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Sample records for professional mutual recognition

  1. How Do Professional Mutual Recognition Agreements Affect Higher Education? Examining Regional Policy in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa, Creso; Gaviria, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Professional mutual recognition agreements (MRAs) are one of the policy instruments employed in global and regional trade agreements to facilitate the mobility of skilled labour. While such agreements have been noted in the literature examining cross-border academic mobility, little is known about how they impact higher education. This paper…

  2. Harmonization versus Mutual Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jan Guldager; Schröder, Philipp

    The present paper examines trade liberalization driven by the coordination of product standards. For oligopolistic firms situated in separate markets that are initially sheltered by national standards, mutual recognition of standards implies entry and reduced profits at home paired with the oppor...

  3. Mutual Recogniton of Professional Qualifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig; Plimmer, Francis

    The publication aims to review the concept of mutual recognition of qualifications within the world wide surveying community, and to develop a framework for the introduction of standards of global professional competence in this area. The publication also includes a number of case studies from...

  4. Mutual Recognition during Parental Feedback

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Christopher R Stones

    parents. Through exploring the concept of 'mutual recognition' and being present in the moment, it seems that therapeutic change is able to occur in both the patient and the family. Furthermore, .... self-psychology and the mirroring process; in ...... The experience of violence by male juvenile offenders convicted of assault: A.

  5. Mutual Recognition and Mutual Trust: Reinforcing EU Integration?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brink, A.; Marguery, T.P.

    2016-01-01

    Throughout the years the principle of mutual recognition and the underlying principle of mutual trust have greatly contributed to the EU integration process. The recent migration and terrorist crises that have stroke the Union and its Member States with full force have placed the individual and the

  6. Mutual Recognition of Accreditation Decisions in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heusser, Rolf

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides a brief outline of the European Consortium for Accreditation in Higher Education project and future intentions. The paper notes that significant progress in the first two milestones in its road map has been achieved: mutual understanding of accreditation organizations and mutual recognition of accreditation procedures.…

  7. Mutual information-based facial expression recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazar, Mliki; Hammami, Mohamed; Hanêne, Ben-Abdallah

    2013-12-01

    This paper introduces a novel low-computation discriminative regions representation for expression analysis task. The proposed approach relies on interesting studies in psychology which show that most of the descriptive and responsible regions for facial expression are located around some face parts. The contributions of this work lie in the proposition of new approach which supports automatic facial expression recognition based on automatic regions selection. The regions selection step aims to select the descriptive regions responsible or facial expression and was performed using Mutual Information (MI) technique. For facial feature extraction, we have applied Local Binary Patterns Pattern (LBP) on Gradient image to encode salient micro-patterns of facial expressions. Experimental studies have shown that using discriminative regions provide better results than using the whole face regions whilst reducing features vector dimension.

  8. Quality assurance, benchmarking, assessment and mutual international recognition of qualifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, R; Rolland, S; Rotgans, J; Schoonheim-Klein, M; Best, H; Chomyszyn-Gajewska, M; Dymock, D; Essop, R; Hupp, J; Kundzina, R; Love, R; Memon, R A; Moola, M; Neumann, L; Ozden, N; Roth, K; Samwel, P; Villavicencio, J; Wright, P; Harzer, W

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this report is to provide guidance to assist in the international convergence of quality assurance, benchmarking and assessment systems to improve dental education. Proposals are developed for mutual recognition of qualifications, to aid international movement and exchange of staff and students including and supporting developing countries. Quality assurance is the responsibility of all staff involved in dental education and involves three levels: internal, institutional and external. Benchmarking information provides a subject framework. Benchmarks are useful for a variety of purposes including design and validation of programmes, examination and review; they can also strengthen the accreditation process undertaken by professional and statutory bodies. Benchmark information can be used by institutions as part of their programme approval process, to set degree standards. The standards should be developed by the dental academic community through formal groups of experts. Assessment outcomes of student learning are a measure of the quality of the learning programme. The goal of an effective assessment strategy should be that it provides the starting point for students to adopt a positive approach to effective and competent practice, reflective and lifelong learning. All assessment methods should be evidence based or based upon research. Mutual recognition of professional qualifications means that qualifications gained in one country (the home country) are recognized in another country (the host country). It empowers movement of skilled workers, which can help resolve skills shortages within participating countries. These proposals are not intended to be either exhaustive or prescriptive; they are purely for guidance and derived from the identification of what is perceived to be 'best practice'.

  9. Quality assurrance, benchmarking, assessment and mutual international recognition of qualifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hobson, R.; Rolland, S.; Rotgans, J.; Schoonheim-Klein, M.; Best, H.; Chomyszyn-Gajewska, M.; Dymock, D.; Essop, R.; Hupp, J.; Kundzina, R.; Love, R.; Memon, R.A.; Moola, M.; Neumann, L.; Ozden, N.; Roth, K.; Samwel, P.; Villavicencio, J.; Wright, P.; Harzer, W.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this report is to provide guidance to assist in the international convergence of quality assurance, benchmarking and assessment systems to improve dental education. Proposals are developed for mutual recognition of qualifications, to aid international movement and exchange of staff and

  10. Mutual recognition and the right to damages for criminal investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang Fuglsang Madsen Sørensen, Henning

    2015-01-01

    This article considers how the citizen who has been surrendered on an EAW in a case ending with acquittal or non-prosecution may achieve compensation for the loss of freedom and the surrender to another Member State. The analysis shows how the EAW and the principle of mutual recognition have been...

  11. Union citizens and the recognition of professional qualifications: Where do we go from here?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamo, Silvia; Binder, Tom

    2018-01-01

    A fast and efficient recognition procedure can open the door to an easy insertion into a foreign EU labour market. Since the 1960s, EU legislations and institutions have fostered a detailed system for recognition of professional qualifications to help Union citizens make use of their titles...... and skills across the Union. The system for mutual recognition of professional qualifications is supposed to alleviate the national markets’ shortage of labour, enhancing the intra-mobility of professionals and acting as a guarantee for their skills. However, the agreement on this mutual system has not been...

  12. The Interaction Between Mutual Trust, Mutual Recognition and Fundamental Rights in Private International Law in Relation to the EU’s Aspirations Relating to Contractual Relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emaus, J.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314838635

    2017-01-01

    This contribution aims to provide an analysis of the interrelationship between the principles of mutual trust, mutual recognition and fundamental rights in the field of private international law and to consider the interaction between these principles in relation to the European Union’s aspirations

  13. Mutuality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnould, E. J.; Rose, A. S.

    2016-01-01

    formulation. The critique highlights a focus on resource distribution based on a more holistic, socially grounded perspective on circulation. We offer the alternative concept of mutuality or generalized exchange and the metaphor of inclusion rather than exchange as central to this perspective. We argue......The recently introduced construct of consumer sharing is represented as a nonreciprocal, pro-social distribution of resources given without expectation of reciprocity (Belk, 2010, ‘Sharing’, Journal of Consumer Research 36: 715–34). The approach adopted rests on shaky ontological...... and epistemological grounds and reproduces an array of problematic modernist dichotomies (e.g., agency/structure, nurturing family/instrumental public, gift/market, and altruism/self-interest) that significantly constrain the analytical enterprise. This work redresses some of the conceptual problems in the current...

  14. Professional investor psychology and investment performance: evidence from mutual funds

    OpenAIRE

    Eshraghi, Arman

    2012-01-01

    In the seven decades following the Investment Company Act of 1940 coming into force in the United States, the mutual fund industry has undergone dramatic changes including, some argue, a transition from stewardship to salesmanship with asset-gathering becoming the industry’s driving force. As fund managers incrementally assumed a more pronounced role in the investment fund industry, an emerging strand of finance literature focused on their characteristics and their potential im...

  15. Mutual Recognition of Financial Penalties between the EU Member States. Critical Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minodora Ioana Rusu

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available According to the special Romanian law, one of the forms of judicial assistance in criminal matters recognized in the relations between the EU member states is, among others, the one referringto the cooperation in applying the principle of mutual recognition of financial penalties. The European normative act that establishes the general cooperation norms in this matter is the Council’sDecision Frame 2005/214/JAI on February 24, 2005 on the application of the principle of mutual recognition of financial penalties. This European normative act has been transposed in the internallegislation through Law no.302/2004, according to the international judicial cooperation in criminal matters, with the subsequent amendments and completions, the latter being represented by Lawno.222/2008. The amendments and completions instituted by the abovementioned normative act establish the procedure of transmitting the decision, the procedures for recognition and execution ofsuch a decision by the competent Romanian judicial authorities, the grounds of non recognition and non execution, the definition of used terms, as well as other aspects referring to the recognition andexecution of such decisions. Commenting refers to a number of provisions in the law under both European and domestic in the special law, comments aimed in particular the replacement of terms ofrecognition or non-performance reasons, the procedure of identification of persons convicted when they are evade the enforcement of financial obligations and failure to transpose into national law of subsequent changes to European law.

  16. Whole-book recognition using mutual-entropy-driven model adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiu, Pingping; Baird, Henry S.

    2008-01-01

    We describe an approach to unsupervised high-accuracy recognition of the textual contents of an entire book using fully automatic mutual-entropy-based model adaptation. Given images of all the pages of a book together with approximate models of image formation (e.g. a character-image classifier) and linguistics (e.g. a word-occurrence probability model), we detect evidence for disagreements between the two models by analyzing the mutual entropy between two kinds of probability distributions: (1) the a posteriori probabilities of character classes (the recognition results from image classification alone), and (2) the a posteriori probabilities of word classes (the recognition results from image classification combined with linguistic constraints). The most serious of these disagreements are identified as candidates for automatic corrections to one or the other of the models. We describe a formal information-theoretic framework for detecting model disagreement and for proposing corrections. We illustrate this approach on a small test case selected from real book-image data. This reveals that a sequence of automatic model corrections can drive improvements in both models, and can achieve a lower recognition error rate. The importance of considering the contents of the whole book is motivated by a series of studies, over the last decade, showing that isogeny can be exploited to achieve unsupervised improvements in recognition accuracy.

  17. Using Mutual Information Criterion to Design an Efficient Phoneme Set for Chinese Speech Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin-Song; Hu, Xin-Hui; Nakamura, Satoshi

    Chinese is a representative tonal language, and it has been an attractive topic of how to process tone information in the state-of-the-art large vocabulary speech recognition system. This paper presents a novel way to derive an efficient phoneme set of tone-dependent units to build a recognition system, by iteratively merging a pair of tone-dependent units according to the principle of minimal loss of the Mutual Information (MI). The mutual information is measured between the word tokens and their phoneme transcriptions in a training text corpus, based on the system lexical and language model. The approach has a capability to keep discriminative tonal (and phoneme) contrasts that are most helpful for disambiguating homophone words due to lack of tones, and merge those tonal (and phoneme) contrasts that are not important for word disambiguation for the recognition task. This enables a flexible selection of phoneme set according to a balance between the MI information amount and the number of phonemes. We applied the method to traditional phoneme set of Initial/Finals, and derived several phoneme sets with different number of units. Speech recognition experiments using the derived sets showed its effectiveness.

  18. Study on the Future of Mutual Recognition in Criminal Matters in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Jørn; Adamo, Silvia

    2008-01-01

    Practitioners in the criminal justice system are fairly content with the European Arrest Warrant and other schemes based on the principle of mutual recognition of judicial decisions. This is the result of a survey published by Professor of Criminal Law Jørn Vestergaard and research asststant Silvia...... in an extradition case is the judicial decision issued in the requesting country. The conditions for surrender are less burdensome than previously, and the process is speedy. Similar schemes have been introduced regarding fines, confiscation and evidence but have so far only been of minor practical relevance...

  19. An analysis of marketing authorisation applications via the mutual recognition and decentralised procedures in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbers, Hans C; Langedijk, Joris; Bouvy, Jacoline C

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to provide a comprehensive overview of the outcomes of marketing authorisation applications via the mutual recognition and decentralised procedures (MRP/DCP) and assess determinants of licensing failure during CMDh referral procedures. METHODS: All MRP...... the frequency of licensing failure prior to CMDh referrals. RESULTS: During the study period, 10392 MRP/DCP procedures were finalized. Three hundred seventy-seven (3.6%) resulted in a referral procedure, of which 70 (19%) resulted in licensing failure, defined as refusal or withdrawal of the application...... program. Study design issues and objections about the demonstration of equivalence were most likely to result in licensing failure. An estimated 11% of all MRP/DCP procedures resulted in licensing failure prior to CMDh referral. CONCLUSION: Whereas the absolute number of MRP/DCP procedures resulting...

  20. Seizure Recognition and Observation: A Guide for Allied Health Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epilepsy Foundation of America, Landover, MD.

    Intended for allied health professionals, this guide provides information on seizure recognition and classification to help them assist the patient, the family, and the treating physician in obtaining control of epileptic seizures. A section on seizure recognition describes epilepsy and seizures, covering seizure classification and the causes of…

  1. The effect of professional partnership on the development of a mutual-help organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Deborah A; Reischl, Thomas M; Randall, Katie W

    2008-09-01

    The effects of partnership between Schizophrenics Anonymous (SA, a mutual-help organization) and the Mental Health Association in Michigan (MHAM, a professionally staffed advocacy organization) on SA's growth and development were explored. Following the initiation of a formal partnership, SA groups were more available throughout the state, more likely to be associated with formal mental health settings, and less likely to have leaders who had been participants in other SA groups. Groups with consumer leaders had significantly greater longevity than groups with professional leaders. Changes in the organizational structure and process of SA were also identified. SA leaders reported that SA moved from a collective to a more bureaucratic structure. As a result, there was greater consistency, administrative capacity, and response capacity. This enhanced capacity came with costs reported by SA leaders. The leadership role of SA members became less defined. SA members expressed concerns about the more hierarchical structure of SA's organization, decreased consumer control, increased professional involvement in SA, and an excessive focus on group development as opposed to group maintenance. Mental Health Association in Michigan staff reported that MHAM was also impacted by the partnership, both with regard to internal functioning and external perception. Implications for effective partnerships between mutual-help and professional organizations are discussed.

  2. A Spectre Is Haunting Europe: European Citizenship in the Area of Freedom, Security, and Justice: Some Reflections on the Principles of Non-Discrimination (on the Basis of Nationality), Mutual Recognition, and Mutual Trust Originating from the European Arrest Warrant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marin, Luisa

    2011-01-01

    After a reconstruction of the traditional legal setting of extradition, the paper explores the European Arrest Warrant Framework Decision’s nationality and residence clauses in their normative context: mutual recognition and mutual trust. It then discusses how these clauses have been implemented at

  3. Can Addiction-Related Self-Help/Mutual Aid Groups Lower Demand for Professional Substance Abuse Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Keith

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the potential of self-help/mutual-aid groups as a way to reduce the demand for professional substance-abuse treatment and proposes a model that combines the two approaches for cost-effective and therapeutically effective networks of services. (SLD)

  4. Between the Prose of Justice and the Poetics of Love? Reading Ricœur on Mutual Recognition in the Light of Harmful Strategies of “Othering”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Vosloo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Against the backdrop of the challenges posed by xenophobia and other social phenomena that operated with harmful strategies of “othering,” this article considers the promise that the notion of “mutual recognition” as exemplified in the later work of Paul Ricœur holds for discourse on these matters. Can the hermeneutical and mediating approach of Ricœur provide an adequate framework in order to respond to these radical challenges? In light of this question, this article discusses and ultimately affirms Ricœur’s view that places mutual recognition between what he calls the prose of justice and the poetics of agápē. In addition this article draws attention to the value of symbolic gestures and an ethic of linguistic hospitality to give further texture to the plea for mutual recognition amidst experience of exclusion, conflict and violence.

  5. Professional Development Policy and Politics across International Contexts: From Mutuality to Measurability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Ian; Ronnerman, Karin; Furu, Eli Moksnes; Salo, Petri; Forsman, Liselott

    2010-01-01

    This article reveals how educational policies and policy contexts in Sweden, Norway, Finland and Australia establish the circumstances which enable and constrain individual and collective teacher professional development as praxis. We provide insights into existing partnerships between universities and schools, and, municipalities and the state as…

  6. Care as a mutual endeavour : experiences of a multiple sclerosis patient and her healthcare professionals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oeseburg, B.; Abma, T.A.

    2006-01-01

    In Dutch healthcare policy patients are seen as informed, autonomous experts and active decision makers with control over their illness and care. Healthcare professionals are expected to operate as providers of information. The purpose of this article is to argue that the consumerist approach of the

  7. Second Career Teachers and (Mis)Recognitions of Professional Identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Since the late 1980s there has been an increase of "second career teachers" (SCTs), professionals that switch careers to become teachers. Little is known about SCTs and their sense of professional identity. Building from Pierre Bourdieu's concepts of power and cultural capital, the professional identities of teachers were examined…

  8. Utilization of professional mental health services according to recognition rate of mental health centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyo Jung; Ju, Young Jun; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2017-04-01

    Despite the positive effect of community-based mental health centers, the utilization of professional mental health services appears to be low. Therefore, we analyzed the relationship between regional recognition of mental health centers and utilization of professional mental health services. We used data from the Community Health Survey (2014) and e-provincial indicators. Only those living in Seoul, who responded that they were either feeling a lot of stress or depression, were included in the study. Multiple logistic regression analysis using generalized estimating equations was performed to examine both individual- and regional-level variables associated with utilization of professional mental health services. Among the 7338 participants who reported depression or stress, 646 (8.8%) had consulted a mental health professional for their symptoms. A higher recognition rate of mental health centers was associated with more utilization of professional mental health services (odds ratio [OR]=1.05, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.03-1.07). Accessibility to professional mental health services could be improved depending on the general population's recognition and attitudes toward mental health centers. Therefore, health policy-makers need to plan appropriate strategies for changing the perception of mental health services and informing the public about both the benefits and functions of mental health centers. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Professional Recognition: Promoting Recognition through the Higher Education Academy in a UK Higher Education Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Tim

    2014-01-01

    This study is on how one higher education institution included the United Kingdom Professional Standards Framework, developed by the Higher Education Academy, as a strategic benchmark for teaching and learning. The article outlines the strategies used to engage all academic (and academic-related) staff in achieving relevant professional…

  10. Mutual Recognition of Quality Assurance Decisions on Higher Education Institutions in Three Regions: A Lesson for Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Angela Yung-Chi

    2012-01-01

    Cross-border higher education resulting in the increased mobility of students, academic staff, programs, institutions and professionals has grown considerably in global times. Therefore, how to ensure that the quality of academic programs has met the local and international standards simultaneously has become a great challenge in many nations. In…

  11. Interprofessional development and implementation of a pharmacist professional advancement and recognition program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, David; Chmielewski, Eric; Porter, Andrea L; Brzozowski, Sarah; Rough, Steve S; Trapskin, Philip J

    2017-11-15

    The interprofessional development, implementation, and outcomes of a pharmacist professional advancement and recognition program (PARP) at an academic medical center are described. Limitations of the legacy advancement program, in combination with low rates of employee engagement in peer recognition and professional development, at the UW Health department of pharmacy led to the creation of a task force comprising pharmacists from all practice areas to develop a new pharmacist PARP. Senior leadership within the organization expanded the scope of the project to include an interprofessional work group tasked to develop guidelines and core principles that other professional staff could use to reduce variation across advancement and recognition programs. Key program design elements included a triennial review of performance against advancement standards and the use of peer review to supplement advancement decisions. The primary objective was to meaningfully improve pharmacists' engagement as measured through employee engagement surveys. Secondary outcomes of interest included the results of pharmacist and management satisfaction surveys and the program's impact on the volume and mix of pharmacist professional development activities. Of the 126 eligible pharmacists, 93 participated in the new program. The majority of pharmacists was satisfied with the program. For pharmacists who were advanced as part of the program, meaningful increases in employee engagement scores were observed, and a mean of 95 hours of professional development and quality-improvement activities was documented. Implementation of a PARP helped increase pharmacist engagement through participation in quality-improvement and professional development activities. The program also led to the creation of organizationwide interprofessional guidelines for advancement programs within various healthcare disciplines. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Domestic abuse awareness and recognition among primary healthcare professionals and abused women: a qualitative investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury-Jones, Caroline; Taylor, Julie; Kroll, Thilo; Duncan, Fiona

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the dynamics of domestic abuse awareness and recognition among primary healthcare professionals and abused women. Domestic abuse is a serious, public health issue that crosses geographical and demographic boundaries. Health professionals are well placed to recognise and respond to domestic abuse, but empirical evidence suggests that they are reluctant to broach the issue. Moreover, research has shown that women are reluctant to disclose abuse. A two-phase, qualitative study was conducted in Scotland. Twenty-nine primary health professionals (midwives, health visitors and general practitioners) participated in the first phase of the study, and 14 abused women took part in phase two. Data were collected in 2011. Semi-structured, individual interviews were conducted with the health professionals, and three focus groups were facilitated with the abused women. Data were analysed using a framework analysis approach. Differing levels of awareness of the nature and existence of abuse are held by abused women and primary healthcare professionals. Specifically, many women do not identify their experiences as abusive. A conceptual representation of domestic abuse - the "abused women, awareness, recognition and empowerment' framework - arising from the study - presents a new way of capturing the complexity of the disclosure process. Further research is necessary to test and empirically validate the framework, but it has potential pedagogical use for the training and education of health professionals and clinical use with abused women. The framework may be used in clinical practice by nurses and other health professionals to facilitate open discussion between professionals and women. In turn, this may empower women to make choices regarding disclosure and safety planning. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. EEG emotion recognition using reduced channel wavelet entropy and average wavelet coefficient features with normal Mutual Information method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candra, Henry; Yuwono, Mitchell; Chai, Rifai; Nguyen, Hung T; Su, Steven

    2017-07-01

    Recognizing emotion from EEG signals is a complicated task that requires complex features and a substantial number of EEG channels. Simple algorithms to analyse the feature and reduce the EEG channel number will give an indispensable advantages. Therefore, this study explores a combination of wavelet entropy and average wavelet coefficient (WEAVE) as a potential EEG-emotion feature to classify valence and arousal emotions with the advantage of the ability to identify the occurrence of a pattern while at the same time identify the shape of a pattern in EEG emotion signal. The complexity of the feature was reduced using the Normalized Mutual Information (NMI) method to obtain a reduced number of channels. Classification with the WEAVE feature achieved 76.8% accuracy for valence and 74.3% for arousal emotion, respectively. The analysis with NMI shows that the WEAVE feature has linear characteristics and offers possibilities to reduce the EEG channels to a certain number. Further analysis also reveals that detection of valence emotion with reduced EEG channels has a different combination of EEG channels compared to arousal emotion.

  14. Retrospection and Reflection: The Emerging Influence of an Institutional Professional Recognition Scheme on Professional Development and Academic Practice in a UK University

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Sluis, Hendrik; Burden, Penny; Huet, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Raising the quality and profile of teaching and student learning is something universities across the UK are aspiring to achieve in order to maintain reputations. Currently, the UK Professional Standards Framework (UKPSF) provides a standard by which academic staff can gain professional recognition for their academic practice and many UK…

  15. The transnational ne bis in idem principle in the EU. Mutual recognition and equivalent protection of human rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A.E. Vervaele

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The deepening and widening of European integration has led to an increase in transborder crime. Concurrent prosecution and sanctioning by several Member States is not only a problem in inter-state relations and an obstacle in the European integration process, but also a violation of the ne bis in idem principle, defined as a transnational human right in a common judicial area. This article analyzes whether and to what extent the ECHR has contributed and may continue to contribute to the development of such a common ne bis in idem standard in Europe. It is also examined whether the application of the ne bis in idem principle in classic inter-state judicial cooperation in criminal matters in the framework of the Council of Europe may make such a contribution as well. The transnational function of the ne bis in idem principle is discussed in the light of the Court of Justice’s case law on ne bis in idem in the framework of the area of Freedom, Security and Justice. Finally the inherent tension between mutual recognition and the protection of human rights in transnational justice is analyzed by looking at the insertion of the ne bis in idem principle in the Framework Decision on the European arrest warrant.

  16. Framing professional programs within development projects: driving longer term recognition and integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Diane; Loughman, James; Naidoo, Kovin

    2016-04-19

    professions are regulated in order to ensure patient safety, as well as minimum standards of care and training within professions. Development projects must address issues of professional identity and official recognition of health professions and their respective qualifications through relevant local authorities, so that graduate qualifications are legitimised and the longer term objectives of the development investment are supported.

  17. The Influence of Recognition and Social Support on European Health Professionals' Occupational Stress: A Demands-Control-Social Support-Recognition Bayesian Network Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Herrero, Susana; Lopez-Garcia, Jose R; Herrera, Sixto; Fontaneda, Ignacio; Báscones, Sonia Muñoz; Mariscal, Miguel A

    2017-01-01

    Healthcare professionals undergo high levels of occupational stress as a result of their working conditions. Thus, the aim of this study is to develop a model that focuses on healthcare professionals so as to analyze the influence that job demands, control, social support, and recognition have on the likelihood that a worker will experience stress. The data collected correspond to 2,211 healthcare workers from 35 countries, as reported in the sixth European Working Condition Survey (EWCS). The results obtained from this study allow us to infer stress under several working condition scenarios and to identify the more relevant variables in order to reduce this stress in healthcare professionals, which is of paramount importance to managing the stress of workers in this sector. The Bayesian network proposed indicates that emotional demands have a greater influence on raising the likelihood of stress due to workload than do family demands. The results show that the support of colleagues, in general, has less effect on reducing stress than social support from superiors. Furthermore, the sensitivity analysis shows that, in high-demand and low-control situations, recognition clearly impacts stress, drastically reducing it.

  18. Writing and Speech Recognition : Observing Error Correction Strategies of Professional Writers

    OpenAIRE

    Leijten, M.A.J.C.

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis we describe the organization of speech recognition based writing processes. Writing can be seen as a visual representation of spoken language: a combination that speech recognition takes full advantage of. In the field of writing research, speech recognition is a new writing instrument that may cause a shift in writing process research because the underlying processes are changing. In addition to this, we take advantage of on of the weak points of speech recognition, namely the...

  19. Writing and Speech Recognition : Observing Error Correction Strategies of Professional Writers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijten, M.A.J.C.

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis we describe the organization of speech recognition based writing processes. Writing can be seen as a visual representation of spoken language: a combination that speech recognition takes full advantage of. In the field of writing research, speech recognition is a new writing

  20. Board Structure in Swedish Mutual Funds Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Kolosov, Pavel; Soltanmammedov, Shageldi

    2011-01-01

    Mutual funds attracted great attention of both shareholders and academics in last few decades. Mutual funds provide benefits like diversification, professional managements and reduced costs for individual shareholders. Shareholders invest their assets into mutual funds managed by professionals. Managers may have an incentive to use those assets to satisfy their own interests. They can achieve this by charging excessive fees or spending more on the perquisites. These unmatched interests of sha...

  1. Mutual help in SETIs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melia, F.; Frisch, D. H.

    1985-06-01

    Techniques to establish communication between earth and extraterrestrial intelligent beings are examined analytically, emphasizing that the success of searches for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETIs) depends on the selection by both sender and receiver of one of a few mutually helpful SETI strategies. An equation for estimating the probability that an SETI will result in the recognition of an ETI signal is developed, and numerical results for various SETI strategies are presented in tables. A minimum approach employing 10 40-m 20-kW dish antennas for a 30-yr SETI in a 2500-light-year disk is proposed.

  2. LGBT Family Lawyers and Same-Sex Marriage Recognition: How Legal Change Shapes Professional Identity and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumle, Amanda K

    2018-01-10

    Lawyers who practice family law for LGBT clients are key players in the tenuous and evolving legal environment surrounding same-sex marriage recognition. Building on prior research on factors shaping the professional identities of lawyers generally, and activist lawyers specifically, I examine how practice within a rapidly changing, patchwork legal environment shapes professional identity for this group of lawyers. I draw on interviews with 21 LGBT family lawyers to analyze how the unique features of LGBT family law shape their professional identities and practice, as well as their predictions about the development of the practice in a post-Obergefell world. Findings reveal that the professional identities and practice of LGBT family lawyers are shaped by uncertainty, characteristics of activist lawyering, community membership, and community service. Individual motivations and institutional forces work to generate a professional identity that is resilient and dynamic, characterized by skepticism and distrust coupled with flexibility and creativity. These features are likely to play a role in the evolution of the LGBT family lawyer professional identity post-marriage equality.

  3. Mutual Fund Exit and Mutual Fund Fees

    OpenAIRE

    Philip C. English II; Ilhan Demiralp; William P. Dukes

    2011-01-01

    We examine the effect of mutual fund fee structure on mutual fund exit mode and timing. The evidence presented herein is consistent with fee maximization by mutual fund sponsors or managers, increased conflicts of interest for funds charging 12b-1 fees and higher management fees, and a pecking order for mutual fund exit method. Specifically, mutual fund exits that result in decreased fee income are delayed relative to exits that do not and exit strategies that retain fee income are more likel...

  4. Stablishment and maintenance of professional recognition in radiation protection. Establecimiento y mantenimiento de la acreditacion profesional en proteccion radiologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masse, F.X. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States))

    1994-01-01

    Recognition of qualified experts in radiation protection is an issue IRPA has been concerned with from its inception. It has long been known that the recognition mechanism differs widely throughout the world community and IRPA Associated Societies have each dealt with the needs of their members in this regard in their own way. Some unification of the recognition of qualified radiation protection experts was first through to be important with the organization of the Commission of the European Communities, anticipating the need for such expertise to be able to move freely within the EC states. A number of attempts have been made to determine the feasibility of such standardization by first inter comparing the existing systems internationally. Such intercomparisons have only verified the wide diversity of existing recognition systems, confirming the difficulty that would be associated with any standardization attempt. We are therefore shifting our focus to the issue of professional education and training as a means of gradual standardization in the profession. (Author)

  5. Towards an international system of professional recognition for public health nutritionists: a feasibility study within the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Jennifer; Hughes, Roger; Margetts, Barrie

    2012-11-01

    To test the feasibility of a pan-European professional recognition system for public health nutrition. A multistage consultation process was used to test the feasibility of a model system for public health nutritionist certification. A review of existing national-level systems for professional quality assurance was conducted via literature review and a web-based search, followed by direct inquiries among stakeholders. This information was used to construct a consultation document circulated to key stakeholders summarising the rationale of the proposed system and inviting feedback about the feasibility of the system. Two consultation workshops were also held. The qualitative data gathered through the consultation were collated and thematically analysed. Europe. Public health nutrition workforce stakeholders across twenty-nine countries in the European Union. One hundred and forty-five contacts/experts representing twenty-nine countries were contacted with responses received from a total of twenty-eight countries. The system proposed involved a certification system of professional peer review of an applicant's professional practice portfolio, utilising systems supported by information technology for document management and distribution similar to peer-review journals. Through the consultation process it was clear that there was overall agreement with the model proposed although some points of caution and concern were raised, including the need for a robust quality assurance framework that ensures transparency and is open to scrutiny. The consultation process suggested that the added value of such a system goes beyond workforce development to enhancing recognition of the important role of public health nutrition as a professional discipline in the European public health workforce.

  6. Thinking beyond Recognition: Multiculturalism, Cultural Intelligence, and the Professional Capacities of Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Megan; Noble, Greg

    2016-01-01

    This article draws on recent research in schools as part of the "Rethinking Multiculturalism/ Reassessing Multicultural Education" (RMRME) Project, which involved teachers undertaking professional learning framed by these ideas and then designing and implementing action research projects to address issues of concern in their schools. The…

  7. Implementation of online opioid overdose prevention, recognition and response trainings for professional first responders: Year 1 survey results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Janie; Rajan, Sonali; Goldsamt, Lloyd; Elliott, Luther

    2016-12-01

    This article reports on the first web-based implementation of an opioid-overdose prevention, recognition and response training for professional first responders. The training was disseminated nationally over one listserv in November 2014. The same year, following Act 139, which mandated the provision of an online training for police officers in Pennsylvania, the Pennsylvania Department of Health approved the training. It was subsequently adopted as the primary training tool for police and other first responders in Pennsylvania and has been used as a training tool by first responders nationally. Analyses employed descriptive statistics to report characteristics of a sample of 387 professional first responders who completed a survey about their experience with the online training. Z-ratios were used to compare independent proportions related to overdose, naloxone, and satisfaction with the training between key subgroups, and paired t-tests were used to compare participant responses to a range of items pre- and post-participation in the training. Between January-October 2015, 4804 first responders took the training; 1697 (35.3%) agreed to be contacted; of these, 387 (22.8%) completed a survey about the training and subsequent overdose response experiences. The majority (86.4%) were from Pennsylvania, with police representing over half of the sample. Analysis of the post-training survey indicates high satisfaction with content, format and mode of delivery, and high satisfaction with items related to confidence and overdose reversal preparedness. This study demonstrates the feasibility and acceptability of implementing online training for first responders in overdose prevention, recognition and response. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Old and Young: Mutual Need, Mutual Nourishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemek, Francis

    2001-01-01

    Suggests many ways in which to connect with the elderly community. Notes that such connections are based on mutual needs. Describes several instances where elderly people were able to connect and contribute to the education of the younger community. (SG)

  9. Minimizing Mutual Couping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    Disclosed herein are techniques, systems, and methods relating to minimizing mutual coupling between a first antenna and a second antenna.......Disclosed herein are techniques, systems, and methods relating to minimizing mutual coupling between a first antenna and a second antenna....

  10. Danish mutual fund performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This article provides the first independent performance analysis of Danish mutual funds. We analyse selectivity and market timing abilities for 71 mutual funds that have been in operation from 2001 to 2010. The results show great fund performance diversity. Half the funds have performed neutrally...

  11. Evolution of mutualism between species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Post, W.M.; Travis, C.C.; DeAngelis, D.L.

    1980-01-01

    Recent theoretical work on mutualism, the interaction between species populations that is mutually beneficial, is reviewed. Several ecological facts that should be addressed in the construction of dynamic models for mutualism are examined. Basic terminology is clarified. (PSB)

  12. The Evolutionary Ecology of Mutualism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivens, A.B.F.

    2012-01-01

    Mutualism, cooperation between different species, is wide-spread in nature. From bees pollinating plants to bacteria aiding digestion in the human gut: mutualism is essential for life on earth. But how does mutualism evolve? And what mechanisms keep mutualisms stable over evolutionary time and

  13. Rating mutual funds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechmann, Ken L.; Rangvid, Jesper

    2007-01-01

    obtained a risk-adjusted excess return that is approximately 3-4 percentage points higher per annum than if the funds with the highest costs had been invested in. We compare the atpRating with the Morningstar Rating. We show that one reason why the atpRating and the Morningstar Rating contain different...... the return of a fund in a certain year generally contains only little information about the future return that the fund will generate. Finally, we have information on the investments in different mutual funds made by a small subgroup of investors known to have been exposed to both the atp......We develop a new rating of mutual funds: the atpRating. The atpRating assigns crowns to each individual mutual fund based upon the costs an investor pays when investing in the fund in relation to what it would cost to invest in the fund's peers. Within each investment category, the rating assigns...

  14. Rating mutual funds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechmann, Ken L.; Rangvid, Jesper

    obtained an annual risk-adjusted excess return that is approximately 3-4 percentage points higher per annum than if the funds with the highest costs had been invested in. We compare the atpRating with the Morningstar Rating. We show that one reason why the atpRating and the Morningstar Rating contain......, whereas the return of a fund in a certain year generally contains only little information about the future return that the fund will generate. Finally, we have information on the investments in different mutual funds made by a small subgroup of investors known to have been exposed to both the atp......We develop a new rating of mutual funds: the atpRating. The atpRating assigns crowns to each individual mutual fund based upon the costs an investor pays when investing in the fund in relation to what it would cost to invest in the fund's peers. Within each investment category, the rating assigns...

  15. Untapped Potential: Recognition of Giftedness in Early Childhood and What Professionals Should Know about Students of Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Brian L.; Ford, Donna Y.

    2017-01-01

    Early recognition and formal identification of gifted children are important in helping them learn during their primary years and preventing disengagement and negative attitudes toward school. This is especially the case for children from low-income, racially, linguistically, and culturally different backgrounds. In this article, we suggest some…

  16. Mutually unbiased bases

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    strategy to determine ρ would be to choose ˆni as mutually orthogonal, i.e., to choose the observables to be 'maximally ... These, of course, must not only be unbiased with respect to each other but must also be .... first factor on the RHS and suspend mod p operation while calculating qi(l) using (12). Hereafter we will confine ...

  17. The Russian-French Agreement on Mutual Qualifications Cecognition - an Important Stage of International Educational Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennady Fedorovich Tkach

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the historical background, organizational and legal circumstances of the development and signing of the Russian-French agreement on mutual recognition of education and (or qualifications and degrees. The authors reveal fundamental importance of the uniform approach by comparison the basic levels of education between the two countries and the relevant qualifications. Analysis of the main substantive provisions of the joint document is provided. It is the first such full-scale agreement signed by the Russian Federation with one of the developed countries. A brief overview of the evolution of “qualifications recognition”, its concept, essence, targets and terminology are given in the initial part of the paper. The article analyzes the definitions of terms used both in the Convention on the Recognition of Qualifications concerning Higher Education in the European region and in the modern practice of the recognition of the Russian Federation. Distinction of the purpose and possibilities of conventions application and bilateral agreements on the recognition of qualifications are shown. The authors describe the sequence and content of the basic stages of development of the draft Agreement. The article displays mismatch of the two countries on the possibility of professional recognition along with academic recognition. In conclusion, the authors express confidence that the signing of the Russian-French agreement on the recognition of qualifications will promote academic exchanges and deepen cooperation between Russia and France, and will have a stimulating effect on all aspects of international educational co-operation between Russia and other countries.

  18. Estimating Mutual Information

    OpenAIRE

    Kraskov, A.; Stögbauer, H.; Grassberger, P.

    2003-01-01

    We present two classes of improved estimators for mutual information $M(X,Y)$, from samples of random points distributed according to some joint probability density $\\mu(x,y)$. In contrast to conventional estimators based on binnings, they are based on entropy estimates from $k$-nearest neighbour distances. This means that they are data efficient (with $k=1$ we resolve structures down to the smallest possible scales), adaptive (the resolution is higher where data are more numerous), and have ...

  19. 26 CFR 1.831-3 - Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, mutual...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-3 Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, mutual... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, mutual fire insurance companies issuing perpetual policies...

  20. Mutual aid fund commission

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    The composition of the Board of the Mutual Aid Fund for 2011 is as follows: President: Pascal Droux Vice-president: Connie Potter Treasurer: Louis Pereira Deputy treasurer: Barbara Brugger Secretary: Sonia Casenove Deputy secretary: Isabelle Mardirossian Members: Christopher David Thomas   Jean-Claude Vialis (GAC member)   Marie-Luce Falipou   Gunilla Santiard (Jean-Claude Vialis’s alternate) The role of the Fund is to provide financial help to members of personnel and beneficiaries of the Pension Fund who are in need of exceptional financial assistance. All requests are treated in the strictest confidence. Should you wish to apply for aid from the Fund, kindly contact any member of the Board as given above or Social Services, tel.74479 – 73867.

  1. Mutual capacitor and its applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Li

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a new ac circuit element – the mutual capacitor, being a dual of the mutual inductor, which is also a new ac transformer. This element is characteristic of the mutual-capacitance coupling of a multi-capacitance system. A unity-coupled mutual capacitor works as an ideal current or voltage transformer, and incidentally acts as waveform separating when inductor employed or waveform converting from square-wave to quasi-sine or waveform filtering, between ports. As a transformer, the mutual capacitor is easy to design, easy for heat cooling, more accurate for current or voltage transformation, dissipating less energy as well as saving materials, suitable for high-power and high-voltage applications. Experiments to demonstrate performances of unity-coupled mutual capacitors are also given.

  2. Grief and Palliative Care: Mutuality

    OpenAIRE

    Moon, Paul J

    2013-01-01

    Grief and palliative care are interrelated and perhaps mutually inclusive. Conceptually and practically, grief intimately relates to palliative care, as both domains regard the phenomena of loss, suffering, and a desire for abatement of pain burden. Moreover, the notions of palliative care and grief may be construed as being mutually inclusive in terms of one cueing the other. As such, the discussions in this article will center on the conceptualizations of the mutuality between grief and pal...

  3. Recognition of pre-clinical signs of dementia: A qualitative study exploring the experiences of family carers and professional care assistants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Catharine; Feldman, Gerald

    2018-03-01

    The aim of the study was to identify pre-clinical signs of dementia by exploring the experiences of family care-givers and professional care assistants. Dementia results in disability, emotional strain and financial loss for people with dementia, family members and nations. Informal identification of social and behavioural risk signifiers could facilitate timely interventions with potential to delay onset of serious disability. A retrospective qualitative approach using a naturalistic interpretive design was used. Focus groups enabled in-depth understanding of the participants' experiences of life or work with people who subsequently developed dementia. Purposive sampling was used to recruit family carers and professional carers who had cared for people who later developed dementia. The data from focus groups were fully transcribed, and anonymised; and transcripts analysed by two researchers. These researchers coded and analysed the transcripts independently; subsequently overlapping and similar themes were identified and consensus reached on final themes. A third researcher was invited to review the analysis and ensure trustworthiness of the study findings. Findings revealed that pre-clinical signs of dementia were identifiable in retrospect Participants' accounts resulted in four themes, 'Lowered Threshold of Frustration'' (LTF), 'Insight and Coping Strategies', 'Early signs of poor memory' and 'Alarming Events'. Earlier recognition of pre-clinical signs of dementia would allow affected individuals to follow health promotion advice and plan for the future. Identification of social exclusion prior to diagnosis has implications for anti-stigma campaigns and development of 'dementia-friendly communities'. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. Maximum mutual information regularized classification

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2014-09-07

    In this paper, a novel pattern classification approach is proposed by regularizing the classifier learning to maximize mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. We argue that, with the learned classifier, the uncertainty of the true class label of a data sample should be reduced by knowing its classification response as much as possible. The reduced uncertainty is measured by the mutual information between the classification response and the true class label. To this end, when learning a linear classifier, we propose to maximize the mutual information between classification responses and true class labels of training samples, besides minimizing the classification error and reducing the classifier complexity. An objective function is constructed by modeling mutual information with entropy estimation, and it is optimized by a gradient descend method in an iterative algorithm. Experiments on two real world pattern classification problems show the significant improvements achieved by maximum mutual information regularization.

  5. [Biological mutualism, concepts and models].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perru, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    Mutualism is a biological association for a mutual benefit between two different species. In this paper, firstly, we examine the history and signification of mutualism in relation to symbiosis. Then, we consider the link between concepts and models of mutualism. Models of mutualism depend on different concepts we use: If mutualism is situated at populations' level, it will be expressed by Lotka-Volterra models, concerning exclusively populations' size. If mutualism is considered as a resources' exchange or a biological market increasing the fitness of these organisms, it will be described at an individual level by a cost-benefit model. Our analysis will be limited to the history and epistemology of Lotka-Volterra models and we hypothesize that these models are adapted at first to translate dynamic evolutions of mutualism. They render stability or variations of size and assume that there are clear distinctions and a state of equilibrium between populations of different species. Italian mathematician Vito Volterra demonstrated that biological associations consist in a constant relation between some species. In 1931 and 1935, Volterra described the general form of antagonistic or mutualistic biological associations by the same differential equations. We recognize that these equations have been more used to model competition or prey-predator interactions, but a simple sign change allows describing mutualism. The epistemological problem is the following: Volterra's equations help us to conceptualize a global phenomenon. However, mutualistic interactions may have stronger effects away from equilibrium and these effects may be better understood at individual level. We conclude that, between 1985 and 2000, some researchers carried on working and converting Lotka-Volterra models but this description appeared as insufficient. So, other researchers adopted an economical viewpoint, considering mutualism as a biological market.

  6. Climate and trade policies: from mutual destruction to mutual support

    OpenAIRE

    MESSERLIN, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    There is no doubt that trade and climate policies can be mutually destructive. But there are three strong reasons to suggest that they can also be mutually supportive: they have a common problem, common foes, and common friends. Mutual support would be much stronger if the world regimes for these two policies shared a few common principles. The climate community should feel at ease with the broad WTO principles of ‘national treatment’ and ‘most-favoured nation’, and rely on them in building i...

  7. "The Exchange of Ideas Was Mutual, I Have to Say": Negotiating Researcher and Teacher "Roles" in an Early Years Educators' Professional Development Programme on Inquiry-Based Mathematics and Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippou, Stavroula; Papademetri-Kachrimani, Chrystalla; Louca, Loucas

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the experiences of 14 early years educators who participated in a continuing professional development (CPD) programme coordinated by two of the paper's authors. The programme was part of a three-year research project, which aimed at introducing early childhood educators to an inquiry-based approach to mathematics and science…

  8. Uncertainty relation for mutual information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneeloch, James; Broadbent, Curtis J.; Howell, John C.

    2014-12-01

    We postulate the existence of a universal uncertainty relation between the quantum and classical mutual informations between pairs of quantum systems. Specifically, we propose that the sum of the classical mutual information, determined by two mutually unbiased pairs of observables, never exceeds the quantum mutual information. We call this the complementary-quantum correlation (CQC) relation and prove its validity for pure states, for states with one maximally mixed subsystem, and for all states when one measurement is minimally disturbing. We provide results of a Monte Carlo simulation suggesting that the CQC relation is generally valid. Importantly, we also show that the CQC relation represents an improvement to an entropic uncertainty principle in the presence of a quantum memory, and that it can be used to verify an achievable secret key rate in the quantum one-time pad cryptographic protocol.

  9. Vulnerability in patients and nurses and the mutual vulnerability in the patient-nurse relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, Sanne; Vatne, Solfrid

    2017-05-01

    To examine the mutual vulnerability of patients and nurses, anticipating that an enhanced understanding of the phenomenon may help reduce vulnerability. Patient vulnerability is a key issue in nursing, aimed at protecting the patient from harm. In the literature, vulnerability is described both from a risk perspective and a subjective perspective. This implies that the objective dimension of patient vulnerability does not necessarily reflect the patient's own perception of being vulnerable. However, external judgment may influence internal perception. Adding to this complexity, attention has also been drawn to the vulnerability of the nurse. A definition deduced from central literature on vulnerability captures the complexity of objective versus subjective vulnerability. Based on the perspective of vulnerability in general, vulnerability in healthcare services shows how dependency may increase patient vulnerability. Further, despite education, training and supportive settings, patients may increase nurse vulnerability. The core of this mutuality is explored in the light of Martin Heidegger's philosophy of being. The patient's need for help from the nurse opens the patient to engage in supportive and/or harmful encounters. Thus, dependency adds to the vulnerability related to health issues. The nurse's vulnerability lies in her engagement in caring for the patient. If failing to provide proper care, the nurse's existence as 'a good nurse' is threatened. This is exacerbated if the patient turns against the nurse. Therefore, the core of vulnerability seems to lie in the fact that the patient and the nurse are both striving to be the persons they want to be, and the persons they have not yet become. Recognition of the mutual vulnerability in the patient-nurse relationship calls for collective acknowledgement of the demanding nature of caring relationships, for support and for a strengthening of professional skills. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Human-Robot Interaction: Intention Recognition and Mutual Entrainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-18

    robot force control,” Robotica , vol. 15, no. 05, pp. 473–482, 1997. [35] N. Jarrassé, J. Paik, V. Pasqui, and G. Morel, “How can human motion prediction...2009. [35] C.-L. Shih, J.W. Grizzle, and C. Chevallereau, “From Stable Walking to Steering of a 3D Bipedal Robot with Passive Point Feet,” Robotica

  11. Being Used as a Mouthpiece: Mutual Recognition during Parental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experience of being a therapist can be both gratifying and frustrating at the same time. This article takes the form of a psychoanalytical formulation of the process of therapy and parental feedback sessions conducted with an adolescent diagnosed with bulimia nervosa. It also incorporates the therapist's experience of ...

  12. The evolution of mutual ornamentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaijeveld, Ken; Kraaijeveld-Smit, Femmie J. L.; Komdeur, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Many conspicuous ornamental traits in animals are expressed in both males and females. Despite this, most research has focused on sexually dimorphic ornamentation. Mutual ornamentation has often been viewed as a result of either a nonadaptive genetic correlation between the sexes or similar

  13. Patient Safety Culture in Mutual Insurance Companies in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzanera, Rafael; Mira, José Joaquín; Plana, Manel; Moya, Daniel; Guilabert, Mercedes; Ortner, Jordi

    2017-02-22

    The aim of the study was to assess the safety culture in a mutual insurance sector, searching for improvement opportunities. This sector offers health insurance for work-related injuries and occupational illnesses and represents an annual volume of patients corresponding to approximately 10% of the working population in Europe. A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the safety culture in the mutual insurance sector in Spain. All physicians, nurses, and physiotherapists (N = 816) working in the organization in hospitals, outpatient clinics, and managerial settings were invited to reply to an online survey. A total of 499 professionals completed the questionnaire (response rate, 61%). Two dimensions were assessed: attitudinal (5 items) and instrumental (5 items). There were no differences between professional profiles or centers in the attitudinal (7.8; standard deviation, 1.3; 95% confidence interval, 7.6-7.9) or instrumental (8.5; standard deviation, 1.0; 95% confidence interval, 8.5-8.6) factors. The lowest level of implementation (event (73%), having a quality and safety plan (75%), prioritizing the improvement of patient care (75%), and involving patients when making decisions on potential treatments (63%). Managers showed lower scores than the rest of professionals' groups (P culture assessment in the mutual insurance companies. These results may encourage the implementation of quality and safety plans in this sector by paying more attention to attitudinal aspects.

  14. Cyber Mutual Assistance Workshop Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-01

    mutual aid team • key resources for collaboration and information sharing(e.g., Electric ISAC membership and portal) 2.10 What Are the Critical...Esquibel, Army Cyber Institute Bill Lawrence, North American Electric Reliability Corporation Katie Stewart, Software Engineering Institute...Institute, alongside the Electric Infrastructure Security Council and the Software Engineering Institute’s CERT Coordination Center, aimed to explore and

  15. The Black Box of Mutual Fund Fees

    OpenAIRE

    Gil Bazo, Javier; Martínez Sedano, Miguel Angel

    2004-01-01

    This paper re-examines the determinants of mutual fund fees paid by mutual fund shareholders for management costs and other expenses. There are two novelties with respect to previous studies. First, each type of fee is explained separately. Second, the paper employs a new dataset consisting of Spanish mutual funds, making it the second paper to study mutual fund fees outside the US market. Furthermore, the Spanish market has three interesting characteristics: (i) both distribution and managem...

  16. 76 FR 20458 - Mutual Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Mutual Holding Company AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision (OTS), Treasury... collection. Title of Proposal: Mutual Holding Company. OMB Number: 1550-0072. Form Numbers: MHC-1 (OTS Form... whether the applicant meets the statutory and regulatory criteria to form a mutual holding company and/or...

  17. 76 FR 36625 - Mutual Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Mutual Holding Company AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision (OTS), Treasury... collection. Title of Proposal: Mutual Holding Company. OMB Number: 1550-0072. Form Numbers: MHC-1 (OTS Form... whether the applicant meets the statutory and regulatory criteria to form a mutual holding company and/or...

  18. The mutuality metaphor: understanding healthcare provision in NHS Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howieson, Brian

    2016-06-20

    Purpose - Better Health, Better Care Action Plan (Scottish Government, 2007) sets out how the Scottish Government intends to strengthen public ownership of the National Health Service in Scotland. The purpose of this paper is to advance extant knowledge by understanding how a state-led mutual health policy may be interpreted, and importantly, communicated. Design/methodology/approach - The definitional problem of mutuality will be discussed and analysed in terms of how it is (or perhaps should be) communicated? will be offered. Findings - It actually may be more instructive to think of, and communicate, mutuality as a metaphor to aid understanding of the openness and fluidity found in NHS Scotland. Research limitations/implications - The existence of paradox and ambiguity does not, however, negate the usefulness of the term "mutuality". Quite the opposite in fact: it is precisely by examining healthcare and its delivery through the lens of mutuality (rather than rejecting its complexity as a failure) that this amorphousness can be better appreciated. Practical implications - There is a need for more public, professional, and academic debate to explore and clarify its implementation, and how it is to be led. This must be provided whilst recognising the daily imperatives that NHS leaders must face. This would suggest, therefore, that a dual development path may help. Originality/value - Although Better Health, Better Care Action Plan was published in 2007, some eight years on there is still confusion and misunderstanding as to what mutuality in healthcare is, not only in policy and theory, but also in practice. It is hoped that this analysis will help address, in part, some of this confusion and misunderstanding.

  19. The studio organization of pedagogical mutual relations between participants of higher school the educational process.

    OpenAIRE

    Gonchar O.V.

    2011-01-01

    The specificity of the terms "educational technology" and "studio organization of pedagogical mutual relations" is characterized. The essence of trend of the studio organization of pedagogical mutual relations between participants of higher school the educational process as one of the leading terms both of the educational process efficiency, mastery of its members mechanisms of human relationships making to achieve professional goals and humanization of human relations is revealed. It is prov...

  20. [Medical professionals on the subject of their core values: the importance of practice-based stories and intrinsic motivation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witman, Yolande; van den Kerkhof, Peter C M; Braat, Didi D M

    2013-01-01

    In the current system for guaranteeing quality of care, emphasis is placed firmly on external control of professionals. We looked for a way to appeal to the intrinsic motivation of medical professionals and to discover what they mean by 'good work'. This was achieved with the aid of reflective sessions using the toolkit 'Good Work': in four sessions three different groups of medical professionals (medical department chairs, residents and interns) from a Dutch university hospital reflected on the topics 'excellence', 'moral responsibility' and 'personal engagement'. The participants exchanged practice-based stories during the sessions. The most important theme was moral responsibility, with its accompanying dilemmas. The sessions gave rise to feelings of mutual acknowledgement, recognition, inspiration and motivation. Sharing meaningful practice-based stories can be considered as a 'moment of learning', strengthening professional identity and stimulating intrinsic motivation. More space for this form of reflection might restore the balance with external control systems.

  1. Pattern recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Theodoridis, Sergios

    2003-01-01

    Pattern recognition is a scientific discipline that is becoming increasingly important in the age of automation and information handling and retrieval. Patter Recognition, 2e covers the entire spectrum of pattern recognition applications, from image analysis to speech recognition and communications. This book presents cutting-edge material on neural networks, - a set of linked microprocessors that can form associations and uses pattern recognition to ""learn"" -and enhances student motivation by approaching pattern recognition from the designer's point of view. A direct result of more than 10

  2. Discriminative learning for speech recognition

    CERN Document Server

    He, Xiadong

    2008-01-01

    In this book, we introduce the background and mainstream methods of probabilistic modeling and discriminative parameter optimization for speech recognition. The specific models treated in depth include the widely used exponential-family distributions and the hidden Markov model. A detailed study is presented on unifying the common objective functions for discriminative learning in speech recognition, namely maximum mutual information (MMI), minimum classification error, and minimum phone/word error. The unification is presented, with rigorous mathematical analysis, in a common rational-functio

  3. Learning to Teach and Professional Identity: Images of Personal and Professional Recognition (Aprender a enseñar e identidad profesional: imágenes de reconocimiento personal y profesional)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo Castañeda, J. Alberto

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate how pre-service teachers construct their professional identities from the interplay between participation in a teacher community and their systems of knowledge and beliefs. A group of six Colombian pre-service teachers in the final stage of their five-year teacher education programme were the research participants.…

  4. Freedom and imperative: mutual care between older spouses with physical disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torgé, Cristina Joy

    2014-05-01

    This article explores mutual caregiving between older spouses aging with physical disabilities. Nine older couples, where both partners had lived long lives with physical disabilities, were interviewed as dyads about mutual caregiving. The couples not only had access to different kinds and degrees of formal support but also provided mutual care to each other in a variety of ways. Interview coding using grounded theory led to two overarching categories from which motivation for mutual caregiving could be understood. These categories were Mutual care as freedom and Mutual care as imperative. The results extend understanding about how older couples with disabilities attached meaning to their mutual caregiving, and why mutual care was sometimes preferable, despite the availability of other sources of help and despite practical difficulties of providing this help. These findings suggest that health care professionals need to be sensitive to the dynamics of the couple relationship and carefully explore the couple's preferences for how formal support can best be provided in ways that honor and sustain the integrity of the couple relationship.

  5. 26 CFR 1.831-1 - Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, and mutual fire insurance... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tax on insurance companies (other than life or mutual), mutual marine insurance companies, and mutual fire insurance companies issuing perpetual...

  6. Strategy as Mutually Contingent Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Martin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Schelling’s The Strategy of Conflict carries significant behavioral implications which have been overlooked by economic readers. I argue that these implications are central to Schelling’s vision of game theory, that they fit well with recent advances in experimental psychology and behavioral economics, and provide a comprehensive framework that can inform research on strategy. In my view, Schelling develops a non-mathematical approach to strategy which anticipates on Gigerenzer and Selten’s “ecological rationality” program. This approach maps the processes involved in strategic reasoning and highlights their reliance on the particular information structure of interactive social environments. Building on this approach, I model strategy as a heuristic form of reasoning that governs the way in which individuals search for and provide cues in situations of mutually contingent choice. I conclude by examining how the reference to ecological rationality can help clarify Schelling’s contribution to game theory and outline potential avenues of research into strategic reasoning and interaction.

  7. Forming mutually beneficial Aboriginal partnerships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brewster, L.; Shaw, M. [ATCO Frontec, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    The Alberta-based ATCO Group is engaged in power generation, utilities logistics and energy services and technologies in Alaska, Canada's north, and around the world. In 2001, 56 per cent of ATCO's revenue came from Aboriginal joint ventures. ATCO's foundation for successful partnerships is a mutual trust, an understanding of the environment, and constant communication. The partnerships begin with a long term vision, resulting in community-based northern businesses that benefit Aboriginal partners, shareholders, customers and local staff. This paper described 2 unique joint venture case studies: (1) the north warning system in Cambridge Bay, a radar and communication service for government, and (2) Yellowknife's Tli Cho logistics site for support and municipal services to the mining industry. The north warning system joint venture includes Pan Arctic Inuit Logistics (PAIL), representing Inuvialuit, Labrador, Nunavik and Nunavut, while the Tli Cho joint venture includes participation of the Dog Rib Rae band. Management practices in all joint ventures reflect cultural differences, and Aboriginal people are involved in long term jobs relating to northern pipeline development. 21 figs.

  8. [Maintaining solidarity: is mutuality the solution?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevers, J K M; Ploem, M C

    2013-01-01

    Solidarity is essentially the willingness to contribute to the community and its demands, which may even involve contributing more than one is expecting to receive. Another principle is mutuality: this refers to a balance between rights and obligations or between mutual obligations. In its advisory document 'The importance of mutuality......solidarity takes work!', The Dutch Council for Public Health and Health Care underlines the importance of ensuring solidarity within the Dutch health care system, e.g. by encouraging patients to take responsibility for their own health, possibly by introducing elements of mutuality. In our contribution, we comment on the Council's advice. Although we fully agree with the overall conclusion that solidarity should be maintained within the system, we do not see how the introduction of increased mutuality will contribute to this goal.

  9. Speech Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Morariu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method of speech recognition by pattern recognition techniques. Learning consists in determining the unique characteristics of a word (cepstral coefficients by eliminating those characteristics that are different from one word to another. For learning and recognition, the system will build a dictionary of words by determining the characteristics of each word to be used in the recognition. Determining the characteristics of an audio signal consists in the following steps: noise removal, sampling it, applying Hamming window, switching to frequency domain through Fourier transform, calculating the magnitude spectrum, filtering data, determining cepstral coefficients.

  10. Synchronization in human musical rhythms and mutually interacting complex systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig, Holger

    2014-09-09

    Though the music produced by an ensemble is influenced by multiple factors, including musical genre, musician skill, and individual interpretation, rhythmic synchronization is at the foundation of musical interaction. Here, we study the statistical nature of the mutual interaction between two humans synchronizing rhythms. We find that the interbeat intervals of both laypeople and professional musicians exhibit scale-free (power law) cross-correlations. Surprisingly, the next beat to be played by one person is dependent on the entire history of the other person's interbeat intervals on timescales up to several minutes. To understand this finding, we propose a general stochastic model for mutually interacting complex systems, which suggests a physiologically motivated explanation for the occurrence of scale-free cross-correlations. We show that the observed long-term memory phenomenon in rhythmic synchronization can be imitated by fractal coupling of separately recorded or synthesized audio tracks and thus applied in electronic music. Though this study provides an understanding of fundamental characteristics of timing and synchronization at the interbrain level, the mutually interacting complex systems model may also be applied to study the dynamics of other complex systems where scale-free cross-correlations have been observed, including econophysics, physiological time series, and collective behavior of animal flocks.

  11. PROFESSIONAL AMBITION: AMBITION AS A MOTIVE OF PROFESSIONAL AND CAREER DEVELOPMENT OF PERSON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana V. Barsukova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the content of ambition as a motive, guiding the professional growth and career advancement of the person. Ambition in this case fulfils the function of achieving the social recognition, which is specified in getting the deserved recognition due to the professional achievements of the person. Professional ambition - is the human desire to get deserved recognition of the professional community as a professional for real progress and achievements in the chosen field. Professional ambition is discussed in more detail on the example of pedagogical ambition and moral aspect –on the example of ambitions of scientists and criminals.

  12. Whole-book recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiu, Pingping; Baird, Henry S

    2012-12-01

    Whole-book recognition is a document image analysis strategy that operates on the complete set of a book's page images using automatic adaptation to improve accuracy. We describe an algorithm which expects to be initialized with approximate iconic and linguistic models--derived from (generally errorful) OCR results and (generally imperfect) dictionaries--and then, guided entirely by evidence internal to the test set, corrects the models which, in turn, yields higher recognition accuracy. The iconic model describes image formation and determines the behavior of a character-image classifier, and the linguistic model describes word-occurrence probabilities. Our algorithm detects "disagreements" between these two models by measuring cross entropy between 1) the posterior probability distribution of character classes (the recognition results resulting from image classification alone) and 2) the posterior probability distribution of word classes (the recognition results from image classification combined with linguistic constraints). We show how disagreements can identify candidates for model corrections at both the character and word levels. Some model corrections will reduce the error rate over the whole book, and these can be identified by comparing model disagreements, summed across the whole book, before and after the correction is applied. Experiments on passages up to 180 pages long show that when a candidate model adaptation reduces whole-book disagreement, it is also likely to correct recognition errors. Also, the longer the passage operated on by the algorithm, the more reliable this adaptation policy becomes, and the lower the error rate achieved. The best results occur when both the iconic and linguistic models mutually correct one another. We have observed recognition error rates driven down by nearly an order of magnitude fully automatically without supervision (or indeed without any user intervention or interaction). Improvement is nearly monotonic, and

  13. Holographic mutual information for singular surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mozaffar, M. Reza Mohammadi; Mollabashi, Ali [School of Physics, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM),P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Omidi, Farzad [School of Astronomy, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM),P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-12-14

    We study corner contributions to holographic mutual information for entangling regions composed of a set of disjoint sectors of a single infinite circle in 3-dimensional conformal field theories. In spite of the UV divergence of holographic mutual information, it exhibits a first order phase transition. We show that tripartite information is also divergent for disjoint sectors, which is in contrast with the well-known feature of tripartite information being finite even when entangling regions share boundaries. We also verify the locality of corner effects by studying mutual information between regions separated by a sharp annular region. Possible extensions to higher dimensions and hyperscaling violating geometries is also considered for disjoint sectors.

  14. Effective professional networking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goolsby, Mary Jo; Knestrick, Joyce M

    2017-08-01

    The reasons for nurse practitioners to develop a professional network are boundless and are likely to change over time. Networking opens doors and creates relationships that support new opportunities, personal development, collaborative research, policy activism, evidence-based practice, and more. Successful professional networking involves shared, mutually beneficial interactions between individuals and/or individuals and groups, regardless of whether it occurs face to face or electronically. This article combines nuggets from the literature with guidance based on the authors' combined experience in networking activities at the local, national, and international levels. ©2017 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  15. Developing Professionalism in Business School Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Timothy S.; Amer, Tarek S.; Ng, Pin T.

    2014-01-01

    The authors explore the importance of developing professional behavior among business students and introduce a program designed to incentivize professionalism during undergraduate study. The Professionalism Recognition Program was established to promote, recognize, rate, and reward the students' professional conduct in a flexible and widely…

  16. Mycorrhiza: A Common Form of Mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medve, Richard J.

    1978-01-01

    Mycorrhizae are among the most common examples of mutualism. This article discusses their structure, symbolic relationship, factors affecting formation and applying research. Questions are posed and answers suggested. (MA)

  17. Quantifying complex network evolution using mutual entropy and dynamical clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montealegre, Vladimir

    The study of the structure and evolution of complex networks plays an important role for a diversity of areas which include computer science, biology, sociology, pattern recognition and cryptography. Here we use methods based on the principles of classical mechanics and statistical physics to study the topology and dynamics of complex networks. Dynamical clustering is used to detect the main structural blocks of networks (communities) and generalized mutual information of the Renyi type is used to rank the detected communities according to how crucial they are for the network's structure. Two approaches to measure the information content of networks are presented. One approach is based on the elements of the connectivity matrix, and the other on the concept of distance between nodes. These methods are applied for simulated networks of the scale-free, random and mixed types and for real world networks. The concept of triangles distribution as an extension to the degree distribution is also considered.

  18. Facial Recognition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mihalache Sergiu; Stoica Mihaela-Zoica

    2014-01-01

    .... From birth, faces are important in the individual's social interaction. Face perceptions are very complex as the recognition of facial expressions involves extensive and diverse areas in the brain...

  19. Certified Health Education Specialists' Participation in Professional Associations: Implications for Marketing and Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackeray, Rosemary; Neiger, Brad L.; Roe, Kathleen M.

    2005-01-01

    A number of health education professional associations exist to advance the profession through research, practice, and professional development. Benefits of individual membership may include continuing education, networking, leadership, professional recognition, advocacy, professional mobility, access to research findings, advances in the…

  20. MULTI-FEATURE MUTUAL INFORMATION IMAGE REGISTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Tomaževič

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, information-theoretic similarity measures, especially the mutual information and its derivatives, are one of the most frequently used measures of global intensity feature correspondence in image registration. Because the traditional mutual information similarity measure ignores the dependency of intensity values of neighboring image elements, registration based on mutual information is not robust in cases of low global intensity correspondence. Robustness can be improved by adding spatial information in the form of local intensity changes to the global intensity correspondence. This paper presents a novel method, by which intensities, together with spatial information, i.e., relations between neighboring image elements in the form of intensity gradients, are included in information-theoretic similarity measures. In contrast to a number of heuristic methods that include additional features into the generic mutual information measure, the proposed method strictly follows information theory under certain assumptions on feature probability distribution. The novel approach solves the problem of efficient estimation of multifeature mutual information from sparse high-dimensional feature space. The proposed measure was tested on magnetic resonance (MR and computed tomography (CT images. In addition, the measure was tested on positron emission tomography (PET and MR images from the widely used Retrospective Image Registration Evaluation project image database. The results indicate that multi-feature mutual information, which combines image intensities and intensity gradients, is more robust than the standard single-feature intensity based mutual information, especially in cases of low global intensity correspondences, such as in PET/MR images or significant intensity inhomogeneity.

  1. Performing speech recognition research with hypercard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Chip

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe a HyperCard-based system for performing speech recognition research and to instruct Human Factors professionals on how to use the system to obtain detailed data about the user interface of a prototype speech recognition application.

  2. The Analysis of Mutual Fund Performance: Evidence from U.S. Equity Mutual Funds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.P. Budiono (Diana)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractWe study the mutual fund performance for about 45 years. There are several key points that we can withdraw from this dissertation. First, to study the persistence of mutual fund performance, it is important to consider time-varying exposures because when they are ignored, the persistence

  3. Group Differences in the Mutual Gaze of Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bard, Kim A.; Myowa-Yamakoshi, Masako; Tomonaga, Masaki; Tanaka, Masayuki; Costall, Alan; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2005-01-01

    A comparative developmental framework was used to determine whether mutual gaze is unique to humans and, if not, whether common mechanisms support the development of mutual gaze in chimpanzees and humans. Mother-infant chimpanzees engaged in approximately 17 instances of mutual gaze per hour. Mutual gaze occurred in positive, nonagonistic…

  4. Exact Test of Independence Using Mutual Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn D. Pethel

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Using a recently discovered method for producing random symbol sequences with prescribed transition counts, we present an exact null hypothesis significance test (NHST for mutual information between two random variables, the null hypothesis being that the mutual information is zero (i.e., independence. The exact tests reported in the literature assume that data samples for each variable are sequentially independent and identically distributed (iid. In general, time series data have dependencies (Markov structure that violate this condition. The algorithm given in this paper is the first exact significance test of mutual information that takes into account the Markov structure. When the Markov order is not known or indefinite, an exact test is used to determine an effective Markov order.

  5. Integrating plant carbon dynamics with mutualism ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, Elizabeth G

    2016-04-01

    Plants reward microbial and animal mutualists with carbohydrates to obtain nutrients, defense, pollination, and dispersal. Under a fixed carbon budget, plants must allocate carbon to their mutualists at the expense of allocation to growth, reproduction, or storage. Such carbon trade-offs are indirectly expressed when a plant exhibits reduced growth or fecundity in the presence of its mutualist. Because carbon regulates the costs of all plant mutualisms, carbon dynamics are a common platform for integrating these costs in the face of ecological complexity and context dependence. The ecophysiology of whole-plant carbon allocation could thus elucidate the ecology and evolution of plant mutualisms. If mutualisms are costly to plants, then they must be important but frequently underestimated sinks in the terrestrial carbon cycle. © 2015 The Author. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  6. Mutual Fund Flight-to-Liquidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rzeznik, Aleksandra

    of their portfolio towards more liquid assets in order to meet potential redemptions. This causal chain is consistent with Vayanos (2004), who argues that fund managers are investors with time-varying liquidity preferences due to threat of withdrawal. Aggregated over funds, the effect is substantial: a one standard......This paper examines the liquidity choices of mutual funds during times of market uncertainty. I find that when markets are uncertain, mutual funds actively increase the liquidity of their portfolio { often referred to as a `flight-to-liquidity.' In aggregate, mutual fund behaviour has implications...... for the market; the market driven flight-toliquidity places upward pressure on the liquidity premium. I examine the underlying mechanisms driving fund behaviour. I show that market volatility is associated with lower fund performance and withdrawals, which causes funds to adjust the composition...

  7. Elections to the Mutual Aid Fund

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Every two years, according to Article 6 of the Regulations of the Mutual Aid Fund, the Committee of the Mutual Aid Fund must renew one third of its membership. This year three members are outgoing. Of these three, two will stand again and one will not.   Candidates should be ready to give approximately two hours a month during working time to the Fund whose aim is to assist colleagues in financial difficulties. We invite applications from CERN Staff who wish to stand for election as a member of the CERN Mutual Aid Fund to send in their application before 17 June 2016, by email to the Fund’s President, Connie Potter (connie.potter@cern.ch).

  8. Selectivity Skills of Mutual Fund Managers in India: An Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Ahmad Pandow

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Stock selection is the nucleus in the investment management process. It involves identifying and selecting undervalued securities which among other things requires the successful forecasting of the company specific events or an ability to predict the general behavior of security prices in the future. If the fund manager is able to identify and select the undervalued securities for the portfolio, then it will be possible for the fund manager to increase the returns of the schemes and vice versa. In practice fund managers are expected to earn superior returns for unit holders consistently as being professionals therefore possess superior skills to collect and analyze the data with the purpose to select the right type of securities for the portfolio. The present work is based on the review of tens of studies both foreign and Indian studies relating to mutual funds. The mutual fund industry in India consists of public sector, private sector and foreign funds. All the three sectors were studied to compare the selectivity and timing performance on the basis of sponsorship of funds. However, from these only active funds belongings to Growth, Income, Balanced and Tax-Saving Schemes were selected for the study. In this paper stock selectivity skills of sample fund managers were tested by using Jensen’s Alpha and Fama’s net selectivity measure.

  9. Exploratory study of the impacts of Mutual Health Organizations on social dynamics in Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridde, Valery; Haddad, Slim; Yacoubou, Moussa; Yacoubou, Ismaelou

    2010-08-01

    The primary aim of Mutual Health Organizations (MHOs) is the financial protection of their members. However, given their community-based, participative and voluntary nature, it is conceivable that MHOs, as social organizations, would affect social dynamics. In an exploratory study in Benin, we studied social dynamics related to mutual aid, relationships of trust, and empowerment. Four MHOs, as contrasted cases, were selected from among the 11 in the region. Focus groups (n = 20) and individual interviews (n = 29) were conducted with members, non-members, and elected leaders of the four MHOs, and with professionals from the health facilities concerned. We carried out a qualitative thematic analysis of the content. Mutual aid practices, which pre-date MHOs, can be mobilized to promote MHO membership. Mutual aid practices are based on relationships of trust. The primary reason for joining an MHO is to improve financial accessibility to health services. Non-members see that members have a strong sense of empowerment in this regard, based on a high level of trust in MHOs and their elected leaders, even if their trust in health professionals is not as strong. Non-members share these feelings of confidence in MHOs and their leadership, although they trust health professionals somewhat less than do the members. The MHOs' low penetration rate therefore cannot be explained by lack of trust, as this study shows that, even with some distrust of the professionals, the overall level of trust in MHOs is high and MHOs and their leaders function as intermediaries with health professionals. Other explanatory factors are the lack of information available to villagers and, most especially, the problems they face in being able to pay the MHO premiums. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. MISTIC: mutual information server to infer coevolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonetti, Franco L.; Teppa, Elin; Chernomoretz, Ariel

    2013-01-01

    of several information-related quantities using a circos representation. This provides an integrated view of the MSA in terms of (i) the mutual information (MI) between residue pairs, (ii) sequence conservation and (iii) the residue cumulative and proximity MI scores. Further, an interactive interface...... of circos representation of MI networks and the visualization of the cumulative MI and proximity MI concepts is novel....

  11. Mutual Group Hypnosis: A Social Interaction Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Shirley

    Mutual Group Hypnosis is discussed in terms of its similarity to group dynamics in general and in terms of its similarity to a social interaction program (Role Modeling) designed to foster the expression of warmth and acceptance among group members. Hypnosis also fosters a regression to prelogical thought processes in the service of the ego. Group…

  12. Information Content of Mutual Fund Portfolio Disclosure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Wang (Yu)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractAcademic financial economists have been keenly interested in the value of active portfolio management since the seminal paper of Jensen (1968). This book examines the information advantages that active mutual fund managers attain in financial markets through an analysis of disclosed fund

  13. Mutual information in the Tangled Nature Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Dominic; Sibani, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    We consider the concept of mutual information in ecological networks, and use this idea to analyse the Tangled Nature model of co-evolution. We show that this measure of correlation has two distinct behaviours depending on how we define the network in question: if we consider only the network...

  14. What is an ICT Professional anyway?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clive Boughton

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The intention of this paper is to instigate ongoing discussion surrounding the connected topics of ICT professionalism and the ICT profession. Part of that discussion needs to include suggestions of ‘the way forward’ for the development and recognition of an ICT professional body and the way it should govern/support/protect the professionals within.

  15. Facial Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihalache Sergiu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available During their lifetime, people learn to recognize thousands of faces that they interact with. Face perception refers to an individual's understanding and interpretation of the face, particularly the human face, especially in relation to the associated information processing in the brain. The proportions and expressions of the human face are important to identify origin, emotional tendencies, health qualities, and some social information. From birth, faces are important in the individual's social interaction. Face perceptions are very complex as the recognition of facial expressions involves extensive and diverse areas in the brain. Our main goal is to put emphasis on presenting human faces specialized studies, and also to highlight the importance of attractiviness in their retention. We will see that there are many factors that influence face recognition.

  16. Plant chemical defence: a partner control mechanism stabilising plant - seed-eating pollinator mutualisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallet Christiane

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mutualisms are inherently conflictual as one partner always benefits from reducing the costs imposed by the other. Despite the widespread recognition that mutualisms are essentially reciprocal exploitation, there are few documented examples of traits that limit the costs of mutualism. In plant/seed-eating pollinator interactions the only mechanisms reported so far are those specific to one particular system, such as the selective abortion of over-exploited fruits. Results This study shows that plant chemical defence against developing larvae constitutes another partner sanction mechanism in nursery mutualisms. It documents the chemical defence used by globeflower Trollius europaeus L. (Ranunculaceae against the seed-eating larvae of six pollinating species of the genus Chiastocheta Pokorny (Anthomyiidae. The correlative field study carried out shows that the severity of damage caused by Chiastocheta larvae to globeflower fruits is linked to the accumulation in the carpel walls of a C-glycosyl-flavone (adonivernith, which reduces the larval seed predation ability per damaged carpel. The different Chiastocheta species do not exploit the fruit in the same way and their interaction with the plant chemical defence is variable, both in terms of induction intensity and larval sensitivity to adonivernith. Conclusion Adonivernith accumulation and larval predation intensity appear to be both the reciprocal cause and effect. Adonivernith not only constitutes an effective chemical means of partner control, but may also play a key role in the sympatric diversification of the Chiastocheta genus.

  17. Mutual Learning in the European Employment Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Peter

    in the European employment strategy have been either determined by the sender's interests or have underestimated how mutual learning between countries takes place. In stead the article develops a constructivist approach to learning and uses it to generate some concrete hypothesis about when learning in committees...... is most likely to take place. Afterwards, this constructivist approach is used to analyse the institutional framework surrounding the European employment strategy in order to evaluate whether the potential for learning is optimal. Finally, the article concludes that even though some basic premises......Mutual learning among the Member States is the primary purpose of the employment policy of the European Union. The two most important questions in this regard are how learning occurs and how much learning takes place. In this article I argue that the existing analyses of the effects of learning...

  18. Correlation Distance and Bounds for Mutual Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. W. Hall

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The correlation distance quantifies the statistical independence of two classical or quantum systems, via the distance from their joint state to the product of the marginal states. Tight lower bounds are given for the mutual information between pairs of two-valued classical variables and quantum qubits, in terms of the corresponding classical and quantum correlation distances. These bounds are stronger than the Pinsker inequality (and refinements thereof for relative entropy. The classical lower bound may be used to quantify properties of statistical models that violate Bell inequalities. Partially entangled qubits can have lower mutual information than can any two-valued classical variables having the same correlation distance. The qubit correlation distance also provides a direct entanglement criterion, related to the spin covariance matrix. Connections of results with classically-correlated quantum states are briefly discussed.

  19. Hardware device binding and mutual authentication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamlet, Jason R; Pierson, Lyndon G

    2014-03-04

    Detection and deterrence of device tampering and subversion by substitution may be achieved by including a cryptographic unit within a computing device for binding multiple hardware devices and mutually authenticating the devices. The cryptographic unit includes a physically unclonable function ("PUF") circuit disposed in or on the hardware device, which generates a binding PUF value. The cryptographic unit uses the binding PUF value during an enrollment phase and subsequent authentication phases. During a subsequent authentication phase, the cryptographic unit uses the binding PUF values of the multiple hardware devices to generate a challenge to send to the other device, and to verify a challenge received from the other device to mutually authenticate the hardware devices.

  20. Predicting RNA Structure Using Mutual Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freyhult, E.; Moulton, V.; Gardner, P. P.

    2005-01-01

    Background: With the ever-increasing number of sequenced RNAs and the establishment of new RNA databases, such as the Comparative RNA Web Site and Rfam, there is a growing need for accurately and automatically predicting RNA structures from multiple alignments. Since RNA secondary structure...... is often conserved in evolution, the well known, but underused, mutual information measure for identifying covarying sites in an alignment can be useful for identifying structural elements. This article presents MIfold, a MATLAB(R) toolbox that employs mutual information, or a related covariation measure......, to display and predict conserved RNA secondary structure (including pseudoknots) from an alignment. Results: We show that MIfold can be used to predict simple pseudoknots, and that the performance can be adjusted to make it either more sensitive or more selective. We also demonstrate that the overall...

  1. Fast mutual-information-based contrast enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Gang; Yu, Lifang; Tian, Huawei; Huang, Xianglin; Wang, Yongbin

    2017-07-01

    Recently, T. Celik proposed an effective image contrast enhancement (CE) method based on spatial mutual information and PageRank (SMIRANK). According to the state-of-the-art evaluation criteria, it achieves the best visual enhancement quality among existing global CE methods. However, SMIRANK runs much slower than the other counterparts, such as histogram equalization (HE) and adaptive gamma correction. Low computational complexity is also required for good CE algorithms. In this paper, we novelly propose a fast SMIRANK algorithm, called FastSMIRANK. It integrates both spatial and gray-level downsampling into the generation of pixel value mapping function. Moreover, the computation of rank vectors is speeded up by replacing PageRank with a simple yet efficient row-based operation of mutual information matrix. Extensive experimental results show that the proposed FastSMIRANK could accelerate the processing speed of SMIRANK by about 20 times, and is even faster than HE. Comparable enhancement quality is preserved simultaneously.

  2. Mutually-Antagonistic Interactions in Baseball Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Saavedra, Serguei; Powers, Scott; McCotter, Trent; Porter, Mason A.; Mucha, Peter J

    2009-01-01

    We formulate the head-to-head matchups between Major League Baseball pitchers and batters from 1954 to 2008 as a bipartite network of mutually-antagonistic interactions. We consider both the full network and single-season networks, which exhibit interesting structural changes over time. We find interesting structure in the network and examine their sensitivity to baseball's rule changes. We then study a biased random walk on the matchup networks as a simple and transparent way to compare the ...

  3. Combating isolation: Building mutual mentoring networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Anne J.

    2015-12-01

    Women physicists can often feel isolated at work. Support from a grant through the ADVANCE program of the National Science Foundation (U.S. government funding) created mutual mentoring networks aimed at combating isolation specifically for women faculty at undergraduate-only institutions. This paper will discuss the organization of one such network, what contributed to its success, some of the outcomes, and how it might be implemented in other contexts.

  4. Board Overlaps in Mutual Fund Families

    OpenAIRE

    Elif Sisli Ciamarra; Abigail Hornstein

    2015-01-01

    We examine a unique characteristic of mutual fund governance: a common set of di- rectors serving simultaneously on the boards of multiple funds within a fund family. At rst glance, this governance structure appears to bene t investors because it is associated with higher fund returns and better fund manager quality. However, funds with higher degrees of board overlap also charge higher marketing and distribution fees, which have been criticized as being the least transparent cost component f...

  5. Mutual Fund Fees Around the World

    OpenAIRE

    Ajay Khorana; Henri Servaes; Peter Tufano

    2009-01-01

    Using a new database, we study fees charged by 46,580 mutual fund classes offered for sale in 18 countries, which account for about 86% of the world fund industry in 2002. We examine management fees, total expense ratios, and total shareholder costs (including load charges). Fees vary substantially across funds and from country to country. To explain these differences, we consider fund, sponsor, and national characteristics. Fees differ by investment objectives: larger funds and fund complexe...

  6. Tourism versus spatial order: mutual relations

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Beata

    2012-01-01

    The relation between tourism and the spatial environment is characterized by mutual interaction. The proliferation of tourism and massive tourism development intensifies its impact on the spatial environment, yet the focus is usually placed on environmental degradation and the resulting distortion of spatial order. Concurrently, the significance of the spatial environment, and spatial order in particular, as one of the determinants of tourism development is understated. On a theoretical plane...

  7. Mutually altruistic trends in resources allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadasz, Peter

    2005-03-01

    Solutions to a series of apparent paradoxes arising in problems dealing with resources allocation under mutually altruistic conditions are presented. In particular, Bergstrom's lovers’ dilemma (J. Econ. Perspect. 3 (1989) 165) is dealt with as an explicit example of such apparent paradoxes. Bergstrom's discovery of a transition point in utility functions that express altruistic relationships is shown to apply generally to any non-indifferent relationship (and not necessarily altruistic) between consumers, and to general utility functions.

  8. Mutual authentication in electronic commerce transactions.

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Electronic commerce is a large and ever growing industry. Online transactions are returning ever-growing revenues to electronic merchants. The e-commerce industry is still facing a range of problems concerning the process of completion of online transactions. Such problems are connected to consumer fears dealing with the identity of online merchants, their security pre- cautions and methods for accepting online payments. This thesis develops and presents a Mutual Authentication Model (MAM), w...

  9. Performance Evaluation of Investment (Mutual Funds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Povilas Vyšniauskas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of an investment fund is one of the main components in evaluating the performance of the fund. This study seeks for introducing and comparing risk and performance evaluation ratios. The paper is aimed at testing the worked out ratios and at distinguishing between the best ones for the purpose of evaluating the performance of Lithuanian mutual funds. Scientific studies show that a standard deviation, alpha, beta, Sharpe and Treynor ratios are mostly employed for identifying the performance of mutual funds that are also compared with their benchmark index to establish if these funds are outperformed and if is it worth paying management fees to investment banks for managing mutual funds. Historical data were selected for the period from 2012-01-02 to 2013-10-15 analysing the prices of monthly funds. The paper points out the areas of a practical application of the proposed model for investment fund valuation, which may not only provide valuable outcomes for practitioners but also may inspire further research on this article.

  10. MISTIC: Mutual information server to infer coevolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonetti, Franco L; Teppa, Elin; Chernomoretz, Ariel; Nielsen, Morten; Marino Buslje, Cristina

    2013-07-01

    MISTIC (mutual information server to infer coevolution) is a web server for graphical representation of the information contained within a MSA (multiple sequence alignment) and a complete analysis tool for Mutual Information networks in protein families. The server outputs a graphical visualization of several information-related quantities using a circos representation. This provides an integrated view of the MSA in terms of (i) the mutual information (MI) between residue pairs, (ii) sequence conservation and (iii) the residue cumulative and proximity MI scores. Further, an interactive interface to explore and characterize the MI network is provided. Several tools are offered for selecting subsets of nodes from the network for visualization. Node coloring can be set to match different attributes, such as conservation, cumulative MI, proximity MI and secondary structure. Finally, a zip file containing all results can be downloaded. The server is available at http://mistic.leloir.org.ar. In summary, MISTIC allows for a comprehensive, compact, visually rich view of the information contained within an MSA in a manner unique to any other publicly available web server. In particular, the use of circos representation of MI networks and the visualization of the cumulative MI and proximity MI concepts is novel.

  11. Teamwork in nursing: restricted to nursing professionals or an interprofessional collaboration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Geisa Colebrusco de; Peduzzi, Marina; Silva, Jaqueline Alcântara Marcelino da; Carvalho, Brígida Gimenez

    2016-01-01

    To understand the nursing professionals' conceptions of teamwork and their elements. A qualitative study conducted in an oncological hospital using a semi-structured interview with 21 nursing professionals. Two conceptions emerged from the accounts: teamwork restricted to nursing professionals and teamwork with interprofessional collaboration with particular importance for interactive dimensions: communication, trust and professional bonds, mutual respect and recognition of the other's work, collaboration, and conflict, with this last subcategory considered as an obstacle to teamwork. Nursing conceives teamwork as an interprofessional practice, which is a result of the quality of interaction among professionals from different areas and involves the recognition and handling of conflicts. Compreender as concepções dos profissionais de enfermagem sobre trabalho em equipe e seus elementos constituintes. Pesquisa qualitativa, realizada em hospital oncológico, por meio de entrevista semiestruturada com 21 profissionais de enfermagem. Duas concepções emergiram dos relatos, trabalho em equipe circunscrito à enfermagem e trabalho em equipe com colaboração interprofissional, com destaque para dimensão interativa: comunicação, confiança e vínculo, respeito mútuo e reconhecimento do trabalho do outro, colaboração e conflito. Esta última subcategoria foi apontada como obstáculo para o trabalho em equipe. A enfermagem concebe majoritariamente o trabalho em equipe como ação interprofissional, e isto decorre da qualidade da interação entre os profissionais das diferentes áreas e o reconhecimento e manejo de conflitos.

  12. Academic Health Centers and HMOs: A Systems Perspective on Collaboration in Training Generalist Physicians and Advancing Mutual Interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitekamp, Michael R.; Ziegenfuss, James T.

    1995-01-01

    This paper uses an organizational systems model in examining academic health centers and health maintenance organizations to identify common needs, mutual interests, areas for potential collaboration, and bridging strategies. These include health care systems development, professional education, information management systems, and health services…

  13. Speaker Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Lasse Lohilahti; Jørgensen, Kasper Winther

    2005-01-01

    Speaker recognition is basically divided into speaker identification and speaker verification. Verification is the task of automatically determining if a person really is the person he or she claims to be. This technology can be used as a biometric feature for verifying the identity of a person...... in applications like banking by telephone and voice mail. The focus of this project is speaker identification, which consists of mapping a speech signal from an unknown speaker to a database of known speakers, i.e. the system has been trained with a number of speakers which the system can recognize....

  14. On Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjødsbøl, Iben Mundbjerg; Svendsen, Mette Nordahl

    2017-01-01

    to misrecognize and humiliate the person under examination. The article ends by proposing that dementia be the condition that forces us to rethink our ways of recognizing persons more generally. Thus, dementia diagnostics provide insights into different enactments of the person that invite us to explore practices......This article investigates how a person with dementia is made up through intersubjective acts of recognition. Based on ethnographic fieldwork in a Danish memory clinic, we show that identification of disease requires patients to be substituted by their relatives in constructing believable medical...

  15. Helping the invisible hand: A theory of endogenous mutual concern

    OpenAIRE

    Kolmar, Martin

    2001-01-01

    This paper develops a theory of endogenous mutual concern. The mutual concern or the morality of economic agents is seen as a means to reduce the inefficiencies of markets in an environment where the enforcement of property rights is castly. We show that rational agents have an incentive to invest resources to create a mutual concern. Furthermore, the strength of the mutual concern depends on the technologies of production and appropriation and defense. People in economies with a high natural...

  16. The Tradeoff Between Mutual Fund and Direct Stock Investments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marekwica, Marcel; Steininger, Bertram I.

    2014-01-01

    that for a wide range of actively managed mutual funds, the fees charged are too high for these mutual funds to appeal to a wide range of informed investors. However, accounting for search costs, such as costs for financial advice, can facilitate an understanding of the levels of management fees charged by mutual...

  17. 26 CFR 1.1502-42 - Mutual savings banks, etc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mutual savings banks, etc. 1.1502-42 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Special Taxes and Taxpayers § 1.1502-42 Mutual savings banks, etc. (a) In general. This section applies to mutual s avings banks and other institutions described in section 593(a). (b...

  18. Entrepreneurship and Professional Service Firms – A Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Reihlen, Markus; Werr, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Research on entrepreneurship in professional services is rather limited. We argue that one reason why the two fields of professional services and entrepreneurship have operated in isolation rather than in mutual interaction is an inherent contradiction between the very ideas of entrepreneurship and professionalism. Our perspective on entrepreneurship for this chapter is rather broad, focusing on new venture management and renewal in professional service firms as well as embracing aspects such...

  19. Institutional Choice and Recognition in Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rutt, Rebecca Leigh

    Abstract This thesis concerns the role of local institutions in fostering development including natural resource management, and how this role is shaped by relations with higher scale institutions such as development agencies and national governments. Specifically, it examines the choice of local...... objective of this thesis was to contribute to understanding processes and outcomes of institutional choice and recognition. It employed mixed methods but primarily semi structured interviews in multiple sites across Nepal. In responding to specific objectives, namely to better understand: i) the rationales...... behind choices of local institutional counterparts, ii) the belonging and citizenship available with local institutions, iii) the dynamics and mutuality of recognition between higher and lower scale institutions, and iv) the social outcomes of choice and recognition, this thesis shows that the way choice...

  20. Identity theory and personality theory: mutual relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stryker, Sheldon

    2007-12-01

    Some personality psychologists have found a structural symbolic interactionist frame and identity theory relevant to their work. This frame and theory, developed in sociology, are first reviewed. Emphasized in the review are a multiple identity conception of self, identities as internalized expectations derived from roles embedded in organized networks of social interaction, and a view of social structures as facilitators in bringing people into networks or constraints in keeping them out, subsequently, attention turns to a discussion of the mutual relevance of structural symbolic interactionism/identity theory and personality theory, looking to extensions of the current literature on these topics.

  1. THE COOPERATIVE CREDIT MUTUAL IN BRAZIL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laércio Baptista da Silva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an analysis of the reality of credit unions in Brazil, in view of the singular importance of credit unions for the whole society as an alternative to private resources in favor of members of the community where they are located. It confirms that, in Brazil, the mutual credit unions, besides being presented as one of the viable options within the financial system, are also seen as an alternative by which some sectors of society promote the humanization of the financial system by offering credit and return on capital with fairer interest rates.

  2. Group-ID based RFID Mutual Authentication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEE, Y.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available For passive type RFID tags, EPCglobal Class 1 Generation-2 Revision is used widely as a de facto standard. As it was designed for low cost, it is quite vulnerable to security issues, such as privacy concerns. This paper presents a new RFID mutual authentication protocol, which is designed to be configured on EPC Gen2 platform and to meet various security requirements while providing efficiency using PRNG (Pseudo Random Number Generator. Group-ID is used to minimize the authentication time. Security analysis of the proposed protocol is discussed.

  3. Multi-objective portfolio optimization of mutual funds under downside risk measure using fuzzy theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Amiri

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Mutual fund is one of the most popular techniques for many people to invest their funds where a professional fund manager invests people's funds based on some special predefined objectives; therefore, performance evaluation of mutual funds is an important problem. This paper proposes a multi-objective portfolio optimization to offer asset allocation. The proposed model clusters mutual funds with two methods based on six characteristics including rate of return, variance, semivariance, turnover rate, Treynor index and Sharpe index. Semivariance is used as a downside risk measure. The proposed model of this paper uses fuzzy variables for return rate and semivariance. A multi-objective fuzzy mean-semivariance portfolio optimization model is implemented and fuzzy programming technique is adopted to solve the resulted problem. The proposed model of this paper has gathered the information of mutual fund traded on Nasdaq from 2007 to 2009 and Pareto optimal solutions are obtained considering different weights for objective functions. The results of asset allocation, rate of return and risk of each cluster are also determined and they are compared with the results of two clustering methods.

  4. a Method of Tomato Image Segmentation Based on Mutual Information and Threshold Iteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hongxia; Li, Mingxi

    Threshold Segmentation is a kind of important image segmentation method and one of the important preconditioning steps of image detection and recognition, and it has very broad application during the research scopes of the computer vision. According to the internal relation between segment image and original image, a tomato image automatic optimization segmentation method (MI-OPT) which mutual information associate with optimum threshold iteration was presented. Simulation results show that this method has a better image segmentation effect on the tomato images of mature period and little background color difference or different color.

  5. Pattern recognition and classification an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Dougherty, Geoff

    2012-01-01

    The use of pattern recognition and classification is fundamental to many of the automated electronic systems in use today. However, despite the existence of a number of notable books in the field, the subject remains very challenging, especially for the beginner. Pattern Recognition and Classification presents a comprehensive introduction to the core concepts involved in automated pattern recognition. It is designed to be accessible to newcomers from varied backgrounds, but it will also be useful to researchers and professionals in image and signal processing and analysis, and in computer visi

  6. Mutual relating: developing interpersonal relationships in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, T V; Baker, H

    2001-05-01

    This paper, which is part of a larger study that examined how community mental health nurses promoted wellness with young adult who were experiencing an early episode of psychotic illness, aims to explicate how nurses develop interpersonal relationships with these consumers. Research into the development of interpersonal skills is important because they are an essential foundation to the promotion of wellness in psychotic illness. The study used Strauss and Corbin's approach to grounded theory methodology. Concurrent data collection and analysis was undertaken incorporating interviews and observations. The study took place in the community, in rural and regional New South Wales, Australia, and involved consumers, significant others, and community mental health nurses. The findings show that several strategies are associated with mutual relating. Attempting to understand necessitates nurses trying to see it from insiders' points of view, while acknowledging that they can never completely understand their illness experience. Being friendly indicates that the qualities of a friendly relationship should be implicit in a professional friendship. Tuning in involves taking account of and adjusting to consumers' ways of dressing, communicating, and the types of approaches that consumers prefer. Revealing oneself is a process that helps put both consumers and nurses at ease, and helps dispel the perception consumers take part in a one-sided relationship. Being there for them, is a particular type of obligation that entails nurses being accountable for the care they provide, being a spokesperson for consumers, if required, and avoiding collusion with others. Related to avoiding collusion, is the issue of maintaining confidentiality, particularly within the context of interacting with significant others. The results of the study have implications for the way nurses develop and maintain interpersonal relationships with consumers, and this is affected by nurses' personal and

  7. Babysitter or professional? Perceptions of professionalism narrated by Ontario early childhood educators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra HARWOOD

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Self-constructed perceptions of early childhood educator professionalism were explored in a small-scale mixed-method survey using convenience sampling. Fifty-four educators in Ontario, Canada participated in the study and shared their views related to professionalism. A mixed-methodology was employed using an electronic questionnaire composed of closed- and open-ended questions on ideas related to professionalism. The results of the study demonstrated that all the educators held a strong self-perception of professionalism regardless of their level of education, reporting high levels of job satisfaction, competence, recognition as a professional from others, and self-recognition as a professional. Participants’ notions of professionalism focused on the qualities of an individual considered a professional (e.g., good listener, patient, and understanding whereas discussions of criticality, authority, or the historical, gendered, cultural, racial, and social practices of early childhood education were noticeably absent.

  8. The origins of the idea of pedagogical mutual relations of participants of the educational process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonchar O.V.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The essence of specificity for pedagogical mutual relations of participants of the educational process by means of research of its development origins. It is substantiated that the update process in the education system of high school can be analyzed through the study of genesis of pedagogical mutual relations of participants of the educational process category, the nature of which depends on the effectiveness of the educational process in general. It is emphasized the urgent necessity for such scientific research, because without them it cannot be implemented pedagogical techniques in practice of the new modern high school that require from agents of the educational process mobility, flexibility, creative qualities and skills of professional learning.

  9. Deadlocks and dihomotopy in mutual exclusion models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raussen, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Parallel processes in concurrency theory can be modelled in a geometric framework. A convenient model are the Higher Dimensional Automata of V. Pratt and E. Goubault with cubical complexes as their mathematical description. More abstract models are given by (locally) partially ordered topological...... spaces, the directed ($d$-spaces) of M.Grandis and the flows of P. Gaucher. All models invite to use or modify ideas from algebraic topology, notably homotopy. In specific semaphore models for mutual exclusion, we have developed methods and algorithms that can detect deadlocks and unsafe regions and give...... information about essentially different schedules using higher dimensional "geometric'' representations of the state space and executions (directed paths) along it....

  10. Quantum corrections to holographic mutual information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agón, Cesar A. [Martin Fisher School of Physics, Brandeis University,Waltham, MA 02453 (United States); Faulkner, Thomas [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign,Urbana, IL 61801-3080 (United States)

    2016-08-22

    We compute the leading contribution to the mutual information (MI) of two disjoint spheres in the large distance regime for arbitrary conformal field theories (CFT) in any dimension. This is achieved by refining the operator product expansion method introduced by Cardy http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1751-8113/46/28/285402. For CFTs with holographic duals the leading contribution to the MI at long distances comes from bulk quantum corrections to the Ryu-Takayanagi area formula. According to the FLM proposal http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP11(2013)074 this equals the bulk MI between the two disjoint regions spanned by the boundary spheres and their corresponding minimal area surfaces. We compute this quantum correction and provide in this way a non-trivial check of the FLM proposal.

  11. Canonical analysis based on mutual information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Vestergaard, Jacob Schack

    2015-01-01

    combinations with the information theoretical measure mutual information (MI). We term this type of analysis canonical information analysis (CIA). MI allows for the actual joint distribution of the variables involved and not just second order statistics. While CCA is ideal for Gaussian data, CIA facilitates......Canonical correlation analysis (CCA) is an established multi-variate statistical method for finding similarities between linear combinations of (normally two) sets of multivariate observations. In this contribution we replace (linear) correlation as the measure of association between the linear...... analysis of variables with different genesis and therefore different statistical distributions and different modalities. As a proof of concept we give a toy example. We also give an example with one (weather radar based) variable in the one set and eight spectral bands of optical satellite data...

  12. Detecting Generalized Synchrony Through Mutual Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiff, Steven J.; So, Paul

    1996-03-01

    Detection of synchrony in the nervous system has traditionally relied on linear methods such as cross correlation and coherence. Neurons are floridly nonlinear, however, and neuronal interactions may be inadequately described if it is assumed that ensemble behavior is a linear combination of neuronal activities. We develop an approach to detecting generalized synchrony using mutual nonlinear prediction. Multivariate surrogate data will be employed to establish statistical confidence that synchrony is nonlinear. These results will be applied to an experimental preparation - the motoneuron pool from the spinal cord stretch reflex. The interrelationships between individual neurons, between single neurons and the population of neurons, and between intracellular synaptic currents and single neurons will be examined, and the case for the existence of generalized synchrony made.

  13. Speech Intelligibility Prediction Based on Mutual Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper; Taal, Cees H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of predicting the average intelligibility of noisy and potentially processed speech signals, as observed by a group of normal hearing listeners. We propose a model which performs this prediction based on the hypothesis that intelligibility is monotonically related...... to the mutual information between critical-band amplitude envelopes of the clean signal and the corresponding noisy/processed signal. The resulting intelligibility predictor turns out to be a simple function of the mean-square error (mse) that arises when estimating a clean critical-band amplitude using...... a minimum mean-square error (mmse) estimator based on the noisy/processed amplitude. The proposed model predicts that speech intelligibility cannot be improved by any processing of noisy critical-band amplitudes. Furthermore, the proposed intelligibility predictor performs well ( ρ > 0.95) in predicting...

  14. Influence of inhomogeneities on holographic mutual information and butterfly effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Rong-Gen; Zeng, Xiao-Xiong; Zhang, Hai-Qing

    2017-07-01

    We study the effect of inhomogeneity, which is induced by the graviton mass in massive gravity, on the mutual information and the chaotic behavior of a 2+1-dimensional field theory from the gauge/gravity duality. When the system is near-homogeneous, the mutual information increases as the graviton mass grows. However, when the system is far from homogeneity, the mutual information decreases as the graviton mass increases. By adding the perturbations of energy into the system, we investigate the dynamical mutual information in the shock wave geometry. We find that the greater perturbations disrupt the mutual information more rapidly, which resembles the butterfly effect in chaos theory. Besides, the greater inhomogeneity reduces the dynamical mutual information more quickly just as in the static case.

  15. Market timing and selectivity performance of mutual funds in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubakar Musah

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The growing interest in mutual funds in Ghana has been tremendous over the last decade as evidenced by the continuous increases in number and total funds under management. However, no empirical work has been done on the selectivity and timing ability of the mutual fund managers. Using monthly returns data hand-collected from the reports of the mutual fund managers for the period January 2007-December 2012, this paper examines the market timing and selectivity ability of mutual fund managers in Ghana using the classic Treynor-Mazuy (1966 model and Henriksson- Merton (1981 model. The results suggest that, in general mutual fund managers in Ghana are not able to effectively select stocks and also are not able to predict both the magnitude and direction of future market returns. More specifically, all of the sample mutual fund managers attain significant negative selectivity coefficients and also most of them attain insignificant negative timing coefficients.

  16. Measuring the True Cost of Active Management by Mutual Funds

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Ross M.

    2005-01-01

    Recent years have seen a dramatic shift from mutual funds into hedge funds even though hedge funds charge management fees that have been decried as outrageous. While expectations of superior returns may be responsible for this shift, this article shows that mutual funds are more expensive than commonly believed. Mutual funds appear to provide investment services for relatively low fees because they bundle passive and active funds management together in a way that understates the true cost of ...

  17. Danish Mutual Fund Performance - Selectivity, Market Timing and Persistence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Michael

    applying a single index model and a multi-factor model, respectively. Furthermore, we analyse the timing ability of the Danish mutual funds pursuing both the quadratic regressions of Treynor and Mazuy (1966) and the option approach suggested by Henriksson and Merton (1981). Finally, we analyse performance...... persistence using parametric as well as non-parametric methodologies. We conclude that in general Danish mutual funds perform neutrally, returns are non-persistent and Danish mutual funds have no timing ability....

  18. Toward a Definition of Professional Development Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolly, John P.; Oda, E. Aiko

    1997-01-01

    In attempting to define professional development schools (PDSs), this paper describes the origins of PDSs, which grew out of recognition by research universities that prospective teachers needed professional sites where they could be introduced to models of excellence in all facets of public education. The paper examines what good PDSs should…

  19. Schooling Teachers: Professionalism or Disciplinary Power?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Terri; Lidstone, John; Ryan, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Since public schooling was introduced in the nineteenth century, teachers in many western countries have endeavoured to achieve professional recognition. For a short period in the latter part of the twentieth century, professionalism was seen as a discourse of resistance or the "enemy" of economic rationalism and performativity. However,…

  20. Mutual couling reduction using a lumped LC circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen, Jesper; Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne

    2004-01-01

    A technique to reduce the mutual coupling between two Planar Inverted F Antennas (PIFA) is presented in this paper. By the use of a parallel LC circuit it is possible to reduce the mutual coupling between two antennas. This results in a 16 % improvement in the radiation efficiency.......A technique to reduce the mutual coupling between two Planar Inverted F Antennas (PIFA) is presented in this paper. By the use of a parallel LC circuit it is possible to reduce the mutual coupling between two antennas. This results in a 16 % improvement in the radiation efficiency....

  1. Identifying Statistical Dependence in Genomic Sequences via Mutual Information Estimates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aktulga, Hasan Metin; Kontoyiannis, Ioannis; Lyznik, L Alex; Szpankowski, Lukasz; Grama, Ananth Y; Szpankowski, Wojciech

    2007-01-01

    ...) that are statistically correlated. We develop a precise and reliable methodology, based on the notion of mutual information, for finding and extracting statistical as well as structural dependencies...

  2. Contextual modulation of biases in face recognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Maria Felisberti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The ability to recognize the faces of potential cooperators and cheaters is fundamental to social exchanges, given that cooperation for mutual benefit is expected. Studies addressing biases in face recognition have so far proved inconclusive, with reports of biases towards faces of cheaters, biases towards faces of cooperators, or no biases at all. This study attempts to uncover possible causes underlying such discrepancies. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: Four experiments were designed to investigate biases in face recognition during social exchanges when behavioral descriptors (prosocial, antisocial or neutral embedded in different scenarios were tagged to faces during memorization. Face recognition, measured as accuracy and response latency, was tested with modified yes-no, forced-choice and recall tasks (N = 174. An enhanced recognition of faces tagged with prosocial descriptors was observed when the encoding scenario involved financial transactions and the rules of the social contract were not explicit (experiments 1 and 2. Such bias was eliminated or attenuated by making participants explicitly aware of "cooperative", "cheating" and "neutral/indifferent" behaviors via a pre-test questionnaire and then adding such tags to behavioral descriptors (experiment 3. Further, in a social judgment scenario with descriptors of salient moral behaviors, recognition of antisocial and prosocial faces was similar, but significantly better than neutral faces (experiment 4. CONCLUSION: The results highlight the relevance of descriptors and scenarios of social exchange in face recognition, when the frequency of prosocial and antisocial individuals in a group is similar. Recognition biases towards prosocial faces emerged when descriptors did not state the rules of a social contract or the moral status of a behavior, and they point to the existence of broad and flexible cognitive abilities finely tuned to minor changes in social context.

  3. Aphid Heritable Symbiont Exploits Defensive Mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doremus, Matthew R; Oliver, Kerry M

    2017-04-15

    Insects and other animals commonly form symbioses with heritable bacteria, which can exert large influences on host biology and ecology. The pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum , is a model for studying effects of infection with heritable facultative symbionts (HFS), and each of its seven common HFS species has been reported to provide resistance to biotic or abiotic stresses. However, one common HFS, called X-type, rarely occurs as a single infection in field populations and instead typically superinfects individual aphids with Hamiltonella defensa , another HFS that protects aphids against attack by parasitic wasps. Using experimental aphid lines comprised of all possible infection combinations in a uniform aphid genotype, we investigated whether the most common strain of X-type provides any of the established benefits associated with aphid HFS as a single infection or superinfection with H. defensa We found that X-type does not confer protection to any tested threats, including parasitoid wasps, fungal pathogens, or thermal stress. Instead, component fitness assays identified large costs associated with X-type infection, costs which were ameliorated in superinfected aphids. Together these findings suggest that X-type exploits the aphid/ H. defensa mutualism and is maintained primarily as a superinfection by "hitchhiking" via the mutualistic benefits provided by another HFS. Exploitative symbionts potentially restrict the functions and distributions of mutualistic symbioses with effects that extend to other community members. IMPORTANCE Maternally transmitted bacterial symbionts are widespread and can have major impacts on the biology of arthropods, including insects of medical and agricultural importance. Given that host fitness and symbiont fitness are tightly linked, inherited symbionts can spread within host populations by providing beneficial services. Many insects, however, are frequently infected with multiple heritable symbiont species, providing potential

  4. Style Analysis and Performance Evaluation of Dutch Mutual Funds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ter Horst, J.R.; Nijman, T.E.; de Roon, F.A.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we show how style analysis of mutual funds can be used to circumvent the problem of self-reported investment styles, and to improve relative performance evaluation. Subsequently, we relate style analysis to performance evaluation and present results on the performance of Dutch mutual

  5. Mutualisms in a changing world: an evolutionary perspective.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiers, E.T.; Palmer, T.M.; Ives, A.I.; Bruno, J.; Bronstein, J.L.

    2010-01-01

    There is growing concern that rapid environmental degradation threatens mutualistic interactions. Because mutualisms can bind species to a common fate, mutualism breakdown has the potential to expand and accelerate effects of global change on biodiversity loss and ecosystem disruption. The current

  6. Performance Evaluation of Open-Ended ELSS Mutual Fund ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the performance of the open-ended equity linked saving mutual fund schemes (ELSS) in India during the financial distress in 2008-2009. In this study, the month end net asset values of selected equity linked saving mutual fund schemes were considered and the data was obtained from the website of ...

  7. Indirect control and power in mutual control structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karos, D.; Peters, H.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    In a mutual control structure agents exercise control over each other. Typical examples occur in the area of corporate governance: firms and investment companies exercise mutual control, in particular by owning each others’ stocks. In this paper we formulate a general model for such situations.

  8. Mutual participation in the health worker-patient relationship ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    When health workers become aware of differences in opinion or in the balance of power, this should be acknowledged and discussed and a mutual understanding should be negotiated. Health workers have the potential to manipulate “mutual decision making” with the information they give. It is therefore essential to be ...

  9. Mutual Information and Nonadditive Entropies: A Method for Kaniadakis Entropy

    OpenAIRE

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2015-01-01

    In [10.18483/ijSci.8451], we have discussed the mutual information of two random variables and how it can be obtained from entropies. We considered the Shannon entropy and the nonadditive Tsallis entropy. Here, following the same approach used in the Tsallis case, we propose a method for discussing the mutual entropy of another nonadditive entropy, the Kaniadakis entropy

  10. Investigating Performance of Equity-based Mutual Fund Schemes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The performance of the mutual fund products become more complex in context of accommodating both return and risk measurements while giving due importance to investment objectives. In this paper, an attempt has been made to study the performance of selected schemes of mutual funds based on risk-return ...

  11. Classification Active Learning Based on Mutual Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamshid Sourati

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Selecting a subset of samples to label from a large pool of unlabeled data points, such that a sufficiently accurate classifier is obtained using a reasonably small training set is a challenging, yet critical problem. Challenging, since solving this problem includes cumbersome combinatorial computations, and critical, due to the fact that labeling is an expensive and time-consuming task, hence we always aim to minimize the number of required labels. While information theoretical objectives, such as mutual information (MI between the labels, have been successfully used in sequential querying, it is not straightforward to generalize these objectives to batch mode. This is because evaluation and optimization of functions which are trivial in individual querying settings become intractable for many objectives when we are to select multiple queries. In this paper, we develop a framework, where we propose efficient ways of evaluating and maximizing the MI between labels as an objective for batch mode active learning. Our proposed framework efficiently reduces the computational complexity from an order proportional to the batch size, when no approximation is applied, to the linear cost. The performance of this framework is evaluated using data sets from several fields showing that the proposed framework leads to efficient active learning for most of the data sets.

  12. Grounding Animal Rights in Mutual Advantage Contractarianism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Taylor

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Contrary to critics and advocates of contractarianism alike, I argue that mutual advantage contractarianism entails rights and protections for animals. In section one I outline the criteria that must be met in order for an individual to qualify for moral rights on the contractarian view. I then introduce an alternative form of ‘rights,’ which I call ‘protectorate status,’ from which an individual can receive protections indirectly. In section two I suggest guidelines for assigning animal rights based on two ways of categorizing animals. On the basis of the categorization according to benefit derived, I argue that animals used for companionship, security, hunting assistance, transportation, entertainment, medical service, nourishment, or clothing will tend to qualify for basic rights against starvation, predation, and disease. On the basis of the categorization according to species, I argue that, on top of the basic rights above, dogs tend to qualify for rights against abuse, and against frivolous medical experimentation, as well as further negotiated rights. Cows have the basic rights against starvation, predation, and disease, but squirrels and bears have no rights. In section three I argue that some animals qualify for protectorate status, which would establish various protections for different animals, but would also generally prohibit cruelty towards animals.

  13. [Mutual inhibition between positive and negative emotions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimokawa, A

    1994-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between positive and negative emotions. In study 1, 62 emotional items were selected in order to measure subjective emotional experiences. In study 2, comics, photos and poems were randomly presented to 1,220 college students to induce emotion. Subjects were asked to rate their momentary emotional intensity on two set of 5-point scales (general emotional intensity scale and 62 specific emotional intensity scale). In analysis 1, positive correlations were suggested between general emotional intensity scale and some of the specific emotional intensity scales which were activated by stimuli. In analysis 2, 10 positive and 10 negative emotional items were extracted from 62 items by factor analysis. In analysis 3, 4 and 5, it became clear that the distribution of frequency of correlations of 10 positive x 10 negative items changed according to the general emotional intensity scale. That is, from low to moderate levels of GEIS, the two kinds of emotion had no or slightly positive correlation, but at high level they became to be negatively correlated. From the facts described above, it is concluded that positive and negative emotions is not always independent, but show mutual inhibition in case of high intensity level of one of each emotions.

  14. Friendly Home and Inhabitants' Morality: Mutual Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofya K. Nartova-Bochaver

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The study is aimed at investigating the connection between the friendliness of the home environment and the moral motives' level. The friendliness of the home environment includes two aspects: the number of functions provided by home (functionality and the congruence of these functions with inhabitants' needs (relevance. The theoretical framework of the study was formed by research and ideas emphasizing the interplay between people and their environments. We hypothesized that the friendliness of the home environment and inhabitants' moral motives would have a reciprocal relationship: the friendlier the home the higher the inhabitants' moral motives' level, and, vice versa, the higher the person's moral motives' level the more positive home image. The respondents were 550 students (25% male. The Home Environment Functionality Questionnaire, the Home Environment Relevance Questionnaire, and the Moral Motivation Model Scale were used. As expected, it was found that the friendliness of the home environment and the inhabitants' moral motives are in reciprocal synergetic relationships. Relevance formed more nuanced correlation patterns with moral motives than functionality did. Functionality predicted moral motives poorly whereas moral motives predicted functionality strongly. Finally, relevance and moral motives were found to be in mutual relationships whereas the perceived functionality was predicted by moral motives only.

  15. Consumer Evaluation of Dual Focus Mutual Aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magura, Stephen; Villano, Cherie L; Rosenblum, Andrew; Vogel, Howard S; Betzler, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Double Trouble in Recovery (DTR) is a "dual focus," 12 step-based mutual aid program tailored to assist recovery from co-occurring substance use and psychiatric disorders. OBJECTIVE: To determine consumers' perceptions of DTR's usefulness for their recoveries and the relationships between perceived DTR usefulness and self-help processes, self-efficacy to cope with problems in recovery, and changes in behaviors conducive to dual recovery. METHODS: Consumers attending DTR groups, located within a psychiatric day-treatment program, completed anonymous surveys 8 months (N=19) and 20 months (N=61) after DTR was implemented. RESULTS: DTR participants rated DTR favorably and length of DTR attendance was significantly associated with increased self-efficacy for recovery and positive changes in recovery-oriented behaviors. Perceived DTR usefulness was significantly associated with greater engagement in three specific self-help processes and increased self-efficacy for recovery; notably, these associations were independent of consumers' overall satisfaction with the treatment program. CONCLUSION: This study is the first to document consumers' perceived usefulness of DTR in relation to indicators of recovery. Overall, the study provides additional evidence for the benefits of implementing consumer-led dual focus groups in treatment programs.

  16. Partial order similarity based on mutual information

    CERN Document Server

    Tibély, Gergely; Palla, Gergely

    2016-01-01

    Comparing the ranking of candidates by different voters is an important topic in social and information science with a high relevance from the point of view of practical applications. In general, ties and pairs of incomparable candidates may occur, thus, the alternative rankings are described by partial orders. Various distance measures between partial orders have already been introduced, where zero distance is corresponding to a perfect match between a pair of partial orders, and larger values signal greater differences. Here we take a different approach and propose a similarity measure based on adjusted mutual information. In general, the similarity value of unity is corresponding to exactly matching partial orders, while a low similarity is associated to a pair of independent partial orders. The time complexity of the computation of this similarity measure is $\\mathcal{O}(\\left|{\\mathcal C}\\right|^3)$ in the worst case, and $\\mathcal{O}(\\left|{\\mathcal C}\\right|^2\\ln \\left|{\\mathcal C}\\right|)$ in the typi...

  17. Kinetics of ion-ion mutual neutralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Thomas M.; Wiens, Justin P.; Shuman, Nicholas S.; Viggiano, Albert A.

    2014-10-01

    We have measured rate coefficients for 87 mutual neutralization reactions between thermal energy anions and cations, a number of them as a function of temperature. In addition, in two cases we have observed a transfer ionization channel in which there is enough energy for the anion reactant to be doubly ionized, yielding a cation product rather than neutralization. We will summarize these results and note correlations, namely: (1) binary neutralization rate coefficients are primarily a function of the chemical nature of the system for atom-atom ionic pairs (with a wide range of rate coefficients), but quickly become dominated by physical aspects (i.e., relative velocity) as the number of atoms in the system increases. (2) Rate coefficients for atom-atom ionic pairs are well fit at 300 K by k = 3 × 10-4 Rx-3 . 15 , where Rx is the curve crossing radius given by Rx = 27.2/ ΔE, with ΔE being the electron transfer energy released in the reaction. (ΔE in eV, Rx in Bohr, and k in cm3/s.) (3) Rate coefficients for systems of more than 4 or 5 atoms are well described by k = 2.7 × 10-7 (T/300)- 0 . 9μ - 0 . 5 . (T in K, and the reduced mass μ in amu.) (4) Triatomic systems have rate coefficients smaller than given by the expression in (3). Supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, AFOSR 2303EP.

  18. Probabilistic models for 2D active shape recognition using Fourier descriptors and mutual information

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Govender, N

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available and Industrial Research, P.O. Box 395, Pretoria 0001, South Africa 2School of Physics, University of KwaZulu–Natal, Private Bag X54001, Durban 4000, South Africa 3Centre de recherche sur les Ions, les Matériaux et la Photonique, UMR 6252 CEA-CNRS-ENSICAEN et... Université de Caen, CIMAP-ENSICAEN 6 Bd Maréchal Juin, F-14050 Caen, France 4Faculté de Physique, Université des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumédiène, B.P. n° 32, El Alia, 16111 Algiers, Algeria *aforbes1@csir.co.za Abstract We outline a...

  19. DOA estimation and mutual coupling calibration with the SAGE algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Kunlai

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel algorithm is presented for direction of arrival (DOA estimation and array self-calibration in the presence of unknown mutual coupling. In order to highlight the relationship between the array output and mutual coupling coefficients, we present a novel model of the array output with the unknown mutual coupling coefficients. Based on this model, we use the space alternating generalized expectation-maximization (SAGE algorithm to jointly estimate the DOA parameters and the mutual coupling coefficients. Unlike many existing counterparts, our method requires neither calibration sources nor initial calibration information. At the same time, our proposed method inherits the characteristics of good convergence and high estimation precision of the SAGE algorithm. By numerical experiments we demonstrate that our proposed method outperforms the existing method for DOA estimation and mutual coupling calibration.

  20. Mutuality as background music in women's lived experience of mental health and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedelin, B; Jonsson, I

    2003-06-01

    Mental health problems, especially depression, have turned into an extensive public health problem, affecting women in particular. The aim of this study was to obtain a deeper understanding of mental health phenomena through elderly women's lived experiences of mental health and depression. The phenomenological approach was chosen for collecting experience-based and person-centred descriptions from 21 women, focusing on mental health and depression. The interviews were analysed using Giorgi's phenomenological descriptive method. Mutuality in their relationships with themselves and others emerged as a major element in the women's experience of mental health and depression. When the women's existence and value were confirmed in relation to themselves and others, mental health appeared as an ascending spiral. When the women's value and self-esteem in relation to themselves and others were violated, the result was a descending spiral. Metaphorically speaking, 'mutuality' provided the 'background music' to the women's lives. Being a skilled professional psychiatric nurse means making the best use of mutuality as a creative power in the nurse-patient relationship. This means that the nurse must be aware that her/his attitude, appearance and behaviour are interpreted as a confirmation of the patient's worthiness or worthlessness.

  1. Balancing cognitive diversity and mutual understanding in multidisciplinary teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Rebecca; Boyle, Brendan; O'Brien, Rachael; Malik, Ashish; Tian, Karen; Parker, Vicki; Giles, Michelle; Joyce, Pauline; Chiang, Vico

    Interprofessional health care teams are increasingly utilized in health care organizations. Although there is support for their capacity to solve complex problems, there is also evidence that such teams are not always successful. In an effort to understand the capacity of interprofessional teams to innovate successfully, we investigate the role of cognitive diversity to establish whether and how knowledge differences lead to innovation. The aim of this study was to construct and investigate a model of team innovation predicted by cognitive diversity. In addition to investigating the direct impact of cognitive diversity in interprofessional health care teams, we develop a model incorporating mediated and moderated effects. In this study, we explore the role of debate as a mediating factor capable of explaining the impact of cognitive diversity on innovation. We further propose that the link between cognitive diversity and innovation through debate is contingent upon trans-specialist knowledge, knowledge shared by health care professionals, spanning specialist divides and enabling mutual understanding. The hypotheses were investigated using a cross-sectional, correlational design. Survey data received from 75 interprofessional teams employed in an acute care setting, representing a 36% response rate, were used to investigate our model. Analysis supports a significant relationship between cognitive diversity and debate, which is stronger when teams rate highly for trans-specialist knowledge. Results also support a positive relationship between debate and innovation and our full moderated mediated pathway. A range of strategies are indicated by our results to increase innovation in interprofessional teams. In particular, interventions such as interprofessional education and training, which have been shown to facilitate the development of shared language and meaning, are recommended by our findings.

  2. Professional Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    WaterSense recognizes certification programs for irrigation professionals that meet the specification criteria. Certification programs cover three areas: irrigation system design, installation and maintenance, and system auditing.

  3. Object reading: text recognition for object recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karaoglu, S.; van Gemert, J.C.; Gevers, T.

    2012-01-01

    We propose to use text recognition to aid in visual object class recognition. To this end we first propose a new algorithm for text detection in natural images. The proposed text detection is based on saliency cues and a context fusion step. The algorithm does not need any parameter tuning and can

  4. Who attends Vet-to-Vet? Predictors of attendance in mental health mutual support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Sandra G; Rosenheck, Robert A

    2010-01-01

    This study examines predictors of attendance in Vet-to-Vet, a peer education intervention for veterans co-located with a professionally-run rehabilitative day program. Participants were 218 veterans receiving services from a VA day program at time of study entry who enrolled in an outcome study of Vet-to-Vet. Using multiple regression analysis, baseline variables were examined as predictors of attendance in Vet-to-Vet over the 9-month study period. Attendance over 9 months was associated with attending Vet-to-Vet prior to study enrollment, receiving services from the day program at the one-month follow-up, lower scores on a recovery attitude scale, lower scores on activities of daily living, and greater age. Co-locating peer education or other mutual support programs with professional mental health services may increase participation, and those with more severe functional disabilities and less recovery orientation may participate more actively.

  5. Face Detection and Recognition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jain, Anil K

    2004-01-01

    This report describes research efforts towards developing algorithms for a robust face recognition system to overcome many of the limitations found in existing two-dimensional facial recognition systems...

  6. [Implementation of good quality and safety practices. Descriptive study in a occupational mutual health centre].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzanera, R; Plana, M; Moya, D; Ortner, J; Mira, J J

    2016-01-01

    To describe the level of implementation of quality and safety good practice elements in a Mutual Society health centre. A Cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the level of implementation of good practices using a questionnaire. Some quality dimensions were also assessed (scale 0 to 10) by a set of 87 quality coordinators of health centres and a random sample of 54 healthcare professionals working in small centres. Seventy quality coordinators and 27 professionals replied (response rates 80% and 50%, respectively. There were no differences in the assessment of quality attributes between both groups. They identified as areas for improvement: use of practice guidelines (7.6/10), scientific and technical skills (7.5/10), and patient satisfaction (7.7/10). Availability and accessibility to clinical reports, informed consent, availability of hydro-alcoholic solution, and to record allergies, were considered of high importance to be implemented, with training and research, improvements in equipment and technology plans, adherence to clinical practice guidelines and the preparation of risk maps, being of less importance. The good practices related to equipment and resources have a higher likelihood to be implemented, meanwhile those related to quality and safety attitudes have more barriers before being implemented. The mutual has a similar behaviour than other healthcare institutions. Copyright © 2015 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Discrete phase-space approach to mutually orthogonal Latin squares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaeta, Mario; Di Matteo, Olivia; Klimov, Andrei B.; de Guise, Hubert

    2014-10-01

    We show there is a natural connection between Latin squares and commutative sets of monomials defining geometric structures in finite phase-space of prime power dimensions. A complete set of such monomials defines a mutually unbiased basis (MUB) and may be associated with a complete set of mutually orthogonal Latin squares (MOLS). We translate some possible operations on the monomial sets into isomorphisms of Latin squares, and find a general form of permutations that map between Latin squares corresponding to unitarily equivalent mutually unbiased sets.

  8. Quantum Conditional Mutual Information, Reconstructed States, and State Redistribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Fernando G S L; Harrow, Aram W; Oppenheim, Jonathan; Strelchuk, Sergii

    2015-07-31

    We give two strengthenings of an inequality for the quantum conditional mutual information of a tripartite quantum state recently proved by Fawzi and Renner, connecting it with the ability to reconstruct the state from its bipartite reductions. Namely, we show that the conditional mutual information is an upper bound on the regularized relative entropy distance between the quantum state and its reconstructed version. It is also an upper bound for the measured relative entropy distance of the state to its reconstructed version. The main ingredient of the proof is the fact that the conditional mutual information is the optimal quantum communication rate in the task of state redistribution.

  9. ESG-Persistence in Socially Responsible Mutual Funds

    OpenAIRE

    Wimmer, Maximilian

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the persistence of environmental, social, and governance (ESG)-scores in socially responsible (SR) mutual funds. ESG-scores can be used as a measure for the level of social responsibility of an SR mutual fund. It is shown that ESG-scores persist for approximately two years. However, the persistence of the ESG-scores is terminated after approximately three years. This implies that value-driven investors of SR mutual funds who seek high-ESG investments cannot rely upon a lon...

  10. The Mutual Investments in Romania - Current Developments and Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Oana VIRLANUTA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Mutual fund industry in Romania has undergone significant growth in recent years in the number of investors and the net assets managed, but still very small compared to other European countries. Capital market development in Romania, the emergence of new investment instruments provides a greater variety of mutual funds investments. Managers decide on the structure of the portfolio by selecting categories of assets in accordance with the rules set out in the Prospectus and according to the degree of risk. In this paper we propose to realize an analysis of mutual investments system in Romania, the progress and their efficiency.

  11. Generalized mutual information and Tsirelson's bound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakakuwa, Eyuri [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Murao, Mio [Institute for Nano Quantum Information Electronics, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan and Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2014-12-04

    We introduce a generalization of the quantum mutual information between a classical system and a quantum system into the mutual information between a classical system and a system described by general probabilistic theories. We apply this generalized mutual information (GMI) to a derivation of Tsirelson's bound from information causality, and prove that Tsirelson's bound can be derived from the chain rule of the GMI. By using the GMI, we formulate the 'no-supersignalling condition' (NSS), that the assistance of correlations does not enhance the capability of classical communication. We prove that NSS is never violated in any no-signalling theory.

  12. Mutual Coupling Effects on Pattern Diversity Antennas for MIMO Femtocells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Gao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Diversity antennas play an important role in wireless communications. However, mutual coupling between multiple ports of a diversity antenna has significant effects on wireless radio links and channel capacity. In this paper, dual-port pattern diversity antennas for femtocell applications are proposed to cover GSM1800, UMTS, and WLAN frequency bands. The channel capacities of the proposed antennas and two ideal dipoles with different mutual coupling levels are investigated in an indoor environment. The relation between mutual coupling and channel capacity is observed through investigations of these antennas.

  13. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder blame game: a study on the positioning of professionals, teachers and parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigerio, Alessandra; Montali, Lorenzo; Fine, Michelle

    2013-11-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder is currently the most debated childhood psychiatric diagnosis. Given the circulation of competing perspectives about the 'real' causes of children's behaviour and the 'best' way to treat them, we aim to analyse the interactions of the central social actors' discourses about attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder children within the Italian context. Adopting a multi-method approach, we focus on the polyphonic chorus of voices surrounding the child, studying the discourses of mental health professionals, teachers and parents. These actors are representative of three contexts that are deeply engaged with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: medical institutions, schools and families. Our theoretical and methodological approach integrates positioning theory, the Bakhtinian notion of dialogical thinking and discourse analysis to study stakeholders' reflexive and interactive positioning in terms of the attribution of rights, duties, responsibilities and power issues. The results show that mutual blame is a constitutive element of relational dynamics among the key adults surrounding attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder children. We argue that these conflicting relationships are not merely related to the debate regarding the validity of the attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder diagnosis. Rather, the mutual blame centres on questions of compliance, recognition of authority and morality. Through the blame game, adults negotiate their own and others' subjectivity in ways that simultaneously (re)produce power relationships and resistance efforts.

  14. PLUTO-CHARON MUTUAL EVENTS V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During the period 1985-1990, the earth entered the orbital plane of Pluto and its moon Charon, and the mutual eclipse events were observed from ground-based...

  15. Public-channel cryptography based on mutual chaos pass filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Einat; Gross, Noam; Kopelowitz, Evi; Rosenbluh, Michael; Khaykovich, Lev; Kinzel, Wolfgang; Kanter, Ido

    2006-10-01

    We study the mutual coupling of chaotic lasers and observe both experimentally and in numeric simulations that there exists a regime of parameters for which two mutually coupled chaotic lasers establish isochronal synchronization, while a third laser coupled unidirectionally to one of the pair does not synchronize. We then propose a cryptographic scheme, based on the advantage of mutual coupling over unidirectional coupling, where all the parameters of the system are public knowledge. We numerically demonstrate that in such a scheme the two communicating lasers can add a message signal (compressed binary message) to the transmitted coupling signal and recover the message in both directions with high fidelity by using a mutual chaos pass filter procedure. An attacker, however, fails to recover an errorless message even if he amplifies the coupling signal.

  16. Generalized Mutual Synchronization between Two Controlled Interdependent Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper mainly focuses on the generalized mutual synchronization between two controlled interdependent networks. First, we propose the general model of controlled interdependent networks A and B with time-varying internetwork delays coupling. Then, by constructing Lyapunov functions and utilizing adaptive control technique, some sufficient conditions are established to ensure that the mutual synchronization errors between the state variables of networks A and B can asymptotically converge to zero. Finally, two numerical examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the theoretical results and to explore potential application in future smart grid. The simulation results also show how interdependent topologies and internetwork coupling delays influence the mutual synchronizability, which help to design interdependent networks with optimal mutual synchronizability.

  17. Use of the mutual exclusivity assumption by young word learners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markman, Ellen M.; Wasow, Judith L.; Hansen, Mikkel

    2003-01-01

    A critical question about early word learning is whether word learning constraints such as mutual exclusivity exist and foster early language acquisition. It is well established that children will map a novel label to a novel rather than a familiar object. Evidence for the role of mutual exclusiv......A critical question about early word learning is whether word learning constraints such as mutual exclusivity exist and foster early language acquisition. It is well established that children will map a novel label to a novel rather than a familiar object. Evidence for the role of mutual...... these concerns by having only a familiar object visible. Fifteen to seventeen and 18-20-month-olds were selected to straddle the vocabulary spurt. In Study 1, babies saw a familiar object and an opaque bucket as a location to search. Study 2 handed babies the familiar object to play with. Study 3 eliminated...

  18. Evolutionary origin of insect—Wolbachia nutritional mutualism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Naruo Nikoh; Takahiro Hosokawa; Minoru Moriyama; Kenshiro Oshima; Masahira Hattori; Takema Fukatsu

    2014-01-01

    Obligate insect—bacterium nutritional mutualism is among the most sophisticated forms of symbiosis, wherein the host and the symbiont are integrated into a coherent biological entity and unable to survive without the partnership...

  19. How does the domiciliation decision affect mutual fund fees?

    OpenAIRE

    Lang, Gunnar; Köhler, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze whether the domiciliation decision of mutual funds has an impact on fund fees. To explain the fee price-setting of mutual funds, we consider characteristics specific to funds, fund companies, and countries. We find that fees vary considerably across fund types and countries. Positive impacts of financial market integration can be confirmed, though funds set up under the UCITS directive are more expensive. If funds are sold in multiple countries it drives up fees; how...

  20. Fidelity and Promiscuity in an Ant-Plant Mutualism: A Case Study of Triplaris and Pseudomyrmex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Sanchez

    Full Text Available The association between the myrmecophyte Triplaris and ants of the genus Pseudomyrmex is an often-reported example of mutualism but no molecular studies have examined this association to date. In this study, the interspecific relationships of Triplaris were reconstructed using five molecular markers (two chloroplast and three nuclear, and the relationships of the associated Pseudomyrmex using two molecular regions (one mitochondrial and one nuclear. A data set including all known collections of plant hosts and resident ants was also compiled. The pattern of distribution of both organisms reveals that there are varying degrees of host specificity; most ants show broader host usage (promiscuous but one species (P. dendroicus is faithful to a single species of Triplaris. In most ant-plant interactions, host usage is not specific at the species level and preferences may result from geographical or ecological sorting. The specificity of P. dendroicus could be based on chemical recognition of the host they were raised on.

  1. Professional Synergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, P. R.

    1981-01-01

    True professionals develop and create together a better future by their human endeavors in synergy. They must operate comfortably in two cultures--the industrial culture which is disappearing, and the superindustrial or cyberculture which is emerging. (CT)

  2. Mutual information against correlations in binary communication channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pregowska, Agnieszka; Szczepanski, Janusz; Wajnryb, Eligiusz

    2015-05-19

    Explaining how the brain processing is so fast remains an open problem (van Hemmen JL, Sejnowski T., 2004). Thus, the analysis of neural transmission (Shannon CE, Weaver W., 1963) processes basically focuses on searching for effective encoding and decoding schemes. According to the Shannon fundamental theorem, mutual information plays a crucial role in characterizing the efficiency of communication channels. It is well known that this efficiency is determined by the channel capacity that is already the maximal mutual information between input and output signals. On the other hand, intuitively speaking, when input and output signals are more correlated, the transmission should be more efficient. A natural question arises about the relation between mutual information and correlation. We analyze the relation between these quantities using the binary representation of signals, which is the most common approach taken in studying neuronal processes of the brain. We present binary communication channels for which mutual information and correlation coefficients behave differently both quantitatively and qualitatively. Despite this difference in behavior, we show that the noncorrelation of binary signals implies their independence, in contrast to the case for general types of signals. Our research shows that the mutual information cannot be replaced by sheer correlations. Our results indicate that neuronal encoding has more complicated nature which cannot be captured by straightforward correlations between input and output signals once the mutual information takes into account the structure and patterns of the signals.

  3. PROFESSIONAL CATEGORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Fildan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The transition process which Romanian commercial law underwent has affected both the term of ‘trader’, by redefining it, and the classification of professional categories. Currently, the term of ‘professional’ is conveyed by a descriptive listing of the categories of persons it comprises: traders, entrepreneurs, business operators, as well as any other person authorized to carry out economic or professional activities.

  4. Distribution fees and mutual fund flows: Evidence from a natural experiment in the Indian mutual funds market

    OpenAIRE

    Santosh Anagol; Vijaya Marisetty; Renuka Sane; Buvaneshwaran Venugopal

    2013-01-01

    Mutual fund companies typically charge investors distribution fees, such as 12b-1 fees in the United States, which they then use to pay commissions to brokers. We evaluate a major Indian investor protection reform that limited the ability of mutual funds to charge distribution fees to pay broker commissions. We identify the impact of this policy change by comparing funds charging high distribution fees prior to the reform to those charging low distribution fees; we show that trends in asset g...

  5. Three Educational Values for a Multicultural Society: Difference Recognition, National Cohesion and Equality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    Educational aims for societies comprising multiple ethnic, cultural and racial groups should involve three different values--recognizing difference, national cohesion and equality. Recognition of difference acknowledges and respects ethnocultural identities and in educational contexts also encourages mutual engagement across difference. National…

  6. Professionals vs. role-professionals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milana, Marcella; Skrypnyk, Oleksandra

    2010-01-01

    several occupations in the field of adult education that position themselves along a continuum. Consequently the authors suggest that professionalization among adult education practitioners should be assessed in light of the knowledge about adult learning theories practitioners possess, the ethical...

  7. Multimodal eye recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhi; Du, Yingzi; Thomas, N. L.; Delp, Edward J., III

    2010-04-01

    Multimodal biometrics use more than one means of biometric identification to achieve higher recognition accuracy, since sometimes a unimodal biometric is not good enough used to do identification and classification. In this paper, we proposed a multimodal eye recognition system, which can obtain both iris and sclera patterns from one color eye image. Gabor filter and 1-D Log-Gabor filter algorithms have been applied as the iris recognition algorithms. In sclera recognition, we introduced automatic sclera segmentation, sclera pattern enhancement, sclera pattern template generation, and sclera pattern matching. We applied kernelbased matching score fusion to improve the performance of the eye recognition system. The experimental results show that the proposed eye recognition method can achieve better performance compared to unimodal biometric identification, and the accuracy of our proposed kernel-based matching score fusion method is higher than two classic linear matching score fusion methods: Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA).

  8. Pattern recognition & machine learning

    CERN Document Server

    Anzai, Y

    1992-01-01

    This is the first text to provide a unified and self-contained introduction to visual pattern recognition and machine learning. It is useful as a general introduction to artifical intelligence and knowledge engineering, and no previous knowledge of pattern recognition or machine learning is necessary. Basic for various pattern recognition and machine learning methods. Translated from Japanese, the book also features chapter exercises, keywords, and summaries.

  9. Recognition and Toleration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2010-01-01

    Recognition and toleration are ways of relating to the diversity characteristic of multicultural societies. The article concerns the possible meanings of toleration and recognition, and the conflict that is often claimed to exist between these two approaches to diversity. Different forms or inter......Recognition and toleration are ways of relating to the diversity characteristic of multicultural societies. The article concerns the possible meanings of toleration and recognition, and the conflict that is often claimed to exist between these two approaches to diversity. Different forms...

  10. Statistical Pattern Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Webb, Andrew R

    2011-01-01

    Statistical pattern recognition relates to the use of statistical techniques for analysing data measurements in order to extract information and make justified decisions.  It is a very active area of study and research, which has seen many advances in recent years. Applications such as data mining, web searching, multimedia data retrieval, face recognition, and cursive handwriting recognition, all require robust and efficient pattern recognition techniques. This third edition provides an introduction to statistical pattern theory and techniques, with material drawn from a wide range of fields,

  11. Managing Relationship-driven Competence Dynamics in Professional Service Organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaates, Maria Anne; Seppänen, Veikko

    2002-01-01

    Client relations play a major role in the competence development of professional service providers. However mutuality and particularity are also key concerns in providers' client relationships. Therefore four inter-linked frameworks for classifying relationship-related competence dynamics at the ...

  12. Population dynamics and mutualism: Functional responses of benefits and costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, J. Nathaniel; DeAngelis, Donald L.; Bronstein, Judith L.

    2002-01-01

    We develop an approach for studying population dynamics resulting from mutualism by employing functional responses based on density‐dependent benefits and costs. These functional responses express how the population growth rate of a mutualist is modified by the density of its partner. We present several possible dependencies of gross benefits and costs, and hence net effects, to a mutualist as functions of the density of its partner. Net effects to mutualists are likely a monotonically saturating or unimodal function of the density of their partner. We show that fundamental differences in the growth, limitation, and dynamics of a population can occur when net effects to that population change linearly, unimodally, or in a saturating fashion. We use the mutualism between senita cactus and its pollinating seed‐eating moth as an example to show the influence of different benefit and cost functional responses on population dynamics and stability of mutualisms. We investigated two mechanisms that may alter this mutualism's functional responses: distribution of eggs among flowers and fruit abortion. Differences in how benefits and costs vary with density can alter the stability of this mutualism. In particular, fruit abortion may allow for a stable equilibrium where none could otherwise exist.

  13. Equitability, mutual information, and the maximal information coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinney, Justin B; Atwal, Gurinder S

    2014-03-04

    How should one quantify the strength of association between two random variables without bias for relationships of a specific form? Despite its conceptual simplicity, this notion of statistical "equitability" has yet to receive a definitive mathematical formalization. Here we argue that equitability is properly formalized by a self-consistency condition closely related to Data Processing Inequality. Mutual information, a fundamental quantity in information theory, is shown to satisfy this equitability criterion. These findings are at odds with the recent work of Reshef et al. [Reshef DN, et al. (2011) Science 334(6062):1518-1524], which proposed an alternative definition of equitability and introduced a new statistic, the "maximal information coefficient" (MIC), said to satisfy equitability in contradistinction to mutual information. These conclusions, however, were supported only with limited simulation evidence, not with mathematical arguments. Upon revisiting these claims, we prove that the mathematical definition of equitability proposed by Reshef et al. cannot be satisfied by any (nontrivial) dependence measure. We also identify artifacts in the reported simulation evidence. When these artifacts are removed, estimates of mutual information are found to be more equitable than estimates of MIC. Mutual information is also observed to have consistently higher statistical power than MIC. We conclude that estimating mutual information provides a natural (and often practical) way to equitably quantify statistical associations in large datasets.

  14. Mutualism Disruption Threatens Global Plant Biodiversity: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare E Aslan

    Full Text Available As global environmental change accelerates, biodiversity losses can disrupt interspecific interactions. Extinctions of mutualist partners can create "widow" species, which may face reduced ecological fitness. Hypothetically, such mutualism disruptions could have cascading effects on biodiversity by causing additional species coextinctions. However, the scope of this problem - the magnitude of biodiversity that may lose mutualist partners and the consequences of these losses - remains unknown.We conducted a systematic review and synthesis of data from a broad range of sources to estimate the threat posed by vertebrate extinctions to the global biodiversity of vertebrate-dispersed and -pollinated plants. Though enormous research gaps persist, our analysis identified Africa, Asia, the Caribbean, and global oceanic islands as geographic regions at particular risk of disruption of these mutualisms; within these regions, percentages of plant species likely affected range from 2.1-4.5%. Widowed plants are likely to experience reproductive declines of 40-58%, potentially threatening their persistence in the context of other global change stresses.Our systematic approach demonstrates that thousands of species may be impacted by disruption in one class of mutualisms, but extinctions will likely disrupt other mutualisms, as well. Although uncertainty is high, there is evidence that mutualism disruption directly threatens significant biodiversity in some geographic regions. Conservation measures with explicit focus on mutualistic functions could be necessary to bolster populations of widowed species and maintain ecosystem functions.

  15. Sparse Bayesian learning for DOA estimation with mutual coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jisheng; Hu, Nan; Xu, Weichao; Chang, Chunqi

    2015-10-16

    Sparse Bayesian learning (SBL) has given renewed interest to the problem of direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation. It is generally assumed that the measurement matrix in SBL is precisely known. Unfortunately, this assumption may be invalid in practice due to the imperfect manifold caused by unknown or misspecified mutual coupling. This paper describes a modified SBL method for joint estimation of DOAs and mutual coupling coefficients with uniform linear arrays (ULAs). Unlike the existing method that only uses stationary priors, our new approach utilizes a hierarchical form of the Student t prior to enforce the sparsity of the unknown signal more heavily. We also provide a distinct Bayesian inference for the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm, which can update the mutual coupling coefficients more efficiently. Another difference is that our method uses an additional singular value decomposition (SVD) to reduce the computational complexity of the signal reconstruction process and the sensitivity to the measurement noise.

  16. Mutual impedance of parallel and perpendicular coplanar surface monopoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koksal, Adnan; Kauffman, J. F.

    1991-01-01

    One dimensional integral formulas are derived for mutual impedance of arbitrary size, coplanar, parallel, and perpendicular surface monopoles. The integrals in formulas are expressed as exponential integrals where possible. The mutual impedance expression for parallel monopoles is a summation of exponential integrals and one-dimensional integrals. For perpendicular monopoles, the mutual impedance is in closed form, containing exponential integrals only. The final expressions are in a form suitable for numerical computation. Since the expressions contain at most one-dimensional integrals, they can be utilized to reduce the matrix filling time in the moment method formulations, especially when inhomogeneous sectioning is preferred. Additionally, they can be used in rectangular surface patch modeling of conducting surfaces with edges which are at an angle to the surface patches, providing the angle is small. To this end, the expressions were utilized in the moment method analysis of linearly tapered slot antennas. Very good accuracy was obtained with a reduction in computer time.

  17. Sparse Bayesian Learning for DOA Estimation with Mutual Coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jisheng Dai

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Sparse Bayesian learning (SBL has given renewed interest to the problem of direction-of-arrival (DOA estimation. It is generally assumed that the measurement matrix in SBL is precisely known. Unfortunately, this assumption may be invalid in practice due to the imperfect manifold caused by unknown or misspecified mutual coupling. This paper describes a modified SBL method for joint estimation of DOAs and mutual coupling coefficients with uniform linear arrays (ULAs. Unlike the existing method that only uses stationary priors, our new approach utilizes a hierarchical form of the Student t prior to enforce the sparsity of the unknown signal more heavily. We also provide a distinct Bayesian inference for the expectation-maximization (EM algorithm, which can update the mutual coupling coefficients more efficiently. Another difference is that our method uses an additional singular value decomposition (SVD to reduce the computational complexity of the signal reconstruction process and the sensitivity to the measurement noise.

  18. Homosexual mutuality: variation on a theme by Erik Erikson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohier, R

    The exploratory descriptive study described here was conducted in order to produce the initial empirical evidence to support reformulation of the theoretical construct of heterosexual mutuality (Erikson, 1975). Six persons were interviewed in depth on tape in order to locate them on one of four identity statuses constructed by Marcia (1964, 1966, 1973). The tool was modified and extended to meet the purposes of the study. The questions are directed toward illumination of conflictual moments in the life cycle when the ability to make appropriate decisions engenders character growth, and supports the personality integration of adulthood. An ability to make decisions results in personality integration. The small study provides evidence that there exists a homosexual mutuality (contrary to Erikson's position) which is no less valuable than heterosexual mutuality, and forms an equal basis for adult personality integration.

  19. Recognition and Toleration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2010-01-01

    Recognition and toleration are ways of relating to the diversity characteristic of multicultural societies. The article concerns the possible meanings of toleration and recognition, and the conflict that is often claimed to exist between these two approaches to diversity. Different forms or inter...

  20. Recognition as care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlmark, Nanna; Whyte, Susan Reynolds; Harting, Janneke

    2014-01-01

    -based and solidarity-based recognition to analyse what was at stake in these experiences, and we engage Annemarie Mol’s concept of a logic of care to show how recognition unfolded practically during the training. We propose that participants’ wider social context and experiences of misrecognition situated the training...

  1. Competence and Career. A Double Career Structure and Reduced Recognition in Aging Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Kade

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The occupation is a relationship of appropriation, which is only realized in relationships of recognition between organization and work. The organization includes its members by a mutual exchange of benefits, which is referred to as a relationship of recognition. The basic rule of the mutuality of relationships of recognition is called into question in knowledge-based organizations of "aging institutions." The limited reciprocity of the "closed opportunity structure" is the result of an institutional reduplication of a career policy under the pressure of innovations. A response to this is a change of individual career strategies. The article focuses on the consequences for the development of careers and competencies. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0801592

  2. Rényi generalizations of the conditional quantum mutual information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berta, Mario [Institute for Quantum Information and Matter, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Seshadreesan, Kaushik P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Hearne Institute for Theoretical Physics, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States); Wilde, Mark M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Hearne Institute for Theoretical Physics, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States); Center for Computation and Technology, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States)

    2015-02-15

    The conditional quantum mutual information I(A; B|C) of a tripartite state ρ{sub ABC} is an information quantity which lies at the center of many problems in quantum information theory. Three of its main properties are that it is non-negative for any tripartite state, that it decreases under local operations applied to systems A and B, and that it obeys the duality relation I(A; B|C) = I(A; B|D) for a four-party pure state on systems ABCD. The conditional mutual information also underlies the squashed entanglement, an entanglement measure that satisfies all of the axioms desired for an entanglement measure. As such, it has been an open question to find Rényi generalizations of the conditional mutual information, that would allow for a deeper understanding of the original quantity and find applications beyond the traditional memoryless setting of quantum information theory. The present paper addresses this question, by defining different α-Rényi generalizations I{sub α}(A; B|C) of the conditional mutual information, some of which we can prove converge to the conditional mutual information in the limit α → 1. Furthermore, we prove that many of these generalizations satisfy non-negativity, duality, and monotonicity with respect to local operations on one of the systems A or B (with it being left as an open question to prove that monotonicity holds with respect to local operations on both systems). The quantities defined here should find applications in quantum information theory and perhaps even in other areas of physics, but we leave this for future work. We also state a conjecture regarding the monotonicity of the Rényi conditional mutual informations defined here with respect to the Rényi parameter α. We prove that this conjecture is true in some special cases and when α is in a neighborhood of one.

  3. Challenging ocular image recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauca, V. Paúl; Forkin, Michael; Xu, Xiao; Plemmons, Robert; Ross, Arun A.

    2011-06-01

    Ocular recognition is a new area of biometric investigation targeted at overcoming the limitations of iris recognition performance in the presence of non-ideal data. There are several advantages for increasing the area beyond the iris, yet there are also key issues that must be addressed such as size of the ocular region, factors affecting performance, and appropriate corpora to study these factors in isolation. In this paper, we explore and identify some of these issues with the goal of better defining parameters for ocular recognition. An empirical study is performed where iris recognition methods are contrasted with texture and point operators on existing iris and face datasets. The experimental results show a dramatic recognition performance gain when additional features are considered in the presence of poor quality iris data, offering strong evidence for extending interest beyond the iris. The experiments also highlight the need for the direct collection of additional ocular imagery.

  4. Mutual Impact of Diabetes Mellitus and Tuberculosis in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jun; Zhang, Hui; Zhao, Yan Lin; Wang, Li Xia; Chen, Ming Ting

    2017-05-01

    China has a double burden of diabetes mellitus and tuberculosis, and many studies have been carried out on the mutual impact of these two diseases. This paper systematically reviewed studies conducted in China covering the mutual impact of epidemics of diabetes and tuberculosis, the impact of diabetes on multi-drug resistant tuberculosis and on the tuberculosis clinical manifestation and treatment outcome, the yields of bi-directional screening, and economic evaluation for tuberculosis screening among diabetes patients. Copyright © 2017 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  5. Cross Correlation versus Normalized Mutual Information on Image Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Bin; Tilton, James C.; Lin, Guoqing

    2016-01-01

    This is the first study to quantitatively assess and compare cross correlation and normalized mutual information methods used to register images in subpixel scale. The study shows that the normalized mutual information method is less sensitive to unaligned edges due to the spectral response differences than is cross correlation. This characteristic makes the normalized image resolution a better candidate for band to band registration. Improved band-to-band registration in the data from satellite-borne instruments will result in improved retrievals of key science measurements such as cloud properties, vegetation, snow and fire.

  6. Mutual Interference Models for CDMA Mobile Communication Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hrudkay

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays we are witnesses of a huge development one of the mostprogressive communication technology - mobile networks. The mainproblem in these networks is an elimination of the mutual interference,which, mainly in non-orthogonal CDMA networks, is the principalobstacle for reaching high transmission rates The aim of thiscontribution is to give simplified view to mutual interference modelsfor orthogonal and non-orthogonal CDMA networks. The contribution isintended mainly for PhD. students to help them to obtain an orientationin such a complicated areas, as the interference models for CDMAnetworks are.

  7. Mudaraba-Venture Capital Closed-end Mutual Funds and Mudaraba-Venture Capital Open-end Mutual Funds

    OpenAIRE

    Halil Ibrahim Bulut

    2008-01-01

    The important part of this study attempts to explain that both venture capital and interest-free financing are based on similar ground, if not the same. Two new models called Mudaraba-Venture Capital Closed-End Mutual Funds and Mudaraba-Venture Capital Open-End Mutual Funds, based on both the similarities and the needs of financial innovation in the interest-free financing system, are detailed. It is believed that the development of these two models could make some improvements not only in th...

  8. Being Professional

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anne Winther

    The paper discusses students' process of acquiring a feeling of being professionals within a vocational education programme for elderly care in Denmark. The focus is on what seems to be a paradox within the programme: the future care helper being constructed within the overall term ‘the professio......The paper discusses students' process of acquiring a feeling of being professionals within a vocational education programme for elderly care in Denmark. The focus is on what seems to be a paradox within the programme: the future care helper being constructed within the overall term ‘the...... professional care helper’ in the school setting but the job being closely related to daily life's routine tasks; the paper points to difficulties for students in identifying the exact content of the term ‘professional’. Furthermore students seem to be uncertain about their ‘professionalism’ in relation...... ‘storyline’, c.f. Bronwyn Davies and the empirical material consists of observations and interviews in the theoretical periods and in the traineeships....

  9. Comparative analysis of nursing and midwifery regulatory and professional bodies' scope of practice and associated decision-making frameworks: a discussion paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Catriona; O'Reilly, Pauline; Fealy, Gerard; Casey, Mary; Brady, Anne-Marie; McNamara, Martin; Prizeman, Geraldine; Rohde, Daniela; Hegarty, Josephine

    2015-08-01

    To review, discuss and compare nursing and midwifery regulatory and professional bodies' scope of practice and associated decision-making frameworks. Scope of practice in professional nursing and midwifery is an evolving process which needs to be responsive to clinical, service, societal, demographic and fiscal changes. Codes and frameworks offer a system of rules and principles by which the nursing and midwifery professions are expected to regulate members and demonstrate responsibility to society. Discussion paper. Twelve scope of practice and associated decision-making frameworks (January 2000-March 2014). Two main approaches to the regulation of the scope of practice and associated decision-making frameworks exist internationally. The first approach is policy and regulation driven and behaviour oriented. The second approach is based on notions of autonomous decision-making, professionalism and accountability. The two approaches are not mutually exclusive, but have similar elements with a different emphasis. Both approaches lack explicit recognition of the aesthetic aspects of care and patient choice, which is a fundamental principle of evidence-based practice. Nursing organizations, regulatory authorities and nurses should recognize that scope of practice and the associated responsibility for decision-making provides a very public statement about the status of nursing in a given jurisdiction. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Recognition: Conceptualization and Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimmler, Antje

    2017-01-01

    be evaluated. In the first section, I will introduce the concept of recognition as a travelling concept playing a role both on the intellectual stage and in real life. In the second section, I will concentrate on the presentation of Honneth’s theory of recognition, emphasizing the construction of the concept......In this article, I shall examine the cognitive, heuristic and theoretical functions of the concept of recognition. To evaluate both the explanatory power and the limitations of a sociological concept, the theory construction must be analysed and its actual productivity for sociological theory must...

  11. Mutual Funds as a Form of Collective Investment in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tershukova, Marina B.; Savinov, Oleg G.; Zhegalova, Elena V.; Zhuruhinc, Georgy I.; Zhegalova, Alexandra S.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the research problem inspired with the fact nowadays there is a need for theoretical generalization based on international experience the essence of the collective investment system and the rationale for prioritizing the mutual funds development as the most attractive form of collective investment. The goal of the article lies in…

  12. In silico comparison of bacterial strains using mutual information

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we show that the Mutual Information function, which is a measure of correlations and a concept from Information Theory, is very effective in determining the similarities and differences among genome sequences of various strains of bacteria such as the plant pathogen Xylella fastidiosa, marine Cyanobacteria ...

  13. Gene Regulatory Network Reconstruction Using Conditional Mutual Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Wang

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The inference of gene regulatory network from expression data is an important area of research that provides insight to the inner workings of a biological system. The relevance-network-based approaches provide a simple and easily-scalable solution to the understanding of interaction between genes. Up until now, most works based on relevance network focus on the discovery of direct regulation using correlation coefficient or mutual information. However, some of the more complicated interactions such as interactive regulation and coregulation are not easily detected. In this work, we propose a relevance network model for gene regulatory network inference which employs both mutual information and conditional mutual information to determine the interactions between genes. For this purpose, we propose a conditional mutual information estimator based on adaptive partitioning which allows us to condition on both discrete and continuous random variables. We provide experimental results that demonstrate that the proposed regulatory network inference algorithm can provide better performance when the target network contains coregulated and interactively regulated genes.

  14. Mutual Intercultural Relations among University Students in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Yongxia; Safdar, Saba; Berry, John

    2016-01-01

    The current study examies the views of both international and domestic students in Canada using the conceptual and empirical framework from the MIRIPS (Mutual Intercultural Relations in Plural Societies) project (http://www.victoria.ac.nz/cacr/research/mirips). Two hypotheses were examined. First is the "multiculturalism hypothesis"…

  15. Growth and performance of Indian mutual funds industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Ahmad Pandow

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The Indian mutual fund industry has come a long way since its inception in 1963. The industry witnessed sufficient growth on all parameters - the number of fund houses, the number of schemes, funds mobilized, assets under management, etc. Given the critical role of channeling household savings, the question is - has the Indian mutual industry succeeded in achieving its’ goal? This study addresses this concern. The detailed nature of the current study suggests that the mutual fund industry has recorded significant progress on all fronts yet it has not been able to utilize its potential fully. On almost on all parameters, it is far behind the developed economies and even most of the emerging economies of the world. Moreover, the industry faces a number of challenges like low penetration ratio, lack of product differentiation, lack of investor awareness and ability to communicate value to customers, lack of interest of retail investors towards mutual funds and evolving nature of the industry. Based on the analysis the study suggests some recommendation to address these challenges.

  16. When are enhanced relationship tax compliance programs mutually beneficial?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Simone, L.; Sansing, R.; Seidman, J.K.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the circumstances under which “enhanced relationship” tax-compliance programs are mutually beneficial to taxpayers and tax authorities, as well as how these benefits are shared. We develop a model of taxpayer and tax authority behavior inside and outside of an enhanced

  17. 12 CFR 544.5 - Federal mutual savings association bylaws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... by the association. (3) Corporate governance procedures. A Federal mutual association may elect to follow the corporate governance procedures of the laws of the state where the main office of the... corporate governance procedures, and shall file a copy of such bylaws, which are effective upon adoption...

  18. A Swedish Mutual Support Society of Problem Gamblers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binde, Per

    2012-01-01

    Mutual support societies for problem gamblers have existed in Sweden for 20 years. They have helped more people with gambling problems than any other institution inside or outside the Swedish health care system. This paper outlines the background of these societies and describes the meetings of one of them. Data come from interviews with members…

  19. Mutual Coupling Compensation Applied to a Uniform Circular Array

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belfiori, F.; Stefania, M.; Rossum, W.L. van

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, two approaches for compensation of mutual coupling and phase shifts in a passive radar system based on a circular array are compared. The first method is based on the measurement of the antenna scattering parameters and of further relative phase and amplitude variations between the

  20. Market timing: A decomposition of mutual fund returns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.A.P. Swinkels (Laurens); P.J. van der Sluis; M.J.C.M. Verbeek (Marno)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractWe decompose the conditional expected mutual fund return in five parts. Two parts, selectivity and expert market timing, can be attributed to manager skill, and three to variation in market exposure that can be achieved by private investors as well. The dynamic model that we use

  1. Market Timing Ability and Mutual Funds: A Heterogeneous Agent Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frijns, B.; Gilbert, A.; Zwinkels, R.C.J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel approach to determine whether mutual funds time the market. The proposed approach builds on a heterogeneous agent model, where investors switch between cash and stocks depending on a certain switching rule. This approach is more flexible, intuitive, and parsimonious than

  2. Market Timing : A Decomposition of Mutual Fund Returns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swinkels, L.A.P.; van der Sluis, P.J.; Verbeek, M.J.C.M.

    2003-01-01

    We decompose the conditional expected mutual fund return in ve parts.Two parts, selectivity and expert market timing, can be attributed to manager skill, and three to variation in market exposure that can be achieved by private investors as well.The dynamic model that we use to estimate the relative

  3. A South African perspective on mutual legal assistance and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It does however appear that existing criminal justice responses are experiencing challenges to meet the demands of sophisticated international criminal conduct. Mutual legal assistance and extradition provisions may show that the world is becoming smaller for fugitives and criminals, but the processes are far from ...

  4. Multimodal registration via spatial-context mutual information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Zhao; Soatto, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    We propose a method to efficiently compute mutual information between high-dimensional distributions of image patches. This in turn is used to perform accurate registration of images captured under different modalities, while exploiting their local structure otherwise missed in traditional mutual information definition. We achieve this by organizing the space of image patches into orbits under the action of Euclidean transformations of the image plane, and estimating the modes of a distribution in such an orbit space using affinity propagation. This way, large collections of patches that are equivalent up to translations and rotations are mapped to the same representative, or "dictionary element". We then show analytically that computing mutual information for a joint distribution in this space reduces to computing mutual information between the (scalar) label maps, and between the transformations mapping each patch into its closest dictionary element. We show that our approach improves registration performance compared with the state of the art in multimodal registration, using both synthetic and real images with quantitative ground truth.

  5. Application of Joint Error Maximal Mutual Compensation to hexapod robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veryha, Yauheni; Petersen, Henrik Gordon

    2008-01-01

    A good practice to ensure high-positioning accuracy in industrial robots is to use joint error maximum mutual compensation (JEMMC). This paper presents an application of JEMMC for positioning of hexapod robots to improve end-effector positioning accuracy. We developed an algorithm and simulation ...

  6. Eavesdropping on cooperative communication within an ant-butterfly mutualism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elgar, Mark A.; Nash, David Richard; Pierce, Naomi E.

    2016-01-01

    Signalling is necessary for the maintenance of inter-specific mutualisms but is vulnerable to exploitation by eavesdropping. While eavesdropping of intra-specific signals has been studied extensively, such exploitation of inter-specific signals has not been widely documented. The juvenile stages ...

  7. Mutual Coupling Between Identical Planar Inverted-F Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen, Jesper; Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne

    2007-01-01

    Mutual coupling between two identical planar inverted-F antennas (PIFA) located on an infinite ground plane is studied numerically. Several arrangements of side-by-side, collinear, parallel-in-echelon, and orthogonal PIFA antennas with element spacing varying from 0.06λ to 1.20λ are investigated...

  8. Measurement reduction for mutual coupling calibration in DOA estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Taylan; Tuncer, T. Engin

    2012-01-01

    Mutual coupling is an important source of error in antenna arrays that should be compensated for super resolution direction-of-arrival (DOA) algorithms, such as Multiple Signal Classification (MUSIC) algorithm. A crucial step in array calibration is the determination of the mutual coupling coefficients for the antenna array. In this paper, a system theoretic approach is presented for the mutual coupling characterization of antenna arrays. The comprehension and implementation of this approach is simple leading to further advantages in calibration measurement reduction. In this context, a measurement reduction method for antenna arrays with omni-directional and identical elements is proposed which is based on the symmetry planes in the array geometry. The proposed method significantly decreases the number of measurements during the calibration process. This method is evaluated using different array types whose responses and the mutual coupling characteristics are obtained through numerical electromagnetic simulations. It is shown that a single calibration measurement is sufficient for uniform circular arrays. Certain important and interesting characteristics observed during the experiments are outlined.

  9. Quantum mutual information and the one-time pad

    OpenAIRE

    Schumacher, Benjamin; Westmoreland, Michael D.

    2006-01-01

    Alice and Bob share a correlated composite quantum system AB. If AB is used as the key for a one-time pad cryptographic system, we show that the maximum amount of information that Alice can send securely to Bob is the quantum mutual information of AB.

  10. Functional analysis of mutual behavior in laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lavinia; Hackenberg, Timothy D

    2016-02-01

    Three pairs of rats were trained to synchronize their lever pressing according to a mutual reinforcement contingency, in which alternating lever presses that fell within a 500-ms window were reinforced with food. In Experiment 1, rats worked in adjacent chambers separated by a transparent barrier, and the effects of the mutual reinforcement contingency were compared with those under yoked-control conditions that provided the same rate of food reinforcement but without the temporal coordination response requirement. In Experiment 2, coordinated behavior was compared with and without a barrier, and across different barrier types: transparent, opaque, wire mesh. In Experiment 3, the effects of social familiarity were assessed by switching partners, enabling a comparison of coordinated behavior with familiar and unfamiliar partners. The overall pattern of results shows that the coordinated behavior of 2 rats was (a) maintained by mutual reinforcement contingencies, (b) unrelated to the type or presence of a barrier separating the rats, and (c) sufficiently flexible to adjust to the presence and behavior of an unfamiliar partner. Taken as a whole, the study illustrates a promising approach to conceptualizing and analyzing behavioral mechanisms of mutual behavior, an important component of an integrated study of social behavior. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Mutual intelligibility of Chinese dialects : an experimental approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, Chaoju

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the mutual intelligibility between all 225 pairs of 15 Chinese dialects, in two main branches, i.e., six Mandarin dialects and nine non-Mandarin (Southern) dialects. The dialects (often distinct languages by western standards) differ in the richness of their lexical tone

  12. Human Security and Mutual Vulnerability : The Global Political ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    1 janv. 1999 ... Human Security and Mutual Vulnerability : The Global Political Economy of Development and Underdevelopment (2ième édition) ... IDRC, the Israel Science Foundation, the Azrieli Foundation, and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research announce the call for proposals for the fourth round of the Joint ...

  13. Human Security and Mutual Vulnerability: The Global Political ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    His lucid and visionary analysis rests on the concept of mutual vulnerability: that in an increasingly interdependent world, global security is only as strong as the weakest ... Le CRDI, l'Israel Science Foundation, la Fondation Azrieli et les Instituts de recherche en santé du Canada annoncent l'appel de propositions pour la ...

  14. Investor Attrition and Fund Flows in Mutual Funds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Susan E. K.; Xu, Haoyu

    2017-01-01

    We explore the properties of equity mutual funds that experience a loss of assets after poor performance. We document that both inflows and outflows are less sensitive to performance, because performance-sensitive investors leave or decide not to invest after bad performance. Consistent......–performance sensitivity when attrition arises after good performance or investors invest for nonperformance reasons....

  15. Human Security and Mutual Vulnerability: The Global Political ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Human Security and Mutual Vulnerability: The Global Political Economy of Development and Underdevelopment. Book cover Human Security ... IDRC is supporting research that studies the most effective ways to empower women, prevent gender-based violence, and make digital platforms work for inclusive development.

  16. Sex Education, State Policy and the Principle of Mutual Consent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steutel, Jan; Spiecker, Ben

    2004-01-01

    Constitutive of the prevalent sexual morality in most Western European countries is the liberal principle of mutual consent (PMC). This sociological fact may give rise to the ethical question as to whether or not the state has the right to make sure that its citizens will observe PMC, among other ways by prescribing some form of sex education…

  17. On the determination of the mutual exclusion statistics parameter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (as a result of strong correlations in a many-body system) whose exclusion statistics lies between fermions and ... We consider a system of many anyonic species having mutual exclusion statistical interac- tion among them. ..... [10] Yasuhiro Hatsugai, Mahito Kohomoto, Tohru Koma and Yong-Shi Wu, Phys. Rev. B 54, 5358.

  18. On the Empirical Evidence of Mutual Fund Strategic Risk Taking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goriaev, A.P.; Nijman, T.E.; Werker, B.J.M.

    2001-01-01

    We reexamine empirical evidence on strategic risk-taking behavior by mutual fund managers.Several studies suggest that fund performance in the first semester of a year influences risk-taking in the second semester.However, we show that previous empirical studies implicitly assume that idiosyncratic

  19. Sensitivity Analysis for Urban Drainage Modeling Using Mutual Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanqi Li

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The intention of this paper is to evaluate the sensitivity of the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM output to its input parameters. A global parameter sensitivity analysis is conducted in order to determine which parameters mostly affect the model simulation results. Two different methods of sensitivity analysis are applied in this study. The first one is the partial rank correlation coefficient (PRCC which measures nonlinear but monotonic relationships between model inputs and outputs. The second one is based on the mutual information which provides a general measure of the strength of the non-monotonic association between two variables. Both methods are based on the Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS of the parameter space, and thus the same datasets can be used to obtain both measures of sensitivity. The utility of the PRCC and the mutual information analysis methods are illustrated by analyzing a complex SWMM model. The sensitivity analysis revealed that only a few key input variables are contributing significantly to the model outputs; PRCCs and mutual information are calculated and used to determine and rank the importance of these key parameters. This study shows that the partial rank correlation coefficient and mutual information analysis can be considered effective methods for assessing the sensitivity of the SWMM model to the uncertainty in its input parameters.

  20. Evolution of the Fusarium–Euwallacea ambrosia beetle mutualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Euwallacea – Fusarium mutualistic symbiosis represents one of the independent evolutionary origins of fungus-farming. Diversification time estimates place the evolutionary origin of this mutualism in the early Miocene approximately 21 million years ago. Fusarium is best known as one of the most ...

  1. Ecological genomics of mutualism decline in nitrogen-fixing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinger, Christie R; Lau, Jennifer A; Heath, Katy D

    2016-03-16

    Anthropogenic changes can influence mutualism evolution; however, the genomic regions underpinning mutualism that are most affected by environmental change are generally unknown, even in well-studied model mutualisms like the interaction between legumes and their nitrogen (N)-fixing rhizobia. Such genomic information can shed light on the agents and targets of selection maintaining cooperation in nature. We recently demonstrated that N-fertilization has caused an evolutionary decline in mutualistic partner quality in the rhizobia that form symbiosis with clover. Here, population genomic analyses of N-fertilized versus control rhizobium populations indicate that evolutionary differentiation at a key symbiosis gene region on the symbiotic plasmid (pSym) contributes to partner quality decline. Moreover, patterns of genetic variation at selected loci were consistent with recent positive selection within N-fertilized environments, suggesting that N-rich environments might select for less beneficial rhizobia. By studying the molecular population genomics of a natural bacterial population within a long-term ecological field experiment, we find that: (i) the N environment is indeed a potent selective force mediating mutualism evolution in this symbiosis, (ii) natural variation in rhizobium partner quality is mediated in part by key symbiosis genes on the symbiotic plasmid, and (iii) differentiation at selected genes occurred in the context of otherwise recombining genomes, resembling eukaryotic models of adaptation. © 2016 The Author(s).

  2. Professional identity development: Learning and journeying together.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Stephanie J

    2018-03-01

    Pharmacy students start to develop their professional values through engagement with the course, practice exposure, staff and fellow students. Group working is an element of pedagogy which draws on the social aspects of learning to facilitate knowledge and skills development, but its potential role in facilitating professional identity formation has as yet been under researched. This study aimed to explore the potential of mutual learning through group work to contribute not only to academic knowledge and understanding, but also to the development of students' professional values and selves. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 17 home and international first year undergraduate pharmacy students in a UK School of Pharmacy, to explore their experiences of interacting for learning with other students on the course. Thematic analysis of the interview data highlighted four main benefits of mutual learning, which are that it: promotes friendly interactions; aids learning about the subject and the profession; opens the mind through different opinions and ways of thinking; and enables learning about other people. Through working together students developed their communication skills and confidence; reflectively considered their own stance in the light of others' experiences and healthcare perspectives; and started to gain a wider worldview, potentially informing their future interactions with patients and colleagues. Some difficulties arose when group interactions functioned less well. Opportunity for collaboration and exchange can positively influence development of students' professional outlook and values. However, careful management of group working is required, in order to create a mutually supportive environment wherein students feel able to interact, share and develop together. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Mutual coupling, channel model, and BER for curvilinear antenna arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhiyong

    This dissertation introduces a wireless communications system with an adaptive beam-former and investigates its performance with different antenna arrays. Mutual coupling, real antenna elements and channel models are included to examine the system performance. In a beamforming system, mutual coupling (MC) among the elements can significantly degrade the system performance. However, MC effects can be compensated if an accurate model of mutual coupling is available. A mutual coupling matrix model is utilized to compensate mutual coupling in the beamforming of a uniform circular array (UCA). Its performance is compared with other models in uplink and downlink beamforming scenarios. In addition, the predictions are compared with measurements and verified with results from full-wave simulations. In order to accurately investigate the minimum mean-square-error (MSE) of an adaptive array in MC, two different noise models, the environmental and the receiver noise, are modeled. The minimum MSEs with and without data domain MC compensation are analytically compared. The influence of mutual coupling on the convergence is also examined. In addition, the weight compensation method is proposed to attain the desired array pattern. Adaptive arrays with different geometries are implemented with the minimum MSE algorithm in the wireless communications system to combat interference at the same frequency. The bit-error-rate (BER) of systems with UCA, uniform rectangular array (URA) and UCA with center element are investigated in additive white Gaussian noise plus well-separated signals or random direction signals scenarios. The output SINR of an adaptive array with multiple interferers is analytically examined. The influence of the adaptive algorithm convergence on the BER is investigated. The UCA is then investigated in a narrowband Rician fading channel. The channel model is built and the space correlations are examined. The influence of the number of signal paths, number of the

  4. Problem decomposition by mutual information and force-based clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Richard Edward

    The scale of engineering problems has sharply increased over the last twenty years. Larger coupled systems, increasing complexity, and limited resources create a need for methods that automatically decompose problems into manageable sub-problems by discovering and leveraging problem structure. The ability to learn the coupling (inter-dependence) structure and reorganize the original problem could lead to large reductions in the time to analyze complex problems. Such decomposition methods could also provide engineering insight on the fundamental physics driving problem solution. This work forwards the current state of the art in engineering decomposition through the application of techniques originally developed within computer science and information theory. The work describes the current state of automatic problem decomposition in engineering and utilizes several promising ideas to advance the state of the practice. Mutual information is a novel metric for data dependence and works on both continuous and discrete data. Mutual information can measure both the linear and non-linear dependence between variables without the limitations of linear dependence measured through covariance. Mutual information is also able to handle data that does not have derivative information, unlike other metrics that require it. The value of mutual information to engineering design work is demonstrated on a planetary entry problem. This study utilizes a novel tool developed in this work for planetary entry system synthesis. A graphical method, force-based clustering, is used to discover related sub-graph structure as a function of problem structure and links ranked by their mutual information. This method does not require the stochastic use of neural networks and could be used with any link ranking method currently utilized in the field. Application of this method is demonstrated on a large, coupled low-thrust trajectory problem. Mutual information also serves as the basis for an

  5. Implementation of a professional portfolio: a tool to demonstrate professional development for advanced practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamblee, Tracy B; Dale, Juanita Conkin; Drews, Barbie; Spahis, Joanna; Hardin, Teri

    2015-01-01

    The literature has a gap related to professional development for APRNs. In the United States, many health care organizations use clinical advancement programs for registered nurses, but APRNs are not often included in these programs. If APRNs are included, advancement opportunities are very limited. At CMC, implementation of a professional portfolio resulted in increased satisfaction among APPs regarding their ability to showcase professional growth and expertise, as well as the uniqueness of their advanced practice. Use of the professional portfolio led to improved recognition by APS and organizational leaders of APP performance excellence during the annual performance evaluation, as well as improved recognition among APP colleagues in terms of nominations for honors and awards.

  6. Machine Recognition vs Human Recognition of Voices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    been studied for a while. For example, an early reference [1] is from 1966. 10 male speakers were recorded and their voices were presented to 16... recognized . The accuracy of speaker recognition for disyllables was 87%. For monosyllables, it was 81%, consonant-vowel excerpts were 63%, and...vowel excerpts were 56%. Thus, they demonstrated that the identification performance decreased as the number of phonemes decreased. In [2], the

  7. Taking Professional Learning to Isolated Schools: Perceptions of Providers and Principals, and Lessons for Effective Professional Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beswick, Kim; Jones, Tammy

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the implementation and outcomes, as perceived by the professional learning providers and school principals, of a professional learning (PL) model devised in response to recognition that models of PL that are effective in urban settings are not effective in rural and remote areas. Rather than expecting the teachers to travel…

  8. Algebraic pattern recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybyłek, Michał R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper offers an algebraic explanation for the phenomenon of a new and prosperous branch of evolutionary metaheuristics - "skeletal algorithms". We show how this explanation gives rise to algorithms for recognition of algebraic theories and present sample applications.

  9. Forensic speaker recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwly, Didier

    2013-01-01

    The aim of forensic speaker recognition is to establish links between individuals and criminal activities, through audio speech recordings. This field is multidisciplinary, combining predominantly phonetics, linguistics, speech signal processing, and forensic statistics. On these bases, expert-based

  10. Automatic speech recognition systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catariov, Alexandru

    2005-02-01

    In this paper is presented analyses in automatic speech recognition (ASR) to find out what is the state of the arts in this direction and, eventually, it can be a starting point for the implementation of a real ASR system. In the second chapter of this work, it is revealed the structure of a typical speech recognition system and the used methods for each step of the recognition process, and in special, there are described two kinds of speech recognition algorithms, namely, Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) and Hidden Markov Model (HMM). The work continues with some results of ASR, in order to make conclusions about what is needed to be improved and what is more eligible to implement an ASR system.

  11. Work and Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willig, Rasmus

    2004-01-01

    individual and collective identity formation and has led to an increase in social pathological illnesses such as stress and depression. By juxtaposing these analyses with Honneth’s theory on recognition, we conclude that the contemporary logic of work is unable to provide adequate forms of recognition......The article deals with the relationship between work and recognition, taking Axel Honneth’s social-philosophical theory of the struggle for recognition as its point of departure. In order to give sociological substance to Honneth’s theory, we turn to three contemporary social theorists - Jean......-Pierre Le Goff, Christophe Dejours and Emmanuel Renault. In spite of many differences, their work is united by a critical description of the logic of work and its consequences for individual individuation. These theorists agree that the growth of autonomy, flexibility and mobility has destabilised...

  12. Evaluating music emotion recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturm, Bob L.

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental problem with nearly all work in music genre recognition (MGR)is that evaluation lacks validity with respect to the principal goals of MGR. This problem also occurs in the evaluation of music emotion recognition (MER). Standard approaches to evaluation, though easy to implement, do...... not reliably differentiate between recognizing genre or emotion from music, or by virtue of confounding factors in signals (e.g., equalization). We demonstrate such problems for evaluating an MER system, and conclude with recommendations....

  13. The Recognition Of Fatigue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsass, Peter; Jensen, Bodil; Mørup, Rikke

    2007-01-01

    Elsass P., Jensen B., Morup R., Thogersen M.H. (2007). The Recognition Of Fatigue: A qualitative study of life-stories from rehabilitation clients. International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation. 11 (2), 75-87......Elsass P., Jensen B., Morup R., Thogersen M.H. (2007). The Recognition Of Fatigue: A qualitative study of life-stories from rehabilitation clients. International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation. 11 (2), 75-87...

  14. Character Recognition (Devanagari Script)

    OpenAIRE

    Ankita Karia; Sonali Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Character Recognition is has found major interest in field of research and practical application to analyze and study characters in different languages using image as their input. In this paper the user writes the Devanagari character using mouse as a plotter and then the corresponding character is saved in the form of image. This image is processed using Optical Character Recognition in which location, segmentation, pre-processing of image is done. Later Neural Networks is used t...

  15. The Mutual Reciprocity of Education, Non-Formal Cultural Education and Social Capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igaune Edīte

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Human knowledge and creative potential has become one of the most important driving forces of humanity progress. In the context of the twenty-first century, in order to create a high-quality culture environment, it requires a paradigm shift in education - the transition to education, which stimulates the imagination, intuition, emotions and creative ideas and develops critical thinking. Non-formal education and the skills and knowledge gained in it is still in evaluation and recognition phase in Latvia. It is still developing; therefore, it is important to create a clear understanding of the importance and social role of non-formal cultural education. The paper aims to explore the role of non-formal cultural education in strengthening social capital as well as to identify what social capital indicators can be attributed to non-formal cultural education programmes. The topicality of the study is determined by the fact that non-formal cultural education and social capital in the context of Latvia are little explored areas, as well as there is lack of research on mutual reciprocity. The study uses qualitative research methodology. Research analyses non-formal cultural education programmes of 10 subordinated institutions of Latvian Ministry of Culture (museums, theatres, concert institutions and opera and on the basis of 19 in-depth and semi-structured interviews. Study contains new, theoretically based evaluation model of social capital and characterizes of indicators in the context of non-formal education. The study confirms that there is a mutual reciprocity between social capital and non-formal cultural education programmes, and these programmes have a positive and supportive role in strengthening both the individual and collective social capital.

  16. Why recognition is rational

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clintin P. Davis-Stober

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The Recognition Heuristic (Gigerenzer and Goldstein, 1996; Goldstein and Gigerenzer, 2002 makes the counter-intuitive prediction that a decision maker utilizing less information may do as well as, or outperform, an idealized decision maker utilizing more information. We lay a theoretical foundation for the use of single-variable heuristics such as the Recognition Heuristic as an optimal decision strategy within a linear modeling framework. We identify conditions under which over-weighting a single predictor is a mini-max strategy among a class of a priori chosen weights based on decision heuristics with respect to a measure of statistical lack of fit we call ``risk''. These strategies, in turn, outperform standard multiple regression as long as the amount of data available is limited. We also show that, under related conditions, weighting only one variable and ignoring all others produces the same risk as ignoring the single variable and weighting all others. This approach has the advantage of generalizing beyond the original environment of the Recognition Heuristic to situations with more than two choice options, binary or continuous representations of recognition, and to other single variable heuristics. We analyze the structure of data used in some prior recognition tasks and find that it matches the sufficient conditions for optimality in our results. Rather than being a poor or adequate substitute for a compensatory model, the Recognition Heuristic closely approximates an optimal strategy when a decision maker has finite data about the world.

  17. Professional development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jin Hee; Hartline, Beverly Karplus; Milner-Bolotin, Marina

    2013-03-01

    The three sessions of the professional development workshop series were each designed for a different audience. The purpose of the first session was to help mid-career physicists aspire for and achieve leadership roles. The second session brought together students, postdoctoral fellows, and early-career physicists to help them plan their career goals and navigate the steps important to launching a successful career. The final session sought to increase awareness of the results of physics education research, and how to use them to help students-especially women-learn physics better. The presentations and discussions were valuable for both female and male physicists.

  18. Professional C++

    CERN Document Server

    Gregoire, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Master complex C++ programming with this helpful, in-depth resource From game programming to major commercial software applications, C++ is the language of choice. It is also one of the most difficult programming languages to master. While most competing books are geared toward beginners, Professional C++, Third Edition, shows experienced developers how to master the latest release of C++, explaining little known features with detailed code examples users can plug into their own codes. More advanced language features and programming techniques are presented in this newest edition of the book,

  19. Emitter location errors in electronic recognition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matuszewski, Jan; Dikta, Anna

    2017-04-01

    The paper describes some of the problems associated with emitter location calculations. This aspect is the most important part of the series of tasks in the electronic recognition systems. The basic tasks include: detection of emission of electromagnetic signals, tracking (determining the direction of emitter sources), signal analysis in order to classify different emitter types and the identification of the sources of emission of the same type. The paper presents a brief description of the main methods of emitter localization and the basic mathematical formulae for calculating their location. The errors' estimation has been made to determine the emitter location for three different methods and different scenarios of emitters and direction finding (DF) sensors deployment in the electromagnetic environment. The emitter has been established using a special computer program. On the basis of extensive numerical calculations, the evaluation of precise emitter location in the recognition systems for different configuration alignment of bearing devices and emitter was conducted. The calculations which have been made based on the simulated data for different methods of location are presented in the figures and respective tables. The obtained results demonstrate that calculation of the precise emitter location depends on: the number of DF sensors, the distances between emitter and DF sensors, their mutual location in the reconnaissance area and bearing errors. The precise emitter location varies depending on the number of obtained bearings. The higher the number of bearings, the better the accuracy of calculated emitter location in spite of relatively high bearing errors for each DF sensor.

  20. 3D face recognition using isogeodesic stripes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berretti, Stefano; Del Bimbo, Alberto; Pala, Pietro

    2010-12-01

    In this paper, we present a novel approach to 3D face matching that shows high effectiveness in distinguishing facial differences between distinct individuals from differences induced by nonneutral expressions within the same individual. The approach takes into account geometrical information of the 3D face and encodes the relevant information into a compact representation in the form of a graph. Nodes of the graph represent equal width isogeodesic facial stripes. Arcs between pairs of nodes are labeled with descriptors, referred to as 3D Weighted Walkthroughs (3DWWs), that capture the mutual relative spatial displacement between all the pairs of points of the corresponding stripes. Face partitioning into isogeodesic stripes and 3DWWs together provide an approximate representation of local morphology of faces that exhibits smooth variations for changes induced by facial expressions. The graph-based representation permits very efficient matching for face recognition and is also suited to being employed for face identification in very large data sets with the support of appropriate index structures. The method obtained the best ranking at the SHREC 2008 contest for 3D face recognition. We present an extensive comparative evaluation of the performance with the FRGC v2.0 data set and the SHREC08 data set.

  1. Recognition of patient-reported impairment in oral aesthetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dannemand Jensen, Katrine; Øzhayat, Esben Boeskov

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The objectives of this study were to investigate the degree of effective recognition by professionals of patient-estimated oral esthetic impairment and the most reliable aspects in such recognition. Methods: Participants consisted of 95 patients with partial dentition in need of prosth......Objective: The objectives of this study were to investigate the degree of effective recognition by professionals of patient-estimated oral esthetic impairment and the most reliable aspects in such recognition. Methods: Participants consisted of 95 patients with partial dentition in need...... of prosthodontic replacements. The oral esthetics was professionally evaluated using the Prosthetic Esthetic Index (PEI), compiling 13 different esthetic aspects and an overall evaluation. The patient-reported impairment was evaluated using the Oral Health Impact Profile Aesthetic (OHIP-Aes) and the Oral Esthetic....... The multivariate analyses showed that up to 57 % of the patient-reported impairment could be explained by the professionally evaluated oral esthetic in combination with background variables. Discoloration of the teeth was the greatest explanatory variable, but also dental arch symmetry, and position and color...

  2. Effects of Teacher Rewards on Recognition and Job Enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frase, Larry E.

    1989-01-01

    Implications of Herzberg's motivation-hygiene theory for teacher reward programs were tested by comparing changes in teachers' (N=38) job-enrichment opportunities and recognition after the teachers had chosen one of two rewards (travel to professional training conferences or cash). Results were consistent with the motivation-hygiene theory. (IAH)

  3. Page Recognition: Quantum Leap In Recognition Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Larry

    1989-07-01

    No milestone has proven as elusive as the always-approaching "year of the LAN," but the "year of the scanner" might claim the silver medal. Desktop scanners have been around almost as long as personal computers. And everyone thinks they are used for obvious desktop-publishing and business tasks like scanning business documents, magazine articles and other pages, and translating those words into files your computer understands. But, until now, the reality fell far short of the promise. Because it's true that scanners deliver an accurate image of the page to your computer, but the software to recognize this text has been woefully disappointing. Old optical-character recognition (OCR) software recognized such a limited range of pages as to be virtually useless to real users. (For example, one OCR vendor specified 12-point Courier font from an IBM Selectric typewriter: the same font in 10-point, or from a Diablo printer, was unrecognizable!) Computer dealers have told me the chasm between OCR expectations and reality is so broad and deep that nine out of ten prospects leave their stores in disgust when they learn the limitations. And this is a very important, very unfortunate gap. Because the promise of recognition -- what people want it to do -- carries with it tremendous improvements in our productivity and ability to get tons of written documents into our computers where we can do real work with it. The good news is that a revolutionary new development effort has led to the new technology of "page recognition," which actually does deliver the promise we've always wanted from OCR. I'm sure every reader appreciates the breakthrough represented by the laser printer and page-makeup software, a combination so powerful it created new reasons for buying a computer. A similar breakthrough is happening right now in page recognition: the Macintosh (and, I must admit, other personal computers) equipped with a moderately priced scanner and OmniPage software (from Caere

  4. An Efficient Algorithm for Direction Finding against Unknown Mutual Coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijiang Wang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an algorithm of direction finding is proposed in the presence of unknown mutual coupling. The preliminary direction of arrival (DOA is estimated using the whole array for high resolution. Further refinement can then be conducted by estimating the angularly dependent coefficients (ADCs with the subspace theory. The mutual coupling coefficients are finally determined by solving the least squares problem with all of the ADCs utilized without discarding any. Simulation results show that the proposed method can achieve better performance at a low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR with a small-sized array and is more robust, compared with the similar processes employing the initial DOA estimation and further improvement iteratively.

  5. An efficient algorithm for direction finding against unknown mutual coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weijiang; Ren, Shiwei; Ding, Yingtao; Wang, Haoyu

    2014-10-24

    In this paper, an algorithm of direction finding is proposed in the presence of unknown mutual coupling. The preliminary direction of arrival (DOA) is estimated using the whole array for high resolution. Further refinement can then be conducted by estimating the angularly dependent coefficients (ADCs) with the subspace theory. The mutual coupling coefficients are finally determined by solving the least squares problem with all of the ADCs utilized without discarding any. Simulation results show that the proposed method can achieve better performance at a low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) with a small-sized array and is more robust, compared with the similar processes employing the initial DOA estimation and further improvement iteratively.

  6. Portfolio Optimization of Equity Mutual Funds—Malaysian Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adem Kılıçman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We focus on the equity mutual funds offered by three Malaysian banks, namely Public Bank Berhad, CIMB, and Malayan Banking Berhad. The equity mutual funds or equity trust is grouped into four clusters based on their characteristics and categorized as inferior, stable, good performing, and aggressive funds based on their return rates, variance and treynor index. Based on the cluster analysis, the return rates and variance of clusters are represented as triangular fuzzy numbers in order to reflect the uncertainty of financial market. To find the optimal asset allocation in each cluster we develop a hybrid model of optimization and fuzzy based on return rates, variance. This was done by maximizing the fuzzy return for a tolerable fuzzy risk and minimizing the fuzzy risk for a desirable fuzzy return separately at different confidence levels.

  7. The Mutual Impact of Global Strategy and Organizational Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hotho, Jasper J.; Lyles, Marjorie A.; Easterby-Smith, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Despite the interest in issues of knowing and learning in the global strategy field, there has been limited mutual engagement and interaction between the fields of global strategy and organizational learning. The purpose of our article is to reflect on and articulate how the mutual exchange...... of ideas between these fields can be encouraged. To this end, we first conduct a review of the intersection of the fields of global strategy and organizational learning. We then present two recommendations regarding how the interaction between the two fields can be enhanced. Our first recommendation...... is for global strategy research to adopt a broader notion of organizational learning. Our second recommendation is for global strategy research to capitalize on its attention to context in order to inform and enhance organizational learning theory. We discuss the use of context in a number of common research...

  8. Mutualism supports biodiversity when the direct competition is weak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual-García, Alberto; Bastolla, Ugo

    2017-02-01

    A key question of theoretical ecology is which properties of ecosystems favour their stability and help maintaining biodiversity. This question recently reconsidered mutualistic systems, generating intense controversy about the role of mutualistic interactions and their network architecture. Here we show analytically and verify with simulations that reducing the effective interspecific competition and the propagation of perturbations positively influences structural stability against environmental perturbations, enhancing persistence. Noteworthy, mutualism reduces the effective interspecific competition only when the direct interspecific competition is weaker than a critical value. This critical competition is in almost all cases larger in pollinator networks than in random networks with the same connectance. Highly connected mutualistic networks reduce the propagation of environmental perturbations, a mechanism reminiscent of MacArthur's proposal that ecosystem complexity enhances stability. Our analytic framework rationalizes previous contradictory results, and it gives valuable insight on the complex relationship between mutualism and biodiversity.

  9. Onset of fights and mutual assessment in ant founding queens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelot, Kévin; Portugal, Felipe Ramon; Jeanson, Raphaël

    2017-03-01

    In animals, the progress and outcome of contests can be influenced by an individual's own condition, their opponent's condition or a combination of the two. The use of chemical information to assess the quality of rivals has been underestimated despite its central role in the regulation of social interactions in many taxa. Here, we studied pairwise contests between founding queens of the ant Lasius niger to investigate whether the decision to engage in agonistic interactions relies on self-assessment or mutual assessment. Queens modulated their aggressive behaviours depending on both their own status and their opponent's status. We found no influence of lipid stores or size on the onset of fights. However, differences in cuticular chemical signatures linked to fertility status accurately predicted the probability of behaving aggressively in pairs. Our study thus suggests that ant queens could rely on mutual assessment via chemical cues to make informed decisions about fight initiation. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Professional socialisation: an influence on professional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Professional socialisation refers to the acquisition of values, attitudes, skills and knowledge pertaining to a profession. This article reviews the definition and conceptualisation of professional socialisation through anticipatory and formal professional socialisation processes. It describes the core elements of professional ...

  11. EFL teacher professional change in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toraskar Helen B.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examines teacher professional change and compares two 10th standard English as a Foreign Language teachers employed in a Marathi-medium secondary school in Pune (India at different stages in their careers. Wenger’s (1998 three interconnected Community of Practice dimensions (i.e. mutual engagement, joint enterprise and shared repertoire highlight pertinent facets of the teachers’ professional lives as viewed from the sociocultural perspective (Vygotsky, 1978. Case study methodology was utilized within a qualitative, ethnographic research paradigm. The aim is to uncover how the two EFL teachers engage in their professional community of practice and their career trajectories. Firstly, the data analysis indicates that periphery member status is established through active engagement in the professional community which creates trajectories along which novices may travel. Secondly, the accessing and sharing of information, ideas and experiences is beneficial for all members as it strengthens professional relationships and reconfirms already existing members’ central position. Lastly, active engagement in a professional community of practice offers a means of potential growth for novice teachers and central members. Access to communal resources such as new knowledge, stories and artifacts is acquired and aids in establishing novices’ competency.

  12. Constructing Mutually Unbiased Bases from Quantum Latin Squares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Musto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce orthogonal quantum Latin squares, which restrict to traditional orthogonal Latin squares, and investigate their application in quantum information science. We use quantum Latin squares to build maximally entangled bases, and show how a pair of mutually unbiased maximally entangled bases can be constructed in square dimension from orthogonal quantum Latin squares. We also compare our construction to an existing construction due to Beth and Wocjan and show that ours is strictly more general.

  13. Least Dependent Component Analysis Based on Mutual Information

    OpenAIRE

    Stögbauer, H.; Kraskov, A.; Astakhov, S. A.; Grassberger, P.

    2004-01-01

    We propose to use precise estimators of mutual information (MI) to find least dependent components in a linearly mixed signal. On the one hand this seems to lead to better blind source separation than with any other presently available algorithm. On the other hand it has the advantage, compared to other implementations of `independent' component analysis (ICA) some of which are based on crude approximations for MI, that the numerical values of the MI can be used for: (i) estimating residual d...

  14. Essay: Mutual convergence in Career design and Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    福田, 敏彦

    2010-01-01

    This paper looks at the relationship between career design and marketing. It attempts to identify areas of mutual convergence, and thus break new ground in a way that is significant for both fields. Specifically, the issue of convergence will be addressed from two angles: (1) making use of marketing concepts and methods in career design and (2) making use of career design concepts and methods in marketing. At first glance, it appears that there is no overlap between career design and mar...

  15. Proteases hold the key to an exclusive mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronstein, Judith L

    2013-08-01

    Mutualisms, cooperative interactions between species, generally involve an economic exchange: species exchange commodities that are cheap for them to provide, for ones that cannot be obtained affordably or at all. But these associations can only succeed if effective partners can be enticed to interact. In some mutualisms, partners can actively seek one another out. However, plants, which use mutualists for a wide array of essential life history functions, do not have this option. Instead, natural selection has repeatedly favoured the evolution of rewards – nutritional substances (such as sugar-rich nectar and fleshy fruit) with which plants attract certain organisms whose feeding activities can then be co-opted for their own benefit. The trouble with rewards, however, is that they are usually also attractive to organisms that confer no benefits at all. Losing rewards to 'exploiters' makes a plant immediately less attractive to the mutualists it requires; if the reward cannot be renewed quickly (or at all), then mutualistic service is precluded entirely. Thus, it is in plants' interests to either restrict rewards to only the most beneficial partners or somehow punish or deter exploiters. Yet, at least in cases where the rewards are highly nutritious, we can expect counter-selection for exploiter traits that permit them to skirt such control. How, then, can mutualisms persist? In this issue, Orona-Tamayo et al. () describe a remarkable adaptation that safeguards one particularly costly reward from nonmutualists. Their study helps to explain the evolutionary success of an iconic interaction and illuminates one way in which mutualism as a whole can persist in the face of exploitation.

  16. Professional Responsibility and the Welfare System in Spain at the Turn of the 19th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    León Sanz, Pilar

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available This essay analyzes the attitudes of physicians prior to the establishment of a social welfare system in Spain, based on professional sources from 1890-1910. Firstly we revised the Systems of Collectivised Assistance during the Transition from the 19th to the 20th Century; then, the article discusses the corporativist reaction of Physicians to the different Welfare Systems. We observe that the criticism of insurance companies was unanimous. Nonetheless, there was a diversity of opinions regarding mutual societies and the associations of mutual assistance. The professional arguments used against the associations, mutuals and insurance companies were formulated around, in addition to the professional instability of the times, the changes in civil and criminal responsibility of the physician as a result of new legal regulations. We found physicians in favour of establishing a welfare system that was not exclusively public and which, in addition to benefiting the needy, would benefit the interests of the profession as well.

  17. Long-range RNA pairings contribute to mutually exclusive splicing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Yuan; Yang, Yun; Dai, Lanzhi; Cao, Guozheng; Chen, Ran; Hong, Weiling; Liu, Baoping; Shi, Yang; Meng, Yijun; Shi, Feng; Xiao, Mu; Jin, Yongfeng

    2016-01-01

    Mutually exclusive splicing is an important means of increasing the protein repertoire, by which the Down's syndrome cell adhesion molecule (Dscam) gene potentially generates 38,016 different isoforms in Drosophila melanogaster. However, the regulatory mechanisms remain obscure due to the complexity of the Dscam exon cluster. Here, we reveal a molecular model for the regulation of the mutually exclusive splicing of the serpent pre-mRNA based on competition between upstream and downstream RNA pairings. Such dual RNA pairings confer fine tuning of the inclusion of alternative exons. Moreover, we demonstrate that the splicing outcome of alternative exons is mediated in relative pairing strength-correlated mode. Combined comparative genomics analysis and experimental evidence revealed similar bidirectional structural architectures in exon clusters 4 and 9 of the Dscam gene. Our findings provide a novel mechanistic framework for the regulation of mutually exclusive splicing and may offer potentially applicable insights into long-range RNA–RNA interactions in gene regulatory networks. PMID:26554032

  18. Using niche breadth theory to explain generalization in mutualisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batstone, Rebecca T; Carscadden, Kelly A; Afkhami, Michelle E; Frederickson, Megan E

    2018-02-17

    For a mutualism to remain evolutionarily stable, theory predicts that mutualists should limit their associations to high-quality partners. However, most mutualists either simultaneously or sequentially associate with multiple partners that confer the same type of reward. By viewing mutualisms through the lens of niche breadth evolution, we outline how the environment shapes partner availability and relative quality, and ultimately a focal mutualist's partner breadth. We argue that mutualists that associate with multiple partners may have a selective advantage compared to specialists for many reasons, including sampling, complementarity, and portfolio effects, as well as the possibility that broad partner breadth increases breadth along other niche axes. Furthermore, selection for narrow partner breadth is unlikely to be strong when the environment erodes variation in partner quality, reduces the costs of interacting with low-quality partners, spatially structures partner communities, or decreases the strength of mutualism. Thus, we should not be surprised that most mutualists have broad partner breadth, even if it allows for ineffective partners to persist. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Neotropical mutualism between Acacia and Pseudomyrmex: phylogeny and divergence times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Acevedo, Sandra; Rico-Arce, Lourdes; Delgado-Salinas, Alfonso; Magallón, Susana; Eguiarte, Luis E

    2010-07-01

    The interaction between Acacia and Pseudomyrmex is a textbook example of mutualism between ants and plants, nevertheless aspects of its evolutionary biology have not been formally explored. In this paper we analyze primarily the phylogenies of both New World Acacia and of their associated species of ants, and the geographic origin of this mutualism. Until now, there has been no molecular analysis of this relationship in terms of its origin and age. We analyzed three chloroplast markers (matK, psaB-rps14, and trnL-trnF) on a total of 70 taxa of legumes from the subfamily Mimosoideae, and two nuclear regions (long-wavelength rhodopsine and wingless) on a total of 43 taxa of ants from subfamily Pseudomyrmecinae. The monophyly of subgenus Acacia and within the New World lineages that of the myrmecophilous Acacia group was established. In addition, our results supported the monophyly of the genus Pseudomyrmex and of the associated acacia-ants P. ferrugineus group. Using Bayesian methods and calibration data, the estimated divergence times for the groups involved in the mutualism are: 5.44+/-1.93 My for the myrmecophilous acacias and 4.58+/-0.82 My for their associated ant species, implying that their relationship originated in Mesoamerica between the late Miocene to the middle Pliocene, with eventual diversification of both groups in Mexico. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Normalized-Mutual-Information-Based Mining Method for Cascading Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunjin Xue

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A cascading pattern is a sequential pattern characterized by an item following another item in order. Recent research has investigated a challenge of dealing with cascading patterns, namely, the exponential time dependence of database scanning with respect to the number of items involved. We propose a normalized-mutual-information-based mining method for cascading patterns (M3Cap to address this challenge. M3Cap embeds mutual information to reduce database-scanning time. First, M3Cap calculates the asymmetrical mutual information between items with one database scan and extracts pair-wise related items according to a user-specified information threshold. Second, a one-level cascading pattern is generated by scanning the database once for each pair-wise related item at the quantitative level. Third, a recursive linking–pruning–generating loop generates an (m + 1-level-candidate cascading pattern from m-dimensional patterns on the basis of antimonotonicity and non-additivity, repeating this step until no further candidate cascading patterns are generated. Fourth, meaningful cascading patterns are generated according to user-specified minimum evaluation indicators. Finally, experiments with remote sensing image datasets covering the Pacific Ocean demonstrate that the computation time of recursive linking and pruning is significantly less than that of database scanning; thus, M3Cap improves performance by reducing database scanning while increasing intensive computing.

  1. Variation between self- and mutual assessment in animal contests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesterton-Gibbons, Mike; Heap, Stephen M

    2014-02-01

    Limited resources lead animals into conflicts of interest, which are resolved when an individual withdraws from a direct contest. Current theory suggests that the decision to withdraw can be based on a threshold derived from an individual's own state (self-assessment) or on a comparison between their own state and their opponent's (mutual assessment). The observed variation between these assessment strategies in nature does not conform to theory. Thus, we require theoretical developments that explain the functional significance of different assessment strategies. We consider a hawk-dove game with two discrete classes that differ in fighting ability, in which the players strategically decide on their investment toward mutual assessment. Analysis of the model indicates that there are simultaneous trade-offs relating to assessment strategies. First, weak individuals in a population must decide on whether to acquire information about their opponents at the cost of providing opponents with information about themselves. Secondly, all individuals must decide between investing in mutual assessment and being persistent in contests. Our analysis suggests that the potential for individuals to make errors during contests and differences in the consequences of sharing information within a population may serve as fundamental concepts for explaining variation in assessment strategy.

  2. Mutual assessment during ritualized fighting in mantis shrimp (Stomatopoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, P A; Patek, S N

    2018-01-31

    Safe and effective conflict resolution is critical for survival and reproduction. Theoretical models describe how animals resolve conflict by assessing their own and/or their opponent's ability (resource holding potential, RHP), yet experimental tests of these models are often inconclusive. Recent reviews have suggested this uncertainty could be alleviated by using multiple approaches to test assessment models. The mantis shrimp Neogonodactylus bredini presents visual displays and ritualistically exchanges high-force strikes during territorial contests. We tested how N. bredini contest dynamics were explained by any of three assessment models-pure self-assessment, cumulative assessment and mutual assessment-using correlations and a novel, network analysis-based sequential behavioural analysis. We staged dyadic contests over burrow access between competitors matched either randomly or based on body size. In both randomly and size-matched contests, the best metric of RHP was body mass. Burrow residency interacted with mass to predict outcome. Correlations between contest costs and RHP rejected pure self-assessment, but could not fully differentiate between cumulative and mutual assessment. The sequential behavioural analysis ruled out cumulative assessment and supported mutual assessment. Our results demonstrate how multiple analyses provide strong inference to tests of assessment models and illuminate how individual behaviours constitute an assessment strategy. © 2018 The Author(s).

  3. Mutualism with sea anemones triggered the adaptive radiation of clownfishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litsios, Glenn; Sims, Carrie A; Wüest, Rafael O; Pearman, Peter B; Zimmermann, Niklaus E; Salamin, Nicolas

    2012-11-02

    Adaptive radiation is the process by which a single ancestral species diversifies into many descendants adapted to exploit a wide range of habitats. The appearance of ecological opportunities, or the colonisation or adaptation to novel ecological resources, has been documented to promote adaptive radiation in many classic examples. Mutualistic interactions allow species to access resources untapped by competitors, but evidence shows that the effect of mutualism on species diversification can greatly vary among mutualistic systems. Here, we test whether the development of obligate mutualism with sea anemones allowed the clownfishes to radiate adaptively across the Indian and western Pacific oceans reef habitats. We show that clownfishes morphological characters are linked with ecological niches associated with the sea anemones. This pattern is consistent with the ecological speciation hypothesis. Furthermore, the clownfishes show an increase in the rate of species diversification as well as rate of morphological evolution compared to their closest relatives without anemone mutualistic associations. The effect of mutualism on species diversification has only been studied in a limited number of groups. We present a case of adaptive radiation where mutualistic interaction is the likely key innovation, providing new insights into the mechanisms involved in the buildup of biodiversity. Due to a lack of barriers to dispersal, ecological speciation is rare in marine environments. Particular life-history characteristics of clownfishes likely reinforced reproductive isolation between populations, allowing rapid species diversification.

  4. Mutualism with sea anemones triggered the adaptive radiation of clownfishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Litsios Glenn

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adaptive radiation is the process by which a single ancestral species diversifies into many descendants adapted to exploit a wide range of habitats. The appearance of ecological opportunities, or the colonisation or adaptation to novel ecological resources, has been documented to promote adaptive radiation in many classic examples. Mutualistic interactions allow species to access resources untapped by competitors, but evidence shows that the effect of mutualism on species diversification can greatly vary among mutualistic systems. Here, we test whether the development of obligate mutualism with sea anemones allowed the clownfishes to radiate adaptively across the Indian and western Pacific oceans reef habitats. Results We show that clownfishes morphological characters are linked with ecological niches associated with the sea anemones. This pattern is consistent with the ecological speciation hypothesis. Furthermore, the clownfishes show an increase in the rate of species diversification as well as rate of morphological evolution compared to their closest relatives without anemone mutualistic associations. Conclusions The effect of mutualism on species diversification has only been studied in a limited number of groups. We present a case of adaptive radiation where mutualistic interaction is the likely key innovation, providing new insights into the mechanisms involved in the buildup of biodiversity. Due to a lack of barriers to dispersal, ecological speciation is rare in marine environments. Particular life-history characteristics of clownfishes likely reinforced reproductive isolation between populations, allowing rapid species diversification.

  5. Long-range RNA pairings contribute to mutually exclusive splicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Yuan; Yang, Yun; Dai, Lanzhi; Cao, Guozheng; Chen, Ran; Hong, Weiling; Liu, Baoping; Shi, Yang; Meng, Yijun; Shi, Feng; Xiao, Mu; Jin, Yongfeng

    2016-01-01

    Mutually exclusive splicing is an important means of increasing the protein repertoire, by which the Down's syndrome cell adhesion molecule (Dscam) gene potentially generates 38,016 different isoforms in Drosophila melanogaster. However, the regulatory mechanisms remain obscure due to the complexity of the Dscam exon cluster. Here, we reveal a molecular model for the regulation of the mutually exclusive splicing of the serpent pre-mRNA based on competition between upstream and downstream RNA pairings. Such dual RNA pairings confer fine tuning of the inclusion of alternative exons. Moreover, we demonstrate that the splicing outcome of alternative exons is mediated in relative pairing strength-correlated mode. Combined comparative genomics analysis and experimental evidence revealed similar bidirectional structural architectures in exon clusters 4 and 9 of the Dscam gene. Our findings provide a novel mechanistic framework for the regulation of mutually exclusive splicing and may offer potentially applicable insights into long-range RNA-RNA interactions in gene regulatory networks. © 2015 Yue et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  6. Comparative Analysis of Risk, Return and Diversification of Mutual Fund

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rais Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mutual Funds have become a widely popular and effective way for investors to participate in financial markets in an easy, low-cost fashion, while muting risk characteristics by spreading the investment across different types of securities, also known as diversification. It can play a central role in an individual's investment strategy. With the plethora of schemes available in the Indian markets, an investors needs to evaluate and consider various factors before making an investment decision. The present investigation is aimed to examine the performance of safest investment instrument in the security market in the eyes of investors. Five mutual fund large cap scheme have been selected for this purpose. The examination is achieved by assessing various financial tests like Sharpe Ratio, Standard Deviation, Alpha, and Beta. Furthermore, in-depth analysis also has been done by considering return over the period of last five years on various basis, expenses ratio, corpus-size etc. The data has been taken from various websites of mutual fund schemes and from www.valueresearch.com. The study will be helpful for the researchers and financial analysts to analyze various securities or funds while selecting the best investment alternative out of the galaxy of investment alternatives.

  7. Hydrodynamics of rapidly rotating superfluid neutron stars with mutual friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passamonti, A.; Andersson, N.

    2011-05-01

    We study the hydrodynamics of superfluid neutron stars, focusing on the nature of the oscillation spectrum, the effect of mutual friction force on the oscillations and the spin-up phase of pulsar glitches. We linearize the dynamical equations of a Newtonian two-fluid model for rapidly rotating backgrounds. In the axisymmetric equilibrium configurations, the two-fluid components corotate and are in β-equilibrium. We use analytical equations of state that generate stratified and non-stratified stellar models, which enable us to study the coupling between the dynamical degrees of freedom of the system. By means of time-evolutions of the linearized dynamical equations, we determine the spectrum of axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric oscillation modes, accounting for the contribution of the gravitational potential perturbations, that is, without adopting the Cowling approximation. We study the mutual friction damping of the superfluid oscillations and consider the effects of the non-dissipative part of the mutual friction force on the mode frequencies. We also provide technical details and relevant tests for the hydrodynamical model of pulsar glitches discussed by Sidery, Passamonti & Andersson. In particular, we describe the method used to generate the initial data that mimic the pre-glitch state and derive the equations that are used to extract the gravitational-wave signal.

  8. 75 FR 28665 - Kinetics Mutual Funds, Inc., et al.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... COMMISSION Kinetics Mutual Funds, Inc., et al.; Notice of Application May 17, 2010. AGENCY: Securities and... the Act to invest in certain financial instruments. ] APPLICANTS: Kinetics Mutual Funds, Inc. (``Company''), Kinetics Portfolios Trust (``Trust''), Kinetics Asset Management, Inc. (``Adviser''), and...

  9. Computing highly correlated positions using mutual information and graph theory for G protein-coupled receptors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fatakia, Sarosh N; Costanzi, Stefano; Chow, Carson C

    2009-01-01

    .... A mutual information graph was constructed with vertices that corresponded to TM positions and edges between vertices were drawn if the mutual information exceeded a threshold of statistical significance...

  10. Higher-dimensional orbital-angular-momentum-based quantum key distribution with mutually unbiased bases

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mafu, M

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We present an experimental study of higher-dimensional quantum key distribution protocols based on mutually unbiased bases, implemented by means of photons carrying orbital angular momentum. We perform (d + 1) mutually unbiased measurements in a...

  11. Learning pattern recognition and decision making in the insect brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, R.

    2013-01-01

    We revise the current model of learning pattern recognition in the Mushroom Bodies of the insects using current experimental knowledge about the location of learning, olfactory coding and connectivity. We show that it is possible to have an efficient pattern recognition device based on the architecture of the Mushroom Bodies, sparse code, mutual inhibition and Hebbian leaning only in the connections from the Kenyon cells to the output neurons. We also show that despite the conventional wisdom that believes that artificial neural networks are the bioinspired model of the brain, the Mushroom Bodies actually resemble very closely Support Vector Machines (SVMs). The derived SVM learning rules are situated in the Mushroom Bodies, are nearly identical to standard Hebbian rules, and require inhibition in the output. A very particular prediction of the model is that random elimination of the Kenyon cells in the Mushroom Bodies do not impair the ability to recognize odorants previously learned.

  12. Probabilistic Open Set Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Lalit Prithviraj

    Real-world tasks in computer vision, pattern recognition and machine learning often touch upon the open set recognition problem: multi-class recognition with incomplete knowledge of the world and many unknown inputs. An obvious way to approach such problems is to develop a recognition system that thresholds probabilities to reject unknown classes. Traditional rejection techniques are not about the unknown; they are about the uncertain boundary and rejection around that boundary. Thus traditional techniques only represent the "known unknowns". However, a proper open set recognition algorithm is needed to reduce the risk from the "unknown unknowns". This dissertation examines this concept and finds existing probabilistic multi-class recognition approaches are ineffective for true open set recognition. We hypothesize the cause is due to weak adhoc assumptions combined with closed-world assumptions made by existing calibration techniques. Intuitively, if we could accurately model just the positive data for any known class without overfitting, we could reject the large set of unknown classes even under this assumption of incomplete class knowledge. For this, we formulate the problem as one of modeling positive training data by invoking statistical extreme value theory (EVT) near the decision boundary of positive data with respect to negative data. We provide a new algorithm called the PI-SVM for estimating the unnormalized posterior probability of class inclusion. This dissertation also introduces a new open set recognition model called Compact Abating Probability (CAP), where the probability of class membership decreases in value (abates) as points move from known data toward open space. We show that CAP models improve open set recognition for multiple algorithms. Leveraging the CAP formulation, we go on to describe the novel Weibull-calibrated SVM (W-SVM) algorithm, which combines the useful properties of statistical EVT for score calibration with one-class and binary

  13. 2D-DOA Estimation for Cylindrical Array with Mutual Coupling

    OpenAIRE

    Hao Feng; Lutao Liu; Biyang Wen

    2014-01-01

    Most conventional direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation algorithms are affected by the effect of mutual coupling, which make the performance of DOA estimation degrade. In this paper, a novel DOA estimation algorithm for conformal array in the presence of unknown mutual coupling is proposed. The special mutual coupling matrix (MCM) is applied to eliminate the effect of mutual coupling. With suitable array design, the decoupling between polarization parameter and angle information is accomplish...

  14. Follow Me on Twitter: Attracting Mutual Fund Investor Attention through Social Media

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sora

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies mutual funds' use of social media (Twitter) as a new marketing instrument and its effects on the behavior of mutual fund investors. Using hand-collected data from Twitter regarding 175 mutual fund families, I find that mutual fund families are more likely to introduce Twitter when they have star funds in the family and when they are introducing new funds. The average inception size of new funds after a family joined Twitter is significantly larger than before joining Twitte...

  15. Touchless palmprint recognition systems

    CERN Document Server

    Genovese, Angelo; Scotti, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    This book examines the context, motivation and current status of biometric systems based on the palmprint, with a specific focus on touchless and less-constrained systems. It covers new technologies in this rapidly evolving field and is one of the first comprehensive books on palmprint recognition systems.It discusses the research literature and the most relevant industrial applications of palmprint biometrics, including the low-cost solutions based on webcams. The steps of biometric recognition are described in detail, including acquisition setups, algorithms, and evaluation procedures. Const

  16. FUNDAMENTALS OF SPEAKER RECOGNITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figen ERTAŞ

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available The explosive growth of information technology in the last decade has made a considerable impact on the design and construction of systems for human-machine communication, which is becoming increasingly important in many aspects of life. Amongst other speech processing tasks, a great deal of attention has been devoted to developing procedures that identify people from their voices, and the design and construction of speaker recognition systems has been a fascinating enterprise pursued over many decades. This paper introduces speaker recognition in general and discusses its relevant parameters in relation to system performance.

  17. 24 CFR 203.420 - Nature of Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nature of Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund. 203.420 Section 203.420 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... and Distributive Shares § 203.420 Nature of Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund. The Mutual Mortgage...

  18. Optical character recognition systems for different languages with soft computing

    CERN Document Server

    Chaudhuri, Arindam; Badelia, Pratixa; K Ghosh, Soumya

    2017-01-01

    The book offers a comprehensive survey of soft-computing models for optical character recognition systems. The various techniques, including fuzzy and rough sets, artificial neural networks and genetic algorithms, are tested using real texts written in different languages, such as English, French, German, Latin, Hindi and Gujrati, which have been extracted by publicly available datasets. The simulation studies, which are reported in details here, show that soft-computing based modeling of OCR systems performs consistently better than traditional models. Mainly intended as state-of-the-art survey for postgraduates and researchers in pattern recognition, optical character recognition and soft computing, this book will be useful for professionals in computer vision and image processing alike, dealing with different issues related to optical character recognition.

  19. [Prosopagnosia and facial expression recognition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Shinichi

    2014-04-01

    This paper reviews clinical neuropsychological studies that have indicated that the recognition of a person's identity and the recognition of facial expressions are processed by different cortical and subcortical areas of the brain. The fusiform gyrus, especially the right fusiform gyrus, plays an important role in the recognition of identity. The superior temporal sulcus, amygdala, and medial frontal cortex play important roles in facial-expression recognition. Both facial recognition and facial-expression recognition are highly intellectual processes that involve several regions of the brain.

  20. Professional stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojević Dragana Z.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Job stress is a line, for the person at work hired adverse physiological, psychological and behavioral reactions to situations in which job requirements are not in accordance with its capabilities, abilities and needs. Sources of stress at work are numerous. Personal factors: personality types have been most studied so far, environmental changes and demographic characteristics as well. Interpersonal stress inducing factors act and influence to the occurrence of many psychosomatic diseases. Psychosocial climate and relationships which are prevented or encouraged such as: cooperation and competition, trust and suspicion certainly affect to the appearance of professional stress. The way of leadership is very important. Organizational factors are the type of work, work time, noncompliance of the job, the introduction of new ethnologies, the conflict of personal roles, fear of job loss, bad physical conditions of working environment. The consequences of stress at work are numerous: at the cognitive level, the emotional level, the production plan, the health, plan reduces the immune system that cause a variety of psychosomatic illnesses and accidents at work.

  1. Professionalism and the role of medical colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillis, David J; Grigg, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    There has been substantial interest and emphasis on medical professionalism over the past twenty years. This speaks to the history of the medical profession, but increasingly to a broader understanding of the importance of socialisation and professional identity formation. A literature review was undertaken of professionalism and the role of professions and medical professional organisations. A key outcome has been the recognition that medical professionalism must be actively taught and assessed. Substantial effort is required to improve the educational environment, so that it nurtures the development of professionalism within the work-place. Although medical colleges have been prominent in identifying and progressing the recent developments within professionalism there is still much to be done to deliver fully on the societal contract between the public and the profession. There are key gaps to address, particularly with regards to self-regulation, civil behaviour and effective leadership and advocacy. Medical colleges need to take direct responsibility for the professionalism of their members. The expectations of the community are increasingly clear in this regard. Copyright © 2015 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Facial Expression Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pantic, Maja; Li, S.; Jain, A.

    2009-01-01

    Facial expression recognition is a process performed by humans or computers, which consists of: 1. Locating faces in the scene (e.g., in an image; this step is also referred to as face detection), 2. Extracting facial features from the detected face region (e.g., detecting the shape of facial

  3. Recognition of fractal graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perepelitsa, VA; Sergienko, [No Value; Kochkarov, AM

    1999-01-01

    Definitions of prefractal and fractal graphs are introduced, and they are used to formulate mathematical models in different fields of knowledge. The topicality of fractal-graph recognition from the point of view, of fundamental improvement in the efficiency of the solution of algorithmic problems

  4. Recognition of two great contemporaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milin Melita

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The common denominator in the careers of two contemporaries and great men, citizens of Austria-Hungary - Leoš Janáček and Sigmund Freud - was that, in spite of their status as outsiders, they managed to achieve well-deserved recognition. Both non-Germans, they had to surmount a number of obstacles in order to attain their professional goals. The Slavophile Janáček dreamed for a long time of success in Prague, which came at last in 1916, two years before a triumph in Vienna. Freud had serious difficulties in his academic career because of the strengthening of racial prejudices and national hatred which were especially marked at the end of the 19th century. After the dissolution of the Empire things changed for the better for the composer, whose works got an excellent reception in Austria and Germany, whereas the psychiatrist had to leave Vienna after the Anschluss. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. ON 177004: Serbian Musical Identities within Local and Global Frameworks: Traditions, Changes, Challenges

  5. Autonomy and Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Giusti

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:El presente ensayo contiene dos partes. En la primera se hace una breve descripción de las carencias de la reflexión moral a las que parece venir al encuentro el concepto de reconocimiento. Charles Taylor y Axel Honneth, protagonistas en estos debates, dan buenas razones para dirigir la discusión hacia el tema del reconocimiento, pero no coinciden ni en su definición, ni en el modo de recuperar la tesis de Hegel, ni tampoco en la forma de tratar la relación entre autonomía y reconocimiento. En la segunda parte se analiza la concepción propiamente hegeliana, con la intención de destacar el nexo esencial, no la ruptura, que existe entre la noción de reconocimiento y el modelo conceptual de la voluntad libre o del espíritu. Abstract:This essay is divided into two parts. The first one is a short description of the deficiencies of moral reflection, which seem to lead the discussion towards the concept of recognition. Charles Taylor and Axel Honneth, two of the protagonists of these debates, give very good reasons for turning the argument towards the issue of recognition, but they do not agree on its definition, on the way to recover the Hegelian thesis, or on how to approach the relationship between autonomy and recognition. The second part constitutes an analysis of the Hegelian conception of recognition, in order to highlight the essential link –rather than the rupture– between the notion of recognition and the conceptual model of free will or spirit.

  6. The effect of board structure on Egyptian mutual fund fees: a structural equation model analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Peng; Youssef, Nancy; Sakr, Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    Mutual fund governance has been a great concern among practitioners and has received considerable attention in\\ud the finance literature. This paper aims to assess the impact of mutual fund board structure and ownership\\ud structure on mutual fund fees. This study fill the gap on the literature by focusing on the Egyptian mutual funds\\ud during the period of 2007 to 2013 with using a final sample of 48 mutual fund. This paper applies a Structural\\ud Equation Modelling to solve the potential e...

  7. Mitochondrial genomes suggest that hexapods and crustaceans are mutually paraphyletic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Charles E; Yue, Qiaoyun; Akam, Michael

    2005-01-01

    For over a century the relationships between the four major groups of the phylum Arthropoda (Chelicerata, Crustacea, Hexapoda and Myriapoda) have been debated. Recent molecular evidence has confirmed a close relationship between the Crustacea and the Hexapoda, and has included the suggestion of a paraphyletic Hexapoda. To test this hypothesis we have sequenced the complete or near-complete mitochondrial genomes of three crustaceans (Parhyale hawaiensis, Squilla mantis and Triops longicaudatus), two collembolans (Onychiurus orientalis and Podura aquatica) and the insect Thermobia domestica. We observed rearrangement of transfer RNA genes only in O. orientalis, P. aquatica and P. hawaiensis. Of these, only the rearrangement in O. orientalis, an apparent autapomorphy for the collembolan family Onychiuridae, was phylogenetically informative. We aligned the nuclear and amino acid sequences from the mitochondrial protein-encoding genes of these taxa with their homologues from other arthropod taxa for phylogenetic analysis. Our dataset contains many more Crustacea than previous molecular phylogenetic analyses of the arthropods. Neighbour-joining, maximum-likelihood and Bayesian posterior probabilities all suggest that crustaceans and hexapods are mutually paraphyletic. A crustacean clade of Malacostraca and Branchiopoda emerges as sister to the Insecta sensu stricto and the Collembola group with the maxillopod crustaceans. Some, but not all, analyses strongly support this mutual paraphyly but statistical tests do not reject the null hypotheses of a monophyletic Hexapoda or a monophyletic Crustacea. The dual monophyly of the Hexapoda and Crustacea has rarely been questioned in recent years but the idea of both groups' paraphyly dates back to the nineteenth century. We suggest that the mutual paraphyly of both groups should seriously be considered. PMID:16024395

  8. Excess mutual catalysis is required for effective evolvability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovitch, Omer; Lancet, Doron

    2012-01-01

    It is widely accepted that autocatalysis constitutes a crucial facet of effective replication and evolution (e.g., in Eigen's hypercycle model). Other models for early evolution (e.g., by Dyson, Gánti, Varela, and Kauffman) invoke catalytic networks, where cross-catalysis is more apparent. A key question is how the balance between auto- (self-) and cross- (mutual) catalysis shapes the behavior of model evolving systems. This is investigated using the graded autocatalysis replication domain (GARD) model, previously shown to capture essential features of reproduction, mutation, and evolution in compositional molecular assemblies. We have performed numerical simulations of an ensemble of GARD networks, each with a different set of lognormally distributed catalytic values. We asked what is the influence of the catalytic content of such networks on beneficial evolution. Importantly, a clear trend was observed, wherein only networks with high mutual catalysis propensity (p(mc)) allowed for an augmented diversity of composomes, quasi-stationary compositions that exhibit high replication fidelity. We have reexamined a recent analysis that showed meager selection in a single GARD instance and for a few nonstationary target compositions. In contrast, when we focused here on compotypes (clusters of composomes) as targets for selection in populations of compositional assemblies, appreciable selection response was observed for a large portion of the networks simulated. Further, stronger selection response was seen for high p(mc) values. Our simulations thus demonstrate that GARD can help analyze important facets of evolving systems, and indicate that excess mutual catalysis over self-catalysis is likely to be important for the emergence of molecular systems capable of evolutionlike behavior.

  9. Stereotype Associations and Emotion Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlstra, Gijsbert; Holland, Rob W.; Dotsch, Ron; Hugenberg, Kurt; Wigboldus, Daniel H. J.

    We investigated whether stereotype associations between specific emotional expressions and social categories underlie stereotypic emotion recognition biases. Across two studies, we replicated previously documented stereotype biases in emotion recognition using both dynamic (Study 1) and static

  10. Galeotti on recognition as inclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2008-01-01

    Anna Elisabetta Galeotti's theory of 'toleration as recognition' has been criticised by Peter Jones for being conceptually incoherent, since liberal toleration presupposes a negative attitude to differences, whereas multicultural recognition requires positive affirmation hereof. The paper spells ...

  11. A robust cloud access scheme with mutual authentication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chin-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the progress of network technology, we can access some information through remote servers, and we also can save and access lots of personal data in remote servers. Therefore, to protect these data and resist unauthorized access is an important issue. Some researchers proposed authentication scheme, but there still exist some security weaknesses. This article is based on the concept of HDFS (Hadoop Distributed File System, and offers a robust authentication scheme. The proposed scheme achieves mutual authentication, prevents re-play attack, solves asynchronous issue, and prevents offline password guessing attack.

  12. Critical teaching as mutual learning through collective social design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chimirri, Niklas Alexander; Dupret, Katia

    been repeatedly offering a workshop series entitled “Designing for All”. Each of the semester workshops features a different stakeholder organization as collaboration partner, ranging from a variety of NGOs to municipalities. While the theoretical focus is always put on how social design can attain...... – not understood as a unidirectional way of communicating solutions to complex societal problems. Instead, it is clarified and continuously discussed that purposeful teaching in the field of social design builds on and fosters mutual learning processes on problems and preliminary solutions. We thus suggest...

  13. Characteristic properties of Fibonacci-based mutually unbiased bases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seyfarth, Ulrich; Alber, Gernot [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Ranade, Kedar [Institut fuer Quantenphysik, Universitaet Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, 89069 Ulm (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Complete sets of mutually unbiased bases (MUBs) offer interesting applications in quantum information processing ranging from quantum cryptography to quantum state tomography. Different construction schemes provide different perspectives on these bases which are typically also deeply connected to various mathematical research areas. In this talk we discuss characteristic properties resulting from a recently established connection between construction methods for cyclic MUBs and Fibonacci polynomials. As a remarkable fact this connection leads to construction methods which do not involve any relations to mathematical properties of finite fields.

  14. Investigation of Average Mutual Information for Species Separation Using GSOM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chon-Kit Kenneth; Halgamuge, Saman

    The average mutual information (AMI) has been claimed to be a strong genome signature in some literatures. The range of k values is an important parameter in AMI but no standard range of k value is yet proposed. We introduce a new growth threshold (GT) equation in Growing Self-Organising Maps (GSOM) to identify the best k range for clustering prokaryotic sequence fragments of 10 kb. However, the results using the best k range of AMI were still worse than our previously published results using oligonucleotide frequencies. These experiments showed that the newly proposed GT equation makes GSOM able to efficiently and effectively analyse different data features for the same data.

  15. Paul Drude's Prediction of Nonreciprocal Mutual Inductance for Tesla Transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuyer, Bart

    2014-01-01

    Inductors, transmission lines, and Tesla transformers have been modeled with lumped-element equivalent circuits for over a century. In a well-known paper from 1904, Paul Drude predicts that the mutual inductance for an unloaded Tesla transformer should be nonreciprocal. This historical curiosity is mostly forgotten today, perhaps because it appears incorrect. However, Drude's prediction is shown to be correct for the conditions treated, demonstrating the importance of constraints in deriving equivalent circuits for distributed systems. The predicted nonreciprocity is not fundamental, but instead is an artifact of the misrepresentation of energy by an equivalent circuit. The application to modern equivalent circuits is discussed. PMID:25542040

  16. Geometry of the Shannon mutual information in continuum QFT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junior, David R.; Oxman, Luis E.

    2017-06-01

    We analyze geometric terms and scaling properties of the Shannon mutual information in the continuum. This is done for a free massless scalar field theory in d -dimensions, in a coherent state reduced with respect to a general differentiable manifold. As a by-product, we find an expression for the reduced probability density of finding a certain field on a ball. We will also introduce and compute the Fisher information that this probability carries about the location of the observation region. This is an interesting information measure that refers to points in physical space, although in relativistic quantum field theory they are labels and not fluctuating quantum observables.

  17. Mutual construction and reconstruction in client-consultant interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Irene Skovgaard

    Based on preliminary interviews with client representatives and a pilot case study, the pa-per explores collaboration and mutual construction in client-consultant relationships. Both consultants and client actors take part in an active construction and reconstruction of knowledge that involve...... struggles over position, power and control. In the context of client-consultant interaction, it is thus not only ideas and solutions that are contested but also the power to define. Attention is paid to how ideas are brought into play and negotiated in the interaction between actors. The empirical material...

  18. Doing Justice to Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Will Colish

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The traditional role of justice is to arbitrate where the good will of people is not enough, if even present, to settle a dispute between the concerned parties. It is a procedural approach that assumes a fractured relationship between those involved. Recognition, at first glance, would not seem to mirror these aspects of justice. Yet recognition is very much a subject of justice these days. The aim of this paper is to question the applicability of justice to the practice of recognition. The methodological orientation of this paper is a Kantian-style critique of the institution of justice, highlighting the limits of its reach and the dangers of overextension. The critique unfolds in the following three steps: 1 There is an immediate appeal to justice as a practice of recognition through its commitment to universality. This allure is shown to be deceptive in providing no prescription for the actual practice of this universality. 2 The interventionist character of justice is designed to address divided relationships. If recognition is only given expression through this channel, then we can only assume division as our starting ground. 3 The outcome of justice in respect to recognition is identification. This identification is left vulnerable to misrecognition itself, creating a cycle of injustice that demands recognition from anew. It seems to be well accepted that recognition is essentjustice, but less clear how to do justice to recognition. This paper is an effort in clarification. Le rôle traditionnel de la justice est celui d’arbitrer des situations où la bonne volonté ne suffit pas à régler un différend entre les parties concernées. Il s'agit d'une approche procédurale qui suppose une relation brisée entre les personnes impliquées. La reconnaissance, à première vue, ne semble pas refléter ces caractéristiques de la justice. Pourtant, elle est souvent présentée comme rétablissant une justice entre les parties concernés. Le

  19. Immediate recognition memory for wine

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, A.J.; Volp, A.; Miles, C.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a preliminary investigation concerning the short-term recognition memory function for gustatory stimuli (wines). In Experiment 1a, 24 non-expert wine drinkers completed a yes/no recognition task for 3-wine sequences. For the raw recognition scores, the serial position function comprised both primacy and recency. Recency did not, however, achieve significance for the d′ scores. In Experiment 1b, 24 participants completed the same yes/no recognition task for 3-visual matrix sequence...

  20. Forensic Face Recognition: A Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Tauseef; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Quaglia, Adamo; Epifano, Calogera M.

    2012-01-01

    The improvements of automatic face recognition during the last 2 decades have disclosed new applications like border control and camera surveillance. A new application field is forensic face recognition. Traditionally, face recognition by human experts has been used in forensics, but now there is a

  1. Visual Recognition Memory across Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Emily J. H.; Pascalis, Olivier; Eacott, Madeline J.; Herbert, Jane S.

    2011-01-01

    In two experiments, we investigated the development of representational flexibility in visual recognition memory during infancy using the Visual Paired Comparison (VPC) task. In Experiment 1, 6- and 9-month-old infants exhibited recognition when familiarization and test occurred in the same room, but showed no evidence of recognition when…

  2. Image recognition: visual grouping, recognition, and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhmann, J M; Malik, J; Perona, P

    1999-12-07

    Vision extracts useful information from images. Reconstructing the three-dimensional structure of our environment and recognizing the objects that populate it are among the most important functions of our visual system. Computer vision researchers study the computational principles of vision and aim at designing algorithms that reproduce these functions. Vision is difficult: the same scene may give rise to very different images depending on illumination and viewpoint. Typically, an astronomical number of hypotheses exist that in principle have to be analyzed to infer a correct scene description. Moreover, image information might be extracted at different levels of spatial and logical resolution dependent on the image processing task. Knowledge of the world allows the visual system to limit the amount of ambiguity and to greatly simplify visual computations. We discuss how simple properties of the world are captured by the Gestalt rules of grouping, how the visual system may learn and organize models of objects for recognition, and how one may control the complexity of the description that the visual system computes.

  3. Water stress strengthens mutualism among ants, trees, and scale insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, Elizabeth G; Akçay, Erol; Raab, Ted K; Dirzo, Rodolfo; Gordon, Deborah M

    2013-11-01

    Abiotic environmental variables strongly affect the outcomes of species interactions. For example, mutualistic interactions between species are often stronger when resources are limited. The effect might be indirect: water stress on plants can lead to carbon stress, which could alter carbon-mediated plant mutualisms. In mutualistic ant-plant symbioses, plants host ant colonies that defend them against herbivores. Here we show that the partners' investments in a widespread ant-plant symbiosis increase with water stress across 26 sites along a Mesoamerican precipitation gradient. At lower precipitation levels, Cordia alliodora trees invest more carbon in Azteca ants via phloem-feeding scale insects that provide the ants with sugars, and the ants provide better defense of the carbon-producing leaves. Under water stress, the trees have smaller carbon pools. A model of the carbon trade-offs for the mutualistic partners shows that the observed strategies can arise from the carbon costs of rare but extreme events of herbivory in the rainy season. Thus, water limitation, together with the risk of herbivory, increases the strength of a carbon-based mutualism.

  4. Constraining Binary Asteroid Mass Distributions Based On Mutual Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Alex B.; Scheeres, Daniel J.

    2017-06-01

    The mutual gravitational potential and torques of binary asteroid systems results in a complex coupling of attitude and orbital motion based on the mass distribution of each body. For a doubly-synchronous binary system observations of the mutual motion can be leveraged to identify and measure the unique mass distributions of each body. By implementing arbitrary shape and order computation of the full two-body problem (F2BP) equilibria we study the influence of asteroid asymmetries on separation and orientation of a doubly-synchronous system. Additionally, simulations of binary systems perturbed from doubly-synchronous behavior are studied to understand the effects of mass distribution perturbations on precession and nutation rates such that unique behaviors can be isolated and used to measure asteroid mass distributions. We apply our investigation to the Trojan binary asteroid system 617 Patroclus and Menoetius (1906 VY), which will be the final flyby target of the recently announced LUCY Discovery mission in March 2033. This binary asteroid system is of particular interest due to the results of a recent stellar occultation study (DPS 46, id.506.09) that suggests the system to be doubly-synchronous and consisting of two-similarly sized oblate ellipsoids, in addition to suggesting the presence mass asymmetries resulting from an impact crater on the southern limb of Menoetius.

  5. Water stress strengthens mutualism among ants, trees, and scale insects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth G Pringle

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Abiotic environmental variables strongly affect the outcomes of species interactions. For example, mutualistic interactions between species are often stronger when resources are limited. The effect might be indirect: water stress on plants can lead to carbon stress, which could alter carbon-mediated plant mutualisms. In mutualistic ant-plant symbioses, plants host ant colonies that defend them against herbivores. Here we show that the partners' investments in a widespread ant-plant symbiosis increase with water stress across 26 sites along a Mesoamerican precipitation gradient. At lower precipitation levels, Cordia alliodora trees invest more carbon in Azteca ants via phloem-feeding scale insects that provide the ants with sugars, and the ants provide better defense of the carbon-producing leaves. Under water stress, the trees have smaller carbon pools. A model of the carbon trade-offs for the mutualistic partners shows that the observed strategies can arise from the carbon costs of rare but extreme events of herbivory in the rainy season. Thus, water limitation, together with the risk of herbivory, increases the strength of a carbon-based mutualism.

  6. Interaction of Mutually Perpendicular Magnetic Fields in HTSC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilyev Aleksandr Fedorovich

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article a problem of interaction of the crossed magnetic fields in superconductors is considered. Superconducting materials have nonlinear magnetic properties. It allows using a non-linear magnetic susceptibility for measurement of feeble magnetic fields. We place a wire of superconducting material in a constant parallel uniform magnetic field. Then we let through a wire the alternating current leak. Interaction of mutual and perpendicular variation magnetic fields, with adequate accuracy is described by Ginzburg-Landau's equations. Approximate solution of the written equations is received. The component of a magnetic field parallel to a wire contains a variable component. Frequency of a variable component of the magnetic field is equal to the doubled current frequency. Amplitude of the variable component of the magnetic field is proportional to strength of the constant magnetic field. The experimental installation for research of interaction of mutually perpendicular magnetic fields is created. The cylinder from HTSC of ceramics of the YBa2Cu3O7-x was used as a sensor. Dependence of amplitude of the second harmonica of a variation magnetic field on strength of a constant magnetic field is received.

  7. Mutual altruism: evidence from Alzheimer patients and their spouse caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Markus; Pfarr, Christian; Zweifel, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Preferences of both Alzheimer patients and their spouse caregivers are related to a willingness-to-pay (WTP) measure which is used to test for the presence of mutual (rather than conventional unilateral) altruism. Contingent valuation experiments were conducted in 2000-2002, involving 126 Alzheimer patients and their caregiving spouses living in the Zurich metropolitan area (Switzerland). WTP values for three hypothetical treatments of the demented patient were elicited. The treatment Stabilization prevents the worsening of the disease, bringing dementia to a standstill. Cure restores patient health to its original level. In No burden, dementia takes its normal course while caregiver's burden is reduced to its level before the disease. The three different types of therapies are reflected in different WTP values of both caregivers and patients, suggesting that moderate levels of Alzheimer's disease still permit clear expression of preference. According to the WTP values found, patients do not rank Cure higher than No burden, implying that their preferences are entirely altruistic. Caregiving spouses rank Cure before Burden, reflecting less than perfect altruism which accounts for some 40 percent of their total WTP. Still, this constitutes evidence of mutual altruism. VALUE: The evidence suggests that WTP values reflect individuals' preferences even in Alzheimer patients. The estimates suggest that an economically successful treatment should provide relief to caregivers, with its curative benefits being of secondary importance.

  8. Mutual Word Borrowings between the English and the Spanish Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliya Rinatovna Ismagilova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary world witnesses growing popularity of foreign languages learning and their role in the modern society. The article is devoted to the problem of mutual borrowings from English and Spanish languages. The aim of the article is to investigate new tendencies in the English words borrowings, their establishment in the Spanish language and the other way round. The Spanish language is one of the most widespread languages in the world and it is a native language for different nationalities. On the other hand, English has borrowed quite a lot of Spanish words as well. The mutual enrichment of the languages makes the process of language teaching specific and it is important in the modern process of globalization where languages are the main resource of international cooperation. The article contains both theoretical and practical materials dedicated to the investigation of this problem. This article may be useful for a wide range of readers, students, scientists, linguists in the study of modern Spanish and English languages.

  9. Towards Automatic Threat Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    York: Bantam. Forschungsinstitut für Kommunikation , Informationsverarbeitung und Ergonomie FGAN Informationstechnik und Führungssysteme KIE Towards...Automatic Threat Recognition Dr. Ulrich Schade Joachim Biermann Miłosław Frey FGAN – FKIE Germany Forschungsinstitut für Kommunikation ...as Processing Principle Back to the Example Conclusion and Outlook Forschungsinstitut für Kommunikation , Informationsverarbeitung und Ergonomie FGAN

  10. Amazigh recognition in Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Kristensen, Mia; Meškinytė, Vilma

    2015-01-01

    The indigenous people of North Africa, the Amazigh population, have been outnumbered by the Arabs since their invasion in the 7th century. Fighting and bombing heads have been regular ever since. However, during the period of decolonization the two populations fought side by side. After independence in the North African countries a heavy Arabisation followed, once again creating tension between the Arab and Amazigh population. Fighting to get recognition the Amazigh population has gained some...

  11. The faces of Moebius syndrome: recognition and anticipatory guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broussard, Anne Bienvenu; Borazjani, June G

    2008-01-01

    Moebius syndrome is a rare congenital disorder characterized mainly by the inability to move the eyes laterally or produce facial expressions such as smiling. Moebius syndrome creates physical problems for the affected individual that may, in some cases, lead to emotional or social adjustment issues, yet the syndrome is relatively unknown among healthcare professionals. Because early recognition of Moebius syndrome can lead to early diagnosis and treatment, education of nurses in perinatal, pediatric, midwifery, and neonatal specialties is crucial. Through early recognition, maternal-child nurses can offer anticipatory guidance and provide or recommend resources to parents of children with this neurological condition.

  12. Pattern Recognition Control Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambone, Elisabeth A.

    2018-01-01

    Spacecraft control algorithms must know the expected vehicle response to any command to the available control effectors, such as reaction thrusters or torque devices. Spacecraft control system design approaches have traditionally relied on the estimated vehicle mass properties to determine the desired force and moment, as well as knowledge of the effector performance to efficiently control the spacecraft. A pattern recognition approach was used to investigate the relationship between the control effector commands and spacecraft responses. Instead of supplying the approximated vehicle properties and the thruster performance characteristics, a database of information relating the thruster ring commands and the desired vehicle response was used for closed-loop control. A Monte Carlo simulation data set of the spacecraft dynamic response to effector commands was analyzed to establish the influence a command has on the behavior of the spacecraft. A tool developed at NASA Johnson Space Center to analyze flight dynamics Monte Carlo data sets through pattern recognition methods was used to perform this analysis. Once a comprehensive data set relating spacecraft responses with commands was established, it was used in place of traditional control methods and gains set. This pattern recognition approach was compared with traditional control algorithms to determine the potential benefits and uses.

  13. Audio-visual gender recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Xu, Xun; Huang, Thomas S.

    2007-11-01

    Combining different modalities for pattern recognition task is a very promising field. Basically, human always fuse information from different modalities to recognize object and perform inference, etc. Audio-Visual gender recognition is one of the most common task in human social communication. Human can identify the gender by facial appearance, by speech and also by body gait. Indeed, human gender recognition is a multi-modal data acquisition and processing procedure. However, computational multimodal gender recognition has not been extensively investigated in the literature. In this paper, speech and facial image are fused to perform a mutli-modal gender recognition for exploring the improvement of combining different modalities.

  14. Compassionate nursing professionals as good citizens of the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crigger, Nancy J; Brannigan, Michael; Baird, Martha

    2006-01-01

    Globalization is reshaping the world and its people. Nursing, likewise, is in the process of expanding its worldview to one that accommodates global care. The authors further articulate a global ethic for nursing by distinguishing 2 concepts: world citizenship, as described by Martha Nussbaum, which calls nurses to critically evaluate personal and culture-based beliefs, and compassionate professional, which calls nurses to nurture partnerships of mutual respect. It is also important that nursing participate and support professional and international organizations that address social injustices related to healthcare, poverty, and public health.

  15. Preclinical medical student observations associated with later professionalism concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Cynthia A; Lambros, M Ann; Atkinson, Hal H; Russell, Greg; Fitch, Michael T

    2017-01-01

    Professionalism is a core physician competency and identifying students at risk for poor professional development early in their careers may allow for mentoring. This study identified indicators in the preclinical years associated with later professionalism concerns. A retrospective analysis of observable indicators in the preclinical and clinical years was conducted using two classes of students (n = 226). Relationships between five potential indicators of poor professionalism in the preclinical years and observations related to professional concerns in the clinical years were analyzed. Fifty-three medical students were identified with at least one preclinical indicator and one professionalism concern during the clinical years. Two observable preclinical indicators were significantly correlated with unprofessional conduct during the clinical years: Three or more absences from attendance-required sessions (odds ratio 4.47; p=.006) and negative peer assessment (odds ratio 3.35; p=.049). We identified two significant observable preclinical indicators associated with later professionalism concerns: excessive absences and negative peer assessments. Early recognition of students at risk for future professionalism struggles would provide an opportunity for proactive professional development prior to the clinical years, when students' permanent records may be affected. Peer assessment, coupled with attention to frequent absences, may be a method to provide early recognition.

  16. The evaluator’s profile in certifying professional competences: a new educational role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arcadia Martín Pérez

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The Accreditation, Evaluation and Recognition Systems are intended at certifying professional competences associated to a specific professional profile acquired through any kind of learning (formal, non-formal and informal. The key element in this system is the process of evaluation which leads to verify such competences. In this paper we focus on the professional profile of the evaluator in the accreditation, evaluation and recognition systems, highlighting the development of a new line of professional development for teachers and trainers in formal and non-formal education.

  17. Professionalism, scientific freedom and dissent: individual and institutional roles and responsibilities in geoethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilham, Nic

    2015-04-01

    Debate and dissent are at the heart of scientific endeavour. A diversity of perspectives, alternative interpretations of evidence and the robust defence of competing theories and models drive the advancement of scientific knowledge. Just as importantly, legitimate dissent and diversity of views should not be covered up when offering scientific advice to policy-makers and providing evidence to inform public debate - indeed, they should be valued. We should offer what Andy Stirling has termed 'plural and conditional' scientific advice, not just for the sake of democratic legitimacy, but because it supports better informed and more effective policy-making. 'Monocultures' of scientific advice may have a superficial appeal to policy-makers, but they devalue the contribution of scientists, undermine the resilience of regulatory structures, are often misleading, and can lead to catastrophic policy failure. Furthermore, many of the great societal challenges now facing us require interdisciplinary approaches, across the natural sciences and more widely still, which bring to the fore the need for humility, recognition that we do not have all the answers, and mutual respect for the views of others. In contentious areas such as climate change, extraction of shale gas and radioactive waste disposal, however, such open dialogue may make researchers and practitioners vulnerable to advocates and campaigners who cherry-pick the evidence, misinterpret it, or seek to present scientific uncertainty and debate as mere ignorance. Nor are scientists themselves always above such unethical tactics. The apparent authority conferred on unscrupulous 'campaigning scientists' by their academic and professional credentials may make it all but impossible to distinguish them from those who legitimately make the case for a minority scientific view (and may be marginalised by the mainstream of their discipline in doing so). There is a risk that real scientific debate may be thwarted. Individual

  18. The transnational ne bis in idem principle in the EU. Mutual recognition and equivalent protection of human rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervaele, J.A.E.

    2005-01-01

    The deepening and widening of European integration has led to an increase in transborder crime. Concurrent prosecution and sanctioning by several Member States is not only a problem in inter-state relations and an obstacle in the European integration process, but also a violation of the ne bis in

  19. CFL Labeling Harmonization in the United States, China, Brazil andELI Member Countries: Specifications, Testing, and MutualRecognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fridley, David; Lin, Jiang; Denver, Andrea; Biermayer, Peter; Dillavou, Tyler

    2005-07-20

    This report examines critical differences among energy-efficient labeling programs for CFLs in Brazil, China, the United States, and the seven members of the international Efficient Lighting Initiative (ELI) in terms of technical specifications and test procedures, and review issues related to international harmonization of these standards.

  20. Geometric Universality in Brain Allosteric Protein Dynamics: Complex Hydrophobic Transformation Predicts Mutual Recognition by Polypeptides and Proteins,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-10-01

    emf -driven RC circuits model the dynamics of ion- conductance behavior of allosteric membrane proteins very well. 50...D. 1985. Advances in the isolation of HTLV-I11 from patients with AIDS and AIDS-related complex and donors at risk. Cancer Res. 45: 45885-45915. 87

  1. Re-aligning human resource management and industrial relations: can Hydro become a mutual gains enterprise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warrian, P. [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    Restructuring of Ontario Hydro will result in a major reform of the workplace. Employees are likely to see a wholesale change in work organization and the redesign of the workplace to be less authoritarian, more democratic and safer. The two unions at Ontario Hydro are the Power Worker`s Union (PWU) which has 15,000 out of a current workforce of 22,000, and the Society of Ontario Hydro Professionals and Administrative Employees which has 5,000 members. There are also about 2,000 non-bargaining unit employees. The personnel management issues faced by Ontario Hydro and the PWU with respect to their strategic policy decisions were discussed. The three fundamental issues are: (1) structure of the union-management relationship (2) business unit differentiation, and (3) employment security. Whichever way the decisions will go it is fairly certain that the post-World War Two Wagner Act industrial union model (i.e. the adversarial relationship between labour and management in the workplace as reflected by job classifications, wage rate structures, and seniority-based work rules), will not work in the deregulated environment. Both union and management will have to work hard to find opportunities for mutual gains. 13 refs., 4 tabs., 1 fig.

  2. RESPONDING TO VIOLENCE IN POST-APARTHEID SCHOOLS: ON SCHOOL LEADERSHIP AS MUTUAL ENGAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuraan Davids

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Schools in post-apartheid South Africa appear to be under siege by violence. In turn, school leaders find themselves in the unenviable position of not only having to deal with inadequate educator professionalism and learner underachievement – particularly in previously disadvantaged schools – but are under pressure to find ways to counteract the violence, and to restore schools as safe sites. Among the biggest challenges facing school leaders is that they have not necessarily acquired sufficient training to deal with violent encounters, and often have responded in equally violent and violating ways, which, to some extent, has enhanced the expulsion and alienation of learners. In drawing on our own project work at five high schools in the Western Cape, we explore the challenges school leaders experience in responding to school violence. In questioning the often equally violent responses of school leaders, we contend that they ought to adopt practices of becoming. That is, school leaders should engage in intimate encounters with the other; not based on a desire to change the other, but rather for the purpose of mutually engaging with the other in an effort to inhabit practices of coming into presence that are humane and just.

  3. Effect of Meaningful Recognition on Critical Care Nurses' Compassion Fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Lesly A; Lefton, Cindy

    2017-11-01

    As caregivers in high-pressure environments, critical care nurses are at risk for burnout and secondary trauma-components of compassion fatigue. Recent findings have increased understanding of the phenomena, specifically that satisfaction and meaningful recognition may play a role in reducing burnout and raising compassion satisfaction; however, no large multisite studies of compassion fatigue have been conducted. To examine the effect of meaningful recognition and other predictors on compassion fatigue in a multicenter national sample of critical care nurses. A quantitative, descriptive online survey was completed by 726 intensive care unit nurses in 14 hospitals with an established meaningful recognition program and 410 nurses in 10 hospitals without such a program. Site coordinators at each hospital coordinated distribution of the survey to nurses to assess multiple predictors against outcomes, measured by the Professional Quality of Life Scale. Cross-validation and linear regression modeling were conducted to determine significant predictors of burnout, secondary traumatic stress, and compassion satisfaction. Similar levels of burnout, secondary traumatic stress, compassion satisfaction, overall satisfaction, and intent to leave were reported by nurses in hospitals with and without meaningful recognition programs. Meaningful recognition was a significant predictor of decreased burnout and increased compassion satisfaction. Additionally, job satisfaction and job enjoyment were highly predictive of decreased burnout, decreased secondary traumatic stress, and increased compassion satisfaction. In addition to acknowledging and valuing nurses' contributions to care, meaningful recognition could reduce burnout and boost compassion satisfaction. ©2017 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  4. Self-organized Evaluation of Dynamic Hand Gestures for Sign Language Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buciu, Ioan; Pitas, Ioannis

    Two main theories exist with respect to face encoding and representation in the human visual system (HVS). The first one refers to the dense (holistic) representation of the face, where faces have "holon"-like appearance. The second one claims that a more appropriate face representation is given by a sparse code, where only a small fraction of the neural cells corresponding to face encoding is activated. Theoretical and experimental evidence suggest that the HVS performs face analysis (encoding, storing, face recognition, facial expression recognition) in a structured and hierarchical way, where both representations have their own contribution and goal. According to neuropsychological experiments, it seems that encoding for face recognition, relies on holistic image representation, while a sparse image representation is used for facial expression analysis and classification. From the computer vision perspective, the techniques developed for automatic face and facial expression recognition fall into the same two representation types. Like in Neuroscience, the techniques which perform better for face recognition yield a holistic image representation, while those techniques suitable for facial expression recognition use a sparse or local image representation. The proposed mathematical models of image formation and encoding try to simulate the efficient storing, organization and coding of data in the human cortex. This is equivalent with embedding constraints in the model design regarding dimensionality reduction, redundant information minimization, mutual information minimization, non-negativity constraints, class information, etc. The presented techniques are applied as a feature extraction step followed by a classification method, which also heavily influences the recognition results.

  5. Aggression, Recognition and Qualification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Kirsten

    2010-01-01

    The article analyses the emotional aspects of a professional training process in the light of the participants’ experienced societal status. A detailed text analysis of interviews with a group of social pedagogue staff in Danish Youth clubs focuses on a particular vulnerability and their aggressi...

  6. Evaluating your professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burr, Steven; Neve, Hilary; Leung, Yee

    2016-11-02

    What does being professional look like? Does it mean that you do the 'right' thing, even when no-one is looking? How do you evaluate your professionalism knowledge, values and behaviour? How do you identify and address underperformance in professionalism? How can you transfer your professionalism to different circumstances?

  7. Disentangling Prognostic and Predictive Biomarkers Through Mutual Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sechidis, Konstantinos; Turner, Emily; Metcalfe, Paul; Weatherall, James; Brown, Gavin

    2017-01-01

    We study information theoretic methods for ranking biomarkers. In clinical trials, there are two, closely related, types of biomarkers: predictive and prognostic, and disentangling them is a key challenge. Our first step is to phrase biomarker ranking in terms of optimizing an information theoretic quantity. This formalization of the problem will enable us to derive rankings of predictive/prognostic biomarkers, by estimating different, high dimensional, conditional mutual information terms. To estimate these terms, we suggest efficient low dimensional approximations. Finally, we introduce a new visualisation tool that captures the prognostic and the predictive strength of a set of biomarkers. We believe this representation will prove to be a powerful tool in biomarker discovery.

  8. Peer pressure: Enhancement of cooperation through mutual punishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Han-Xin; Wu, Zhi-Xi; Rong, Zhihai; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2015-02-01

    An open problem in evolutionary game dynamics is to understand the effect of peer pressure on cooperation in a quantitative manner. Peer pressure can be modeled by punishment, which has been proved to be an effective mechanism to sustain cooperation among selfish individuals. We investigate a symmetric punishment strategy, in which an individual will punish each neighbor if their strategies are different, and vice versa. Because of the symmetry in imposing the punishment, one might intuitively expect the strategy to have little effect on cooperation. Utilizing the prisoner's dilemma game as a prototypical model of interactions at the individual level, we find, through simulation and theoretical analysis, that proper punishment, when even symmetrically imposed on individuals, can enhance cooperation. Also, we find that the initial density of cooperators plays an important role in the evolution of cooperation driven by mutual punishment.

  9. Optimal Backpressure Scheduling in Wireless Networks using Mutual Information Accumulation

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Jing; Draper, Stark C

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we develop scheduling policies that maximize the stability region of a wireless network under the assumption that mutual information accumulation is implemented at the physical layer. When the link quality between nodes is not sufficiently high that a packet can be decoded within a single slot, the system can accumulate information across multiple slots, eventually decoding the packet. The result is an expanded stability region. The accumulation process over weak links is temporally coupled and therefore does not satisfy the independent and identically distributed (i.i.d) assumption that underlies many previous analysis in this area. Therefore the problem setting also poses new analytic challenges. We propose two dynamic scheduling algorithms to cope with the non-i.i.d nature of the decoding. The first performs scheduling every $T$ slots, and approaches the boundary of the stability region as $T$ gets large, but at the cost of increased average delay. The second introduces virtual queues for eac...

  10. Wireless power transmission applied the mutual coupling between coils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, Kenta; Baba, Ryouichi; Shun, Endo; Nunokawa, Kazuki; Takahashi, Wataru; Maruyama, Tamami

    2017-07-01

    Recently, the studies of wireless power transfer (WPT) to electric vehicles in motion on the snow-piled road have been reported. In WPT by magnetic field resonance method, transmission coefficient S21, which is one of the scattering parameters, from transmission coil to received coil are degraded because of misalignment of transmitting and receiving coil, the distance between these coils, and the effects of the ice and snow. This paper adopts parasitic coil as a solution to improve the reception power in which the parasitic coil is inserted between transmitting and receiving coils. Analysis and experimental results show that parasitic coil could improve the value of S21 by 15 dB using mutual coupling. LED could be light by this solution when the distance between transmitting and receiving coils are 150 mm.

  11. Modeling mutual feedback between users and recommender systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, An; Yeung, Chi Ho; Medo, Matúš; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2015-07-01

    Recommender systems daily influence our decisions on the Internet. While considerable attention has been given to issues such as recommendation accuracy and user privacy, the long-term mutual feedback between a recommender system and the decisions of its users has been neglected so far. We propose here a model of network evolution which allows us to study the complex dynamics induced by this feedback, including the hysteresis effect which is typical for systems with non-linear dynamics. Despite the popular belief that recommendation helps users to discover new things, we find that the long-term use of recommendation can contribute to the rise of extremely popular items and thus ultimately narrow the user choice. These results are supported by measurements of the time evolution of item popularity inequality in real systems. We show that this adverse effect of recommendation can be tamed by sacrificing part of short-term recommendation accuracy.

  12. Election to the Board of the Mutual Aid Fund

    CERN Multimedia

    Mutual Aid Fund

    2013-01-01

    Every two years, the Board of the Mutual Aid Fund has to replace a proportion of its members. In accordance with article 6 of the Fund’s General Regulations, three members must leave and have to be replaced. These three members may subscribe again. All members of the CERN staff are eligible. If you are prepared to devote about two hours a month during working hours to assist your colleagues with financial problems, do not hesitate to join this self-governing Board. Candidates must announce their intention to stand for election by 31st January 2014. Fill in the present form and return it to P. Droux/FP (72265) who will also be pleased to provide further information. Name, First Name ................................................................. Department .................................... Tel .............................

  13. Election to the Board of the Mutual Aid Fund

    CERN Multimedia

    Mutual Aid Fund

    2013-01-01

    Every two years, the Board of the Mutual Aid Fund has to replace a proportion of its members. In accordance with article 6 of the Fund’s General Regulations, three members must leave and have to be replaced. These three members may apply again. All members of the CERN staff are eligible. If you are prepared to devote about two hours a month during working hours to assist your colleagues with financial problems, do not hesitate to join this self-governing board. Candidates must announce their intention to stand for election by 31 January 2014. Fill in the present form and return it to P. Droux/FP (72265)  who will also be pleased to provide further information. Name, First Name: ................................................................. Department: .................................... Tel.: ..............................

  14. Election to the Board of the Mutual Aid Fund

    CERN Multimedia

    Fonds d'Entraide

    2011-01-01

    Every year, the Board of the Mutual Aid Fund has to replace a proportion of its members. In accordance with article 6 of the Fund’s General Regulations, three members must leave and have to be replaced. These three members may subscribe again. All members of the CERN staff are eligible. If you are prepared to devote about two hours a month during working hours to assist your colleagues with financial problems, do not hesitate to join this self-governing Board. Candidates must announce their intention to stand for election by 1st Mars 2011. Fill in the present form and return it to P. Droux/FP (72265) or C. Potter/PH (74279) who will also be pleased to provide further information. Name, First Name Department Tel  

  15. Election to the Board of the Mutual Aid Fund

    CERN Multimedia

    Mutual Aid Fund

    2011-01-01

    Every year, the Board of the Mutual Aid Fund has to replace a proportion of its members. In accordance with article 6 of the Fund’s General Regulations, three members must leave and have to be replaced. These three members may subscribe again. All members of the CERN staff are eligible. If you are prepared to devote about two hours a month during working hours to assist your colleagues with financial problems, do not hesitate to join this self-governing Board. Candidates must announce their intention to stand for election by 1st Mars 2011. Fill in the present form and return it to P. Droux/FP (72265) or C. Potter/PH (74279) who will also be pleased to provide further information. Name, First Name ................................................................. Department .................................... Tel .............................

  16. Cooperative Routing for Wireless Networks using Mutual-Information Accumulation

    CERN Document Server

    Draper, Stark C; Molisch, Andreas F; Yedidia, Jonathan S

    2009-01-01

    Cooperation between the nodes of wireless multihop networks can increase communication reliability, reduce energy consumption, and decrease latency. The possible improvements are even greater when nodes perform mutual information accumulation using rateless codes. In this paper, we investigate routing problems in such networks. Given a network, a source, and a destination, our objective is to minimize end-to-end transmission delay under energy and bandwidth constraints. We provide an algorithm that determines which nodes should participate in forwarding the message and what resources (time, energy, bandwidth) should be allocated to each. Our approach factors into two sub-problems, each of which can be solved efficiently. For any transmission order we show that solving for the optimum resource allocation can be formulated as a linear programming problem. We then show that the transmission order can be improved systematically by swapping nodes based on the solution of the linear program. Solving a sequence of l...

  17. Identifying statistical dependence in genomic sequences via mutual information estimates

    CERN Document Server

    Aktulga, H M; Lyznik, L A; Szpankowski, L; Grama, A Y; Szpankowski, W

    2007-01-01

    Questions of understanding and quantifying the representation and amount of information in organisms have become a central part of biological research, as they potentially hold the key to fundamental advances. In this paper, we demonstrate the use of information-theoretic tools for the task of identifying segments of biomolecules (DNA or RNA) that are statistically correlated. We develop a precise and reliable methodology, based on the notion of mutual information, for finding and extracting statistical as well as structural dependencies. A simple threshold function is defined, and its use in quantifying the level of significance of dependencies between biological segments is explored. These tools are used in two specific applications. First, for the identification of correlations between different parts of the maize zmSRp32 gene. There, we find significant dependencies between the 5' untranslated region in zmSRp32 and its alternatively spliced exons. This observation may indicate the presence of as-yet unkno...

  18. Mutually independent cascades in anisotropic soap-film turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chien-Chia; Gioia, Gustavo; Chakraborty, Pinaki

    2015-03-01

    Computational, experimental and field data amassed to date indicate that in 2D turbulence the spectrum of longitudinal velocity fluctuations, E11 (k1) , and the spectrum of transverse velocity fluctuations, E22 (k1) , correspond always to the same cascade, consistent with isotropy, so that E11 (k1) ~k-α and E22 (k1) ~k-α , where the ``spectral exponent'' α is either 5/3 (for the inverse-energy cascade) or 3 (for the enstrophy cascade). Here, we carry out experiments on turbulent 2D soap-film flows in which E11 (k1) ~k - 5 / 3 and E22 (k1) ~k-3 , as if two mutually independent cascades were concurrently active within the same flow. To our knowledge, this species of spectrum has never been observed or predicted theoretically. Our finding might open up new vistas in the understanding of turbulence.

  19. Machine Learning with Squared-Loss Mutual Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masashi Sugiyama

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Mutual information (MI is useful for detecting statistical independence between random variables, and it has been successfully applied to solving various machine learning problems. Recently, an alternative to MI called squared-loss MI (SMI was introduced. While ordinary MI is the Kullback–Leibler divergence from the joint distribution to the product of the marginal distributions, SMI is its Pearson divergence variant. Because both the divergences belong to the ƒ-divergence family, they share similar theoretical properties. However, a notable advantage of SMI is that it can be approximated from data in a computationally more efficient and numerically more stable way than ordinary MI. In this article, we review recent development in SMI approximation based on direct density-ratio estimation and SMI-based machine learning techniques such as independence testing, dimensionality reduction, canonical dependency analysis, independent component analysis, object matching, clustering, and causal inference.

  20. The bonobo-dialium positive interactions: seed dispersal mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaune, David; Bretagnolle, François; Bollache, Loïc; Hohmann, Gottfried; Surbeck, Martin; Bourson, Chloé; Fruth, Barbara

    2013-04-01

    A positive interaction is any interaction between individuals of the same or different species (mutualism) that provides a benefit to both partners such as increased fitness. Here we focus on seed dispersal mutualism between an animal (bonobo, Pan paniscus) and a plant (velvet tamarind trees, Dialium spp.). In the LuiKotale rainforest southwest of Salonga National Park, Democratic Republic of Congo, seven species of the genus Dialium account for 29.3% of all trees. Dialium is thus the dominant genus in this forest. Dialium fruits make up a large proportion of the diet of a habituated bonobo community in this forest. During the 6 months of the fruiting season, more than half of the bonobos' feeding time is devoted to Dialium fruits. Furthermore, Dialium fruits contribute a considerable proportion of sugar and protein to bonobos' dietary intake, being among the richest fruits for these nutrients. Bonobos in turn ingest fruits with seeds that are disseminated in their feces (endozoochory) at considerable distances (average: 1.25 km after 24 hr of average transit time). Endozoochory through the gut causes loss of the cuticle protection and tegumentary dormancy, as well as an increase in size by water uptake. Thus, after gut passage, seeds are better able to germinate. We consider other primate species as a potential seed disperser and conclude that Dialium germination is dependent on passage through bonobo guts. This plant-animal interaction highlights positive effects between two major organisms of the Congo basin rainforest, and establishes the role of the bonobo as an efficient disperser of Dialium seeds. Periodicals, Inc. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Cancer classification: Mutual information, target network and strategies of therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Wen-Chin; Liu, Chan-Cheng; Chang, Fu; Chen, Su-Shing

    2012-10-02

    Cancer therapy is a challenging research area because side effects often occur in chemo and radiation therapy. We intend to study a multi-targets and multi-components design that will provide synergistic results to improve efficiency of cancer therapy. We have developed a general methodology, AMFES (Adaptive Multiple FEature Selection), for ranking and selecting important cancer biomarkers based on SVM (Support Vector Machine) classification. In particular, we exemplify this method by three datasets: a prostate cancer (three stages), a breast cancer (four subtypes), and another prostate cancer (normal vs. cancerous). Moreover, we have computed the target networks of these biomarkers as the signatures of the cancers with additional information (mutual information between biomarkers of the network). Then, we proposed a robust framework for synergistic therapy design approach which includes varies existing mechanisms. These methodologies were applied to three GEO datasets: GSE18655 (three prostate stages), GSE19536 (4 subtypes breast cancers) and GSE21036 (prostate cancer cells and normal cells) shown in. We selected 96 biomarkers for first prostate cancer dataset (three prostate stages), 72 for breast cancer (luminal A vs. luminal B), 68 for breast cancer (basal-like vs. normal-like), and 22 for another prostate cancer (cancerous vs. normal. In addition, we obtained statistically significant results of mutual information, which demonstrate that the dependencies among these biomarkers can be positive or negative. We proposed an efficient feature ranking and selection scheme, AMFES, to select an important subset from a large number of features for any cancer dataset. Thus, we obtained the signatures of these cancers by building their target networks. Finally, we proposed a robust framework of synergistic therapy for cancer patients. Our framework is not only supported by real GEO datasets but also aim to a multi-targets/multi-components drug design tool, which improves

  2. MIRA: mutual information-based reporter algorithm for metabolic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicek, A Ercument; Roeder, Kathryn; Ozsoyoglu, Gultekin

    2014-06-15

    Discovering the transcriptional regulatory architecture of the metabolism has been an important topic to understand the implications of transcriptional fluctuations on metabolism. The reporter algorithm (RA) was proposed to determine the hot spots in metabolic networks, around which transcriptional regulation is focused owing to a disease or a genetic perturbation. Using a z-score-based scoring scheme, RA calculates the average statistical change in the expression levels of genes that are neighbors to a target metabolite in the metabolic network. The RA approach has been used in numerous studies to analyze cellular responses to the downstream genetic changes. In this article, we propose a mutual information-based multivariate reporter algorithm (MIRA) with the goal of eliminating the following problems in detecting reporter metabolites: (i) conventional statistical methods suffer from small sample sizes, (ii) as z-score ranges from minus to plus infinity, calculating average scores can lead to canceling out opposite effects and (iii) analyzing genes one by one, then aggregating results can lead to information loss. MIRA is a multivariate and combinatorial algorithm that calculates the aggregate transcriptional response around a metabolite using mutual information. We show that MIRA's results are biologically sound, empirically significant and more reliable than RA. We apply MIRA to gene expression analysis of six knockout strains of Escherichia coli and show that MIRA captures the underlying metabolic dynamics of the switch from aerobic to anaerobic respiration. We also apply MIRA to an Autism Spectrum Disorder gene expression dataset. Results indicate that MIRA reports metabolites that highly overlap with recently found metabolic biomarkers in the autism literature. Overall, MIRA is a promising algorithm for detecting metabolic drug targets and understanding the relation between gene expression and metabolic activity. The code is implemented in C# language using

  3. Trade-offs in an ant-plant-fungus mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orivel, Jérôme; Malé, Pierre-Jean; Lauth, Jérémie; Roux, Olivier; Petitclerc, Frédéric; Dejean, Alain; Leroy, Céline

    2017-03-15

    Species engaged in multiple, simultaneous mutualisms are subject to trade-offs in their mutualistic investment if the traits involved in each interaction are overlapping, which can lead to conflicts and affect the longevity of these associations. We investigate this issue via a tripartite mutualism involving an ant plant, two competing ant species and a fungus the ants cultivate to build galleries under the stems of their host plant to capture insect prey. The use of the galleries represents an innovative prey capture strategy compared with the more typical strategy of foraging on leaves. However, because of a limited worker force in their colonies, the prey capture behaviour of the ants results in a trade-off between plant protection (i.e. the ants patrol the foliage and attack intruders including herbivores) and ambushing prey in the galleries, which has a cascading effect on the fitness of all of the partners. The quantification of partners' traits and effects showed that the two ant species differed in their mutualistic investment. Less investment in the galleries (i.e. in fungal cultivation) translated into more benefits for the plant in terms of less herbivory and higher growth rates and vice versa. However, the greater vegetative growth of the plants did not produce a positive fitness effect for the better mutualistic ant species in terms of colony size and production of sexuals nor was the mutualist compensated by the wider dispersal of its queens. As a consequence, although the better ant mutualist is the one that provides more benefits to its host plant, its lower host-plant exploitation does not give this ant species a competitive advantage. The local coexistence of the ant species is thus fleeting and should eventually lead to the exclusion of the less competitive species. © 2017 The Author(s).

  4. MIDER: network inference with mutual information distance and entropy reduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro F Villaverde

    Full Text Available The prediction of links among variables from a given dataset is a task referred to as network inference or reverse engineering. It is an open problem in bioinformatics and systems biology, as well as in other areas of science. Information theory, which uses concepts such as mutual information, provides a rigorous framework for addressing it. While a number of information-theoretic methods are already available, most of them focus on a particular type of problem, introducing assumptions that limit their generality. Furthermore, many of these methods lack a publicly available implementation. Here we present MIDER, a method for inferring network structures with information theoretic concepts. It consists of two steps: first, it provides a representation of the network in which the distance among nodes indicates their statistical closeness. Second, it refines the prediction of the existing links to distinguish between direct and indirect interactions and to assign directionality. The method accepts as input time-series data related to some quantitative features of the network nodes (such as e.g. concentrations, if the nodes are chemical species. It takes into account time delays between variables, and allows choosing among several definitions and normalizations of mutual information. It is general purpose: it may be applied to any type of network, cellular or otherwise. A Matlab implementation including source code and data is freely available (http://www.iim.csic.es/~gingproc/mider.html. The performance of MIDER has been evaluated on seven different benchmark problems that cover the main types of cellular networks, including metabolic, gene regulatory, and signaling. Comparisons with state of the art information-theoretic methods have demonstrated the competitive performance of MIDER, as well as its versatility. Its use does not demand any a priori knowledge from the user; the default settings and the adaptive nature of the method provide good

  5. MIDER: network inference with mutual information distance and entropy reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaverde, Alejandro F; Ross, John; Morán, Federico; Banga, Julio R

    2014-01-01

    The prediction of links among variables from a given dataset is a task referred to as network inference or reverse engineering. It is an open problem in bioinformatics and systems biology, as well as in other areas of science. Information theory, which uses concepts such as mutual information, provides a rigorous framework for addressing it. While a number of information-theoretic methods are already available, most of them focus on a particular type of problem, introducing assumptions that limit their generality. Furthermore, many of these methods lack a publicly available implementation. Here we present MIDER, a method for inferring network structures with information theoretic concepts. It consists of two steps: first, it provides a representation of the network in which the distance among nodes indicates their statistical closeness. Second, it refines the prediction of the existing links to distinguish between direct and indirect interactions and to assign directionality. The method accepts as input time-series data related to some quantitative features of the network nodes (such as e.g. concentrations, if the nodes are chemical species). It takes into account time delays between variables, and allows choosing among several definitions and normalizations of mutual information. It is general purpose: it may be applied to any type of network, cellular or otherwise. A Matlab implementation including source code and data is freely available (http://www.iim.csic.es/~gingproc/mider.html). The performance of MIDER has been evaluated on seven different benchmark problems that cover the main types of cellular networks, including metabolic, gene regulatory, and signaling. Comparisons with state of the art information-theoretic methods have demonstrated the competitive performance of MIDER, as well as its versatility. Its use does not demand any a priori knowledge from the user; the default settings and the adaptive nature of the method provide good results for a wide

  6. Solvation of polymers as mutual association. I. General theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudowicz, Jacek; Freed, Karl F.; Douglas, Jack F.

    2013-04-01

    A Flory-Huggins (FH) type lattice theory of self-assembly is generalized to describe the equilibrium solvation of long polymer chains B by small solvent molecules A. Solvation is modeled as a thermally reversible mutual association between the polymer and a relatively low molar mass solvent. The FH Helmholtz free energy F is derived for a mixture composed of the A and B species and the various possible mutual association complexes AiB, and F is then used to generate expressions for basic thermodynamic properties of solvated polymer solutions, including the size distribution of the solvated clusters, the fraction of solvent molecules contained in solvated states (an order parameter for solvation), the specific heat (which exhibits a maximum at the solvation transition), the second and the third osmotic virial coefficients, and the boundaries for phase stability of the mixture. Special attention is devoted to the analysis of the "entropic" contribution χs to the FH interaction parameter χ of polymer solutions, both with and without associative interactions. The entropic χs parameter arises from correlations associated with polymer chain connectivity and disparities in molecular structure between the components of the mixture. Our analysis provides the first explanation of the longstanding enigma of why χs for polymer solutions significantly exceeds χs for binary polymer blends. Our calculations also reveal that χs becomes temperature dependent when interactions are strong, in sharp contrast to models currently being used for fitting thermodynamic data of associating polymer-solvent mixtures, where χs is simply assumed to be an adjustable constant based on experience with solutions of homopolymers in nonassociating solvents.

  7. A novel plant-fungal mutualism associated with fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baynes, Melissa; Newcombe, George; Dixon, Linley; Castlebury, Lisa; O'Donnell, Kerry

    2012-01-01

    Bromus tectorum, or cheatgrass, is native to Eurasia and widely invasive in western North America. By late spring, this annual plant has dispersed its seed and died; its aboveground biomass then becomes fine fuel that burns as frequently as once every 3-5 y in its invaded range. Cheatgrass has proven to be better adapted to fire there than many competing plants, but the contribution of its fungal symbionts to this adaptation had not previously been studied. In sampling cheatgrass endophytes, many fire-associated fungi were found, including Morchella in three western states (New Mexico, Idaho, and Washington). In greenhouse experiments, a New Mexico isolate of Morchella increased both the biomass and fecundity of its local cheatgrass population, thus simultaneously increasing both the probability of fire and survival of that event, via more fuel and a greater, belowground seed bank, respectively. Re-isolation efforts proved that Morchella could infect cheatgrass roots in a non-mycorrhizal manner and then grow up into aboveground tissues. The same Morchella isolate also increased survival of seed exposed to heat typical of that which develops in the seed bank during a cheatgrass fire. Phylogenetic analysis of Eurasian and North American Morchella revealed that this fire-associated mutualism was evolutionarily novel, in that cheatgrass isolates belonged to two phylogenetically distinct species, or phylotypes, designated Mel-6 and Mel-12 whose evolutionary origin appears to be within western North America. Mutualisms with fire-associated fungi may be contributing to the cheatgrass invasion of western North America. Copyright © 2011 British Mycological Society. All rights reserved.

  8. Re-thinking employee recognition: understanding employee experiences of recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    Despite widespread acceptance of the importance of employee recognition for both individuals and organisations and evidence of its increasing use in organisations, employee recognition has received relatively little focused attention from academic researchers. Particularly lacking is research exploring the lived experience of employee recognition and the interpretations and meanings which individuals give to these experiences. Drawing on qualitative interviews conducted as part of my PhD rese...

  9. Unbundling the Expense Ratio: Hidden Distribution Costs in European Mutual Fund Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Navone, Marco; Nocera, Giacomo

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Using data on more than 5,000 mutual funds domiciled in four European countries in 2006, we investigate whether distribution costs embedded into the expense ratio can be held responsible for the differences of expense ratios of mutual funds in different countries. We confirm the existence of relevant country effects in the pricing of mutual fund management services. Comparing load and no-load funds and using survey data on fee retrocession to the distribution channel, ...

  10. Cognitive-Processing Bias in Chinese Student Teachers with Strong and Weak Professional Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-Qiang; Zhu, Jun-Cheng; Liu, Lu; Chen, Xiang-Yu

    2017-01-01

    Professional identity plays an important role in career development. Although many studies have examined professional identity, differences in cognitive-processing biases between Chinese student teachers with strong and weak professional identity are poorly understood. The current study adopted Tversky's social-cognitive experimental paradigm to explore cognitive-processing biases in Chinese student teachers with strong and weak professional identity. Experiment 1 showed that participants with strong professional identity exhibited stronger positive-coding bias toward positive profession-related life events, relative to that observed in those with weak professional identity. Experiment 2 showed that participants with strong professional identity exhibited greater recognition bias for previously read items, relative to that observed in those with weak professional identity. Overall, the results suggested that participants with strong professional identity exhibited greater positive cognitive-processing bias relative to that observed in those with weak professional identity.

  11. Cognitive-Processing Bias in Chinese Student Teachers with Strong and Weak Professional Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-qiang; Zhu, Jun-cheng; Liu, Lu; Chen, Xiang-yu

    2017-01-01

    Professional identity plays an important role in career development. Although many studies have examined professional identity, differences in cognitive-processing biases between Chinese student teachers with strong and weak professional identity are poorly understood. The current study adopted Tversky’s social-cognitive experimental paradigm to explore cognitive-processing biases in Chinese student teachers with strong and weak professional identity. Experiment 1 showed that participants with strong professional identity exhibited stronger positive-coding bias toward positive profession-related life events, relative to that observed in those with weak professional identity. Experiment 2 showed that participants with strong professional identity exhibited greater recognition bias for previously read items, relative to that observed in those with weak professional identity. Overall, the results suggested that participants with strong professional identity exhibited greater positive cognitive-processing bias relative to that observed in those with weak professional identity. PMID:28555123

  12. Evidence-based recommendations to facilitate professional collaboration between allopathic and traditional health practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel M. (Dalena van Rooyen

    2017-10-01

    Purpose of the research: To develop evidence-based recommendations aimed at facilitating professional collaboration between allopathic and traditional health practitioners for the benefit of patients. Methodology: Descriptive evidence-based recommendations to enhance professional collaboration between both groups of health practitioners were developed based on focus group interviews with allopathic practitioners (n = 10 and individual interviews with traditional health practitioners (n = 18 (traditional health practitioners (n = 14 and traditional healers who are also allopathic health practitioners (n = 4 practising in the Amathole District in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Dickoff et al.'s (1968 Survey List wasused as a conceptual framework. Results: Collaboration was hampered by allopathic practitioners demonstrating negative attitudes by not referring patients to traditional practitioners based on lack of knowledge and mutual understanding of each other's practices. Suggestions for collaboration made by both groups resulted in the development of two distinct sets of evidence-based recommendations.The first set of recommendations aims to enhance professional collaboration between both groups of health practitioners. This is done through facilitating mutual understanding based on respect and acceptance between the different practitioners. The second set of recommendations aims to enhance professional collaboration through facilitating open communication between different practitioners. Conclusion: These evidence-based recommendations can be used to facilitate professional collaboration between allopathic and traditional health practitioners resulting in mutual understanding and open communication, enhancing team work in a multi-professional environment, and ultimately leading to improved patient care.

  13. The Reliability of Facial Recognition of Deceased Persons on Photographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplova, Zuzana; Obertova, Zuzana; Gibelli, Daniele M; Mazzarelli, Debora; Fracasso, Tony; Vanezis, Peter; Sforza, Chiarella; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2017-09-01

    In humanitarian emergencies, such as the current deceased migrants in the Mediterranean, antemortem documentation needed for identification may be limited. The use of visual identification has been previously reported in cases of mass disasters such as Thai tsunami. This pilot study explores the ability of observers to match unfamiliar faces of living and dead persons and whether facial morphology can be used for identification. A questionnaire was given to 41 students and five professionals in the field of forensic identification with the task to choose whether a facial photograph corresponds to one of the five photographs in a lineup and to identify the most useful features used for recognition. Although the overall recognition score did not significantly differ between professionals and students, the median scores of 78.1% and 80.0%, respectively, were too low to consider this method as a reliable identification method and thus needs to be supported by other means. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  14. PERFORMANCE PERSISTENCE OF TURKISH A AND B TYPE MUTUAL FUNDS: THE PARAMETRIC AND NONPARAMETRIC APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VELİ AKEL

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, single index models are applied to a free survivorship bias database of 51 A and 51 B Types Turkish mutual funds using monthly returns over 5 years from 2000 to 2004. Then, it has been investigated whether mutual fund managers have market timing ability. Turkish Institutional Investment Managers’ Association A and B Type Fund Indexes are firstly used as benchmark portfolios. The challenging question is whether Turkish mutual funds have performance persistency over the short and long term or not. This study uses both parametric and non-parametric techniques to examine performance persistence. The overall conclusion is that Type A mutual funds managers do not have stock selection and market timing ability. However, Type B mutual funds managers do have stock selection ability. Type A mutual funds show evidence of relative and absolute persistence in the short term while Type B mutual funds show significant results of relative and absolute persistence in both of the terms. Although there are various results in performance persistence of mutual funds, the repeat winner phenomenon is stronger over shorter periods of evaluation. Consequently, it seems that Turkish mutual funds have performance persistency at least for the short term.

  15. Resource Availability Modulates the Cooperative and Competitive Nature of a Microbial Cross-Feeding Mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoek, Tim A; Axelrod, Kevin; Biancalani, Tommaso; Yurtsev, Eugene A; Liu, Jinghui; Gore, Jeff

    2016-08-01

    Mutualisms between species play an important role in ecosystem function and stability. However, in some environments, the competitive aspects of an interaction may dominate the mutualistic aspects. Although these transitions could have far-reaching implications, it has been difficult to study the causes and consequences of this mutualistic-competitive transition in experimentally tractable systems. Here, we study a microbial cross-feeding mutualism in which each yeast strain supplies an essential amino acid for its partner strain. We find that, depending upon the amount of freely available amino acid in the environment, this pair of strains can exhibit an obligatory mutualism, facultative mutualism, competition, parasitism, competitive exclusion, or failed mutualism leading to extinction of the population. A simple model capturing the essential features of this interaction explains how resource availability modulates the interaction and predicts that changes in the dynamics of the mutualism in deteriorating environments can provide advance warning that collapse of the mutualism is imminent. We confirm this prediction experimentally by showing that, in the high nutrient competitive regime, the strains rapidly reach a common carrying capacity before slowly reaching the equilibrium ratio between the strains. However, in the low nutrient regime, before collapse of the obligate mutualism, we find that the ratio rapidly reaches its equilibrium and it is the total abundance that is slow to reach equilibrium. Our results provide a general framework for how mutualisms may transition between qualitatively different regimes of interaction in response to changes in nutrient availability in the environment.

  16. Human activity recognition and prediction

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a unique view of human activity recognition, especially fine-grained human activity structure learning, human-interaction recognition, RGB-D data based action recognition, temporal decomposition, and causality learning in unconstrained human activity videos. The techniques discussed give readers tools that provide a significant improvement over existing methodologies of video content understanding by taking advantage of activity recognition. It links multiple popular research fields in computer vision, machine learning, human-centered computing, human-computer interaction, image classification, and pattern recognition. In addition, the book includes several key chapters covering multiple emerging topics in the field. Contributed by top experts and practitioners, the chapters present key topics from different angles and blend both methodology and application, composing a solid overview of the human activity recognition techniques. .

  17. Administrative Circular No. 26 (Rev.10) - Recognition of merit

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    Administrative Circular No. 26 (Rev. 10) entitled “Recognition of Merit”, approved by the Director-General following discussion at the Standing Concertation Committee meeting of 5 December 2013 and entering into force on 1 January 2014, is available on the intranet site of the Human Resources Department (see here).   This circular is applicable to staff members. It cancels and replaces Administrative Circular No. 26 (Rev. 9) entitled “Recognition of Merit” of December 2011. The circular was revised in order to take into account the work performed in the framework of an elective mandate during the exercise of merit recognition of staff members. In addition, the circular was revised to provide that, in the case of staff members on special leave for professional reasons for a period equal to or longer than half a year, it will no longer be possible to grant an exceptional advancement. Department Head Office HR Department

  18. Radically enhanced molecular recognition

    KAUST Repository

    Trabolsi, Ali

    2009-12-17

    The tendency for viologen radical cations to dimerize has been harnessed to establish a recognition motif based on their ability to form extremely strong inclusion complexes with cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) in its diradical dicationic redox state. This previously unreported complex involving three bipyridinium cation radicals increases the versatility of host-guest chemistry, extending its practice beyond the traditional reliance on neutral and charged guests and hosts. In particular, transporting the concept of radical dimerization into the field of mechanically interlocked molecules introduces a higher level of control within molecular switches and machines. Herein, we report that bistable and tristable [2]rotaxanes can be switched by altering electrochemical potentials. In a tristable [2]rotaxane composed of a cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) ring and a dumbbell with tetrathiafulvalene, dioxynaphthalene and bipyridinium recognition sites, the position of the ring can be switched. On oxidation, it moves from the tetrathiafulvalene to the dioxynaphthalene, and on reduction, to the bipyridinium radical cation, provided the ring is also reduced simultaneously to the diradical dication. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  19. Deep Learning For Smile Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Glauner, Patrick O.

    2016-01-01

    Inspired by recent successes of deep learning in computer vision, we propose a novel application of deep convolutional neural networks to facial expression recognition, in particular smile recognition. A smile recognition test accuracy of 99.45% is achieved for the Denver Intensity of Spontaneous Facial Action (DISFA) database, significantly outperforming existing approaches based on hand-crafted features with accuracies ranging from 65.55% to 79.67%. The novelty of this approach includes a c...

  20. Research of speech recognition methods

    OpenAIRE

    Prokopovič, Valerij

    2005-01-01

    Two speech recognition methods: Dynamic Time Warping and Hidden Markov model based methods were investigated in this work To estimate efficiency of the methods, speaker dependent and speaker independent isolated word recognition experiments were performed. During experimental research it was determined that Dynamic Time Warping method is suitable only for speaker dependent speech recognition. Hidden Markov model based method is suitable for both – speaker dependent and speaker independent spe...

  1. Pilgrims Face Recognition Dataset -- HUFRD

    OpenAIRE

    Aly, Salah A.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we define a new pilgrims face recognition dataset, called HUFRD dataset. The new developed dataset presents various pilgrims' images taken from outside the Holy Masjid El-Harram in Makkah during the 2011-2012 Hajj and Umrah seasons. Such dataset will be used to test our developed facial recognition and detection algorithms, as well as assess in the missing and found recognition system \\cite{crowdsensing}.

  2. LPI Radar Waveform Recognition Based on Time-Frequency Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an automatic radar waveform recognition system in a high noise environment is proposed. Signal waveform recognition techniques are widely applied in the field of cognitive radio, spectrum management and radar applications, etc. We devise a system to classify the modulating signals widely used in low probability of intercept (LPI radar detection systems. The radar signals are divided into eight types of classifications, including linear frequency modulation (LFM, BPSK (Barker code modulation, Costas codes and polyphase codes (comprising Frank, P1, P2, P3 and P4. The classifier is Elman neural network (ENN, and it is a supervised classification based on features extracted from the system. Through the techniques of image filtering, image opening operation, skeleton extraction, principal component analysis (PCA, image binarization algorithm and Pseudo–Zernike moments, etc., the features are extracted from the Choi–Williams time-frequency distribution (CWD image of the received data. In order to reduce the redundant features and simplify calculation, the features selection algorithm based on mutual information between classes and features vectors are applied. The superiority of the proposed classification system is demonstrated by the simulations and analysis. Simulation results show that the overall ratio of successful recognition (RSR is 94.7% at signal-to-noise ratio (SNR of −2 dB.

  3. Recognition of bite marks in child abuse cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessee, S A

    1994-01-01

    Health professionals must be attentive to any and all signs of child maltreatment. Bite marks are one of several visual expressions of active child abuse. The efforts of forensic odontologists, in conjunction with recent technical advancements in bite mark analysis, support the uniqueness of the human dentition and have contributed to the conviction of numerous child abusers. Through recognition, proper documentation, and reporting dentists can help the forensic community use bite marks to solve cases of child maltreatment.

  4. Markov Models for Handwriting Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Plotz, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Since their first inception, automatic reading systems have evolved substantially, yet the recognition of handwriting remains an open research problem due to its substantial variation in appearance. With the introduction of Markovian models to the field, a promising modeling and recognition paradigm was established for automatic handwriting recognition. However, no standard procedures for building Markov model-based recognizers have yet been established. This text provides a comprehensive overview of the application of Markov models in the field of handwriting recognition, covering both hidden

  5. Speech Recognition on Mobile Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Zheng-Hua; Lindberg, Børge

    2010-01-01

    The enthusiasm of deploying automatic speech recognition (ASR) on mobile devices is driven both by remarkable advances in ASR technology and by the demand for efficient user interfaces on such devices as mobile phones and personal digital assistants (PDAs). This chapter presents an overview of ASR...... in the mobile context covering motivations, challenges, fundamental techniques and applications. Three ASR architectures are introduced: embedded speech recognition, distributed speech recognition and network speech recognition. Their pros and cons and implementation issues are discussed. Applications within...... command and control, text entry and search are presented with an emphasis on mobile text entry....

  6. Molecular Mechanisms of Odor Recognition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anholt, Robert

    2000-01-01

    .... We characterized the transduction pathway for the recognition of pheromones in the vomeronasal organ and also characterized subpopulations of olfactory neurons expressing different axonal G proteins...

  7. Feature Extraction for Facial Expression Recognition based on Hybrid Face Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAJEVARDI, S.M.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Facial expression recognition has numerous applications, including psychological research, improved human computer interaction, and sign language translation. A novel facial expression recognition system based on hybrid face regions (HFR is investigated. The expression recognition system is fully automatic, and consists of the following modules: face detection, facial detection, feature extraction, optimal features selection, and classification. The features are extracted from both whole face image and face regions (eyes and mouth using log Gabor filters. Then, the most discriminate features are selected based on mutual information criteria. The system can automatically recognize six expressions: anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness and surprise. The selected features are classified using the Naive Bayesian (NB classifier. The proposed method has been extensively assessed using Cohn-Kanade database and JAFFE database. The experiments have highlighted the efficiency of the proposed HFR method in enhancing the classification rate.

  8. Towards professionalism in agricultural extension: The professional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Towards professionalism in agricultural extension: The professional registration of Extensionists in South Africa – A dream or a reality? The role of the South African Society of Extensionists in South Africa – A dream or a reality? The role of the South African Society of Agricultural Extension (SASAE)

  9. Professional development of distance education professionals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    Professional development of distance education professionals (DEPs) at TSA: a profile of functions. J.F. van Koller. Institute for Staff Development, Technikon SA, Private Bag X6, Florida, 1710 South Africa jvcoller@tsa.ac.za. This article deals with the development of a profile of the functions and required competencies of ...

  10. Teacher Professionalism: Analysis of Professionalism Phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardoyo, Cipto; Herdiani, Aulia; Sulikah

    2017-01-01

    Teacher professionalism has become a distinctive concern in educational discussions. Based on Teacher and Lecturer Act No.14 2005 carried out by Indonesian Government, teacher professionalism, considered as an assessment aspect of teacher quality, could be drawn by four competences, pedagogical competence, personal, competence, social competence,…

  11. Professional Environment for Teacher Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zascerinska, Jelena

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. Teaching and training are at the heart of the knowledge society where the continuing professional development of teachers and trainers provides the cornerstone for the development of a high quality education and training systems. The Aim of the Study. To identify a design of professional environment for teacher professional…

  12. Transforming Professional Development to Professional Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Chelsea

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews teacher professional development norms as they are shifting toward collaborative practice. It is posed that passive and individual practices are inadequate to prepare teachers to integrate the academic skills that learners need for both workforce and college readiness. Promising practices in professional development are…

  13. Professional Development Plus: Rethinking Professional Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudak, Michele

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of professional development is to enhance educator practices so that students may achieve at high levels. Too often, professional development tends to be too broad, general, or unrelated to problems of practice that teachers face in their own classrooms. This action research project builds upon the scholarly research that recognizes…

  14. The origin of the attine ant-fungus mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, U G; Schultz, T R; Currie, C R; Adams, R M; Malloch, D

    2001-06-01

    Cultivation of fungus for food originated about 45-65 million years ago in the ancestor of fungus-growing ants (Formicidae, tribe Attini), representing an evolutionary transition from the life of a hunter-gatherer of arthropod prey, nectar, and other plant juices, to the life of a farmer subsisting on cultivated fungi. Seven hypotheses have been suggested for the origin of attine fungiculture, each differing with respect to the substrate used by the ancestral attine ants for fungal cultivation. Phylogenetic information on the cultivated fungi, in conjunction with information on the nesting biology of extant attine ants and their presumed closest relatives, reveal that the attine ancestors probably did not encounter their cultivars-to-be in seed stores (von Ihering 1894), in rotting wood (Forel 1902), as mycorrhizae (Garling 1979), on arthropod corpses (von Ihering 1894) or ant faeces in nest middens (Wheeler 1907). Rather, the attine ant-fungus mutualism probably arose from adventitious interactions with fungi that grew on walls of nests built in leaf litter (Emery 1899), or from a system of fungal myrmecochory in which specialized fungi relied on ants for dispersal (Bailey 1920) and in which the ants fortuitously vectored these fungi from parent to offspring nests prior to a true fungicultural stage. Reliance on fungi as a dominant food source has evolved only twice in ants: first in the attine ants, and second in some ant species in the solenopsidine genus Megalomyrmex that either coexist as trophic parasites in gardens of attine hosts or aggressively usurp gardens from them. All other known ant-fungus associations are either adventitious or have nonnutritional functions (e.g., strengthening of carton-walls in ant nests). There exist no unambiguous reports of facultative mycophagy in ants, but such trophic ant-fungus interactions would most likely occur underground or in leaf litter and thus escape easy observation. Indirect evidence of fungivory can be deduced

  15. Masculinities among irrigation engineers and water professionals in Nepal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liebrand, J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary This thesis documents my attempt to study masculinities among irrigation engineers and water professionals in Nepal. It is based on the recognition that more than two decades of mainstreaming gender in development research and policy have failed to come to grips with the

  16. North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service Professionals' Attitudes toward Sustainable Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minarovic, Rosanne E.; Mueller, J. Paul

    2000-01-01

    Responses from 369 of 500 extension professionals reflected a shared vision for sustainable agriculture and recognition of a need for environmentally sound farming practices. There was less unanimity about endorsing the social aspects of sustainable agriculture, though they agreed on the need for more systems research. (SK)

  17. Professional differences in antigen presentation to iNKT cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Libero, Gennaro; Mori, Lucia

    2014-01-16

    Invariant natural killer T cells are preactivated lymphocytes that react upon recognition of CD1d-antigen complexes. Accordingly, any type of CD1d-positive cell could behave as antigen-presenting cell (APC). In this issue of Immunity, Arora et al. (2014), report that professional APCs still make the difference. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Bringing Critical Thinking to the Education of Developing Country Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Jonathan E. D.

    2007-01-01

    Cultural differences between Asia and the West and their influence on teaching, are reviewed along with previous experiments in bringing critical thinking to Asian education, and recognition of needs for and barriers to achieving change. Principles driving design and implementation of a two-course sequence in professional transportation studies…

  19. SAR: Stroke Authorship Recognition

    KAUST Repository

    Shaheen, Sara

    2015-10-15

    Are simple strokes unique to the artist or designer who renders them? If so, can this idea be used to identify authorship or to classify artistic drawings? Also, could training methods be devised to develop particular styles? To answer these questions, we propose the Stroke Authorship Recognition (SAR) approach, a novel method that distinguishes the authorship of 2D digitized drawings. SAR converts a drawing into a histogram of stroke attributes that is discriminative of authorship. We provide extensive classification experiments on a large variety of data sets, which validate SAR\\'s ability to distinguish unique authorship of artists and designers. We also demonstrate the usefulness of SAR in several applications including the detection of fraudulent sketches, the training and monitoring of artists in learning a particular new style and the first quantitative way to measure the quality of automatic sketch synthesis tools. © 2015 The Eurographics Association and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Iris Recognition Using Wavelet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaliq Masood

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Biometric systems are getting more attention in the present era. Iris recognition is one of the most secure and authentic among the other biometrics and this field demands more authentic, reliable and fast algorithms to implement these biometric systems in real time. In this paper, an efficient localization technique is presented to identify pupil and iris boundaries using histogram of the iris image. Two small portions of iris have been used for polar transformation to reduce computational time and to increase the efficiency of the system. Wavelet transform is used for feature vector generation. Rotation of iris is compensated without shifts in the iris code. System is tested on Multimedia University Iris Database and results show that proposed system has encouraging performance.

  1. Automatic speech recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espy-Wilson, Carol

    2005-04-01

    Great strides have been made in the development of automatic speech recognition (ASR) technology over the past thirty years. Most of this effort has been centered around the extension and improvement of Hidden Markov Model (HMM) approaches to ASR. Current commercially-available and industry systems based on HMMs can perform well for certain situational tasks that restrict variability such as phone dialing or limited voice commands. However, the holy grail of ASR systems is performance comparable to humans-in other words, the ability to automatically transcribe unrestricted conversational speech spoken by an infinite number of speakers under varying acoustic environments. This goal is far from being reached. Key to the success of ASR is effective modeling of variability in the speech signal. This tutorial will review the basics of ASR and the various ways in which our current knowledge of speech production, speech perception and prosody can be exploited to improve robustness at every level of the system.

  2. The Legal Recognition of Sign Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Meulder, Maartje

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an analytical overview of the different types of explicit legal recognition of sign languages. Five categories are distinguished: constitutional recognition, recognition by means of general language legislation, recognition by means of a sign language law or act, recognition by means of a sign language law or act including…

  3. Measuring the influence of a mutual support educational intervention within a nursing team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renée Bridges

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: The study demonstrates that education can have an impact on perceptions and awareness of mutual support among nursing team members. The survey instrument can be used effectively to inform leadership areas for improvement and staff development in the effort to improve team coordination and mutual support.

  4. 31 CFR 103.15 - Reports by mutual funds of suspicious transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FINANCIAL RECORDKEEPING AND REPORTING OF CURRENCY AND FOREIGN TRANSACTIONS Reports Required To Be Made § 103.15 Reports by mutual funds of suspicious transactions. (a) General. (1) Every investment company (as... pursuant to that Act (for purposes of this section, a “mutual fund”), shall file with the Financial Crimes...

  5. 12 CFR 250.406 - Serving member bank and investment advisor with mutual fund affiliation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... management services to mutual funds and others (“Manager”) and as director of a member bank. (b) Section 32...”), serves as distributor for the two mutual funds and has no other function. In addition, the chairman and...) While the greater part of the total annual income of Manager during the past five years has derived from...

  6. 76 FR 66361 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Western National Mutual Insurance Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-26

    ... Fiscal Service Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Western National Mutual Insurance Company... INFORMATION: A Certificate of Authority as an acceptable surety on Federal bonds is hereby issued under 31 U.S.C. 9305 to the following company: Western National Mutual Insurance Company (NA1C 15377). Business...

  7. 26 CFR 1.501(c)(15)-1 - Mutual insurance companies or associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Mutual insurance companies or associations. 1.501... Mutual insurance companies or associations. (a) Taxable years beginning after December 31, 1962. An insurance company or association described in section 501(c)(15) is exempt under section 501(a) if it is a...

  8. 77 FR 8956 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Integrity Mutual Insurance Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ... Fiscal Service Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Integrity Mutual Insurance Company AGENCY.... 9305 to the following company: Integrity Mutual Insurance Company (NAIC 14303). Business Address: P.O... Certificates are subject to subsequent annual renewal as long as the companies remain qualified (see 31 CFR...

  9. 77 FR 8956 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Grange Mutual Casualty Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ... Fiscal Service Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Grange Mutual Casualty Company AGENCY.... 9305 to the following company: Grange Mutual Casualty Company (NAIC 14060). Business Address: 671 South... long as the companies remain qualified (see 31 CFR part 223). A list of qualified companies is...

  10. 78 FR 35359 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Amendment-Liberty Mutual Insurance Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Fiscal Service Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Amendment--Liberty Mutual Insurance Company... INFORMATION: The underwriting limitation for the following company has been amended: Liberty Mutual Insurance...

  11. Conflicting selection in the course of adaptive diversification: the interplay between mutualism and intraspecific competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimundo, Rafael L G; Gibert, Jean P; Hembry, David H; Guimarães, Paulo R

    2014-03-01

    Adaptive speciation can occur when a population undergoes assortative mating and disruptive selection caused by frequency-dependent intraspecific competition. However, other interactions, such as mutualisms based on trait matching, may generate conflicting selective pressures that constrain species diversification. We used individual-based simulations to explore how different types of mutualism affect adaptive diversification. A magic trait was assumed to simultaneously mediate mate choice, intraspecific competition, and mutualisms. In scenarios of intimate, specialized mutualisms, individuals interact with one or few individual mutualistic partners, and diversification is constrained only if the mutualism is obligate. In other scenarios, increasing numbers of different partners per individual limit diversification by generating stabilizing selection. Stabilizing selection emerges from the greater likelihood of trait mismatches for rare, extreme phenotypes than for common intermediate phenotypes. Constraints on diversification imposed by increased numbers of partners decrease if the trait matching degree has smaller positive effects on fitness. These results hold after the relaxation of various assumptions. When trait matching matters, mutualism-generated stabilizing selection would thus often constrain diversification in obligate mutualisms, such as ant-myrmecophyte associations, and in low-intimacy mutualisms, including plant-seed disperser systems. Hence, different processes, such as trait convergence favoring the incorporation of nonrelated species, are needed to explain the higher richness of low-intimacy assemblages--shown here to be up to 1 order of magnitude richer than high-intimacy systems.

  12. 45 CFR 30.27 - Mutual release of the debtor and the Government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mutual release of the debtor and the Government. 30.27 Section 30.27 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CLAIMS COLLECTION Debt Compromise § 30.27 Mutual release of the debtor and the Government. In all...

  13. 78 FR 77175 - Catalyst Capital Advisors LLC and Mutual Fund Series Trust; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-20

    ... COMMISSION Catalyst Capital Advisors LLC and Mutual Fund Series Trust; Notice of Application December 16... agreements without shareholder approval. APPLICANTS: Catalyst Capital Advisors LLC (``CCA'' or the ``Adviser'') and Mutual Fund Series Trust (formerly Catalyst Funds) (the ``Trust''). DATES: Filing Dates: The...

  14. 24 CFR 203.421 - Allocation of Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund income or loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Mortgage Insurance Fund and Distributive Shares § 203.421 Allocation of Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund... of the entire Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund, such net income or such loss to the General Surplus... into consideration all income received from fees, premiums and earnings on investments of the fund...

  15. 26 CFR 1.581-2 - Mutual savings banks, building and loan associations, and cooperative banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Mutual savings banks, building and loan associations, and cooperative banks. 1.581-2 Section 1.581-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... § 1.581-2 Mutual savings banks, building and loan associations, and cooperative banks. (a) While the...

  16. Strangers and Orphans: Knowledge and Mutuality in Mary Shelley's "Frankenstein"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Claudia Rozas

    2013-01-01

    Paulo Freire consistently upheld humanization and mutuality as educational ideals. This article argues that conceptualizations of knowledge and how knowledge is sought and produced play a role in fostering humanization and mutuality in educational contexts. Drawing on Mary Shelley's novel "Frankenstein," this article focuses on the…

  17. Mathematical Model of Linear Switched Reluctance Motor with Mutual Inductance Consideration

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolay Grebennikov; Alexander Kireev; Nikolay Kozhemyaka

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents developing an mathematical model for linear switched reluctance motor (LSRM) with account of the mutual inductance between the phases. Mutual interaction between the phases of LSRM gives the positive effect, as a rule the power of the machine is increased by 5-15%.

  18. Mutual Vulnerability: A Key Principle in a Humanising Pedagogy in Post-Conflict Societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinn, Denise; Proteus, Kimberley; Keet, Andre

    2009-01-01

    In this article we argue that education in post-conflict and traumatised societies should be partly underpinned by the principle of "mutual vulnerability" as central to a humanising pedagogy. We explain the conceptual links between "reconciliation pedagogies", "mutual vulnerability" and "humanising pedagogies" and associate them with the broader…

  19. 47 CFR 101.1317 - Competitive bidding procedures for mutually exclusive MAS EA applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... exclusive MAS EA applications. 101.1317 Section 101.1317 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... License Requirements § 101.1317 Competitive bidding procedures for mutually exclusive MAS EA applications. Mutually exclusive initial applications for licenses in the portions of the MAS bands licensed on a...

  20. Communicating with Professionals

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with your healthcare team about your concerns, asking questions and getting the facts. Usually, office visits and ... or other healthcare professionals. Find a list of questions to ask at your next appointment . Healthcare professionals ...

  1. Professionalism in anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Homer

    2017-02-01

    Is professionalism in medicine just another bureaucratic imposition on our practice or a fundamental concept for physicians at all stages in their career? In this review, the historical perspectives of professionalism are explored as well as the what, why, and how questions concerning this topic. The key words "professionalism" and "anesthesia" were used to conduct a search of the PubMed database, the policies and publications of relevant Canadian and international physician regulatory bodies and organizations, historical documents, and other internet publications. Professionalism in anesthesia has a long history. While there are many definitions for professionalism, some very dated, all are based on virtues, behaviour, or professional identity. Professionalism plays a central role in the balance between physician autonomy and social contract, and it has a significant impact on patient safety and medicolegal litigation. Considerable evidence exists to suggest that professionalism must be treated seriously, particularly in these times of social accountability and budgetary pressures.

  2. Communicating with Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Communicating with Professionals Updated:Oct 3,2016 After a cardiac event ... Medicines - Medicine Assistance Programs - Medicine Checklist - Medication Tracker ... with Professionals - Introduction - Preparing for Medical Visits - Questions To Ask ...

  3. Communicating with Healthcare Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Communicating with Professionals Updated:Oct 3,2016 After a cardiac event ... Medicines - Medicine Assistance Programs - Medicine Checklist - Medication Tracker ... with Professionals - Introduction - Preparing for Medical Visits - Questions To Ask ...

  4. Sex differences in razorbill (Family: Alcidae) parent-offspring vocal recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insley, Stephen J.; Paredes Vela, Rosana; Jones, Ian L.

    2002-05-01

    In this study we examines how a pattern of parental care may result in a sex bias in vocal recognition. In Razorbills (Alca torda), both sexes provide parental care to their chicks while at the nest, after which the male is the sole caregiver for an additional period at sea. Selection pressure acting on recognition behavior is expected to be strongest during the time when males and chicks are together at sea, and as a result, parent-offspring recognition was predicted to be better developed in the male parent, that is, show a paternal bias. In order to test this hypothesis, vocal playback experiments were conducted on breeding Razorbills at the Gannet Islands, Labrador, 2001. The data provide clear evidence of mutual vocal recognition between the male parent and chick but not between the female parent and chick, supporting the hypothesis that parent-offspring recognition is male biased in this species. In addition to acoustic recognition, such a bias could have important social implications for a variety of behavioral and basic life history traits such as cooperation and sex-biased dispersal.

  5. Jumping for recognition: Women's ski jumping viewed as a struggle for rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, W; Loland, S

    2017-03-01

    With the campaign for women's participation in international and Olympic ski jumping as a practical case, sport's potential for recognition of individual rights is explored. In line with Honneth's influential ethical theory, recognition of rights refers to a mutual recognition between persons of each other as rational and responsible agents with an equal right to take part in the public formation and development of their community or practice. The argument is that women ski jumpers were entitled to compete as they had actual and/or potential capabilities and skills to contribute in the public formation and development of their sport. Their exclusion was a violation of individual rights. At a more general level, sport is discussed as a sphere for recognition of rights. It is argued that the basic principles of equal opportunity to take part and to perform make sport a particularly clear and potent sphere for such recognition, and also for the identification of rights violations. In sport, rights, or the violation of rights, are demonstrated in concrete and embodied ways. It is concluded that struggles for recognition and individual rights are a continuous process in sport as in most other human institutions and practices. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Recognition-based judgments and decisions: What we have learned (so far

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian N. Marewski

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This special issue on recognition processes in inferential decision making represents an adversarial collaboration among the three guest editors. This introductory article to the special issue's third and final part comes in three sections. In Section 1, we summarize the six papers that appear in this part. In Section 2, we give a wrap-up of the lessons learned. Specifically, we discuss (i why studying the recognition heuristic has led to so much controversy, making it difficult to settle on mutually accepted empirically grounded assumptions, (ii whether the development of the recognition heuristic and its theoretical descriptions could explain some of the past controversies and misconceptions, (iii how additional cue knowledge about unrecognized objects could enter the decision process, (iv why recognition heuristic theory should be complemented by a probabilistic model of strategy selection, and (v how recognition information might be related to other information, especially when considering real-world applications. In Section 3, we present an outlook on the thorny but fruitful road to cumulative theory integration. Future research on recognition-based inferences should (i converge on overcoming past controversies, taking an integrative approach to theory building, and considering theories and findings from neighboring fields (such as marketing science and artificial intelligence, (ii build detailed computational process models of decision strategies, grounded in cognitive architectures, (iii test existing models of such strategies competitively, (iv design computational models of the mechanisms of strategy selection, and (v effectively extend its scope to decision making in the wild, outside controlled laboratory situations.

  7. FILTWAM and Voice Emotion Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bahreini, Kiavash; Nadolski, Rob; Westera, Wim

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the voice emotion recognition part of our framework for improving learning through webcams and microphones (FILTWAM). This framework enables multimodal emotion recognition of learners during game-based learning. The main goal of this study is to validate the use of microphone

  8. Face recognition using Krawtchouk moment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Feature extraction is one of the important tasks in face recognition. Moments are widely used feature extractor due to their superior discriminatory power and geometrical invariance. Moments generally capture the global features of the image. This paper proposes Krawtchouk moment for feature extraction in face recognition ...

  9. Sign Facilitation in Word Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wauters, Loes N.; Knoors, Harry E. T.; Vervloed, Mathijs P. J.; Aarnoutse, Cor A. J.

    2001-01-01

    This study examined whether use of sign language would facilitate reading word recognition by 16 deaf children (6- to 1 years-old) in the Netherlands. Results indicated that if words were learned through speech, accompanied by the relevant sign, accuracy of word recognition was greater than if words were learned solely through speech. (Contains…

  10. Iris Recognition - Beyond One Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matey, James R.; Kennell, Lauren R.

    Iris recognition Iris recognition is, arguably, the most robust form of biometric Biometrics identification. It has been deployed in large-scale systems that have been very effective. The systems deployed to date make use of iris Remote Biometric cameras that require significant user cooperation; that in turn imposes significant constraints on the deployment scenarios that are practical.

  11. Methods of Teaching Speech Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, Martha H.; Bailey, Glenn A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This article introduces the history and development of speech recognition, addresses its role in the business curriculum, outlines related national and state standards, describes instructional strategies, and discusses the assessment of student achievement in speech recognition classes. Methods: Research methods included a synthesis of…

  12. Side-View Face Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santemiz, P.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2010-01-01

    Side-view face recognition is a challenging problem with many applications. Especially in real-life scenarios where the environment is uncontrolled, coping with pose variations up to side-view positions is an important task for face recognition. In this paper we discuss the use of side view face

  13. Forensic Face Recognition: A Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Tauseef; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan

    2010-01-01

    Beside a few papers which focus on the forensic aspects of automatic face recognition, there is not much published about it in contrast to the literature on developing new techniques and methodologies for biometric face recognition. In this report, we review forensic facial identification which is

  14. Side-View Face Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santemiz, P.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; van den Biggelaar, Olivier

    As a widely used biometrics, face recognition has many advantages such as being non-intrusive, natural and passive. On the other hand, in real-life scenarios with uncontrolled environment, pose variation up to side-view positions makes face recognition a challenging work. In this paper we discuss

  15. Recognition of emotion in others

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frijda, N.H.; Paglieri, F.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter argues that recognition of emotion had a simple basis and a highly complex edifice above it. Its basis is formed by catching intent from expressive and other emotional behavior, using elementary principles of perceptual integration. In intent recognition, mirror neurons under particular

  16. Identifying Statistical Dependence in Genomic Sequences via Mutual Information Estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Szpankowski

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Questions of understanding and quantifying the representation and amount of information in organisms have become a central part of biological research, as they potentially hold the key to fundamental advances. In this paper, we demonstrate the use of information-theoretic tools for the task of identifying segments of biomolecules (DNA or RNA that are statistically correlated. We develop a precise and reliable methodology, based on the notion of mutual information, for finding and extracting statistical as well as structural dependencies. A simple threshold function is defined, and its use in quantifying the level of significance of dependencies between biological segments is explored. These tools are used in two specific applications. First, they are used for the identification of correlations between different parts of the maize zmSRp32 gene. There, we find significant dependencies between the 5′ untranslated region in zmSRp32 and its alternatively spliced exons. This observation may indicate the presence of as-yet unknown alternative splicing mechanisms or structural scaffolds. Second, using data from the FBI's combined DNA index system (CODIS, we demonstrate that our approach is particularly well suited for the problem of discovering short tandem repeats—an application of importance in genetic profiling.

  17. Mutual Value Co-Creation in Practitioner-Academia Collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rikke Kristine

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the research practice of practicable research by drawing a map of methodological in-roads to doing research with a view to bridging the practitioner-research gap and producing what has been termed as ‘actionable research’ by engaging closely with practitioners in the research...... of both academia and practice as main stakeholders in an industrial Ph.D. project or other projects with the ambition to create value in both camps simultaneously are debated based on the methodological map presented.......This paper addresses the research practice of practicable research by drawing a map of methodological in-roads to doing research with a view to bridging the practitioner-research gap and producing what has been termed as ‘actionable research’ by engaging closely with practitioners in the research...... process. The map includes three territories and methodological in-roads for doing research in close collaboration with practitioners with a view to mutual value creation and co-construction: Doing research, in/with(in), for and in-between organizations. The methodological reflections in the map...

  18. A new mutually reinforcing network node and link ranking algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenghua; Dueñas-Osorio, Leonardo; Padgett, Jamie E

    2015-10-23

    This study proposes a novel Normalized Wide network Ranking algorithm (NWRank) that has the advantage of ranking nodes and links of a network simultaneously. This algorithm combines the mutual reinforcement feature of Hypertext Induced Topic Selection (HITS) and the weight normalization feature of PageRank. Relative weights are assigned to links based on the degree of the adjacent neighbors and the Betweenness Centrality instead of assigning the same weight to every link as assumed in PageRank. Numerical experiment results show that NWRank performs consistently better than HITS, PageRank, eigenvector centrality, and edge betweenness from the perspective of network connectivity and approximate network flow, which is also supported by comparisons with the expensive N-1 benchmark removal criteria based on network efficiency. Furthermore, it can avoid some problems, such as the Tightly Knit Community effect, which exists in HITS. NWRank provides a new inexpensive way to rank nodes and links of a network, which has practical applications, particularly to prioritize resource allocation for upgrade of hierarchical and distributed networks, as well as to support decision making in the design of networks, where node and link importance depend on a balance of local and global integrity.

  19. Human attribute concepts: relative ubiquity across twelve mutually isolated languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saucier, Gerard; Thalmayer, Amber Gayle; Bel-Bahar, Tarik S

    2014-07-01

    It has been unclear which human-attribute concepts are most universal across languages. To identify common-denominator concepts, we used dictionaries for 12 mutually isolated languages-Maasai, Supyire Senoufo, Khoekhoe, Afar, Mara Chin, Hmong, Wik-Mungkan, Enga, Fijian, Inuktitut, Hopi, and Kuna-representing diverse cultural characteristics and language families, from multiple continents. A composite list of every person-descriptive term in each lexicon was closely examined to determine the content (in terms of English translation) most ubiquitous across languages. Study 1 identified 28 single-word concepts used to describe persons in all 12 languages, as well as 41 additional terms found in 11 of 12. Results indicated that attribute concepts related to morality and competence appear to be as cross-culturally ubiquitous as basic-emotion concepts. Formulations of universal-attribute concepts from Osgood and Wierzbicka were well-supported. Study 2 compared lexically based personality models on the relative ubiquity of key associated terms, finding that 1- and 2-dimensional models draw on markedly more ubiquitous terms than do 5- or 6-factor models. We suggest that ubiquitous attributes reflect common cultural as well as common biological processes.

  20. [Mutual information-based correlation analysis of herbs against insomnia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jin; Liu, Ren-quan

    2015-10-01

    This paper aims to analyze Professor Guo Rongjuan's medication experience on insomnia therapy based on the Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) Inheritance Support Plat. First, TCM formulae prescribed by Professor Guo for insomnia therapy were collected from the TCM Inheritance Support Plat. Next, unsupervised data mining algorithms, including apriori, modified mutual-information, and entropy clustering of complex system were applied to obtain the frequencies for different herbs and identify the association rules among the herbs. Accordingly, we can gain new insights into Professor Guo's medication experience on insomnia therapy. Based on analysis of 3 084 formulae, we determined the frequencies for herbs in the formulae and identified the association rules among these herbs. At last, 41 core combinations and 7 new formulae were obtained. The identified medication experience conform with Professor Guo's views on the etiology and pathogenesis of insomnia: "pathogenic fire derived from stagnation of liver-QI (Gan Yu Hua Huo)" is the core pathogenesis of insomnia; "liver stagnation and spleen deficiency" and "chronic illness transferred to kidney" are the main features for insomnia. The TCM Inheritance Support Plat is of great practical value for mining clinical experience of famous TCM doctors.

  1. Seasonal influenza vaccines and hurdles to mutual protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, C

    2016-12-01

    While vaccines against seasonal influenza are available, major hurdles still exist that prevent their use having any impact on epidemic spread. Recent epidemiologic data question the appropriateness of traditional vaccination timing (prior to the winter season) in many parts of the world. Furthermore, vaccine uptake in most countries even in high-risk populations does not reach the 75% target recommended by the World Health Organization. Influenza viruses continually undergo antigenic variation, and both inactivated and live attenuated influenza vaccines confer only short-lived strain-specific immunity, so annual revaccination is required. Improving vaccine-induced immunity is therefore an important goal. A vaccine that could confer durable protection against emerging influenza strains could significantly reduce onward transmission. Therefore, further understanding of protective immunity against influenza (including broadly cross-protective immune mechanisms such as haemagglutinin stem-binding antibodies and T cells) offers the hope of vaccines that can confer the long-lived heterosubtypic immune responses required for mutual protection. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Average Mutual Information Profile as a Genomic Signature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schuster Sheldon M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Occult organizational structures in DNA sequences may hold the key to understanding functional and evolutionary aspects of the DNA molecule. Such structures can also provide the means for identifying and discriminating organisms using genomic data. Species specific genomic signatures are useful in a variety of contexts such as evolutionary analysis, assembly and classification of genomic sequences from large uncultivated microbial communities and a rapid identification system in health hazard situations. Results We have analyzed genomic sequences of eukaryotic and prokaryotic chromosomes as well as various subtypes of viruses using an information theoretic framework. We confirm the existence of a species specific average mutual information (AMI profile. We use these profiles to define a very simple, computationally efficient, alignment free, distance measure that reflects the evolutionary relationships between genomic sequences. We use this distance measure to classify chromosomes according to species of origin, to separate and cluster subtypes of the HIV-1 virus, and classify DNA fragments to species of origin. Conclusion AMI profiles of DNA sequences prove to be species specific and easy to compute. The structure of AMI profiles are conserved, even in short subsequences of a species' genome, rendering a pervasive signature. This signature can be used to classify relatively short DNA fragments to species of origin.

  3. Study of Systemic Risk Involved in Mutual Funds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Kishore C.; Dash, Monika

    Systemic risk, may be defined as the risk that contaminates to the whole system, consisting of many interacting agents that fail one after another. These agents, in an economic context, could be firms, banks, funds, or other financial institutions. Systemic risk is a macroscopic property of a system which emerges due to the nonlinear interaction of agents on a microscopic level. A stock market itself is a system in which there are many sub-systems, like Dowjones, Nifty, Sensex, Nasdaq, Nikkei and other market indices in global perspective. In Indian market, subsystems may be like Sensex, Nifty, BSE200, Bankex, smallcap index, midcap index, S&P CNX 500 and many others. Similarly there are many mutual funds, which have their own portfolio of different stocks, bonds etc. We have attempted to study the systemic risk involved in a fund as a macroscopic object with regard to its microscopic components as different stocks in its portfolio. It is observed that fund managers do manage to reduce the systemic risk just like we take precautions to control the spread of an epidemic.

  4. The mutual shaping of life insurance and medicine in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauho, Mikko

    2015-08-01

    This article examines the mutual shaping of medicine and private life insurance in Finland before the Second World War. Based on historical texts and archival material, it shows the important effects that the involvement of medicine in client selection for life insurance companies had on medical knowledge and practice. The analysis focuses on the tensions between the main actors in life insurance underwriting--candidates, insurance agents, examining physicians and the central office--as well as the medical examination as the key site of these tensions. The article shows how the introduction of a set of procedural and technical innovations reshaped the medical examination and helped to stabilize the fraught network of life insurance underwriting. These innovations re-scripted medical work. They stressed objective measurable knowledge over the personal skill and clinical acumen of the examining physician, propagated the physical examination and the use of diagnostic technologies and vital standards, multiplied medicine's administrative tasks, and contributed to the introduction of a risk factor approach to medicine. Moreover, the social organization of life insurance promoted the spread of these objects, practices and tasks to other fields of medicine. The case displays how medical innovations are developed through the situated interplay of multiple actors that cuts across the science-society boundary.

  5. Optimal and Suboptimal Noises Enhancing Mutual Information in Threshold System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Qiqing; Wang, Youguo

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we investigate the efficacy of noise enhancing information transmission in a threshold system. At first, in the frame of stochastic resonance (SR), optimal noise (Opt N) is derived to maximize mutual information (MI) of this nonlinear system. When input signal is discrete (binary), the optimal SR noise is found to have a finite distribution. In contrast, when input signal is continuous, the optimal SR noise is a constant one. In addition, suboptimal SR noises are explored as well with optimization methods when the types of noise added into the system are predetermined. We find that for small thresholds, suboptimal noises do not exist. Only when thresholds reach some level, do suboptimal noises come into effect. Meanwhile, we have discussed the impact of tails in noise distribution on SR effect. Finally, this paper extends the single-threshold system to an array of multi-threshold devices and presents the corresponding efficacy of information transmission produced by optimal and suboptimal SR noises. These results may be beneficial to quantization and coding.

  6. Mutual information-based LPI optimisation for radar network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chenguang; Zhou, Jianjiang; Wang, Fei; Chen, Jun

    2015-07-01

    Radar network can offer significant performance improvement for target detection and information extraction employing spatial diversity. For a fixed number of radars, the achievable mutual information (MI) for estimating the target parameters may extend beyond a predefined threshold with full power transmission. In this paper, an effective low probability of intercept (LPI) optimisation algorithm is presented to improve LPI performance for radar network. Based on radar network system model, we first provide Schleher intercept factor for radar network as an optimisation metric for LPI performance. Then, a novel LPI optimisation algorithm is presented, where for a predefined MI threshold, Schleher intercept factor for radar network is minimised by optimising the transmission power allocation among radars in the network such that the enhanced LPI performance for radar network can be achieved. The genetic algorithm based on nonlinear programming (GA-NP) is employed to solve the resulting nonconvex and nonlinear optimisation problem. Some simulations demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is valuable and effective to improve the LPI performance for radar network.

  7. Identifying statistical dependence in genomic sequences via mutual information estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktulga, Hasan Metin; Kontoyiannis, Ioannis; Lyznik, L Alex; Szpankowski, Lukasz; Grama, Ananth Y; Szpankowski, Wojciech

    2007-01-01

    Questions of understanding and quantifying the representation and amount of information in organisms have become a central part of biological research, as they potentially hold the key to fundamental advances. In this paper, we demonstrate the use of information-theoretic tools for the task of identifying segments of biomolecules (DNA or RNA) that are statistically correlated. We develop a precise and reliable methodology, based on the notion of mutual information, for finding and extracting statistical as well as structural dependencies. A simple threshold function is defined, and its use in quantifying the level of significance of dependencies between biological segments is explored. These tools are used in two specific applications. First, they are used for the identification of correlations between different parts of the maize zmSRp32 gene. There, we find significant dependencies between the 5' untranslated region in zmSRp32 and its alternatively spliced exons. This observation may indicate the presence of as-yet unknown alternative splicing mechanisms or structural scaffolds. Second, using data from the FBI's combined DNA index system (CODIS), we demonstrate that our approach is particularly well suited for the problem of discovering short tandem repeats-an application of importance in genetic profiling.

  8. Identifying Statistical Dependence in Genomic Sequences via Mutual Information Estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kontoyiannis Ioannis

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Questions of understanding and quantifying the representation and amount of information in organisms have become a central part of biological research, as they potentially hold the key to fundamental advances. In this paper, we demonstrate the use of information-theoretic tools for the task of identifying segments of biomolecules (DNA or RNA that are statistically correlated. We develop a precise and reliable methodology, based on the notion of mutual information, for finding and extracting statistical as well as structural dependencies. A simple threshold function is defined, and its use in quantifying the level of significance of dependencies between biological segments is explored. These tools are used in two specific applications. First, they are used for the identification of correlations between different parts of the maize zmSRp32 gene. There, we find significant dependencies between the untranslated region in zmSRp32 and its alternatively spliced exons. This observation may indicate the presence of as-yet unknown alternative splicing mechanisms or structural scaffolds. Second, using data from the FBI's combined DNA index system (CODIS, we demonstrate that our approach is particularly well suited for the problem of discovering short tandem repeats—an application of importance in genetic profiling.

  9. Adaptive stochastic resonance in noisy neurons based on mutual information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitaim, Sanya; Kosko, Bart

    2004-11-01

    Noise can improve how memoryless neurons process signals and maximize their throughput information. Such favorable use of noise is the so-called "stochastic resonance" or SR effect at the level of threshold neurons and continuous neurons. This paper presents theoretical and simulation evidence that 1) lone noisy threshold and continuous neurons exhibit the SR effect in terms of the mutual information between random input and output sequences, 2) a new statistically robust learning law can find this entropy-optimal noise level, and 3) the adaptive SR effect is robust against highly impulsive noise with infinite variance. Histograms estimate the relevant probability density functions at each learning iteration. A theorem shows that almost all noise probability density functions produce some SR effect in threshold neurons even if the noise is impulsive and has infinite variance. The optimal noise level in threshold neurons also behaves nonlinearly as the input signal amplitude increases. Simulations further show that the SR effect persists for several sigmoidal neurons and for Gaussian radial-basis-function neurons.

  10. Mutually cooperative epidemics on power-law networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Peng-Bi; Colaiori, Francesca; Castellano, Claudio

    2017-08-01

    The spread of an infectious disease can, in some cases, promote the propagation of other pathogens favoring violent outbreaks, which cause a discontinuous transition to an endemic state. The topology of the contact network plays a crucial role in these cooperative dynamics. We consider a susceptible-infected-removed-type model with two mutually cooperative pathogens: An individual already infected with one disease has an increased probability of getting infected by the other. We present a heterogeneous mean-field theoretical approach to the coinfection dynamics on generic uncorrelated power-law degree-distributed networks and validate its results by means of numerical simulations. We show that, when the second moment of the degree distribution is finite, the epidemic transition is continuous for low cooperativity, while it is discontinuous when cooperativity is sufficiently high. For scale-free networks, i.e., topologies with diverging second moment, the transition is instead always continuous. In this way we clarify the effect of heterogeneity and system size on the nature of the transition, and we validate the physical interpretation about the origin of the discontinuity.

  11. VIRTUAL STRUCTURES FOR MUTUAL REVIEW PROMOTE UNDERSTANDING OF OPPOSED STANDPOINTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert AHAMER

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Web based training (WBT is able to reshape human interaction. Peer review processes, such as adhered to by journals and in the context of political processes such as accession to the EU, have aided in safeguarding quality in the academic field since long. University curricula, however, have not yet fully taken into account training for such mutual evaluation activities. One of the key approaches of the recently designed negotiation game “Surfing Global Change” (SGC is to complement traditional roles of “teacher versus students”. Therefore, in level 2 of SGC students write, review, assess and update standpoints while making use of a web based discussion forum. A statistical analysis of student activities is provided alongside conclusions regarding motivations of different clusters of students. Independent sets of skills might be discerned in the final academic result.Taking the example of SGC’s collaborative process design and teaching methodology, the present paper discusses the influence of various concepts and methodologies of education and training while focussing on student-teacher interactions.

  12. Mutual goals as essential for the results of team coaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Louise Møller

    2015-01-01

    Background: Facilitated by an external coach, team coaching has been introduced as a method to increase team competency, effectiveness, and learning mainly at the middle manager level (named coachees). However, team coaching also has some pitfalls which will be explored in this chapter. Intervent......Background: Facilitated by an external coach, team coaching has been introduced as a method to increase team competency, effectiveness, and learning mainly at the middle manager level (named coachees). However, team coaching also has some pitfalls which will be explored in this chapter....... Intervention: A 13 month team coaching intervention focusing on team safety-related competences, effectiveness, and learning was conducted in three department teams (team X, Y and Z) in a medium-sized Danish company (Company A). However, at the end of the intervention results between the three teams varied...... fulfilled, four partly fulfilled and one not fulfilled. Due to organizational changes, team Z was excluded from the project half-way through the intervention. Lessons learned and possible solutions: Mutual goals among the team members are identified as important for the success of team coaching. Moreover...

  13. Detecting mutually exclusive interactions in protein-protein interaction maps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Sánchez Claros

    Full Text Available Comprehensive protein interaction maps can complement genetic and biochemical experiments and allow the formulation of new hypotheses to be tested in the system of interest. The computational analysis of the maps may help to focus on interesting cases and thereby to appropriately prioritize the validation experiments. We show here that, by automatically comparing and analyzing structurally similar regions of proteins of known structure interacting with a common partner, it is possible to identify mutually exclusive interactions present in the maps with a sensitivity of 70% and a specificity higher than 85% and that, in about three fourth of the correctly identified complexes, we also correctly recognize at least one residue (five on average belonging to the interaction interface. Given the present and continuously increasing number of proteins of known structure, the requirement of the knowledge of the structure of the interacting proteins does not substantially impact on the coverage of our strategy that can be estimated to be around 25%. We also introduce here the Estrella server that embodies this strategy, is designed for users interested in validating specific hypotheses about the functional role of a protein-protein interaction and it also allows access to pre-computed data for seven organisms.

  14. Mutually cooperative epidemics on power-law networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Peng-Bi; Colaiori, Francesca; Castellano, Claudio

    2017-08-01

    The spread of an infectious disease can, in some cases, promote the propagation of other pathogens favoring violent outbreaks, which cause a discontinuous transition to an endemic state. The topology of the contact network plays a crucial role in these cooperative dynamics. We consider a susceptible-infected-removed-type model with two mutually cooperative pathogens: An individual already infected with one disease has an increased probability of getting infected by the other. We present a heterogeneous mean-field theoretical approach to the coinfection dynamics on generic uncorrelated power-law degree-distributed networks and validate its results by means of numerical simulations. We show that, when the second moment of the degree distribution is finite, the epidemic transition is continuous for low cooperativity, while it is discontinuous when cooperativity is sufficiently high. For scale-free networks, i.e., topologies with diverging second moment, the transition is instead always continuous. In this way we clarify the effect of heterogeneity and system size on the nature of the transition, and we validate the physical interpretation about the origin of the discontinuity.

  15. MAR in CBCT using reconstructed data and mutual information realigment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meilinger, Manuel [Computational Intelligence and Machine Learning Group, Institut fuer Biophysik, Universitaet Regensburg, Regensburg (Germany); Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen (Germany); Schmidgunst, Christian; Schuetz, OIiver [Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen (Germany); Lang, Elmar [Computational Intelligence and Machine Learning Group, Institut fuer Biophysik, Universitaet Regensburg, Regensburg (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    High-density objects, especially metal implants or particles, generate various artifacts in cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images much like in computed tomography images. We present a novel method for metal artifact reduction in CBCT images via virtual replacement of the corrupted information in the 3D volume with objects of identical geometry but convenient attenuation coefficients. An additional correction based on mutual information needs to be applied to the distorted reconstruction and projection in case of CBCT images to compensate for artifacts due to mechanical instabilities of mobile C-arm systems. A reconstruction of the adapted 2D projection images generates a second 3D volume, where the original metal objects are replaced by tissue and the streak-like artifacts are clearly reduced. After that the segmented metal parts of the first 3D volume must be transfered into the metal and artifact free 3D volume of the second reconstruction. The proposed method is applied to clinical images and shows superior performance. The resulting reconstructed images show much reduced streak-like artifacts and related shadows.

  16. Aggressive mimicry coexists with mutualism in an aphid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Adrián; Fürstenau, Benjamin; Quero, Carmen; Pérez-Hidalgo, Nicolás; Carazo, Pau; Font, Enrique; Martínez-Torres, David

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the evolutionary transition from interspecific exploitation to cooperation is a major challenge in evolutionary biology. Ant–aphid relationships represent an ideal system to this end because they encompass a coevolutionary continuum of interactions ranging from mutualism to antagonism. In this study, we report an unprecedented interaction along this continuum: aggressive mimicry in aphids. We show that two morphs clonally produced by the aphid Paracletus cimiciformis during its root-dwelling phase establish relationships with ants at opposite sides of the mutualism–antagonism continuum. Although one of these morphs exhibits the conventional trophobiotic (mutualistic) relationship with ants of the genus Tetramorium, aphids of the alternative morph are transported by the ants to their brood chamber and cared for as if they were true ant larvae. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses reveal that the innate cuticular hydrocarbon profile of the mimic morph resembles the profile of ant larvae more than that of the alternative, genetically identical nonmimic morph. Furthermore, we show that, once in the brood chamber, mimic aphids suck on ant larva hemolymph. These results not only add aphids to the limited list of arthropods known to biosynthesize the cuticular chemicals of their deceived hosts to exploit their resources but describe a remarkable case of plastic aggressive mimicry. The present work adds a previously unidentified dimension to the classical textbook paradigm of aphid–ant relationships by showcasing a complex system at the evolutionary interface between cooperation and exploitation. PMID:25583474

  17. A new mutually reinforcing network node and link ranking algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenghua; Dueñas-Osorio, Leonardo; Padgett, Jamie E.

    2015-10-01

    This study proposes a novel Normalized Wide network Ranking algorithm (NWRank) that has the advantage of ranking nodes and links of a network simultaneously. This algorithm combines the mutual reinforcement feature of Hypertext Induced Topic Selection (HITS) and the weight normalization feature of PageRank. Relative weights are assigned to links based on the degree of the adjacent neighbors and the Betweenness Centrality instead of assigning the same weight to every link as assumed in PageRank. Numerical experiment results show that NWRank performs consistently better than HITS, PageRank, eigenvector centrality, and edge betweenness from the perspective of network connectivity and approximate network flow, which is also supported by comparisons with the expensive N-1 benchmark removal criteria based on network efficiency. Furthermore, it can avoid some problems, such as the Tightly Knit Community effect, which exists in HITS. NWRank provides a new inexpensive way to rank nodes and links of a network, which has practical applications, particularly to prioritize resource allocation for upgrade of hierarchical and distributed networks, as well as to support decision making in the design of networks, where node and link importance depend on a balance of local and global integrity.

  18. A reliable RFID mutual authentication scheme for healthcare environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhen-Yu; Chen, Lichin; Wu, Ju-Chuan

    2013-04-01

    Radio frequency identification (RFID) applications have the potential to increase the reliability of healthcare environments. However, there are obvious security and privacy concerns with regard to storing personal and medical data in RFID tags, and the lack of secure authentication systems in healthcare environments remains as a challenge the further use of this technology, one that touches on issues of confidentiality, unforgeability, location privacy, and scalability. This study proposes a novel mutual authentication protocol that considers all of these issues and solves the tradeoff between location privacy and scalability in healthcare environments. A formal proof and analysis is demonstrated to prove the effectiveness of the proposed scheme, and that high reliability has and can be easily deployed and managed. This study also provides a scenario example that applied proposed protocol in the newborn care and management. The result shows that the proposed scheme solves the related tradeoff problem, and is capable of providing both location privacy and scalability. To apply the authentication scheme proposed in this work would be able to increase confidence in future implementations of RFID systems in healthcare environments.

  19. Mutual Information and Information Gating in Synfire Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuocheng Xiao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Coherent neuronal activity is believed to underlie the transfer and processing of information in the brain. Coherent activity in the form of synchronous firing and oscillations has been measured in many brain regions and has been correlated with enhanced feature processing and other sensory and cognitive functions. In the theoretical context, synfire chains and the transfer of transient activity packets in feedforward networks have been appealed to in order to describe coherent spiking and information transfer. Recently, it has been demonstrated that the classical synfire chain architecture, with the addition of suitably timed gating currents, can support the graded transfer of mean firing rates in feedforward networks (called synfire-gated synfire chains—SGSCs. Here we study information propagation in SGSCs by examining mutual information as a function of layer number in a feedforward network. We explore the effects of gating and noise on information transfer in synfire chains and demonstrate that asymptotically, two main regions exist in parameter space where information may be propagated and its propagation is controlled by pulse-gating: a large region where binary codes may be propagated, and a smaller region near a cusp in parameter space that supports graded propagation across many layers.

  20. Mutually Exclusive CBC-Containing Complexes Contribute to RNA Fate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Giacometti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The nuclear cap-binding complex (CBC stimulates processing reactions of capped RNAs, including their splicing, 3′-end formation, degradation, and transport. CBC effects are particular for individual RNA families, but how such selectivity is achieved remains elusive. Here, we analyze three main CBC partners known to impact different RNA species. ARS2 stimulates 3′-end formation/transcription termination of several transcript types, ZC3H18 stimulates degradation of a diverse set of RNAs, and PHAX functions in pre-small nuclear RNA/small nucleolar RNA (pre-snRNA/snoRNA transport. Surprisingly, these proteins all bind capped RNAs without strong preferences for given transcripts, and their steady-state binding correlates poorly with their function. Despite this, PHAX and ZC3H18 compete for CBC binding and we demonstrate that this competitive binding is functionally relevant. We further show that CBC-containing complexes are short lived in vivo, and we therefore suggest that RNA fate involves the transient formation of mutually exclusive CBC complexes, which may only be consequential at particular checkpoints during RNA biogenesis.

  1. Mutual information-based feature selection for radiomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oubel, Estanislao; Beaumont, Hubert; Iannessi, Antoine

    2016-03-01

    Background The extraction and analysis of image features (radiomics) is a promising field in the precision medicine era, with applications to prognosis, prediction, and response to treatment quantification. In this work, we present a mutual information - based method for quantifying reproducibility of features, a necessary step for qualification before their inclusion in big data systems. Materials and Methods Ten patients with Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) lesions were followed over time (7 time points in average) with Computed Tomography (CT). Five observers segmented lesions by using a semi-automatic method and 27 features describing shape and intensity distribution were extracted. Inter-observer reproducibility was assessed by computing the multi-information (MI) of feature changes over time, and the variability of global extrema. Results The highest MI values were obtained for volume-based features (VBF). The lesion mass (M), surface to volume ratio (SVR) and volume (V) presented statistically significant higher values of MI than the rest of features. Within the same VBF group, SVR showed also the lowest variability of extrema. The correlation coefficient (CC) of feature values was unable to make a difference between features. Conclusions MI allowed to discriminate three features (M, SVR, and V) from the rest in a statistically significant manner. This result is consistent with the order obtained when sorting features by increasing values of extrema variability. MI is a promising alternative for selecting features to be considered as surrogate biomarkers in a precision medicine context.

  2. Mutualism Between Fire Ants and Mealybugs Reduces Lady Beetle Predation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shoujie; Zeng, Ling; Xu, Yijuan

    2015-08-01

    Solenopsis invicta Buren is an important invasive pest that has a negative impact on biodiversity. However, current knowledge regarding the ecological effects of its interaction with honeydew-producing hemipteran insects is inadequate. To partially address this problem, we assessed whether the interaction between the two invasive species S. invicta and Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley mediated predation of P. solenopsis by Propylaea japonica Thunbery lady beetles using field investigations and indoor experiments. S. invicta tending significantly reduced predation by the Pr. japonica lady beetle, and this response was more pronounced for lady beetle larvae than for adults. A field investigation showed that the species richness and quantity of lady beetle species in plots with fire ants were much lower than in those without fire ants. In an olfaction bioassay, lady beetles preferred to move toward untended rather than tended mealybugs. Overall, these results suggest that mutualism between S. invicta and P. solenopsis may have a serious impact on predation of P. solenopsis by lady beetles, which could promote growth of P. solenopsis populations. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Sex roles and mutual mate choice matter during mate sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhre, Lise Cats; de Jong, Karen; Forsgren, Elisabet; Amundsen, Trond

    2012-06-01

    The roles of females and males in mating competition and mate choice have lately proven more variable, between and within species, than previously thought. In nature, mating competition occurs during mate search and is expected to be regulated by the numbers of potential mates and same-sex competitors. Here, we present the first study to test how a temporal change in sex roles affects mating competition and mate choice during mate sampling. Our model system (the marine fish Gobiusculus flavescens) is uniquely suitable because of its change in sex roles, from conventional to reversed, over the breeding season. As predicted from sex role theory, courtship was typically initiated by males and terminated by females early in the breeding season. The opposite pattern was observed late in the season, at which time several females often simultaneously courted the same male. Mate-searching females visited more males early than late in the breeding season. Our study shows that mutual mate choice and mating competition can have profound effects on female and male behavior. Future work needs to consider the dynamic nature of mating competition and mate choice if we aim to fully understand sexual selection in the wild.

  4. [Mutualism in a Reduced Gravity Environment (MuRGE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Karishma

    2010-01-01

    MuRGE (Mutualism in a Reduced Gravity Environment) is a NASA flight-research experiment to investigate the microgravity effects associated with cell-cell communication and beneficial microbe-host interactions using a plant-fungal model system. This investigation will use a clinostat, an instrument that slowly rotates the plants to negate the effects of gravitational pull on plant growth (gravitropism) and development, to simulate microgravity. I will be using the endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica (Pi) and the model plant species Arabidopsis thaliana (At). P. indica has been shown to colonize roots of various plant species, including A. thaliana, and to increase plant growth and resistance to stress. The fungus has the ability to grow from spores or in axenic cultures without the presence of a host. P. indica spores and P. indica extract will be used to inoculate Arabidopsis seeds germinated on a clinostat in order to determine if simulated microgravity affects the interaction between the fungus and its plant host.

  5. Mutualism in a Reduced Gravity Environment (MuRGE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Karishma K.

    2010-01-01

    MuRGE (Mutualism in a Reduced Gravity Environment) is a NASA flight-research experiment to investigate the microgravity effects associated with cell-cell communication and beneficial microbe-host interactions using a plant-fungal model system. This investigation will use a clinostat, an instrument that slowly rotates the plants to negate the effects of gravitational pull on plant growth (gravitropism) and development, to simulate microgravity. I will be using the endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica (Pi) and the model plant species Arabidopsis thaliana (At). P. indica has been shown to colonize roots of various plant species, including A. thaliana, and to increase plant growth and resistance to stress. The fungus has the ability to grow from spores or in axenic cultures without the presence of a host. P. indica spores and P. indica extract will be used to inoculate Arabidopsis seeds germinated on a clinostat in order to determine if simulated microgravity affects the interaction between the fungus and its plant host.

  6. Mutual Coupling Between Meteorological Parameters and Secondary Microseisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Holub

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic scientific question of this study was: do other mechanisms exist for excitation of secondary microseisms aside from the widely accepted mechanism by non-linear interactions of respective ocean waves. Here we use continuous broadband data from secondary microseisms recorded at the Ostrava-Krásné Pole, Czech Republic (OKC seismic station to create a massive seismological database. Except for seismological data, various meteorological features and their mutual relations were analysed: temperature, the so called ¡§shifted¡¨ temperature, air density, changes of atmospheric pressure, and synoptic situations. These analyses prove that maximum amplitudes of microseisms were observed during winter, while minimum amplitudes occured in summer months. The annual variations of microseisms amplitudes could not be explained by annual variations of storm activity above the North Atlantic. In addition, current analyses also aim at quantitative and quantitative evaluation of synoptic situations for triggering individual microseismic anomalies. Some of the meteorological features, namely the distribution of low pressures above northern Europe and high-pressure areas in Central Europe make it easy to explain most of the microseismic extremes. Here we pay special attention to the influence of large earthquakes, which usually induce slow deformation waves. We conclude that at least three mechanisms of microseism generation are possible: (1 the function of atmospheric pressure at sea level in the North Atlantic, (2 the effects of spreading of thermoelastic waves in the rock mass and (3 deformation waves induced by large earthquakes.

  7. Detecting mutually exclusive interactions in protein-protein interaction maps.

    KAUST Repository

    Sánchez Claros, Carmen

    2012-06-08

    Comprehensive protein interaction maps can complement genetic and biochemical experiments and allow the formulation of new hypotheses to be tested in the system of interest. The computational analysis of the maps may help to focus on interesting cases and thereby to appropriately prioritize the validation experiments. We show here that, by automatically comparing and analyzing structurally similar regions of proteins of known structure interacting with a common partner, it is possible to identify mutually exclusive interactions present in the maps with a sensitivity of 70% and a specificity higher than 85% and that, in about three fourth of the correctly identified complexes, we also correctly recognize at least one residue (five on average) belonging to the interaction interface. Given the present and continuously increasing number of proteins of known structure, the requirement of the knowledge of the structure of the interacting proteins does not substantially impact on the coverage of our strategy that can be estimated to be around 25%. We also introduce here the Estrella server that embodies this strategy, is designed for users interested in validating specific hypotheses about the functional role of a protein-protein interaction and it also allows access to pre-computed data for seven organisms.

  8. Eastern Dimension of the European Neighbourhood Policy: Europeanization Mutual Trap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Latkina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the Europeanization policy of the European Union towards the Eastern Partnership participant countries. Suffering from the lack of clear strategy and ultimate goal in the European Neighbourhood Policy the European Union enhances external democratization and its governance in post soviet states without immediate Union's membership perspective. Underestimation of common neighbourhood geopolitical duality in the context of growing rivalry between European (EU and Eurasian (Custom Union/Eurasian Economic Union integration gravitation centers presents the Eastern partners of the EU with a fierce dilemma of externally forced immediate geopolitical and civilizational choice while not all of them are well prepared to such a choice. The mutual Europeanization trap here to be studied both for the EU and its Eastern partners (involving Russia is a deficiency of regulating cooperation mechanism in the situation of European and Eurasian free trades zones overlapping. Vilnius Summit 2013 results test the "European aspirations" of the New Independent States and upset the ongoing process of the European Neighbourhood Policy in the context of growing economic interdependence in Wider Europe. Besides, the Ukrainian crisis escalation during 2014 as a new seat of tension provokes unbalance of the whole European security system and creates new dividing lines in Europe from Vancouver to Vladivostok.

  9. A Preliminary Survey of Professionalism Teaching Practices in Anatomy Education among Indian Medical Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunakaran, Ilavenil; Thirumalaikolundusubramanian, Ponniah; Nalinakumari, Sheela Das

    2017-01-01

    Professionalism and ethics have gained widespread recognition as competencies to be fulfilled, taught, and assessed within medical education. The role of the anatomy course in developed nations has evolved over time and now encompasses multiple domains, including knowledge, skills, and the inculcation of professionalism and ethics. The Medical…

  10. [Graduate Students in Medicine Course: Motivation, Socialization and Academic Recognition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães-Alves, Cristina; Barbosa, Joselina; Ribeiro, Laura; Ferreira, Maria Amélia

    2017-04-28

    Students with a previous degree have personal and professional experiences that can contribute to a different academic path during the medical course. This study aims to: 1) analyze both satisfaction and impact of academic recognition; 2) investigate whether motivations and expectations at entrance are maintained along the course; 3) to evaluate socialization after regress to higher education. To accomplish the first objective a questionnaire was administered to 82 students who entered the medical school from 2011/2012 to 2013/2014. For the second and third goals a focus group was run (three groups with five students each, representing the three academic years). Students felt satisfied with the recognition, and 50% of them believe that accreditations replace knowledge acquired with the curricular units, and 47% preferred to obtain accreditation. Academic achievement was negatively associated with the satisfaction of recognition and positively with age, background and registration cycle. Socialization of these students is distinct from the younger ones, their motivations at entrance are intrinsic and, contrary to expectations, are maintained along the course. Students prefer recognition instead of attending the curricular units. The most satisfied with the recognition accomplish less credits and the younger ones, from health area and enrolled in the clinical cycle, accomplish more. Along the course, motivations become more solid, expectations change and socialization is carried out with greater responsibility.

  11. Teamwork and Electronic Health Record Implementation: A Case Study of Preserving Effective Communication and Mutual Trust in a Changing Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Anne H; Leib, Ryan K; Tonachel, Anne; Tonachel, Richard; Bowers, Danielle M; Burnard, Rachel A; Rhinehart, Catherine A; Valentim, Rahila; Bunnell, Craig A

    2016-11-01

    This article describes how trust among team members and in the technology supporting them was eroded during implementation of an electronic health record (EHR) in an adult outpatient oncology practice at a comprehensive cancer center. Delays in care of a 38-year-old woman with high-risk breast cancer occurred because of ineffective team communication and are illustrated in a case study. The case explores how the patient's trust and mutual trust between team members were disrupted because of inaccurate assumptions about the functionality of the EHR's communication tool, resultant miscommunications between team members and the patient, and the eventual recognition that care was not being effectively coordinated, as it had been previously. Despite a well-established, team-based culture and significant preparation for the EHR implementation, the challenges that occurred point to underlying human and system failures from which other organizations going through a similar process may learn. Through an analysis and evaluation of events that transpired before and during the EHR rollout, suggested interventions for preventing this experience are offered, which include: a thorough crosswalk between old and new communication mechanisms before implementation; understanding and mitigation of gaps in the communication tool's functionality; more robust training for staff, clinicians, and patients; greater consideration given to the pace of change expected of individuals; and development of models of collaboration between EHR users and vendors in developing products that support high-quality, team-based care in the oncology setting. These interventions are transferable to any organizational or system change that threatens mutual trust and effective communication.

  12. Viewpoint Manifolds for Action Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souvenir Richard

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Action recognition from video is a problem that has many important applications to human motion analysis. In real-world settings, the viewpoint of the camera cannot always be fixed relative to the subject, so view-invariant action recognition methods are needed. Previous view-invariant methods use multiple cameras in both the training and testing phases of action recognition or require storing many examples of a single action from multiple viewpoints. In this paper, we present a framework for learning a compact representation of primitive actions (e.g., walk, punch, kick, sit that can be used for video obtained from a single camera for simultaneous action recognition and viewpoint estimation. Using our method, which models the low-dimensional structure of these actions relative to viewpoint, we show recognition rates on a publicly available dataset previously only achieved using multiple simultaneous views.

  13. 2D-DOA and Mutual Coupling Estimation in Vehicle Communication System via Conformal Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many direction-of-arrival (DOA estimation algorithms have been proposed recently. However, the effect of mutual coupling among antenna elements has not been taken into consideration. In this paper, a novel DOA and mutual coupling coefficient estimation algorithm is proposed in intelligent transportation systems (ITS via conformal array. By constructing the spectial mutual coupling matrix (MCM, the effect of mutual coupling can be eliminated via instrumental element method. Then the DOA of incident signals can be estimated based on parallel factor (PARAFAC theory. The PARAFAC model is constructed in cumulant domain using covariance matrices. The mutual coupling coefficients are estimated based on the former DOA estimation and the matrix transformation between MCM and the steering vector. Finally, due to the drawback of the parameter pairing method in Wan et al., 2014, a novel method is given to improve the performance of parameter pairing. The computer simulation verifies the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  14. The Effect of Mutual Coupling on a High Altitude Platform Diversity System Using Compact Antenna Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommy Hult

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the destructive effects of mutual coupling and spatial correlation between the separate antenna elements on a combined diversity system consisting of multiple HAPs (High-Altitude Platforms employing various compact MIMO (Multiple-Input Multiple-Output antenna array configurations, in order to enhance the mutual information in HAP communication links. In addition, we assess the influence of the separation angle between HAPs on system performance, and determine the optimal separation angles that maximize the total mutual information of the system for various compact MIMO antennas. Simulation results show that although the mutual information is degraded by mutual coupling and spatial correlation, the proposed HAP diversity system still provides better performance compared to a nondiversity system for all tested scenarios.

  15. Existence of positive periodic solution of mutualism system with several delays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Haihui [College of Mathematics and Computer Science, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Department of Computer Science and Technology, Sunshine College, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Xia Yonghui [College of Mathematics and Computer Science, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002 (China)], E-mail: yhxia@fzu.edu.cn; Lin Muren [College of Mathematics and Computer Science, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002 (China)

    2008-04-15

    In this paper, by using Mawhin coincidence degree, some sufficient conditions are obtained for the global existence of positive periodic solutions of a mutualism systems with bounded and unbounded delays. Our results generalize significantly improve those of Gopalsamy and He [Gopalsamy K, He XZ. Persistence, attractivity, and delay in facultative mutualism. J Math Anal Appl 1997;215:154-73], Yang et al. [Yang F, Jiang D, Ying A. Existence of positive solution of multidelays facultative mutualism system. J Eng Math 2002;3:64-8], Chen et al. [Chen FD, Shi JL, Chen XX. Periodicity in Lotka-Volterra facultative mutualism system with several delays. J Eng Math 2004;21(3)] and Xia and Lin [Xia YH, Lin M, Existence of positive periodic solution of mutualism system with infinite delays. Ann Diff Eqs 2005;21(3):448-53].

  16. Selective flower abortion maintains moth cooperation in a newly discovered pollination mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Ryutaro; Okamoto, Tomoko; Kiers, E Toby; Kawakita, Atsushi; Kato, Makoto

    2010-03-01

    The evolutionary stability of mutualisms is enhanced when partners possess mechanisms to prevent overexploitation by one another. In obligate pollination-seed consumption mutualisms, selective abortion of flowers containing excessive eggs represents one such mechanism, but empirical tests have long been limited to the yucca-yucca moth mutualism. We present evidence for selective abortion in the recently discovered mutualism between Glochidion trees and Epicephala moths. In Glochidion acuminatum, proportion of aborted flowers progressively increased both with higher egg load and increased ovule damage. Selective abortion resulted in a 16% seed production increase compared with expectations under random abortion, and moths suffered fitness losses as high as 62% when ovipositing into pre-infested flowers. Moth eggs were laid singly more often than expected under random oviposition, thus avoiding potential disadvantages from multiple infestations. As new pollination mutualisms are being discovered, selective abortion mechanisms may prove to be more widespread than previously thought.

  17. Professionalism in Dance Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koff, Susan R.; Mistry, Gianna Limone

    2012-01-01

    Professionalism in Dance Education is a complex construction. It can be imposed from the outside (degree completed, job status, salary) or can be identified from the professional herself. Seven graduate dance education students were interviewed with specific focus on the transition from student to professional and the feelings surrounding this…

  18. Professional Development. Issue Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keleher, Julia

    2017-01-01

    In this professional development research brief, the author sets forth the overarching considerations that should be kept in mind when conceptualizing professional development for educators working with neglected or delinquent youth (N or D). The brief begins by defining professional development and demonstrating why it is a critical support for…

  19. Business model for sensor-based fall recognition systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fachinger, Uwe; Schöpke, Birte

    2014-01-01

    AAL systems require, in addition to sophisticated and reliable technology, adequate business models for their launch and sustainable establishment. This paper presents the basic features of alternative business models for a sensor-based fall recognition system which was developed within the context of the "Lower Saxony Research Network Design of Environments for Ageing" (GAL). The models were developed parallel to the R&D process with successive adaptation and concretization. An overview of the basic features (i.e. nine partial models) of the business model is given and the mutual exclusive alternatives for each partial model are presented. The partial models are interconnected and the combinations of compatible alternatives lead to consistent alternative business models. However, in the current state, only initial concepts of alternative business models can be deduced. The next step will be to gather additional information to work out more detailed models.

  20. Nurses’ Views on Need for Professional Development in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geeta Kamal Shrestha

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: This study explores the nurses' views on need for professional development and barriers in Nepal. METHODS: This is a qualitative content analysis study conducted among nurses from different health institutes. In-depth interviews and focus group discussions were used to obtain their views on need of professional development and major barriers against professional development in Nepal. Eleven nurses for in-depth interviews and three groups of six nurses each for focus group discussions were selected purposefully from Kathmandu University Hospital, Dhulikhel and Tribhuban University Teachng Hospital, Kathmnadu. RESULTS: Five themes emerged from qualitative data. "Continuing professional development", "supportive management", "nursing leadership", "recognition and respect" and "professional networking" were considered as essential factors for professional development. Lack of "commitment by the nurses", "female gender professional" and "lack of autonomy" were felt as barriers for the nursing professioanl development. CONCLUSIONS: Continuing professional development and supportive working environment are crucial to make nursing profession more dynamic and appealing in Nepal. Keywords: continuing professional development, professional development, supportive managment