responsible that contribute to clinical benefit. © the American Music Therapy Association 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  3. Target Audience of Live Opera Transmissions to Cinema Theatres from the Marketing Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek Tahal

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Opera has a famous history and even the present-day repertoire in opera houses mostly consists of classical and well-known works. Marketers are trying to find new ways that would enable opera lovers all over the world to enjoy top quality performances. One of the most successful models is real-time transmissions of operas to geographically remote cinemas. Cinemas from all around the world participate in the project. In this paper, the authors analyze the spectators´ profile and point out differences between North America and the Czech Republic, focusing on transmissions of performances by the Metropolitan Opera in New York. The authors submit a detailed analysis of the socio-demographic characteristics of the spectators and the attendance frequency. Special attention is paid to the marketing profile of Czech spectators, based on primary data gathered in the research. The paper is a combination of research report and business case study. The study reveals that female visitors prevail. Elderly people are also represented in high percentages. The spectators are characterized by refined taste in their lifestyles and familiarity with modern technology.

  4. The acoustic and perceptual differences to the non-singer's singing voice before and after a singing vocal warm-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRosa, Angela

    The present study analyzed the acoustic and perceptual differences in non-singer's singing voice before and after a vocal warm-up. Experiments were conducted with 12 females who had no singing experience and considered themselves to be non-singers. Participants were recorded performing 3 tasks: a musical scale stretching to their most comfortable high and low pitches, sustained productions of the vowels /a/ and /i/, and singing performance of the "Star Spangled Banner." Participants were recorded performing these three tasks before a vocal warm-up, after a vocal warm-up, and then again 2-3 weeks later after 2-3 weeks of practice. Acoustical analysis consisted of formant frequency analysis, singer's formant/singing power ratio analysis, maximum phonation frequency range analysis, and an analysis of jitter, noise to harmonic ratio (NHR), relative average perturbation (RAP), and voice turbulence index (VTI). A perceptual analysis was also conducted with 12 listeners rating comparison performances of before vs. after the vocal warm-up, before vs. after the second vocal warm-up, and after both vocal warm-ups. There were no significant findings for the formant frequency analysis of the vowel /a/, but there was significance for the 1st formant frequency analysis of the vowel /i/. Singer's formant analyzed via Singing Power Ratio analysis showed significance only for the vowel /i/. Maximum phonation frequency range analysis showed a significant increase after the vocal warm-ups. There were no significant findings for the acoustic measures of jitter, NHR, RAP, and VTI. Perceptual analysis showed a significant difference after a vocal warm-up. The results indicate that a singing vocal warm-up can have a significant positive influence on the singing voice of non-singers.

  5. Song and speech: examining the link between singing talent and speech imitation ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiner, Markus; Reiterer, Susanne M.

    2013-01-01

    In previous research on speech imitation, musicality, and an ability to sing were isolated as the strongest indicators of good pronunciation skills in foreign languages. We, therefore, wanted to take a closer look at the nature of the ability to sing, which shares a common ground with the ability to imitate speech. This study focuses on whether good singing performance predicts good speech imitation. Forty-one singers of different levels of proficiency were selected for the study and their ability to sing, to imitate speech, their musical talent and working memory were tested. Results indicated that singing performance is a better indicator of the ability to imitate speech than the playing of a musical instrument. A multiple regression revealed that 64% of the speech imitation score variance could be explained by working memory together with educational background and singing performance. A second multiple regression showed that 66% of the speech imitation variance of completely unintelligible and unfamiliar language stimuli (Hindi) could be explained by working memory together with a singer's sense of rhythm and quality of voice. This supports the idea that both vocal behaviors have a common grounding in terms of vocal and motor flexibility, ontogenetic and phylogenetic development, neural orchestration and auditory memory with singing fitting better into the category of “speech” on the productive level and “music” on the acoustic level. As a result, good singers benefit from vocal and motor flexibility, productively and cognitively, in three ways. (1) Motor flexibility and the ability to sing improve language and musical function. (2) Good singers retain a certain plasticity and are open to new and unusual sound combinations during adulthood both perceptually and productively. (3) The ability to sing improves the memory span of the auditory working memory. PMID:24319438

  6. Song and speech: examining the link between singing talent and speech imitation ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiner, Markus; Reiterer, Susanne M

    2013-01-01

    In previous research on speech imitation, musicality, and an ability to sing were isolated as the strongest indicators of good pronunciation skills in foreign languages. We, therefore, wanted to take a closer look at the nature of the ability to sing, which shares a common ground with the ability to imitate speech. This study focuses on whether good singing performance predicts good speech imitation. Forty-one singers of different levels of proficiency were selected for the study and their ability to sing, to imitate speech, their musical talent and working memory were tested. Results indicated that singing performance is a better indicator of the ability to imitate speech than the playing of a musical instrument. A multiple regression revealed that 64% of the speech imitation score variance could be explained by working memory together with educational background and singing performance. A second multiple regression showed that 66% of the speech imitation variance of completely unintelligible and unfamiliar language stimuli (Hindi) could be explained by working memory together with a singer's sense of rhythm and quality of voice. This supports the idea that both vocal behaviors have a common grounding in terms of vocal and motor flexibility, ontogenetic and phylogenetic development, neural orchestration and auditory memory with singing fitting better into the category of "speech" on the productive level and "music" on the acoustic level. As a result, good singers benefit from vocal and motor flexibility, productively and cognitively, in three ways. (1) Motor flexibility and the ability to sing improve language and musical function. (2) Good singers retain a certain plasticity and are open to new and unusual sound combinations during adulthood both perceptually and productively. (3) The ability to sing improves the memory span of the auditory working memory.

  7. Song and speech: examining the link between singing talent and speech imitation ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus eChristiner

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In previous research on speech imitation, musicality and an ability to sing were isolated as the strongest indicators of good pronunciation skills in foreign languages. We, therefore, wanted to take a closer look at the nature of the ability to sing, which shares a common ground with the ability to imitate speech. This study focuses on whether good singing performance predicts good speech imitation. Fourty-one singers of different levels of proficiency were selected for the study and their ability to sing, to imitate speech, their musical talent and working memory were tested. Results indicated that singing performance is a better indicator of the ability to imitate speech than the playing of a musical instrument. A multiple regression revealed that 64 % of the speech imitation score variance could be explained by working memory together with educational background and singing performance. A second multiple regression showed that 66 % of the speech imitation variance of completely unintelligible and unfamiliar language stimuli (Hindi could be explained by working memory together with a singer’s sense of rhythm and quality of voice. This supports the idea that both vocal behaviors have a common grounding in terms of vocal and motor flexibility, ontogenetic and phylogenetic development, neural orchestration and sound memory with singing fitting better into the category of "speech" on the productive level and "music" on the acoustic level. As a result, good singers benefit from vocal and motor flexibility, productively and cognitively, in three ways. 1. Motor flexibility and the ability to sing improve language and musical function. 2. Good singers retain a certain plasticity and are open to new and unusual sound combinations during adulthood both perceptually and productively. 3. The ability to sing improves the memory span of the auditory short term memory.

  8. Listener perception of the effect of abdominal kinematic directives on respiratory behavior in female classical singing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collyer, Sally; Kenny, Dianna T; Archer, Michaele

    2011-01-01

    Breath management training in classical singing is becoming increasingly physiologically focused, despite evidence that directives focusing on chest-wall kinematic (ribcage and abdominal) behavior effect minimal change in acoustical measures of singing. A direct and proportionate relationship between breathing behavior and vocal quality is important in singing training because singing teachers rely primarily on changes in sound quality to assess the efficacy of breath management modification. Pedagogical opinion is also strongly divided over whether the strategy of retarding the reduction in abdominal dimension during singing has a negative effect on vocal quality. This study investigated whether changes in abdominal kinematic strategy were perceptible and whether listeners preferred a particular strategy. Fourteen experienced singing teachers and vocal coaches assessed audio samples of five female classical singers whose respiratory kinematic patterns during singing had been recorded habitually and under two simple, dichotomous directives: Gradually drawing the abdomen inward and gradually expanding the abdomen, during each phrase. Listeners rated the singers on standard of singing and of breath management. Ratings analysis took into consideration changes in kinematic behavior under each directive determined from the respiratory recordings. Listener ratings for two singers were unaffected by directive. For three singers, ratings were lower when the directive opposed habitual kinematic behavior. The results did not support the pedagogical assumption of a direct and proportional link between respiratory behavior and standard of singing or that the abdomen-outward strategy was deleterious to vocal quality. The findings demonstrate the importance of considering habitual breathing behavior in both research and pedagogical contexts. Copyright © 2011 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Opera: reconstructing optimal genomic scaffolds with high-throughput paired-end sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Song; Sung, Wing-Kin; Nagarajan, Niranjan

    2011-11-01

    Scaffolding, the problem of ordering and orienting contigs, typically using paired-end reads, is a crucial step in the assembly of high-quality draft genomes. Even as sequencing technologies and mate-pair protocols have improved significantly, scaffolding programs still rely on heuristics, with no guarantees on the quality of the solution. In this work, we explored the feasibility of an exact solution for scaffolding and present a first tractable solution for this problem (Opera). We also describe a graph contraction procedure that allows the solution to scale to large scaffolding problems and demonstrate this by scaffolding several large real and synthetic datasets. In comparisons with existing scaffolders, Opera simultaneously produced longer and more accurate scaffolds demonstrating the utility of an exact approach. Opera also incorporates an exact quadratic programming formulation to precisely compute gap sizes (Availability: http://sourceforge.net/projects/operasf/ ).

  10. Data evaluation and CNGS beam localization with the precision tracker of the OPERA detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bick, D.

    2007-04-01

    In this diploma thesis, the data evaluation for the OPERA precision tracker is presented. Furthermore investigations of a precise CNGS beam localization with the precision tracker are performed. After an overview of past and present developments in neutrino physics, the OPERA detector is presented in this thesis. Emphasis is given to the precision tracker which has been partly commissioned in the end of the last year. A first analysis of the functionality with cosmic muons has been performed, as well as the inclusion of data in the OPERA software framework. Within this thesis some useful tools have been developed which are also presented. Finally, divergence effects from the nominal beam line of the CNGS neutrino beam and possible detection with the precision tracker are studied. (orig.)

  11. Data evaluation and CNGS beam localization with the precision tracker of the OPERA detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bick, D.

    2007-04-15

    In this diploma thesis, the data evaluation for the OPERA precision tracker is presented. Furthermore investigations of a precise CNGS beam localization with the precision tracker are performed. After an overview of past and present developments in neutrino physics, the OPERA detector is presented in this thesis. Emphasis is given to the precision tracker which has been partly commissioned in the end of the last year. A first analysis of the functionality with cosmic muons has been performed, as well as the inclusion of data in the OPERA software framework. Within this thesis some useful tools have been developed which are also presented. Finally, divergence effects from the nominal beam line of the CNGS neutrino beam and possible detection with the precision tracker are studied. (orig.)

  12. Telenovela: uma semiose híbrida The soap opera: a hybrid semiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Paiva de Araujo Soares

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Este texto propõe um caminho analítico para a telenovela, considerada como narrativa de grande consumo, que privilegia a categoria pastiche. Procura-se mostrar aqui como o folhetim eletrônico absorve e reinterpreta conteúdos fabulativos de outros gêneros da indústria cultural, produzindo um tipo particular de recepção. Toma-se como caso principal de observação a telenovela O Profeta. The soap opera: a hybrid semiosis — This text proposes a new way of analyzing the Brazilian soap opera, which is seen as a narrative of widespread consumption that privileges the "pastiche" category. We attempt to show how the electronic feuilleton absorbs and reinterprets fictional contents from other genres of the mass culture industry to produce a particular type of reception. The main object of this study is a soap opera called The Prophet.

  13. Singing can improve speech function in aphasics associated with intact right basal ganglia and preserve right temporal glucose metabolism: Implications for singing therapy indication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akanuma, Kyoko; Meguro, Kenichi; Satoh, Masayuki; Tashiro, Manabu; Itoh, Masatoshi

    2016-01-01

    Clinically, we know that some aphasic patients can sing well despite their speech disturbances. Herein, we report 10 patients with non-fluent aphasia, of which half of the patients improved their speech function after singing training. We studied ten patients with non-fluent aphasia complaining of difficulty finding words. All had lesions in the left basal ganglia or temporal lobe. They selected the melodies they knew well, but which they could not sing. We made a new lyric with a familiar melody using words they could not name. The singing training using these new lyrics was performed for 30 minutes once a week for 10 weeks. Before and after the training, their speech functions were assessed by language tests. At baseline, 6 of them received positron emission tomography to evaluate glucose metabolism. Five patients exhibited improvements after intervention; all but one exhibited intact right basal ganglia and left temporal lobes, but all exhibited left basal ganglia lesions. Among them, three subjects exhibited preserved glucose metabolism in the right temporal lobe. We considered that patients who exhibit intact right basal ganglia and left temporal lobes, together with preserved right hemispheric glucose metabolism, might be an indication of the effectiveness of singing therapy.

  14. Audience as analyst: Dennis Potter's The Singing Detective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey, W

    1997-06-01

    Author Dennis Potter has written an exceptional psychoanalytically informed television series in The Singing Detective. Potter succeeds by echewing the usual portrayal of psychoanalysis in cinema and television as a therapy which the viewer observes but instead creates, by means of the content and structure of the series, a production that forces the audience into a role of analyst. The story of the current life and the childhood of the protagonist, Philip Marlow, has depth and context which allows the audience to examine the personality of Marlow, including character pathology and traits, sexuality, fantasy, dreams, and delusions from several metapsychological viewpoints. Potter allows the audience to use the dynamic, genetic, topographic, and, most unusual in drama, structural viewpoints. The audience can experience aspects of an analyst's experience, including the process of formulating and evaluating over time analytic hypotheses and coping with emotional reactions to the material which at times has transferencelike qualities.

  15. Il duetto nell'opera dell'Ottocento: forma e dramma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Pagannone

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The duet and its particular morphology are essential for understanding the dramatic mechanisms of nineteenth-century Italian opera. They are amongst those essential knowledges that every music teacher and student (at secondary school and university level must possess. This paper stands as a discovery journey into one of the fundamental dramatic-musical devices of ninetheenth-century opera duet, the so called ‘solita forma’. It is explored chronologically and in its various forms by examining some exemplary pieces, from Rossini’s Tancredi (1813 to Verdi’s Aida (1871. This analysis can also be of value as a listening didactic unit.

  16. Pro-development soap operas: a novel approach to development communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, W J; Singhal, A; Rogers, E M

    1989-01-01

    Soap operas have their roots in 18th century English romance novels. These evolved into serialized radio dramas. In their current form, they were developed primarily to attract large audiences in order to sell consumer products. Hence the name soap which refers to the soap manufacturers who commonly advertise on such programs. In the world of soap operas there are 2 kinds. Those that function primarily to entertain and sell consumer products, and those that primarily entertain, but infuse positive social messages. The former are found everywhere, but are the only kind in America. The latter are found exclusively in developing countries. American soap operas have conveyed pro-social messages in the past, but they differ fundamentally from pro-development soap operas in their theoretical foundations. American soap operas are created by people who want to sell consumer goods. Development soap operas are created by people who want to convey pro-social messages that will aid their country's development. Both must be popular in order to be successful, but the former lack moral coherency, are unrealistic, erode values, and are created through a process of a theoretical development; while the latter have moral coherency, are realistic, promote values, and are created through a process of theoretical development. The 1st pro-development soap opera was Ven Conmigo (Come With Me) and was produced in Mexico between 1975-76. Its primary purpose was to increase adult literacy. During the year it ran, applicants at adult literacy centers rose by 600,000 or 63% compared to 7% the year before, and 2% the year after. The 2nd pro-development soap opera was Acompaname (Accompany Me) and it primary purpose was to promote family planning. It ran from 1977-78 and during that time the number of family planning adopters rose by 560,000 and contraceptive sale sin Mexico rose sharply. The question of what are pro-social messages and who should control them must be answered by each country in

  17. Search for Tau Neutrinos in the τ → e Decay Channel in the OPERA Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Hosseini, Behzad

    2015-01-01

    The OPERA (Oscillation Project with Emulsion tRacking Apparatus) experiment is a long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment that was designed to perform a conclusive test of the νμ → ντ oscillations hypothesis. The main aim of this experiment is a direct observation of τ leptons in ντ charged-current interactions. A good electromagnetic shower reconstruction is important for the τ detection in the τ → e decay channel. So far, 4 ντ candidates have been observed in the OPERA detector wi...

  18. Acoustics in the Competition for the Construction of the Opera House “LA FENICE”: 1789-1790

    Science.gov (United States)

    BIGGI, M. I.; POMPOLI, R.

    2000-04-01

    From the analysis of the projects presented for the competition held in Venice (1789-1790) and from the judgements of the commission, this paper attempts to synthesize the knowledge of opera house acoustics at the end of the 18th century, so important for the history of music and opera houses.

  19. Teachers' Transformation as Learning: Teaching Cantonese Opera in Hong Kong Schools with a Teacher-Artist Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Bo Wah

    2014-01-01

    The Hong Kong Government has advocated teaching Cantonese opera in the school music curriculum to promote Chinese culture education. This longitudinal study aims to examine how and why teachers transform within 3 years in learning and teaching Cantonese opera with a teacher-artist partnership approach in schools. Five primary and two secondary…

  20. Politics in the context of the “Opera question” in the national theatre before the first world war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović Biljana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Part of the history of the National Theatre in Belgrade in the decade before the First World War relates to processes of discontinuity in the professionalization and modernization of the musical section in this institution and its repertoire. It had to do with abrupt changes reflected in three short-lived phases: improvements in musical ensemble and opera performances (1906-1909, the annulment of these efforts and results with a return to the old repertoire, and then again a new beginning once more with a fresh attempt to establish the Opera (1913-14. These dynamics were affected by the social and political context. It was dependent on frequent changes of the Theatre’s management staff whose main representatives had mutually conflicting views on important questions concerning the functioning of their institution. Relations between them were strongly marked by contested political motives. Theatre managers were appointed by ministers of education who could also be relieved of their posts, and members of the management staff were always active in political parties. These facts acted as a decisive factor in their communication which was similar to the behaviour and customs of public political life where an opponent is seen as an enemy, not as a partner in solving common problems. Critical and polemical discourses on important aspects of organization and programme strategy of the Theatre were burdened by political rivalry which also found its place in discussions on the cultivation of music. Questions relating to music were considered in a declarative way, so that music was instrumentalized as a means of political empowerment. The facts about music in the National Theatre raise many issues related to aspects of modernization, national identification, transfers of „high“ and popular musical cultures as well as to other problems of social, historical and cultural contexts that were intertwined in the operation of the Theatre. The context of

  1. Choral Singing and Wellbeing: Findings from a Survey of the Mixed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-12-16

    Dec 16, 2016 ... article examines the health benefits of singing in terms of emotional, psychological, social and physical wellbeing. ..... and motivation. The data ... understanding of emotions, and maintaining personal wellbeing. The following ...

  2. Contact Quotient of Female Singers Singing Four Pitches for Five Vowels in Normal and Pressed Phonations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong Tan, Kendrich Graemer

    2017-09-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the contact quotient (CQ) values of breathy, normal, and pressed phonation types in four different sections of the female singing range. Electroglottography (EGG) and acoustic signals were recorded from 10 female singing teachers. Five vowels were sung for 1-3 seconds each, in three phonation types-normal, breathy, and pressed, in four pitches representing registration change points in the singing range. CQ values were automatically generated from the EGG signal using VoceVista at 35% threshold level. Sound pressure levels were checked in Praat. Unianova and correlations were performed using an SPSS program. CQ values of female participants in the study yielded ranges of 0.25-0.62 in normal and 0.34-0.73 in pressed. Normal and pressed CQ differed significantly from each other at P singing. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Let me sing your songs: how Finns found xöömei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauli Heikkilä

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The author of this essay, musician and founder of the Throat Singing Association of Finland (1997, tells the story of how an association of throat singing practitioners came to be in Finland, and how to teach this art to those wishing to learn it. The story also covers the author’s own musical preferences and his life-changing visit to a week-long workshop led by Boris Salchak from Tuva in 1995. Two years later, the author and other aficionados of Tuvan xöömei founded the Throat Singing Association and started holding festivals featuring invited Tuvan singers and throat singing courses. The author describes his collaboration with renowned Tuvan performers, as well as throat singing scholars from the USA, the Netherlands, UK, Italy, etc. The author holds that throat (or overtone singing is a special sound practice. Tuvan practices can be compared with similar techniques developed by indigenous peoples of Africa, North America, Japan and Tibet. Throat singing as a practice is closely linked to specific ancient worldviews of peoples and cultures living close to nature. Finns are also considered living in close proximity to nature, which may explain their partiality to throat signing. Dozens actively practice xöömei and hundreds have experienced it, which is a much larger percentage than in other European states. In the essay, the author also focuses on the throat singing courses he has been giving for a while and shares his observations of his students, their motivation, specific training techniques and adapting them to the desires and intentions of his students. He believes that almost everybody can learn singing, and most people can have a command of throat singing. The essay also covers the main problems that aspiring throat singers can face, as well as specific styles of the xöömei, concluding with the idea that it is impossible to master throat singing in a short period of time. The key to success is only found in regular and extensive

  4. Cellular basis for singing motor pattern generation in the field cricket (Gryllus bimaculatus DeGeer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöneich, Stefan; Hedwig, Berthold

    2012-01-01

    The singing behavior of male crickets allows analyzing a central pattern generator (CPG) that was shaped by sexual selection for reliable production of species-specific communication signals. After localizing the essential ganglia for singing in Gryllus bimaculatus, we now studied the calling song CPG at the cellular level. Fictive singing was initiated by pharmacological brain stimulation. The motor pattern underlying syllables and chirps was recorded as alternating spike bursts of wing-opener and wing-closer motoneurons in a truncated wing nerve; it precisely reflected the natural calling song. During fictive singing, we intracellularly recorded and stained interneurons in thoracic and abdominal ganglia and tested their impact on the song pattern by intracellular current injections. We identified three interneurons of the metathoracic and first unfused abdominal ganglion that rhythmically de- and hyperpolarized in phase with the syllable pattern and spiked strictly before the wing-opener motoneurons. Depolarizing current injection in two of these opener interneurons caused additional rhythmic singing activity, which reliably reset the ongoing chirp rhythm. The closely intermeshing arborizations of the singing interneurons revealed the dorsal midline neuropiles of the metathoracic and three most anterior abdominal neuromeres as the anatomical location of singing pattern generation. In the same neuropiles, we also recorded several closer interneurons that rhythmically hyper- and depolarized in the syllable rhythm and spiked strictly before the wing-closer motoneurons. Some of them received pronounced inhibition at the beginning of each chirp. Hyperpolarizing current injection in the dendrite revealed postinhibitory rebound depolarization as one functional mechanism of central pattern generation in singing crickets. PMID:23170234

  5. Vocal Hygiene Habits and Vocal Handicap Among Conservatory Students of Classical Singing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achey, Meredith A; He, Mike Z; Akst, Lee M

    2016-03-01

    This study sought to assess classical singing students' compliance with vocal hygiene practices identified in the literature and to explore the relationship between self-reported vocal hygiene practice and self-reported singing voice handicap in this population. The primary hypothesis was that increased attention to commonly recommended vocal hygiene practices would correlate with reduced singing voice handicap. This is a cross-sectional, survey-based study. An anonymous survey assessing demographics, attention to 11 common vocal hygiene recommendations in both performance and nonperformance periods, and the Singing Voice Handicap Index 10 (SVHI-10) was distributed to classical singing teachers to be administered to their students at two major schools of music. Of the 215 surveys distributed, 108 were returned (50.2%), of which 4 were incomplete and discarded from analysis. Conservatory students of classical singing reported a moderate degree of vocal handicap (mean SVHI-10, 12; range, 0-29). Singers reported considering all 11 vocal hygiene factors more frequently when preparing for performances than when not preparing for performances. Of these, significant correlations with increased handicap were identified for consideration of stress reduction in nonperformance (P = 0.01) and performance periods (P = 0.02) and with decreased handicap for consideration of singing voice use in performance periods alone (P = 0.02). Conservatory students of classical singing report more assiduous attention to vocal hygiene practices when preparing for performances and report moderate degrees of vocal handicap overall. These students may have elevated risk for dysphonia and voice disorders which is not effectively addressed through common vocal hygiene recommendations alone. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Task-specific singing dystonia: vocal instability that technique cannot fix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halstead, Lucinda A; McBroom, Deanna M; Bonilha, Heather Shaw

    2015-01-01

    Singer's dystonia is a rare variation of focal laryngeal dystonia presenting only during specific tasks in the singing voice. It is underdiagnosed since it is commonly attributed to technique problems including increased muscle tension, register transition, or wobble. Singer's dystonia differs from technique-related issues in that it is task- and/or pitch-specific, reproducible and occurs independently from the previously mentioned technical issues.This case series compares and contrasts profiles of four patients with singer's dystonia to increase our knowledge of this disorder. This retrospective case series includes a detailed case history, results of singing evaluations from individual voice teachers, review of singing voice samples by a singing voice specialist, evaluation by a laryngologist with endoscopy and laryngeal electromyography (LEMG), and spectral analysis of the voice samples by a speech-language pathologist. Results demonstrate the similarities and unique differences of individuals with singer's dystonia. Response to treatment and singing status varied from nearly complete relief of symptoms with botulinum toxin injections to minor relief of symptoms and discontinuation of singing. The following are the conclusions from this case series: (1) singer's dystonia exists as a separate entity from technique issues, (2) singer's dystonia is consistent with other focal task-specific dystonias found in musicians, (3) correctly diagnosing singer's dystonia allows singer's access to medical treatment of dystonia and an opportunity to modify their singing repertoire to continue singing with the voice they have, and (4) diagnosis of singer's dystonia requires careful sequential multidisciplinary evaluation to isolate the instability and confirm dystonia by LEMG and spectral voice analysis. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Corollary discharge inhibition of wind-sensitive cercal giant interneurons in the singing field cricket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedwig, Berthold

    2014-01-01

    Crickets carry wind-sensitive mechanoreceptors on their cerci, which, in response to the airflow produced by approaching predators, triggers escape reactions via ascending giant interneurons (GIs). Males also activate their cercal system by air currents generated due to the wing movements underlying sound production. Singing males still respond to external wind stimulation, but are not startled by the self-generated airflow. To investigate how the nervous system discriminates sensory responses to self-generated and external airflow, we intracellularly recorded wind-sensitive afferents and ventral GIs of the cercal escape pathway in fictively singing crickets, a situation lacking any self-stimulation. GI spiking was reduced whenever cercal wind stimulation coincided with singing motor activity. The axonal terminals of cercal afferents showed no indication of presynaptic inhibition during singing. In two ventral GIs, however, a corollary discharge inhibition occurred strictly in phase with the singing motor pattern. Paired intracellular recordings revealed that this inhibition was not mediated by the activity of the previously identified corollary discharge interneuron (CDI) that rhythmically inhibits the auditory pathway during singing. Cercal wind stimulation, however, reduced the spike activity of this CDI by postsynaptic inhibition. Our study reveals how precisely timed corollary discharge inhibition of ventral GIs can prevent self-generated airflow from triggering inadvertent escape responses in singing crickets. The results indicate that the responsiveness of the auditory and wind-sensitive pathway is modulated by distinct CDIs in singing crickets and that the corollary discharge inhibition in the auditory pathway can be attenuated by cercal wind stimulation. PMID:25318763

  8. Variation in singing style use in the reed bunting Emberiza schoeniclus: influencing factors and possible functions

    OpenAIRE

    Brunner, P; Pasinelli, G

    2010-01-01

    The two main functions of bird song are territory defence and mate attraction. Considerable progress has been made in understanding how species adjust the use of songs to serve these and other (presumed) functions of bird song, but the striking variety of singing behavior observable in wild birds remains enigmatic. Some species make do with simple songs and small repertoires, while others show large, complex repertoires and still others have evolved several distinct singing styles. In most sp...

  9. Group singing and health-related quality of life in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Romane V; Baird, Amee D; Chalmers, Kerry A

    2017-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) has a negative impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Previous studies have shown that participating in group singing activities can improve quality of life in some patient populations (e.g., people with chronic mental health or neurological conditions). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of group singing on HRQoL for people diagnosed with PD. Eleven participants (mean age 70.6 years) with a formal diagnosis of PD between Hoehn and Yahr Stages I-III were recruited from a community singing group for people with PD, their family and their carers. Participants' perceptions of the effect of group singing on their quality of life were captured in a semistructured interview. Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis (IPA), a qualitative methodology, informed data collection and analysis. The IPA analysis revealed 6 categories that characterized the effects of group singing: physical, mood, cognitive functioning, social connectedness, "flow-on" effects, and sense-of-self. All participants reported positive effects across at least 4 of these categories. Three participants reported a negative effect in 1 category (physical, mood, or sense-of-self). The results suggest that group singing improved HRQoL with all participants reporting positive effects regardless of PD stage or symptom severity. Weekly engagement in group singing resulted in multiple benefits for the participants and counteracted some of the negative effects of PD. These findings suggest that group singing "gives back" some of what PD "takes away." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Effects of singing classes on pulmonary function and quality of life of COPD patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Gimenes Bonilha

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Amanda Gimenes Bonilha1, Fernanda Onofre2, Maria Lucia Vieira1, Maria Yuka Almeida Prado2, José Antônio Baddini Martinez11Internal Medicine Department, Medical School of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil; 2Music Department, School of Arts and Communications, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil Trial registered at ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT 00500526Abstract: This study aimed to investigate the effects of weekly singings classes on pulmonary function parameters and quality of life (QoL of COPD patients. Forty-three patients were randomized to weekly classes of singing practice, or handcraft work. They performed spirometry and completed maximal respiratory pressure measurements, evaluations of dyspnea, and the Saint George’s Respiratory Questionnaire, before and after 24 training classes. A functional evaluation, immediately after 10 minutes of singing practice, was also performed at the end of the study. Fifteen subjects completed the study in each group. In comparison to controls the singing group exhibited transitory elevations on the dyspnea Borg scale (p = 0.02, and inspiratory capacity (p = 0.01, and decreases of expiratory reserve volume (p = 0.03, just after a short session of singing. There was a significant difference on changes of maximal expiratory pressures in the comparison between groups at the end of training. While the control group showed deterioration of maximal expiratory pressure, the singing group exhibited a small improvement (p = 0.05. Both groups showed significant improvements of QoL in within group comparisons. We have concluded that singing classes are a well tolerated activity for selected subjects with COPD. Regular practice of singing may improve QoL, and preserve the maximal expiratory pressure of these patients.Keywords: COPD; pulmonary function tests; breathing exercises

  11. Definition of the OPERA safety case for radioactive waste disposal in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, Jaap; Wildenborg, Ton; Davis, Paul; Becker, Dirk-Alexander; Verhoef, Ewoud

    2014-01-01

    This paper first gives a short introduction on OPERA, the current Dutch five-year research programme on disposal of radioactive waste. It then zooms in on OPERA WP (Work Package) 2 Safety Case - the OSCAR project, and presents (preliminary) results on the structure of the OPERA safety case, the subject of safety statements, and the OPERA safety assessment methodology. The structure of the initial long-term, post-closure safety case for a disposal facility for radioactive waste in Boom Clay in the Netherlands is being developed in the OSCAR project. Hereto a selection of relevant national and international efforts concerning the set-up of a safety case for geological disposal of radioactive waste (safety case structure, safety assessment methodology, FEP database) has been reviewed considering the objectives and outlines of the OPERA programme described in the OPERA research plan. Not surprisingly, it turned out that the guidelines and databases of the IAEA and NEA developed by the international community pretty well covered all aspects of nationally developed safety cases. Although in OPERA only 'initial and conditional' safety cases (for disposal in low permeable clay and rock salt) will be developed, the programme objective is detailing a first road-map for the long-term research on geological disposal of radioactive waste in the Netherlands. The safety case being developed will serve as a basis for the further development of the subsequent stages of the Dutch radioactive waste disposal programme. The focus of OSCAR is, therefore, to develop and propose a 'future proof' structure for the safety case, drawing on the NEA and IAEA/PRISM methodologies. The OPERA safety case structure being developed will encompass all relevant aspects, or components, of a modern safety case and will link the different components in a practical and transparent way. It will assist in steering the flow of information generated within the different OPERA and as such provide a structured

  12. Singing ability is rooted in vocal-motor control of pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Sean; Larrouy-Maestri, Pauline; Peretz, Isabelle

    2014-11-01

    The inability to vocally match a pitch can be caused by poor pitch perception or by poor vocal-motor control. Although previous studies have tried to examine the relationship between pitch perception and vocal production, they have failed to control for the timbre of the target to be matched. In the present study, we compare pitch-matching accuracy with an unfamiliar instrument (the slider) and with the voice, designed such that the slider plays back recordings of the participant's own voice. We also measured pitch accuracy in singing a familiar melody ("Happy Birthday") to assess the relationship between single-pitch-matching tasks and melodic singing. Our results showed that participants (all nonmusicians) were significantly better at matching recordings of their own voices with the slider than with their voice, indicating that vocal-motor control is an important limiting factor on singing ability. We also found significant correlations between the ability to sing a melody in tune and vocal pitch matching, but not pitch matching on the slider. Better melodic singers also tended to have higher quality voices (as measured by acoustic variables). These results provide important evidence about the role of vocal-motor control in poor singing ability and demonstrate that single-pitch-matching tasks can be useful in measuring general singing abilities.

  13. Lower Vocal Tract Morphologic Adjustments Are Relevant for Voice Timbre in Singing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainka, Alexander; Poznyakovskiy, Anton; Platzek, Ivan; Fleischer, Mario; Sundberg, Johan; Mürbe, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    The vocal tract shape is crucial to voice production. Its lower part seems particularly relevant for voice timbre. This study analyzes the detailed morphology of parts of the epilaryngeal tube and the hypopharynx for the sustained German vowels /a/, /e/, /i/, /o/, and /u/ by thirteen male singer subjects who were at the beginning of their academic singing studies. Analysis was based on two different phonatory conditions: a natural, speech-like phonation and a singing phonation, like in classical singing. 3D models of the vocal tract were derived from magnetic resonance imaging and compared with long-term average spectrum analysis of audio recordings from the same subjects. Comparison of singing to the speech-like phonation, which served as reference, showed significant adjustments of the lower vocal tract: an average lowering of the larynx by 8 mm and an increase of the hypopharyngeal cross-sectional area (+ 21:9%) and volume (+ 16:8%). Changes in the analyzed epilaryngeal portion of the vocal tract were not significant. Consequently, lower larynx-to-hypopharynx area and volume ratios were found in singing compared to the speech-like phonation. All evaluated measures of the lower vocal tract varied significantly with vowel quality. Acoustically, an increase of high frequency energy in singing correlated with a wider hypopharyngeal area. The findings offer an explanation how classical male singers might succeed in producing a voice timbre with increased high frequency energy, creating a singer`s formant cluster.

  14. Potential Benefit of Singing for People with Parkinson's Disease: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnish, Jean; Atkinson, Rachel A; Barran, Susannah M; Barnish, Maxwell S

    2016-06-03

    There is evidence that participation in performing arts brings psychosocial benefits in the general population and in recent years there has been substantial interest in the potential therapeutic benefit of performing arts, including singing, for people with chronic medical conditions including those of neurological aetiology. To systematically review the existing body of evidence regarding the potential benefit of singing on clinical outcomes of people with PD. Seven online bibliographic databases were systematically searched in January 2016 and supplementary searches were conducted. Full-text original peer-reviewed scientific papers that investigated the potential benefit of singing on at least one of speech, functional communication, cognitive status, motor function and quality of life in human participants with PD were eligible for inclusion. 449 unique records were identified, 25 full-text articles were screened and seven studies included in the review. All seven studies assessed the impact of singing on speech, five found partial evidence of benefit and two found no evidence of benefit. One study assessed each of functional communication and quality of life and no significant benefit was found. No included study assessed the impact of singing on motor function or cognitive status. Singing may benefit the speech of people with PD, although evidence is not unequivocal. Further research is required to assess wider benefits including on functional communication, cognitive status, motor function and quality of life. Substantial methodological limitations were identified in the existing literature. Recommendations are made for advancing the state of the literature.

  15. Behavioral and neural lateralization of vision in courtship singing of the zebra finch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Isabelle; Hara, Erina; Hessler, Neal A

    2006-09-01

    Along with human speech and language processing, birdsong has been one of the best-characterized model systems for understanding the relationship of lateralization of brain function to behavior. Lateralization of song production has been extensively characterized, and lateralization of song perception has begun to be studied. Here we have begun to examine whether behavior and brain function are lateralized in relation to communicative aspects of singing, as well. In order to monitor central brain function, we assayed the levels of several activity dependent immediate early genes after directed courtship singing. Consistent with a lateralization of visual processing during communication, there were higher levels of expression of both egr-1 and c-fos in the left optic tectum after directed singing. Because input from the eyes to the brain is almost completely contralateral in birds, these results suggest that visual input from the right eye should be favored during normal singing to females. Consistent with this, we further found that males sang more when they could use only their right eye compared to when they could use only their left eye. Normal levels of singing, though, required free use of both eyes to view the female. These results suggest that there is a preference for visual processing by the right eye and left brain hemisphere during courtship singing. This may reflect a proposed specialization of the avian left hemisphere in sustaining attention on stimuli toward which a motor response is planned.

  16. Parents' Perceptions of Professional Support for the Emergent Literacy of Young Children with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Susan A.; Luze, Gayle J.; Peterson, Carla

    2009-01-01

    This survey explored the emergent literacy experiences that parents provided for their children with visual impairments, aged 1-8, as well as the parents' perceptions of the professional support that they received to facilitate these activities. The results indicated that the parents and children engaged in reading, singing songs, and writing or…

  17. Konference Music, body and stage: The iconography of music theater and opera

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vácha, Štěpán

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 1 (2008), s. 7-8 ISSN 0862-612X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80330511 Keywords : music iconography * theater * opera Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage http://www.dejinyumeni.cz/bulletin/UHS_1_2008.pdf

  18. OPERA-reassessing data on the energy dependence of the speed of neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni; Loret, Niccoló; Mercati, Flavio; Rosati, Giacomo; Lipari, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    We offer a preliminary exploration of the two sides of the challenge provided by the recent OPERA data on superluminal neutrinos. On one side we stress that some aspects of this result are puzzling even from the perspective of the wild quantum-gravity literature, where arguments in favor of the possibility of superluminal propagation have been presented, but not considering the possibility of such a sizeable effect for neutrinos of such low energies. We feel this must encourage particularly severe scrutiny of the OPERA result. On the other side, we notice that the OPERA result is reasonably consistent with $\\mu$-neutrino-speed data previously obtained at FERMILAB, reported in papers of 2007 and 1979. And it is intriguing that these FERMILAB79 and FERMILAB07 results, when combined with the new OPERA result, in principle provide a window on $\\mu$-neutrino speeds at different energies broad enough to compare alternative phenomenological models. We test the discriminating power of such an approach by using as ill...

  19. Authentic ESL Spoken Materials: Soap Opera and Sitcom versus Natural Conversation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Surmi, Mansoor Ali

    2012-01-01

    TV shows, especially soap operas and sitcoms, are usually considered by ESL practitioners as a source of authentic spoken conversational materials presumably because they reflect the linguistic features of natural conversation. However, practitioners might be faced with the dilemma of how to evaluate whether such conversational materials reflect…

  20. Effects of a Prosocial Television Soap Opera in Promoting Women's Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, William J.; Cody, Michael J.

    1991-01-01

    Investigates the effects of India's first long-running television soap opera that was designed to promote women's status in Indian society. Finds that exposure to the program was positively associated with viewers' involvement with the characters in the program and with viewer's television dependency, but did not make viewers more aware of women's…

  1. Adolescents' Interpretations of the Birth Control Behavior of a Soap Opera Couple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh-Childers, Kim

    A study investigated whether adolescents' schemas about contraceptive use would influence their perceptions that a soap opera couple used birth control during sex. The study also examined the effects of increasing explicitness of characters' conversations about contraceptives on viewers' perceptions of the couple's contraceptive use. Thirty-six…

  2. Alfred: Dvořák’s first opera and its fate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kratochvílová, Markéta

    -, č. 3 (2014), s. 7-11 ISSN 1211-0264 Institutional support: RVO:68378076 Keywords : Gerd Albrecht * Adolf Heller * Karl Theodor Körner * opera * Antonín Dvořák * Alfred Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  3. Saber médico; saber psicológico: operações do olhar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane da Fonseca Proença

    1992-09-01

    Full Text Available Estudo que consta de reflexões sobre o modo como o olhar opera no âmbito da prática, em duas abordagens nitidamente distintas (olhar objetivo versus olhar escuta e, conseqüentemente, o lugar reservado ao terapeuta e o paciente, dentro da lógica de cada olhar.

  4. Muusikamaailm. Maailmaesiettekanne Krimmis. Herderi preemiad 2002. Opera Metz 250. Günter Wand 90 / Priit Kuusk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuusk, Priit, 1938-

    2002-01-01

    Krimmis leiab aset Alemdar Karamanovi sümfoonia "Täideläinu" maailma esiettekanne. Johann Gottfried Herderi muusikapreemia sai nimekas rumeenia helilooja Aurel Stroe. Opera Metz Prantsusmaal tähistab oma 250ndat aastapäeva mitmete uuslavastustega. Dirigent Günter Wand tähistab 90ndat juubelit

  5. The Opera Instrument: An Advanced Curation Development for Mars Sample Return Organic Contamination Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, M. D.; Fries, W. D.; McCubbin, F. M.; Zeigler, R. A.

    2018-01-01

    Mars Sample Return (MSR) requires strict organic contamination control (CC) and contamination knowledge (CK) as outlined by the Mars 2020 Organic Contamination Panel (OCP). This includes a need to monitor surficial organic contamination to a ng/sq. cm sensitivity level. Archiving and maintaining this degree of surface cleanliness may be difficult but has been achieved. MSR's CK effort will be very important because all returned samples will be studied thoroughly and in minute detail. Consequently, accurate CK must be collected and characterized to best interpret scientific results from the returned samples. The CK data are not only required to make accurate measurements and interpretations for carbon-depleted martian samples, but also to strengthen the validity of science investigations performed on the samples. The Opera instrument prototype is intended to fulfill a CC/CK role in the assembly, cleaning, and overall contamination history of hardware used in the MSR effort, from initial hardware assembly through post-flight sample curation. Opera is intended to monitor particulate and organic contamination using quartz crystal microbalances (QCMs), in a self-contained portable package that is cleanroom-compliant. The Opera prototype is in initial development capable of approximately 100 ng/sq. cm organic contamination sensitivity, with additional development planned to achieve 1 ng/sq. cm. The Opera prototype was funded by the 2017 NASA Johnson Space Center Innovation Charge Account (ICA), which provides funding for small, short-term projects.

  6. Polymorphous Narrative of Gothic Tradition in Linguistic Perspective: Comparing Fiction and Opera Libretto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihina, Zoia

    2015-01-01

    This article is dedicated to revealing linguistic means that realise "the event" in the gothic narrative--H. James's novella "The Turn of the Screw" and the opera libretto of the same name. The event is treated as a situational change of states and presupposes that "the real" and "the unknown" should meet.…

  7. The Sydney Opera House: Politics in the Creation of an Icon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Adrian; Tyrrell, Roger

    2013-01-01

    architectural significance, as well as blighting the subsequent career of its architect. It is only in recent years that Utzon has come to be widely recognised as one of the outstanding architects of the 20th century. However, while the Sydney Opera House has become a reference for major public buildings since...

  8. "Mary Hartman, Mary Hartman": An Analysis of Satire as a Violation of Soap Opera Stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaulard, Joan M.

    The soap opera "Mary Hartman, Mary Hartman" presents an interesting new genre in television, as it defies the conventional standards and stereotypes associated with daytime drama. The central character is not a dependent victim but a survivor who indicates to her viewers the concept which advertisers and media management have of them. A…

  9. "Mary Hartman, Mary Hartman"; A New Genre of Prosocial Programming, or Just Another Soap Opera?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surlin, Stuart H.; Maloof, Mary C.

    This paper discusses the wide appeal, and the effect on the viewing audience, of traditional television soap operas. It reports on a comparison of role interactions, topics discussed by the characters, and types of topics and problems presented on the television program "Mary Hartman, Mary Hartman" with those presented on two traditional…

  10. Opera, Byron, and a South African Psyche in JM Coetzee's Disgrace

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At the close of Coetzee's novel Disgrace, Professor David Lurie retreats into a state of alienation. He chooses both a physical and psychic reality removed from a functioning democratic South Africa. In this state he attempts to compose an opera on Lord Byron and Teresa Guiccioli, which becomes representative on many ...

  11. Strauss, Richard. Ariane a Naxos: opera seulement, integrale. Miliza Korjus / Michel Parouty

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Parouty, Michel

    1995-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Strauss, Richard. Ariane a Naxos: opera seulement, integrale. Miliza Korjus (Najade). Orchestre de l'Opea l'Efat de Vienne" Arlecchino ARL 14-16, distribution Dante (3 CD: 390 F). 1935, 1944. TT: 3h 46'17"

  12. Entertainment Education and Social Change: Evaluating a Children's Soap Opera in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Block, Liesbeth

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses audience responses to a children's soap opera produced and broadcast in Kenya. It examines the evaluation process in relation to qualitative audience research within Cultural Studies. It challenges an Entertainment-Education model of media as vehicles for messages and links strongly with Communication for Social Change…

  13. Event classification with the electronic detectors of the OPERA experiment using neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hierholzer, Martin C.

    2012-02-01

    The OPERA experiment searches for ν μ ν τ oscillations in appearance mode. It uses the emulsion cloud chamber (ECC) technique for a high spatial resolution combined with on-line components for event localisation and muon identification. The analysis of events in an ECC detector takes considerable time, especially in case of ν τ /ν e candidate events. A ranking of events by a probability for being a ν τ /ν e event can speed up the analysis of the OPERA experiment. An algorithm for such an event ranking based on a classification-type neural network is presented in this thesis. Almost all candidate events can be found within the first 30% of the analysed events if the described ranking is applied. This event ranking is currently applied for testing purposes by the OPERA collaboration, a decision on a full application for the whole analysis is pending. A similar neural network is used for discrimination between neutral and charged current events. This is used to observe neutrino oscillations in disappearance mode with the on-line components of the OPERA detector by measuring the energy dependence of the fraction of neutral current interactions. The confidence level of the observed oscillation effect is 87%. Assuming full mixing, the mass splitting has been determined to vertical stroke Δm 2 32 vertical stroke =2.8 -1.7 +1.4 .10 -3 eV 2 .

  14. Opera and Poison: A Secret and Enjoyable Approach to Teaching and Learning Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre, Joao Paulo

    2013-01-01

    The storyline of operas, with historical or fictional characters, often include potions and poisons. This has prompted a study of the chemistry behind some operatic plots. The results were originally presented as a lecture given at the University of Minho in Portugal, within the context of the International Year of Chemistry. The same lecture was…

  15. Os desafios e o aprendizado do professor coordenador: duas operações, dois desafios diferentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Eduardo Kerschbaumer

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem por objetivo demonstrar como duas operações do Projeto Rondon podem contribuir de modo diferente ao aprendizado do docente, bem como os desafios encontrados para a atuação. A metodologia empregada para demonstração é a descrição ou relato das experiências com a coordenação de equipes nas operações Jenipapo e Bororos realizadas no ano de 2015. Diversas similaridades ocorrem entre as operações citadas, no entanto tanto a administração pública quanto as pessoas que compõem a equipe rondonista apresentam diferenças de expectativa e comportamento, o que leva a concluir que para o professor coordenador também há um grande aprendizado com a experiência na participação de mais de uma Operação do Projeto Rondon.

  16. Collaboration and conquest: MTD as viewed by voice teacher (singing voice specialist) and speech-language pathologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffi-Fynn, Jeanne C; Carroll, Linda M

    2013-05-01

    This study was designed as a qualitative case study to demonstrate the process of diagnosis and treatment between a voice team to manage a singer diagnosed with muscular tension dysphonia (MTD). Traditionally, literature suggests that MTD is challenging to treat and little in the literature directly addresses singers with MTD. Data collected included initial medical screening with laryngologist, referral to speech-language pathologist (SLP) specializing in voice disorders among singers, and adjunctive voice training with voice teacher trained in vocology (singing voice specialist or SVS). Initial target goals with SLP included reducing extrinsic laryngeal tension, using a relaxed laryngeal posture, and effective abdominal-diaphragmatic support for all phonation events. Balance of respiratory forces, laryngeal coordination, and use of optimum filtering of the source signal through resonance and articulatory awareness was emphasized. Further work with SVS included three main goals including a lowered breathing pattern to aid in decreasing subglottic air pressure, vertical laryngeal position to lower to allow for a relaxed laryngeal position, and a top-down singing approach to encourage an easier, more balanced registration, and better resonance. Initial results also emphasize the retraining of subject toward a sensory rather than auditory mode of monitoring. Other areas of consideration include singers' training and vocal use, the psychological effects of MTD, the personalities potentially associated with it, and its relationship with stress. Finally, the results emphasize that a positive rapport with the subject and collaboration between all professionals involved in a singer's care are essential for recovery. Copyright © 2013 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Acoustic properties of vocal singing in prelingually-deafened children with cochlear implants or hearing aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yitao; Zhang, Mengchao; Nutter, Heather; Zhang, Yijing; Zhou, Qixin; Liu, Qiaoyun; Wu, Weijing; Xie, Dinghua; Xu, Li

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate vocal singing performance of hearing-impaired children with cochlear implants (CI) and hearing aids (HA) as well as to evaluate the relationship between demographic factors of those hearing-impaired children and their singing ability. Thirty-seven prelingually-deafened children with CIs and 31 prelingually-deafened children with HAs, and 37 normal-hearing (NH) children participated in the study. The fundamental frequencies (F0) of each note in the recorded songs were extracted and the duration of each sung note was measured. Five metrics were used to evaluate the pitch-related and rhythm-based aspects of singing accuracy. Children with CIs and HAs showed significantly poorer performance in either the pitch-based assessments or the rhythm-based measure than the NH children. No significant differences were seen between the CI and HA groups in all of these measures except for the mean deviation of the pitch intervals. For both hearing-impaired groups, length of device use was significantly correlated with singing accuracy. There is a marked deficit in vocal singing ability either in pitch or rhythm accuracy in a majority of prelingually-deafened children who have received CIs or fitted with HAs. Although an increased length of device use might facilitate singing performance to some extent, the chance for the hearing-impaired children fitted with either HAs or CIs to reach high proficiency in singing is quite slim. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Singing teaching as a therapy for chronic respiratory disease - a randomised controlled trial and qualitative evaluation

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    Kelly Julia L

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite optimal pharmacological therapy and pulmonary rehabilitation, patients with COPD continue to be breathless. There is a need to develop additional strategies to alleviate symptoms. Learning to sing requires control of breathing and posture and might have benefits that translate into daily life. Methods To test this hypothesis we performed a randomised controlled trial, comparing a six week course of twice weekly singing classes to usual care, in 28 COPD patients. The experience of singing was assessed in a qualitative fashion, through interviews with a psychologist. In addition, we surveyed patients with chronic respiratory conditions who participated in a series of open singing workshops. Results In the RCT, the physical component score of the SF36 improved in the singers (n = 15 compared to the controls (n = 13; +7.5(14.6 vs. -3.8(8.4 p = 0.02. Singers also had a significant fall in HAD anxiety score; -1.1(2.7 vs. +0.8(1.7 p = 0.03. Singing did not improve single breath counting, breath hold time or shuttle walk distance. In the qualitative element, 8 patients from the singing group were interviewed. Positive effects on physical sensation, general well-being, community/social support and achievement/efficacy emerged as common themes. 150 participants in open workshops completed a questionnaire. 96% rated the workshops as "very enjoyable" and 98% thought the workshop had taught them something about breathing in a different way. 81% of attendees felt a "marked physical difference" after the workshop. Conclusion Singing classes can improve quality of life measures and anxiety and are viewed as a very positive experience by patients with respiratory disease; no adverse consequences of participation were observed. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials - ISRCTN17544114.

  19. The Marriage of Heaven and Hell: On the Functional Approach to Translating Libretti for Modernised Opera Productions

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    Aleksandra Ożarowska

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The present paper focuses on the issue of translating operatic libretti in the form of surtitles. This is a very specific type of translation, and it becomes even more challenging when operatic productions for which surtitles are created are modernised. In such cases the application of skopos theory proves to be the most useful and effective, even though some of its premises may be regarded as controversial. The data for the present study come from the most reputable opera houses, for example the Metropolitan Opera House or Royal Opera House, as they are known for providing their audiences with high-quality libretti translations.

  20. Die sing van psalms in die erediens: Twintig jaar later

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    Jacoba H. van Rooy

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available About 20 years ago the HSRC (Human Sciences Research Council conducted an empirical investigation on the singing of psalms in three Afrikaans reformed churches. Vos and M�ller (1990 dealt with different aspects of this investigation, especially the questions of which melodies are sung in the churches, what the frequency of the use of the different psalms is, the way in which new songs are introduced, the situation in the different churches and the influence of church attendance on the love of the psalms. In an investigation undertaken in 2008 (Van Rooy 2009 these matters were investigated in the Reformed Churches in South Africa, a denomiation that introduced a new hymnal in 2003. The comparison of the two investigations revealed that the number of favourite psalms and the same psalms remained fairly constant. The acceptance of new hymns is related to a number of factors, especially the melody and the liturgical usefulness of the new hymns. The new metrical version of the psalms is still not used very frequently in the Reformed Churches in South Africa. This can partly be ascribed to the lack of structured programmes to learn the new hymns.

  1. Patterns of FOS protein induction in singing female starlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riters, Lauren V.

    2013-01-01

    Females of many songbird species produce song, but information about the neural correlates of singing behavior is limited in this sex. Although well studied in males, activity in premotor song control regions and social behavior regions has not been examined in females during song production. Here, we examined the immediate early gene protein product FOS in both song control and social behavior brain regions after female starlings defending nest boxes responded to an unfamiliar female in a naturalistic setting. We found that females that sang in response to the intruder had much higher numbers of fos-immunoreactive neurons (fos-ir) in the vocal control regions HVC, the robust nucleus of the arcopallium (RA), and the dorsomedial part of the nucleus intercollicularis (DM of the ICo). In HVC, fos-ir correlated positively with song length. In RA, DM and Area X, fos-ir correlated positively with number of songs produced. In social behavior regions, singers showed higher fos-ir in the nucleus taeniae of the amygdala, the dorsal part of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and the ventromedial hypothalamus than non-singers. Overall, patterns of fos-ir in song control regions in females were similar to those reported for males, but differences in fos-ir were identified in social behavior regions. These differences may reflect a distinct role for brain regions involved in social behavior in female song, or they may reflect differences in the social function of female and male song. PMID:23022365

  2. Choir singing and health status in people affected by cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reagon, C; Gale, N; Dow, R; Lewis, I; van Deursen, R

    2017-09-01

    Cancer survival rates have improved dramatically over recent years, however, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) for many patients, survivors and their families remains low even after successful treatment. This mixed-methods observational study explored the effects of participation in community choirs on HRQoL in individuals who have had cancer (patients) or have been affected by cancer (non-patients). This included a longitudinal analysis of choristers commencing the Tenovus Cancer Care "Sing with Us" choirs across Wales and a series of semi-structured interviews and focus groups. Participants completed the Short-form 36 and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale on commencement of the choir and 3 and 6 months later. On joining the choir, several domains of the SF36 were lower, indicating worse HRQoL and greater depression in patients than non-patients (p < .05). In patients, choir participation improved vitality, overall mental health and anxiety. In non-patients, choir participation improved anxiety (p < .05). Participants experienced the choirs as both an uplifting musical activity and a supportive community group. The results support the provision of a spectrum of support options to meet the different needs and preferences of people affected by cancer. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Adiposity signals predict vocal effort in Alston's singing mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhard, Tracy T; Westwick, Rebecca R; Phelps, Steven M

    2018-04-25

    Advertisement displays often seem extravagant and expensive, and are thought to depend on the body condition of a signaller. Nevertheless, we know little about how signallers adjust effort based on condition, and few studies find a strong relationship between natural variation in condition and display. To examine the relationship between body condition and signal elaboration more fully, we characterized physiological condition and acoustic displays in a wild rodent with elaborate vocalizations, Alston's singing mouse, Scotinomys teguina We found two major axes of variation in condition-one defined by short-term fluctuations in caloric nutrients, and a second by longer-term variation in adiposity. Among acoustic parameters, song effort was characterized by high rates of display and longer songs. Song effort was highly correlated with measures of adiposity. We found that leptin was a particularly strong predictor of display effort. Leptin is known to influence investment in other costly traits, such as immune function and reproduction. Plasma hormone levels convey somatic state to a variety of tissues, and may govern trait investment across vertebrates. Such measures offer new insights into how animals translate body condition into behavioural and life-history decisions. © 2018 The Author(s).

  4. Singing well-becoming: Student musical therapy case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Murphey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Much research supports the everyday therapeutic and deeper socialneurophysiological influence of singing songs alone and in groups (Austin, 2008; Cozolino, 2013; Sacks, 2007. This study looks at what happens when Japanese students teach short English affirmation songlet-routines to others out of the classroom (clandestine folk music therapy. I investigate 155 student-conducted musical case studies from 7 semester-long classes (18 to 29 students per class over a 4-year period. The assignments, their in-class training, and their results are introduced, with examples directly from their case studies. Each class published their own booklet of case studies (a class publication, available to readers online for research replication and modeling. Results show that most primary participants enjoyed spreading these positive songlets as they became “well-becoming agents of change” in their own social networks. “Well-becoming” emphasizes an agentive action or activity that creates better well-being in others, an action such as the sharing or teaching of a songlet. The qualitative data reveals a number of types of well-becoming such as social and familial bonding, meaning-making, teaching-rushes, and experiencing embodied cognition. The project also stimulated wider network dissemination of these well-becoming possibilities and pedagogical insights.

  5. Vocal amusia in a professional tango singer due to a right superior temporal cortex infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terao, Yasuo; Mizuno, Tomoyuki; Shindoh, Mitsuko; Sakurai, Yasuhisa; Ugawa, Yoshikazu; Kobayashi, Shunsuke; Nagai, Chiyoko; Furubayashi, Toshiaki; Arai, Noritoshi; Okabe, Shingo; Mochizuki, Hitoshi; Hanajima, Ritsuko; Tsuji, Shouji

    2006-01-01

    We describe the psychophysical features of vocal amusia in a professional tango singer caused by an infarction mainly involving the superior temporal cortex of the right hemisphere. The lesion also extended to the supramarginal gyrus, the posterior aspect of the postcentral gyrus and the posterior insula. She presented with impairment of musical perception that was especially pronounced in discriminating timbre and loudness but also in discriminating pitch, and a severely impaired ability to reproduce the pitch just presented. In contrast, language and motor disturbances were almost entirely absent. By comparing her pre- and post-stroke singing, we were able to show that her singing after the stroke lacked the fine control of the subtle stress and pitch changes that characterized her pre-stroke singing. Such impairment could not be explained by the impairment of pitch perception. The findings suggest that damage to the right temporoparietal cortex is enough to produce both perceptive and expressive deficits in music.

  6. Are OPERA neutrinos faster than light because of non-inertial reference frames?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germanà, C.

    2012-02-01

    Context. Recent results from the OPERA experiment reported a neutrino beam traveling faster than light. The challenging experiment measured the neutrino time of flight (TOF) over a baseline from the CERN to the Gran Sasso site, concluding that the neutrino beam arrives ~60 ns earlier than a light ray would do. Because the result, if confirmed, has an enormous impact on science, it might be worth double-checking the time definitions with respect to the non-inertial system in which the neutrino travel time was measured. An observer with a clock measuring the proper time τ free of non-inertial effects is the one located at the solar system barycenter (SSB). Aims: Potential problems in the OPERA data analysis connected with the definition of the reference frame and time synchronization are emphasized. We aim to investigate the synchronization of non-inertial clocks on Earth by relating this time to the proper time of an inertial observer at SSB. Methods: The Tempo2 software was used to time-stamp events observed on the geoid with respect to the SSB inertial observer time. Results: Neutrino results from OPERA might carry the fingerprint of non-inertial effects because they are timed by terrestrial clocks. The CERN-Gran Sasso clock synchronization is accomplished by applying corrections that depend on special and general relativistic time dilation effects at the clocks, depending on the position of the clocks in the solar system gravitational well. As a consequence, TOF distributions are centered on values shorter by tens of nanoseconds than expected, integrating over a period from April to December, longer if otherwise. It is worth remarking that the OPERA runs have always been carried out from April/May to November. Conclusions: If the analysis by Tempo2 holds for the OPERA experiment, the excellent measurement by the OPERA collaboration will turn into a proof of the general relativity theory in a weak field approximation. The analysis presented here is falsifiable

  7. Therapeutic singing as an early intervention for swallowing in persons with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegemöller, E L; Hibbing, P; Radig, H; Wingate, J

    2017-04-01

    For persons with Parkinson's disease (PD), secondary motor symptoms such as swallow impairment impact the quality of life and are major contributors to mortality. There is a present need for therapeutic interventions aimed at improving swallow function during the early stages of PD. The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the effects of a group therapeutic singing intervention on swallowing in persons with PD with no significant dysphagia symptoms. Cohort study. University in the United States. Twenty-four participants with PD. Eight weeks of group therapeutic singing. Electromyography (EMG) was used to assess muscle activity associated with swallow pre and post the group singing intervention. Swallow quality of life (SWAL-QOL) and the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) were also obtained pre- and post-intervention. Participants reported minimal difficulty with swallowing, yet results revealed a significant increase in EMG outcome measures, as well as significant improvement in UPDRS total and UPDRS motor scores. No significant differences were revealed for SWAL-QOL. Increases in EMG timing measures may suggest that group singing results in the prolongation of laryngeal elevation, protecting the airway from foreign material for longer periods of time during swallow. Combined with the improvement in UPDRS clinical measures, therapeutic singing may be an engaging early intervention strategy to address oropharyngeal dysphagia while also benefiting additional clinical symptoms of PD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluating the potential of group singing to enhance the well-being of older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Jane W; McNamara, Beverley; Rosenwax, Lorna; Lange, Andrea; Jenkins, Sue; Lewin, Gill

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of a singing program developed specifically for older community-dwelling people on measures of health and well-being. An eight-week singing program was developed and evaluated using standardised measures of health and well-being, measures designed to examine specific singing program outcomes, and semi-structured interviews. Participants aged 70 years and older were recruited through a home care service provider (n = 17) and an advertisement in a community newspaper (n = 19). Standard outcome measures indicated that the program had little effect on health and well-being. However, study-specific measures indicated that many participants had positive gains. Those in the home care group required more assistance to attend and continue in the program than those in the general community. Participants reported that the community-based singing facilitator was essential to the program's success. Well-structured community-based singing programs have the potential to impact positively upon the well-being of older people, but program viability depends on support with recruitment, transport and funding. © 2013 The Authors. Australasian Journal on Ageing © 2013 ACOTA.

  9. Experiences of Persons With Parkinson's Disease Engaged in Group Therapeutic Singing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegemöller, Elizabeth L; Hurt, Tera R; O'Connor, Margaret C; Camp, Randie D; Green, Chrishelda W; Pattee, Jenna C; Williams, Ebony K

    2018-01-13

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that leads to altered neural control of movement, including the control of voice, respiration, and swallowing. There is a prevalent need to provide therapy for voice, respiration, and swallowing difficulties because current pharmacological and surgical treatments do not effectively treat these impairments. Previous research has demonstrated that singing may be a treatment option to target voice, respiratory, and swallowing impairments, as well as quality of life. However, participants' perspectives related to reasons for enrolling and engaging in programs as well as evaluation of singing programs have been neglected. The purpose of this descriptive study was thus to solicit participants' views of their involvement in a group singing intervention (GSI) led by credentialed music therapists. Twenty persons with PD were interviewed 4 to 6 months after completing the singing intervention. Participants were asked about 1) why they chose to participate, 2) what were the beneficial and non-beneficial aspects of participating, and 3) how to improve overall design and delivery of the GSI. Using content analysis procedures, we learned that participants regarded their involvement in the study as mutually beneficial, fun, and engaging. Participants appreciated the fellowship with other persons with PD and offered minimal constructive criticism. This study provided greater insight into how a therapeutic singing program may benefit participants and positively impact their lives. © American Music Therapy Association 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  10. Combined Functional Voice Therapy in Singers With Muscle Tension Dysphonia in Singing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sielska-Badurek, Ewelina; Osuch-Wójcikiewicz, Ewa; Sobol, Maria; Kazanecka, Ewa; Rzepakowska, Anna; Niemczyk, Kazimierz

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate vocal tract function and the voice quality in singers with muscle tension dysphonia (MTD) after undergoing combined functional voice therapy of the singing voice. This is a prospective, randomized study. Forty singers (29 females and 11 males, mean age: 24.6 ± 8.8 years) with MTD were enrolled in the study. The study group consisted of 20 singers who underwent combined functional voice therapy (10-15 individual sessions, 30-40 minutes each). Singers who did not opt for vocal rehabilitation consisted of the control group. Effects of rehabilitation were assessed with videolaryngostroboscopy, palpation of the vocal tract structures, flexible fiberoptic evaluation of the pharynx and the larynx, perceptual speaking and singing voice assessment, acoustic analysis, maximal phonation time, and the Voice Handicap Index. After combined functional voice therapy in the study group, great improvement was noticed in palpation of the vocal tract structures (P singing range obtained from acoustic analysis of glissando (P singing. Development of palpation and perceptual singing voice examination protocols enables one to compare results before and after rehabilitation in clinics. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. INFLUENCE OF CHORAL SINGING ON PSYCHO-EMOTIONAL STATE OF SINGERS

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    I V Grigoriev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Previously we have described certain correlation between the protein composition of mixed saliva (PCMS and human psycho-emotional state (PES. In this investigation, the analysis of PCMS was used to study the change of PES in the group in the process of creative activities, i.e. choral singing. During the experiment, three groups of singers performed different parts of songs in the course of their regular sessions. The saliva for the analysis was collected from the singers just before and after the choral singing. The results led to the following conclusions. The vast number of singers showed evidence of healthy mental state. During the experiment, in each of the three creative teams there was a relatively harmonious PES of the participants. Collective singing strengthened the positive PES of the most singers. In particular, after singing in the choir a few people were found to have changed their PES from depressive to normal. Also, the processing of the collected data showed that the analysis of the PCMS characteristics allows evaluating not only the direction of the PES change against the background of the creative process, but also the depth of the emotional experience. In conclusion, the results of the research provide an objective basis for the confirmation of the beneficial effects of choral singing on the psyche of the singers.

  12. Impact of group-singing on older adult health in senior living communities: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Musetta C; Belza, Basia; Nguyen, Huong; Logsdon, Rebecca; Demorest, Steven

    Participating in a group-singing program may be beneficial to healthy aging through engaging in active music-making activities and breathing exercises. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility, acceptability, and impact of a 12-week group singing program on cognitive function, lung health and quality of life (QoL) of older adults. A pre and post-test quasi-experimental design evaluated the impact of a group-singing program on older adult health. The intervention consisted of pre-singing exercises, song-singing and learning, and socialization. Classes were 75 min/week for 12 weeks. Inclusion criteria were age ≥60, no self-reported diagnosis of dementia, and able to hear conversations within 2 feet. Participants were recruited from 3 senior living communities. Outcome measures included cognition, lung function, QoL, and program feasibility and acceptability. A paired t-test with 2-sided alpha level at 0.05 was used to test the null hypotheses. We enrolled 49 participants (mean age 83.6). Forty-two (86%) completed the posttests and exit survey. At the 12th week there was significant improvement in phonological (p memory, language, speech information processing, executive function, and respiratory muscle strength in older adults. The program was feasible and well-accepted. A clinical trial with a larger sample is indicated. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Light pollution alters the phenology of dawn and dusk singing in common European songbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Arnaud; Valcu, Mihai; Kempenaers, Bart

    2015-05-05

    Artificial night lighting is expanding globally, but its ecological consequences remain little understood. Animals often use changes in day length as a cue to time seasonal behaviour. Artificial night lighting may influence the perception of day length, and may thus affect both circadian and circannual rhythms. Over a 3.5 month period, from winter to breeding, we recorded daily singing activity of six common songbird species in 12 woodland sites, half of which were affected by street lighting. We previously reported on analyses suggesting that artificial night lighting affects the daily timing of singing in five species. The main aim of this study was to investigate whether the presence of artificial night lighting is also associated with the seasonal occurrence of dawn and dusk singing. We found that in four species dawn and dusk singing developed earlier in the year at sites exposed to light pollution. We also examined the effects of weather conditions and found that rain and low temperatures negatively affected the occurrence of dawn and dusk singing. Our results support the hypothesis that artificial night lighting alters natural seasonal rhythms, independently of other effects of urbanization. The fitness consequences of the observed changes in seasonal timing of behaviour remain unknown.

  14. Some considerations on the evolution of the genre of opera in the creation of composers from bessarabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MORARU EMILIA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is dedicated to revealing some stylistic and genre peculiarities characteristic of the opera creations written by composers from Moldova. The author considers it to be necessary to bring out, at the beginning, some important historical events that marked the destiny of culture of the space between the Dniester and the Prut, events that contributed to the foundation of an opera theatre and a national music school. The proceedings of valorising folklore, the utilized musical language and the composition thinking of the opera creations from Moldova are identiied in the article starting with 1924 (on the debut of the first opera and up to 2004 (the last „word” said in this genre.

  15. Singing-Related Activity in Anterior Forebrain of Male Zebra Finches Reflects Courtship Motivation for Target Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Mai; Poulsen, Thomas M.; Oka, Kotaro; Hessler, Neal A.

    2013-01-01

    A critical function of singing by male songbirds is to attract a female mate. Previous studies have suggested that the anterior forebrain system is involved in this courtship behavior. Neural activity in this system, including the striatal Area X, is strikingly dependent on the function of male singing. When males sing to attract a female bird rather than while alone, less variable neural activity results in less variable song spectral features, which may be attractive to the female. These characteristics of neural activity and singing thus may reflect a male's motivation for courtship. Here, we compared the variability of neural activity and song features between courtship singing directed to a female with whom a male had previously formed a pair-bond or to other females. Surprisingly, across all units, there was no clear tendency for a difference in variability of neural activity or song features between courtship of paired females, nonpaired females, or dummy females. However, across the population of recordings, there was a significant relationship between the relative variability of syllable frequency and neural activity: when syllable frequency was less variable to paired than nonpaired females, neural activity was also less variable (and vice-versa). These results show that the lower variability of neural activity and syllable frequency during directed singing is not a binary distinction from undirected singing, but can vary in intensity, possibly related to the relative preference of a male for his singing target. PMID:24312344

  16. The Effects of Psychomotor Skills Instruction on Attitude toward Singing and General Music among Students in Grades 4-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Kenneth H.; Aitchison, Randall E.

    1998-01-01

    Investigates the relationship of psychomotor skills instruction on student attitudes in grades 4-6 towards singing and general music instruction. Finds females have more positive attitudes, interest declines as grade-level increases, group vocal instruction may produce more positive attitudes, and a positive relationship between liking to sing in…

  17. Fa-fa-fa-fa, de doo doo doo, de da da da, sha la la la lee : What is the optimal syllable in improvised singing?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eerten, Laura; Gilbers, Dicky; Lowie, Wander; Kager, René; Grijzenhout, Janet; Sebregts, Koen

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe and account for the optimal syllable structure in improvised singing without lyrics. Improvised singing has an overall relaxed character and it is abstracted from meaning. Furthermore, singing in general involves an exaggerated articulation of speech sounds.

  18. The DAQ system of OPERA experiment and its specifications for the spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dusini, S.; Barichello, G.; Dal Corso, F.; Felici, G.; Lindozzi, M.; Stalio, S.; Sorrentino, G.

    2004-01-01

    We present an overview of the data acquisition system (DAQ) and event building of OPERA. OPERA is a long baseline neutrino experiment with a high modularity detector and low event rate. To deal with these features a distributed DAQ system base on Ethernet standards for the data transfer has been chosen. A distributed GPS clock signal is used for synchronizations and time stamp of the data. This architecture allows very modular and flexible event building based on a software trigger strategy. We also present its specific application to the spectrometer sub-detector where RPC trackers are installed. Self-triggerability is a dedicated feature to be also sensitive to out-of-spill events and to possibly allow data taking before the official start of the experiment

  19. Track reconstruction in the emulsion-lead target of the OPERA experiment using the ESS microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrabito, L.; Bozza, C.; Buontempo, S.; Consiglio, L.; Cozzi, M.; D'Ambrosio, N.; DeLellis, G.; DeSerio, M.; Di Capua, F.; Di Ferdinando, D.; Di Marco, N.; Ereditato, A.; Esposito, L. S.; Fini, R. A.; Giacomelli, G.; Giorgini, M.; Grella, G.; Ieva, M.; Janicsko Csathy, J.; Juget, F.; Kreslo, I.; Laktineh, I.; Manai, K.; Mandrioli, G.; Marotta, A.; Migliozzi, P.; Monacelli, P.; Moser, U.; Muciaccia, M. T.; Pastore, A.; Patrizii, L.; Petukhov, Y.; Pistillo, C.; Pozzato, M.; Romano, G.; Rosa, G.; Russo, A.; Savvinov, N.; Schembri, A.; Scotto Lavina, L.; Simone, S.; Sioli, M.; Sirignano, C.; Sirri, G.; Strolin, P.; Tioukov, V.; Waelchli, T.

    2007-05-01

    The OPERA experiment, designed to conclusively prove the existence of νμ→ντ oscillations in the atmospheric sector, makes use of a massive lead-nuclear emulsion target to observe the appearance of ντ's in the CNGS νμ beam. The location and analysis of the neutrino interactions in quasi real-time required the development of fast computer-controlled microscopes able to reconstruct particle tracks with sub-micron precision and high efficiency at a speed of ~20 cm2/h. This paper describes the performance in particle track reconstruction of the European Scanning System, a novel automatic microscope for the measurement of emulsion films developed for OPERA.

  20. A Real-Time Interactive System for Facial Makeup of Peking Opera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Feilong; Yu, Jinhui

    In this paper we present a real-time interactive system for making facial makeup of Peking Opera. First, we analyze the process of drawing facial makeup and characteristics of the patterns used in it, and then construct a SVG pattern bank based on local features like eye, nose, mouth, etc. Next, we pick up some SVG patterns from the pattern bank and composed them to make a new facial makeup. We offer a vector-based free form deformation (FFD) tool to edit patterns and, based on editing, our system creates automatically texture maps for a template head model. Finally, the facial makeup is rendered on the 3D head model in real time. Our system offers flexibility in designing and synthesizing various 3D facial makeup. Potential applications of the system include decoration design, digital museum exhibition and education of Peking Opera.

  1. Track reconstruction in the emulsion-lead target of the OPERA experiment using the ESS microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrabito, L; Bozza, C; Buontempo, S

    2007-01-01

    The OPERA experiment, designed to conclusively prove the existence of ν μ →ν τ oscillations in the atmospheric sector, makes use of a massive lead-nuclear emulsion target to observe the appearance of ν τ 's in the CNGS ν μ beam. The location and analysis of the neutrino interactions in quasi real-time required the development of fast computer-controlled microscopes able to reconstruct particle tracks with sub-micron precision and high efficiency at a speed of ∼20 cm 2 /h. This paper describes the performance in particle track reconstruction of the European Scanning System, a novel automatic microscope for the measurement of emulsion films developed for OPERA

  2. Study of the effects induced by lead on the emulsion films of the OPERA experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Anokhina, A.; Ariga, A.; Arrabito, L.; Autiero, D.; Badertscher, A.; Bay, F.; Bergnoli, A.; Bersani Greggio, F.; Besnier, M.; Bick, D.; Bozza, C.; Brugiere, T.; Brugnera, R.; Brunetti, G.; Buontempo, S.; Carrara, E.; Cazes, A.; Chaussard, L.; Chernyavsky, M.; Chiarella, V.; Chon-Sen, N.; Chukanov, A.; Consiglio, L.; Cozzi, M.; Dal Corso, F.; D'Amato, G.; D'Ambrosio, N.; De Lellis, G.; Declais, Y.; De Serio, M.; Di Capua, F.; Di Ferdinando, D.; Di Giovanni, A.; Di Marco, N.; Di Troia, C.; Dmitrievski, S.; Dominjon, A.; Dracos, M.; Duchesneau, D.; Dulach, B.; Dusini, S.; Ebert, J.; Egorov, O.; Enikeev, R.; Ereditato, A.; Esposito, L.S.; Favier, J.; Felici, G.; Ferber, T.; Fini, R.; Franceschi, A.; Fukuda, T.; Fukushima, C.; Galkin, V.I.; Galkin, V.A.; Garfagnini, A.; Giacomelli, G.; Giorgini, M.; Goellnitz, C.; Golubkov, D.; Gornoushkin, Y.; Grella, G.; Grianti, F.; Guler, M.; Gusev, G.; Gustavino, C.; Hagner, Caren; Hara, T.; Hierholzer, M.; Hiramatsu, S.; Hoshino, Kaoru; Ieva, M.; Jakovcic, K.; Janicsko Csathy, J.; Janutta, B.; Jollet, C.; Juget, F.; Kawai, T.; Kazuyama, M.; Kim, S.H.; Kimura, M.; Knuesel, J.; Kodama, K.; Komatsu, M.; Kose, U.; Kreslo, I.; Laktineh, I.; Lazzaro, C.; Lenkeit, J.; Ljubicic, A.; Longhin, Andrea; Lutter, G.; Manai, K.; Mandrioli, G.; Manzoor, S.; Marotta, A.; Marteau, J.; Matsuoka, H.; Mauri, N.; Meisel, F.; Meregaglia, A.; Messina, M.; Migliozzi, P.; Miyamoto, S.; Monacelli, P.; Morishima, K.; Moser, U.; Muciaccia, M.T.; Naganawa, N.; Naka, T.; Nakamura, M.; Nakamura, T.; Nakano, T.; Nikitina, V.; Niwa, K.; Nonoyama, Y.; Ogawa, S.; Osedlo, V.; Ossetski, D.; Paoloni, A.; Park, B.D.; Park, I.G.; Pastore, A.; Patrizii, L.; Pennacchio, E.; Pessard, H.; Pistillo, C.; Polukhina, N.; Pozzato, M.; Pretzl, K.; Publichenko, P.; Pupilli, F.; Roganova, T.; Rosa, G.; Rostovtseva, I.; Rubbia, A.; Russo, A.; Ryazhskaya, O.; Ryzhikov, D.; Sato, Y.; Sato, O.; Saveliev, V.; Sazhina, G.; Schembri, A.; Scotto Lavina, L.; Shibuya, H.; Simone, S.; Sioli, M.; Sirignano, C.; Sirri, G.; Song, J.S.; Spinetti, M.; Stanco, L.; Starkov, N.; Stipcevic, M.; Strauss, T.; Strolin, Paolo Emilio; Sugonyaev, V.; Taira, Y.; Takahashi, S.; Tenti, M.; Terranova, F.; Tioukov, V.; Togo, V.; Tolun, P.; Tsarev, V.; Tufanli, S.; Ushida, N.; Valieri, C.; Vilain, P.; Vladimirov, M.; Votano, L.; Vuilleumier, J.L.; Wilquet, G.; Wonsak, B.; Wurtz, J.; Yoon, C.S.; Yoshida, J.; Zaitsev, Y.; Zemskova, S.; Zghiche, A.; Zimmermann, R.

    2008-01-01

    The OPERA neutrino oscillation experiment is based on the use of the Emulsion Cloud Chamber (ECC). In the OPERA ECC, nuclear emulsion films acting as very high precision tracking detectors are interleaved with lead plates providing a massive target for neutrino interactions. We report on studies related to the effects occurring from the contact between emulsion and lead. A low radioactivity lead is required in order to minimize the number of background tracks in emulsions and to achieve the required performance in the reconstruction of neutrino events. It was observed that adding other chemical elements to the lead, in order to improve the mechanical properties, may significantly increase the level of radioactivity on the emulsions. A detailed study was made in order to choose a lead alloy with good mechanical properties and an appropriate packing technique so as to have a low enough effective radioactivity.

  3. Kinematical analysis with the Emulsion Cloud Chamber in the OPERA experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Di Capua, F

    2010-01-01

    The OPERA experiment aims at measuring for the first time neutrino oscil- lation in appearance mode through the detection of ni-tau in an almost pure niμ beam produced at CERN SPS (CNGS), 730 km far from the detector. The ni-tau appearance signal is identified through the measurement of the decay daughter particles of the " lepton produced in CC ni-tau interactions. Since the short-lived " particle has, at the energy of the beam, an average decay length shorter than a 1 mm, a micrometric detection resolution is needed. The OPERA appara- tus is hybrid, using nuclear emulsion as high precision tracker and electronic detectors for the time stamp, event localization in the target and muon recon- struction. The Emulsion Cloud Chamber technique fulfils the requirement of a microscopic resolution together with a large target mass. The kinematical analysis allowed by this technique is described.

  4. From Gabriela to Juma: Female Erotic Images on Brazilian Soap Operas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Rosar Fornazari Klanovicz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at discussing some images constituted as erotic on Brazilian television. The Brazilian soap operas Gabriela (Rede Globo, 1975, and Pantanal (Rede Manchete, 1990, and their main characters, Gabriela and Juma, will be analyzed in detail. The Veja Magazine had a most influent part in constituting such “erotic” subjects through the divulging and commenting of positive, seductive attributes on the bodies of the eroticized actresses. Gabriela and Juma are important characters because they support the stereotypes of a Brazilian sensuality and the strong mundane aspects, such as sex-appeal and dark bodies. The text explores the Brazilian television production (soap operas in order to map the images which have contributed to build the subjectively Brazilian eroticism.

  5. Exploring the Potential of Soap Operas for Gender Equality and Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divyadarshan Chandrasekar

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary soap operas have a large but persistent viewership, especially among the women in India. This paper examines the Entertainment-Education (E-E paradigm in communication, its theoretical underpinnings and applications of these theories for bringing about a social change. Literature on social impact generated by soaps in India and in other countries including the US has been reviewed. The case study of Balika Vadhu, a revolutionary soap themed on child marriage, is also presented. The research identifies prime time soap operas as an untapped pool of talent with potential of becoming an agent of mass education. The research also advocates for constituting national level awards for TV soaps which focus on E-E.

  6. The art and ‘science’ of opera: composing, staging & designing new forms of interactive theatrical performance

    OpenAIRE

    Chamberlain, Alan; Kallionpää, Maria; Benford, Steve

    2017-01-01

    New technologies, such as Virtual Reality (VR), Robotics and Artificial Intelligence (AI) are steadily having an impact upon the world of opera. The evolving use of performance-based software such as Ableton Live and Max/MSP has created new and exciting compositional techniques that intertwine theatrical and musical performance. This poster presents some initial work on the development of an opera using such technologies that is being composed by Kallionpää and Chamberlain.

  7. THE STUDY OF THE SCIENTIFIC ASPECTS OF TEACHING SINGING IN THE CLASS OF PROFESSOR MIHAIL MUNTEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NISTREANU ELENA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is dedicated to the scientifi c aspects of teaching singing in the class of Professor Mihail Muntean. It presents the methodological core of teaching singing, which underlies the perception of M. Muntean`s method of addressing the process of working on the voice, breathing, developing the voice range, clearing the larynx and all the problems of the phonatory process. Th e article brings to the fore the problem of the methods of teaching singing, researched by such authors as E. Cernei, L. Câmpeanu, P. Ciochină, A. Varlamov, I. Nazarenko etc. Th ese authors have treated vocal positioning problems, sound formation, voice classifi cation, according to range, correct breathing, vocal resistance development etc. Th e study of this complex of investigation elucidates the principles that M. Muntean uses to work on his own phonatory apparatus and the way he passes this knowledge to his students.

  8. Measurement of the atmospheric muon charge ratio with the OPERA detector

    OpenAIRE

    Mauri, Nicoletta

    2011-01-01

    The atmospheric muon charge ratio, defined as the number of positive over negative charged muons, is an interesting quantity for the study of high energy hadronic interactions in atmosphere and the nature of the primary cosmic rays. The measurement of the charge ratio in the TeV muon energy range allows to study the hadronic interactions in kinematic regions not yet explored at accelerators. The OPERA experiment is a hybrid electronic detector/emulsion apparatus, located in the undergroun...

  9. Measurement of the cosmic ray muon charge ratio with the OPERA detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauri, N.; Sioli, M.

    2012-01-01

    The OPERA detector at the Gran Sasso underground laboratory (LNGS) was used to measure the cosmic ray muon charge ratio R μ =N μ + /N μ − in the TeV energy region. R μ is shown as a function of the “vertical surface energy” E μ cosθ. A fit to a simplified model of muon production in atmosphere allowed the determination of the pion and kaon charge ratios weighted by the cosmic ray energy spectrum.

  10. Event classification with the electronic detectors of the OPERA experiment using neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hierholzer, Martin C.

    2012-02-15

    The OPERA experiment searches for {nu}{sub {mu}} <-> {nu}{sub {tau}} oscillations in appearance mode. It uses the emulsion cloud chamber (ECC) technique for a high spatial resolution combined with on-line components for event localisation and muon identification. The analysis of events in an ECC detector takes considerable time, especially in case of {nu}{sub {tau}}/{nu}{sub e} candidate events. A ranking of events by a probability for being a {nu}{sub {tau}}/{nu}{sub e} event can speed up the analysis of the OPERA experiment. An algorithm for such an event ranking based on a classification-type neural network is presented in this thesis. Almost all candidate events can be found within the first 30% of the analysed events if the described ranking is applied. This event ranking is currently applied for testing purposes by the OPERA collaboration, a decision on a full application for the whole analysis is pending. A similar neural network is used for discrimination between neutral and charged current events. This is used to observe neutrino oscillations in disappearance mode with the on-line components of the OPERA detector by measuring the energy dependence of the fraction of neutral current interactions. The confidence level of the observed oscillation effect is 87%. Assuming full mixing, the mass splitting has been determined to vertical stroke {delta}m{sup 2}{sub 32} vertical stroke =2.8{sub -1.7}{sup +1.4}.10{sup -3}eV{sup 2}.

  11. Re-visiting RHIC snakes: OPERA fields, n0 dance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meot, F. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Gupta, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Huang, H. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ranjbar, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Robert-Demolaize, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-09-22

    In this Tech. Note RHIC snakes and stable spin direction $\\vector{n}$0(s) are re-visited, based on OPERA-computed field maps of the former. The numerical simulations so undertaken provide various outcomes regarding RHIC optics and spin dynamics, in relation with orbital and focusing effects resulting from the use of this realistic 3-D representation of the snakes.

  12. The Estimated Impact of Performing Arts on Adolescent Mood within a Community Sample of Mental Health Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Alan; Grieves, Julie; Opp, Dean

    2007-01-01

    In a brief survey, the authors solicited professional opinions regarding the probable impact of performing arts on adolescent mood stability using a hypothetical scenario where 20 moderately depressed 15-year-olds agreed to participate in a high school play, musical, or other singing performance. The results of the survey indicated that clinicians…

  13. Development of an automatic scanning system for nuclear emulsion analysis in the OPERA experiment and study of neutrino interactions location

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrabito, L.

    2007-10-01

    Following Super Kamiokande and K2K experiments, Opera (Oscillation Project with Emulsion tracking Apparatus), aims to confirm neutrino oscillation in the atmospheric sector. Taking advantage of a technique already employed in Chorus and in Donut, the Emulsion Cloud Chamber (ECC), Opera will be able to observe the ν μ → ν τ oscillation, through the ν τ appearance in a pure ν μ beam. The Opera experiment, with its ∼ 100000 m 2 of nuclear emulsions, needs a very fast automatic scanning system. Optical and mechanics components have been customized in order to achieve a speed of about 20 cm 2 /hour per emulsion layer (44 μm thick), while keeping a sub-micro-metric resolution. The first part of this thesis was dedicated to the optimization of 4 scanning systems at the French scanning station, based in Lyon. An experimental study on a dry objective scanning system has also been realized. The obtained results show that the performances of dry scanning are similar with respect to the traditional oil scanning, so that it can be successfully used for Opera. The second part of this work was devoted to the study of the neutrino interaction location and reconstruction strategy actually used in Opera. A dedicated test beam was performed at CERN in order to simulate Opera conditions. The obtained results definitely confirm that the proposed strategy is well adapted for tau search. (author)

  14. Understanding the Experience of Group Singing for Couples Where One Partner Has a Diagnosis of Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unadkat, Shreena; Camic, Paul M; Vella-Burrows, Trish

    2017-06-01

    There is a continuing interest around the use of group singing in dementia care. Although studies generally indicate positive outcomes, limited research has been carried out from a relational perspective, which places the couple relationship in a central position. This study aimed to better understand how group singing benefits people with dementia and their partners. Interview data from 17 couples (N = 34) with one member having dementia, who participated in a range of different types of singing groups, were analyzed using grounded theory methodology. Five key areas were identified, resulting in the development of the group singing model in dementia for couple dyads. Group singing was experienced as being both joyful and accessible. The accessibility of singing, combined with effective facilitation, created an environment for active participation and enjoyment. The group effect mediated further benefits for the person with dementia and for the caregiver which, when combined, increased benefits for the couple through participation in new experiences. An opportunity for couples to share in-the-moment creative expression and the positive affect of artistic creation circumventing cognitive impairment is likely to contribute positively to the experience of the relationship. A more refined understanding of shared creative processes in relationship-centered models of care could inform dementia support services. Future research would benefit from longitudinally exploring the links between creativity in couples and relationship resilience. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Excitability of the motor system: A transcranial magnetic stimulation study on singing and speaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royal, Isabelle; Lidji, Pascale; Théoret, Hugo; Russo, Frank A; Peretz, Isabelle

    2015-08-01

    The perception of movements is associated with increased activity in the human motor cortex, which in turn may underlie our ability to understand actions, as it may be implicated in the recognition, understanding and imitation of actions. Here, we investigated the involvement and lateralization of the primary motor cortex (M1) in the perception of singing and speech. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was applied independently for both hemispheres over the mouth representation of the motor cortex in healthy participants while they watched 4-s audiovisual excerpts of singers producing a 2-note ascending interval (singing condition) or 4-s audiovisual excerpts of a person explaining a proverb (speech condition). Subjects were instructed to determine whether a sung interval/written proverb, matched a written interval/proverb. During both tasks, motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded from the contralateral mouth muscle (orbicularis oris) of the stimulated motor cortex compared to a control task. Moreover, to investigate the time course of motor activation, TMS pulses were randomly delivered at 7 different time points (ranging from 500 to 3500 ms after stimulus onset). Results show that stimulation of the right hemisphere had a similar effect on the MEPs for both the singing and speech perception tasks, whereas stimulation of the left hemisphere significantly differed in the speech perception task compared to the singing perception task. Furthermore, analysis of the MEPs in the singing task revealed that they decreased for small musical intervals, but increased for large musical intervals, regardless of which hemisphere was stimulated. Overall, these results suggest a dissociation between the lateralization of M1 activity for speech perception and for singing perception, and that in the latter case its activity can be modulated by musical parameters such as the size of a musical interval. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Measurement of the neutrino velocity with the OPERA detector in the CNGS beam

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, T.; Aleksandrov, A.; Altinok, O.; Alvarez Sanchez, P.; Anokhina, A.; Aoki, S.; Ariga, A.; Ariga, T.; Autiero, D.; Badertscher, A.; Dhahbi, A.Ben; Bertolin, A.; Bozza, C.; Brugiere, T.; Brugnera, R.; Brunet, F.; Brunetti, G.; Buontempo, S.; Carlus, B.; Cavanna, F.; Cazes, A.; Chaussard, L.; Chernyavsky, M.; Chiarella, V.; Chukanov, A.; Colosimo, G.; Crespi, M.; D'Ambrosio, N.; De Lellis, G.; De Serio, M.; Declais, Y.; del Amo Sanchez, P.; Di Capua, F.; Di Crescenzo, A.; Di Ferdinando, D.; Di Marco, N.; Dmitrievsky, S.; Dracos, M.; Duchesneau, D.; Dusini, S.; Dzhatdoev, T.; Ebert, J.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Egorov, O.; Ereditato, A.; Esposito, L.S.; Favier, J.; Ferber, T.; Fini, R.A.; Fukuda, T.; Garfagnini, A.; Giacomelli, G.; Giorgini, M.; Giovannozzi, M.; Girerd, C.; Goldberg, J.; Gollnitz, C.; Golubkov, D.; Goncharova, L.; Gornushkin, Y.; Grella, G.; Grianti, F.; Gschwendtner, E.; Guerin, C.; Guler, A.M.; Gustavino, C.; Hagner, C.; Hamada, K.; Hara, T.; Enikeev, R.; Hierholzer, M.; Hollnagel, A.; Ieva, M.; Ishida, H.; Ishiguro, K.; Jakovcic, K.; Jollet, C.; Jones, M.; Juget, F.; Kamiscioglu, M.; Kawada, J.; Kim, S.H.; Kimura, M.; Kiritsis, E.; Kitagawa, N.; Klicek, B.; Knuesel, J.; Kodama, K.; Komatsu, M.; Kose, U.; Kreslo, I.; Lazzaro, C.; Lenkeit, J.; Ljubicic, A.; Longhin, A.; Malgin, A.; Mandrioli, G.; Marteau, J.; Matsuo, T.; Matveev, V.; Mauri, N.; Mazzoni, A.; Medinaceli, E.; Meisel, F.; Meregaglia, A.; Migliozzi, P.; Mikado, S.; Missiaen, D.; Monacelli, P.; Morishima, K.; Moser, U.; Muciaccia, M.T.; Naganawa, N.; Naka, T.; Nakamura, M.; Nakano, T.; Nakatsuka, Y.; Naumov, D.; Nikitina, V.; Nitti, F.; Ogawa, S.; Okateva, N.; Olchevsky, A.; Palamara, O.; Paoloni, A.; Park, B.D.; Park, I.G.; Pastore, A.; Patrizii, Laura; Pennacchio, E.; Pessard, H.; Pistillo, C.; Polukhina, N.; Pozzato, M.; Pretzl, K.; Pupilli, F.; Rescigno, R.; Riguzzi, F.; Roganova, T.; Rokujo, H.; Rosa, G.; Rostovtseva, I.; Rubbia, A.; Russo, A.; Ryasny, V.; Ryazhskaya, O.; Sato, O.; Sato, Y.; Sahnoun, Z.; Schembri, A.; Schuler, J.; Scotto Lavina, L.; Serrano, J.; Shakiryanova, I.; Sheshukov, A.; Shibuya, H.; Shoziyoev, G.; Simone, S.; Sioli, M.; Sirignano, C.; Sirri, G.; Song, J.S.; Spinetti, M.; Stanco, L.; Starkov, N.; Stellacci, S.; Stipcevic, M.; Strauss, T.; Takahashi, S.; Tenti, M.; Terranova, F.; Tezuka, I.; Tioukov, V.; Tolun, P.; N.T. Tran,i; Tufanli, S.; Vilain, P.; Vladimirov, M.; Votano, L.; Vuilleumier, J.L.; Wilquet, G.; Wonsak, B.; Wurtz, J.; Yakushev, V.; Yoon, C.S.; Yoshida, J.; Zaitsev, Y.; Zemskova, S.; Zghiche, A.

    2012-01-01

    The OPERA neutrino experiment at the underground Gran Sasso Laboratory has measured the velocity of neutrinos from the CERN CNGS beam over a baseline of about 730 km with much higher accuracy than previous studies conducted with accelerator neutrinos. The measurement is based on high-statistics data taken by OPERA in the years 2009, 2010 and 2011. Dedicated upgrades of the CNGS timing system and of the OPERA detector, as well as a high precision geodesy campaign for the measurement of the neutrino baseline, allowed reaching comparable systematic and statistical accuracies. An early arrival time of CNGS muon neutrinos with respect to the one computed assuming the speed of light in vacuum of (60.7 \\pm 6.9 (stat.) \\pm 7.4 (sys.)) ns was measured. This anomaly corresponds to a relative difference of the muon neutrino velocity with respect to the speed of light (v-c)/c = (2.48 \\pm 0.28 (stat.) \\pm 0.30 (sys.)) \\times 10-5.

  17. Development and determination of the efficiency of the myon detector for the OPERA experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sewing, J.

    2006-09-01

    The OPERA experiment is situated in the Gran Sasso underground laboratory. It will search for neutrino oscillation from myonneutrinos to tauneutrinos with a massive lead/emulsion target. Part of the OPERA detector is the precision tracker. This precision tracker consists of about 10000 drift tubes of 8 m length. Its purpose is to measure the muon track in the spectrometer of the OPERA detector to determine their momentum and charge. This work studies the basic properties of the precision tracker, such as the dependency of the resolution and the efficiency of the drift tubes and various parameters. These parameters are among others the high voltage and the threshold of the discriminators. The results of these studies led to suitable work parameters at that the precision tracker fulfills the requirements. Further the attenuation of a single 8 m long drift tube was measured. The software, which is used for the track reconstruction, the determination of the resolution and the efficiency was tested with computer generated data from a GEANT simulation. (orig.)

  18. American Christians for and against Parsifal: Debating the Holy Grail Opera in New York

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Hale

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The appropriateness of Christian themes in the performing arts has often been debated. Defenders have argued that various media, including drama, can serve as instruments of spiritual edification, while critics have contended that such efforts often eventuate in sacrilege and a vulgarising exploitation of the sacred for commercial and entertainment purposes. A heated debate took place in 1903 when Richard Wagner’s opera Parsifal, which since its première at Bayreuth in 1882 had been hailed as a magnificent representation of redemption and other themes central to Christianity, was staged at the Metropolitan Opera House in New York – its first performance as an opera outside its original venue. Numerous clergymen and lay people in several denominations sought to have the production banned and cautioned fellow Christians against seeing it. Others, generally of a theologically more liberal bent, defended the work. The heated public controversy is placed into historical context and compared with the history of Parsifal in the United Kingdom, where it was widely appreciated without noteworthy opposition.

  19. Measurement of the TeV atmospheric muon charge ratio with the complete OPERA data set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agafonova, N.; Aleksandrov, A.; Anokhina, A.; Aoki, S.; Ariga, A.; Ariga, T.; Bender, D.; Bertolin, A.; Bozza, C.; Brugnera, R.; Buonaura, A.; Buontempo, S.; Büttner, B.; Chernyavsky, M.; Chukanov, A.; Consiglio, L.; D'Ambrosio, N.; De Lellis, G.; De Serio, M.; Del Amo Sanchez, P.; Di Crescenzo, A.; Di Ferdinando, D.; Di Marco, N.; Dmitrievski, S.; Dracos, M.; Duchesneau, D.; Dusini, S.; Dzhatdoev, T.; Ebert, J.; Ereditato, A.; Fini, R. A.; Fukuda, T.; Galati, G.; Garfagnini, A.; Giacomelli, G.; Göllnitz, C.; Goldberg, J.; Gornushkin, Y.; Grella, G.; Guler, M.; Gustavino, C.; Hagner, C.; Hara, T.; Hollnagel, A.; Hosseini, B.; Ishida, H.; Ishiguro, K.; Jakovcic, K.; Jollet, C.; Kamiscioglu, C.; Kamiscioglu, M.; Kawada, J.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, S. H.; Kitagawa, N.; Klicek, B.; Kodama, K.; Komatsu, M.; Kose, U.; Kreslo, I.; Lauria, A.; Lenkeit, J.; Ljubicic, A.; Longhin, A.; Loverre, P.; Malgin, A.; Malenica, M.; Mandrioli, G.; Matsuo, T.; Matveev, V.; Mauri, N.; Medinaceli, E.; Meregaglia, A.; Mikado, S.; Monacelli, P.; Montesi, M. C.; Morishima, K.; Muciaccia, M. T.; Naganawa, N.; Naka, T.; Nakamura, M.; Nakano, T.; Nakatsuka, Y.; Niwa, K.; Ogawa, S.; Okateva, N.; Olshevsky, A.; Omura, T.; Ozaki, K.; Paoloni, A.; Park, B. D.; Park, I. G.; Pasqualini, L.; Pastore, A.; Patrizii, L.; Pessard, H.; Pistillo, C.; Podgrudkov, D.; Polukhina, N.; Pozzato, M.; Pupilli, F.; Roda, M.; Rokujo, H.; Roganova, T.; Rosa, G.; Ryazhskaya, O.; Sato, O.; Schembri, A.; Shakiryanova, I.; Shchedrina, T.; Sheshukov, A.; Shibuya, H.; Shiraishi, T.; Shoziyoev, G.; Simone, S.; Sioli, M.; Sirignano, C.; Sirri, G.; Spinetti, M.; Stanco, L.; Starkov, N.; Stellacci, S. M.; Stipcevic, M.; Strolin, P.; Takahashi, S.; Tenti, M.; Terranova, F.; Tioukov, V.; Tufanli, S.; Vilain, P.; Vladimirov, M.; Votano, L.; Vuilleumier, J. L.; Wilquet, G.; Wonsak, B.; Yoon, C. S.; Zemskova, S.; Zghiche, A.

    2014-07-01

    The OPERA detector, designed to search for oscillations in the CNGS beam, is located in the underground Gran Sasso laboratory, a privileged location to study TeV-scale cosmic rays. For the analysis here presented, the detector was used to measure the atmospheric muon charge ratio in the TeV region. OPERA collected charge-separated cosmic ray data between 2008 and 2012. More than 3 million atmospheric muon events were detected and reconstructed, among which about 110000 multiple muon bundles. The charge ratio was measured separately for single and for multiple muon events. The analysis exploited the inversion of the magnet polarity which was performed on purpose during the 2012 Run. The combination of the two data sets with opposite magnet polarities allowed minimizing systematic uncertainties and reaching an accurate determination of the muon charge ratio. Data were fitted to obtain relevant parameters on the composition of primary cosmic rays and the associated kaon production in the forward fragmentation region. In the surface energy range 1-20 TeV investigated by OPERA, is well described by a parametric model including only pion and kaon contributions to the muon flux, showing no significant contribution of the prompt component. The energy independence supports the validity of Feynman scaling in the fragmentation region up to TeV/nucleon primary energy.

  20. Mikrojádra operačních systémů

    OpenAIRE

    Beneš, Eduard

    2007-01-01

    Táto práca sa zaoberá problematikou mikrojadier operačných systémov. Prvá časť je zameraná na oboznámenie s problematikou jadier operačných systémov. Obsahuje základné vlastnosti a mechanizmy druhej generácie mikrojadier reprezentovanej mikrojadrom L4, na ktoré sa zameriavame v ďalších častiach práce. Následne sú opísané dva rôzne porty operačného systému Linux nad mikrojadro L4, sú to L4Linux a Wombat. V druhej časti práce je popísaný spôsob inštalácie vybraných portov a hlavné problémy, kto...

  1. Why would musical training benefit the neural encoding of speech? The OPERA hypothesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniruddh D. Patel

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Mounting evidence suggests that musical training benefits the neural encoding of speech. This paper offers a hypothesis specifying why such benefits occur. The OPERA hypothesis proposes that such benefits are driven by adaptive plasticity in speech-processing networks, and that this plasticity occurs when five conditions are met. These are: 1 Overlap: there is anatomical overlap in the brain networks that process an acoustic feature used in both music and speech (e.g., waveform periodicity, amplitude envelope, 2 Precision: music places higher demands on these shared networks than does speech, in terms of the precision of processing, 3 Emotion: the musical activities that engage this network elicit strong positive emotion, 4 Repetition: the musical activities that engage this network are frequently repeated, and 5 Attention: the musical activities that engage this network are associated with focused attention. According to the OPERA hypothesis, when these conditions are met neural plasticity drives the networks in question to function with higher precision than needed for ordinary speech communication. Yet since speech shares these networks with music, speech processing benefits. The OPERA hypothesis is used to account for the observed superior subcortical encoding of speech in musically trained individuals, and to suggest mechanisms by which musical training might improve linguistic reading abilities.

  2. Why would Musical Training Benefit the Neural Encoding of Speech? The OPERA Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Aniruddh D

    2011-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that musical training benefits the neural encoding of speech. This paper offers a hypothesis specifying why such benefits occur. The "OPERA" hypothesis proposes that such benefits are driven by adaptive plasticity in speech-processing networks, and that this plasticity occurs when five conditions are met. These are: (1) Overlap: there is anatomical overlap in the brain networks that process an acoustic feature used in both music and speech (e.g., waveform periodicity, amplitude envelope), (2) Precision: music places higher demands on these shared networks than does speech, in terms of the precision of processing, (3) Emotion: the musical activities that engage this network elicit strong positive emotion, (4) Repetition: the musical activities that engage this network are frequently repeated, and (5) Attention: the musical activities that engage this network are associated with focused attention. According to the OPERA hypothesis, when these conditions are met neural plasticity drives the networks in question to function with higher precision than needed for ordinary speech communication. Yet since speech shares these networks with music, speech processing benefits. The OPERA hypothesis is used to account for the observed superior subcortical encoding of speech in musically trained individuals, and to suggest mechanisms by which musical training might improve linguistic reading abilities.

  3. The FEDRA-Framework for emulsion data reconstruction and analysis in the OPERA experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tioukov, V.; Kreslo, I.; Petukhov, Y.; Sirri, G.

    2006-01-01

    OPERA is a massive lead/emulsion target for a long-baseline neutrino oscillation search. More than 90% of the useful experimental data in OPERA will be produced by the scanning of emulsion plates with the automatic microscopes. The main goal of the data processing in OPERA will be the search, analysis and identification of primary and secondary vertices produced by neutrino in lead-emulsion target. The volume of middle- and high-level data to be analysed and stored is expected to be of the order of several Gb per event. The storage, calibration, reconstruction, analysis and visualization of this data is the task of FEDRA system written in C ++ and based on ROOT framework. The system is now actively used for processing of test beams and simulation data. Several interesting algorithmic solutions permits us to make effective code for fast pattern recognition in heavy signal/noise conditions. The system consists of the storage part, intercalibration and segments linking part, track finding and fitting, vertex finding and fitting and kinematical analysis parts. Kalman Filtering technique is used for tracks and vertex fitting. ROOT-based event display is used for interactive analysis of the special events. iltering technique is used for tracks and vertex fitting. ROOT-based event display is used for interactive analysis of the special events

  4. Limits on neutrino oscillations in the CNGS neutrino beam and event classification with the OPERA detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferber, Torben

    2012-09-15

    OPERA, the oscillation project with emulsion-tracking apparatus, is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment. It combines an almost pure, high-energy {nu}{sub {mu}} beam produced at the SPS accelerator at CERN, Switzerland, with the OPERA neutrino detector located at a distance of about 730 km in the LNGS underground laboratory in Italy. By using a lead/photo emulsion target, {nu}{sub {tau}} charged current (CC) interactions of {nu}{sub {tau}} from {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub {tau}} oscillations can be observed on an event-by-event basis with very low background rates. Within this thesis, a {nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub {mu}} disappearance search is described that uses a flux normalization. independent measurement of the CC event fraction as a function of the hadronic energy as measured by the electronic detectors of OPERA. This allows to derive limits on {nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub {mu}} oscillations, complementary to the main {nu}{sub {tau}} appearance analysis. For maximal mixing, vertical stroke {Delta}m{sup 2}{sub 23} vertical stroke >4.4 x 10{sup -3} eV{sup 2} is excluded at 90% C.L. by the disappearance analysis. This thesis represents the first application of this method, including systematic uncertainties, in a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment.

  5. Limits on neutrino oscillations in the CNGS neutrino beam and event classification with the OPERA detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferber, Torben

    2012-09-01

    OPERA, the oscillation project with emulsion-tracking apparatus, is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment. It combines an almost pure, high-energy ν μ beam produced at the SPS accelerator at CERN, Switzerland, with the OPERA neutrino detector located at a distance of about 730 km in the LNGS underground laboratory in Italy. By using a lead/photo emulsion target, ν τ charged current (CC) interactions of ν τ from ν μ → ν τ oscillations can be observed on an event-by-event basis with very low background rates. Within this thesis, a ν μ →ν μ disappearance search is described that uses a flux normalization. independent measurement of the CC event fraction as a function of the hadronic energy as measured by the electronic detectors of OPERA. This allows to derive limits on ν μ →ν μ oscillations, complementary to the main ν τ appearance analysis. For maximal mixing, vertical stroke Δm 2 23 vertical stroke >4.4 x 10 -3 eV 2 is excluded at 90% C.L. by the disappearance analysis. This thesis represents the first application of this method, including systematic uncertainties, in a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment.

  6. Correlation between vocal tract symptoms and modern singing handicap index in church gospel singers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Joel; Silverio, Kelly Cristina Alves; Siqueira, Larissa Thaís Donalonso; Ramos, Janine Santos; Brasolotto, Alcione Ghedini; Zambon, Fabiana; Behlau, Mara

    2017-08-24

    To verify the correlation between vocal tract discomfort symptoms and perceived voice handicaps in gospel singers, analyzing possible differences according to gender. 100 gospel singers volunteered, 50 male and 50 female. All participants answered two questionnaires: Vocal Tract Discomfort (VTD) scale and the Modern Singing Handicap Index (MSHI) that investigates the vocal handicap perceived by singers, linking the results of both instruments (psinging. Female gospel singers present higher frequency and intensity of vocal tract discomfort symptoms, as well as higher voice handicap for singing than male gospel singers. The higher the frequency and intensity of the laryngeal symptoms, the higher the vocal handicap will be.

  7. Characterization of combustion in a fabric singeing burner operating with varsol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintana M, Juan C; Mendoza S, Cesar Camilo; Molina Alejandro

    2009-01-01

    The textile industry uses singeing burners to diminish the amount of pilling on surface fabrics. Some of these burners use Stoddard solvent which has high cost per unit of energy, high flammability and emits volatile organic compounds that pose an occupational safety hazard. This study characterized a singing burner operating with varsol performing measurements of temperature downstream the burner, air and fuel flows, and concentration of CO, CO 2 , O 2 and NO x . These measurements defined the most important characteristics of the Stoddard solvent flame that should be maintained to obtain a similar behavior in an eventual change to natural gas.

  8. Does Singing a Low-Pitch Tone Make You Look Angrier?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrendt, Peter; Bach, Christian Camoro; Dahl, Sofia

    2017-01-01

    While many studies have shown that auditory and visual information influence each other, the link between some intermodal associations are less clear. We here replicate and extend an earlier experiment with ratings of pictures of people singing high and low-pitched tones. To this aim, we video...... recorded 19 participants singing high and low pitches and combined these into picture pairs. In a two-alternative forced choice test, two groups of six assessors were then asked to view the 19 picture pairs and select the "friendlier", and "angrier" expression respectively. The result is that assessors...

  9. Singing in individual music therapy with elderly persons suffering from dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    2001-01-01

    The focus of this research in progress is my clinical work with persons suffering from dementia, where we sing long familiar songs in the music therapy. In an exploratory case study approach I have made systematic observations of 6 individual residents living in a gerontopsychological unit. My...... hypotheses are …  … that singing has an influence on persons with dementia, and that this influence can be defined upon communicative characteristics.  … that persons with dementia in an advanced stage communicate musically, and that this musical communication can be recognised by a system of communicative...

  10. Neutrino oscillations on and off the beam: studies of the OPERA acquisition system performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brugiere, T.

    2011-01-01

    OPERA (Oscillation Project with Emulsion-tracking Apparatus) is a neutrino beam experiment located in hall C of the Gran Sasso underground laboratory (LNGS), in Italia, under a equivalent of 3.8 km water (corresponding to a cut at 1.5 TeV for the muons). The first purpose of OPERA is the direct observation of the ν μ → ν τ oscillation in the atmospheric sector observing a ν τ appearance 730 km away from the target in a quasi pure ν μ beam (CNGS). OPERA is an hybrid detector with an instrumented target part (about 125000 bricks made with emulsion and lead sheets) and a spectrometer. Collecting data started in 2006 and 55000 events have been recorded. The first ν τ candidate have been observed this year. The work done during this thesis is oriented around three main topics: Define the trigger rules of the target tracker acquisition system for beam neutrino events, synchronise target tracker and RPC elements, implement the results inside the simulation and the study of the feasibility of an atmospheric neutrino analysis using o-beam data. The new trigger rules succeeds to reach the values of OPERA proposal, i.e. a trigger efficiency greater than 99%. This improvement have been done thanks to coincidence time windows with the CNGS beam during which lower cut are applied, allowing low multiplicity events to be kept. A deep study of electronic detectors intercalibration makes possible the target tracker and RPC data synchronisation. The analysis results are now included in the official simulation. This calibration work have been then used for a study of 'off-beam' atmospheric neutrino oscillation thanks to the selection of up-going particles. The analysis shown in the thesis has improved the OPERA detector understanding and demonstrates the feasibility of an observation of phenomena independent from the Cgs beam. Analysis on atmospherics neutrino detection and muons flux characterisation (seasonal variations for example) are now possible thanks to the

  11. Commissioning and proof of functionality of the OPERA precision tracker, especially of the time measuring system; Inbetriebnahme und Funktionsnachweis des OPERA Precision Trackers insbesondere des Zeitmesssystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janutta, Benjamin

    2008-10-15

    The commissioning and the proof of functionality of the Precision Tracker of the OPERA experiment is subject of this thesis. The timing system of the precision tracker is of major concern here. At first the time.resolution of the timing electronics was characterized additionally general running parameters were studied. Afterwards the installation and commissioning were carried out. The precision tracker is supposed to determine the momentum of throughgoing myons with an accuracy of {delta}p/p<0.25 as well as the sign of their charge. The commissioning is finished by now and it was shown, that the data acquisition system runs very reliable and only 1.5% show an slightly higher number of hits. The nominal spatial track resolution of {sigma}<600 {mu}m was also reached. (orig.)

  12. Effects of Community Singing Program on Mental Health Outcomes of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People: A Meditative Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Buys, Nicholas

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the impact of a meditative singing program on the health outcomes of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. The study used a prospective intervention design. The study took place in six Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities and Community Controlled Health Services in Queensland, Australia. Study participants were 210 Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults aged 18 to 71 years, of which 108 were in a singing intervention group and 102 in a comparison group. A participative community-based community singing program involving weekly singing rehearsals was conducted over an 18-month period. Standardized measures in depression, resilience, sense of connectedness, social support, and singing related quality of life were used. The general linear model was used to compare differences pre- and postintervention on outcome variables, and structural equation modeling was used to examine the pathway of the intervention effect. Results revealed a significant reduction in the proportion of adults in the singing group classified as depressed and a concomitant significant increase in resilience levels, quality of life, sense of connectedness, and social support among this group. There were no significant changes for these variables in the comparison group. The participatory community singing approach linked to preventative health services was associated with improved health, resilience, sense of connectedness, social support, and mental health status among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Singing as Language Learning Activity in Multilingual Toddler Groups in Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kultti, Anne

    2013-01-01

    This research focused on learning conditions in preschool that support multilingual children's linguistic development. The aim of this paper was to study singing activities through the experiences of ten multilingual children in toddler groups (one to three years of age) in eight Swedish preschools. A sociocultural theoretical approach is used to…

  14. Psalm 98: Sing 'n nuwe lied tot lof van die Koning, Jahwe | Prinsloo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sing a new song in praise of the king, Yahweh This article surveys the problems of interpreting Psalm 98. The chief problems are those concerned with determining the Gattung, the redactional history, strophic division and the dating of the Psalm. A textimmanent reading of the Psalm is used in an effort to make a significant ...

  15. Singing in Primary Schools: Case Studies of Good Practice in Whole Class Vocal Tuition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamont, Alexandra; Daubney, Alison; Spruce, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Within the context of British initiatives in music education such as the Wider Opportunities programme in England and the recommendations of the Music Manifesto emphasising the importance of singing in primary schools, the current paper explores examples of good practice in whole-class vocal tuition. The research included seven different primary…

  16. Acoustic parameters of infant-directed singing in mothers of infants with down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de l'Etoile, Shannon; Behura, Samarth; Zopluoglu, Cengiz

    2017-11-01

    This study compared the acoustic parameters and degree of perceived warmth in two types of infant-directed (ID) songs - the lullaby and the playsong - between mothers of infants with Down syndrome (DS) and mothers of typically-developing (TD) infants. Participants included mothers of 15 DS infants and 15 TD infants between 3 and 9 months of age. Each mother's singing voice was digitally recorded while singing to her infant and subjected to feature extraction and data mining. Mothers of DS infants and TD infants sang both lullabies and playsongs with similar frequency. In comparison with mothers of TD infants, mothers of DS infants used a higher maximum pitch and more key changes during playsong. Mothers of DS infants also took more time to establish a rhythmic structure in their singing. These differences suggest mothers are sensitive to the attentional and arousal needs of their DS infants. Mothers of TD infants sang with a higher degree of perceived warmth which does not agree with previous observations of "forceful warmth" in mothers of DS infants. In comparison with lullaby, all mothers sang playsong with higher overall pitch and slower tempo. Playsongs were also distinguished by higher levels of spectral centroid properties related to emotional expressivity, as well as higher degrees of perceived warmth. These similarities help to define specific song types, and suggest that all mothers sing in an expressive manner that can modulate infant arousal, including mothers of DS infants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of Real-Time Visual Feedback on Pre-Service Teachers' Singing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, S.; Cheng, L.

    2014-01-01

    This pilot study focuses on the use real-time visual feedback technology (VFT) in vocal training. The empirical research has two aims: to ascertain the effectiveness of the real-time visual feedback software "Sing & See" in the vocal training of pre-service music teachers and the teachers' perspective on their experience with…

  18. Sing, Soothe and Sleep: A Lullaby Education Programme for First-Time Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Felicity; Mackinlay, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on an education programme conducted with first-time mothers. The study aimed to establish whether mothers found an education session on lullaby singing beneficial for them and their babies as well as reporting what lullabies were sung and why. Twenty first-time mothers were provided with examples of lullabies and asked to sing…

  19. The effect of singing training on voice quality for people with quadriplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamplin, Jeanette; Baker, Felicity A; Buttifant, Mary; Berlowitz, David J

    2014-01-01

    Despite anecdotal reports of voice impairment in quadriplegia, the exact nature of these impairments is not well described in the literature. This article details objective and subjective voice assessments for people with quadriplegia at baseline and after a respiratory-targeted singing intervention. Randomized controlled trial. Twenty-four participants with quadriplegia were randomly assigned to a 12-week program of either a singing intervention or active music therapy control. Recordings of singing and speech were made at baseline, 6 weeks, 12 weeks, and 6 months postintervention. These deidentified recordings were used to measure sound pressure levels and assess voice quality using the Multidimensional Voice Profile and the Perceptual Voice Profile. Baseline voice quality data indicated deviation from normality in the areas of breathiness, strain, and roughness. A greater percentage of intervention participants moved toward more normal voice quality in terms of jitter, shimmer, and noise-to-harmonic ratio; however, the improvements failed to achieve statistical significance. Subjective and objective assessments of voice quality indicate that quadriplegia may have a detrimental effect on voice quality; in particular, causing a perception of roughness and breathiness in the voice. The results of this study suggest that singing training may have a role in ameliorating these voice impairments. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Singing Teacher's Role in Educating Children's Abilities, Sensibilities and Sensitivities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akuno, Emily Achieng'

    2015-01-01

    In the Republic of Kenya, song is widely used to enhance the whole curriculum in lower primary classes. Song is used especially to aid recall and therefore teachers adapt tunes that children already know, inserting relevant words from the subject at hand. Despite this widespread practice, this form of singing in schools is not recognised by the…

  1. Choral singing therapy following stroke or Parkinson's disease: an exploration of participants' experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogg-Rogers, Laura; Buetow, Stephen; Talmage, Alison; McCann, Clare M; Leão, Sylvia H S; Tippett, Lynette; Leung, Joan; McPherson, Kathryn M; Purdy, Suzanne C

    2016-01-01

    People with stroke or Parkinson's disease (PD) live with reduced mood, social participation and quality of life (QOL). Communication difficulties affect 90% of people with PD (dysarthria) and over 33% of people with stroke (aphasia). These consequences are disabling in many ways. However, as singing is typically still possible, its therapeutic use is of increasing interest. This article explores the experiences of and factors influencing participation in choral singing therapy (CST) by people with stroke or PD and their significant others. Participants (eight people with stroke, six with PD) were recruited from a community music therapy choir running CST. Significant others (seven for stroke, two for PD) were also recruited. Supported communication methods were used as needed to undertake semi-structured interviews (total N = 23). Thematic analysis indicated participants had many unmet needs associated with their condition, which motivated them to explore self-management options. CST participation was described as an enjoyable social activity, and participation was perceived as improving mood, language, breathing and voice. Choral singing was perceived by people with stroke and PD to help them self-manage some of the consequences of their condition, including social isolation, low mood and communication difficulties. Choral singing therapy (CST) is sought out by people with stroke and PD to help self-manage symptoms of their condition. Participation is perceived as an enjoyable activity which improves mood, voice and language symptoms. CST may enable access to specialist music therapy and speech language therapy protocols within community frameworks.

  2. Voice Range Profiles of Singing Students: The Effects of Training Duration and Institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lycke, Hugo; Siupsinskiene, Nora

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess differences in voice parameters measured by the physiological voice range profile (VRP) in groups of vocally healthy subjects differentiated by the duration of vocal training and the training institution. Six basic frequency- and intensity-related VRP parameters and the frequency dip of the register transition zone were determined from VRP recordings of 162 females studying in individual singing lessons (1st-5th level) in Dutch, Belgian, English, and French public or private training facilities. Sixty-seven nonsinging female students served as controls. Singing students in more advanced singing classes demonstrated a significantly greater frequency range, particularly at high frequencies, than did first-year students. Students with private training showed a significantly increased mean intensity range in comparison to those in group classes, while students with musical theater training exhibited significantly increased frequency- and intensity-related VRP parameters in comparison to the students with classical training. When compared to nonsingers, all singing student subgroups showed significant increases in all basic VRP parameters. However, the register transition parameter was not influenced by training duration or institution. Our study suggests that the extension of physiological vocal limits might depend on training duration and institution. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Singing mitigation in an export riser via liquid injection: a field case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belfroid, S.P.C.; Korst, H.J.C.; Beek, P.J.G. van; Lunde, K.; Eidsvik, I.G.; Hansen, F.; Olsen, B.

    2014-01-01

    Flexible Risers are prone to the generation of high amplitude tonal noise, i.e. a so-called singing riser. Recently, severe vibrations and high noise levels were encountered on the turret of an FPSO in the Norwegian Sea, resulting in significantly reduced production. The vibrations could be

  4. Qualification of new design of flexible pipe against singing: testing at multiple scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golliard, J.; Lunde, K.; Vijlbrief, O.

    2016-01-01

    Flexible pipes for production of oil and gas typically present a corrugated inner surface. This has been identified as the cause of "singing risers": Flow-Induced Pulsations due to the interaction of sound waves with the shear layers at the small cavities present at each of the multiple

  5. Adapting Choral Singing Experiences for Older Adults: The Implications of Sensory, Perceptual, and Cognitive Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yinger, Olivia Swedberg

    2014-01-01

    As people age, they naturally experience sensory, perceptual, and cognitive changes. Many of these changes necessitate adaptations in designing programs for older adults. Choral singing is an activity that has many potential benefits for older adults, yet the rehearsal environment, presentation style, and content of material presented may need to…

  6. Supporting English Language Arts Standards within the Context of Early Singing Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordquist, Alice L.

    2015-01-01

    Music teachers may integrate a variety of English language arts content standards into their curriculum to enhance students' music experiences while also supporting their language development. John M. Feierabend and Melanie Champagne's picture book adaptation of "My Aunt Came Back" lends itself to multiple singing and discussion…

  7. "Row, Row, Row Your Boat": Singing, Identity and Belonging in a Nursery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niland, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    The concept of belonging is widely recognised as a fundamental part of human development and a key element of early childhood curricula. The research presented here explores the role of singing in the development of children's sense of belonging in a day nursery for children aged from six months to two years. The research design incorporated…

  8. The Magic of Music: A Study into the Promotion of Children's Well-Being through Singing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers the spiritual nature of music making and in particular the activity of singing. As a music teacher for children aged 5-11, I have recently observed a change in the behaviour and self-esteem of certain children in school since they joined the choir. This has also inspired them to flourish in other areas of school life. This…

  9. The attitude of the state sphere towards singing associations in Serbia and Kingdom of Yugoslavia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović Biljana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Financial dependence of singing societies in the state of Serbia and Kingdom of Yugoslavia is particularly analyzed in the paper, with a view to pointing to problems which hindered the advancement of music culture in the civil society. As other similar institutions of civic type, choirs did not have at their disposal sufficient financial, social and symbolic capital independent of the state, so they did not possess the power to influence on the government authorities. Although the period between World Wars brought evident improvement in the state treatment of music institutions, it could not be interpreted as a fundamental shift. The treatment of the Yugoslav singing union (Južnoslovenski pevački savez, which fought for promotion of music culture in the Yugoslav society, is particularly indicative. This largest music organization in the country, fostering ideology of integral Yugoslavism, strived to contribute to ethnic and social cohesion of different regions through singing. In its plans for improving singing practice this organization exhibited a clear vision for activism in favor of the nation and state, but the state authorities did not know how or did not desire to make use of it. Certain information suggests indolent and at times negative, discouraging attitude of authorities towards different ways of improvement of music practice, both art and society wise, which opens a new horizon for future studies and for better comprehension of contemporary problems as well.

  10. The Construction of Male Gender Identity through Choir Singing at a Spanish Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elorriaga, Alfonso

    2011-01-01

    Several authors have recently investigated the psychological aspects that play a determinant role in choral singing during adolescence. One of these aspects is vocal identity, which influences the construction of gender identity according to adolescents' needs and societal gender roles. This article focuses on gender aspects of vocal identity…

  11. Eesti talendid raadiokonkurssidel "New Talent" ja "Let the Peoples Sing" / Karin Kopra

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopra, Karin

    2005-01-01

    Bratislavas toimunud noorte interpreetide võistlusest "New Talent", kus osales ka pianist Mihkel Poll ning rahvusvahelisest amatöörkooride konkursist "Let the Peoples Sing" Kölnis, kus osalesid Eesti Televisiooni tütarlastekoor ja Tallinna Muusikakeskkooli lastekoor

  12. What works for wellbeing? A systematic review of wellbeing outcomes for music and singing in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daykin, Norma; Mansfield, Louise; Meads, Catherine; Julier, Guy; Tomlinson, Alan; Payne, Annette; Grigsby Duffy, Lily; Lane, Jack; D'Innocenzo, Giorgia; Burnett, Adele; Kay, Tess; Dolan, Paul; Testoni, Stefano; Victor, Christina

    2018-01-01

    The role of arts and music in supporting subjective wellbeing (SWB) is increasingly recognised. Robust evidence is needed to support policy and practice. This article reports on the first of four reviews of Culture, Sport and Wellbeing (CSW) commissioned by the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC)-funded What Works Centre for Wellbeing ( https://whatworkswellbeing.org/ ). To identify SWB outcomes for music and singing in adults. Comprehensive literature searches were conducted in PsychInfo, Medline, ERIC, Arts and Humanities, Social Science and Science Citation Indexes, Scopus, PILOTS and CINAHL databases. From 5,397 records identified, 61 relevant records were assessed using GRADE and CERQual schema. A wide range of wellbeing measures was used, with no consistency in how SWB was measured across the studies. A wide range of activities was reported, most commonly music listening and regular group singing. Music has been associated with reduced anxiety in young adults, enhanced mood and purpose in adults and mental wellbeing, quality of life, self-awareness and coping in people with diagnosed health conditions. Music and singing have been shown to be effective in enhancing morale and reducing risk of depression in older people. Few studies address SWB in people with dementia. While there are a few studies of music with marginalised communities, participants in community choirs tend to be female, white and relatively well educated. Research challenges include recruiting participants with baseline wellbeing scores that are low enough to record any significant or noteworthy change following a music or singing intervention. There is reliable evidence for positive effects of music and singing on wellbeing in adults. There remains a need for research with sub-groups who are at greater risk of lower levels of wellbeing, and on the processes by which wellbeing outcomes are, or are not, achieved.

  13. Self-Regulation and Infant-Directed Singing in Infants with Down Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de l'Etoile, Shannon K

    2015-01-01

    Infants learn how to regulate internal states and subsequent behavior through dyadic interactions with caregivers. During infant-directed (ID) singing, mothers help infants practice attentional control and arousal modulation, thus providing critical experience in self-regulation. Infants with Down syndrome are known to have attention deficits and delayed information processing as well as difficulty managing arousability, factors that may disrupt their efforts at self-regulation. The researcher explored responses to ID singing in infants with Down syndrome (DS) and compared them with those of typically developing (TD) infants. Behaviors measured included infant gaze and affect as indicators of self-regulation. Participants included 3- to 9-month-old infants with and without DS who were videotaped throughout a 2-minute face-to-face interaction during which their mothers sang to them any song(s) of their choosing. Infant behavior was then coded for percentage of time spent demonstrating a specific gaze or affect type. All infants displayed sustained gaze more than any other gaze type. TD infants demonstrated intermittent gaze significantly more often than infants with DS. Infant status had no effect on affect type, and all infants showed predominantly neutral affect. Findings suggest that ID singing effectively maintains infant attention for both TD infants and infants with DS. However, infants with DS may have difficulty shifting attention during ID singing as needed to adjust arousal levels and self-regulate. High levels of neutral affect for all infants imply that ID singing is likely to promote a calm, curious state, regardless of infant status. © the American Music Therapy Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. What works for wellbeing? A systematic review of wellbeing outcomes for music and singing in adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daykin, Norma; Mansfield, Louise; Meads, Catherine; Julier, Guy; Tomlinson, Alan; Payne, Annette; Grigsby Duffy, Lily; Lane, Jack; D’Innocenzo, Giorgia; Burnett, Adele; Kay, Tess; Dolan, Paul; Testoni, Stefano; Victor, Christina

    2017-01-01

    Aims: The role of arts and music in supporting subjective wellbeing (SWB) is increasingly recognised. Robust evidence is needed to support policy and practice. This article reports on the first of four reviews of Culture, Sport and Wellbeing (CSW) commissioned by the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC)-funded What Works Centre for Wellbeing (https://whatworkswellbeing.org/). Objective: To identify SWB outcomes for music and singing in adults. Methods: Comprehensive literature searches were conducted in PsychInfo, Medline, ERIC, Arts and Humanities, Social Science and Science Citation Indexes, Scopus, PILOTS and CINAHL databases. From 5,397 records identified, 61 relevant records were assessed using GRADE and CERQual schema. Results: A wide range of wellbeing measures was used, with no consistency in how SWB was measured across the studies. A wide range of activities was reported, most commonly music listening and regular group singing. Music has been associated with reduced anxiety in young adults, enhanced mood and purpose in adults and mental wellbeing, quality of life, self-awareness and coping in people with diagnosed health conditions. Music and singing have been shown to be effective in enhancing morale and reducing risk of depression in older people. Few studies address SWB in people with dementia. While there are a few studies of music with marginalised communities, participants in community choirs tend to be female, white and relatively well educated. Research challenges include recruiting participants with baseline wellbeing scores that are low enough to record any significant or noteworthy change following a music or singing intervention. Conclusions: There is reliable evidence for positive effects of music and singing on wellbeing in adults. There remains a need for research with sub-groups who are at greater risk of lower levels of wellbeing, and on the processes by which wellbeing outcomes are, or are not, achieved. PMID:29130840

  15. Laryngoscopic and spectral analysis of laryngeal and pharyngeal configuration in non-classical singing styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Marco; Lanas, Andres; Olavarria, Christian; Azocar, Maria Josefina; Muñoz, Daniel; Madrid, Sofia; Monsalve, Sebastian; Martinez, Francisca; Vargas, Sindy; Cortez, Pedro; Mayerhoff, Ross M

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to assess three different singing styles (pop, rock, and jazz) with laryngoscopic, acoustic, and perceptual analysis in healthy singers at different loudness levels. Special emphasis was given to the degree of anterior-posterior (A-P) laryngeal compression, medial laryngeal compression, vertical laryngeal position (VLP), and pharyngeal compression. Prospective study. Twelve female trained singers with at least 5 years of voice training and absence of any voice pathology were included. Flexible and rigid laryngeal endoscopic examinations were performed. Voice recording was also carried out. Four blinded judges were asked to assess laryngoscopic and auditory perceptual variables using a visual analog scale. All laryngoscopic parameters showed significant differences for all singing styles. Rock showed the greatest degree for all of them. Overall A-P laryngeal compression scores demonstrated significantly higher values than overall medial compression and VLP. High loudness level produced the highest degree of A-P compression, medial compression, pharyngeal compression, and the lowest VLP for all singing styles. Additionally, rock demonstrated the highest values for alpha ratio (less steep spectral slope), L1-L0 ratio (more glottal adduction), and Leq (more vocal intensity). Statistically significant differences between the three loudness levels were also found for these acoustic parameters. Rock singing seems to be the style with the highest degree of both laryngeal and pharyngeal activity in healthy singers. Although, supraglottic activity during singing could be labeled as hyperfunctional vocal behavior, it may not necessarily be harmful, but a strategy to avoid vocal fold damage. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of singing on respiratory function, voice, and mood after quadriplegia: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamplin, Jeanette; Baker, Felicity A; Grocke, Denise; Brazzale, Danny J; Pretto, Jeffrey J; Ruehland, Warren R; Buttifant, Mary; Brown, Douglas J; Berlowitz, David J

    2013-03-01

    To explore the effects of singing training on respiratory function, voice, mood, and quality of life for people with quadriplegia. Randomized controlled trial. Large, university-affiliated public hospital, Victoria, Australia. Participants (N=24) with chronic quadriplegia (C4-8, American Spinal Injury Association grades A and B). The experimental group (n=13) received group singing training 3 times weekly for 12 weeks. The control group (n=11) received group music appreciation and relaxation for 12 weeks. Assessments were conducted pre, mid-, immediately post-, and 6-months postintervention. Standard respiratory function testing, surface electromyographic activity from accessory respiratory muscles, sound pressure levels during vocal tasks, assessments of voice quality (Perceptual Voice Profile, Multidimensional Voice Profile), and Voice Handicap Index, Profile of Mood States, and Assessment of Quality of Life instruments. The singing group increased projected speech intensity (P=.028) and maximum phonation length (P=.007) significantly more than the control group. Trends for improvements in respiratory function, muscle strength, and recruitment were also evident for the singing group. These effects were limited by small sample sizes with large intersubject variability. Both groups demonstrated an improvement in mood (P=.002), which was maintained in the music appreciation and relaxation group after 6 months (P=.017). Group music therapy can have a positive effect on not only physical outcomes, but also can improve mood, energy, social participation, and quality of life for an at-risk population, such as those with quadriplegia. Specific singing therapy can augment these general improvements by improving vocal intensity. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. THE USES OF RELIGIOUSS SYMBOLS TO REPRESENT ISLAM (A Study on Religious Soap Opera "Bukan Islam KTP"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    sholihati siti

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study is entitled THE USES OF RELIGIOUS SYMBOL TO REPRESENT ISLAM (A Study on Religious Soap Opera Bukan Islam KTP. The background of the research is based on the facts of the arbitrary use of symbols to represent Islam shown on Indonesian televisions. The pattern of the use of religious symbols, either verbal or non-verbal symbols are generally explicit, but when examined using appropriate methods, they are actually contained some implicit meanings. The purpose of this study was to discover about how Islam is represented on television religious soap opera using religious symbols and to find out the dominant ideology behind the representation techniques. To analyze the soap operas consist of twenty episodes, the researcher used a semiotic approach by John Fiske on television codes. The results of this study are: (1 the use of verbal symbols to represent Islam potentially creates multiple interpretations when they are spoken by different characters. (2 Some religious terminologies are often used by antagonist player to express anger and disappointment. (3 The soap opera is dominated by verbal violence used by both protagonist and antagonist players, while antagonist player use violence both in verbal and non-verbal forms. The findings about ideology embedded in the soap opera are: (1 capitalist-materialistic ideology, (2 ideology of patriarchy, and (3 violence domination.

  18. OPERA, an automatic PSF reconstruction software for Shack-Hartmann AO systems: application to Altair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolissaint, Laurent; Veran, Jean-Pierre; Marino, Jose

    2004-10-01

    When doing high angular resolution imaging with adaptive optics (AO), it is of crucial importance to have an accurate knowledge of the point spread function associated with each observation. Applications are numerous: image contrast enhancement by deconvolution, improved photometry and astrometry, as well as real time AO performance evaluation. In this paper, we present our work on automatic PSF reconstruction based on control loop data, acquired simultaneously with the observation. This problem has already been solved for curvature AO systems. To adapt this method to another type of WFS, a specific analytical noise propagation model must be established. For the Shack-Hartmann WFS, we are able to derive a very accurate estimate of the noise on each slope measurement, based on the covariances of the WFS CCD pixel values in the corresponding sub-aperture. These covariances can be either derived off-line from telemetry data, or calculated by the AO computer during the acquisition. We present improved methods to determine 1) r0 from the DM drive commands, which includes an estimation of the outer scale L0 2) the contribution of the high spatial frequency component of the turbulent phase, which is not corrected by the AO system and is scaled by r0. This new method has been implemented in an IDL-based software called OPERA (Performance of Adaptive Optics). We have tested OPERA on Altair, the recently commissioned Gemini-North AO system, and present our preliminary results. We also summarize the AO data required to run OPERA on any other AO system.

  19. The reconstruction of tracks with the drift tubes in the muon spektrometers of the neutrino experiment OPERA; Die Spurrekonstruktion fuer das Driftroehren-Myon-Spektrometer des Neutrino-Experiments OPERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wonsak, B.S.

    2007-11-15

    In this thesis the reconstruction of tracks within the OPERA muon spectrometer is described as well as parts of the simulation software concerning the drift tubes. A method minimising the {chi}{sup 2} of the tracks is used for the fit, which is supported by liklyhood considerations during the pattern recognition. An analytical description of the time to distance relation for the OPERA drift tubes is introduced to be used in the fit. For simulated events of cosmics a resolution of 410{+-}4 {mu}m and an efficiency of more that 93% has been acquired. For real cosmic data from the OPERA detector a resolution o 374{+-}3 {mu}m and an efficiency of up to 84% has been reached. The acquired angular resolution of 1,2 mrad is sufficient to achieve a momentum resolution of 25% up to momentums of 25 GeV. (orig.)

  20. Políticas coercitivas da Operação Condor

    OpenAIRE

    Scaliante, Elizabete Aparecida

    2010-01-01

    O presente trabalho tem por objeto o estudo da Políticas Coercitivas da Operação Condor, surgida na década de 70 na América Latina. Constituiu uma união entre Brasil, Argentina, Uruguai, Paraguai, Bolívia e Chile, todos sob regime militar. Idealizada e liderada por Manuel Contreras, general chileno responsável pelo Serviço de Inteligência de seu país, foi um aprimoramento da cooperação já existente para troca de informações entre os países membros. Esses acontecimentos ocorr...

  1. From Novella to Opera: Dominick Argento’s The Aspern Papers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly VALTAT-COMET

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available I am particularly indebted to Philippe Brunelle, conductor and artistic director of the Plymouth Music Series, Minneapolis, for introducing me to the works of Dominick Argento, and to Dominick Argento himself, who in tireless e-mail exchanges graciously consented to answer my most naïve interrogations.The purpose of this paper is to bring to European attention Dominick Argento’s 1988 operatic version of Henry James’s The Aspern Papers, which was commissioned by the Dallas Opera to commemorate...

  2. Measurement of the cosmic ray muon charge ratio with the OPERA detector

    OpenAIRE

    Mauri, N; Siol, M

    2010-01-01

    The OPERA detector at the Gran Sasso underground laboratory (LNGS) was used to measure the cosmic ray muon charge ratio Rμ = Nμ+/Nμ− in the TeV energy region. We analyzed 403069 cosmic ray muons corresponding to 113.4 days of livetime during the 2008 CNGS run. We computed separately the muon charge ratio for single and for multiple muon events in order to select different energy regions of the primary cosmic ray spectrum and to test the Rμ dependence on the primary composition. Rμ is also sho...

  3. Analysis of the OPERA-15 two-dimensional voiding experiment using the SAS4A code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, L.L.

    1984-01-01

    Overall, SAS4A appears to do a good job for simulating the OPERA-15 experiment. For most of the experiment parameters, the code calculations compare quite well with the experimental data. The lack of a multi-dimensional voiding model has the effect of extending the flow coastdown time until voiding starts; otherwise, the code simulates the accident progression satisfactorily. These results indicate a need for further work in this area in the form of a tandem analysis by a two-dimensional flow code and a one-dimensional version of that code to confirm the observations derived from the SAS4A analysis

  4. O conceito de operação estabelecedora na análise do comportamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Caio F.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Em termos gerais, operações estabelecedoras podem ser definidas como eventos ambientais que alteram a efetividade reforçadora de um estímulo, assim como evocam todo comportamento que, no passado, foi seguido por tal estímulo. O conceito parece descrever, em termos comportamentais, o que é usualmente chamado de motivação. O presente artigo pretende apresentar de uma forma didática o desenvolvimento teórico do conceito e seu status na Análise Experimental e Aplicada do Comportamento.

  5. O conceito de operação estabelecedora na análise do comportamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio F. Miguel

    Full Text Available Em termos gerais, operações estabelecedoras podem ser definidas como eventos ambientais que alteram a efetividade reforçadora de um estímulo, assim como evocam todo comportamento que, no passado, foi seguido por tal estímulo. O conceito parece descrever, em termos comportamentais, o que é usualmente chamado de motivação. O presente artigo pretende apresentar de uma forma didática o desenvolvimento teórico do conceito e seu status na Análise Experimental e Aplicada do Comportamento.

  6. The reconstruction of tracks with the drift tubes in the muon spektrometers of the neutrino experiment OPERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wonsak, B.S.

    2007-11-01

    In this thesis the reconstruction of tracks within the OPERA muon spectrometer is described as well as parts of the simulation software concerning the drift tubes. A method minimising the χ 2 of the tracks is used for the fit, which is supported by liklyhood considerations during the pattern recognition. An analytical description of the time to distance relation for the OPERA drift tubes is introduced to be used in the fit. For simulated events of cosmics a resolution of 410±4 μm and an efficiency of more that 93% has been acquired. For real cosmic data from the OPERA detector a resolution o 374±3 μm and an efficiency of up to 84% has been reached. The acquired angular resolution of 1,2 mrad is sufficient to achieve a momentum resolution of 25% up to momentums of 25 GeV. (orig.)

  7. Persistent dysphonia in two performers affecting the singing and projected speaking voice: a report on a collaborative approach to management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Janet

    2002-01-01

    The projected speaking voice and the singing voice are highly sensitive to external and internal influences, and teachers of spoken voice and singing are in a unique position to identify subtle and more serious vocal difficulties in their students. Persistent anomalies may herald early onset of changes in vocal fold structure, neurophysiological control, or emotional stability. Two cases are presented to illustrate the benefits of a collaborative approach to diagnosis and management. The first, a 21-year-old male drama and singing student with an abnormally high speaking voice and falsetto singing voice was found to have a psychogenic dysphonia referred to as "puberphonia" or "mutational falsetto". The second, a 34-year-old female alto with strained phonation and perceived stutter of the vocal folds was diagnosed with "adductor spasmodic dysphonia" or "focal laryngeal dystonia" of neurological origin.

  8. Concerts & Opera

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Kristjan Järvi dirigeerimas Vienna Tonkünstler Orchestra't 16. veebr. Leedsis Town Hallis (esitusel ka Arvo Pärdi Symphony No. 3), 20. veebr. Bristolis ja 23. veebr. Basingstoke'is. Neeme Järvi dirigeerimas Royal Scottish National Orcestra't 23. veebr. Glasgowis Royal Concert Hallis ja 24. veebr. Edinburghis Queens Hallis

  9. Concerts & Opera

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Arvo Pärdi teos "Cantus in memoriam Benjamin Britten" esitusel 2. dets. Aldeburghis, Pärdi "Annum per annum" 7. dets. Birminghamis, Kristjan Järvi dirigeerimas 7. dets. Liverpoolis, Neeme Järvi diregeerimas 15. dets. Edinburghis ja 16. dets. Glasgowis

  10. Concerts & Opera

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Kammerorkestri Kremerata Baltica kontserdid: 19. apr. Londonis LSO St Lukesis, 21. apr. Oxfordis Sheldonian Theatre'is, 17. apr. Aldeburghis, 20. apr. Manchesteris Bridgewater Hallis, 23. apr. Wales Millennium Centre'is, 22. apr. Edinburghis Usher Hallis

  11. Concerts & Opera

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Arvo Pärdi muusika esitusel 4. mail Londonis St Giles Cripplegate'is, 14. mail Queen Elizabeth Hallis, 3. mail Oxfordis; Eesti Filharmoonia Kammerkoor esitab Cyrillus Kreegi "Requiemi" 11. mail Manchesteris Bridgewater Hallis; Olari Elts dirigeerimas 10. mail Edinburghis Usher Hallis, 11. mail Glasgowis ja 12. mail Aberdeenis

  12. A longitudinal observation of one-to-one singing lessons: The effects of personality and Adult attachment.

    OpenAIRE

    Serra-Dawa, Sofia

    2009-01-01

    Instrumental and singing teaching has previously been studied with par- particular focus on pedagogical, cognitive, technical, developmental aspects. However, the relationship and interactions that take place between the teachers and students in that setting deserve more extensive exploration. This study approaches the singing teacher-student relationship with a particular focus on the observation of personality traits and the levels of attachment identified between teacher and student. Eleve...

  13. The Response in Twitter to an Assisted Suicide in a Television Soap Opera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scourfield, Jonathan; Colombo, Gualtiero; Evans, Rhiannon; Jacob, Nina; Le Zhang, Meng; Burnap, Pete; Edwards, Adam; Housley, William; Williams, Matthew

    2016-09-01

    Concern has been expressed about the potentially contagious effect of television soap opera suicides and suicidal language in social media. Twitter content was analyzed during the week in which a fictional assisted suicide was broadcast on a British television soap opera, "Coronation Street." Tweets were collected if they contained language indicating possible suicidal intent or used the word suicide. The modified Thompson tau method was used to test for any differences in the volume of tweets in both categories on the day of screening. Content analysis broke down the use of the word suicide into six thematic categories. There was no evidence on the day of screening of an increase in tweets expressing possible suicidal intent but there was an increase in tweets containing the word suicide. Content analysis found the most common thematic category to be information or support, followed by the raising of moral issues in relation to suicide. It is possible that for certain high-profile media events Twitter may be used more as a civic reactive forum than as a medium for introspection or disclosure of distress.

  14. Neutrino velocity measurement with the OPERA experiment in the CNGS beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunetti, G.

    2011-05-01

    The thesis concerns the measurement of the neutrino velocity with the OPERA experiment in the CNGS beam. There are different theoretical models that allow for Lorentz violating effects which can be investigated with measurements on terrestrial neutrino beams. The MINOS experiment published in 2007 a measure on the muon neutrinos over a distance of 730 km finding a deviation with respect to the expected time of flight of 126 ns with a statistical error of 32 ns and a systematic error of 64 ns. The OPERA experiment observes as well muon neutrinos 730 km away from the source, with a sensitivity significantly better than MINOS thanks to the higher number of interactions in the detector due to the higher energy beam and the much more sophisticated timing system explicitly upgraded in view of the neutrino velocity measurement. This system is composed by atomic cesium clocks and GPS receivers operating in 'common view mode'. Thanks to this system a time-transfer between the two sites with a precision at the level of 1 ns is possible. Moreover, a Fast Waveform Digitizer was installed along the proton beam line at CERN in order to measure the internal time structure of the proton pulses that are sent to the CNGS target. The result on the neutrino velocity is the most precise measurement so far with terrestrial neutrino beams: the neutrino time of flight was determined with a statistical uncertainty of about 10 ns and a systematic uncertainty smaller than 20 nano-seconds. (author)

  15. Study of v interactions and background estimation in the OPERA emulsion film detector

    CERN Document Server

    Janicskó-Csáthy, József

    The OPERA (Oscillation Project with Emulsion tRacking Apparatus ) experiment or CNGS1 was approved in 2001 by CERN and presently is under construction. Data-taking is expected to start in 2006. The experiment is designated to the νμ  ντ oscillation search. OPERA is a hybrid detector comprising a number of electronic detectors and a specially designed nuclear emulsion stack interlaced with lead plates. The total target mass of the detector will be about 1.8 kt. This impressive mass needed for neutrino detection is combined with an even more impressive spatial resolution of about a m , characteristic of the nuclear emulsion technique. The detection of ντ is based on the observation of the decay of the τ lepton. The fine grained structure of nuclear emulsions offers the possibility to directly observe such a decay and by the means of kinematical analysis can be clearly separated from background events. Nuclear emulsions will be produced and processed in industrial quantities and the readout will be don...

  16. Implementace protokolu ACP do operačního systému L4

    OpenAIRE

    Kolarík, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    Práce se zabývá implementací protokolu ACP, který slouží k řízení přístupu pro operační systém založený na mikrojádře L4. Teoretická část práce se zabývá možnostmi řízení přístupu v počítačových sítích. Pozornost je se přitom soustřeďuje na AAA systémy, které řízení přístupu umožňují. Následně je podrobně popsán protokol ACP, typy jeho zpráv a reakce na ně. Druhá část teoretické přípravy je věnována operačním systémům kde se podrobněji zabývá jejich architekturou a službami. Následně je blíže...

  17. Eastern naturalness versus western artificiality: Rimsky Korsakov's influence on Manoles Kalomoires' early operas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanou Aikaterini

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the writer investigates the relations between perceptions of the East and the West in nineteenth century Greece, their connection to national identity, to the language question and to political tendencies. The composer Manoles Kalomoires was influenced by a group of progressive intellectuals striving to liberate Greek literature and language from its dependence on Ancient Greek legacy, a dependence motivated by Western idealists (who saw in the Greek Revolution of 1821 a renaissance of Ancient Greece. Most were educated in the West, but promoted an oriental image of Greeks. Kalomoires' musical expression of this image was inspired by Rimsky-Korsakov's Sheherazade and the Golden Cockerel. In 1909-910 he wrote an unfinished opera, Mavrianos and the King, on the model of the Golden Cockerel. He later used this music in his best known opera, The Mother's Ring (1917. In the present article the similarities in the three works are for the first time shown. An essential influence from Rimsky-Korsakov's work is the contrast between the world of freedom, nature and fantasy and that of oppression.

  18. Gloriana de Britten et le rêve de l’opéra anglais Britten’s Gloriana and the dream of english opera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Couderc

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The composition of Benjamin Britten’s sixth opera, Gloriana, originates from a conversation about emblematic national operas, the lack thereof in the British repertory and the need for Britten to compose such an opera to coincide with the Coronation of the young Queen Elizabeth II in 1953. Britten’s insistence on composing such an opera based on the tragic love story between the first Queen Elizabeth and Essex, depicted in Lytton Strachey’s dramatic biography, raises several questions. Why should Britten, the controversial composer of several controversial works, curry royal patronage? Why should he insist on composing for an event of such national significance? Why should Britten ride the hobby horse of a national opera and share the obsession of a national opera common to German composers of the Romantic generation? Gloriana turns out to be one of the elements that point to modernist and cosmopolitan Britten’s great sense of a national identity as a composer and his claim to work within a distinctly English tradition. The Coronation opera is also one of many endeavours in Britten’s production to resuscitate English Opera, his life-long ambition. With Gloriana, Britten once more leads the fight to eradicate English people’s prejudices against musicians in general and their own composers in particular and to give the lie to the dictum that Britain is the country that has no music.

  19. The role of singing familiar songs in encouraging conversation among people with middle to late stage Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dassa, Ayelet; Amir, Dorit

    2014-01-01

    Language deficits in people with Alzheimer's disease (AD) manifest, among other things, in a gradual deterioration of spontaneous speech. People with AD tend to speak less as the disease progresses and their speech becomes confused. However, the ability to sing old tunes sometimes remains intact throughout the disease. The purpose of this study was to explore the role of singing familiar songs in encouraging conversation among people with middle to late stage AD. Six participants attended group music therapy sessions over a one-month period. Using content analysis, we qualitatively examined transcriptions of verbal and sung content during 8 group sessions for the purpose of understanding the relationship between specific songs and conversations that occurred during and following group singing. Content analysis revealed that songs from the participants' past-elicited memories, especially songs related to their social and national identity. Analyses also indicated that conversation related to the singing was extensive and the act of group singing encouraged spontaneous responses. After singing, group members expressed positive feelings, a sense of accomplishment, and belonging. Carefully selecting music from the participants' past can encourage conversation. Considering the failure in spontaneous speech in people with middle to late stage AD, it is important to emphasize that group members' responses to each other occurred spontaneously without the researcher's encouragement. © the American Music Therapy Association 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Effect of mother singing on adaptation of preemies to extra-uterine life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiko Lúcia Hagi Pedro

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sounds are part of our life and are able to produce effects on physical and emotional balance of people. Objective: To evaluate the effects of mother’s singing on the preemie using as parameters the heart and respiratory frequency and blood oxygen concentration of preemies, and also the mother perception related to baby behavior during the exposition to her singing. Methods: It is an exploratory investigation with quantitative and qualitative analyzes. Twenty preemies babies were observed during three consecutive days. Each child was exposed to the mother singing during ten minutes for three periods. The data were collected before and immediately after the music exposition. The heart and respiratory frequency and blood oxygen concentration of the baby were registered in two moments: pre and post- music exposition; the two measures were analyzed and compared. In the third day, the mother was interviewed to know her perception related to baby behavior during the singing exposition. The assessment of data was performed from March to July 2015 in two public hospitals in Sorocaba, São Paulo, Brazil. For the statistical analysis, Wilcoxon, Mc Nemar and variance test of Friedman were applied. Results and Conclusion: Statistics showed no significant results, however the qualitative analyzes showed positive results from the mother’s speech, such as benefic changes on babies behavior, recognition of mother’s voice and in helping to consolidate the bond between mother and her baby. s positivos nos discursos obtidos das mães, tais como alterações comportamentais benéficas, reconhecimento da voz materna e auxílio na consolidação do vínculo mãe-bebê. Palavras-chave: musicoterapia; cuidados de enfermagem; prematuro; adaptação fisiológica; humanização da assistência.

  1. Connections between children's speaking and singing behaviours : implications for education and therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Rinta, Tiija Elisabet

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The putpose of the study was to investigate potential connections between children's speaking and singing behaviouts, as well as to explore the potential use of such connections in speech or voice therapy and in educational settings. The objectives of the study were addressed through an exploratory approach. In the literature review, potential connections between the two vocal behaviours were investigated theoretically from the physiological (including neurological)...

  2. Signal interactions and interference in insect choruses: singing and listening in the social environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    Acoustic insects usually sing amidst conspecifics, thereby creating a social environment-the chorus-in which individuals communicate, find mates, and avoid predation. A temporal structure may arise in a chorus because of competitive and cooperative factors that favor certain signal interactions between neighbors. This temporal structure can generate significant acoustic interference among singers that pose problems for communication, mate finding, and predator detection. Acoustic insects can reduce interference by means of selective attention to only their nearest neighbors and by alternating calls with neighbors. Alternatively, they may synchronize, allowing them to preserve call rhythm and also to listen for predators during the silent intervals between calls. Moreover, males singing in choruses may benefit from reduced per capita predation risk as well as enhanced vigilance. They may also enjoy greater per capita attractiveness to females, particularly in the case of synchronous choruses. In many cases, however, the overall temporal structure of the chorus is only an emergent property of simple, pairwise interactions between neighbors. Nonetheless, the chorus that emerges can impose significant selection pressure on the singing of those individual males. Thus, feedback loops may occur and potentially influence traits at both individual and group levels in a chorus.

  3. Updated 34-band Photometry for the SINGS/KINGFISH Samples of Nearby Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, D. A.; Turner, J. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie WY (United States); Cook, D. O. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena CA (United States); Roussel, H. [Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, Sorbonne Universités, Paris (France); Armus, L.; Helou, G. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Bolatto, A. D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Boquien, M. [Unidad de Astronomía, Universidad de Antofagasta, Antofagasta (Chile); Brown, M. J. I. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Calzetti, D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst MA (United States); Looze, I. De [Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, Gent (Belgium); Galametz, M. [European Southern Observatory, Garching (Germany); Gordon, K. D. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore MD (United States); Groves, B. A. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra (Australia); Jarrett, T. H. [Astronomy Department, University of Capetown, Rondebosch (South Africa); Herrera-Camus, R. [Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, Garching (Germany); Hinz, J. L. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson AZ (United States); Hunt, L. K. [INAF—Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Firenze (Italy); Kennicutt, R. C. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Murphy, E. J., E-mail: ddale@uwyo.edu [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA (United States); and others

    2017-03-01

    We present an update to the ultraviolet-to-radio database of global broadband photometry for the 79 nearby galaxies that comprise the union of the KINGFISH (Key Insights on Nearby Galaxies: A Far-Infrared Survey with Herschel ) and SINGS ( Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey) samples. The 34-band data set presented here includes contributions from observational work carried out with a variety of facilities including GALEX , SDSS, Pan-STARRS1, NOAO , 2MASS, Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer , Spitzer , Herschel , Planck , JCMT , and the VLA. Improvements of note include recalibrations of previously published SINGS BVR {sub C} I {sub C} and KINGFISH far-infrared/submillimeter photometry. Similar to previous results in the literature, an excess of submillimeter emission above model predictions is seen primarily for low-metallicity dwarf or irregular galaxies. This 33-band photometric data set for the combined KINGFISH+SINGS sample serves as an important multiwavelength reference for the variety of galaxies observed at low redshift. A thorough analysis of the observed spectral energy distributions is carried out in a companion paper.

  4. Predictors of continued playing or singing--from childhood and adolescence to adult years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theorell, T; Lennartsson, A-K; Madison, G; Mosing, M A; Ullén, F

    2015-03-01

    Many individuals play an instrument or sing during childhood, but they often stop later in life. This study surveyed adults representative of the Swedish population about musical activities during childhood. We asked 3820 adults (65% women) aged from 27 to 54 from the Swedish Twin Registry, who took extra music lessons to those provided at school, to fill in a web-based questionnaire. Factors analysed were the age they started studying music, the instrument they played, kind of teaching, institution and educational content, number of lessons and perceived characteristics of the lessons, the music environment during their childhood years and their preferred music genre. All variables were dichotomised. Factors strongly associated with continued playing or singing were male sex, young starting age, cultural family background, self-selected instrument, attending music classes and more than once a week, church-related or private education, pop, rock or classical music, playing by ear and improvisation. Several significant predictors determined whether a child continued to sing or play an instrument as an adult and many could be externally influenced, such as starting at a young age, taking music classes more than once a week, improvisation and the type of music they played. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. PRAYER IN ALEXANDER BLOK'S LYRIC POETRY ("A GIRL WAS SINGING IN THE CHURCH CHOIR..."

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Aleksandrovna Spiridonova

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the genre clash of a prayer and stanzas in Alexander Blok’s poem A girl was singing in the church choir... (1905. Prayer is the main ecclesiastical source, shaping the poem’s lyric model. The genre canon of stanzas with the strophes detached substantially and compositionally, transforms the central musical theme into four scene-developments linked by dissonance. Each of the strophes in A girl was singing in the church choir... has its own semantic point (prayer – singings – illusion – enlightenment and reveals a different content of the event, intensifies and develops the tragic theme of two worlds, intended and unintended substitutions, spiritual quest and time losses. Blok’s stanzas are poetic evidence of a modern man’s exit from a prayerful concentration. The model of “conflicting synthesis” of ecclesiastical and literary genres reflects the religious/mystical opposition in symbolism aesthetics and strengthens the tragic pathos of Blok’s lyric poetry.

  6. OPTICAL SPECTROSCOPY AND NEBULAR OXYGEN ABUNDANCES OF THE SPITZER/SINGS GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moustakas, John; Kennicutt, Robert C. Jr.; Tremonti, Christy A.; Dale, Daniel A.; Smith, John-David T.; Calzetti, Daniela

    2010-01-01

    We present intermediate-resolution optical spectrophotometry of 65 galaxies obtained in support of the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey (SINGS). For each galaxy we obtain a nuclear, circumnuclear, and semi-integrated optical spectrum designed to coincide spatially with mid- and far-infrared spectroscopy from the Spitzer Space Telescope. We make the reduced, spectrophotometrically calibrated one-dimensional spectra, as well as measurements of the fluxes and equivalent widths of the strong nebular emission lines, publicly available. We use optical emission-line ratios measured on all three spatial scales to classify the sample into star-forming, active galactic nuclei (AGNs), and galaxies with a mixture of star formation and nuclear activity. We find that the relative fraction of the sample classified as star forming versus AGN is a strong function of the integrated light enclosed by the spectroscopic aperture. We supplement our observations with a large database of nebular emission-line measurements of individual H II regions in the SINGS galaxies culled from the literature. We use these ancillary data to conduct a detailed analysis of the radial abundance gradients and average H II-region abundances of a large fraction of the sample. We combine these results with our new integrated spectra to estimate the central and characteristic (globally averaged) gas-phase oxygen abundances of all 75 SINGS galaxies. We conclude with an in-depth discussion of the absolute uncertainty in the nebular oxygen abundance scale.

  7. Updated 34-band Photometry for the SINGS/KINGFISH Samples of Nearby Galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dale, D. A.; Turner, J. A.; Cook, D. O.; Roussel, H.; Armus, L.; Helou, G.; Bolatto, A. D.; Boquien, M.; Brown, M. J. I.; Calzetti, D.; Looze, I. De; Galametz, M.; Gordon, K. D.; Groves, B. A.; Jarrett, T. H.; Herrera-Camus, R.; Hinz, J. L.; Hunt, L. K.; Kennicutt, R. C.; Murphy, E. J.

    2017-01-01

    We present an update to the ultraviolet-to-radio database of global broadband photometry for the 79 nearby galaxies that comprise the union of the KINGFISH (Key Insights on Nearby Galaxies: A Far-Infrared Survey with Herschel ) and SINGS ( Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey) samples. The 34-band data set presented here includes contributions from observational work carried out with a variety of facilities including GALEX , SDSS, Pan-STARRS1, NOAO , 2MASS, Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer , Spitzer , Herschel , Planck , JCMT , and the VLA. Improvements of note include recalibrations of previously published SINGS BVR C I C and KINGFISH far-infrared/submillimeter photometry. Similar to previous results in the literature, an excess of submillimeter emission above model predictions is seen primarily for low-metallicity dwarf or irregular galaxies. This 33-band photometric data set for the combined KINGFISH+SINGS sample serves as an important multiwavelength reference for the variety of galaxies observed at low redshift. A thorough analysis of the observed spectral energy distributions is carried out in a companion paper.

  8. Effects of Bel Canto Training on Acoustic and Aerodynamic Characteristics of the Singing Voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHenry, Monica A; Evans, Joseph; Powitzky, Eric

    2016-03-01

    This study was designed to assess the impact of 2 years of operatic training on acoustic and aerodynamic characteristics of the singing voice. This is a longitudinal study. Participants were 21 graduate students and 16 undergraduate students. They completed a variety of tasks, including laryngeal videostroboscopy, audio recording of pitch range, and singing of syllable trains at full voice in chest, passaggio, and head registers. Inspiration, intraoral pressure, airflow, and sound pressure level (SPL) were captured during the syllable productions. Both graduate and undergraduate students significantly increased semitone range and SPL. The contributions to increased SPL were typically increased inspiration, increased airflow, and reduced laryngeal resistance, although there were individual differences. Two graduate students increased SPL without increased airflow and likely used supraglottal strategies to do so. Students demonstrated improvements in both acoustic and aerodynamic components of singing. Increasing SPL primarily through respiratory drive is a healthy strategy and results from intensive training. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Approaches to the mechanisms of song memorization and singing provide evidence for a procedural memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hultsch Henrike

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence that, during song learning, birds do not only acquire 'what to sing' (the inventory of behavior, but also 'how to sing' (the singing program, including order-features of song sequencing. Common Nightingales Luscinia megarhynchos acquire such serial information by segmenting long strings of heard songs into smaller subsets or packages, by a process reminiscent of the chunking of information as a coding mechanism in short term memory. Here we report three tutoring experiments on nightingales that examined whether such 'chunking' was susceptible to experimental cueing. The experiments tested whether (1 'temporal phrasing' (silent intersong intervals spaced out at particular positions of a tutored string, or (2 'stimulus novelty' (groups of novel song-types added to a basic string, or (3 'pattern similarity' in the phonetic structure of songs (here: sharing of song initials would induce package boundaries (or chunking at the manipulated sequential positions. The results revealed cueing effects in experiments (1 and (2 but not in experiment (3. The finding that birds used temporal variables as cues for chunking does not require the assumption that package formation is a cognitive strategy. Rather, it points towards a mechanism of procedural memory operating in the song acquisition of birds.

  10. Approaches to the mechanisms of song memorization and singing provide evidence for a procedural memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultsch, Henrike; Todt, Dietmar

    2004-06-01

    There is growing evidence that, during song learning, birds do not only acquire 'what to sing' (the inventory of behavior), but also 'how to sing' (the singing program), including order-features of song sequencing. Common Nightingales Luscinia megarhynchos acquire such serial information by segmenting long strings of heard songs into smaller subsets or packages, by a process reminiscent of the chunking of information as a coding mechanism in short term memory. Here we report three tutoring experiments on nightingales that examined whether such 'chunking' was susceptible to experimental cueing. The experiments tested whether (1) 'temporal phrasing' (silent intersong intervals spaced out at particular positions of a tutored string), or (2) 'stimulus novelty' (groups of novel song-types added to a basic string), or (3) 'pattern similarity' in the phonetic structure of songs (here: sharing of song initials) would induce package boundaries (or chunking) at the manipulated sequential positions. The results revealed cueing effects in experiments (1) and (2) but not in experiment (3). The finding that birds used temporal variables as cues for chunking does not require the assumption that package formation is a cognitive strategy. Rather, it points towards a mechanism of procedural memory operating in the song acquisition of birds.

  11. Closed quotient and spectral measures of female adolescent singers in different singing styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Christopher; Lovetri, Jeannette

    2010-05-01

    Although quantifiable assessment of the singing voice is now commonplace, research on young (child and adolescent) voices is still in its infancy. There is still insufficient data on young people's voices based on which, "norms" in behavior could be modeled, particularly for contemporary commercial music (CCM), such as musical theater (MT). The objective of this study was to assess if quantifiable differences in vocal production and acoustic output of young singers exist between "classical" and "MT" styles. The study was a prospective cohort study of 20 adolescent female singers aged 12-17 years training their voices using a system, which includes both "classical" and "MT" styles. The study examined laryngographically derived closed quotient (CQ), average vowel spectra (AVS) and long-term average spectra (LTAS) measures of the sung voices of singers in "classical" and "MT" styles. The spectral slope was shallower for the MT voice, and the mean CQ was significantly higher across the pitch range when singing in an MT style than in a "classical" style. The second to fifth harmonics were stronger in the MT style than in classical, with a significant difference between the two styles. The increase in relative intensity in the first five harmonics was disproportionately higher than the increase in CQ. Results, therefore, suggested that MT singing primarily uses change in resonance strategy rather than raised vocal tension to achieve the tonal changes associated with the genre. (c) 2010 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Exercise Science Principles and the Vocal Warm-up: Implications for Singing Voice Pedagogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, Matthew; Sandage, Mary J

    2018-01-01

    Principles from exercise science literature were applied to singing warm-up pedagogy as a method for examining parallels between athletic and voice training. Analysis of the use of exercise principles in vocal warm-up should illuminate aspects of voice training that may be further developed in the future. A selected canon of standard voice pedagogy texts and well-regarded warm-up methods were evaluated for use of exercise science principles for skill acquisition and fatigue resistance. Exercises were then categorized according to whether they were used for the purpose of skill acquisition (specificity), training up to tasks (overload), or detraining (reversibility). A preliminary review of well-established voice pedagogy programs reveals a strong bias toward the skill acquisition aspects of vocal warm-up, with little commentary on the fatigue management aspects. Further, the small number of vocalises examined that are not skill-acquisition oriented fall into a third "habilitative" category that likewise does not relate to overload but may play a role in offsetting reversibility. Although a systematic pedagogy for skill acquisition has emerged in the literature and practice of voice pedagogy, a parallel pedagogy for fatigue management has yet to be established. Identification of a systematic pedagogy for training up to specific singing genres and development of a singing maintenance program to avoid detraining may help the singer avoid injury. Copyright © 2018 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Evidence-based Frameworks for Teaching and Learning in Classical Singing Training: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocco, Laura; Madill, Catherine J; McCabe, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    The study systematically reviews evidence-based frameworks for teaching and learning of classical singing training. This is a systematic review. A systematic literature search of 15 electronic databases following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews (PRISMA) guidelines was conducted. Eligibility criteria included type of publication, participant characteristics, intervention, and report of outcomes. Quality rating scales were applied to support assessment of the included literature. Data analysis was conducted using meta-aggregation. Nine papers met the inclusion criteria. No complete evidence-based teaching and learning framework was found. Thematic content analysis showed that studies either (1) identified teaching practices in one-to-one lessons, (2) identified student learning strategies in one-to-one lessons or personal practice sessions, and (3) implemented a tool to enhance one specific area of teaching and learning in lessons. The included studies showed that research in music education is not always specific to musical genre or instrumental group, with four of the nine studies including participant teachers and students of classical voice training only. The overall methodological quality ratings were low. Research in classical singing training has not yet developed an evidence-based framework for classical singing training. This review has found that introductory information on teaching and learning practices has been provided, and tools have been suggested for use in the evaluation of the teaching-learning process. High-quality methodological research designs are needed. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Social and cognitive functions of music based on the example of Tuvan throat singing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen-Mou Hsu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Music is pervasive across human cultures and throughout times. Particularly, music serves great importance at social functions. Like many cultures’ use of music, throat singing or khöömei, the most distinguished aspect of Tuva’s music, contributes significantly to social communication, emotional expression, social bonding and religious rituals. Acknowledgment and consideration of current social cognitive findings of music may thus provide a better insight into the nature of throat singing. To date, evidence has indicated that similar to language, music is a fundamental channel of communication, and these two constructs may have common origins in a single communicative system. Moreover, music may modulate neural activity in the brain structures associated with emotions and alter our autonomic responses. In addition to information sharing, music thus has the capacity to convey emotions. This ability may further render music a powerful mechanism to facilitate social bonding and ritual practice, as individuals’ internal states during these social events become synchronized through musical engagement. In conclusion, I suggest that those social cognitive perspectives may point toward new directions for a continuing discourse on our understanding of throat singing.

  15. Singing as Social Life: Three Perspectives on Kwv Txhiaj from Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lonán Ó Briain

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the recent influx of predominantly foreign-produced recordings of Hmong popular music, the vocal art form of kwv txhiaj still plays an important role in the daily lives of manyVietnamese-Hmong people. While previous studies of Vietnamese-Hmong music have tended to focus solely on the musical sounds, this article attempts to illustrate how kwv txhiaj is made meaningful in live performance by contextualizing the musical examples with ethnographic data. Using Timothy Rice’s Time, Place, and Metaphor model (2003 as a theoretical basis, three contrasting case studies of singers and their songs are examined: an elderly woman sings a song she learned at the time of her marriage at the age of nine, a younger woman sings while planting rice in her fields, and another sings about the importance of education at the local government cultural center. Based on fifteen months of fieldwork in northern Vietnam, this study examines a representative sample of performances from the Sa Pa district of Lào Cai province in an attempt to uncover what makes kwv txhiaj a vital aspect of Vietnamese-Hmong culture.

  16. Alignment of the drift tube detector at the neutrino oscillation experiment OPERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goellnitz, Christoph

    2012-09-01

    The present thesis was composed during the course of the OPERA experiment, which aims to give a direct evidence for neutrino oscillations in the channel ν μ → ν τ . The OPERA detector is designed to observe the appearance of tau neutrinos in an originally pure muon neutrino beam, the CNGS beam. As important part of the detector the precision tracker (PT), a drift tube detector, consists of 9504 drift tubes in 198 modules. In this thesis, several parts of the slow control of the PT are developed and implemented to ensure operation during data taking over several years. The main part is the geometric calibration, the alignment of the detector. The alignment procedure contains both hardware and software parts, the software methods are developed and applied. Using straight particle tracks, the detector components are geometrically corrected. A special challenge for the alignment for the PT is the fact that at this kind of low-rate experiment only a small number of particle tracks is available. With software-based corrections of the module rotation, a systematic error of 0.2 mrad has been attained, for corrections of translation, a systematic error of 32 μm is reached. For the alignment between two adjacent PT walls, the statistical error is less than 8 μm. All results of the position monitoring system are considered. All developed methods are tested with Monte Carlo simulations. The detector requirements (Δp/p ≤ 0.25 below 25 GeV) are met. The analysis of the momentum measurement for high energies above 25 GeV demonstrates the resulting improvement. The mean momentum is falling significantly using the new alignment values. The significance of the detector alignment becomes most evident in the analysis of cosmic particles. The muon charge ratio R μ is expected not to be angular dependent. The χ 2 probability of the measured distribution improves up to 58%. The muon charge ratio was also investigated in dependence of particle energy in terms of the alignment

  17. Understanding artistic performance in its context: A case study of the practice of evaluation in a publicly funded opera company

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chiaravalloti, F.

    2015-01-01

    This paper shows how the different groups of managers (administrative, artistic, and technical) of a publicly funded opera company evaluate the artistic performance of their organization. Performance information of varied nature is exchanged between the internal and external stakeholders of the

  18. Muusikamaailm : New Yorki tuleb Maazel. Kiri ei lahku veel lavalt. Kennedy Centeri autasud. Opera Internationali ankeet / Priit Kuusk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuusk, Priit, 1938-

    2001-01-01

    L.Maazel valiti NY Filharmoonikute uueks peadirigendiks alates 2002.a., dirigendi praegustest tegemistest. K.Te Kanawa jätkab lauljategevust. Washingtoni Kennedy nim. kunstikeskuse aasta autasudest. Muusikaajakiri Opera Internationali lugejad valisid 20. saj. suurimad ooperilauljad, dirigendid ja lavastajad

  19. Designing Creative Inter-Disciplinary Science and Art Interventions in Schools: The Case of Write a Science Opera (WASO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Horin, Oded; Chappell, Kerry A.; Halstead, Jill; Espeland, Magne

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this qualitative study is to provide theoretical knowledge and design principles for a creative educational environment characterized by simultaneous study and exploration of science or math, and the arts: Write a Science Opera (WASO). To do so, we used a theory of creativity in education which links collaborative co-creation in…

  20. The impact of a religious opera on a secular audience : The existential and religious importance of art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zock, T.H.; Alma, H.

    2005-01-01

    What role does art play in the life of contemporary, secularized people who are looking for existential and spiritual meaning? This was the leading question in our empirical research on the opera ‘‘Dialogues of the Carmelites’’ by the French composer, Francis Poulenc. First, we will sketch the

  1. Alfred. První opera Antonína Dvořáka se vrací

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kratochvílová, Markéta

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 3 (2014), s. 6-7 Institutional support: RVO:68378076 Keywords : Gerd Albrecht * Adolf Heller * Karl Theodor Körner * opera * Antonín Dvořák * Alfred Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  2. Alcohol portrayals in movies, music videos and soap operas and alcohol use of young people: current status and future challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koordeman, R.; Anschutz, D.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Aims: To provide an overview of studies of the effects of alcohol portrayals in movies, music videos and soap operas on alcohol consumption among young people. Moreover, we highlight important issues that need to be addressed in future research. Methods: This paper reviews the current literature on

  3. Alcohol Portrayals in Movies, Music Videos and Soap Operas and Alcohol Use of Young People: Current Status and Future Challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koordeman, R.; Anschutz, D.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Aims: To provide an overview of studies of the effects of alcohol portrayals in movies, music videos and soap operas on alcohol consumption among young people. Moreover, we highlight important issues that need to be addressed in future research. Methods: This paper reviews the current literature on

  4. Le serie tv sono la nuova soap opera? Luci e ombre della Grande Serialità televisiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Cardini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Until a few years ago, television seriality was a secondary topic in the academic research, above all in Italy, whereas today, tv series have turned into the main interest of a lively scholarship, mostly belonging to disciplines traditionally not interested in the study of serial forms. Mutatis mutandis, today the central role of tv series is similar to the relevance of the soap opera in the critical debate in the Eighties and Nineties. From being neglected as an irrelevant part of television schedules, in a few years the soap opera turned into the symbol of a rich and polysemic textuality which quickly became the central topic of the newly-born fields of television studies and women studies. Obviously, the parallel between the soap opera and the new tv series cannot be drawn upon narrative or aesthetic dimensions, but (in the maybe provocative perspective proposed by this paper both formulas demonstrate a basic assumption of seriality: serial forms are  shaped by the mediascape they stem from. Therefore, as it happened to the soap opera, today’s academical interest for tv series shows many great opportunities and some deep contradictions, including the old matter of cultural hegemony which seems to appear once again in the evaluative attitude of some critical approaches.

  5. The OPERA experiment. ν{sub μ}→ν{sub τ} oscillation discovered in appearance mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buettner, Benjamin [Universitaet Hamburg, Institut fuer Experimentalphysik (Germany); Collaboration: OPERA-Hamburg-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The primary goal of the OPERA long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment is the first direct detection of ν{sub μ}→ν{sub τ} oscillations. The hybrid OPERA detector consists of a large-mass target made from lead and photo emulsions - providing micrometric resolution - and electronic detector parts for online readout. It is located in the LNGS underground laboratory, at a distance of 730 km from the SPS at CERN, where the CNGS ν{sub μ} beam is produced. The measurement of ν{sub τ} appearance relies on the detection of the decay of τ leptons which are created in ν{sub τ} charged current reactions. Data acquisition lasted from 2008 to 2012. With the collected data the OPERA experiment discovered ν{sub τ} appearance in the CNGS neutrino beam with a significance of 5.1 σ. This poster will give an overview about the OPERA experiment and the discovery of τ neutrino appearance in the CNGS neutrino beam.

  6. Muusikamaailm : Berliini Filharmoonikud Beethoveniga. Kurtagi festival Gütersloh's. Uus soome ooper. Glyndebourne Opera New Yorgis / Priit Kuusk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuusk, Priit, 1938-

    2001-01-01

    Berliini Filharmoonikute Beethoveni festivalist Roomas, Viinis ja Berliinis. Kurtagi festivalist Gütersloh's Saksamaal 16.-18. veebr.Helsingis esietendus 8. veebr. K.Aho kammerooper "Enne kui me kõik oleme hukkunud". Glyndebourne'i Touring Opera tutvustab kuulsa ooperifestivali lavastusi New Yorgis

  7. First events from the CNGS neutrino beam detected in the OPERA experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Acquafredda, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Anokhina, A.; Aoki, S.; Ariga, A.; Arrabito, L.; Autiero, D.; Badertscher, A.; Bergnoli, A.; Bersani Greggio, F.; Besnier, M.; Beyer, M.; Bondil-Blin, S.; Borer, K.; Boucrot, J.; Boyarkin, V.; Bozza, C.; Brugnera, R.; Buontempo, S.; Caffari, Y.; Campagne, Jean-Eric; Carlus, B.; Carrara, E.; Cazes, A.; Chaussard, L.; Chernyavsky, M.; Chiarella, V.; Chon-Sen, N.; Chukanov, A.; Ciesielski, R.; Consiglio, L.; Cozzi, M.; Dal Corso, F.; D'Ambrosio, N.; Damet, J.; De Lellis, G.; Declais, Y.; Descombes, T.; De Serio, M.; Di Capua, F.; Di Ferdinando, D.; Di Giovanni, A.; Di Marco, N.; Di Troia, C.; Dmitrievski, S.; Dracos, M.; Duchesneau, D.; Dulach, B.; Dusini, S.; Ebert, J.; Enikeev, R.; Ereditato, A.; Esposito, L.S.; Fanin, C.; Favier, J.; Felici, G.; Ferber, T.; Fournier, L.; Franceschi, A.; Frekers, D.; Fukuda, T.; Fukushima, C.; Galkin, V.I.; Galkin, V.A.; Gallet, R.; Garfagnini, A.; Gaudiot, G.; Giacomelli, G.; Giarmana, O.; Giorgini, M.; Girard, L.; Girerd, C.; Goellnitz, C.; Goldberg, J.; Gornoushkin, Y.; Grella, G.; Grianti, F.; Guerin, C.; Guler, M.; Gustavino, C.; Hagner, C.; Hamane, T.; Hara, T.; Hauger, M.; Hess, M.; Hoshino, K.; Ieva, M.; Incurvati, M.; Jakovcic, K.; Janicsko Csathy, J.; Janutta, B.; Jollet, C.; Juget, F.; Kazuyama, M.; Kim, S.H.; Kimura, M.; Knuesel, J.; Kodama, K.; Kolev, D.; Komatsu, M.; Kose, U.; Krasnoperov, A.; Kreslo, I.; Krumstein, Z.; Laktineh, I.; de La Taille, C.; Le Flour, T.; Lieunard, S.; Ljubicic, A.; Longhin, A.; Malgin, A.; Manai, K.; Mandrioli, G.; Mantello, U.; Marotta, A.; Marteau, J.; Martin-Chassard, G.; Matveev, V.; Messina, M.; Meyer, L.; Micanovic, S.; Migliozzi, P.; Miyamoto, S.; Monacelli, Piero; Monteiro, I.; Morishima, K.; Moser, U.; Muciaccia, M.T.; Mugnier, P.; Naganawa, N.; Nakamura, M.; Nakano, T.; Napolitano, T.; Natsume, M.; Niwa, K.; Nonoyama, Y.; Nozdrin, A.; Ogawa, S.; Olchevski, A.; Orlandi, D.; Ossetski, D.; Paoloni, A.; Park, B.D.; Park, I.G.; Pastore, A.; Patrizii, L.; Pellegrino, L.; Pessard, H.; Pilipenko, V.; Pistillo, C.; Polukhina, N.; Pozzato, M.; Pretzl, K.; Publichenko, P.; Raux, L.; Repellin, J.P.; Roganova, T.; Romano, G.; Rosa, G.; Rubbia, A.; Ryasny, V.; Ryazhskaya, O.; Ryzhikov, D.; Sadovski, A.; Sanelli, C.; Sato, O.; Sato, Y.; Saveliev, V.; Savvinov, N.; Sazhina, G.; Schembri, A.; Schmidt Parzefall, W.; Schroeder, H.; Schutz, H.U.; Scotto Lavina, L.; Sewing, J.; Shibuya, H.; Simone, S.; Sioli, M.; Sirignano, C.; Sirri, G.; Song, J.S.; Spaeti, R.; Spinetti, M.; Stanco, L.; Starkov, N.; Stipcevic, M.; Strolin, Paolo Emilio; Sugonyaev, V.; Takahashi, S.; Tereschenko, V.; Terranova, F.; Tezuka, I.; Tioukov, V.; Tikhomirov, I.; Tolun, P.; Toshito, T.; Tsarev, V.; Tsenov, R.; Ugolino, U.; Ushida, N.; Van Beek, G.; Verguilov, V.; Vilain, P.; Votano, L.; Vuilleumier, J.L.; Waelchli, T.; Waldi, R.; Weber, M.; Wilquet, G.; Wonsak, B.; Wurth, R.; Wurtz, J.; Yakushev, V.; Yoon, C.S.; Zaitsev, Y.; Zamboni, I.; Zimmerman, R.

    2006-01-01

    The OPERA neutrino detector at the underground Gran Sasso Laboratory (LNGS) was designed to perform the first detection of neutrino oscillations in appearance mode, through the study of nu_mu to nu_tau oscillations. The apparatus consists of a lead/emulsion-film target complemented by electronic detectors. It is placed in the high-energy, long-baseline CERN to LNGS beam (CNGS) 730 km away from the neutrino source. In August 2006 a first run with CNGS neutrinos was successfully conducted. A first sample of neutrino events was collected, statistically consistent with the integrated beam intensity. After a brief description of the beam and of the various sub-detectors, we report on the achievement of this milestone, presenting the first data and some analysis results.

  8. MANAGEMENT ART - The Royal Danish Opera's Artistic Director Kasper Bech Holten as case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørreklit, Hanne

    successful Artistic Director of the Royal Danish Opera, Kasper Bech Holten. The analysis shows that conventional management models primarily use the symbolic forms of science and myth, while Kasper integrates the symbolic forms of art and science. In what Kasper has to say on management, features...... and structures for a new management discourse practice emerge which is more suited to postmodern society than more conventional management models.......This article investigates whether it would be expedient for our management models to be inspired by art as a form of consciousness. With this in mind, the article analyses the symbolic forms embedded in the management discourse practice of art in the way that the concept is unfolded by the highly...

  9. Measurement of the atmospheric muon charge ratio with the OPERA detector

    CERN Document Server

    Agafonova, N.; Aoki, S.; Ariga, A.; Ariga, T.; Autiero, D.; Badertscher, A.; Bagulya, A.; Bertolin, A.; Besnier, M.; Bick, D.; Boyarkin, V.; Bozza, C.; Brugiere, T.; Brugnera, R.; Brunetti, G.; Buontempo, S.; Cazes, A.; Chaussard, L.; Chernyavsky, M.; Chiarella, V.; Chon-Sen, N.; Chukanov, A.; Cozzi, M.; D'Amato, G.; Dal Corso, F.; D'Ambrosio, N.; De Lellis, G.; Declais, Y.; De Serio, M.; Di Capua, F.; Di Ferdinando, D.; Di Giovanni, A.; Di Marco, N.; Dmitrievski, S.; Dracos, M.; Duchesneau, D.; Dusini, S.; Ebert, J.; Egorov, O.; Enikeev, R.; Ereditato, A.; Esposito, L.S.; Favier, J.; Felici, G.; Ferber, T.; Fini, R.; Frekers, D.; Fukuda, T.; Fukushima, C.; Galkin, V.I.; Garfagnini, A.; Giacomelli, G.; Giorgini, M.; Goellnitz, C.; Goldberg, J.; Golubkov, D.; Goncharova, L.; Gornushkin, Y.; Grella, G.; Grianti, F.; Guler, M.; Gustavino, C.; Hagner, C.; Hamada, K.; Hara, T.; Hierholzer, M.; Hoshino, K.; Ieva, M.; Jakovcic, K.; Jollet, C.; Juget, F.; Kazuyama, M.; Kim, S.H.; Kimura, M.; Klicek, B.; Knuesel, J.; Kodama, K.; Komatsu, M.; Kose, U.; Kreslo, I.; Kubota, H.; Lazzaro, C.; Lenkeit, J.; Ljubicic, A.; Longhin, A.; Lutter, G.; Malgin, A.; Mandrioli, G.; Marotta, A.; Marteau, J.; Matsuo, T.; Matveev, V.; Mauri, N.; Medinaceli, E.; Meisel, F.; Meregaglia, A.; Migliozzi, P.; Mikado, S.; Miyamoto, S.; Monacelli, P.; Morishima, K.; Moser, U.; Muciaccia, M.T.; Naganawa, N.; Naka, T.; Nakamura, M.; Nakano, T.; Naumov, D.; Nikitina, V.; Niwa, K.; Nonoyama, Y.; Ogawa, S.; Olchevski, A.; Oldorf, C.; Orlova, G.; Osedlo, V.; Paniccia, M.; Paoloni, A.; Park, B.D.; Park, I.G.; Pastore, A.; Patrizii, L.; Pennacchio, E.; Pessard, H.; Pilipenko, V.; Pistillo, C.; Policastro, G.; Polukhina, N.; Pozzato, M.; Pretzl, K.; Publichenko, P.; Pupilli, F.; Rescigno, R.; Roganova, T.; Rokujo, H.; Romano, G.; Rosa, G.; Rostovtseva, I.; Rubbia, A.; Russo, A.; Ryasny, V.; Ryazhskaya, O.; Sato, O.; Sato, Y.; Schembri, A.; Schmidt Parzefall, W.; Schroeder, H.; Scotto Lavina, L.; Sheshukov, A.; Shibuya, H.; Simone, S.; Sioli, M.; Sirignano, C.; Sirri, G.; Song, J.S.; Spinetti, M.; Stanco, L.; Starkov, N.; Stipcevic, M.; Strauss, T.; Strolin, P.; Takahashi, S.; Tenti, M.; Terranova, F.; Tezuka, I.; Tioukov, V.; Tolun, P.; Tran, T.; Tufanli, S.; Vilain, P.; Vladimirov, M.; Votano, L.; Vuilleumier, J.L.; Wilquet, G.; Wonsak, B.; Yakushev, V.; Yoon, C.S.; Yoshioka, T.; Yoshida, J.; Zaitsev, Y.; Zemskova, S.; Zghiche, A.; Zimmermann, R.

    2010-01-01

    The OPERA detector at the Gran Sasso underground laboratory (LNGS) was used to measure the atmospheric muon charge ratio in the TeV energy region. We analyzed 403069 atmospheric muons corresponding to 113.4 days of livetime during the 2008 CNGS run. We computed separately the muon charge ratio for single and for multiple muon events in order to select different energy regions of the primary cosmic ray spectrum and to test the charge ratio dependence on the primary composition. The measured charge ratio values were corrected taking into account the charge-misidentification errors. Data have also been grouped in five bins of the "vertical surface energy". A fit to a simplified model of muon production in the atmosphere allowed the determination of the pion and kaon charge ratios weighted by the cosmic ray energy spectrum.

  10. Measurement of the cosmic ray muon charge ratio with the OPERA detector

    CERN Document Server

    Mauri, N

    2010-01-01

    The OPERA detector at the Gran Sasso underground laboratory (LNGS) was used to measure the cosmic ray muon charge ratio Rμ = Nμ+/Nμ− in the TeV energy region. We analyzed 403069 cosmic ray muons corresponding to 113.4 days of livetime during the 2008 CNGS run. We computed separately the muon charge ratio for single and for multiple muon events in order to select different energy regions of the primary cosmic ray spectrum and to test the Rμ dependence on the primary composition. Rμ is also shown as a function of the Òvertical surface energyÓ Eμ cos !. A Þt to a simpliÞed model of muon pro- duction in atmosphere allowed the determination of the pion and kaon charge ratios weighted by the cosmic ray energy spectrum.

  11. Commissioning and proof of functionality of the OPERA precision tracker, especially of the time measuring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janutta, Benjamin

    2008-10-01

    The commissioning and the proof of functionality of the Precision Tracker of the OPERA experiment is subject of this thesis. The timing system of the precision tracker is of major concern here. At first the time.resolution of the timing electronics was characterized additionally general running parameters were studied. Afterwards the installation and commissioning were carried out. The precision tracker is supposed to determine the momentum of throughgoing myons with an accuracy of Δp/p<0.25 as well as the sign of their charge. The commissioning is finished by now and it was shown, that the data acquisition system runs very reliable and only 1.5% show an slightly higher number of hits. The nominal spatial track resolution of σ<600 μm was also reached. (orig.)

  12. Theory of acoustic design of opera house and a design proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Yoichi

    2004-05-01

    First of all, the theory of subjective preference for sound fields based on the model of auditory-brain system is briefly mentioned. It consists of the temporal factors and spatial factors associated with the left and right cerebral hemispheres, respectively. The temporal criteria are the initial time delay gap between the direct sound and the first Reflection (Dt1) and the subsequent reverberation time (Tsub). These preferred conditions are related to the minimum value of effective duration of the running autocorrelation function of source signals (te)min. The spatial criteria are binaural listening level (LL) and the IACC, which may be extracted from the interaural crosscorrelation function. In the opera house, there are two different kind of sound sources, i.e., the vocal source of relatively short values of (te)min in the stage and the orchestra music of long values of (te)min in the pit. For these sources, a proposal is made here.

  13. Measured Early Lateral Energy Fractions in Concert Halls and Opera Houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    BARRON, M.

    2000-04-01

    In the 30 years since early lateral reflections were first suggested as important for concert halls, spatial impression and source broadening have become almost universally accepted as essential characteristics of halls with good acoustics. Two objective measures of source broadening have been proposed. Measured values of the best defined of these measures, the early lateral energy fraction (LF), are considered here. Results from two independent measurement surveys are discussed. Comparisons of LF values by hall show a significant link between hall mean LF and hall width. There is however considerable overlap between measured LF values in different halls so the relevance of describing halls by their mean early lateral energy fraction values is questionable. The behaviour of LF values within auditoria is discussed for different concert hall plan forms and within opera houses. A measure of source broadening including sound level is proposed and results considered in the context of auditorium design.

  14. Measurement of the atmospheric muon charge ratio with the OPERA detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agafonova, N.; Boyarkin, V.; Enikeev, R.; Malgin, A.; Matveev, V.; Ryasny, V.; Ryazhskaya, O.; Yakushev, V.; Anokhina, A.; Galkin, V.I.; Nikitina, V.; Osedlo, V.; Publichenko, P.; Roganova, T.; Aoki, S.; Hara, T.; Rokujo, H.; Ariga, A.; Ariga, T.; Ereditato, A.; Juget, F.; Knuesel, J.; Kreslo, I.; Lutter, G.; Meisel, F.; Moser, U.; Pistillo, C.; Pretzl, K.; Vuilleumier, J.L.; Autiero, D.; Brugiere, T.; Cazes, A.; Chaussard, L.; Declais, Y.; Marteau, J.; Pennacchio, E.; Tran, T.; Badertscher, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Rubbia, A.; Strauss, T.; Bagulya, A.; Chernyavsky, M.; Goncharova, L.; Orlova, G.; Polukhina, N.; Starkov, N.; Vladimirov, M.; Bertolin, A.; Dal Corso, F.; Dusini, S.; Besnier, M.; Duchesneau, D.; Favier, J.; Pessard, H.; Zghiche, A.; Bick, D.; Ebert, J.; Ferber, T.; Goellnitz, C.; Hagner, C.; Lenkeit, J.; Oldorf, C.; Schmidt Parzefall, W.; Wonsak, B.; Zimmermann, R.; Bozza, C.; D'Amato, G.; Grella, G.; Policastro, G.; Rescigno, R.; Romano, G.; Sirignano, C.; Brugnera, R.; Garfagnini, A.; Kose, U.; Brunetti, G.; Giacomelli, G.; Giorgini, M.; Mauri, N.; Pozzato, M.; Sioli, M.; Tenti, M.; Buontempo, S.; Chukanov, A.; Di Capua, F.; Marotta, A.; Migliozzi, P.; Scotto Lavina, L.; Tioukov, V.; Chiarella, V.; Felici, G.; Grianti, F.; Paniccia, M.; Paoloni, A.; Spinetti, M.; Terranova, F.; Votano, L.; Chon-Sen, N.; Dracos, M.; Jollet, C.; Meregaglia, A.; Cozzi, M.; D'Ambrosio, N.; Di Giovanni, A.; Esposito, L.S.; Gustavino, C.; De Lellis, G.; Russo, A.; Strolin, P.; De Serio, M.; Fini, R.; Ieva, M.; Di Ferdinando, D.; Mandrioli, G.; Medinaceli, E.; Patrizii, L.; Sirri, G.; Di Marco, N.; Monacelli, P.; Park, B.D.; Park, I.G.; Pupilli, F.; Dmitrievski, S.; Gornushkin, Y.; Naumov, D.; Olchevski, A.; Sheshukov, A.; Zemskova, S.; Egorov, O.; Golubkov, D.; Rostovtseva, I.; Zaitsev, Y.; Frekers, D.; Pilipenko, V.; Fukuda, T.; Hamada, K.; Hoshino, K.; Kazuyama, M.; Komatsu, M.; Kubota, H.; Miyamoto, S.; Morishima, K.; Naganawa, N.; Naka, T.; Nakamura, M.; Nakano, T.; Niwa, K.; Nonoyama, Y.; Sato, O.; Takahashi, S.; Yoshioka, T.; Yoshida, J.; Fukushima, C.; Kimura, M.; Matsuo, T.; Mikado, S.; Ogawa, S.; Shibuya, H.; Goldberg, J.; Guler, M.; Tolun, P.; Tufanli, S.; Hierholzer, M.; Jakovcic, K.; Klicek, B.; Ljubicic, A.; Stipcevic, M.; Kim, S.H.; Song, J.S.; Yoon, C.S.; Kodama, K.; Longhin, A.; Stanco, L.; Muciaccia, M.T.; Pastore, A.; Simone, S.; Rosa, G.; Schembri, A.; Sato, Y.; Tezuka, I.; Schroeder, H.; Vilain, P.; Wilquet, G.

    2010-01-01

    The OPERA detector at the Gran Sasso underground laboratory (LNGS) was used to measure the atmospheric muon charge ratio R μ =N μ + /N μ - in the TeV energy region. We analyzed 403069 atmospheric muons corresponding to 113.4 days of lifetime during the 2008 CNGS run. We computed separately the muon charge ratio for single and for multiple muon events in order to select different energy regions of the primary cosmic ray spectrum and to test the R μ dependence on the primary composition. The measured R μ values were corrected taking into account the charge-misidentification errors. Data have also been grouped in five bins of the ''vertical surface energy'' E μ cos θ. A fit to a simplified model of muon production in the atmosphere allowed the determination of the pion and kaon charge ratios weighted by the cosmic ray energy spectrum. (orig.)

  15. AIDS soap opera generates massive interest. Eye witness: Cote d'Ivoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, R

    1995-12-01

    SIDA Dans La Cite (AIDS in the City) is a popular weekly soap opera first broadcast in Cote d'Ivoire in 1991 with 11 15-minute episodes. The series is part of a campaign by Population Services International (PSI) to raise awareness about AIDS among Ivorian youth. Actors worked for a nominal fee, editing studios were provided at substantial discounts, and filming equipment was borrowed for next to nothing. Production director realized how important the soap opera had become after the fourth episode. A study of 700 households in Abidjan found that of the 75% who had access to a television, two-thirds had seen at least one episode. Cote d'Ivoire may be one of the most religiously conservative countries in Africa. 10% of the adult population, however, is infected with HIV. All sectors of society therefore understand the need to openly understand and discuss sexual issues in the context of such high HIV prevalence. Studies indicate that virtually everyone in Cote d'Ivoire has heard of AIDS and knows that it is a sexually transmitted disease, but persuading people to change their behavior is difficult. PSI sells approximately 750,000 of its subsidized Prudence condoms. Prudence has the same brand recognition in the country as Nescafe and Toyota. A recent survey of sexually active teens found that 30% of girls and 45% of boys used condoms. A weekly radio show is broadcast live from one of the poorest ghettos of Abidjan. Guests include popular singers, comedians, and television personalities. The actors are often from SIDA Dans La Cite.

  16. Acoustic Measurements in Opera Houses: Comparison Between Different Techniques and Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    FAUSTI, P.; FARINA, A.

    2000-04-01

    In room acoustics, many objective parameters to quantify subjective impressions have been introduced. These quantities can be measured by using a wide variety of powerful tools and equipment. The results can be influenced by the measurement techniques and instruments used. Furthermore, the results also depend on the measurement positions and on the condition of the hall (full, empty, etc.). The aim of this work is to define a tightly standardized measurement procedure for the collection of a complete objective description of an opera house's acoustics. In this paper some of the results obtained by the authors after measurements made in three different halls are presented. Comparisons were made both between different hardware and software tools (real-time analyzer, DAT, PC-board, source, microphones, post-processing software) and between different measurement methods (interrupted stationary noise, true-impulse, pseudo-random white noise with impulse-response doconvolution, sine sweep) as well as between different positions in the halls, with and without the presence of musicians and audience. The results have shown that the differences obtained when using different measurement techniques and equipment are not of significant importance. The only effective differences were found regarding the recording techniques, as the monaural measurements give appreciably different results from the average of left and right channel of binaural measurements. Slightly different results were alsofound between true impulsive sources (pistol shots, balloons) and omni-directional (dodecahedral) loudspeakers. Attention must be paid to the signal-to-noise ratio, as this can influence the correct calculation of some acoustical parameters. Some differences, not as great as expected, were found in the results with and without the musicians in the orchestra shell and with and without the audience in the hall. This is probably due to the high sound absorption that is typical in Italian opera

  17. The Expansion of the “Feminine” in the Brazilian Public Space: Television Soap Operas of the 1970’s and 80’s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Império Hamburger

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper revisits the literature on media and gender studies in search of works that help to discuss the case of Brazilian soap operas. A series of references coming from different theoretical perspectives, with emphasis in different countries and historical periods, bring up ideas and concepts that approach the contemporary desire to connect, to participate and to interact in terms conventionally associated to the female domain. Examples from specific soap operas suggest the ways in which these prime time daily soaps blend documentary and fiction conventions and treat the Brazilian nation in melodramatic terms. In doing so, soap operas have expanded what was conventionally treated as the female domain.

  18. Characterisation in Ward’s opera The Crucible: melodic interpretation of Salem’s witches and their accusers via historical accounts and Miller’s play

    OpenAIRE

    Cornwell McKean, Julia Margaret

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Characterisation in Ward’s opera The Crucible: Melodic interpretation of Salem’s witches and their accusers via historical accounts and Miller’s play This thesis is a consideration of the transition of the characters of Robert Ward’s opera The Crucible from history through to Arthur Miller’s play of the same name, and finally to the linear elements of the opera: the libretto and the vocal melodies. Arthur Miller’s The Crucible (1953) is widely known as a play that explor...

  19. Professional Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    WaterSense recognizes certification programs for irrigation professionals that meet the specification criteria. Certification programs cover three areas: irrigation system design, installation and maintenance, and system auditing.

  20. Common features of neural activity during singing and sleep periods in a basal ganglia nucleus critical for vocal learning in a juvenile songbird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Yanagihara

    Full Text Available Reactivations of waking experiences during sleep have been considered fundamental neural processes for memory consolidation. In songbirds, evidence suggests the importance of sleep-related neuronal activity in song system motor pathway nuclei for both juvenile vocal learning and maintenance of adult song. Like those in singing motor nuclei, neurons in the basal ganglia nucleus Area X, part of the basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuit essential for vocal plasticity, exhibit singing-related activity. It is unclear, however, whether Area X neurons show any distinctive spiking activity during sleep similar to that during singing. Here we demonstrate that, during sleep, Area X pallidal neurons exhibit phasic spiking activity, which shares some firing properties with activity during singing. Shorter interspike intervals that almost exclusively occurred during singing in awake periods were also observed during sleep. The level of firing variability was consistently higher during singing and sleep than during awake non-singing states. Moreover, deceleration of firing rate, which is considered to be an important firing property for transmitting signals from Area X to the thalamic nucleus DLM, was observed mainly during sleep as well as during singing. These results suggest that songbird basal ganglia circuitry may be involved in the off-line processing potentially critical for vocal learning during sensorimotor learning phase.

  1. Every Child a Singer: Techniques for Assisting Developing Singers--All Children Can Sing if You Take the Time to Teach Them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Janice

    2006-01-01

    Humans sing to express emotions beyond mere words. Making music transcends literal communication and expresses intense feelings that defy verbal description. Even very young children can, and do, express inexpressible feelings in song. Singing is present in every culture. It provides a sense of community and belonging. Music is a component of…

  2. Developing Singing in Third-Grade Music Classrooms: The Effect of a Concurrent-Feedback Computer Game on Pitch-Matching Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paney, Andrew S.; Kay, Ann C.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the effect of concurrent visual feedback on pitch-matching skill development in third-grade students. Participants played a computer game, "SingingCoach," which scored the accuracy of their singing of the song "America." They followed the contour of the melody on the screen as the…

  3. Distinct neurogenomic states in basal ganglia subregions relate differently to singing behavior in songbirds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin T Hilliard

    Full Text Available Both avian and mammalian basal ganglia are involved in voluntary motor control. In birds, such movements include hopping, perching and flying. Two organizational features that distinguish the songbird basal ganglia are that striatal and pallidal neurons are intermingled, and that neurons dedicated to vocal-motor function are clustered together in a dense cell group known as area X that sits within the surrounding striato-pallidum. This specification allowed us to perform molecular profiling of two striato-pallidal subregions, comparing transcriptional patterns in tissue dedicated to vocal-motor function (area X to those in tissue that contains similar cell types but supports non-vocal behaviors: the striato-pallidum ventral to area X (VSP, our focus here. Since any behavior is likely underpinned by the coordinated actions of many molecules, we constructed gene co-expression networks from microarray data to study large-scale transcriptional patterns in both subregions. Our goal was to investigate any relationship between VSP network structure and singing and identify gene co-expression groups, or modules, found in the VSP but not area X. We observed mild, but surprising, relationships between VSP modules and song spectral features, and found a group of four VSP modules that were highly specific to the region. These modules were unrelated to singing, but were composed of genes involved in many of the same biological processes as those we previously observed in area X-specific singing-related modules. The VSP-specific modules were also enriched for processes disrupted in Parkinson's and Huntington's Diseases. Our results suggest that the activation/inhibition of a single pathway is not sufficient to functionally specify area X versus the VSP and support the notion that molecular processes are not in and of themselves specialized for behavior. Instead, unique interactions between molecular pathways create functional specificity in particular brain

  4. The Causes and Evolutionary Consequences of Mixed Singing in Two Hybridizing Songbird Species (Luscinia spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vokurková, Jana; Petrusková, Tereza; Reifová, Radka; Kozman, Alexandra; Mořkovský, Libor; Kipper, Silke; Weiss, Michael; Reif, Jiří; Dolata, Paweł T.; Petrusek, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Bird song plays an important role in the establishment and maintenance of prezygotic reproductive barriers. When two closely related species come into secondary contact, song convergence caused by acquisition of heterospecific songs into the birds’ repertoires is often observed. The proximate mechanisms responsible for such mixed singing, and its effect on the speciation process, are poorly understood. We used a combination of genetic and bioacoustic analyses to test whether mixed singing observed in the secondary contact zone of two passerine birds, the Thrush Nightingale (Luscinia luscinia) and the Common Nightingale (L. megarhynchos), is caused by introgressive hybridization. We analysed song recordings of both species from allopatric and sympatric populations together with genotype data from one mitochondrial and seven nuclear loci. Semi-automated comparisons of our recordings with an extensive catalogue of Common Nightingale song types confirmed that most of the analysed sympatric Thrush Nightingale males were ‘mixed singers’ that use heterospecific song types in their repertoires. None of these ‘mixed singers’ possessed any alleles introgressed from the Common Nightingale, suggesting that they were not backcross hybrids. We also analysed songs of five individuals with intermediate phenotype, which were identified as F1 hybrids between the Thrush Nightingale female and the Common Nightingale male by genetic analysis. Songs of three of these hybrids corresponded to the paternal species (Common Nightingale) but the remaining two sung a mixed song. Our results suggest that although hybridization might increase the tendency for learning songs from both parental species, interspecific cultural transmission is the major proximate mechanism explaining the occurrence of mixed singers among the sympatric Thrush Nightingales. We also provide evidence that mixed singing does not substantially increase the rate of interspecific hybridization and discuss the

  5. RADIAL DISTRIBUTION OF STARS, GAS AND DUST IN SINGS GALAXIES. I. SURFACE PHOTOMETRY AND MORPHOLOGY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz-Mateos, J. C.; Gil de Paz, A.; Zamorano, J.

    2009-01-01

    We present ultraviolet through far-infrared (FIR) surface brightness profiles for the 75 galaxies in the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey (SINGS). The imagery used to measure the profiles includes Galaxy Evolution Explorer UV data, optical images from Kitt Peak National Observatory, Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, and Sloan Digital Sky Survey, near-IR data from Two Micron All Sky Survey, and mid- and FIR images from Spitzer. Along with the radial profiles, we also provide multi-wavelength asymptotic magnitudes and several nonparametric indicators of galaxy morphology: the concentration index (C 42 ), the asymmetry (A), the Gini coefficient (G), and the normalized second-order moment of the brightest 20% of the galaxy's flux (M-bar 20 ). In this paper, the first of a series, we describe the technical aspects regarding the surface photometry, and present a basic analysis of the global and structural properties of the SINGS galaxies at different wavelengths. The homogeneity in the acquisition, reduction, and analysis of the results presented here makes these data ideal for multiple unanticipated studies on the radial distribution of the properties of stars, dust, and gas in galaxies. Our radial profiles show a wide range of morphologies and multiple components (bulges, exponential disks, inner and outer disk truncations, etc.) that vary not only from galaxy to galaxy but also with wavelength for a given object. In the optical and near-IR, the SINGS galaxies occupy the same regions in the C 42 -A-G-M-bar 20 parameter space as other normal galaxies in previous studies. However, they appear much less centrally concentrated, more asymmetric, and with larger values of G when viewed in the UV (due to star-forming clumps scattered across the disk) and in the mid-IR (due to the emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at 8.0 μm and very hot dust at 24 μm). In an accompanying paper by Munoz-Mateos et al., we focus on the radial distribution of dust

  6. Regional cerebral blood flow for singers and nonsingers while speaking, singing, and humming a rote passage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formby, C.; Thomas, R.G.; Halsey, J.H. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Two groups of singers (n = 12,13) and a group of nonsingers (n = 12) each produced the national anthem by (1) speaking and (2) singing the words and by (3) humming the melody. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured at rest and during each phonation task from seven areas in each hemisphere by the 133 Xe-inhalation method. Intrahemisphere, interhemisphere, and global rCBF were generally similar across phonation tasks and did not yield appreciable differences among the nonsingers and the singers

  7. Adaptation of Sing Lee's model to the Filippov type plasma focus geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siahpoush, V; Tafreshi, M A; Sobhanian, S; Khorram, S

    2005-01-01

    A new model for plasma behaviour in Filippov type plasma focus (PF) systems has been described and used. This model is based on the so-called slug model and Sing Lee's model for Mather type PF devices. Using the model, the discharge current and its derivative as a function of time, and the pinch time and the maximum discharge current as a function of pressure, have been predicted. At the end, the predicted data are compared with the experimental data obtained through a Filippov type PF facility with a nominal maximum energy of 90 kJ

  8. Discontinuities in the Telecom Industry: Strategic Choices for SingTel

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Siak Kwee

    2008-01-01

    This report examines the corporate strategy of SingTel and show how they can be derived from a combined analysis of its internal and external environment. An outside-in, position-based approach using the Porter���¢��������s Five Forces (PFF) model is used to analyse the complexities and forces shrouding the industry with the aim of identifying the key opportunities and threats. An inside-out, resource-based approach using the Resource Based View (RBV) is also undertaken to reveal ...

  9. Hibriditas Medium pada Film Opera Jawa Karya Garin Nugroho sebagai Sebuah Dekonstruksi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riksa Belasunda

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Di tengah penyeragaman ide, gagasan, pesan, dan estetika pada film-film nasional, menarik menjadikan film Opera Jawa karya Garin Nugroho sebagai obyek penelitian sekaligus menjadi alasan kenapa penelitian ini dilakukan. Penelitian ini sebagai upaya peningkatan peran aktif produktif penonton dalam memahami dan memaknai teks film. Dengan fokus bagaimana pesan dan makna tersebut dibaca melalui elemen-elemen visual teks film yang dikonstruksi oleh keragaman penggunaan medium. Penelitian dilakukan dengan pendekatan estetika posmodern melalui metode semiotika dengan teknik deskriptif interpretatif. Membongkar struktur kode bahasa film, melalui analisis struktur dramatik naratif dan unsur pembentuk film, yang berkaitan dengan aspek non-verbal berupa tanda-tanda elemen visual dan gerak pada shot film. Elemen-elemen tersebut dikonstruksi oleh pilihan medium ungkap yang menjadi gaya ungkap (ekspresi sineas dalam menyampaikan pesannya. Ekspresi sineas dalam menyampaikan ide gagasan, dan konsep tersebut, berupa idiom estetik parodi, dengan pelencengan makna, eksplorasi medium (hibriditas medium, dan gaya ungkap, sebagai kritik atau sindiran atas bentuk yang dijadikan rujukan. Lewat film ini, Garin Nugroho melakukan dekonstruksi terhadap tokoh-tokoh, ruang, pesan dan makna, serta narasi dari epik Ramayana karya Walmiki yang menjadi rujukannya. Merefleksikan persoalan gender, feminisme, dominasi maskulinitas, dominasi kekuasaan, pertentangan kelas, dan kapitalisme. Kata kunci: hibriditas medium; semiotika film postmodern; dekonstruksi.In the midst of the ideas, concepts, messages, and aesthetics uniformity at national films, it is interesting to make Opera Jawa movie by Garin Nugroho the object of study. That is the reason why the study was conducted. The research was an effort to improve the audience's productive and active role in understanding and interpreting the subtitles by focusing on how to read the message and meaning through subtitles constructed by

  10. How one-year-old children become capable of singing songs and speaking due to encouragement from others

    OpenAIRE

    諸冨, 満希子

    2018-01-01

    This is a report of continuous observations on how children become capable of singing songs due to encouragement from others (usually the mother). In infants, many aspects of “speaking” and “singing” are difficult to distinguish, so I also recorded all acts of “speaking,” limiting the definition of the act of “singing” to the narrow sense of “singing an established song.” The targeted infants were fraternal twin girls, and observations regarding their “speaking” and “singing” were made in the...

  11. Measurement of the neutrino velocity with the OPERA detector in the CNGS beam using the 2012 dedicated data

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, T.; Aleksandrov, A.; Anokhina, A.; Aoki, S.; Ariga, A.; Ariga, T.; Autiero, D.; Badertscher, A.; Dhahbi, A.Ben; Beretta, M.; Bertolin, A.; Bozza, C.; Brugiere, T.; Brugnera, R.; Brunet, F.; Brunetti, G.; Buettner, B.; Buontempo, S.; Carlus, B.; Cavanna, F.; Cazes, A.; Chaussard, L.; Chernyavsky, M.; Chiarella, V.; Chukanov, A.; D'Ambrosio, N.; De Lellis, G.; De Serio, M.; del Amo Sanchez, P.; Di Crescenzo, A.; Di Ferdinando, D.; Di Marco, N.; Dmitrievsky, S.; Dracos, M.; Duchesneau, D.; Dusini, S.; Dzhatdoev, T.; Ebert, J.; Ereditato, A.; Esposito, L.S.; Favier, J.; Felici, G.; Ferber, T.; Fini, R.A.; Fukuda, T.; Garfagnini, A.; Giacomelli, G.; Girerd, C.; Goellnitz, C.; Goldberg, J.; Golubkov, D.; Gornushkin, Y.; Grella, G.; Grianti, F.; Guerin, C.; Guler, A.M.; Gustavino, C.; Hagner, C.; Hamada, K.; Hara, T.; Hierholzer, M.; Hollnagel, A.; Ishida, H.; Ishiguro, K.; Jakovcic, K.; Jollet, C.; Kamiscioglu, C.; Kamiscioglu, M.; Kawada, J.; Kim, J.H.; Kim, S.H.; Kimura, M.; Kitagawa, N.; Klicek, B.; Kodama, K.; Komatsu, M.; Kose, U.; Kreslo, I.; Lauria, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Lenkeit, J.; Ljubicic, A.; Longhin, A.; Mancini-Terracciano, C.; Malgin, A.; Mandrioli, G.; Marteau, J.; Matsuo, T.; Matveev, V.; Mauri, N.; Medinaceli, E.; Meregaglia, A.; Migliozzi, P.; Mikado, S.; Monacelli, P.; Montesi, M.C.; Morishima, K.; Moser, U.; Muciaccia, M.T.; Nakamura, M.; Nakano, T.; Nakatsuka, Y.; Naumov, D.; Nikitina, V.; Ogawa, S.; Olchevsky, A.; Ozaki, K.; Palamara, O.; Paoloni, A.; Park, B.D.; Park, I.G.; Pastore, A.; Patrizii, L.; Pennacchio, E.; Pessard, H.; Pistillo, C.; Podgrudkov, D.; Polukhina, N.; Pozzato, M.; Pretzl, K.; Pupilli, F.; Rescigno, R.; Roda, M.; Roganova, T.; Rokujo, H.; Rosa, G.; Rostovtseva, I.; Rubbia, A.; Russo, A.; Ryazhskaya, O.; Sato, O.; Sato, Y.; Schembri, A.; Schmidt-Parzefall, W.; Schuler, J.; Shakiryanova, I.; Sheshukov, A.; Shibuya, H.; Shoziyoev, G.; Simone, S.; Sioli, M.; Sirignano, C.; Sirri, G.; Song, J.S.; Spinetti, M.; Stanco, L.; Starkov, N.; Stellacci, S.M.; Stipcevic, M.; Strauss, T.; Takahashi, S.; Tenti, M.; Terranova, F.; Tioukov, V.; Tolun, P.; Tufanli, S.; Vilain, P.; Vladimirov, M.; Votano, L.; Vuilleumier, J.L.; Wilquet, G.; Wonsak, B.; Wurtz, J.; Yoon, C.S.; Yoshida, J.; Zaitsev, Y.; Zemskova, S.; Zghiche, A.; Zimmermann, R.

    2013-01-01

    In spring 2012 CERN provided two weeks of a short bunch proton beam dedicated to the neutrino velocity measurement over a distance of 730 km. The OPERA neutrino experiment at the underground Gran Sasso Laboratory used an upgraded setup compared to the 2011 measurements, improving the measurement time accuracy. An independent timing system based on the Resistive Plate Chambers was exploited providing a time accuracy of $\\sim$1 ns. Neutrino and anti-neutrino contributions were separated using the information provided by the OPERA magnetic spectrometers. The new analysis profited from the precision geodesy measurements of the neutrino baseline and of the CNGS/LNGS clock synchronization. The neutrino arrival time with respect to the one computed assuming the speed of light in vacuum is found to be $\\delta t_\

  12. POLITICAL ECONOMY OF RELIGIOUS AND CULTURAL SYMBOLS IN THE SOAP OPERA OF TUKANG BUBUR NAIK HAJI AT RCTI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasir

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Television is a very influential media and important tool in capital accumulation. This study aims to reveal the use of Islamic and Betawi ethnic symbols, workers, and also the audiences of Tukang Bubur Naik Haji (TBNH soap opera at RCTI. This research used a political economy of communication perspective. The data were collected by using interview, observation, documentation, and literature study. The result shows that the religious symbols of Islam and Betawi culture have been exploited as comodity to be traded. Those symbols have been commercialized dan manipulated through the use of sensational, provocative, and hyperbole words or sentences to entertain audiences and to attract the advertisers. The hyper-comercialization and politicization of symbols caused the soap opera workers and Moslem audiences have been exploited.

  13. The Expansion of the “Feminine” in the Brazilian Public Space: Television Soap Operas of the 1970’s and 80’s

    OpenAIRE

    Esther Império Hamburger

    2007-01-01

    This paper revisits the literature on media and gender studies in search of works that help to discuss the case of Brazilian soap operas. A series of references coming from different theoretical perspectives, with emphasis in different countries and historical periods, bring up ideas and concepts that approach the contemporary desire to connect, to participate and to interact in terms conventionally associated to the female domain. Examples from specific soap operas suggest the...

  14. Metodologia multivariada para avaliação do risco de crédito de operações bancárias

    OpenAIRE

    Moura, Heber José de

    2010-01-01

    Apresenta iane metodologia para etribuir texas de risco em empréstimos bancários, a partir do perfil ele risco pela operação solicitada. Baseia-se na existência de relações conjuntas entre os atributos associados às entidades Cliente, Operação e Conjuntura para a formação do risco de crédito do empréstimo.

  15. Radioactivity in 137Cs of the French terrestrial environment: interpretation of OPERA data acquired between 1993 and 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roussel-Debet, S.; Masson, O.; Salaun, G.

    2005-01-01

    After having indicated the implemented equipment and methods (location of sampling stations, general presentation of results in terms of 137 Cs activity measurement, of 134 Cs activity, and of isotopic 137 Cs / 134 Cs rate), this report presents, analyses and comments detailed measurements performed by the OPERA (Permanent Observatory of Radioactivity) between 1993 and 2004 of 137 Cs and 134 Cs activity in soils, grass, salads, thyme, mushrooms, cow milk, cow cheese, goat milk, goat cheese, and meat (beef muscle)

  16. Návrh Rail-to-Rail operačního zesilovače v technologii CMOS

    OpenAIRE

    Cvešper, Stanislav

    2016-01-01

    Práce se zabývá návrhem rail-to-rail operačního zesilovače ve třídě AB v technologii CMOS I3T25. Práce začíná úvodem do CMOS tranzistorů, následuje rozbor struktur operačního zesilovače, jeho návrh a simulace v návrhovém prostředí Cadence, popsány jsou také různé metody pro minimalizaci napěťové symetrie. Hlavním cílem práce je dosažení rail-to-rail vstupního i výstupního rozsahu operačního zesilovače pracujícího ve třídě AB, s minimální napěťovou nesymetrií, včetně návrhu topologie navrženéh...

  17. Design and features of the target tracker of the Opera's target: study of the electron channel events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chon-Sen, N.

    2009-01-01

    Neutrino oscillations are now well acknowledged, the purpose of the Opera experiment is to show how ν τ appear in a ν μ beam. The ν μ beam is produced at CERN and crosses the earth crust on a distance of 732 km before being detected in the Gran-Sasso underground laboratory. The Opera experiment uses the technique of the photographic emulsion. The detector target is a series of walls of lead bricks, each brick being made of photographic emulsions intercalated with lead sheets. A target tracker enables the localization of the brick in which the neutrino interaction has happened. As soon as the brick is found, the brick is removed from the detector and the emulsion is developed and analysed. the target tracker is made up of plastic scintillator bars on which optic fibers are stuck to collect photons and send them to photomultipliers. The main purpose of this work is the calibration of the target tracker. The first chapter introduces the standard model, the neutrino and the neutrino oscillation phenomenon. The second chapter reviews the neutrino experiments worldwide. The third chapter describes the Opera experiment while chapter 4 and 5 are dedicated to the design and operation of the target tracker. The last chapter studies through simulation the behaviour of the target tracker when submitted to an electron beam in order to use it as a complementary tool for the identification of the τ → e channel. (A.C.)

  18. Simulation of diode electron source of PSTA latex EBM using OPERA-3D software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taufik; Darsono

    2014-01-01

    Electron beam transport from E-gun to the atmospheres in EBM is determined by main parameters of beam transports such as E-gun, accelerator tube, beam optics (focusing and scanning magnets). In principle the beam transport will optimum if the electron beam travels in axial axes of accelerator tubes, and the beam optics works properly. The EBM E-gun structure of PSTA uses diode type with Pierce cathode where beam transport yield will be affected by electrode voltage of the accelerator tube. To answer above hypothesis the E-gun and accelerator tube will be simulated by making a model used accelerator software programme which is called OPERA-3D. Beam transport parameters, such as distance between cathode and anode of E-gun, accelerator electrode HV, and the symmetry of cathode Pierce E-gun with anode electrode of accelerator tube, will be investigated their impacts to direction and shape of beam transports. The simulation results shows that the three parameters affects to the direction and shape of the beam transport. Diode type of electron gun cannot result parallel electron beam, but the best beam transport of this type electron gun are obtained at the accelerator voltage 300 kV, and the distance between cathode and anode of E-gun 6.1 mm where they are in the symmetry condition. (author)

  19. Operação de Glenn bidirecional Bidirectional Glenn anastomosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Chaccur

    1992-09-01

    Full Text Available A cirurgia de Gleen bidirecional tem sido empregadacomo uma opção ao tratamento cirúrgico de pacientes considerados candidatos "não ideais" à cirurgia de derivação átrio-pulmonar. A operação consiste na anastomose da veia cava superior com a artéria pulmonar (anastomose término-lateral, permitindo o fluxo sanguíneo também para o pulmão contra-lateral. A partir de janeiro de 1990 até fevereiro de 1992, 20 pacientes foram operados em nosso Serviço, com idade variando de 5 meses a 8 anos (média de 37,7 meses. Oito pacientes eram do sexo feminino e o peso variou de 6,3 a 18,8 Kg (média - 12,4 kg. A indicação cirúrgica foi considerada primária em 10 casos. Sete casos de atresia tricúspide e 3 de ventrículo único, que apresentavam acentuada diminuição do fluxo pulmonar e não eram candidatos a correção total funcional. Os demais pacientes tiveram a indicação considerada secundária, ou seja, já haviam sido submetidos a operação de shunt artério-venoso, cerclagem do tranco pulmonar, ou atriosseptostomia, 8 casos de atresia tricúspide, 3 de ventrículo único com estenose ou cerclagem pulmonar e 1 caso de DVSVD com ventrículo superior-inferior. A operação foi realizada com desvio da veia cava-átrio direito em 12 casos e com o uso de CEC em 8. Durante o procedimento cirúrgico, os pacientes foram monitorizados com oxímetro pulsátil e a saturação de oxigênio média pré-correção foi de 75,5% (71% a 86% e após, de 95% (91% a 98%. Não ocorreu óbito hospitalar e o único óbito tardio foi devido a infecção pulmonar no 2º mês de pós-operatório. Achamos, portanto, que a operação de Glenn bidirecional estará bem indicada como primeira etapa da correção definitiva, pois não aumenta o trabalho cardíaco e a resistência vascular pulmonar não produz distorções em artéria pulmonar como shunt tipo Blalock-Taussig.The bidirectional Glenn anastomosis has bee used as an effective mean of palliating

  20. Castration modulates singing patterns and electrophysiological properties of RA projection neurons in adult male zebra finches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songhua Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Castration can change levels of plasma testosterone. Androgens such as testosterone play an important role in stabilizing birdsong. The robust nucleus of the arcopallium (RA is an important premotor nucleus critical for singing. In this study, we investigated the effect of castration on singing patterns and electrophysiological properties of projection neurons (PNs in the RA of adult male zebra finches. Adult male zebra finches were castrated and the changes in bird song assessed. We also recorded the electrophysiological changes from RA PNs using patch clamp recording. We found that the plasma levels of testosterone were significantly decreased, song syllable’s entropy was increased and the similarity of motif was decreased after castration. Spontaneous and evoked firing rates, membrane time constants, and membrane capacitance of RA PNs in the castration group were lower than those of the control and the sham groups. Afterhyperpolarization AHP time to peak of spontaneous action potential (AP was prolonged after castration.These findings suggest that castration decreases song stereotypy and excitability of RA PNs in male zebra finches.