Sample records for professional military ethics

  1. The Professional Military Ethic (United States)


    see Isak Applbaum, Ethics for Adversaries. 40As others have noted, the etymology of “profession” clearly implies that one is “professing” certain...relationship with its clientele. The very etymology of the term “profession” indicates that there are standards or commitments which the profession “professes

  2. Ethics and the Military Profession. The Professional Ethic (United States)


    the military profession. Essays by Everett Hughes and Samuel Huntington are the best. Parsons , Talcott . "Professions." International...concern- ing current and forecasted efforts to enhance the moral- ethical environment through curriculum charges and overall approaches to education at...from the others—to which they should direct their attention at the start of their military education . Highly-motivated instructors are encouraged to

  3. Military Personnel: Additional Steps Are Needed to Strengthen DOD’s Oversight of Ethics and Professionalism Issues (United States)


    importance of ethics and professionalism to departmental personnel. A timeline of key ethics and professionalism events and communications since 2007 is...MILITARY PERSONNEL Additional Steps Are Needed to Strengthen DOD’s Oversight of Ethics and Professionalism Issues...MILITARY PERSONNEL Additional Steps Are Needed to Strengthen DOD’s Oversight of Ethics and Professionalism Issues Why GAO Did This Study

  4. Professional Military Ethics and the Laws of War: More Important Now than Ever Before

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harrison, Frank


    .... In war, professional military ethics are inextricably woven into the fabric of the decision-making process and, along with other critical elements like desired end state and the laws of war, make...

  5. Ethics and the Military Profession. Values and the Professional Soldier (United States)


    endangered? A genuine relativist would have to forego such action. And what about the egoist? Egoism is the claim that self-interest is the focus of all...may not have made a careful study of egoism and may hold other moral views inconsistent with the egoist position. This would be true of the...professional soldier who thinks he accepts egoism ; without reconciling it to his commitment to military values. Because so much of what any person routinely

  6. Professional Military Ethics: Are We on the Right Track? (United States)


    acknowledged experts or ethical theories. e.g., " Plato says " "Kant would contend . . . 2. Appeal to natural law - - the arguments given are true...34hurting people is terrible." 5. Quest ioning - - use of questions and answers in a logical way; this is called the Socratic method. The reason is

  7. Military Professional Ethics, Code of Conduct, and Military Academies’ Honor Codes, (United States)


    Air University Review 24:63-67, November-December 1972. Futernick, Allan J. Avoiding an ethical Armageddon. Military Review 59: 17-23, February the new OER: a crisis alert! Air University Review 29:68-72, May-June 1978; comment Air Force Times 39:2, 31 July 1978. Poe , Bryce. Integrity. TIG...Naval War College, 1974. (Microfiche AD A120 494) Schein, Edgar H. Roles - not rules - for the POW. Washington, D.C.: Bureau of Social Science Research

  8. Conflicts between ethics and law for military mental health providers. (United States)

    Johnson, W Brad; Grasso, Ian; Maslowski, Kate


    Military mental health providers routinely experience mixed-agency ethical dilemmas when obligations to patients and the military conflict. Particularly difficult mixed-agency dilemmas occur when a military psychiatrist, psychologist, or social worker encounters an apparent conflict between an ethical obligation--enumerated in a professional code of ethics--and a federal statute. This article explores ethical-legal conflicts for uniformed mental health providers. Three case vignettes illustrate situations in which military providers may find themselves stuck between incongruent ethical and legal demands. The authors conclude with several recommendations designed to prevent and resolve ethical-legal conflicts for military mental health providers.

  9. Fort Leavenworth Ethics Symposium: Exploring the Professional Military Ethic Held in Fort Leavenworth, Kansas on November 15-17, 2010 (United States)


    PROFESSIONALAND MORAL CODES In a study of the formation of the subject in the classical Greek and early Christian periods Mi- chel Foucault ...of Michel Foucault and, more recently, William Connolly. 3. These four aspects are adapted from Foucault’s exploration of the ethical subject in... Foucault , M., “On the Genealogy of Ethics,” in Foucault , M. and Rabinow, P. (Ed.) The essential works of Michel Foucault 1954 - 1984 Volume 1: Ethics



    Victor DOBBIN


    Military communities differ in how they implement ethics training.Some have well developed programmes while others have only a few stand-alone presentations. For this reason it is difficult to produce a template to suit every situation.Leadership training within the Military is generally of a very high standard and it is particularly important in relation to the development of high moral standards, whereas the training in ethics various considerably throughout the military world.Therefore, ev...

  11. Professional Ethics: Caught and Taught. (United States)

    Nickols, Sharon Y.; Belliston, Lisa M.


    Compares codes of professional ethics of several professional associations in light of rapidly changing technology. Explores the relation between academic honesty and ethical practice and provides a summary of approaches to teaching ethics. (Contains 34 references.) (JOW)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor DOBBIN


    Full Text Available Military communities differ in how they implement ethics training.Some have well developed programmes while others have only a few stand-alone presentations. For this reason it is difficult to produce a template to suit every situation.Leadership training within the Military is generally of a very high standard and it is particularly important in relation to the development of high moral standards, whereas the training in ethics various considerably throughout the military world.Therefore, even though we regard our ethics programme to be of a very high standard there is always the need to review what we have in place and update it. Codes of Ethics need to be revised from time to time and we can gain valuable insight from sharing and comparing our training programmes with other militaries.

  13. Professional Ethics in Academia. (United States)

    Powell, J. P.


    Ethical issues in the professional life of faculty are discussed briefly: conduct of research, intellectual property rights, bias in instruction, student-teacher relationships, student assessment, responsibility to the institution and to colleagues, and responsibility to the community outside the institution. (MSE)

  14. American Military Ethics: Stalwart in a Changing Society (United States)


    operations goes against societal norms of ethical behavior. The fact is, this is what is required of the military professional on a daily basis...healthy communicative relationship supported by credible ethical rhetoric.27 He asserted that it is hard to specify when journalists began to espouse... Ethics , 180. 32 Hallin, The Uncensored War, 7. 13 actors.33 Ward concluded that professional journalists embraced pragmatic objectivity because

  15. A Situational Military Ethic (United States)


    natural, knowledge. More importantly and more radically, existentialist ethics are a modern form of antinomianism. Fletcher describes Jean Paul ...existentialism like Heidegger and Sartre . The point is that whatever the end desired for benevolence, whether it be a philosophical 5 ultimate end, like...Sartre’s (the most famous exponent of existentialism) as follows: Sartre speaks of "nausea," which is our anxious experience of the incoherence of reality

  16. Inter-professional cooperation as collective ethics work: A contribution to inter-professional ethics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr Ed de Jonge


    Thesis: Ethics work (Banks 2012, 2016) is a stimulating concept for the ethical improvement of inter-professional cooperation. Outline: Starting point: ideal-typical professionalism Introduction to ethics work Professionalism requires inter-professional cooperation Inter-professional expansion

  17. "Polite People" and Military Meekness: the Attributes of Military Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel V. Didov


    Full Text Available The article analyzes the phenomenon of "polite people" from the point of view of the history and theory of ethical thought. Identify and specify ethical principles that form the basis of military courtesy. On the basis of the revealed regularities, the study proves that ethics is impossible without a certain power attributes, which constitute its core. In relation to the traditions of Russian warriors revealed the key role to their formation of the Orthodox ethics and the military of meekness. The obtained results can serve as material for educational activities for the formation of fighting spirit.

  18. Designing a Serious Game for Military Ethics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, T.J.; Visschedijk, G.C.


    Military personnel of all ranks and on all levels will encounter ethicaldilemmas during their career. Ethical dilemmas may occur in day-to-day business and, more importantly, during military operations, in which certain decisions may mean a difference between life and death. In order to prepare

  19. Inter-professional cooperation as collective ethics work: A contribution to inter-professional ethics


    Jonge, de, Ed


    Thesis: Ethics work (Banks 2012, 2016) is a stimulating concept for the ethical improvement of inter-professional cooperation. Outline: Starting point: ideal-typical professionalism Introduction to ethics work Professionalism requires inter-professional cooperation Inter-professional expansion of ethics work Final remarks and further challenges

  20. Professional Ethics for Climate Scientists (United States)

    Peacock, K.; Mann, M. E.


    Several authors have warned that climate scientists sometimes exhibit a tendency to "err on the side of least drama" in reporting the risks associated with fossil fuel emissions. Scientists are often reluctant to comment on the implications of their work for public policy, despite the fact that because of their expertise they may be among those best placed to make recommendations about such matters as mitigation and preparedness. Scientists often have little or no training in ethics or philosophy, and consequently they may feel that they lack clear guidelines for balancing the imperative to avoid error against the need to speak out when it may be ethically required to do so. This dilemma becomes acute in cases such as abrupt ice sheet collapse where it is easier to identify a risk than to assess its probability. We will argue that long-established codes of ethics in the learned professions such as medicine and engineering offer a model that can guide research scientists in cases like this, and we suggest that ethical training could be regularly incorporated into graduate curricula in fields such as climate science and geology. We recognize that there are disanalogies between professional and scientific ethics, the most important of which is that codes of ethics are typically written into the laws that govern licensed professions such as engineering. Presently, no one can legally compel a research scientist to be ethical, although legal precedent may evolve such that scientists are increasingly expected to communicate their knowledge of risks. We will show that the principles of professional ethics can be readily adapted to define an ethical code that could be voluntarily adopted by scientists who seek clearer guidelines in an era of rapid climate change.

  1. Codes of Ethics and Teachers' Professional Autonomy (United States)

    Schwimmer, Marina; Maxwell, Bruce


    This article considers the value of adopting a code of professional ethics for teachers. After having underlined how a code of ethics stands to benefits a community of educators--namely, by providing a mechanism for regulating autonomy and promoting a shared professional ethic--the article examines the principal arguments against codes of ethics.…

  2. Getting Relevant: Political Education and Military Ethics (United States)


    I II. Antifederalism: Alive and Well ........... 7 11, The Ethic of Professional Isolation ......... 16 IV. The Partisan Exclusion...preference for professional isolation The subtle process of communication which is contained within but few words seems to escape the opprobrium which...The Ethic of Professional Isolatic. In 1790, the last of the original thirteen states, Rhode Island, ratified the U. S. Constitution, and it truly

  3. Professional Ethics of Software Engineers: An Ethical Framework. (United States)

    Lurie, Yotam; Mark, Shlomo


    The purpose of this article is to propose an ethical framework for software engineers that connects software developers' ethical responsibilities directly to their professional standards. The implementation of such an ethical framework can overcome the traditional dichotomy between professional skills and ethical skills, which plagues the engineering professions, by proposing an approach to the fundamental tasks of the practitioner, i.e., software development, in which the professional standards are intrinsically connected to the ethical responsibilities. In so doing, the ethical framework improves the practitioner's professionalism and ethics. We call this approach Ethical-Driven Software Development (EDSD), as an approach to software development. EDSD manifests the advantages of an ethical framework as an alternative to the all too familiar approach in professional ethics that advocates "stand-alone codes of ethics". We believe that one outcome of this synergy between professional and ethical skills is simply better engineers. Moreover, since there are often different software solutions, which the engineer can provide to an issue at stake, the ethical framework provides a guiding principle, within the process of software development, that helps the engineer evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of different software solutions. It does not and cannot affect the end-product in and of-itself. However, it can and should, make the software engineer more conscious and aware of the ethical ramifications of certain engineering decisions within the process.

  4. Civilian Combatants, Military Professionals? American Officer Judgments (United States)


    relative along these criteria. The Military Profession Harold Lasswell , Samuel Huntington, and Morris Janowitz argued that military officers are... Lasswell , ‘The Garrison State’, American Journal of Sociology (1941) p.455; Morris Janowitz, The Professional Soldier: A Social and

  5. Business Ethics and Military Ethics : A Study in Comparative Applied Ethics


    Shaw, William H.


    In the past three decades, philosophers have delved into applied ethics, pursuing a surprisingly wide range of practically oriented normative questions, and a number of fields of applied ethical research and teaching are flourishing. There have, however, been few comparative studies of different fields in applied ethics, but such studies can, I believe, teach us something. Accordingly, this essay compares and contrasts business ethics and military ethics as distinct disciplinar...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ella Gordova


    Full Text Available In given article economic ethics are considered as set of norms of behavior of the businessman, the requirements shown by a cultural society to its style of work, to character of dialogue between participants of business, to their social shape. The conclusion becomes that economic ethics have applied character in relation to theoretical, to obschenormativnoy ethics, hence, represent section of applied ethics. On the other hand, the specific standard maintenance characterizes economic ethics as ethics professional.

  7. Professional ethics in nursing: an integrative review. (United States)

    Kangasniemi, Mari; Pakkanen, Piiku; Korhonen, Anne


    To conduct an integrative review and synthesize current primary studies of professional ethics in nursing. Professional ethics is a familiar concept in nursing and provides an ethical code for nursing practice. However, little is known about how professional ethics has been defined and studied in nursing science. Systematic literature searches from 1948-February 2013, using the CINAHL, PubMed and Scopus electronic databases to look at previously published peer-reviewed studies. A modified version of Cooper's five-stage integrative review was used to review and synthesize current knowledge. Fourteen papers were included in this research. According to our synthesis, professional ethics is described as an intra-professional approach to care ethics and professionals commit to it voluntarily. Professional ethics consist of values, duties, rights and responsibilities, regulated by national legislation and international agreements and detailed in professional codes. Professional ethics is well established in nursing, but is constantly changing due to internal and external factors affecting the profession. Despite the obvious importance of professional ethics, it has not been studied much in nursing science. Greater knowledge of professional ethics is needed to understand and support nurses' moral decision-making and to respond to the challenges of current changes in health care and society. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Professional ethics and esthetic dentistry. (United States)

    Nash, D A


    Esthetic dentistry has assumed an integral position in the provision of oral health care for society. Esthetics is a branch of philosophy dealing with beauty. Beauty is both enjoyable (subjective and cosmetic), and admirable (objective and definable). Ethics is a branch of philosophy dealing with morality. Morality relates humans to one another in a responsible way using rationality. Dentists assume unique moral duties in presenting themselves to society as being uniquely qualified to care for their oral health. Three principles of ethics relate directly to professional duties in esthetic dentistry: beneficence, autonomy, and justice. These principles have moral force in committing dentists to gain informed consent and to execute therapy in keeping with professional standards of care. Practical application of issues deriving from esthetics and ethics suggests that dentists must be sensitive to esthetics in their diagnosis and treatment planning and that a structured, formal consultation with a patient must be conducted to educate the patient regarding the goals of treatment, alternative therapies, prognosis, and costs. Only through such an effort can dentists gain informed consent. The goal of esthetic dentistry is the achievement of admirable (objective) and enjoyable (subjective) beauty, which is possible only through patient participation in decision making and excellence in technical performance.

  9. Toward an Ethics of Professional Understanding (United States)

    Tanchuk, Nicolas; Scramstad, Carly; Kruse, Marc


    In this paper, we advance a novel conception of normative ethics and draw out its implications within the domain of professional ethics. We argue that all moral agents, and thus professionals, share a fundamental and constitutive normative interest in correctly conceiving of their ends. All professionals, we claim, by virtue of their positions of…

  10. The Ethics of Military Deception (United States)


    comment directly on the moral dimensions of military deception is the great Roman orator, Marcus Tullius Cicero (106-43 B.C.). Of paramount...action is to be commended, if what is 1 Marcus Tullius Cicero, De Officiis, I.xiii.40, trans. Walter Miller (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1913... Aurelius Augustinus (A.D. 354-430), later known as Saint Augustine, the Catholic bishop of Hippo in North Africa, is in many ways the pivotal

  11. Ethical and professional standards compliance among practicing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated ethical and professional standards compliance among practicing librariansin university libraries in Benue State. The purpose of the study was todetermine the extent to which librarians in university libraries comply with ethics and professional standards in librarianship. The study adopted a descriptive ...

  12. Dilemmas in Military Medical Ethics: A Call for Conceptual Clarity


    Rochon, Christiane


    Despite the increase in and evolving nature of armed conflicts, the ethical issues faced by military physicians working in such contexts are still rarely examined in the bioethics literature. Military physicians are members of the military, even if they are non-combatants; and their role is one of healer but also sometimes humanitarian. Some scholars wonder about the moral compatibility of being both a physician and soldier. The ethical conflicts raised in the literature regarding military ph...

  13. Ethics: Personal and Professional Implications. (United States)

    Hira, Tahira K.


    Ethics are often taught in higher education. but research shows that family environment and early childhood are most influential in developing ethical behavior. The importance of ethics to work and family life suggests that ethical training should not be limited to vocational/business courses and it should start early. (SK)

  14. The Republic of Moldova Military Institute’s Lecure Series: Leadership and Ethics (United States)


    character and ethics courses significantly impact a leader’s “be” attributes. “Know” skills can be taught, such as technical proficiency, communication ...officership2, link one’s personal values with the components of officership and the professional military ethic . The result of this analysis would be the...The Republic of Moldova Military Institute’s Lecure Series: Leadership and Ethics Lieutenant CoLoneL VinCent R. LindemeyeR and dR. R. CRaig BuLLis

  15. Ethics Training and Workplace Ethical Decisions of MBA Professionals (United States)

    Romious, Tamar S.; Thompson, Randall; Thompson, Elizabeth


    We recruited 15 MBA professionals in the St. Louis, Missouri metropolitan area to explore experiences and perceptions of classroom ethics training and ethical experiences in the workplace. Telephone interviews were conducted using open-ended questions to collect data that were uploaded to NVivo 10 for qualitative analysis. As a result of the data…

  16. commentary article enhancing ethical performance in military forces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    In this article, I propose the creation of what I will here call the Joint Ethics. Development Initiative (JEDI). ... valuable and important, I think few would argue that there is no more that could be done to help military ... the military, ethics tends to be equated with 'chaplain business' (i.e. addressing personal moral struggles), or.

  17. The Professional Will: An Ethical Responsibility (United States)

    Bradley, Loretta J.; Hendricks, Bret; Kabell, Douglas R.


    Attention is directed to the ethical responsibility for the counselor to develop a professional will. Essentially the professional will is a roadmap for what the counselor directs to happen in the event that the counselor becomes incapacitated due to sudden death or illness. A model of a professional will is provided.

  18. Battlefield ethics training: integrating ethical scenarios in high-intensity military field exercises

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    Megan M. Thompson


    Full Text Available There is growing evidence that modern missions have added stresses and ethical complexities not seen in previous military operations and that there are links between battlefield stressors and ethical lapses. Military ethicists have concluded that the ethical challenges of modern missions are not well addressed by current military ethics educational programs. Integrating the extant research in the area, we propose that scenario-based operational ethics training in high-intensity military field training settings may be an important adjunct to traditional military ethics education and training. We make the case as to why this approach will enhance ethical operational preparation for soldiers, supporting their psychological well-being as well as mission effectiveness.

  19. A 'good' ethical review: audit and professionalism in research ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Douglas-Jones, Rachel


    How does one conduct, measure and record a ‘good’ ethical review of biomedical research? To what extent do ethics committees invoke professionalism in researchers and in themselves, and to what extent do they see competence as adherence to a set of standard operating procedures for ethical review......? Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork with the Forum of Ethics Review Committees of Asia and the Pacific (FERCAP), a capacity-building NGO that runs ethics committee trainings and reviews in the Asia Pacific region, I develop an analysis of ethical review and its effects. I focus on a ‘second-order audit’ run...... by FERCAP, which recognises committees according to a set of standards that are designed to render ‘local’ committees internationally legible. The article adds to a growing comparative literature that expands studies of audit-like measuring and disciplining activities beyond western contexts and enriches...

  20. Toward Multinational Professional Military Education in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaub Jr, Gary John; Breitenbauch, Henrik Ø.

    European NATO nations need better staff officers. Operation Unified Protector exposed a widespread deficiency in the professional knowledge of field-grade European officers. Professional military education (PME) is where corrective Alliance action must focus. The Nordic countries—Norway, Denmark...

  1. Ethical Issues in Continuing Professional Education. (United States)

    Lawler, Patricia Ann


    Continuing professional education practitioners often face ethical dilemmas regarding their obligations to multiple stakeholders and issues arising in new arenas such as the workplace, distance education, and collaboration with business. Codes of ethics can guide practice, but practitioners should also identify their personal core values system…

  2. Exploration of Values: Israeli Teachers' Professional Ethics (United States)

    Fisher, Yael


    The main purpose of this study was to explore Israeli teachers' professional ethics and values using the Facet Theory (Guttman in Psychmetrika 33:469-506, 1968). Since Israel does not have a teachers' code of ethics, such exploration can be a basis for constructing one. The study is mainly exploratory, and the main hypotheses that guided the study…

  3. Advancing Military Professionalism in Africa (United States)


    president, Gamal Abdel Nasser , was a former military officer. So were successive leaders, Anwar Sadat and Hosni Mubarak, amassing 59 years of de facto...The military simultaneously paved the way for its commander, General Abdel Fatah al-Sisi, to run for and win one-sided presidential elections in...President General Ould Abdel Aziz commanded the Autonomous Presidential Security Battalion (BASEP) for more than 15 years. While heading up this

  4. Ethics Education for Professionals in Japan: A Critical Review (United States)

    Maruyama, Yasushi; Ueno, Tetsu


    Ethics education for professionals has become popular in Japan over the last two decades. Many professional schools now require students to take an applied ethics or professional ethics course. In contrast, very few courses of professional ethics for teaching exist or have been taught in Japan. In order to obtain suggestions for teacher education,…

  5. Design elements of professional ethics courses. (United States)

    Spafford, M M; Strong, G


    Optometrists face ethical dilemmas daily in the practice of their profession. Students training to become optometrists also face ethical dilemmas, some of which are unique in their role as students. The focus on ethical practice has been heightened by the increasing scope of optometric practice, the greater demand of society for professional accountability, the greater diversity of membership and viewpoints, the decrease in available dollars for health care delivery, and the conflicting roles of ophthalmology and opticianry with optometry. These factors have led to the addition or expansion of professional ethics courses in optometry programs. This paper examines the difficulties inherent in defining professional ethics and designing ethics courses. Curricular issues are examined, including course objectives, instructors, content, evaluation, timetabling, teaching strategies, student assessment, and resource implications. Much of the research in this area has been done in medical education. Although the content of ethical dilemmas encountered by medical students and physicians may not be applicable to optometry, the process by which they learn to approach the dilemmas is the same.

  6. Ethics and professionalism in public relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstić Ana


    Full Text Available The subjects of this paper are ethics and professionalism, topics closely linked in contemporary theory, and especially in practice of public relations, whose significance is increasingly coming to the spotlight of experts from this area. Several definitions, classification, the historical development and principles of theories of ethics most frequently used in ethical decision-making within a business environment, have been presented in the first chapter in the endeavor to ascertain the concept of ethics. The next chapter concerns the duties a public relations expert must pay attention to while carrying out his or her activities. Those are: duty towards oneself, towards the organization, society and profession, within which, in the case of a conflict of interest, the duty towards society (so-called social responsibility, or professional duty, must prevail. The chapter that follows concerns ethical problems in the contemporary practice of public relations: the competence of practitioners, possible conflicts of interest and the very sensitive area of media relations. The chapter on models of ethical decision-making involves concrete experts' advice on decision making which are firmly based on ethical principles. Next section concerns professionalism and professional education in public relations. Recommendations concerning topics which should be included in the university education in this area are also presented. The focus is on the following: the absence of standards that would establish who can work in public relations and under which conditions; the lack of a specified educational minimum and expertise which a practitioner should possess; the need for practitioners to be the members of professional associations, as well as to adhere to a required ethical codex. Some of the most significant world public relations associations are mentioned and at the end, and a review of the state of public relations in Serbia is given.

  7. A Military Transitional Year Professionalism Curriculum. (United States)

    Edwards, Mary; Sterbis, Joseph R; Olson, Holly L


    Development of professionalism is a critical component of a military transitional year residency. Little published research exists to guide programs in meeting this challenge. After significant concerns regarding resident professionalism were raised by Tripler Army Medical Center faculty, a novel transitional residency professionalism curriculum was conceived and implemented. Universal expectations of physician professionalism, as perceived by various stakeholders (patients, parents, faculty, and nurses), were explored using a small group, discussion-based curriculum. This was combined with a small group, discussion-based, lessons-learned project and a military-unique curriculum. Since implementation, the curriculum has had 100% satisfaction on the part of the faculty and 80% to 100% on the part of the residents, as measured by annual review surveys. Although resident professionalism scores on evaluations did not change significantly, the number of adverse actions because of professionalism lapses has decreased steadily in the 4 years since inception, and the program has been without any such actions for the past 18 months. Our novel transitional residency professionalism curriculum has been successful in a military residency program.

  8. Ethics at Israeli universities: unlearned lessons from professional ethics. (United States)

    Rubin, Simon Shimshon


    At the practical level, sustained attention to ethical issues in academia in Israel is inadequate. This paper suggests that professional models of ethics education and training present constructive alternatives. The author views this topic from the dual perspective of a professional clinical psychologist and a committed faculty member. After a brief introduction, the paper opens with a case vignette of ethical violations of trust in academia, its handling, and how a similar case 25 years later illustrates the lack of progress in preparing the academic community for such things. A discussion of normative actions and behavioral norms in academia follows. Three lessons from the professions are offered: 1) the importance of involving members in the process of identifying ethical violations; 2) the value of adopting for academia current practices preparing persons for work in research, (for example the standardization of online modules for training in ethics); and c) the significance of addressing self-interest and its limits. If silence around a code of ethics is being practiced, that silence should be broken.

  9. Religion and the Military: A Growing Ethical Dilemma

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Greenslit, Lawrence P


    Ethical dilemmas over the issue of freedom of personal religious expression and fair treatment for all faith groups are creating conflicts within the military, both inside and outside the chaplaincies...

  10. The Military and the Media: A Question of Ethics (United States)


    great lengths to communicate rules of behavior that go beyond regulations in an effort to so- 2 0000 0 0 0 0 0 * lidify the ethics of their command...Sigma Delta Chi, the society of professional journalists, as its 0 attempt to foster ethical conduct by the media, adopted a code of ethics for...1973), 453. 2. Code of Ethics , (Adopted by the Society of Professional Journalism, Sigma Delta Chi, 1926, revised 1973, 1984, 1987). 3. Lloyd J

  11. How virtue ethics informs medical professionalism. (United States)

    McCammon, Susan D; Brody, Howard


    We argue that a turn toward virtue ethics as a way of understanding medical professionalism represents both a valuable corrective and a missed opportunity. We look at three ways in which a closer appeal to virtue ethics could help address current problems or issues in professionalism education-first, balancing professionalism training with demands for professional virtues as a prerequisite; second, preventing demands for the demonstrable achievement of competencies from working against ideal professionalism education as lifelong learning; and third, avoiding temptations to dismiss moral distress as a mere "hidden curriculum" problem. As a further demonstration of how best to approach a lifelong practice of medical virtue, we will examine altruism as a mean between the extremes of self-sacrifice and selfishness.

  12. Continuing Professional Education in the Military (United States)

    Gleiman, Ashley; Zacharakis, Jeff


    The military relies on continuing professional education as a key component to the success of its organization. With decreasing budgets and increasing importance for a force that operates efficiently and thinks critically, the cognitive tension among training, education, and learning comes center stage.

  13. Graduate Ethics Curricula for Future Geospatial Technology Professionals (Invited) (United States)

    Wright, D. J.; Dibiase, D.; Harvey, F.; Solem, M.


    Professionalism in today's rapidly-growing, multidisciplinary geographic information science field (e.g., geographic information systems or GIS, remote sensing, cartography, quantitative spatial analysis), now involves a commitment to ethical practice as informed by a more sophisticated understanding of the ethical implications of geographic technologies. The lack of privacy introduced by mobile mapping devices, the use of GIS for military and surveillance purposes, the appropriate use of data collected using these technologies for policy decisions (especially for conservation and sustainability) and general consequences of inequities that arise through biased access to geospatial tools and derived data all continue to be challenging issues and topics of deep concern for many. Students and professionals working with GIS and related technologies should develop a sound grasp of these issues and a thorough comprehension of the concerns impacting their use and development in today's world. However, while most people agree that ethics matters for GIS, we often have difficulty putting ethical issues into practice. An ongoing project supported by NSF seeks to bridge this gap by providing a sound basis for future ethical consideration of a variety of issues. A model seminar curriculum is under development by a team of geographic information science and technology (GIS&T) researchers and professional ethicists, along with protocols for course evaluations. In the curricula students first investigate the nature of professions in general and the characteristics of a GIS&T profession in particular. They hone moral reasoning skills through methodical analyses of case studies in relation to various GIS Code of Ethics and Rules of Conduct. They learn to unveil the "moral ecologies" of a profession through actual interviews with real practitioners in the field. Assignments thus far include readings, class discussions, practitioner interviews, and preparations of original case

  14. Research Ethics Consultation: Ethical and Professional Practice Challenges and Recommendations (United States)

    Sharp, Richard R.; Taylor, Holly A.; Brinich, Margaret A.; Boyle, Mary M.; Cho, Mildred; Coors, Marilyn; Danis, Marion; Havard, Molly; Magnus, David; Wilfond, Benjamin


    The complexity of biomedical research has increased considerably in the last decade, as has the pace of translational research. This complexity has generated a number of novel ethical issues for clinical investigators, institutional review boards (IRBs), and other oversight committees. In response, many academic medical centers have created formal research ethics consultation (REC) services to help clinical investigators and IRBs navigate ethical issues in biomedical research. Key functions of a REC service include: assisting with research design and implementation, providing a forum for deliberative exploration of ethical issues, and supplementing regulatory oversight. As increasing numbers of academic research institutions establish REC services, there is a pressing need for consensus about the primary aims and policies that should guide these activities. Establishing clear expectations about the aims and policies of REC services is important if REC programs are to achieve their full potential. Drawing on the experiences of a Clinical Translational Science Award (CTSA) Research Ethics Consultation Working Group, this article describes three major ethical and professional practice challenges associated with the provision of REC: 1) managing multiple institutional roles and responsibilities, 2) managing sensitive information, and 3) communicating with consultation requestors about how these issues are managed. The paper also presents several practical strategies for addressing these challenges and enhancing the quality of REC services. PMID:25607942

  15. Development of Teaching Objectives in Professional Ethics (United States)

    Klimes, Rudolf E.


    Described is the process involved in the development of teaching objectives for a university graduate course in professional ethics, limited to the human service professions of education, business administration, social work, and the ministry. A model of the five-step process is presented, and a bibliography is provided. (JMD)

  16. Teachers' Professional Ethics from Avicenna's Perspective (United States)

    Heidari, Mohammad Hossein; Heshi, Kamal Nosrati; Mottagi, Zohre; Amini, Mehrnosh; Shiri, Ali Shiravani


    The purpose of this paper is to express Avicenna's standpoints in the area of teachers' professional ethics. Making use of a qualitative approach and a descriptive-analytic method, this study attempted to describe and analyze Avicenna's viewpoints on prerequisites of teaching profession by the help of the available resources. In general, the…

  17. Teaching business ethics to professional engineers. (United States)

    Sauser, William I


    Without question "business ethics" is one of the hot topics of the day. Over the past months we have seen business after business charged with improper practices that violate commonly-accepted ethical norms. This has led to a loss of confidence in corporate management, and has had severe economic consequences. From many quarters business educators have heard the call to put more emphasis on ethical practices in their business courses and curricula. Engineering educators are also heeding this call, since the practice of engineering usually involves working for (or leading) a business and/or engaging in business transactions. In the summer of 2002, Auburn University's Engineering Professional Development program made the decision to produce--based on the author's Executive MBA course in Business Ethics--a distance-delivered continuing education program for professional engineers and surveyors. Participants across the USA now may use the course to satisfy continuing education requirements with respect to professional licensing and certification. This paper outlines the purpose and content of the course and describes its production, distribution, application, and evaluation.

  18. Military Dissent: What are the Ethical Implications of Tensions in U.S. Civil-Military Relations? (United States)


    ethical , and political. 22 Pfaff 1999, 8). The beliefs of egoism and post-modern relativism can be...MILITARY DISSENT: WHAT ARE THE ETHICAL IMPLICATIONS OF TENSIONS IN U.S. CIVIL-MILITARY RELATIONS? A thesis presented to the...JUN 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Military Dissent: What are the Ethical Implications of Tensions in U.S. Civil-Military Relations? 5a. CONTRACT

  19. Developments in Communication Ethics: The Ethics Commission, Code of Professional Responsibilities, Credo for Ethical Communication. (United States)

    Andersen, Kenneth E.


    Traces aspects of the evolution of interest in ethical issues by the National Communication Association (NCA), the effort to develop a Professional Code, and the development of the Credo for Ethical Communication adopted by the NCA Legislative Council November 6, 1999. Includes a copy of the Credo. (NH)

  20. Integration of business ethics and professional ethics auditor: dimensions of juridisation and codification


    Mikolaj Turzynski


    This article is about the integration issues of business ethics and professional conduct in relation to audit services rendered by auditors. Characterized in the selection of contemporary approaches to business ethics and professional ethics. The article poses the thesis that the integrative dimension of business ethics and the auditing profession is reflected in the processes of juridisation and codification.

  1. [Psychophysiological monitoring of professionally important qualities of military physicians]. (United States)

    Klimov, A S; Bulka, A P


    Percent of graduates from civil medical universities among military physicians is 22%. Due to reforming of a system of military-medical education, percent of female soldiers in medical service has increased. Psychophysiological peculiarities of this military personnel class have an impact on a military service quality. It has been established that professional success of military physician is governed by mentality, social and psychological adaptation and military-professional motivation. For this reason, medical service recruiting should be realized on the basis of scientifically grounded series of measures of professionally psychological selection. It is shown that it is necessary to elaborate measures for selection and evaluation of professionally important qualities for female military physicians recruiting. Authors suggested the system of ranking of professional activity success, which can be a methodological basis for acceptance of scientifically grounded solutions about the administration of current medical personnel.

  2. Research on the professional ethics issues of CPA in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xuejun


    Full Text Available Since the 1990s, auditing collusion cases have occured frequently, reducing the integrity degree of CPA. Of all reasons, we should pay attention to professional ethics issues most. Because of professional ethics issues, the public have lost confidence in the industry of CPA. The industry of CPA is faced with serious crisis. In the circumstance, this paper researched professional ethics issues of CPA. Firstly, it explained the connotation of professional ethics, emphasized the importance. Secondly, through real cases, this paper analyzed the present situation of professional ethics of CPA, explained the lack of professional ethics. Finally, for solving the problem, this paper proposed the countermeasures to enhance the standards of professional ethics of CPA from the external and internal practice environment.

  3. A Framework for Professional Ethics Courses in Teacher Education (United States)

    Warnick, Bryan R.; Silverman, Sarah K.


    Evidence suggests that professional ethics is currently a neglected topic in teacher education programs. In this article, the authors revisit the question of ethics education for teachers. The authors propose an approach to the professional ethics of teaching that employs a case-analysis framework specifically tailored to address the practice of…

  4. Ethical concerns and dilemmas of Finnish and Dutch health professionals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanna Hopia; Ilsa Lottes; Mariël Kanne


    Abstract Background: Healthcare professionals encounter ethical dilemmas and concerns in their practice. More research is needed to understand these ethical problems and to know how to educate professionals to respond to them. Research objective: To describe ethical dilemmas and concerns at work

  5. Adding Professional Ethics to an Introductory Course on Sustainable Agriculture. (United States)

    Fick, Gary W.


    Presents the details and evaluation of a laboratory exercise that introduces professional and agricultural ethics into a course on sustainable agriculture. Concludes that including material on ethics in existing courses appears to be an effective way to increase the ethical content of a curriculum and emphasizes ethical decision making as an…

  6. Professional ethics: beyond the clinical competency. (United States)

    Vanaki, Zohreh; Memarian, Robabeh


    Assessment of clinical competency in professional roles especially in crucial situations can improve the nursing profession. This qualitative research was conducted to determine the process of acquiring clinical competency by nurses in its cultural context and within the health care delivery system in Iran. This study, using grounded theory methodology, took place in universities and hospitals in Tehran. Nurses (36) included nurse managers, tutors, practitioners, and members of the Iranian Nursing Organization. Simultaneous data collection and analysis took place using participant semistructured interviews. Three categories emerged: (a) personal characteristics such as philanthropy, strong conscience, being attentive, accepting responsibility, being committed to and respecting self and others; (b) care environment including appropriate management systems, in-service training provision, employment laws, and control mechanisms, suitable and adequate equipment; and (c) provision of productive work practices including love of the profession, critical thinking, nursing knowledge, and professional expertise. Professional ethics has emerged as the core variable that embodies concepts such as commitment, responsibility, and accountability. Professional ethics guarantees clinical competency and leads to the application of specialized knowledge and skill by nurses. The results can be used to form the basis of guiding the process of acquiring clinical competency by nurses using a systematic process.

  7. Professional ethics and professional etiquette in dentistry: are they compatible? (United States)

    Newbrun, Ernest


    In keeping with the theme of this colloquium, two aspects of ethics in dentistry are addressed: its evolution and its future. With respect to its evolution, two examples of changes in the design of clinical trials in dentistry are discussed. These concern the current requirement of informed consent from the subjects in the trial, now taken for granted, but not necessarily observed before 1964. The Vipeholm dental caries study is one example of pre-Helsinki Declaration experimentation. The second example, also drawn from caries research design, concerns the stricture on the use of placebo-controlled trials in the face of a proven drug. For example, the design of clinical trials of fluoride dentifrices has evolved since the mid 1970s. The use of a placebo-inactive control group is no longer acceptable as it would deprive its subjects of a proven caries-preventive agent and would expose its subjects to increased caries risk. While definitions of professional ethics in dentistry may vary, the ADA Code of Ethics includes five principles: patient autonomy ("self-governance"), non-maleficence ("do no harm"), beneficence ("do good"), justice ("fairness") and veracity ("truthfulness"). Professional etiquette refers to the way dentists relate to one another and is governed by the ADA Code of Professional Conduct which expresses specific types of conduct that are either required or prohibited. Sometimes, ethics and etiquette may conflict. The problem of financial issues that conflict with ethical ones is discussed along with the problem of commercialism in the practice of dentistry. Debts from dental school may adversely affect the professional behavior of young dentists, while general dentists might succumb to "goodies" provided by specialists. These often include continuing education courses, gifts, trips, and kickbacks. Specialists may fail to inform patients of improper or poor quality treatment by the referring general practitioner, fearing loss of referrals. Of course


    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    May 8, 1996 ... individual level, a military career consists of rotation between operational and staff assignments. This rotation is rooted in the duality of a military career – the need for bureaucratic and professional expertise, and for action and reflection. Janowitz7 postulates that the military career would be better described ...

  9. Percived ethical misconduct: a survey of Neuropsychology professionals in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Fonseca


    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the frequency of perceived ethical misconduct in the practice of neuropsychology in Mexico. Method: One hundred fourteen psychologists answered a survey which assessed perceptions of ethical misconduct in four areas of professional practice in the field of neuropsychology. Results: The area of professional training contained the highest percentage of perception of ethical misconduct, followed by research and publications, clinical care, and professional relationships. Conclusion: The high frequency of ethical misconduct perceived by neuropsychology professionals in Mexico is a cause for concern. The results suggest the need to create and implement a system to make sure that professionals follow the ethics standards required by the profession, and to provide consequences for those who fail to do so. The profession of neuropsychology and training of professionals in the field must be regularized in the country, to reduce the frequency of future ethical misconducts.

  10. Moral Intuition and the Professional Military Ethic (United States)


    future dialog.” The purpose of this paper is to add to that dialog. Why do parents at a youth soccer game sometimes go to fists regarding a perceived...cry at a change of command? Why do fans of opposing NFL teams support or malign the same referee? Recall in your mind‟s eye, the story of Helen of

  11. Regulating professional behavior: codes of ethics or law? Suggested criteria. (United States)

    Libman, Liron A


    This paper suggests considering a few parameters when making policy decisions as to the proper "tool" to regulate professional behavior: law or professional ethics. This is done on the background of understanding the place of codes of professional ethics between "pure" ethics and law. Suggested criteria are then illustrated using a few examples. Further discourse may reveal additional factors to support a more rational process of decision-making in this field.

  12. Brain-computer interfaces: military, neurosurgical, and ethical perspective. (United States)

    Kotchetkov, Ivan S; Hwang, Brian Y; Appelboom, Geoffrey; Kellner, Christopher P; Connolly, E Sander


    Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are devices that acquire and transform neural signals into actions intended by the user. These devices have been a rapidly developing area of research over the past 2 decades, and the military has made significant contributions to these efforts. Presently, BCIs can provide humans with rudimentary control over computer systems and robotic devices. Continued advances in BCI technology are especially pertinent in the military setting, given the potential for therapeutic applications to restore function after combat injury, and for the evolving use of BCI devices in military operations and performance enhancement. Neurosurgeons will play a central role in the further development and implementation of BCIs, but they will also have to navigate important ethical questions in the translation of this highly promising technology. In the following commentary the authors discuss realistic expectations for BCI use in the military and underscore the intersection of the neurosurgeon's civic and clinical duty to care for those who serve their country.

  13. Autonomous Military Robotics: Risk, Ethics, and Design (United States)


    wheeled machines had many of the features of contemporary robots: sensors (photocells for seeking light and bumpers for obstacle detection), a motor...certainly a possibility that organizations may only pay ‘ lip -service’ to the project of robot ethics to appease critics and watchdogs, it does not

  14. Enhancing Ethical Performance in Military Forces Through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this article, I propose the creation of what I will here call the Joint Ethics Development Initiative (JEDI). The title is, of course, offered partially in jest, but the image of the Jedi warrior of the Star Wars saga is intentional. At the heart of the proposed initiative is the development of a new, rigorous and highly demanding ...

  15. A call for responsibility in ethical issues for IS professionals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmiter, C.W.


    In recent years there has been increased interest in the ethical values, beliefs and behavior of persons in the business world. Public abhorrence of questionable behavior of politicians, the savings and loan scandal and insider trading violations are just a few examples of many problems in business and professional life. A 1992 study by the Josephson Institute of Ethics involving 9,000 young people and adults revealed alarmingly low ethical characteristics in American institutions. Ferrell and Fraedrick have concluded that {open_quotes}business ethics is one of the most important concerns in today`s business world.{close_quote} A few professional organizations have tried to comprehend the ethical values, beliefs and behavior of their constituents. Vittrell has studied the frequency of ethical behavior for management information specialists. Martin and Peterson have examined the ethical issues of insider trading. Fimbel and Burstein have investigated the ethical values of technology professionals. Thornburg made use of a survey concerning the ethical beliefs and practices of human resources professionals. On a preliminary basis, these studies indicate the various ethical issues and uncertainties which are problematic for members of the various professions. Most business people are ethical segregationists, that is they tend to segregate their ethical values into one type of behavior for business and another type of behavior away from business. Managers accused of unethical behavior respond with, III am not that type of person. I am active in my church, in community affairs, a good family man, and so on.

  16. Research Integrity and Research Ethics in Professional Codes of Ethics: Survey of Terminology Used by Professional Organizations across Research Disciplines (United States)

    Komić, Dubravka; Marušić, Stjepan Ljudevit; Marušić, Ana


    Professional codes of ethics are social contracts among members of a professional group, which aim to instigate, encourage and nurture ethical behaviour and prevent professional misconduct, including research and publication. Despite the existence of codes of ethics, research misconduct remains a serious problem. A survey of codes of ethics from 795 professional organizations from the Illinois Institute of Technology’s Codes of Ethics Collection showed that 182 of them (23%) used research integrity and research ethics terminology in their codes, with differences across disciplines: while the terminology was common in professional organizations in social sciences (82%), mental health (71%), sciences (61%), other organizations had no statements (construction trades, fraternal social organizations, real estate) or a few of them (management, media, engineering). A subsample of 158 professional organizations we judged to be directly involved in research significantly more often had statements on research integrity/ethics terminology than the whole sample: an average of 10.4% of organizations with a statement (95% CI = 10.4-23-5%) on any of the 27 research integrity/ethics terms compared to 3.3% (95% CI = 2.1–4.6%), respectively (Pethics concepts used prescriptive language in describing the standard of practice. Professional organizations should define research integrity and research ethics issues in their ethics codes and collaborate within and across disciplines to adequately address responsible conduct of research and meet contemporary needs of their communities. PMID:26192805

  17. Corporate Governance Debate on Professional Ethics in Accounting Profession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Giorgiana Bonaci


    Full Text Available Paper focuses on the particular case of professional ethics in the context of the accounting profession. After briefly discussing recent events that made us reconsider our understanding of corporate governance, accountancy and ethics, we try to delimit the state of the art by looking at ethics from the accounting professions’ perspective. When aiming to clarify professional ethics, we closely analyze integrity based on the latest developments undertaken by European professional bodies. Findings are used in identifying ways to contribute to the endeavor of aligning the profession’s performance with society’s reasonable expectations.

  18. Sensing as an Ethical Dimension of Teacher Professionality (United States)

    Edling, Silvia; Frelin, Anneli


    The purpose of this article is to theoretically discuss how teacher professionality, as an aspect of teacher professionalism, can be understood in relation to the notion of sensing within the "ethics of alterity" and the "ethics of dissensus," both of which express a desire to contest the various forms of violence in society.…

  19. Ethics in Engineering: Student Perceptions and Their Professional Identity Development (United States)

    Stappenbelt, Brad


    Professional ethics instruction in engineering is commonly conducted by examining case studies in light of the code of conduct of a suitable professional body. Although graphical presentations of spectacular failures, sobering stories of the repercussions and the solid framework provided by the tenets of a code of ethics may leave a lasting…

  20. Ethical Lapses and the Military Profession

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crosbie, Thomas Alexander; Kleykamp, Meredith


    In a recent issue of this journal, we published an article titled “Fault Lines of the American Military Profession”. Donald S. Travis subsequently wrote a Dipustatio Sine Fine rejoinder that raised a number of criticisms of our piece and suggested several ways forward. For our part, we detect three...... serious problems in Travis’s analysis and offer a single syncretic response. Our solution builds on the insights of Travis’s critique while avoiding the pitfalls of his specific line of reasoning. We conclude by urging others to continue to debate and research these very consequential and timely issues....

  1. Teaching and Maintaining Ethical Behavior in a Professional Organization


    Brodhead, Matthew T.; Higbee, Thomas S.


    In addition to continuing education mandates by the Behavior Analyst Certification Board (BACB), behavior-analytic professional organizations may adopt systems that teach and maintain ethical behavior in its employees. Systems of ethical supervision and management may allow for an organization to customize training that prevents ethical misconduct by employees. These systems may also allow supervisors to identify ethical problems in their infancy, allowing the organization to mitigate concern...

  2. Moral crisis, professionals and ethical education. (United States)

    Hunt, G


    Western civilization has probably reached an impasse, expressed as a crisis on all fronts: economic, technological, environmental and political. This is experienced on the cultural level as a moral crisis or an ethical deficit. Somehow, the means we have always assumed as being adequate to the task of achieving human welfare, health and peace, are failing us. Have we lost sight of the primacy of human ends? Governments still push for economic growth and technological advances, but many are now asking: economic growth for what, technology for what? Health care and nursing are caught up in the same inversion of human priorities. Professionals, such as nurses and midwives, need to take on social responsibilities and a collective civic voice, and play their part in a moral regeneration of society. This involves carrying civic rights and duties into the workplace.

  3. Ethical concerns and dilemmas of Finnish and Dutch health professionals. (United States)

    Hopia, Hanna; Lottes, Ilsa; Kanne, Mariël


    Healthcare professionals encounter ethical dilemmas and concerns in their practice. More research is needed to understand these ethical problems and to know how to educate professionals to respond to them. To describe ethical dilemmas and concerns at work from the perspectives of Finnish and Dutch healthcare professionals studying at the master's level. Exploratory, qualitative study that used the text of student online discussions of ethical dilemmas at work as data. Participants' online discussions were analyzed using inductive content analysis. The sample consisted of 49 students at master's level enrolled in professional ethics courses at universities in Finland and the Netherlands. Permission for conducting the study was granted from both universities of applied sciences. All students provided their informed consent for the use of their assignments as research data. Participants described 51 problematic work situations. Among these, 16 were found to be ethical dilemmas, and the remaining were work issues with an ethical concern and did not meet criteria of a dilemma. The most common problems resulted from concerns about quality care, safety of healthcare professionals, patients' rights, and working with too few staff and inadequate resources. The results indicated that participants were concerned about providing quality of care and raised numerous questions about how to provide it in challenging situations. The results show that it was difficult for students to differentiate ethical dilemmas from other ethical work concerns. Online discussions among healthcare providers give them an opportunity to relate ethical principles to real ethical dilemmas and problems in their work as well as to critically analyze ethical issues. We found that discussions with descriptions of ethical dilemmas and concerns by health professionals provide important information and recommendations not only for education and practice but also for health policy. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Professional ethics in postgraduate students from two Mexican universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Navia Antezana


    Full Text Available This article presents the results of research on professional ethics in two Mexican universities: the National Autonomous University of Mexico, with the research project Professional Ethics, and the Autonomous University of the State of Morelos with the project Professional Ethics in Teacher Training. Both research projects shared significant elements: objectives, theoretical framework, use of postgraduate students as study subjects, an instrument for data collection and methodology of analysis. We found a strong presence of cognitive and ethical skills, although one of the ethical skills, “Providing the best service to society”, received a low percentage. Significant contradictions with regard to the ethical values “Continuing Education”, “Hardworking” and “Respect” were found.

  5. Professional ethics in occupational health--Western European perspectives. (United States)

    Westerholm, Peter


    In this paper, the foundations of professional ethics in occupational health care is described and discussed. After an introduction reminding of the global developments of world economy, communications and trade and reference to cultural and social developments, reference is given the four basic ethical criteria of biomedical ethics of beneficence ("doing good"), non-malfeasance (avoidance of harm), autonomy (integrity) and Justice/Equity-The "Appletown consensus" of 1989. These criteria provide the basis for current thinking and practice in health professions of Western Europe. The principles of ethical analysis, as currently practiced is described using a practical case scenario drawn from experience of challenging tasks for Occupational Health Services in Western Europe. Specific challenges to professional ethics are discussed-the growth of knowledge in subjects and academic disciplines relevant to occupational health and the multiple loyalties of occupational health professionals. The principles of ethical codes and their implementation are touched on. In conclusion, the universality of professional ethical principles of bioethics-including occupational health-is discussed in observing global inter-cultural commonalities and convergence on ethical criteria of central importance. Emphatic recommendation is given to continue inter-cultural exchanges with a view to improve understanding of impact of contextual and cultural factors on ethics in professional occupational health practice.

  6. An Innovation Framework Applied to a Military Cyber Professionals Association (United States)


    Associations, Military Cyber Professionals Association, Cyber Command, Innovation, Innovation Adoption, Innovation Model, Non Profit, Entrepreneur ...of such organizations is demonstrated by their pervasiveness, including across the American defense ecosystem . Examples of such military related...innovation. This narrative records observations and insights of interest to 15 innovators, entrepreneurs , intrapreneurs, extrapreneurs, policy makers, and

  7. Qualifications and ethics education: the views of ICT professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeslam Al-Saggaf


    Full Text Available Do information and communications technology (ICT professionals who have ICT qualifications believe that the ethics education they received as part of their ICT degrees helped them recognise ethical problems in the workplace and address them? If they do, are they also influenced by their personal ethics? What else helps them recognise ethical problems in the workplace and address them? And what are their views in relation to the impact of ethics education on professionalism in the ICT workplace? A quantitative survey of 2,315 Australian ICT professionals revealed that participants who reported having various levels of qualifications found ethics education or training, to a small degree, helpful for recognising ethical problems and addressing them; although it is those with Non-ICT qualifications, not those with ICT degrees, who were influenced more by ethics education or training. This suggests that educators need to consider how to better prepare ICT graduates for the workplace challenges and the types of situations they subsequently experience. The survey also found that participants who reported having various levels of qualifications were not influenced by their personal ethics or indeed any other factor making ethics education or training important for developing professionalism. The quantitative survey was followed by qualitative interviews with 43 Australian ICT professionals in six Australian capital cities. These interviews provided further empirical evidence that ethics education is crucial for enabling ICT professionals to recognise ethical problems and resolve them and that educators need to consider how to better prepare ICT graduates for the types of moral dilemmas that they are likely going to face in the workforce.

  8. Ethics interventions for healthcare professionals and students: A systematic review. (United States)

    Stolt, Minna; Leino-Kilpi, Helena; Ruokonen, Minka; Repo, Hanna; Suhonen, Riitta


    The ethics and value bases in healthcare are widely acknowledged. There is a need to improve and raise awareness of ethics in complex systems and in line with competing needs, different stakeholders and patients' rights. Evidence-based strategies and interventions for the development of procedures and practice have been used to improve care and services. However, it is not known whether and to what extent ethics can be developed using interventions. To examine ethics interventions conducted on healthcare professionals and healthcare students to achieve ethics-related outcomes. A systematic review. Five electronic databases were searched: CINAHL, the Cochrane Library, Philosopher's Index, PubMed and PsycINFO. We searched for published articles written in English without a time limit using the keywords: ethic* OR moral* AND intervention OR program OR pre-post OR quasi-experimental OR rct OR experimental AND nurse OR nursing OR health care. In the four-phased retrieval process, 23 full texts out of 4675 citations were included in the review. Data were analysed using conventional content analysis. Ethical consideration: This systematic review was conducted following good scientific practice in every phase. It is possible to affect the ethics of healthcare practices through professionals and students. All the interventions were educational in type. Many of the interventions were related to the ethical or moral sensitivity of the professionals, such as moral courage and empowerment. A few of the interventions focused on identifying ethical problems or research ethics. Patient-related outcomes followed by organisational outcomes can be improved by ethics interventions targeting professionals. Such outcomes are promising in developing ethical safety for healthcare patients and professionals.

  9. Professional ambivalence: accounts of ethical practice in childhood genetic testing. (United States)

    Arribas-Ayllon, Michael; Sarangi, Srikant; Clarke, Angus


    Childhood genetic testing raises complex ethical and moral dilemmas for both families and professionals. In the family sphere, the role of communication is a key aspect in the transmission of 'genetic responsibility' between adults and children. In the professional sphere, genetic responsibility is an interactional accomplishment emerging from the sometimes competing views over what constitutes the 'best interests' of the child in relation to parental preferences on the one hand, and professional judgements on the other. In the present paper we extend our previous research into parental accounts of childhood genetic testing and explore the ethical accounts of professionals in research interviews. Interviews (n = 20) were conducted with professional practitioners involved in the genetic diagnosis and management of children and their families. We first identify four inter-related themes-juxtaposition of parental rights vis-à-vis child's autonomy, elicitation of the child's autonomy, avoidance of parental responsibility and recognition of professional uncertainty. Then, using Rhetorical Discourse Analysis, we examine the range of discourse devices through which ethical accounts are situationally illustrated: contrast, reported speech, constructed dialogue, character and event work. An overarching device in these ethical accounts is the use of extreme case scenarios, which reconstruct dilemmas as justifications of professional conduct. While acknowledging ambivalence, our analysis suggests that professional judgement is not a simple matter of implementing ethical principles but rather of managing the practical conditions and consequences of interactions with parents and children. We conclude that more attention is needed to understand the way professional practitioners formulate judgements about ethical practice.

  10. A Proposed Code Of Ethics For Infrared Thermographic Professionals (United States)

    Roberts, Charles C.


    The American Heritage Dictionary defines ethics as "The general study of morals and of specific moral choices to be made by the individual in his relationship with others". A code of ethics defines these moral relationships to encourage integrity throughout a profession. A defined code of ethics often yields credibility to an organization or association of professionals. This paper outlines a proposed code of ethics for practitioners in the infrared thermographic field. The proposed code covers relationships with the public, clients, other professionals and employers. The proposed code covers credentials, capabilities, thermograms, compensation and safety.

  11. The ethical dimension of the systematization of professional exercise


    Isabela Sarmet de Azevedo


    This article focuses on the systematization of the professional social worker. The objectives of the study were to analyze the unity between theory and practice and the ethical dimensions of professional practice; discuss the importance of the systematization of the professional practice for all fields of professional activity; and articulate systematization of professional exercise, with the working conditions and the demands of users of social policies. Comprised a review of the literature ...

  12. Cashing In Stars: Does the Professional Ethic Apply in Retirement? (United States)


    Congress and the public at large. As Melanie Sloan, executive director of CREW, mentions, the political and public apathy is attributed to the high...begin with the premise of military of- ficers as “professionals.” As students of civil-military relations are aware, Samuel Huntington’s The Soldier and

  13. Ethics: The Stepchild of Professional Development. (United States)

    MacFeely, Richard W.


    A review of the subject index for "School Business Affairs" during 1990-94 reveals that only two articles have been published over the past five years exclusively on the subject of ethics. Lists the ASBO International's Code of Ethics and how organizations can move from a code of ethics to incorporating them into daily professional…

  14. Codes of Professional Conduct and Ethics Education for Future Teachers (United States)

    Maxwell, Bruce


    This paper argues that the way future teachers are being initiated into the ethical dimensions of their future profession is largely out of step with the movement to professionalize teaching. After recalling the role that codes of professional conduct play in the ecology of professional self-regulation, and arguing that familiarizing students with…

  15. Professional competence and palliative care: an ethical perspective.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthuis, G.J.; Dekkers, W.J.M.


    The aim of this article is to explore an ethical view of professional competence by examining the professional competence of physicians in the context of palliative care. A discussion of the four dimensions of professional competence--knowledge, technical skills, relationships, and affective and

  16. Perceptions and attitudes of community pharmacists toward professional ethics and ethical dilemmas in the workplace. (United States)

    Vuković Rodríguez, Jadranka; Juričić, Živka


    Formal training in pharmacy ethics is relatively new in Croatia, and the professional code of ethics is more than 20 years old. Very little is known about how practicing pharmacists implement ethical considerations and relevant professional guidelines in their work. This study aimed to provide the first description of the perceptions and attitudes of Croatian community pharmacists toward ethics in pharmacy practice, how often they face certain ethical dilemmas and how they resolve them. A cross-sectional survey of 252 community pharmacists, including community pharmacists and pre-licensing trainees, was conducted in Zagreb, Croatia. This group accounts for 18% of licensed pharmacists in Croatia. The survey questions included four sections: general sociodemographic information, multiple-choice questions, pre-defined ethical scenarios, and ethical scenarios filled in by respondents. More than half of pharmacists (62.7%) face ethical dilemmas in everyday work. Nearly all (94.4%) are familiar with the current professional code of ethics in Croatia, but only 47.6% think that the code reflects the changes that the pharmacy profession faces today. Most pharmacists (83.3%) solve ethical dilemmas on their own, while nearly the same proportion (75.4%) think that they are not adequately trained to deal with ethical dilemmas. The pre-defined ethical scenarios experienced by the largest proportion of pharmacists are being asked to dispense a drug to someone other than the patient (93.3%), an unnecessary over-the-counter medicine (84.3%), a generic medicine clinically equivalent to the prescribed one (79.4%), or hormonal contraception over the counter (70.4%). The results demonstrate a need to improve formal pharmacy ethics education and training in how to assess ethical issues and make appropriate decisions, which implies the need for stronger collaboration between pharmacists and their professional association. Our results also highlight an urgent need to revise and update the

  17. Occupational therapy, professional development and ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dige, Morten


    The article's aim is to reflect on and contribute to developing occupational therapy as a profession. I propose an ethical interpretation of health and helping professions in general and occupational therapy in particular. According to this ethical interpretation, the essential function and mission...... of classical health and helping professions are defined by certain ethical values: the basic elements of a good human life. I argue that the central concepts of occupational therapy, activity and participation, can plausibly be understood in this light. However, this seems to imply a rather substantial...... conception of well-being which I try to spell out. In addition, I specify the basic principles of biomedical ethics in the context of occupational therapy according to an ethical interpretation. In conclusion, I point at four advantages of the ethical interpretation: It adds precision and content to ethical...

  18. Ethical Knowledge in Teaching: A Moral Imperative of Professionalism (United States)

    Campbell, Elizabeth


    Increasingly, literature from both the academic and the professional fields has focused attention on the moral dimensions of teaching and the ethical demands they place on the daily practice of teachers. On one hand, consideration of ethical intent and behaviour seems quite simple and self-evident. In teaching, as in life more generally, core…

  19. Professionalism in Advertising: The Origin of Ethical Codes. (United States)

    Schultze, Quentin J.


    Outlines attempts to establish a code of ethics in the advertising profession. Contends that advertising ethical codes and self-regulatory mechanisms are designed to present the impression of professionalism and to combat perceptions of the need for outside interference, and thus serve as superficial public relations tools. (JMF)

  20. Ethical and Professional Issues in Computer-Assisted Therapy. (United States)

    Ford, B. Douglas


    Discusses ethical and professional issues in psychology regarding computer-assisted therapy (CAT). Topics addressed include an explanation of CAT; whether CAT is psychotherapy; software, including independent use, validation of effectiveness, and restricted access; clinician resistance; client acceptance; the impact on ethical standards; and a…

  1. Bridging the Gap: Contextualizing Professional Ethics in Collaborative Writing Projects (United States)

    Rice, J. A.


    Many business and technical writing students find classroom discussions of professional ethics interesting and enjoyable. However, when trying to incorporate the content of discussions directly into their writing practices, they often experience difficulties linking ethical concepts to writing process. This article discusses how instructors can…

  2. Professional Ethics in the College and University Science Curriculum. (United States)

    Kovac, Jeffrey


    Develops the internal codes of scientific practice and the relationships between professional science and society that are the basis of scientific ethics from both an historical and a philosophical perspective. Makes suggestions for how the teaching of scientific ethics can be integrated into the undergraduate curriculum. Contains 49 references.…

  3. Institutional initiatives in professional scientific ethics: three case studies (United States)

    Nickless, Edmund; Bilham, Nic


    Learned and professional scientific bodies can play a vital role in promoting ethical behaviours, giving practical substance to theoretical consideration of geoethical principles and complementing the efforts of individual scientists and practitioners to behave in a professional and ethical manner. Institutions may do this through mandatory professional codes of conduct, by developing guidelines and initiatives to codify and stimulate the uptake of best practice, and through wider initiatives to engender a culture conducive to such behaviours. This presentation will outline three current institutional initiatives which directly or indirectly address scientific ethics: i. The UK Science Council's Declaration on Diversity, Equality and Inclusion. ii. Development and promulgation of the American Geosciences Institute's (AGI) Guidelines for Ethical Professional Conduct. iii. The American Geophysical Union's (AGU) Scientific Code of Conduct and Professional Ethics. The focus of the Science Council and its member bodies (including the Geological Society of London) on diversity is of central importance when considering ethical behaviours in science. First, improving equality and diversity in the science workforce is at the heart of ethical practice, as well as being essential to meeting current and future skills needs. Second, in addition to demographic diversity (whether in terms of gender, race, economic status, sexuality or gender identity, etc), an important dimension of diversity in science is to allow space for a plurality of scientific views, and to nurture dissenting voices - essential both to the development of scientific knowledge and to its effective communication to non-technical audiences.

  4. Auditor professional commitment and performance: An ethical issue role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratih Kusumastuti


    Full Text Available This study explores to what extent the auditor’s idealism and relativism ethical orientation influences the professional commitment and the auditor’s performance. This study uses questionnaire’s survey from the auditors who work for Public Accountant Office in Indonesia. The data is analyzed by using the Structural Equation Model. The study reveals that the idealism and relativism ethical orientation have a significant influence to the professional commitment and the auditors’ performance

  5. Korean nurses' ethical dilemmas, professional values and professional quality of life. (United States)

    Kim, Kyunghee; Han, Yonghee; Kim, Ji-su


    In the changing medical environment, professional stress continuously increases as the individual's quality of life suffers. Of all the healthcare professions, nursing is especially prone to burnout, compassion fatigue and reduced compassion satisfaction, due to the tensions resulting from the physical and psychological stress of caring for extremely ill patients. This study examined the professional quality of life of clinical nurses in Korea and the relationship between their experiences in ethical dilemmas and professional values. This was a cross-sectional study of a convenience sample consisting of 488 clinical nurses. We used four questionnaires to measure the participants' demographic characteristics, experiences in ethical dilemmas, professional nursing values and professional quality of life (ProQOL assessment, Version 5). Ethical considerations: This study received approval from the Institutional Review Board of Bronco Memorial Hospital. Written informed consent was given by all participants. The nurses' professional quality of life was affected by ethical dilemmas and professional nursing values. The factors influencing compassion satisfaction were age, client domain of ethical dilemmas, social awareness, professionalism of nursing and the roles of nursing services in professional values. The factors influencing burnout were marital status (married), religion (yes), human life domain, professional work domain of ethical dilemmas, social awareness and the role of nursing services in nursing professional values. The factors influencing secondary traumatic stress were human life domain, client domain and the professional work domain of ethical dilemmas. Intervention to help nurses increase their professional quality of life will have a greater chance of success if they are based on the nurses' values and beliefs about the ethical dilemmas they face and foster the establishment of positive professional values. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Genetic Counseling: Ethical and Professional Role Implications. (United States)

    Witmer, J. Melvin; And Others


    Genetic counseling assists people in identifying potential or manifest genetic problems, understanding their implications, making decisions about what course to follow, and working through psychological and social aspects as they affect individuals or couples. Four ethical principles and related ethical issues pertaining to autonomy, beneficence…

  7. Teaching Business IT Ethics: A Professional Approach (United States)

    Taylor, Mark; Moynihan, Eddie; McWilliam, Jennie; Gresty, David


    In UK higher education a primary aim of business IT-related qualifications is the preparation of students for a relevant career. In this article we discuss an approach to teaching business IT ethics in a university context that prepares students for the ethical problems that they may meet in their future IT careers, and we demonstrate how this…

  8. Is professional ethics a luxury we can do without?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Chiva


    Full Text Available In today’s society where the recovery and education of values is being reclaimed, professional ethics is gaining an essential importance, and the education of future professionals is becoming one of the key questions. First of all, this project analyses the content of ethics based on Spanish universities where the Human Nutrition and Dietetics Undergraduate Degree is taught, as well as the content of ethics of dual undergraduate programmes. In second place, the results of an online survey have been analysed. This survey, carried out between 1 and 11 September 2014, included a question on professional ethics and, finally, the Spanish Code of Ethics for Dieticians and Nutritionists was used as an example to solve doubts that were raised regarding our profession related to the patronage of the industry. To conclude, it would be recommendable for the ethics/bioethics subject to be given in the fourth year of the undergraduate degree and for universities where there is a dual undergraduate programme to include content from both human nutrition and dietetics. We should promote the creation of our own ethical culture specifically for human nutrition and dietetics that starts at the university education stage and continues in training throughout the whole professional life.

  9. Moral Dilemmas in a Military Context. a Case Study of a Train the Trainer Course on Military Ethics (United States)

    van Baarle, Eva; Bosch, Jolanda; Widdershoven, Guy; Verweij, Desiree; Molewijk, Bert


    Moral competence is important for soldiers who have to deal with complex moral dilemmas in practice. However, openly dealing with moral dilemmas and showing moral competence is not always easy within the culture of a military organization. In this article, based on analysis of experiences during a train the trainer course on military ethics, we…

  10. On Change of Concepts: From Teacher's Occupational Ethics to Professional Ethics (United States)

    Tan, Chuan-bao


    The transition from experience-based teachers to expertise-based ones has marked a significant phase in the history of human education. The conceptive transition from the general "occupational ethics" of teachers to "professional ethics" is actually an important aspect of the transition from experience-based to expertise-based…

  11. The effects of professional ethics and commitment on audit quality

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    Aliasghar Nasrabadi


    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on the effects of professional ethics and commitments on audit quality. The population of this survey includes all audit managers who were active in auditing official statements of different firms listed in Tehran Stock Exchange in 2014. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among 152 randomly selected managers. In our survey, professional ethics consists of four items including confidentiality and impartiality, professional competence, accountability and individual values while organizational commitment consists of three items including emotional commitment, continues commitment and fundamental commitment. Using Pearson correlation as well as regression models, the study has determined a positive and meaningful relationship between professional ethics as well as commitment and audit quality.

  12. Perception of Ethical Misconduct by Neuropsychology Professionals in Latin America. (United States)

    Panyavin, Ivan S; Goldberg-Looney, Lisa D; Rivera, Diego; Perrin, Paul B; Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos


    To date, extremely limited research has focused on the ethical aspects of clinical neuropsychology practice in Latin America. The current study aimed to identify the frequency of perceived ethical misconduct in a sample of 465 self-identified neuropsychology professionals from Latin America in order to better guide policies for training and begin to establish standards for practitioners in the region. Frequencies of neuropsychologists who knew another professional engaging in ethical misconduct ranged from 1.1% to 60.4% in the areas of research, clinical care, training, and professional relationships. The most frequently reported perceived misconduct was in the domain of professional training and expertise, with nearly two thirds of participants knowing other professionals who do not possess adequate training to be working as neuropsychologists. The least frequently reported perceived misconduct was in the domain of professional relationships. Nearly one third of participants indicated that they had never received formal training in professional ethics. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  13. A set of professional working ability indicators of military operators

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    Mykola Korchahin


    Full Text Available Purpose: determination of indicators of professional work capacity and their impact on the success of professional activity of military operators in the cycle of alert duty. Material & Methods: indicators of the professional capacity of military operators were determined through theoretical analysis, systematization and generalization of data from scientific and methodological sources, medical-biological, psycho-diagnostic methods and mathematical methods of processing the results of the study. Result: it is determined that the most informative indirect indicators of the professional capacity of military operators of the contract service of the Air Forces of the Armed Forces of Ukraine is: physical condition, psycho-emotional state, physical performance, aerobic endurance, static endurance of back muscles, neck and the abs, the speed of perception, memory, concentration and shifting attention. The correlation dependence of the level of professional preparedness of military operators on indirect indices of professional work capacity: physical fitness (r=0,58, psycho-emotional state (r=0,51, physical performance (r=0,34, aerobic endurance (r=0.59, static endurance of the muscles of the back and neck (r=0,52, static endurance of the abs muscles (r=0,48, simple sensorimotor reaction (r=0,44, short-term (operational memory (r=0,40, concentration and attention switching (r=0,46. Conclusion: a complex characteristic of the indicators of psycho-physiological functions of the body of a specialist can be used to assess the dynamics and prediction of the professional capacity of military operators of the Air Force in the cycle of alert duty.

  14. Professional Ethics for Digital Age Psychiatry: Boundaries, Privacy, and Communication. (United States)

    Sabin, James E; Harland, Jonathan Clark


    Internet and social media use continue to expand rapidly. Many patients and psychiatrists are bringing digital technologies into the treatment process, but relatively little attention has been paid to the ethical challenges in doing this. This review presents ethical guidelines for psychiatry in the digital age. Surveys demonstrate that patients are eager to make digital technologies part of their treatment. Substantial numbers search for professional and personal information about their therapists. Attitudes among psychiatrists about using digital technologies with patients range from dread to enthusiastic adoption. Digital technologies create four major ethical challenges for psychiatry: managing clinical boundaries; maintaining privacy and confidentiality; establishing realistic expectations regarding digital communications; and upholding professional ideals. Traditional ethical expectations are valid for the evolving digital arena, but guidance must be adapted for actual application in practice.

  15. Managing Ethical Difficulties in Healthcare: Communicating in Inter-professional Clinical Ethics Support Sessions. (United States)

    Grönlund, Catarina Fischer; Dahlqvist, Vera; Zingmark, Karin; Sandlund, Mikael; Söderberg, Anna


    Several studies show that healthcare professionals need to communicate inter-professionally in order to manage ethical difficulties. A model of clinical ethics support (CES) inspired by Habermas' theory of discourse ethics has been developed by our research group. In this version of CES sessions healthcare professionals meet inter-professionally to communicate and reflect on ethical difficulties in a cooperative manner with the aim of reaching communicative agreement or reflective consensus. In order to understand the course of action during CES, the aim of this study was to describe the communication of value conflicts during a series of inter-professional CES sessions. Ten audio- and video-recorded CES sessions were conducted over eight months and were analyzed by using the video analysis tool Transana and qualitative content analysis. The results showed that during the CES sessions the professionals as a group moved through the following five phases: a value conflict expressed as feelings of frustration, sharing disempowerment and helplessness, the revelation of the value conflict, enhancing realistic expectations, seeing opportunities to change the situation instead of obstacles. In the course of CES, the professionals moved from an individual interpretation of the situation to a common, new understanding and then to a change in approach. An open and permissive communication climate meant that the professionals dared to expose themselves, share their feelings, face their own emotions, and eventually arrive at a mutual shared reality. The value conflict was not only revealed but also resolved.

  16. The business of health promotion: ethical issues and professional responsibilities. (United States)

    McLeroy, K R; Gottlieb, N H; Burdine, J N


    In the nine years since an entire issue of Health Education Quarterly (then Health Education Monographs) was devoted to considering ethical issues in health education, several important social changes have occurred which have substantially influenced the practice of that discipline. New practice contexts and ethical issues have resulted, which require a fresh look at both these new issues as well as those addressed in the earlier monograph. The importance of understanding the principles underlying the ethical dilemmas raised by the authors is emphasized as a concern for both the individual practitioner as well as the profession of health education itself. Recommendations for personal and professional action are made by the authors.

  17. Health Potential of Female Candidates to the Professional Military Service (United States)

    Kaiser, Alicja; Sokolowski, Marek


    Study aim: To assess health and social characteristics of female candidates for professional officers and non-commissioned officers of Polish Army. Material and methods: All female students of officer and non-commissioned officer Military Academies (16 each) were studied in 2009. Two questionnaires were applied in the study: IPAQ (short) for…

  18. The challenge of diffusing military professionalism in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soeters, J.M.M.L.; van Ouytsel, A.


    In order to cope with the many violent conflicts all over the world and to enhance their influence, Western armed forces tend to invest in professionalizing the armed forces of developing countries. One way is to educate cadets of such countries at the military academies at home. Following in this

  19. Professional Ethics for School Business Officials. (United States)

    Pichel, Frank M.


    Presents a "Code of Ethics for School Administrators" and "Standards of Conduct for the Association of School Business Officials." These codes, combined with school regulations and adherence to various statutes, can provide school business officials with a sound philosophical basis for fulfilling their responsibilities. (MLF)

  20. The commerce of professional psychology and the new ethics code. (United States)

    Koocher, G P


    The 1992 version of the American Psychological Association's Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct brings some changes in requirements and new specificity to the practice of psychology. The impact of the new code on therapeutic contracts, informed consent to psychological services, advertising, financial aspects of psychological practice, and other topics related to the commerce of professional psychology are discussed. The genesis of many new thrusts in the code is reviewed from the perspective of psychological service provider. Specific recommendations for improved attention to ethical matters in professional practice are made.

  1. How do we learn professional ethics? Professional competences ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ultimately, we argue that while physiotherapy education should embrace the unique nature of skills training as an opportunity to stimulate students to develop their ethical sensibility, at the same time, the curriculum must also emphasise hyperreflection (critical thinking). We also discuss how educators can organise their ...

  2. From the Teachers Professional Ethics to the Personal Professional Responsibility (United States)

    Seghedin, Elena


    Following the idea of civic responsibility of all adults for the new generation, we have tried, in different previous studies, to demonstrate that teaching is involving a lot of moral principles and values. Our present article aim is to present a part of our research about the teaching ethics under the idea of being a stable dimension of teaching…

  3. Ethics of caring and professional roles. (United States)

    Paulsen, Jens Erik


    Normative discussions about modern health care often revolve around principles stating what must not be done or how to ration scarce resources in the name of justice. These are important discussions. However, in order to have an impact on clinical roles, ethical reflection must be able to describe and address the complexities and challenges of modern nursing and doctoring, and maybe even the patient role. A multi-principled approach, such as the one suggested by Beauchamp and Childress, can obviously address almost any such issue, but a great deal of translation is often required in order to address role-related issues. I shall here argue that an ethics of caring is better suited to grasping the big picture when the question is how to create value-informed clinical roles in an era of rapid development.

  4. Ethics vs. Prejudice: a challenge for professionals in leisure area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Laudares Silva


    Full Text Available This qualitative research investigated the perception of prejudice against lesbianism in leisure activities, the motives for such individuals not to make public their sexual orientation and the leisure professional role as ethic posture disseminator during the inclusion process in leisure activities. A sample of 70 lesbians was interviewed via Internet and the data showed the existence of prejudice, fear of loosing social and familiar status and the professional fundamental participation for changing values in the inclusion process.

  5. Assessment of Ethical and Other Professional Standards in Private ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Compliance of 21 private medical laboratories in Osun State with ethical and other professional was assessed by the authors' pre and post inspection by the Medical Laboratory Science Council of Nigeria (MLSCN). Laboratory environment, personnel, equipment and adherence to Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) ...

  6. A Study of Ethics and Professionalism in Zimbabwe's Education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There has been a marked decline in the character, moral values and general behaviour of students coming out of the Zimbabwean education system. Accordingly, this study sought to investigate issues of ethics and professionalism in the Zimbabwean education system, and examine how the trend of the gradual erosion of ...

  7. Ethical and Professional Norms in Community-Based Research (United States)

    Campano, Gerald; Ghiso, María Paula; Welch, Bethany J.


    In this article Gerald Campano, María Paula Ghiso, and Bethany J. Welch explore the role of ethical and professional norms in community-based research, especially in fostering trust within contexts of cultural diversity, systemic inequity, and power asymmetry. The authors present and describe a set of guidelines for community-based research that…

  8. Thinking Ethically about Professional Practice in Adapted Physical Activity (United States)

    Goodwin, Donna L.; Rossow-Kimball, Brenda


    There has been little critical exploration of the ethical issues that arise in professional practice common to adapted physical activity. We cannot avoid moral issues as we inevitably will act in ways that will negatively affect the well-being of others. We will make choices, which in our efforts to support others, may hurt by violating dignity or…

  9. Physicians’ Professionally Responsible Power: A Core Concept of Clinical Ethics (United States)

    McCullough, Laurence B.


    The gathering of power unto themselves by physicians, a process supported by evidence-based practice, clinical guidelines, licensure, organizational culture, and other social factors, makes the ethics of power—the legitimation of physicians’ power—a core concept of clinical ethics. In the absence of legitimation, the physician’s power over patients becomes problematic, even predatory. As has occurred in previous issues of the Journal, the papers in the 2016 clinical ethics issue bear on the professionally responsible deployment of power by physicians. This introduction explores themes of physicians’ power in papers from an international group of authors who address autonomy and trust, the virtues of perinatal hospice, conjoined twins in ethics and law, addiction and autonomy in clinical research on addicting substances, euthanasia of patients with dementia in Belgium, and a pragmatic approach to clinical futility. PMID:26671961

  10. Professional and Ethical Conduct in the Public Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thozamile Richard Mle


    Full Text Available One of the basic values and principles governing public administration enshrined in the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 (Chapter 10 is that “a high standard of professional ethics must be promoted and maintained. Ethics is a process by which we clarify right and wrong and act on what we take to be right, that is, a set or system of moral principles that are generally accepted. Ethics simply means  what is right and wrong, what is acceptable or unacceptable and is intertwined with the value system of people. Ethics can also be seen as being relative, not absolute, as ethical behaviour is in the eyes of the beholder. Be that as it may, however, ethical conduct and behaviour normally refer to conforming with generally accepted social norms. Relative to ethics is professionalism, which entails a high standard of work and adherence to certain standards and principles pertaining to specific work to be done. Professionalism embodies skills, competence, efficiency and effectiveness. Public institutions exist for the public good and employ public servants to render services to ensure a better life for all. The public sector is characterised by unprofessional and unethical conduct. The article unearths these and suggests strategies/mechanisms to address this ‘ill’. Can an unethical,  unprofessional public servant be trusted to deliver services? Can, for example, a debt-trapped public servant who survives on borrowing money from micro-lenders, who cannot manage personal finances, be trusted to efficiently manage public funds and thus enhance service delivery? Can an incompetent, corrupt, disloyal, unaccountable, shoddy public servant who flouts the principles of Batho Pele and the code of conduct be entrusted with the  responsibilities of ensuring a better life for all? The answers to these questions constitute the core of this article.

  11. Professional and Institutional Morality: Building Ethics Programmes on the Dual Loyalty of Academic Professionals (United States)

    Nijhof, Andre; Wilderom, Celeste; Oost, Marlies


    Most professionals have the arduous task of managing their own dual loyalty: in one contextual relationship, they are members of a profession while simultaneously they are employed as members of a locally established organisation. This sense of a dual loyalty has to be taken into account when professional bureaucracies develop ethics programmes.…

  12. Ethics Education in Professional Psychology: A Survey of American Psychological Association Accredited Programs


    Domenech Rodriguez, Melanie M.; Erickson Cornish, Jennifer A; Thomas, Janet T; Forrest, Linda; Anderson, Austin; Bow, James N


    Professional psychologists are expected to know ethical standards and engage in proactive analysis of ethical considerations across professional roles (e.g., practice, research, teaching). Yet, little is known about the current state of doctoral ethics education in professional psychology, including the content covered and pedagogical strategies used to ensure developing this core component of professional competency (de las Fuentes, Willmuth, & Yarrow, 2005). A survey of ethics educators fro...

  13. Same Principles, Different Worlds: A Critical Discourse Analysis of Medical Ethics and Nursing Ethics in Finnish Professional Texts. (United States)

    Saxén, Salla


    This qualitative social scientific study explores professional texts of healthcare ethics to understand the ways in which ethical professionalism in medicine and nursing are culturally constructed in Finland. Two books in ethics, published by Finnish national professional organizations-one for nurses and one for physicians-were analyzed with the method of critical discourse analysis. Codes of ethics for each profession were also scrutinized. Analysis of the texts sought to reveal what is taken for granted in the texts as well as to speculate what appeared to be relegated to the margins of the texts or left entirely invisible. Physicians' ethics was discovered to emphasize objectivity and strong group membership as a basis for ethical professionalism. The discourses identified in the physicians' ethics guidebook were universal ethics, reductionism, non-subjectivity, and threat. Nursing ethics was discovered to highlight reflectivity as its central focus. This idea of reflectivity was echoed in the identified discourses: local ethics, enlightenment, and moral agency. The analysis exposes a cultural gap between the ethics discourses of medicine and nursing. More work is needed to bridge ethics discourses in Finland in a way that can support healthcare professionals to find common ground and to foster inclusivity in ethical dialogue. Further development of bioethical practices is suggested as a potential way forward.

  14. The Overlapping Spheres of Medical Professionalism and Medical Ethics: A Conceptual Inquiry (United States)

    Ruitenberg, Claudia W.


    This essay examines the concepts of "professionalism" and "ethics" as they are used in health professions education and, in particular, medical education. It proposes that, in order to make sense of the construct of "professional ethics," it would be helpful to conceive of professionalism and ethics as overlapping but…

  15. The ethical dimension of the systematization of professional exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela Sarmet de Azevedo


    Full Text Available This article focuses on the systematization of the professional social worker. The objectives of the study were to analyze the unity between theory and practice and the ethical dimensions of professional practice; discuss the importance of the systematization of the professional practice for all fields of professional activity; and articulate systematization of professional exercise, with the working conditions and the demands of users of social policies. Comprised a review of the literature on the topic of systematization in Social Service, where it was identified that the set of specific knowledge that surround “professional” and that could qualify the actions of social workers has not been addressed in dept. The proposed analysis is to establish procedures for systematization to accomplish it in line with the Code of Professional ethics and Law to regulate the profession (Law nº 8.662/ 93. As regards the difficulties pointed out by the authors for the practice of systematic stand out the time factor, the poor working conditions and the limitations posed by their vocational training. Even considering all the advances, the systematization of professional practice in Social Service is still scarce, disjointed and less expressive.

  16. Penetration Testing Professional Ethics: a conceptual model and taxonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Pierce


    Full Text Available In an environment where commercial software is continually patched to correct security flaws, penetration testing can provide organisations with a realistic assessment of their security posture. Penetration testing uses the same principles as criminal hackers to penetrate corporate networks and thereby verify the presence of software vulnerabilities. Network administrators can use the results of a penetration test to correct flaws and improve overall security. The use of hacking techniques, however, raises several ethical questions that centre on the integrity of the tester to maintain professional distance and uphold the profession. This paper discusses the ethics of penetration testing and presents our conceptual model and revised taxonomy.

  17. [Hippocratic Oath: professional or ethic code?]. (United States)

    Popović, Milos


    In order to study the historical relationship of early medical professional codex and contemporary demands and challenges, which are currently being placed before physicians, the first such text, known as Hippocratic Oath has been re-translated. According to the source, it is clear that this is a Code of professional conduct, primarily for the welfare of patients, and in order to maintain and preserve medical authority. All parts of the Oath have been discussed and presented, as well as the historical data from which one can see how the system in ancient Greece and Rome worked. The study includes historical data from that time on two controversial issues: the liability of medical awards, and addressing medical services. These are mistakenly considered to belong to the text of the Oath. Examples of the amount of medical awards are stated, as well as the examples of selflessness and dedication of the physicians in that time. A physician was obliged to help by law, only in the case of accidents and injuries. It is obvious that "medical doctrine" existed also in this time. Requirements set to a doctor were realistic, modest and appropriate to the call, with the main purpose of protecting the reputation and dignity of the profession. Despite the historical distance, classical text of the Oath is still up to date. In this context, ambiguities and errors result from not being familiar with the both, the basic text, and the circumstances prevailing at the time and society, in which the Oath was made.

  18. Care-managers' professional choices: ethical dilemmas and conflicting expectations. (United States)

    Tønnessen, Siri; Ursin, Gøril; Brinchmann, Berit Støre


    Care-managers are responsible for the public administration of individual healthcare decisions and decide on the volume and content of community healthcare services given to a population. The purpose of this study was to investigate the conflicting expectations and ethical dilemmas these professionals encounter in their daily work with patients and to discuss the clinical implications of this. The study had a qualitative design. The data consisted of verbatim transcripts from 12 ethical reflection group meetings held in 2012 at a purchaser unit in a Norwegian city. The participants consist of healthcare professionals such as nurses, occupational therapists, physiotherapists and social workers. The analyses and interpretation were conducted according to a hermeneutic methodology. This study is part of a larger research project. Two main themes emerged through the analyses: 1. Professional autonomy and loyalty, and related subthemes: loyalty to whom/what, overruling of decisions, trust and obligation to report. 2. Boundaries of involvement and subthemes: private or professional, care-manager or provider and accessibility. Underlying values and a model illustrating the dimensions of professional responsibility in the care-manager role are suggested. The study implies that when allocating services, healthcare professionals need to find a balance between responsibility and accountability in their role as care-managers.

  19. Developing Professional Ethics for Social Educators and Early Childhood Educators in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribers, Bjørn


    Over the last two decades, Danish labour unions have been working continuously on developing professional ethical codes and guidelines for social educators and early childhood and youth educators in Denmark. The majority of empirical research projects studying ethical dimensions of social work...... empirical research results on ethical issues in the professional practice and in the education of welfare professionals. The paper discusses the current state of professional ethics in childhood and youth work and debates the constellation between educational policies, the political process of developing...... professional ethical codes and the continuing changes in the organisation of the Danish welfare state, which vehemently influence the welfare professions....

  20. There Is More to Ethics Than Codes of Professional Ethics: Social Ethics, Theoretical Ethics, and Managed Care. (United States)

    Tjeltveit, Alan C.


    Presents a reaction to Cooper and Gottlieb's (this issue) article titled, "Ethical Issues with Managed Care: Challenges Facing Counseling Psychology." Examines the ethical problems giving rise to managed care, the ethical character of therapy goals, and the social ethical question of balancing the good of individuals with the good of society.…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelariu Alin


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present the psychological profile of the professional accountant in an ethical context through the speciality literature. The starting point of this paper was Carl Gustav Jung’s book, Psychological Types. In the book, Jung presented the idea of personality type. As methodology, relevant articles of speciality literature from international databases have been used. According to literature, the most used methods for realizing a psychological profile are the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator test (MBTI test and the Keirsey Temperament Sorter II (KTS test. The MBTI test focuses on way of thinking and perception while focuses on behaviour. Through this article we propose the improvement of the speciality literature regarding the multidisciplinary aspect or research in Accounting-Psychology. We also highlight the need to improve ethical behaviour in the Accounting profession. Currently the general public perceives a lack of transparency regarding the professional accountants’ activity worldwide.

  2. The Construction of an Attitude Scale About Professional Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Hirsch Adler


    Full Text Available This work presents an attitude scale about professional ethics and the process of its construction. We also describe its application in two samples of groups of graduate students, the first one of 15 programs in different knowledge areas in the University of Valencia, and the other one in the 40 graduate programs of the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM. The article includes the types of results obtained.

  3. Acclimating international graduate students to professional engineering ethics. (United States)

    Newberry, Byron; Austin, Katherine; Lawson, William; Gorsuch, Greta; Darwin, Thomas


    This article describes the education portion of an ongoing grant-sponsored education and research project designed to help graduate students in all engineering disciplines learn about the basic ethical principles, rules, and obligations associated with engineering practice in the United States. While the curriculum developed for this project is used for both domestic and international students, the educational materials were designed to be sensitive to the specific needs of international graduate students. In recent years, engineering programs in the United States have sought to develop a larger role for professional ethics education in the curriculum. Accreditation requirements, as well as pressures from the private sector, have helped facilitate this shift in focus. Almost half of all engineering graduate students in the U.S. are international students. Further, research indicates that the majority of these students will remain in the U.S. to work post-graduation. It is therefore in the interest of the profession that these students, coming from diverse backgrounds, receive some formal exposure to the professional and ethical expectations and norms of the engineering profession in the United States to help ensure that they have the knowledge and skills--non-technical as well as technical--required in today's engineering profession. In becoming acculturated to professional norms in a host country, international students face challenges that domestic students do not encounter; such as cultural competency, language proficiency, and acculturation stress. Mitigating these challenges must be a consideration in the development of any effective education materials. The present article discusses the project rationale and describes the development of on-line instructional materials aimed at helping international engineering graduate students acclimate to professional engineering ethics standards in the United States. Finally, a brief data summary of students' perceptions

  4. Ethics in Organizational Leadership (United States)


    Society 14 6. Ethical Responsibilities for Organizational Leaders 15 7. Communications Process 20 8. Johari Window 69 9. Effect of Feedback 70 10...and those approaching flag rank teach professional ethics by the example they provide and the policies they promulgate.ŗ A leader who "bends the truth...military community . The ethical conduct of an organization in a societal context becomes important to the leader of the military organization that

  5. The Code of Professional Conduct: Instructional Impact on Accounting Students' Ethical Perceptions and Attitudes. (United States)

    Ward, Suzanne Pinac; And Others


    Using the Code of Professional Conduct, 53 accounting students evaluated the ethical acceptability of accountants in case studies. Ethics instruction appeared to alter student perceptions of ethical behavior. Because time after instruction was an important factor, increased professional socialization was recommended. (SK)

  6. From killer machines to doctrines and swarms; or why ethics of military robotics is not (necessarily) about robots.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coeckelbergh, Mark


    Ethical reflections on military robotics can be enriched by a better understanding of the nature and role of these technologies and by putting robotics into context in various ways. Discussing a range of ethical questions, this paper challenges the prevalent assumptions that military robotics is

  7. Ethics beyond borders: how health professionals experience ethics in humanitarian assistance and development work. (United States)

    Hunt, Matthew R


    Health professionals are involved in humanitarian assistance and development work in many regions of the world. They participate in primary health care, immunization campaigns, clinic- and hospital-based care, rehabilitation and feeding programs. In the course of this work, clinicians are frequently exposed to complex ethical issues. This paper examines how health workers experience ethics in the course of humanitarian assistance and development work. A qualitative study was conducted to consider this question. Five core themes emerged from the data, including: tension between respecting local customs and imposing values; obstacles to providing adequate care; differing understandings of health and illness; questions of identity for health workers; and issues of trust and distrust. Recommendations are made for organizational strategies that could help aid agencies support and equip their staff as they respond to ethical issues.

  8. Physicians' Professionally Responsible Power: A Core Concept of Clinical Ethics. (United States)

    McCullough, Laurence B


    The gathering of power unto themselves by physicians, a process supported by evidence-based practice, clinical guidelines, licensure, organizational culture, and other social factors, makes the ethics of power--the legitimation of physicians' power--a core concept of clinical ethics. In the absence of legitimation, the physician's power over patients becomes problematic, even predatory. As has occurred in previous issues of the Journal, the papers in the 2016 clinical ethics issue bear on the professionally responsible deployment of power by physicians. This introduction explores themes of physicians' power in papers from an international group of authors who address autonomy and trust, the virtues of perinatal hospice, conjoined twins in ethics and law, addiction and autonomy in clinical research on addicting substances, euthanasia of patients with dementia in Belgium, and a pragmatic approach to clinical futility. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  9. Developing an Ethical Framework for All Geoscientists: AGI Guidelines for Ethical Professional Conduct (United States)

    Boland, Maeve A.; Leahy, P. Patrick; Keane, Christopher M.


    In 1997, a group of geoscientists and others recognized the need for a broad-based set of ethical standards for the geosciences that would be an expression of the highest common denominator of values for the profession. The American Geosciences Institute (AGI) coordinated the development of the 1999 AGI Guidelines for Ethical Professional Conduct and their subsequent revision in 2015. AGI is a nonprofit federation of 51 geoscientific and professional organizations that span the geosciences and have approximately 250,000 members. AGI serves as a voice for shared interests in the geoscience community and one of its roles is to facilitate collaboration and discussion among its member societies on matters of common or overarching concern. In this capacity, AGI convened a working group to create the 1999 Guidelines for Ethical Professional Conduct and a further working group to revise the Guidelines in 2015 through a consensus process involving all member societies. The Guidelines are an aspirational document, setting out ideals and high levels of achievement for the profession. They have no provision for disciplinary of enforcement action and they do not supersede the ethics statements or codes of any member society. The 1999 Guidelines pay considerable attention to the professional behavior of geoscientists. The 2015 Guidelines place greater emphasis on the societal context of the geosciences and the responsibilities of geoscientists in areas such as communication, education, and the challenges of understanding complex natural systems. The 2015 Guidelines have been endorsed by 29 member societies to date. To translate the aspirations in the Guidelines into specific actions, AGI has facilitated discussions on the practical implications of aspects of the Guidelines. One outcome of these discussions has been a Consensus Statement Regarding Access and Inclusion of Individuals Living with Disabilities in the Geosciences.

  10. Effects of Ethical Climate on Organizational Commitment, Professional Commitment, and Job Satisfaction of Auditor in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhaiza Ismail


    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to investigate the effect of the ethical climate on the organizational commitment, professional commitment and job satisfaction of Malaysian auditors. Using a survey questionnaire comprising instruments about the ethical climate, organizational commitment, professional commitment and job satisfaction, 263 usable responses were received. To achieve the objectives, mean scores, standard deviations, correlations and multiple regressions were performed. The study revealed that a significant positive influence of a caring ethical climate on professional and organizational commitment as well as job satisfaction existed. There was also a positive significant association between the law and code ethical climate and professional commitment. On the other hand, the study discovered that the instrumental ethical climate type had a significant negative relationship with organizational commitment and job satisfaction. A significant negative relationship was also revealed between the independent ethical climate type and organizational and professional commitment. A significant negative relationship between the rules ethical climate and job satisfaction was also discovered.

  11. Baptist ethics of conscientious objection to military service in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although the Baptist Union of Southern Africa included relatively few outspoken critics of the apartheid system, during the 1970s and 1980s a small number of its younger members confronted the military system which supported that system of social engineering by refusing to comply with military conscription. Particularly ...

  12. From the inside out: a new approach to teaching professional identity formation and professional ethics. (United States)

    Crigger, Nancy; Godfrey, Nelda


    Professional identity formation is a dynamic process that begins in undergraduate nursing education and continues to develop throughout one's professional career. In recent decades, nursing educators emphasized the social dimension of professional identity formation in which professionalization is achieved through following rules, codes, and standards set by the profession. Character or psychological development and the proper use of virtues like integrity, compassion, or courage are often part of the hidden curriculum. The purpose of this article is to introduce a recently developed conception of professionalism that is grounded in virtue ethics and integrates both social and character development into a professional identity that is dynamic, situated, and lifelong. The conception is operationalized through the Framework for Nurse Professionals (FrNP) and the Stair-Step Model of Professional Transformation. The FrNP and the Stair-Step Model promote a robust and morally resilient professional nursing identity that will foster professional growth throughout one's career. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Professional values, self-esteem, and ethical confidence of baccalaureate nursing students. (United States)

    Iacobucci, Trisha A; Daly, Barbara J; Lindell, Debbie; Griffin, Mary Quinn


    Professional identity and competent ethical behaviors of nursing students are commonly developed through curricular inclusion of professional nursing values education. Despite the enactment of this approach, nursing students continue to express difficulty in managing ethical conflicts encountered in their practice. This descriptive correlational study explores the relationships between professional nursing values, self-esteem, and ethical decision making among senior baccalaureate nursing students. A convenience sample of 47 senior nursing students from the United States were surveyed for their level of internalized professional nursing values (Revised Professional Nursing Values Scale), level of self-esteem (Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale), and perceived level of confidence in ethical decision making. A significant positive relationship (p nursing students' professional nursing values and levels of self-esteem. The results of this study can be useful to nursing educators whose efforts are focused on promoting professional identity development and competent ethical behaviors of future nurses.

  14. Specific Ethical Codes for Mental Health Care Professionals: Do We Need to Annotate? (United States)

    Bergman-Levy, Tal; Asman, Oren; Dahan, Eyal; Greenberg, Binyamin; Hirshmann, Shmuel; Strous, Rael


    In Israel a general code of ethics exists for physicians, drafted by the Israel Medical Association. The question arises whether psychiatrists require a separate set of ethical guidelines. To examine the positions of Israeli psychiatrists with regard to ethics in general and professional ethics in particular, and to explore opinions regarding a code of ethics or ethical guidelines for psychiatry.  Methods: A specially designed questionnaire was compiled and completed by psychiatrists recruited for the study. A specially designed questionnaire was compiled and completed by psychiatrists recruited for the study. Most participants reported low levels of perceived knowledge regarding ethics, professional ethics, and the general code of ethics. Older and more experienced professionals reported a higher level of knowledge. Most psychiatrists agreed or strongly agreed with the need for a distinct code of ethics/ethical guidelines for psychiatrists. This support was significantly higher among both psychiatrists under 50 years and residents. Our findings suggest that the existing code of ethics and position papers may not be sufficient, indicating a potential need to develop and implement a process to create the ethical code itself. In addition, the findings highlight the importance of ethics education, suggesting that the need for a code of ethics is more urgent in the early stages of professional training, as younger professionals may be more exposed to advanced media technology. While some may fear that a distinct code of ethics will distance psychiatry from modern medicine, others assert that the profession combines aspects from the humanities and social sciences that require a unique sort of management and thus this profession requires a distinct code of ethics.

  15. A blended-learning programme regarding professional ethics in physiotherapy students. (United States)

    Aguilar-Rodríguez, Marta; Marques-Sule, Elena; Serra-Añó, Pilar; Espí-López, Gemma Victoria; Dueñas-Moscardó, Lirios; Pérez-Alenda, Sofía


    In the university context, assessing students' attitude, knowledge and opinions when applying an innovative methodological approach to teach professional ethics becomes fundamental to know if the used approach is enough motivating for students. To assess the effect of a blended-learning model, based on professional ethics and related to clinical practices, on physiotherapy students' attitude, knowledge and opinions towards learning professional ethics. Research design and participants: A simple-blind clinical trial was performed (NLM identifier NCT03241693) (control group, n = 64; experimental group, n = 65). Both groups followed clinical practices for 8 months. Control group performed a public exposition of a clinical case about professional ethics. By contrast, an 8-month blended-learning programme regarding professional ethics was worked out for experimental group. An online syllabus and online activities were elaborated, while face-to-face active participation techniques were performed to discuss ethical issues. Students' attitudes, knowledge and opinions towards learning professional ethics were assessed. Ethical considerations: The study was approved by the University Ethic Committee of Human Research and followed the ethical principles according to the Declaration of Helsinki. After the programme, attitudes and knowledge towards learning professional ethics of experimental group students significantly improved, while no differences were observed in control group. Moreover, opinions reported an adequate extension of themes and temporization, importance of clinical practices and interest of topics. Case study method and role playing were considered as the most helpful techniques. The blended-learning programme proposed, based on professional ethics and related to clinical practices, improves physiotherapy students' attitudes, knowledge and opinions towards learning professional ethics.

  16. Ethics and professionalism in medical physics: A survey of AAPM members (United States)

    Ozturk, Naim; Armato, Samuel G.; Giger, Maryellen L.; Serago, Christopher F.; Ross, Lainie F.


    Purpose: To assess current education, practices, attitudes, and perceptions pertaining to ethics and professionalism in medical physics. Methods: A link to a web-based survey was distributed to the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) e-mail membership list, with a follow-up e-mail sent two weeks later. The survey included questions about ethics/professionalism education, direct personal knowledge of ethically questionable practices in clinical care, research, education (teaching and mentoring), and professionalism, respondents’ assessment of their ability to address ethical/professional dilemmas, and demographics. For analysis, reports of unethical or ethically questionable practices or behaviors by approximately 40% or more of respondents were classified as “frequent.” Results: Partial or complete responses were received from 18% (1394/7708) of AAPM members. Overall, 60% (827/1377) of the respondents stated that they had not received ethics/professionalism education during their medical physics training. Respondents currently in training were more likely to state that they received instruction in ethics/professionalism (80%, 127/159) versus respondents who were post-training (35%, 401/1159). Respondents’ preferred method of instruction in ethics/professionalism was structured periodic discussions involving both faculty and students/trainees. More than 90% (1271/1384) supported continuing education in ethics/professionalism and 75% (1043/1386) stated they would attend ethics/professionalism sessions at professional/scientific meetings. In the research setting, reports about ethically questionable authorship assignment were frequent (approximately 40%) whereas incidents of ethically questionable practices about human subjects protections were quite infrequent (5%). In the clinical setting, there was frequent recollection of incidents regarding lack of training, resources and skills, and error/incident reporting. In the educational setting

  17. Ethics and professionalism in medical physics: a survey of AAPM members. (United States)

    Ozturk, Naim; Armato, Samuel G; Giger, Maryellen L; Serago, Christopher F; Ross, Lainie F


    To assess current education, practices, attitudes, and perceptions pertaining to ethics and professionalism in medical physics. A link to a web-based survey was distributed to the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) e-mail membership list, with a follow-up e-mail sent two weeks later. The survey included questions about ethics/professionalism education, direct personal knowledge of ethically questionable practices in clinical care, research, education (teaching and mentoring), and professionalism, respondents' assessment of their ability to address ethical/professional dilemmas, and demographics. For analysis, reports of unethical or ethically questionable practices or behaviors by approximately 40% or more of respondents were classified as "frequent." Partial or complete responses were received from 18% (1394/7708) of AAPM members. Overall, 60% (827/1377) of the respondents stated that they had not received ethics/professionalism education during their medical physics training. Respondents currently in training were more likely to state that they received instruction in ethics/professionalism (80%, 127/159) versus respondents who were post-training (35%, 401/1159). Respondents' preferred method of instruction in ethics/professionalism was structured periodic discussions involving both faculty and students/trainees. More than 90% (1271/1384) supported continuing education in ethics/professionalism and 75% (1043/1386) stated they would attend ethics/professionalism sessions at professional/scientific meetings. In the research setting, reports about ethically questionable authorship assignment were frequent (approximately 40%) whereas incidents of ethically questionable practices about human subjects protections were quite infrequent (5%). In the clinical setting, there was frequent recollection of incidents regarding lack of training, resources and skills, and error/incident reporting. In the educational setting, incidents of unethical or ethically


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Ferreira Leitão Azevedo


    Full Text Available The decline in both the number and quality of students choosing accounting programs has been a worldwide source of concern to scholars and practitioners. According to Albrecht and Sack (2000, that decline is a consequence of several factors, such as changes in business environment, decrease in salary levels and development of alternative careers perceived as more attractive by students and lack of information and/or misunderstanding related to accounting careers. For Carnegie and Napier (2010, comprehension of such external images related to accounting careers and accountants is important for assessing the roles of these professionals in a wider social context. The success of the accounting profession, according to Belski et al. (2004, largely depends on how it is viewed by the public, considering that the image of the accounting profession has been damaged in the recent past by the widely publicized accounting frauds, scandals and failures involving accounting firms and accountants. To support a better understanding of this phenomenon, the objective of this study is to identify and analyze whether the accounting profession is negatively stereotyped by public perception according to ethics. Based on an adapted photo-survey, with 1,034 randomly selected respondents, and tests of differences between means, the central hypothesis of this study was rejected: it is not possible to state that accounting professionals are negatively stereotyped for professional ethics. Also, there were no significant differences based on gender, academic background or education levels of the respondents, but on the other hand is possible to confirm a positive perception based on confidence interval analysis. Implications for practice and recommendations for future studies are both presented in the last section.

  19. Ethical Aspects of Professional Dilemmas in the First Year of Teaching (United States)

    Ulvik, Marit; Smith, Kari; Helleve, Ingrid


    Education is described as a moral enterprise and many of the professional dilemmas teachers encounter have an ethical aspect. Research on ethical situations that novice teachers experience, however, seems to be limited, and we know little about how teacher education can prepare student-teachers for dealing with ethical issues. In this article a…

  20. SU-E-E-03: Ethics and Professionalism Education in Medical Physics: A Needs Assessment Study. (United States)

    Ozturk, N; Armato, S; Giger, M L; Serago, C; Ross, L F


    To perform a needs assessment survey of ethics/professionalism education in medical physics and ethical/professional challenges in clinical,research and educational settings with the intent of supplementing and customizing TG159 recommended ethics curriculum for medical physics trainees. A web-based survey was conducted among AAPM members to assess current practices, attitudes and perceptions pertaining to ethics/professionalism education and ethical/professional misconduct or questionable behavior and practices in the field. The survey was distributed by AAPM to 7708 members via email; 1362 (17.7%) responded. Seventy-five percent of the respondents were male. Sixty percent (805/1345) stated they received no education in ethics/professionalism. Eighty-one percent (126/155) of current trainees received instruction in ethics/professionalism, as opposed to 35% (392/1130) of those who are post-training. There was strong support (>90%) for continuing education in ethics/professionalism; seventy-five percent (1019/1354) supported sessions on ethics and professionalism at national meetings. Most preferred method of ethics instruction was periodic discussion sessions involving faculty and trainees, with the least interest expressed for a separate course. Many reported direct personal knowledge of one or more instances of a variety of professional/ethical misconduct or questionable behavior. Thirty eight percent (458/1192) reported poor mentorship, with women reporting this concern more often than men (129/281,46% versus 316/877, 36%, pmedical physics trainees at our institution. This effort may be useful to other medical physics programs which offer ethics training/education. This work has been funded in part by a grant from the National Institutes of Health, T32 EB002103-22S1. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  1. Ethical issues in the professional work of psychologists: state of affairs in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Zupan


    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to determine the state of affairs regarding professional ethics of Slovene psychologists, particularly regarding the implementation of ethical principles and psychologists' and students' knowledge of ethics and procedures in the cases of ethical dilemmas and violations. Two dedicated questionnaires were designed by the authors. 800 Slovene psychologists received the questionnaire and 150 of them responded. There were also 56 psychology students involved in the study. The results show some problematic issues such as: record keeping, exceptions of confidentiality, access to personal data, the content of informed consent, incompetence, copying of literature and diagnostic instruments – even not standardised ones, psychology students as subjects in psychological research, and lack of information on ethical aspects of students' practical work. Psychologists and students reported inadequate knowledge of professional ethics and suggested various kinds of ethical education. Institutions mostly enable psychologists to work within the Code of ethics. There are, however, conflicts regarding access to data and professional autonomy. Psychologists report conflicts between law and ethics, incorrect reports in media and lack of control over professional ethics. In the case of ethical violation psychologists do less than they should. They emphasise the problem of incompetence. The frequency and seriousness of certain violation were estimated. Ways of verifying knowledge, stimulating ethical conduct and taking different measures in the case of violations were suggested. The state of affairs in different working environments of psychologists was also described. Results show that psychologist who have worked in the field for a shorter period answer more frequently contrary to the Code of Ethics. Students' knowledge of ethics is mostly very satisfactory. The study emphasises the ethical aspects of psychological practice in Slovenia. It

  2. Establishing moral bearings: ethics and expatriate health care professionals in humanitarian work. (United States)

    Hunt, Matthew R


    Expatriate health care professionals frequently participate in international responses to natural disasters and humanitarian emergencies. This field of practice presents important clinical, logistical and ethical challenges for clinicians. This paper considers the ethics of health care practice in humanitarian contexts. It examines features that contribute to forming the moral landscape of humanitarian work, and discusses normative guidelines and approaches that are relevant for this work. These tools and frameworks provide important ethics resources for humanitarian settings. Finally, it elaborates a set of questions that can aid health care professionals as they analyse ethical issues that they experience in the field. The proposed process can assist clinicians as they seek to establish their moral bearings in situations of ethical complexity and uncertainty. Identifying and developing ethics resources and vocabulary for clinical practice in humanitarian work will help health care professionals provide ethically sound care to patients and communities. © 2011 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2011.

  3. private military and security companies: ethics, policies and civil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    security companies form an rising and real feature within the daily life of individuals, communities and states of the international system. International, regional and national security, as well as the security of the individual is increasingly entwined in services provided by private military and security contractors. The editors ...

  4. baptist ethics of conscientious objection to military service in south

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this respect, the law lagged behind corresponding statutes in many European and. American countries. Nevertheless, members of the few pacifist churches in South Africa .... ment high school in Kempton Park, where he matriculated in 1974. ..... playing sport, however, so another officer sent Steele to the military police.

  5. Practising Ethics: Bildungsroman and Community of Practice in Occupational Therapists' Professional Development (United States)

    Grisbrooke, Jani


    Professional ethics has currently raised its public profile in the UK as part of social anxiety around governance of health and social care, fuelled by catastrophically bad practice identified in particular healthcare facilities. Professional ethics is regulated by compliance with abstracted, normative codes but experienced as contextualised…

  6. Universality and Cultural Diversity in Professional Ethical Development: From Kohlberg to Dynamic Systems Theory (United States)

    Kim, Minkang


    Upholding ethical standards is part of what it means to be a professional and therefore part of professional education, but to what extent is the development of ethical reasoning universal across cultures, or is it highly dependent on culture? If universal, how can we explain the unique patterns of moral reasoning and behaviour in Asia, which…

  7. A Review of Contemporary Ethical Decision-Making Models for Mental Health Professionals (United States)

    Francis, Perry C.


    Mental health professionals are faced with increasingly complex ethical decisions that are impacted by culture, personal and professional values, and the contexts in which they and their clients inhabit. This article presents the reasons for developing and implementing multiple ethical decision making models and reviews four models that address…

  8. Using Professional Ethics to Strengthen Family/School Partnerships: Practical Suggestions. (United States)

    Wright, Doris J.

    Professional ethics are designed to set minimum standards of practice and service for school psychologists. Ways in which professional ethics standards of school psychology can be used to build and strengthen work relationships with parents, legal guardians, and other family members are described here. Suggestions for how school psychologists can…

  9. Distance, Dialogue and Reflection: Interpersonal Reflective Equilibrium as Method for Professional Ethics Education (United States)

    van den Hoven, Mariëtte; Kole, Jos


    The method of reflective equilibrium (RE) is well known within the domain of moral philosophy, but hardly discussed as a method in professional ethics education. We argue that an interpersonal version of RE is very promising for professional ethics education. We offer several arguments to support this claim. The first group of arguments focus on a…

  10. Distance, dialogue and reflection : Interpersonal reflective equilibrium as method for professional ethics education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hoven, Mariëtte; Kole, Jos


    The method of reflective equilibrium (RE) is well known within the domain of moral philosophy, but hardly discussed as a method in professional ethics education. We argue that an interpersonal version of RE is very promising for professional ethics education. We offer several arguments to support

  11. Ethics and the professional practice of psychologists: the role of virtues and principles. (United States)

    Jordan, A E; Meara, N M


    We evaluate the potential relevance of virtue ethics to the training and practice of professional psychologists, and we contrast them with principle ethics. Typically, principles are used to facilitate the selection of socially and historically acceptable answers to the question "What shall I do?" when confronted by ethical dilemmas. Virtue ethics, however, generally focus on the question "Who shall I be?" Strengths and weaknesses of each approach are presented. The impact of each is discussed with respect to informed consent and the therapeutic construct "genuineness." We conclude that virtue ethics are an essential component of responsible ethical training and practice.

  12. Ethical issues in the professional work of psychologists: state of affairs in Slovenia


    Tina Zupan; Valentin Bucik


    The aim of the research was to determine the state of affairs regarding professional ethics of Slovene psychologists, particularly regarding the implementation of ethical principles and psychologists' and students' knowledge of ethics and procedures in the cases of ethical dilemmas and violations. Two dedicated questionnaires were designed by the authors. 800 Slovene psychologists received the questionnaire and 150 of them responded. There were also 56 psychology students involved in ...



    Idongesit I. Akpabio


    Background: This paper aimed at presenting in-depth information on strategies of implementing ethical decision making in nursing practice and education in the contemporary society. The complex issues in nursing education and practice have ethical implications for the attainment of professional standard. The ability of nurses to engage in ethical practice in everyday work and to deal with ethical situations, problems and concerns could be the result of decisions made at a variety of levels. So...

  14. baptist ethics of conscientious objection to military service in south

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For a convenient summary of the early history of conscription and resistance there- to in South Africa, see War and ... Townsend, in other words, evinced support of prescriptive ethics, at least insofar as it related to ... lution at Hammanskraal Bax and Naudé had neglected to spell out that central point. But, for that matter, ...

  15. commentary article enhancing ethical performance in military forces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    the Army, the JEDI programme would allow for the embedding of excellence in ethical awareness .... into their self-systems. .... expert feedback. Moral imagination lies in the ability to project into the standpoint of others; viewing situations from different participant standpoints opens new dimensions relevant to action. Moral.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Contemporary asymmetric warfare raises challenges that can be best described as volatile, uncertain, complex, ambiguous (VUCA. These features translate into a conundrum for both the forces involved in multinational theatres of operations, and for academics, researchers, educators and trainers in charge of finding novel means of approaching the needs of the military human resource both domestically and during deployment periods. One specific requirement of the military when deployed is to act in accordance with their code of values, but to also show consideration for other cultures, attitudes and behaviors. Nonetheless, these requirements may more often than clash. Consequently, this paper is built on the assumption that: asymmetric warfare requires a new set of approaches in terms of military education and training that should involve a change in the learning paradigm of cadets and adult officers so they can measure up to the features of this type of warfare. Therefore, its aim is to propose a possible new framework through which one’s own ethical otherness may be discovered and reflected upon in a novel and, we dare say, a challenging manner for the military field and for the didactics of military ethics.

  17. Ethical Guidelines and Practices for US Military Medical Professionals (United States)


    member’s treatment.” 92 DoDI 6490.08, “Command Notification Requirements to Dispel Stigma in Providing Mental Health Care to Service Members...Command Notification Requirements to Dispel Stigma in Providing Mental Health Care to Service Members. Department of Defense Instruction 6490.08...they mainly give rise to dilemmas in settings where people are detained (prisons, jails and immigration detention centres). They are often a form of

  18. Military Ethics and Professionalism: A Collection of Essays (United States)


    at least as far as Socrates , Plato , and Aristotle. The classical Greek con- ception of the just or honorable man encompassed all of one’s human acts...carpenter from reading Plato . But it is unlikely that the carpenter’s clients will expect him to expound humanistic insights or debate the issues in The...issues of peace and war can be reasonably expected to develop horizons beyond skills of leading battalions to the attack. Reading Plato and 12 Foundations

  19. Fostering values: four stages towards developing professional ethics for future accountants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othman Zaleha


    Full Text Available The many accounting scandals occurred in the last three decades have change the perspective of accountant globally. As such, the higher institutions have to play their role in nurturing professional ethics in order to change the misconception towards the profession. Our observation of the literature indicates that incorporating professional ethics in higher institutions is a way forward towards developing future accountants with values. Henceforth, we conducted a generic inquiry study to explore how higher institutions could inculcate accounting graduates with professional ethics. Our findings show a conceptual framework which depicted four stages towards incorporating professional ethics at tertiary level education there are: 1 value development, 2 ethics maturation, 3 professionalism development and 4 ownership through effective implementation and enforcement. Consequently, the findings contribute to expanding the current knowledge in our conceptualisation of the professional ethics concept. In addition, the findings support the development of ethics education for accounting graduates in higher institutions in Malaysia. We consider that this study provides evidence to educators and policy makers that teaching methods and pedagogical policies should ensure professional ethics education in business schools in Malaysia is treated as a pervasive element of curricula rather than an optional choice.

  20. Treatment of Deaf Clients: Ethical Considerations for Professionals in Psychology


    Boness, Cassandra L.


    Providing therapy to deaf clients raises important ethical considerations for psychologists related to competence; multiple relationships and boundary issues; confidentiality; assessment, diagnosis, and evaluation; and communication and using interpreters. In evaluating and addressing these, psychologists must consider the APA’s Ethics Code and other relevant issues (e.g., ADA) necessary to provide ethical treatment. The current article provides background, ethical considerations, principles ...

  1. Factor Analysis of Teacher Professional Development in Chinese Military Medical Universities (United States)

    Yue, Juan-Juan; Chen, Gang; Wang, Zhen-Wei; Liu, Wei-Dong


    Background and purpose: Teacher professional development potentially enhances teachers' professional morale, knowledge, skills and autonomy, which helps improve the quality of education. The military medical university is an important medical education institution in China; however, studies of teacher professional development within military…

  2. Resources to Support Ethical Practice in Evaluation: An Interview with the Director of the National Center for Research and Professional Ethics (United States)

    Goodyear, Leslie


    Where do evaluators find resources on ethics and ethical practice? This article highlights a relatively new online resource, a centerpiece project of the National Center for Professional and Research Ethics (NCPRE), which brings together information on best practices in ethics in research, academia, and business in an online portal and center. It…

  3. Postdeployment Reintegration: The Ethics of Embodied Personal Presence and the Formation of Military Meaning. (United States)

    Jeschke, E Ann


    In 2014, the Institute of Medicine published a meta-analysis on current military reintegration programs, suggesting they have failed to improve postdeployment behavioral health. In this chapter, I explore some of the issues associated with the two paradigm reintegration programs supported by the Department of Defense (DoD), namely, BATTLEMIND postdeployment debriefings and Master Resilience Training. My discussion will be located within a subpopulation of military personnel I call warriors, particularly those men who have been exposed to combat. In performing a normative analysis of current reintegration programs, I rely on an ethics of embodied personal presence as a derivative focus of both nursing ethics and the just war tradition. Using an interdisciplinary approach to evaluate warriors' experiences of training across the military life cycle illustrates how reintegration challenges have been construed as potential pathology because disembodied reintegration programs do not consider the influence of military training and lifestyle in the development of certain health behaviors. When compared to the warrior's lived experience, a broader set of reintegration challenges emerge that cannot be fully captured by the symptoms of posttraumatic stress. Therefore, new reintegration programs need to be developed. Although I do not provide explicit details concerning what these reintegration programs should look at, I suggest that the DoD turn to something akin to the Healthy People campaign.

  4. Legal, Professional and Ethical Issues: The Use of Computers. (United States)

    Drier, Harry N.

    This monograph deals with normative ethics, or the application of ethical principles in judging the rightness or wrongness of actions. Specifically, the monograph addresses normative ethics in the use of automated systems in the field and practice of counseling and guidance. It is noted that the immense growth planned for computer applications in…

  5. Are Professional Codes of Ethics Relevant for Multicultural Counselling? (United States)

    Pettifor, Jean L.


    Describes progressive developments in the codes of ethics of the Canadian Psychological Association and the Canadian Counselling Association in defining moral and ethical principles and in providing an ethical decision-making process. Argues that new developments within the profession promote increased understanding and sensitivity to cultural…

  6. Awareness and Practice of Professional Ethics amongst Librarians in Nigeria (United States)

    Igbeka, J. U.; Okoroma, F. N.


    This study is focused on the awareness and practicability of Librarianship ethics amongst librarians. Survey questionnaire was designed to identify the degree of awareness of librarianship ethics amongst librarians in Nigeria, whether the ethics are feasible and being utilized by librarians in their day to day library management, and to find out…

  7. Teaching and evaluation of ethics and professionalism: in Canadian family medicine residency programs. (United States)

    Pauls, Merril A


    To document the scope of the teaching and evaluation of ethics and professionalism in Canadian family medicine postgraduate training programs, and to identify barriers to the teaching and evaluation of ethics and professionalism. A survey was developed in collaboration with the Committee on Ethics of the College of Family Physicians of Canada. The data are reported descriptively and in aggregate. Canadian postgraduate family medicine training programs. Between June and December of 2008, all 17 Canadian postgraduate family medicine training programs were invited to participate. The first part of the survey explored the structure, resources, methods, scheduled hours, and barriers to teaching ethics and professionalism. The second section focused on end-of-rotation evaluations, other evaluation strategies, and barriers related to the evaluation of ethics and professionalism. Eighty-eight percent of programs completed the survey. Most respondents (87%) had learning objectives specifically for ethics and professionalism, and 87% had family doctors with training or interest in the area leading their efforts. Two-thirds of responding programs had less than 10 hours of scheduled instruction per year, and the most common barriers to effective teaching were the need for faculty development, competing learning needs, and lack of resident interest. Ninety-three percent of respondents assessed ethics and professionalism on their end-of-rotation evaluations, with 86% assessing specific domains. The most common barriers to evaluation were a lack of suitable tools and a lack of faculty comfort and interest. By far most Canadian family medicine postgraduate training programs had learning objectives and designated faculty leads in ethics and professionalism, yet there was little curricular time dedicated to these areas and a perceived lack of resident interest and faculty expertise. Most programs evaluated ethics and professionalism as part of their end-of-rotation evaluations, but

  8. Qualitative analysis of healthcare professionals' viewpoints on the role of ethics committees and hospitals in the resolution of clinical ethical dilemmas. (United States)

    Marcus, Brian S; Shank, Gary; Carlson, Jestin N; Venkat, Arvind


    Ethics consultation is a commonly applied mechanism to address clinical ethical dilemmas. However, there is little information on the viewpoints of health care providers towards the relevance of ethics committees and appropriate application of ethics consultation in clinical practice. We sought to use qualitative methodology to evaluate free-text responses to a case-based survey to identify thematically the views of health care professionals towards the role of ethics committees in resolving clinical ethical dilemmas. Using an iterative and reflexive model we identified themes that health care providers support a role for ethics committees and hospitals in resolving clinical ethical dilemmas, that the role should be one of mediation, rather than prescription, but that ultimately legal exposure was dispositive compared to ethical theory. The identified theme of legal fears suggests that the mediation role of ethics committees is viewed by health care professionals primarily as a practical means to avoid more worrisome medico-legal conflict.

  9. The professional responsibility of lawyers: emotional competence, multiculturalism and ethics. (United States)

    Silver, Marjorie A


    Traditional legal education and the Socratic method it utilises are by and large successful at training lawyers to think, reason and analyse. The cultivation of lawyers' intrapersonal and interpersonal skills, however, has been, at best, neglected by the profession. All lawyers, like all human beings, are emotional. Emotions affect who they are and how they practise law, whether or not they are conscious of them. As emotions cannot be removed from the practice of law, it is essential that lawyers learn to understand and manage their emotions, as well as learn to be attuned to their clients' emotional lives. Ignorance of concepts such as countertransference, denial and unconscious bias adversely impact the lawyer-client relationship. Lawyers who understand basic psychological principles and behaviours, who are aware of their own psychological makeup, understand their cultural perspective and recognise and credit their clients' differences, will enhance their effectiveness as counsellors. The client whose lawyer has these competencies will enjoy a therapeutically superior counselling or representational experience. The neglect of either the lawyer's or the client's emotional life threatens to sabotage the lawyer's ability, and thus professional responsibility, to render competent and impartial legal advice. Through drawing parallels to the training and practice in other counselling disciplines and relationships, this article argues that psychological-mindedness and multicultural competence are essential elements of ethically responsible legal representation.

  10. Understanding Military Culture: A Guide for Professional School Counselors (United States)

    Cole, Rebekah F.


    School counselors must be knowledgeable about military culture in order to help military students and their families in a culturally competent manner. This article explores the nature of this unique culture, which is often unfamiliar to educators, including its language, hierarchy, sense of rules and regulations, self-expectations and…

  11. The challenge of promoting professionalism through medical ethics and humanities education. (United States)

    Doukas, David J; McCullough, Laurence B; Wear, Stephen; Lehmann, Lisa S; Nixon, Lois LaCivita; Carrese, Joseph A; Shapiro, Johanna F; Green, Michael J; Kirch, Darrell G


    Given recent emphasis on professionalism training in medical schools by accrediting organizations, medical ethics and humanities educators need to develop a comprehensive understanding of this emphasis. To achieve this, the Project to Rebalance and Integrate Medical Education (PRIME) II Workshop (May 2011) enlisted representatives of the three major accreditation organizations to join with a national expert panel of medical educators in ethics, history, literature, and the visual arts. PRIME II faculty engaged in a dialogue on the future of professionalism in medical education. The authors present three overarching themes that resulted from the PRIME II discussions: transformation, question everything, and unity of vision and purpose.The first theme highlights that education toward professionalism requires transformational change, whereby medical ethics and humanities educators would make explicit the centrality of professionalism to the formation of physicians. The second theme emphasizes that the flourishing of professionalism must be based on first addressing the dysfunctional aspects of the current system of health care delivery and financing that undermine the goals of medical education. The third theme focuses on how ethics and humanities educators must have unity of vision and purpose in order to collaborate and identify how their disciplines advance professionalism. These themes should help shape discussions of the future of medical ethics and humanities teaching.The authors argue that improvement of the ethics and humanities-based knowledge, skills, and conduct that fosters professionalism should enhance patient care and be evaluated for its distinctive contributions to educational processes aimed at producing this outcome.



    Oana DRĂGAN


    Analyzed in the context of global economic, business ethics and professional judgment becomes increasingly complex, with reflection in all economic fields, including also the accounting profession. This study has the objective to identify the perception of the practitioners in financial accounting on the ethics seen from the perspective of their practical activity which they carry as employees in accounting companies, or as entrepreneurs. The results of the study shows that both ethics an...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elitsa Stoyanova PETROVA


    Full Text Available On the basis of an approved request by the Head of National Military University it is conducting research on motivation in military formations of the example of Vasil Levski National Military University in Veliko Tarnovo, Bulgaria. Subject of the study is motivation for training and military activities of the cadets and the objects of the study are students in professional military direction in "Organization and management of military units at the tactical level," Land forces faculty at the National Military University of Bulgaria. The article presents results of the study at second item - "Do you agree that the study of specialized topics is an important stage of your professional development of future military leader?". The interviewees were cadets who graduated through the following academic years - 2013/2014, 2014/2015, 2015/2016.

  14. HPV, oropharyngeal cancer, and the role of the dentist: a professional ethical approach. (United States)

    Northridge, Mary E; Manji, Naila; Piamonte, Romney T; More, Frederick G; Katz, Ralph V


    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is an emerging risk factor for oropharyngeal cancer, especially among younger patients, and must be thoughtfully addressed by the dental community. The professional ethical decision-making model first advanced by Ozar and Sokol for use by dentists at chairside (define the dilemma, assess the facts, identify and rank the alternatives, and choose a course of action) was modified to delineate clearly inputs, considerations, and feedback loops based on what is professionally and ethically at stake in advising patients. As the link between HPV and oropharyngeal cancer is established through scientific studies, the role of the dentist in primary and secondary prevention will be crucial. In the absence of definitive evidence, the professional ethical decision-making framework presented here allows dentists to systematically work through available alternatives. Ultimately, the role of the dentist is to use discretion in choosing a professional and ethical course of action for each patient.

  15. Training and Performance Improvement Professionals' Perspectives on Ethical Challenges during Evaluation (United States)

    Chyung, Seung Youn; Winiecki, Donald J.; Downing, Jessica L.


    Ethical concerns are rising in the business world. With this in mind, training and performance improvement practitioners, especially during evaluation projects, should be aware of principles and codes of ethics, and their behaviors and decisions should reflect the standards recognized by members of the professional society. A study was conducted…

  16. Writing about Clients: Ethical and Professional Issues in Clinical Case Reports (United States)

    Carlson, Jon


    From the standpoint of a former journal editor and long-time professional, this commentary challenges the direction of the profession as demonstrated in this special section. The ongoing creation of more and more ethical constraints not only harms the profession but also loses sight of fundamental ethical principles.

  17. A Correlational Study: Code of Ethics in Testing and EFL Instructors' Professional Behavior (United States)

    Ashraf, Hamid; Kafi, Zahra; Saeedan, Azaam


    The present study has aimed at delving the code of ethics in testing in English language institutions to see how far adhering to these ethical codes will result in EFL teachers' professional behavior. Therefore, 300 EFL instructors teaching at English language schools in Khorasan Razavi Province, Zabansara Language School, as well as Khorasan…

  18. Professional Ethics Education for Future Teachers: A Narrative Review of the Scholarly Writings (United States)

    Maxwell, Bruce; Schwimmer, Marina


    This article provides a narrative review of the scholarly writings on professional ethics education for future teachers. Against the background of a widespread belief among scholars working in this area that longstanding and sustained research and reflection on the ethics of teaching have had little impact on the teacher education curriculum, the…

  19. Values of financial services professionals and the global financial crisis as a crisis of ethics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorn, André van


    Many attribute the global financial crisis (GFC) to the ethical values of the people involved, financial services professionals (FSPs) such as stockbrokers or fund managers. The crisis-of-ethics debate is important, concerning one of the main policy challenges of our times, but is based on popular

  20. Infusing Professional Ethics into Counselor Education Programs: A Multicultural/Social Justice Perspective (United States)

    Pack-Brown, Sherlon P.; Thomas, Tequilla L.; Seymour, Jennifer M.


    Multiculturalism and social justice counseling issues influence counselors' ethical thinking and behavior. Counselor educators are responsible for facilitating students' understanding of the relevance of multicultural/social justice counseling issues and ethical standards for professional practices. Added insights in these areas aid students to…

  1. The Human Volunteer in Military Biomedical Research (Military Medical Ethics. Volume 2, Chapter 19) (United States)


    and many have suffered long-term health effects such as chronic laryngitis , chronic bronchitis, em- physema, asthma, chronic conjunctivitis, and cor...immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) or cancer re- search when an individual must choose between near certain death or a high-risk, high–side-effect treatment with a...influences on food intake. In: Marriott BM, ed. Nutritional Needs in Hot Environments: Application for Military Personnel in Field Operations. Washington, DC

  2. A medical curriculum in transition: audit and student perspective of undergraduate teaching of ethics and professionalism. (United States)

    Saad, Toni C; Riley, Stephen; Hain, Richard


    The General Medical Council (GMC) stipulates that doctors must be competent professionals, not merely scholars and practitioners. Medical school curricula should enable students to develop professional values and competencies. Additionally, medical schools are moving towards integrated undergraduate curricula, Cardiff's C21 being one such example. We carried out an audit to determine the extent to which C21 delivers GMC professionalism competencies, and a student questionnaire to explore student perspective on ethics and professionalism. C21 delivers explicit or implicit teaching for all major GMC competencies, though some missed opportunities remain. The questionnaire responses showed that most students value ethics and professionalism teaching, and that it is most well received when delivered in a variety of ways and contexts throughout the curriculum. We also note that some respondents confuse ethics and professionalism with the policing of student behaviour. C21 and curricula like it offer many opportunities for nurturing ethically and professionally competent physicians. Students appear to value this, though there remains confusion between medical school discipline and ethics and professionalism which needs further explication. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  3. The role of professional knowledge in case-based reasoning in practical ethics. (United States)

    Pinkus, Rosa Lynn; Gloeckner, Claire; Fortunato, Angela


    The use of case-based reasoning in teaching professional ethics has come of age. The fields of medicine, engineering, and business all have incorporated ethics case studies into leading textbooks and journal articles, as well as undergraduate and graduate professional ethics courses. The most recent guidelines from the National Institutes of Health recognize case studies and face-to-face discussion as best practices to be included in training programs for the Responsible Conduct of Research. While there is a general consensus that case studies play a central role in the teaching of professional ethics, there is still much to be learned regarding how professionals learn ethics using case-based reasoning. Cases take many forms, and there are a variety of ways to write them and use them in teaching. This paper reports the results of a study designed to investigate one of the issues in teaching case-based ethics: the role of one's professional knowledge in learning methods of moral reasoning. Using a novel assessment instrument, we compared case studies written and analyzed by three groups of students whom we classified as: (1) Experts in a research domain in bioengineering. (2) Novices in a research domain in bioengineering. (3) The non-research group--students using an engineering domain in which they were interested but had no in-depth knowledge. This study demonstrates that a student's level of understanding of a professional knowledge domain plays a significant role in learning moral reasoning skills.

  4. Treatment of Deaf Clients: Ethical Considerations for Professionals in Psychology (United States)

    Boness, Cassandra L.


    Providing therapy to deaf clients raises important ethical considerations for psychologists related to competence; multiple relationships and boundary issues; confidentiality; assessment, diagnosis, and evaluation; and communication and using interpreters. In evaluating and addressing these, psychologists must consider the APA’s Ethics Code and other relevant issues (e.g., ADA) necessary to provide ethical treatment. The current article provides background, ethical considerations, principles and standards relevant to the treatment of deaf clients, and recommendations to support psychologists, training programs, and the field. Psychologists have the responsibility to guarantee that the benefits of mental health treatment are fairly and justly provided to this traditionally underserved population. PMID:27917030

  5. Diagnostics of psychophysical readiness and fitness of student to military-professional activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihuta I.J.


    Full Text Available A distributing algorithm is presented student military educational establishment on groups on the degree of suitability to the future profession. In research took part a 80 student 14-15 years. The differentiated estimations of psychophysical readiness were utillized to the row of specialities of certain military-professional type (extreme, operator-engineer and general. Directions of self-determination of individual are rotined to the certain types of military-professional activity on the initial stage of the professional becoming. The obligatory making structures of educational process control are selected in the specialized general soldiery educational establishments. Grounded richly-organizational going near programmatic-methodical to providing of the initial stage of the professional applied physical preparation of student.

  6. Writing Professional Codes of Ethics to Introduce Ethics in Business Writing. (United States)

    Speck, Bruce W.


    Describes an approach to teaching ethics in a business writing class. Discusses the use of a fictional case study and the writing of a code of conduct and ethics for the occupation the students hope to join. (SR)

  7. Survey of Professional Ethics of Teachers in Institutions of Higher Education: Case Study of an Institution in Central China (United States)

    Zheng, Lou; Hui, Song


    The standard of professional ethics among teachers directly determines the educational standards of a school; they are an essential component of education. In order to clarify the current situation with regard to the professional ethics of teachers in institutions of higher education, this article analyzes how society evaluates those ethics and…

  8. Irregular Warfare: Impact on Future Professional Military Education

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paschal, David G


    ... to operate effectively in an irregular warfare environment. The utility of a decisive war between nation states continues to decline and will eventually reach critical mass based upon the extreme imbalance of military power and a U.S. monopoly...

  9. Cast Iron Versus Creativity: Fostering Balanced Thinking in Military Professionals (United States)


    importance of strategic thinking (Laich & Young, 2011; Wolters, Grome, & Hinds, 2013, p. 2). I have found that Personnel Evaluation Reports used by the...and entrepreneurship to exploit effectively the tools of the revolution in military affairs. Particularly when forced to make rapid decisions with...adjusted to create a more balanced thinking style in military decision makers. It is important to note, however, that the only way to correct this

  10. Professional Ethics and Organizational Commitment Among the Education Department Staff of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Imani


    Full Text Available Background: Concepts such as organizational commitment and employees’ and managers’ ethics provide decision-makers and policy makers with potentially useful information which can result in increasing organizational efficiency and effectiveness. This study aimed to explore the relationship between professional ethics and organizational commitment among the staff working in the education departments of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2015. The study population consisted of all staff working as educational experts in the education departments of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences (N = 65. Data collection instruments used in this study were two standard questionnaires on professional ethics and organizational commitment. SPSS software version 21 was used to analyze the data. Results: According to the results, mean scores obtained for professional ethics and organizational commitment were (91.57± 9.13 (95% CI, 89.23-93.91 and (64.89 ± 10.37 (95% CI, 62.2367.54, respectively. A significant relationship was observed between professional ethics and organizational commitment among the educational experts working in Tabriz University of Medical Sciences (correlation coefficient = 0.405 (P = 0.001 (at 95% confidence level. Furthermore, there was a significant relationship between professional ethics and work experience (P = 0.043. The highest level of professional ethics observed was associated with those participants having a work experience of ranging from 6 to 10 years. Individuals with fulltime employment scored the highest in organizational commitment. Conclusion: Educational experts possessed a high level of professional ethics. The finding provides the grounds for promoting organizational commitment, which will lead to higher levels of organizational effectiveness.

  11. AGU Launches Web Site for New Scientific Integrity and Professional Ethics Policy (United States)

    Townsend, Randy


    AGU's Scientific Integrity and Professional Ethics policy, approved by the AGU Board of Directors and Council in December 2012, is now available online on a new Web site, As the Web site states, the policy embodies a "set of guidelines for scientific integrity and professional ethics for the actions of the members and the governance of the Union in its internal activities; in its public persona; and most importantly, in the research and peer review processes of its scientific publications, its communications and outreach, and its scientific meetings."

  12. ethical reflection on the nature of professionalism in anaesthesiology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    is ambiguous. Contrast for example two influential post- enlightenment schools of thought supporting opposing views in this respect: rule-based deontological ethics, of which Kant's ideas are perhaps best known14, and outcome-based utilitarian. (consequentialist) ethics15. Immanuel Kant's notions on the validity of moral ...



    DONATO, ANTONELLA; Hedler, Helga Cristina; Coelho Junior,Francisco Antonio


    ABSTRACT Purpose: Describe the informal learning strategies used by the IT and Communication professionals (TIC) of the Superior Military Court (STM), discussing their importance for professional development and labor skills related to the maximization of the results of human performance. Originality/gap/relevance/implications: The research proved the differences in the use of the learning strategies among the TIC professionals and made it possible to capture the meaning of informal learnin...

  14. Sustainability as an Ethical Principle: Ensuring Its Systematic Place in Professional Nursing Practice (United States)

    Riedel, Annette


    Alongside the central focus on the persons requiring nursing care in professional nursing practice, the perspective of the sustainability of interventions and the use of materials (for example, nursing aids and hygiene articles) is gaining prominence in nursing decision-making processes. This contribution makes the principle of sustainability concrete and delineates its importance in the context of professional nursing practice and decision-making. It further suggests the development of an ethical policy in order to systematically ensure that sustainability has a place in ethical reflection and decision-making, and describes the elements involved. Finally, a synthesis is made between the importance of the principle of sustainability, suggested ethical policies (system of ethical reflection) as they affect nursing practice and professional reflection, decision-making, and practice. PMID:27417590

  15. Transforming educational accountability in medical ethics and humanities education toward professionalism. (United States)

    Doukas, David J; Kirch, Darrell G; Brigham, Timothy P; Barzansky, Barbara M; Wear, Stephen; Carrese, Joseph A; Fins, Joseph J; Lederer, Susan E


    Effectively developing professionalism requires a programmatic view on how medical ethics and humanities should be incorporated into an educational continuum that begins in premedical studies, stretches across medical school and residency, and is sustained throughout one's practice. The Project to Rebalance and Integrate Medical Education National Conference on Medical Ethics and Humanities in Medical Education (May 2012) invited representatives from the three major medical education and accreditation organizations to engage with an expert panel of nationally known medical educators in ethics, history, literature, and the visual arts. This article, based on the views of these representatives and their respondents, offers a future-tense account of how professionalism can be incorporated into medical education.The themes that are emphasized herein include the need to respond to four issues. The first theme highlights how ethics and humanities can provide a response to the dissonance that occurs in current health care delivery. The second theme focuses on how to facilitate preprofessional readiness for applicants through reform of the medical school admission process. The third theme emphasizes the importance of integrating ethics and humanities into the medical school administrative structure. The fourth theme underscores how outcomes-based assessment should reflect developmental milestones for professional attributes and conduct. The participants emphasized that ethics and humanities-based knowledge, skills, and conduct that promote professionalism should be taught with accountability, flexibility, and the premise that all these traits are essential to the formation of a modern professional physician.

  16. Investigation Clinical Competence and Its Relationship with Professional Ethics and Spiritual Health in Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elahe Ramezanzade Tabriz


    Full Text Available Abstract Background and Objectives: Study of clinical competence in nursing helps determine the quality of health care delivered to patients. Given the priority of observance of principles over caretaking and necessity of spirituality existence at the core of health care provision, this study was conducted to investigate clinical competence and its relationship with professional ethics and spiritual health in nurses. Methods: In this cross-sectional, descriptive, and correlational study, 281 nurses were enrolled by consensus sampling. Sampling was conducted from February, 2016 till June, 2016. The data were gathered by a demographics questionnaire, a self-assessment scale of clinical competence, a nursing ethics questionnaire, and a spiritual health questionnaire, and analyzed by descriptive statistics and t-test, Pearson's correlation coefficient, ANOVA, and linear regression analysis in SPSS 21. Results: The total scores for self-assessment scale of nurses' clinical competence, professional ethics, and spiritual health were moderate. In the light of the results of Spearman's correlation coefficient, there was a significant and positive correlation between clinical competence and spiritual health. Moreover, a significant positive correlation was observed between professional ethics and spiritual health but there was no correlation between professional ethics and clinical competence. Conclusion: Managers' and personnel's Knowledge about the level of nurses clinical competence, professional ethics, and spiritual health in teaching health care centers provides valuable information to develop in-service and efficacious education programs and ultimately to improve the quality of nursing services.

  17. Don't We Care?: The Ethics and Emotional Labour of Early Years Professionalism (United States)

    Taggart, Geoff


    This paper argues that early childhood education and care (ECEC) has a legitimate aspiration to be a "caring profession" like others such as nursing or social work, defined by a moral purpose. For example, practitioners often draw on an ethic of care as evidence of their professionalism. However, the discourse of professionalism in…

  18. Application of Contemporary Literature to Enhance Interpersonal Skills and Ethical Decision Making in Professional Selling Coursework (United States)

    Kimball, Bob


    Educators and marketing professionals agree that course-work must address interpersonal communication skills and ethical decision making in addition to traditional business functions and skills. This article describes an innovative approach to teaching the professional selling course in which students enhance their competency in these areas…

  19. Factors affecting professional ethics in nursing practice in Iran: a qualitative study. (United States)

    Dehghani, Ali; Mosalanejad, Leili; Dehghan-Nayeri, Nahid


    Professional ethics refers to the use of logical and consistent communication, knowledge, clinical skills, emotions and values in nursing practice. This study aimed to explore and describe factors that affect professional ethics in nursing practice in Iran. This qualitative study was conducted using conventional content analysis approach. Thirty nurses with at least 5 years of experience participated in the study; they were selected using purposive sampling. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews and analyzed using thematic analysis. After encoding and classifying the data, five major categories were identified: individual character and responsibility, communication challenges, organizational preconditions, support systems, educational and cultural development. Awareness of professional ethics and its contributing factors could help nurses and healthcare professionals provide better services for patients. At the same time, such understanding would be valuable for educational administrators for effective planning and management.

  20. Ethical issues when using social media for health outside professional relationships. (United States)

    DeCamp, Matthew


    Social media have the potential to revolutionize health and healthcare, but fulfilling this potential requires attention to the ethical issues social media may raise. This article reviews the major ethical issues arising when social media are used for research, public health, mobile health applications, and global health. It focuses on social media use outside fiduciary relationships between healthcare professionals and patients. Emphasis is given to the potential of social media in these contexts, the ethical issues relatively unique to each, and where possible how existing ethical principles and frameworks could help navigate these issues. In some cases social media create the circumstance for particular ethical issues but also facilitate managing them, such as in informed consent for research. In other cases, disagreement exists about whether social media - despite their potential - should be used for certain purposes, such as in public health surveillance (where confidentiality represents a significant ethical concern). In still others, ethical uncertainty exists about how social media will affect ethical issues, such as inequality in global health. As social media technologies continue to develop, identifying and managing the ethical issues they raise will be critical to their success in improving health while preserving fundamental ethical values.

  1. Same same but different: why we should care about the distinction between professionalism and ethics. (United States)

    Salloch, Sabine


    Medical professionalism forms a belief system which is used to defend physicians' ethos against counterforces which might threaten the integrity of medical practice. The current debates on professionalism, however, are characterized by the lack of a clear distinction between professional and ethical aspects of physicians' conduct. This article argues that a differentiation between professionalism and ethics is not of mere academic interest. Instead, it is of great practical importance with regard to morally contentious issues in medicine.A short analysis of the discussions in history and social sciences reveals that professionalism is more than a catchphrase of modern medical debates but has a complex theoretical background which is still not conclusively understood. Whereas professionalism is clearly linked to the honorable aims of providing services to the individual and the society, it potentially entails problematic aspects, such as elitism, monopoly or the maintaining of power and privileges. With regard to morally contentious topics, the professional ethos of physicians must be differentiated from the perspective of ethics which can take a universal standpoint and has the potential to critically assess context-specific moral norms. The example of the current regulation on suicide assistance in German professional law is taken as an example to demonstrate how professional bodies tend to overstep the limits of their expertise and regulatory power with regard to issues which need an ethical evaluation.The article concludes that the narrowing of ethics and professionalism in public discussions and in medical education should be seen as problematic and that morally contentious topics in modern societies should be open to a participatory and inclusive discussion and democratic decision procedures.

  2. Professional Military Development of Major General Ernest N. Harmon (United States)


    challenges of American demobilization – with the war over soldiers wanted to go home. Civil-military considerations also dominated the’s issues impressed Harmon. Years later Harmon explained that, “It struck me that teen -age Iowa farm boys might know more about soil content

  3. Restoring the Shield: Westmoreland and the Recovery of Military Professionalism (United States)


    summarizing their inspection results in a quantitative fashion was not only damaging morale , it was contributing to the temptation to, “operate on the thin...architects of the post- Vietnam Army’s reforms. Westmoreland’s candid recognition of the debilitating effects of the Vietnam War on the Army’s moral -ethical...recognition of the debilitating effects of the Vietnam War on the Army’s moral -ethical climate led to a series of internally-focused initiatives, which

  4. Relevance of the rationalist-intuitionist debate for ethics and professionalism in medical education. (United States)

    Leffel, G Michael; Oakes Mueller, Ross A; Curlin, Farr A; Yoon, John D


    Despite widespread pedagogical efforts to modify discrete behaviors in developing physicians, the professionalism movement has generally shied away from essential questions such as what virtues characterize the good physician, and how are those virtues formed? Although there is widespread adoption of medical ethics curricula, there is still no consensus about the primary goals of ethics education. Two prevailing perspectives dominate the literature, constituting what is sometimes referred to as the "virtue/skill dichotomy". The first perspective argues that teaching ethics is a means of providing physicians with a skill set for analyzing and resolving ethical dilemmas. The second perspective suggests that teaching ethics is a means of creating virtuous physicians. The authors argue that this debate about medical ethics education mirrors the Rationalist-Intuitionist debate in contemporary moral psychology. In the following essay, the authors sketch the relevance of the Rationalist-Intuitionist debate to medical ethics and professionalism. They then outline a moral intuitionist model of virtuous caring that derives from but also extends the "social intuitionist model" of moral action and virtue. This moral intuitionist model suggests several practical implications specifically for medical character education but also for health science education in general. This approach proposes that character development is best accomplished by tuning-up (activating) moral intuitions, amplifying (intensifying) moral emotions related to intuitions, and strengthening (expanding) intuition-expressive, emotion-related moral virtues, more than by "learning" explicit ethical rules or principles.

  5. A Study of the Relationship Between Nurses' Professional Self-Concept and Professional Ethics in Hospitals Affiliated to Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, Iran. (United States)

    Parandavar, Nehleh; Rahmanian, Afifeh; Badiyepeymaie Jahromi, Zohreh


    Commitment to ethics usually results in nurses' better professional performance and advancement. Professional self-concept of nurses refers to their information and beliefs about their roles, values, and behaviors. The objective of this study is to analyze the relationship between nurses' professional self-concept and professional ethics in hospitals affiliated to Jahrom University of Medical Sciences. This cross sectional-analytical study was conducted in 2014. The 270 participants were practicing nurses and head-nurses at the teaching hospitals of Peimanieh and Motahari in Jahrom University of Medical Science. Sampling was based on sencus method. Data was collected using Cowin's Nurses' self-concept questionnaire (NSCQ) and the researcher-made questionnaire of professional ethics. The average of the sample's professional self-concept score was 6.48±0.03 out of 8. The average of the sample's commitment to professional ethics score was 4.08±0.08 out of 5. Based on Pearson's correlation test, there is a significant relationship between professional ethics and professional self-concept (P=0.01, r=0.16). In view of the correlation between professional self-concept and professional ethics, it is recommended that nurses' self-concept, which can boost their commitment to ethics, be given more consideration.

  6. A Study of the Relationship Between Nurses’ Professional Self-Concept and Professional Ethics in Hospitals Affiliated to Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, Iran (United States)

    Parandavar, Nehleh; Rahmanian, Afifeh; Jahromi, Zohreh Badiyepeymaie


    Background: Commitment to ethics usually results in nurses’ better professional performance and advancement. Professional self-concept of nurses refers to their information and beliefs about their roles, values, and behaviors. The objective of this study is to analyze the relationship between nurses’ professional self-concept and professional ethics in hospitals affiliated to Jahrom University of Medical Sciences. Methods: This cross sectional-analytical study was conducted in 2014. The 270 participants were practicing nurses and head-nurses at the teaching hospitals of Peimanieh and Motahari in Jahrom University of Medical Science. Sampling was based on sencus method. Data was collected using Cowin's Nurses’ self-concept questionnaire (NSCQ) and the researcher-made questionnaire of professional ethics. Results: The average of the sample's professional self-concept score was 6.48±0.03 out of 8. The average of the sample's commitment to professional ethics score was 4.08±0.08 out of 5. Based on Pearson's correlation test, there is a significant relationship between professional ethics and professional self-concept (P=0.01, r=0.16). Conclusion: In view of the correlation between professional self-concept and professional ethics, it is recommended that nurses’ self-concept, which can boost their commitment to ethics, be given more consideration. PMID:26573035

  7. Ethical practice under fire: deployed physicians in the global war on terrorism. (United States)

    Sessums, Laura L; Collen, Jacob F; O'Malley, Patrick G; Jackson, Jeffery L; Roy, Michael J


    The Global War on Terrorism brings significant ethical challenges for military physicians. From Abu Ghraib to Guantanamo Bay, the actions of health care providers have come under considerable scrutiny. Military providers have dual roles as military officers and medical professionals, which have the potential to come into conflict. Often they are inadequately prepared to manage this conflict. We review pertinent historical precedents, applicable laws, ethical guidelines, and military regulations. We also present examples of ethical challenges deployed clinicians have faced and their ethical solution. Finally, we propose a practical strategy to educate physicians on how to manage complex ethical dilemmas in war time settings.

  8. Analysis of variable involved in decision-making ethics of professional accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre André Feil


    Full Text Available The central objective of this study is to identify and analyze the intervening variables that influence ethical decision making of accounting professionals, in a region in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The methodology is quantitative and descriptive exploratory. The technical procedures include the use of questionnaires with response linked to Likert scale, comprising a sample unit of 122 professional accounting, and analysis occurs through non-parametric statistics, such as logistic regression and Spearman correlation. The results reveal that the accounting professionals who agree fully with the importance of the Counter Code of Professional Ethics (CEPC as a guide to conduct 59% and stick to it in decision making in 63.9%. The logistic regression model predicted that professionals meet the CEPC and do not meet respectively with a certainty of 87.5% and 100%. The attitudes towards CEPC these accounting professionals can be explained by the importance and use this as a guide of conduct, with a 95.5% prediction sure. The intervening variables that were significant at 0.01 and 0.05 in the CEPC compliance relating to religiosity, relevance and assistance that the code provides the professional conduct. It follows that the ethical decision making of the accounting professional is influenced by their religion and relevance and assistance that the CEPC provides for this professional.

  9. Between professional duty and ethical confusion: midwives and selective termination of pregnancy. (United States)

    Cignacco, Eva


    This qualitative study describes midwives' experiences in relation to termination of pregnancy for fetal abnormalities, and their corresponding professional and ethical position. Thirteen midwives working in a university clinic were interviewed about their problems in this respect. The information gathered was evaluated by using qualitative content analysis. The study focused on the emotional experience of the midwives, their professional position, and ethical conflict. In this situation, midwives are faced with a conflict between the woman's right to self-determination on one hand and the right to life of the child on the other. This conflict causes a high level of emotional stress and, subsequently, professional identity problems. Although questions concerning the child's right to life are generally suppressed, the ethical principle of the woman's right to self-determination is rationalized. Although this process of rationalization seems to present a false ethical decision, it enables midwives to continue with their daily professional duties. As far as orientating midwives to the value of these women's right to self-determination is concerned, it must be assumed that they have made an ethical decision to which they have given insufficient thought. This problem is exacerbated by the fact that midwives are largely excluded from the decision-making process of the parents in question. They cannot therefore help in this process in a valuable and responsible way by providing clear information and proposing objective criteria. In relation to the tasks they are expected to fulfill, these midwives revealed that they were in a state of professional confusion.

  10. Resources and constraints for addressing ethical issues in medical humanitarian work: experiences of expatriate healthcare professionals. (United States)

    Hunt, Matthew R


    International nongovernmental organizations frequently provide emergency assistance in settings where armed conflict or natural disaster overwhelm the capacity of local and national agencies to respond to health and related needs of affected communities. Healthcare practice in humanitarian settings presents distinct clinical, logistical, and ethical challenges for clinicians and differs in important ways from clinical practice in the home countries of expatriate healthcare professionals. The aim of this research was to examine the moral experience of healthcare professionals who participate in humanitarian relief work. I conducted a qualitative research study using interpretive description methodology. Fifteen Canadian healthcare professionals and three human resource or field coordination officers for nongovernmental organizations were interviewed. In this article, I present findings related to expatriate healthcare professionals' experiences of resources and constraints for addressing ethical issues in humanitarian crises. Resources for ethics deliberation and reflection include the following: opportunities for discussion; accessing and understanding local perspectives; access to outside perspectives; attitudes, such as humility, open-mindedness, and reflexivity; and development of good moral "reflexes." Constraints for deliberation and reflection relate to three domains: individual considerations, contextual features of humanitarian relief work, and local team and project factors. These findings illuminate the complex nature of ethical reflection, deliberation, and decision-making in humanitarian healthcare practice. Healthcare professionals and relief organizations should seek to build upon resources for addressing ethical issues. When possible, they should minimize the impact of features that function as constraints.

  11. Professional medical organizations and commercial conflicts of interest: ethical issues. (United States)

    Brody, Howard


    The American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP) has recently been criticized for accepting a large corporate donation from Coca-Cola to fund patient education on obesity prevention. Conflicts of interest, whether individual or organizational, occur when one enters into arrangements that reasonably tempt one to put aside one's primary obligations in favor of secondary interests, such as financial self-interest. Accepting funds from commercial sources that seek to influence physician organizational behavior in a direction that could run counter to the public health represents one of those circumstances and so constitutes a conflict of interest. Most of the defenses offered by AAFP are rationalizations rather than ethical counterarguments. Medical organizations, as the public face of medicine and as formulator of codes of ethics for their physician members, have special obligations to adhere to high ethical standards.

  12. Religion: A Missing Component of Professional Military Education (United States)


    which stem from prepoliti- cal sources,”41 and religion shares in the domain of the prepolitical. Religious Illiteracy The phenomenon of religious... illiteracy permeates western diplomatic, development, and military think- ing and policy. As an essential element, religion needs to be included in...Jessica Senehi, and Sean Byrne (Lanham, MD: Lexington Books , 2013), 2. 2. Eric Patterson, Politics in a Religious World: Building a Reli- giously

  13. Facing the Future: Slovenian Armed Forces Officer Corps and Professionalism (United States)


    officer corps, jurisdiction, officer education, professional authonomy, civil-military relations, operational enviroment 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF...expressed in SAOC? Definitions Ethics. “Values, norms , and symbols regulating the behavior of the professional toward his client, public, and... management techniques in the military as they can have a disastrous effect on unit coherence and officer professionalism. If not applied correctly and

  14. A Code of Professional Ethical Conduct for the American Medical Informatics Association (United States)

    Hurdle, John F.; Adams, Samantha; Brokel, Jane; Chang, Betty; Embi, Peter; Petersen, Carolyn; Terrazas, Enrique; Winkelstein, Peter


    The AMIA Board of Directors has decided to periodically publish AMIA’s Code of Professional Ethical Conduct for its members in the Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association. The Code also will be available on the AMIA Web site at as it continues to evolve in response to feedback from the AMIA membership. The AMIA Board acknowledges the continuing work and dedication of the AMIA Ethics Committee. AMIA is the copyright holder of this work. PMID:17460125

  15. Ethical and professional conduct of medical students: review of current assessment measures and controversies


    Boon, K; Turner, J


    As medical education increasingly acknowledges the importance of the ethical and professional conduct of practitioners, and moves towards more formal assessment of these issues, it is important to consider the evidence base which exists in this area. This article discusses literature about the health needs and problems experienced by medical practitioners as a background to a review of the current efforts in medical education to promote ethical conduct and develop mechanisms for the detection...

  16. Discourses of social justice: examining the ethics of democratic professionalism in nursing. (United States)

    Thompson, Janice L


    This essay provides a critical exploration of discourses of social justice in nursing. It examines commitments to social justice in the work of international nursing scholars and in professional codes of ethics in international nursing organizations. The analysis touches on salient conversations in philosophy, relating these ways of knowing to social justice as an ethical pattern in nursing practice. On the basis of this analysis, the discussion explores questions of professional formation in nursing, noticing when commitments to social justice are taken up or evaded in different models of professionalism. In concluding comments, implications of democratic professionalism are explored for professional formation in nursing, arguing for teaching, learning, and knowledge projects that contribute to social justice in our democracy.

  17. Early Introduction to Professional and Ethical Dilemmas in a Pharmaceutical Care Laboratory Course. (United States)

    Smith, Megan G; Dinkins, Melissa M


    To study the effects of an early professional development series in a pharmaceutical care laboratory (PCL) course on first-year pharmacy students' perceptions of the importance of professional attitudes and action. Three hundred thirty-four first-year students enrolled in a PCL course participated in a new required learning activity centered on development of professional attitudes and behaviors. Students discussed situational dilemmas in pharmacy practice in small groups, highlighting application of the Oath of a Pharmacist and the Pharmacists' Code of Ethics. Students completed an optional questionnaire at the beginning and end of the semester to assess change in their attitudes and behaviors related to professionalism in pharmacy practice. While students entered their training with a strong appreciation for professionalism, they felt more confident in applying the Oath of a Pharmacist and the Pharmacists Code of Ethics to dilemmas in practice following the new learning activity.

  18. Preaching What We Practice: Teaching Ethical Decision-Making to Computer Security Professionals (United States)

    Fleischmann, Kenneth R.

    The biggest challenge facing computer security researchers and professionals is not learning how to make ethical decisions; rather it is learning how to recognize ethical decisions. All too often, technology development suffers from what Langdon Winner terms technological somnambulism - we sleepwalk through our technology design, following past precedents without a second thought, and fail to consider the perspectives of other stakeholders [1]. Computer security research and practice involves a number of opportunities for ethical decisions. For example, decisions about whether or not to automatically provide security updates involve tradeoffs related to caring versus user autonomy. Decisions about online voting include tradeoffs between convenience and security. Finally, decisions about routinely screening e-mails for spam involve tradeoffs of efficiency and privacy. It is critical that these and other decisions facing computer security researchers and professionals are confronted head on as value-laden design decisions, and that computer security researchers and professionals consider the perspectives of various stakeholders in making these decisions.

  19. Strategies for Navigating Common Ethical Dilemmas Encountered by Operational Radiation Safety Professionals. (United States)

    Emery, Robert J; Rios, Janelle


    Because operational radiation safety professionals can encounter ethical dilemmas in the course of their work, codes of ethics and professional standards of conduct are maintained by the Health Physics Society (HPS) and the American Academy of Health Physics (AAHP). While these works provide valuable guidance, they do not operationalize the types of ethical dilemmas radiation safety practitioners might encounter. For example, consider the ethical conundrum of “dual loyalty,” defined as the situation in which an individual holds simultaneous obligations to two or more parties. In the case of radiation safety, practicing professionals hold obligations to the workers being protected and to the leaders of the organization. If these obligations are in conflict, serious difficulties can arise. The conundrum of dual loyalty is described and a strategy for reducing its effect is discussed. Two other common ethical issues; “confidentiality” and “organizational dissent” are similarly presented. A foundation from which to launch an ongoing dialogue about ethical issues within the radiation safety profession is also proposed.

  20. Eating disorder therapists' personal eating disorder history and professional ethics: an interpretive description. (United States)

    Williams, Meris; Haverkamp, Beth E


    This qualitative study sought to explore and understand eating disorder (ED) therapists' perceptions of whether and how their personal ED histories had professional ethical relevance. Analysis of multiple interviews with 11 therapist-participants indicated that they perceived their personal ED histories as having substantial ethical relevance in their day-to-day practice with ED clients. The major categories of ethics experiences that emerged were: boundaries, therapist wellness, helpfulness of personal ED history, and openness regarding therapists' personal ED histories. The findings have practical utility for the education, training, and continuing education of ED-historied practitioners.

  1. Analysis of the ethical aspects of professional confidentiality in dental practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cléa Adas Saliba Garbin


    Full Text Available From the point of view of deontological ethics, privacy is a moral right that patients are entitled to and it is bound to professional confidentiality. Otherwise, the information given by patients to health professionals would not be reliable and a trustable relationship could not be established. The aim of the present study was to assess, by means of questionnaires with open and closed questions, the awareness and attitudes of 100 dentists working in the city of Andradina, São Paulo State, Brazil, with respect to professional confidentiality in dental practice. Most dentists (91.43% reported to have instructed their assistants on professional confidentiality. However, 44.29% of the interviewees showed to act contradictorily as reported talking about the clinical cases of their patients to their friends or spouses. The great majority of professionals (98.57% believed that it is important to have classes on Ethics and Bioethics during graduation and, when asked about their knowledge of the penalties imposed for breach of professional confidentiality, only 48.57% of them declared to be aware of it. Only 28.57% of the interviewees affirmed to have exclusive access to the files; 67.14% reported that that files were also accessed by their secretary; 1.43% answered that their spouses also had access, and 2.86% did not answer. From the results of the present survey, it could be observed that, although dentists affirmed to be aware of professional confidentiality, their attitudes did not adhere to ethical and legal requirements. This stand of health professionals has contributed to violate professional ethics and the law itself, bringing problems both to the professional and to the patient.

  2. Using Insights from Applied Moral Psychology to Promote Ethical Behavior Among Engineering Students and Professional Engineers. (United States)

    Gelfand, Scott D


    In this essay I discuss a novel engineering ethics class that has the potential to significantly decrease the likelihood that students (and professionals) will inadvertently or unintentionally act unethically in the future. This class is different from standard engineering ethics classes in that it focuses on the issue of why people act unethically and how students (and professionals) can avoid a variety of hurdles to ethical behavior. I do not deny that it is important for students to develop cogent moral reasoning and ethical decision-making as taught in traditional college-level ethics classes, but as an educator, I aim to help students apply moral reasoning in specific, real-life situations so they are able to make ethical decisions and act ethically in their academic careers and after they graduate. Research in moral psychology provides evidence that many seemingly irrelevant situational factors affect the moral judgment of most moral agents and frequently lead agents to unintentionally or inadvertently act wrongly. I argue that, in addition to teaching college students moral reasoning and ethical decision-making, it is important to: 1. Teach students about psychological and situational factors that affect people's ethical judgments/behaviors in the sometimes stressful, emotion-laden environment of the workplace; 2. Guide students to engage in critical reflection about the sorts of situations they personally might find ethically challenging before they encounter those situations; and 3. Provide students with strategies to help them avoid future unethical behavior when they encounter these situations in school and in the workplace.

  3. The Commission Game: An Ethics Activity for Professional Selling Courses (United States)

    Milewicz, Chad


    The Commission Game is an experiment-based experiential learning activity designed to elicit students' sincere ethical decision making in an ambiguous sales context. The activity includes multiple relevant stakeholders as well as tangible, shared risk/reward elements. The activity's design encourages students to contemplate their own personal code…

  4. Social Media and Professional School Counselors: Ethical and Legal Considerations (United States)

    Mullen, Patrick R.; Griffith, Catherine; Greene, Jennifer H.; Lambie, Glenn W.


    The use of social media continues to expand in prevalence and is a medium of communication for individuals of all ages. Schools are using social media to engage their stakeholders at increasing rates. Therefore, school counselors require the knowledge and appreciation of ethical and legal issues regarding the use of such technology. The purpose of…

  5. Professionalism in anaesthesiology practice: ethical reflection on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This requirement relates to personal behaviour and attitudes that can loosely be labelled as moral attributes. The article argues that these moral attributes may best be understood with reference to Aristotle's notion of virtue ethics—the idea that character and virtue are important in ethics. Though this is the central theme of ...

  6. Professional and personal ethics in translation: A survey of South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This raises the third context from within which translation ethics may be conceptualised: the personal. Translators are humans, and like all humans, they have a system of beliefs that inform how they choose to .... a rate of pay, an image of immediate reception, a distribution network, and the intercultural space – the overlap.

  7. School Psychology in Rural Contexts: Ethical, Professional, and Legal Issues (United States)

    Edwards, Lynn M.; Sullivan, Amanda L.


    Delivering psychological services in rural communities presents a number of unique challenges for practitioners relative to their peers in urban and suburban communities. In this article, the authors describe the current context of rural schools and examine the ethical and legal issues school psychologists may face when practicing in rural…

  8. Nurses' attitudes towards euthanasia in conflict with professional ethical guidelines. (United States)

    Terkamo-Moisio, Anja; Kvist, Tarja; Kangasniemi, Mari; Laitila, Teuvo; Ryynänen, Olli-Pekka; Pietilä, Anna-Maija


    Despite the significant role of nurses in end-of-life care, their attitudes towards euthanasia are under-represented both in the current literature and the controversial debate that is ongoing in several countries. What are the attitudes towards euthanasia among Finnish nurses? Which characteristics are associated with those attitudes? Cross-sectional web-based survey. Participants and research context: A total of 1003 nurses recruited via the members' bulletin of the Finnish Nurses Association and social media. Ethical considerations: Ethical approval was obtained from the Committee on Research Ethics of the university to which the authors were affiliated. The majority (74.3%) of the participants would accept euthanasia as part of Finnish healthcare, and 61.8% considered that Finland would benefit from a law permitting euthanasia. Most of the nurses (89.9%) thought that a person must have the right to decide on his or her own death; 77.4% of them considered it likely that they would themselves make a request for euthanasia in certain situations. The value of self-determination and the ability to choose the moment and manner of one's death are emphasized in the nurses' attitudes towards euthanasia. A continuous dialogue about euthanasia and nurses' shared values is crucial due to the conflict between nurses' attitudes and current ethical guidelines on nursing.

  9. An Analysis of the Canadian Defense Ethics Program Decision-Making Guidance (United States)


    Professional Ethics . JSCOPE 2000, Springfield, VA. Velasquez , Manuel G. 1992. Business ethics concepts and cases. 3rd ed. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall...1995. Business Ethics . 4th ed. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall. Drisko, Melville A. 1977. An analysis of professional military ethics : Their...Press. Hoffman, W. Michael, and Robert E. Frederick. 1995. Business ethics : Readings and cases in corporate morality. 3rd ed. New York, NY: McGraw

  10. Levels of empathy and professional ethics in candidates to Medical Graduate School

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    José Luis Jiménez-López


    Full Text Available The current perception of a dehumanized medical attention and its low quality has questioned the empathic capacity and ethics of the health professionals. The research in this field reports variations in this attributes along the doctors’ education. Objective: to explore the global levels of empathy and professional ethics, as well as the levels of each component of both attributes in a sample of applicants to a medical graduate program. Methodology: 65 residents that applied for graduation studies in a very specialized medical unit were included. As part of the application process, they answered the Cognitive and Affective Empathy Test and the Professional Ethical Attitudes Scale. Results: The average scores of the sample got Average in empathy and Optimal in professional ethics. The comparison by gender, specialty and competences showed less affective and better ethical competence in women, more cognitive empathy in surgical specialties, and in general an absence of correlation between the two variables and specifically by competence. Conclusions: The importance of measuring the specific competences of each attribute is highlighted given that the variation in specific competences impact in different aspects the doctor’s education, as the specialty choice, the student selection, the development of academic programs and the adequate learning about the construction of an effective relation doctor-patient. © Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Sociales

  11. Professional School Counselors' Role in Partnering with Military Families during the Stages of Deployment (United States)

    Cole, Rebekah F.


    In order to help each student to be successful in school, as outlined in the ASCA National Model, professional school counselors are called to partner with military families in order to work for their children's social, emotional, and academic success during deployments. Possible school-family partnerships that may occur before, during, and after…

  12. Ethical crossroads: A study of factors impeding professional growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    collect data from participants. The study found that the socio-affective, factors, namely the dominant social values and expectations, religious beliefs and doctrines, and an inadequate professional support infrastructure constituted the major impediments to the adoption of professional behaviors commensurate with teaching ...

  13. Postgraduate Education and Professional Military Development: Are They Compatible? (United States)


    of the enterprise toward the.. .objective of meeting the business goals of management" As it applies to this study, it can be said that postgraduate...organization, especially the military. Peter Drucker has written that: "the productive capacity of all businesses depends on three factors--the human resource...uu -. d) ICI)t - XiN I Iai , head \\\\’V’s l’:lg ]Na 8 _.l irNn \\Vps P~ost-.J{) shmL oure l( school 4- First sea tourI !,(, - FIN" -- Initial training 50

  14. Ethical principles for project collaboration between academic professionals or institutions and the biomedical industry. (United States)

    Riis, Povl


    Ethics in biomedical research cannot be defined by etymology, and need a semantic definition based on national and contemporary values. In a Nordic cultural and historic context, key values are solidarity with one's fellow man, equality, truth, justice, responsibility, freedom, and professionalism. In contemporary medical research, such ethics are further subgrouped into research ethics, researcher ethics, societal ethics, and distributive ethics. Lately, public and academic debates have addressed the necessary strengthening of the ethical concerns and interests of patients and society. Despite considerable progress, common ethical definitions and control systems still lack uniformity or indeed do not exist. Among the cooperative partners involved, the pharmaceutical industry have preserved an important role. The same is true for the overall judgments reflected by the European Forum for Good Clinical Practice, leading peer-reviewed journals, the Nuffield Council on Bioethics for developing nations, and the latest global initiative, the Singapore Statement on Research Integrity. To help both institutions and countries, it will be valuable to include the following information in academia-industry protocols before starting a project: international authorship names; fixed agendas and time schedules for project meetings; chairperson shifts, meeting reports, and project plan changes; future author memberships; equal blinding and data distribution from disciplinary groups; an equal plan for exchange of project manuscripts at the proofing stage; contractual descriptions of all procedures, disagreements, publishing rights, prevention, and controls for suspected dishonesty; and a detailed description of who is doing what in the working process.

  15. Ethical principles for project collaboration between academic professionals or institutions and the biomedical industry (United States)

    Riis, Povl


    Ethics in biomedical research cannot be defined by etymology, and need a semantic definition based on national and contemporary values. In a Nordic cultural and historic context, key values are solidarity with one’s fellow man, equality, truth, justice, responsibility, freedom, and professionalism. In contemporary medical research, such ethics are further subgrouped into research ethics, researcher ethics, societal ethics, and distributive ethics. Lately, public and academic debates have addressed the necessary strengthening of the ethical concerns and interests of patients and society. Despite considerable progress, common ethical definitions and control systems still lack uniformity or indeed do not exist. Among the cooperative partners involved, the pharmaceutical industry have preserved an important role. The same is true for the overall judgments reflected by the European Forum for Good Clinical Practice, leading peer-reviewed journals, the Nuffield Council on Bioethics for developing nations, and the latest global initiative, the Singapore Statement on Research Integrity. To help both institutions and countries, it will be valuable to include the following information in academia–industry protocols before starting a project: international authorship names; fixed agendas and time schedules for project meetings; chairperson shifts, meeting reports, and project plan changes; future author memberships; equal blinding and data distribution from disciplinary groups; an equal plan for exchange of project manuscripts at the proofing stage; contractual descriptions of all procedures, disagreements, publishing rights, prevention, and controls for suspected dishonesty; and a detailed description of who is doing what in the working process. PMID:22570569

  16. Ethical consequences for professionals from the globalization of food, nutrition and health. (United States)

    Solomons, Noel W


    Globalization is the process of increasing interconnections and linkages, within societies and across geography, due to improved communication and expanded world trade. It limits the differentiation wrought by human cultural evolution, and homogenizes health practices, diet and lifestyle. There are both beneficial and adverse consequences of the globalization process. Globalization also presents a challenge to the development of ethics for practice and advocacy by food and nutrition professionals. Among the related terms, 'morals', 'values' and 'ethics', the latter connotes the basic rules of conduct for interactions within society and with the inanimate environment; rules based on recognized principles (ethical principles). The application of these principles is to resolve ethical dilemmas that arise when more than one interest is at play. Recognized ethical principles include autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, justice, utility and stewardship. These can be framed in the context of issues that arise during advocacy for material and behavioural changes to improve the nutritional health of populations. Clearly, at the global level, codes of good conduct and the construction of good food governance can be useful in institutionalizing ethical principles in matters of human diets and eating practices. Ethical dilemmas arise in the context of innate diversity among populations (some individuals benefit, whereas others suffer from the same exposures), and due to the polarity of human physiology and metabolism (practices that prevent some diseases will provoke other maladies). Moreover, the autonomy of one individual to exercise independent will in addressing personal health or treatment of the environment may compromise the health of the individual's neighbours. The challenges for the professional in pursuit of ethical advocacy in a globalized era are to learn the fundamentals of ethical principles; to bear in mind a respect for difference and differentiation that

  17. The ideas of nurses about the reflection of ethic education in their professional life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şenay Gül


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION[|]This research was prepared as a qualitative study for the contribution to the ethics education studied during nursery education and reflections on nurses' practices by researching nurse's experiences.[¤]METHODS[|]In this study, data were obtained by focus group discussion method used in qualitative research. This study was completed during December 2015 – January 2016 with nurses working at University Hospitals', Training and Research Hospitals', Local Hospitals' Internal Medicine, Surgery and Intensive Care Unit Departments. Inclusion Criteria was obtained in ethics class during education and at least 1 year experience. 21 nurses included in this study. Participants were divided into 3 groups and focus group interview was made. The obtained data were analyzed by thematic analysis method.[¤]RESULTS[|]Participant nurses remarked that in general they cannot remember the knowledge which they learned during ethical classes but case debates are more memorable. Nurses expressed that the most ethical problems are related to ethical principles, malpractice, lack of professional boundaries, managerial problems, systemic problems. They claimed that in most cases there is a contradiction between their learnings and situations that they encounter in clinics and they stated that they are insufficient to represent ethical behavior due to factors like work load, supply and personal deficiency, inadequate professional definition. Nurses stated that ethical education is important but practical education is more efficient than theory and education should be continuous.[¤]DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION[|]As a result, nurses declared that ethical education is important but it should be continuous; they cannot reflect their knowledge on their practical life due to many factors that they encounter on the clinics. In this manner, ethical education at the nursery university program should be clinical oriented, multi-disciplinary and continuous after the

  18. What Next? Translating AGI's 2015 Guidelines for Ethical Professional Conduct into Practice (United States)

    Boland, M. A.; Keane, C.


    In 2015, the American Geosciences Institute (AGI) published a revised version of the 1999 Guidelines for Ethical Professional Conduct, an aspirational document outlining ethical principles that should inform the professional behavior of all geoscientists. The revised Guidelines reflect a consensus of opinion among AGI's 51 member societies and show an evolution in thinking about geoscience ethics. The Guidelines also represent a foundational document to support the expansion of ethical guidelines by individual societies and organizations. Publishing the Guidelines was a significant milestone but aspirations need to be matched by action. We examine several developments that implement aspects of the Guidelines, including the development of a consensus statement regarding access and inclusion of individuals living with disabilities in the geosciences, a Joint AGI/Geological Society of America Societies meeting on professional conduct, geoethics training initiatives, and efforts to foster international cooperation in recognizing and implementing ethical practice in the geosciences. In addition, we examine the level of success in using these Guidelines as philosophical cornerstones for a number of international projects, such as Resourcing Future Generations and the International Raw Materials Observatory, that bring geoscience directly into contact with large societal issues.

  19. Military Professionalism and Political Influence: A Case Study of the Mexican Military, 1917-1940 (United States)


    Latin America: The Hegemonic Crisis and the Military Coup (Berkeley: University of California, 1969). 31Ibid., p. 21. 3 2 Ibid., p. 56. 36 that the...Portes Gil as provisional president, the immediate succession crisis was over. Still, the larger question of who would determine future presidential...Salvador Guti~rrez Contreras, La acci6n heroica de Juan Escutia en la defensa de Chaputepec y la intervencion norteamericana de 1847 (Jalisco, Mexico


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana DRĂGAN


    Full Text Available Analyzed in the context of global economic, business ethics and professional judgment becomes increasingly complex, with reflection in all economic fields, including also the accounting profession. This study has the objective to identify the perception of the practitioners in financial accounting on the ethics seen from the perspective of their practical activity which they carry as employees in accounting companies, or as entrepreneurs. The results of the study shows that both ethics and the professional judgment highlighted by the method Concept Maps, represent points of interest in financial-accounting activity of the cabinets, practitioners auditors/accountants paying particular attention to these issues when referring to the quality of the Financial Accounting Statement.

  1. Changing values for nursing and health promotion: exploring the policy context of professional ethics. (United States)

    Molloy, J; Cribb, A


    In this article we illustrate, and argue for, the importance of researching the social context of health professionals' ethical agendas and concerns. We draw upon qualitative interview data from 20 nurses working in two occupational health sites, and our discussion focuses mainly upon aspects of the shifting 'ethical context' for those nurses with a health promotion remit who are working in the British National Health Service. Within this discussion we also raise a number of potentially substantive issues, including the risks of colluding in 'double standards', and the tensions between the practitioner and managerial roles in nursing. Overall, we hope to pose questions about the best ways to understand the ethical agency and responsibilities of health professionals.

  2. The Emergence of Ethics and Professionalism in the Early Advertising Business. (United States)

    Schultze, Quentin J.

    In the pre-World War I era, advertising practitioners attempted to make their craft a profession. Generally agreeing that the creation of ethical codes was the most important step toward professionalism, practitioners organized the Associated Advertising Clubs of America (AACA). Early journal articles and AACA proceedings indicate that…

  3. Video Laboratories for the Teaching and Learning of Professional Ethics in Exercise Physiology Curricula (United States)

    Senchina, David S.


    Student researchers in physiology courses often interact with human subjects in classroom research but may be unfamiliar with the professional ethics of experimenter-subject interactions. This communication describes experiences related to an interactive video used in exercise science and general biology courses to help students become aware of,…

  4. Cheating, Ethics and the Student of Professional Psychology: A Case Study. (United States)

    Rubin, Simon Shimshon

    Although cheating is reportedly endemic in colleges, the honor system is believed to have reduced its incidence. Cheating in a graduate, clinical psychology training program touches serious fundamental issues with academic, ethical, intrapersonal, interpersonal, and professional implications. The responsibility of the teacher is to respond…

  5. Professionalism and Ethics Education on Relationships and Boundaries: Psychiatric Residents' Training Preferences (United States)

    Lapid, Maria; Moutier, Christine; Dunn, Laura; Hammond, Katherine Green; Roberts, Laura Weiss


    Objective: Awareness of the privileges and limits of one's role as physician, as well as recognition and respect for the patient as a human being, are central to ethical medical practice. The authors were particularly interested in examining the attitudes and perceived needs of psychiatric residents toward education on professional boundaries and…

  6. Board Certified Behavior Analysts and Related Ethical and Professional Practice Considerations for Rural Schools (United States)

    Menendez, Anthony L.; Mayton, Michael R.; Yurick, Amanda L.


    When rural school districts employ Board Certified Behavior Analysts (BCBAs) to assist in meeting the needs of students with disabilities, it is important that they be aware of the ethical and professional guidelines to which BCBAs are required to adhere. This article describes the role of these guidelines within the practice of BCBAs and presents…

  7. The ethics of engaged presence: a framework for health professionals in humanitarian assistance and development work. (United States)

    Hunt, Matthew R; Schwartz, Lisa; Sinding, Christina; Elit, Laurie


    In this article, we present an ethics framework for health practice in humanitarian and development work: the ethics of engaged presence. The ethics of engaged presence framework aims to articulate in a systematic fashion approaches and orientations that support the engagement of expatriate health care professionals in ways that align with diverse obligations and responsibilities, and promote respectful and effective action and relationships. Drawn from a range of sources, the framework provides a vocabulary and narrative structure for examining the moral dimensions of providing development or humanitarian health assistance to individuals and communities, and working with and alongside local and international actors. The elements also help minimize or avoid certain miscalculations and harms. Emphasis is placed on the shared humanity of those who provide and those who receive assistance, acknowledgement of limits and risks related to the contributions of expatriate health care professionals, and the importance of providing skillful and relevant assistance. These elements articulate a moral posture for expatriate health care professionals that contributes to orienting the practice of clinicians in ways that reflect respect, humility, and solidarity. Health care professionals whose understanding and actions are consistent with the ethics of engaged presence will be oriented toward introspection and reflective practice and toward developing, sustaining and promoting collaborative partnerships. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Moving It Along: A study of healthcare professionals' experience with ethics consultations. (United States)

    Crigger, Nancy; Fox, Maria; Rosell, Tarris; Rojjanasrirat, Wilaiporn


    Ethics consultation is the traditional way of resolving challenging ethical questions raised about patient care in the United States. Little research has been published on the resolution process used during ethics consultations and on how this experience affects healthcare professionals who participate in them. The purpose of this qualitative research was to uncover the basic process that occurs in consultation services through study of the perceptions of healthcare professionals. The researchers in this study used a constructivist grounded theory approach that represents how one group of professionals experienced ethics consultations in their hospital in the United States. The results were sufficient to develop an initial theory that has been named after the core concept: Moving It Along. Three process stages emerged from data interpretation: moral questioning, seeing the big picture, and coming together. It is hoped that this initial work stimulates additional research in describing and understanding the complex social process that occurs for healthcare professionals as they address the difficult moral issues that arise in clinical practice.

  9. New Possibilities in Thinking, Speaking and Doing: Early Childhood Teachers' Professional Identity Constructions and Ethics (United States)

    Thomas, Louise


    The early childhood sector has in recent times engaged in processes of professionalisation. The expectations associated with engagement in professional relationships is one element of such processes. Another element is an expectation of ethical practice. The paper considers how particular representations of relationships and representations of…

  10. Problems for Social Work in a Strike Situation: Professional, Ethical, and Value Considerations. (United States)

    Fisher, Dena


    Discusses potential ethical conflicts social workers face in a strike: whether priority should be given to patient welfare or to the individual's civil rights to participate in union activities. Notes standards of professional behavior conflict with union requirements. Concludes the social work profession should examine labor unions in the 1980s…

  11. Ethical and Moral Courage is Distress among Professional Nurses: A Workplace Issue. (United States)

    Brown, Geraldine


    Ethics and moral issues do impact the manner in which professional nurses perform their major duties. Moral distress often conflict with an ethical appropriate course of action that is known, but cannot be implemented. This distress has been associated with job dissatisfaction, burnout, early retirement, withdrawal from the moral dimensions of direct patient care, and others just leaving the profession altogether. In the workplace, institutions must make an assertive effort in providing resources and addressing situations that cause personal anxiety and depression that adversely affects total patient care. The American Association of Critical Care Nurses (AACN) has addressed ethical issues and moral distress in practices that support nurses with moral courage, when encountering ethical conflicts. Ask, Affirm, Assess and Act are the 4 A's that AACN believes should be a part of an organization's strategic plan to create a healthy workplace environment.

  12. Expected ethical competencies of public health professionals and graduate curricula in accredited schools of public health in North America. (United States)

    Lee, Lisa M; Wright, Brandy; Semaan, Salaam


    We assessed expected ethics competencies of public health professionals in codes and competencies, reviewed ethics instruction at schools of public health, and recommended ways to bridge the gap between them. We reviewed the code of ethics and 3 sets of competencies, separating ethics-related competencies into 3 domains: professional, research, and public health. We reviewed ethics course requirements in 2010-2011 on the Internet sites of 46 graduate schools of public health and categorized courses as required, not required, or undetermined. Half of schools (n = 23) required an ethics course for graduation (master's or doctoral level), 21 did not, and 2 had no information. Sixteen of 23 required courses were 3-credit courses. Course content varied from 1 ethics topic to many topics addressing multiple ethics domains. Consistent ethics education and competency evaluation can be accomplished through a combination of a required course addressing the 3 domains, integration of ethics topics in other courses, and "booster" trainings. Enhancing ethics competence of public health professionals is important to address the ethical questions that arise in public health research, surveillance, practice, and policy.

  13. Engineer Ethics

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    Lee, Dae Sik; Kim, Yeong Pil; Kim, Yeong Jin


    This book tells of engineer ethics such as basic understanding of engineer ethics with history of engineering as a occupation, definition of engineering and specialized job and engineering, engineer ethics as professional ethics, general principles of ethics and its limitation, ethical theory and application, technique to solve the ethical problems, responsibility, safety and danger, information engineer ethics, biotechnological ethics like artificial insemination, life reproduction, gene therapy and environmental ethics.

  14. Developing Professional Practice and Ethics Engagement: A Leadership Model. (United States)

    Reilly, Karen M; Jurchak, Martha

    Nurse leaders are responsible for a practice environment that fosters safe, quality patient outcomes through excellence in nursing practice. This article describes a reflective practice intervention in the Cardiac Intensive Care Unit of an urban academic medical center led by the unit nursing director and the hospital's nurse ethicist. The twice monthly case-based discussions, called "Nursing Practice and Ethics Rounds," were attended by staff and unit managers (nurse director, assistant nurse director, and clinical educator) and were facilitated by the nurse ethicist. The purpose of this descriptive qualitative study was to identify nurses' perceptions of the rounds on individual practice, unit practice, and the practice of their peers. Two focus groups were conducted with nurses who attended 3 or more sessions. Staff reported that they felt valued; experienced a decrease in moral distress; and improved empathy with patients, families, and other staff members after the intervention. They also reported better understanding of ethical issues and language to better talk about them. The presence of nurse leaders was valued as affirming the importance of practice development and of witnessing the experience of staff nurses. Finally, the process of reflection was valued for the opportunity it provided to process emotional and intellectual aspects of challenging cases.

  15. Soviet military on SDI (Strategic Defense Initiative). Professional paper

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    Fitzgerald, M.C.


    Numerous Western analysts have suggested that all American assessments of SDI should proceed not only from a consideration of American intentions, but also from the outlook of Soviet perceptions. Since 23 March 1983, the prevailing tone of Soviet military writings on SDI has been overwhelmingly negative. Myron Hedlin has concluded that this harsh reaction to a U.S. initiative still years from realization suggests both a strong concern about the ultimate impact of these plans on the strategic balance, and a perceived opportunity for scoring propaganda points. Indeed, the present review of Soviet writings since President Reagan's so-called Star Wars speech has yielded both objective Soviet concerns and regressions to psychological warfare. This, in turn, has necessitated a careful effort to separate rhetoric from more official assessments of SDI. While there has long been dispute in the West over the validity of Soviet statements, they have time and again been subsequently confirmed in Soviet hardware, exercises, and operational behavior. Some Western analysts will nonetheless contend that the Soviet statements under examination in this study are merely a commodity for export.

  16. Professional Standards, Teacher Identities and an Ethics of Singularity (United States)

    Clarke, Matthew; Moore, Alex


    This paper offers a critical analysis of the education policy move towards teacher professional standards. Drawing on Lacan's three registers of the psyche (real, imaginary and symbolic), the paper argues that moves towards codification (and domestication) of teachers' work and identities in standardized (and sanitized) forms, such as the…

  17. Military medicine and the ethics of war: British colonial warfare during the Seven Years War (1756-63). (United States)

    Charters, Erica


    This article examines 18th-century European warfare, tracing the first formal codifications of conventions of war, frequently introduced by military physicians and initially regarding the treatment of the sick and wounded. It outlines to what extent these conventions were followed in practice, particularly in the challenging environment of American irregular warfare, with a focus on the most well-known incident of "biological warfare" in the period: the deliberate spread of smallpox by British officers among Amerindians in 1763. More broadly, it demonstrates that the history of military medicine provides a fruitful method with which to uncover assumptions about the ethics of war.

  18. [Dental care for HIV-positive individuals: fear, prejudice, and professional ethics]. (United States)

    Discacciati, J A; Vilaça, E L


    To describe the ethical aspects involved in the dental care provided to patients who are HIV-positive or who have AIDS. Literature review (textbooks and MEDLINE and LILACS databases), with an emphasis on the work developed at the School of Dentistry, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Brazil. We examined the social representation of AIDS, the risk of HIV infection during office visits, the refusal to provide care, referral to other professionals without justification, special charges and office visit hours for HIV-positive patients, and the confidentiality of the serological status of the patient. There is still prejudice and ignorance about the risk of HIV and AIDS infection, on the part of dental surgeons and of patients. An educational project should be undertaken at dental offices and at universities that train new professionals. In addition, the role of national and regional professional associations in providing information concerning ethical aspects involved in the care of HIV/AIDS patients should be reinforced.

  19. Ethical principles for project collaboration between academic professionals or institutions and the biomedical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riis P


    Full Text Available Povl Riis Age Forum, State Board for Research and Age Policies, Odense, DenmarkAbstract: Ethics in biomedical research cannot be defined by etymology, and need a semantic definition based on national and contemporary values. In a Nordic cultural and historic context, key values are solidarity with one's fellow man, equality, truth, justice, responsibility, freedom, and professionalism. In contemporary medical research, such ethics are further subgrouped into research ethics, researcher ethics, societal ethics, and distributive ethics. Lately, public and academic debates have addressed the necessary strengthening of the ethical concerns and interests of patients and society. Despite considerable progress, common ethical definitions and control systems still lack uniformity or indeed do not exist. Among the cooperative partners involved, the pharmaceutical industry have preserved an important role. The same is true for the overall judgments reflected by the European Forum for Good Clinical Practice, leading peer-reviewed journals, the Nuffield Council on Bioethics for developing nations, and the latest global initiative, the Singapore Statement on Research Integrity. To help both institutions and countries, it will be valuable to include the following information in academia–industry protocols before starting a project: international authorship names; fixed agendas and time schedules for project meetings; chairperson shifts, meeting reports, and project plan changes; future author memberships; equal blinding and data distribution from disciplinary groups; an equal plan for exchange of project manuscripts at the proofing stage; contractual descriptions of all procedures, disagreements, publishing rights, prevention, and controls for suspected dishonesty; and a detailed description of who is doing what in the working process.Keywords: ethics, collaboration, academia, biomedical industry

  20. Ethical Considerations for Psychologists Taking a Public Stance on Controversial Issues: The Balance Between Personal and Professional Life


    Haeny, Angela M.


    Previous literature has documented the general issues psychologists often face while balancing their personal and professional lives. The struggle stems from attempting to satisfy the need to maintain a life outside of work while having the professional obligation to follow the American Psychological Association’s (APA’s) Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct (Ethics Code) to prevent their personal lives from interfering with their professional roles and relationships. The p...

  1. Ethical standards and regulations principles of professional conduct in the field of mediation

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    Yulia I. Melnychuk


    Full Text Available An origin of conflicts, during life of man, is the inevitable phenomenon. A subject for a conflict results in the origin of conflict situation, which contains the negative colouring the display of which can be offence. Mediaciya appears the alternative method of permission of conflict, which is directed on zalagodzhennya and decision of conflicts by the direct socializing with an offender and suffering. A collaboration as a result of realization of which reasons of divergences and aspiration of resisting sides of search of vzaemopriynyatnikh ways of decision of situation turn out appears the base of process of mediacii. In this process the third participant is a neurohumor, the purpose of activity of which is adjusting and communicative process control. Institualizaciya of codes of conduct, which are added the certain types of moral mutual relations between people is optimum for realization of professional activity. Socialphilosophical interpretation of cultural, humanism principles of restoration process is fixed in the ethics standards of mediacii. Ethics norms are key in achievement of the real perfection, that is why there is a clear requirement in the ethics estimation of practice of neurohumor for the maintainance of moral, legal norms upgrading functioning. Professional practice of neurohumor is based on an awareness them of ethics aspects and social payment in prevention of recidivism, observance of ethics rules and standards, proper European legislation, national traditions.

  2. Ethical Considerations for Psychologists Taking a Public Stance on Controversial Issues: The Balance Between Personal and Professional Life (United States)

    Haeny, Angela M.


    Previous literature has documented the general issues psychologists often face while balancing their personal and professional lives. The struggle stems from attempting to satisfy the need to maintain a life outside of work while having the professional obligation to follow the American Psychological Association’s (APA’s) Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct (Ethics Code) to prevent their personal lives from interfering with their professional roles and relationships. The present paper analyzes the subject of psychologists taking a public position on controversial public issues. Although the APA Ethics Code does not restrict how psychologists conduct themselves during their personal time, taking a public stance on a controversial issue could potentially strain professional relationships and inadvertently reflect negatively on the profession. The present paper examines ethical issues that a) should be taken into account before psychologists take a public position on a controversial issue, and b) are in conflict with APA’s Ethics Code or current research. PMID:25342876

  3. Evaluation of Viewpoints of Health Care Professionals on the Role of Ethics Committees and Hospitals in the Resolution of Clinical Ethical Dilemmas Based on Practice Environment. (United States)

    Marcus, Brian S; Carlson, Jestin N; Hegde, Gajanan G; Shang, Jennifer; Venkat, Arvind


    We sought to evaluate whether health care professionals' viewpoints differed on the role of ethics committees and hospitals in the resolution of clinical ethical dilemmas based on practice location. We conducted a survey study from December 21, 2013 to March 15, 2014 of health care professionals at six hospitals (one tertiary care academic medical center, three large community hospitals and two small community hospitals). The survey consisted of eight clinical ethics cases followed by statements on whether there was a role for the ethics committee or hospital in their resolution, what that role might be and case specific queries. Respondents used a 5-point Likert scale to express their degree of agreement with the premises posed. We used the ANOVA test to evaluate whether respondent views significantly varied based on practice location. 240 health care professionals (108-tertiary care center, 92-large community hospitals, 40-small community hospitals) completed the survey (response rate: 63.6 %). Only three individual queries of 32 showed any significant response variations across practice locations. Overall, viewpoints did not vary across practice locations within question categories on whether the ethics committee or hospital had a role in case resolution, what that role might be and case specific queries. In this multicenter survey study, the viewpoints of health care professionals on the role of ethics committees or hospitals in the resolution of clinical ethics cases varied little based on practice location.

  4. When is differential treatment discriminatory? Legal, ethical, and professional considerations for psychology trainees with disabilities. (United States)

    Taube, Daniel O; Olkin, Rhoda


    A supervisor may tell graduate trainees with obvious disabilities to disclose the disability to potential clients. Legal and ethical guidelines only partially address whether this requirement is permissible. Here we examine such disclosures from several vantage points. Professional judgments guide supervisors in deciding whether to request that a trainee disclose a disability. The law provides little guidance to supervisors in making this decision. Instead, professional ethics and beliefs about disability drive decisions, and these beliefs may be prejudicial. In this article, we examine whether it is good practice for a supervisor in a practicum or internship to require a trainee with an obvious disability to disclose the disability to potential clients before the first meeting so that the client has freedom to request a different therapist. We use this situation to examine the pertinent legal standards; ethical guidelines; and clinical, professional, and social justice issues. The requirement of disclosure may not be in the best interests of the client and has deleterious repercussions for trainees with disabilities, their peers, and the profession. Unless addressed without prejudice, differential treatment becomes discriminatory and is an obstacle to successful completion of professional education by trainees with obvious disabilities.


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    Sevdalina Dimitrova


    Full Text Available The paper presents specific aspects of professional and psychological adaptation of relieved of military service militaries as well as of members of their families to new life conditions. It attempts to define the main problems accompanying that process and that are connected to the problems of the radical change, problems of the lack of guaranteed employment, of keeping life stereotype, of unpreparedness to new conditions, etc. Stages of preparation are presented when a military person leaves the army with their peculiar elements.

  6. The Teaching of Ethics and Professionalism in Plastic Surgery Residency: A Cross-Sectional Survey. (United States)

    Bennett, Katelyn G; Ingraham, John M; Schneider, Lisa F; Saadeh, Pierre B; Vercler, Christian J


    The ethical practice of medicine has always been of utmost importance, and plastic surgery is no exception. The literature is devoid of information on the teaching of ethics and professionalism in plastic surgery. In light of this, a survey was sent to ascertain the status of ethics training in plastic surgery residencies. A 21-question survey was sent from the American Council of Academic Plastic Surgeons meeting to 180 plastic surgery program directors and coordinators via email. Survey questions inquired about practice environment, number of residents, presence of a formal ethics training program, among others. Binary regression was used to determine if any relationships existed between categorical variables, and Poisson linear regression was used to assess relationships between continuous variables. Statistical significance was set at a P value of 0.05. A total of 104 members responded to the survey (58% response rate). Sixty-three percent were program directors, and most (89%) practiced in academic settings. Sixty-two percent in academics reported having a formal training program, and 60% in private practice reported having one. Only 40% of programs with fewer than 10 residents had ethics training, whereas 78% of programs with more than 20 residents did. The odds of having a training program were slightly higher (odds ratio, 1.1) with more residents (P = 0.17). Despite the lack of information in the literature, formal ethics and professionalism training does exist in many plastic surgery residencies, although barriers to implementation do exist. Plastic surgery leadership should be involved in the development of standardized curricula to help overcome these barriers.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davoud Abdollahi


    Full Text Available Professional ethics is a factor that is under the influence of external factors and with the help of individual conscience causes adherence in a person. As professional ethics is properly guided and strengthened by social or environmental elements, its effects will appear on the output or final product in a desirable way. The present study examines the social influential factors on individual’s level of professional ethics in the workplace. For this purpose, 400 workers in both branches of industrial townships of Ardabil participated in this study. The data for this study was collected from administering a researcher-made questionnaire (consisting of 78 questions, interview, and observation. The findings revealed that socio-cultural factors primarily and individual-personality factors secondarily, affect the person’s work ethics. In addition, social factors such as intimate relationship, gender, education, skill, income, religious belief, and job stability have a positive impact on a person's work ethics.

  8. Cut from the right wood: spiritual and ethical pluralism in professional nursing practice. (United States)

    Cusveller, B


    Today, different cultures and contexts of nursing adhere to different codes of ethics. This pluralism may be traced back to differing beliefs about the nature of man and the world, involving different approaches to, and understandings of, spirituality. How significant is this pluralism of beliefs surrounding spirituality for proper nursing practice? I argue that certain introductory nursing textbooks perceive the significance of spirituality for nursing practice as marginal, because of certain assumptions as to what constitutes a proper, or professional, practice. After arguing that such assumptions are problematic, especially from an ethical point of view, I will advance an alternative understanding of professional practice, by drawing upon Alasdair MacIntyre's work. The aim is to give the spiritual dimension of nursing care its rightful place.

  9. Professional Ethics Training and the Graduate Professors in the National Autonomous University of Mexico

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    Ana Hirsch Adler


    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to present the results obtained with a sample of 704 professors of the forty graduate programs in UNAM, with the open question: Do you consider that a subject about professional ethics should be included for all students?, with which contents? This question is part of an instrument applied in 2006 and 2007. The majority expressed that it should exist a special subject about professional ethics. All the answers were codified in four categories. We introduced two other sources of information: the answers to the same question asked in 2004 to 11 professors from different universities in Spain, and three training proposals given by the professors interviewed.

  10. Ethical sensitivity intervention in science teacher education: Using computer simulations and professional codes of ethics (United States)

    Holmes, Shawn Yvette

    A simulation was created to emulate two Racial Ethical Sensitivity Test (REST) videos (Brabeck et al., 2000). The REST is a reliable assessment for ethical sensitivity to racial and gender intolerant behaviors in educational settings. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of the REST was performed using the Quick-REST survey and an interview protocol. The purpose of this study was to affect science educator ability to recognize instances of racial and gender intolerant behaviors by levering immersive qualities of simulations. The fictitious Hazelton High School virtual environment was created by the researcher and compared with the traditional REST. The study investigated whether computer simulations can influence the ethical sensitivity of preservice and inservice science teachers to racial and gender intolerant behaviors in school settings. The post-test only research design involved 32 third-year science education students enrolled in science education classes at several southeastern universities and 31 science teachers from the same locale, some of which were part of an NSF project. Participant samples were assigned to the video control group or the simulation experimental group. This resulted in four comparison group; preservice video, preservice simulation, inservice video and inservice simulation. Participants experienced two REST scenarios in the appropriate format then responded to Quick-REST survey questions for both scenarios. Additionally, the simulation groups answered in-simulation and post-simulation questions. Nonparametric analysis of the Quick-REST ascertained differences between comparison groups. Cronbach's alpha was calculated for internal consistency. The REST interview protocol was used to analyze recognition of intolerant behaviors in the in-simulation prompts. Post-simulation prompts were analyzed for emergent themes concerning effect of the simulation on responses. The preservice video group had a significantly higher mean rank score than

  11. Maintaining professionalism in today's business environment: ethical challenges for the pain medicine specialist. (United States)

    Lebovits, Allen


    There are many external influences in today's market force that impair the relationship between the pain medicine specialist and the patient, and ultimately prevent optimal quality of care. This article explores the ethical challenges facing the pain medicine specialist in today's increasingly "business" environment and will offer solutions for maintaining the professionalism of pain medicine. Four commonly encountered bioethical principles in the practice of pain medicine are reviewed: beneficence, nonmaleficence, justice, and autonomy. The following ethical challenges of the pain medicine specialist are reviewed: practicing outside ones specialty area, practice characteristics, the consultant role, the economic lure of aggressive intervention, not evaluating for and treating comorbid psychopathology, reimbursement pressures, workers' compensation, and use of unproven methods. Solutions offered include collegial associations, social responsibility, legislative initiatives, pain education, interdisciplinary evaluation and treatment, improved relationships with third-party payers, reduced racial disparities, and ethics education. Ethics is the "roadmap" that enables the pain medicine specialist to navigate the increasingly murky waters of practicing pain management today by maintaining the professionalism necessary to combat today's "business" pressures. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Ethics in human experimentation: the two military physicians who helped develop the Nuremberg Code. (United States)

    Temme, Leonard A


    The Nuremberg Code is generally considered the beginning of modern ethics in human experimentation. The Code is a list of 10 principles that Judge Walter Beals included in the judgment he delivered at the close of the Nuremberg Medical Trial on 19 August 1947. Recently, scholars have studied the origin of the Code, who wrote it, and why. This is important to military medicine and the Aerospace Medical Association in particular because many of the defendants claimed their crimes were experiments in aviation and environmental physiology conducted under wartime conditions. The chief prosecutor of the Nuremberg Medical Trial, General Telford Taylor, relied on the guidance of an advisor provided by the American Medical Association, Andrew C. Ivy, one of the foremost physiologists of his time. The neurologist, Leo Alexander, then a colonel in the U.S. Army Reserves, was another medical advisor. Both men were crucial to the development of Taylor's courtroom strategy. The material Alexander and Ivy provided was incorporated verbatim in the section of the judgment that became the Code. Although both men contributed to the Code, Ivy provided what seems to be the first formulation of many of these principles during a meeting of Allied medical investigators at the Pasteur Institute in July 1946. Naval researchers should note that Ivy had been the Director of the Research Division of the Naval Medical Research Institute when it was commissioned on October 27, 1942.

  13. Dyshormonia Iatrogenica: crossroads of medicine, malpractice law, and professional ethics in clinical endocrinology. (United States)

    Goldberg, Philip A; Varriale, David J; Mercurio, Mark R


    To present 2 challenging cases of patients who request endocrine therapies that their physician considers to be outside of the standard of care. With these complex cases as a backdrop, we explore the constructs of medicine, malpractice law, and professional ethics that guide physicians' medical decision-making processes. These cases illustrate a common conundrum for clinical endocrinologists, who often find themselves struggling to balance patient satisfaction and well-being with generally accepted standards of medical care. From the perspective of a malpractice lawyer, we review the keys to limiting medicolegal liability, with emphasis on thorough documentation, informed consent, and effective doctor-patient communication. We then review the constructs of professional ethics that guide patient care, with emphasis on virtues of the "good physician," patients' right to self-determination, and paternalism. Finally, we explore some justifications for a compassionate physician to refuse a patient's desired treatment plan. In the end, we hope that this manuscript helps to facilitate best medical, legal, professional, and ethical practices of clinical endocrinology.

  14. Results of a Multisite Survey of U.S. Psychiatry Residents on Education in Professionalism and Ethics (United States)

    Jain, Shaili; Dunn, Laura B.; Warner, Christopher H.; Roberts, Laura Weiss


    Objective: The authors assess the perspectives of psychiatry residents about the goals of receiving education in professionalism and ethics, how topics should be taught, and on what ethical principles the curriculum should be based. Method: A written survey was sent to psychiatry residents (N = 249) at seven U.S. residency programs in Spring 2005.…

  15. The associations among the ethical climate, the professional practice environment and individualized care in care settings for older people. (United States)

    Suhonen, Riitta; Stolt, Minna; Gustafsson, Marja-Liisa; Katajisto, Jouko; Charalambous, Andreas


    To investigate the associations among the ethical climate, professional practice environment and individualized nursing care in care settings for older people. The quality of care provision is affected by organizational environments, such as ethical climate and professional practice environment. Although, the association between professional practice environment and individualized nursing care has been pointed out, we know that little is known about how ethical climate is associated with the level of individualized nursing care delivery. A cross-sectional explorative and correlational survey design. The study was conducted in 62 units in the vicinity of a Finnish city using a sample of nurses (N = 874, response rate 58%) who worked clinically with older people in different care settings in 2012. Survey data were collected using the Hospital Ethical Climate Survey, Revised Professional Practice Environment scale and Individualised Care Scale-B. Data were analysed statistically using descriptive statistics, correlation coefficients (Pearson) and multiple stepwise regression analyses. Statistically significant correlations were found among the variables, ethical climate and individualized care and between individualized care and all professional practice environment sub-scales. Multiple stepwise regression showed associations among individualized care, ethical climate and internal work motivation, control over practice and leadership and autonomy. The study provided better understanding of the complex concept of individualized care by taking into consideration the ethical climate and the practice environment and their associations. To increase individualization in care provision, efforts need to be directed towards organizational aspects requiring the support of nursing leaders. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. The development of professional social work values and ethics in the workplace: a critical incident analysis from the students' perspective


    Papouli, Eleni


    This thesis explores Greek social work students’ perceptions of the development of\\ud their professional values and ethics in the workplace during their professional\\ud practice placement. To accomplish its goals, the thesis includes a literature review\\ud and employs a qualitative exploratory research design with descriptive elements\\ud positioned within the constructivist paradigm. This research design allows the\\ud researcher to explore and describe a topic - social work values and ethics ...

  17. Opportunities, hurdles, solutions, and approaches to transition military veterans into professional nursing programs. (United States)

    Allen, Patricia E; Armstrong, Myrna L; Saladiner, Jason E; Hamilton, Mary Jane; Conard, Patricia L


    Capitalizing on the almost 2.2 million service members returning from Operation Iraqi Freedom and New Dawn (OIF) in Iraq, and Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) in Afghanistan, baccalaureate educators are encouraged to create realistic, applicable nursing transitional programs for the health and health-related oriented military veterans. Opportunities, hurdles, and solutions related to the veteran's unique socio-economic circumstances of education, finances, and advisement are provided so the potential veteran student is successful within the university's milieu. Transitional nursing educational interventions related to assessment, didactic, and clinical used by two baccalaureate nursing curriculums, including the eLineMilitary* (ELM) Program, provide approaches of how to propel the veteran's journey toward graduation in a professional nursing program. These interventions include modular didactic, competency based education, as well as the concentrated, collegial time within the Faculty/Clinical Coach triad for essential role modeling, care, and skills. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparative analysis of the Code of Professional Ethics in Bulgaria and the Hippocratic Oath, Declaration of Geneva and International Code of Medical Ethics. (United States)

    Aleksandrova, Silviya


    In this paper I aim at making a comparative analysis of The Code of Professional Ethics in Bulgaria (CPEB), The Hippocratic Oath, The Declaration of Geneva, and The World Medical Association International Code of Medical Ethics. Two problems of special interest are explored: whether the leading principles of fundamental ethical codes are presented in CPEB and whether the code itself is relevant to the current medical professional and social situation in the country. The conclusion reached after a step-by-step analysis is that CPEB attempts to cover a wide range of principles and problems in medical practice and corresponds with the fundamental ethical codes. Although the code is criticized in some points, it could be very useful, provided that it is well publicized in the profession.

  19. Between professional values, social regulations and patient preferences: medical doctors' perceptions of ethical dilemmas. (United States)

    Bringedal, Berit; Isaksson Rø, Karin; Magelssen, Morten; Førde, Reidun; Aasland, Olaf Gjerløv


    We present and discuss the results of a Norwegian survey of medical doctors' views on potential ethical dilemmas in professional practice. The study was conducted in 2015 as a postal questionnaire to a representative sample of 1612 doctors, among which 1261 responded (78%). We provided a list of 41 potential ethical dilemmas and asked whether each was considered a dilemma, and whether the doctor would perform the task, if in a position to do so. Conceptually, dilemmas arise because of tensions between two or more of four doctor roles: the patient's advocate, a steward of societal interests, a member of a profession and a private individual. 27 of the potential dilemmas were considered dilemmas by at least 50% of the respondents. For more than half of the dilemmas, the anticipated course of action varied substantially within the professional group, with at least 20% choosing a different course than their colleagues, indicating low consensus in the profession. Doctors experience a large range of ethical dilemmas, of which many have been given little attention by academic medical ethics. The less-discussed dilemmas are characterised by a low degree of consensus in the profession about how to handle them. There is a need for medical ethicists, medical education, postgraduate courses and clinical ethics support to address common dilemmas in clinical practice. Viewing dilemmas as role conflicts can be a fruitful approach to these discussions. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Using the American Board of Internal Medicine's "Elements of Professionalism" for undergraduate ethics education. (United States)

    Robins, Lynne S; Braddock, Clarence H; Fryer-Edwards, Kelly A


    To examine the feasibility of using the taxonomy of professional and unprofessional behaviors presented in the American Board of Internal Medicine's (ABIM's) Project Professionalism to categorize ethical issues that undergraduate medical students perceive to be salient. Beginning second-year medical students at the University of Washington School of Medicine (n = 120) were asked to respond to three open-ended questions about professional standards of conduct and peer evaluation. Two of the authors read and coded the students' responses according to the ABIM's elements of professionalism (altruism, accountability, excellence, duty, honor and integrity, and respect for others) and the challenges to those elements (abuse of power, arrogance, greed, misrepresentation, impairment, lack of conscientiousness, and conflict of interest). Coding disagreements were solved using review and revision of the category definitions. New categories were created for students' responses that described behaviors or issues that were not captured in the ABIM's categories. A total of 114 students responded. The ABIM's professional code was adapted for students and teachers, making it context- and learning-stage-specific. One new category of challenges, conflicts of conscience, was added, and one category (abuse of power) was expanded to include abuse of power/negotiating power asymmetries. Using the ABIM's taxonomy to name professional and unprofessional behaviors was particularly useful for examining undergraduate medical students' perceptions of the ethical climate for learning during the first year of medical school, and it holds promise for research into changes in students' perceptions as they move into clinical experiences. Using the framework, students can build a unified professional knowledge-and-skills base.

  1. Ethical behaviour in clinical practice: a multidimensional Rasch analysis from a survey of primary health care professionals of Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain). (United States)

    González-de Paz, Luis; Kostov, Belchin; López-Pina, Jose A; Zabalegui-Yárnoz, Adelaida; Navarro-Rubio, M Dolores; Sisó-Almirall, Antoni


    Normative ethics includes ethical behaviour health care professionals should uphold in daily practice. This study assessed the degree to which primary health care (PHC) professionals endorse a set of ethical standards from these norms. Health care professionals from an urban area participated in a cross-sectional study. Data were collected using an anonymous, self-administered questionnaire. We examined the level of ethical endorsement of the items and the ethical performance of health care professionals using a Rasch multidimensional model. We analysed differences in ethical performance between groups according to sex, profession and knowledge of ethical norms. A total of 452 Professionals from 56 PHC centres participated. The level of ethical performance was lower in items related to patient autonomy and respecting patient choices. The item estimate across all dimensions showed that professionals found it most difficult to endorse avoiding interruptions when seeing patients. We found significant differences in two groups: nurses had greater ethical performance than family physicians (p < 0.05), and professionals who reported having effective knowledge of ethical norms had a higher level of ethical performance (p < 0.01). Paternalistic behaviour persists in PHC. Lesser endorsement of items suggests that patient-centred care and patient autonomy are not fully considered by professionals. Ethical sensitivity could improve if patients are cared for by multidisciplinary teams.

  2. [Health state in women engaged in professional military service in European North]. (United States)

    Myznikov, I L; Ustimenko, L I; Askerko, N V; Bourtsev, N N; Miloshevsky, A V; Volkova, L V


    The authors analysed health state and morbidity of women engaged into professional navy service in North Fleet, age features of health state in these servicewomen, and results of medical stationary examination and checkup results, regular medical examination results and the servicewomen morbidity over 12 years (about 15.5 thousand cases), and 697 reports on the servicewomen diseases according to military medical (navy) commission. The article covers causes of changes in navy fitness category for the servicewomen, analysis of comorbidity, suggestions of new approaches to comorbidity analysis.

  3. A situation analysis of inter-professional education and practice for ethics and professionalism training at Makerere University College of Health Sciences. (United States)

    Byakika-Kibwika, Pauline; Kutesa, Annet; Baingana, Rhona; Muhumuza, Christine; Kitutu, Freddy Eric; Mwesigwa, Catherine; Chalo, Rose Nabirye; Sewankambo, Nelson K


    Students at Makerere University College of Health Sciences (MakCHS) are introduced to ethics and professionalism using the inter-professional education (IPE) model. Ethics and professionalism should be running themes throughout succeeding years of study during which students are expected to develop qualities and skills for future inter-professional practice (IPP). We performed a situation analysis of IPE and IPP among students and teaching health professionals at MakCHS to guide development of a relevant training curriculum of ethics and professionalism. A cross sectional study with quantitative and qualitative methods which included questionnaires, focus group discussions and key informant interviews. We interviewed 236 undergraduate students (148, 63 % male) and 32 teaching health professionals (25, 78 % male). Two hundred fifteen (91 %) students indicated they had joint learning activities with students of other professions and 166 (70 %) stated there was benefit in having an IPE model training curriculum. Most students (140, 59 %) strongly agreed that learning with other students will make them more effective members of the health team. Whereas the respondents reported inter professionalism as being well articulated in their course curricula, more than half said IPE is only implemented in the pre-clinical years of study. They noted that IPE and IPP concepts were not well programmed, health professionals engaged in teaching had poor attitudes towards IPE and IPP, there were limited numbers of skilled health care workers to implement IPP and there was poor communication between students and teaching health professionals. Majority of teaching health professionals noted challenges in implementation of IPE such as poor coordination and large student population and major factors influencing ethics and professionalism in healthcare such as limited government support, low pay for the health care workers, disrespect and lack of appreciation of the health workers by the

  4. Ethical issues in nutrition support of severely disabled elderly persons: a guide for health professionals. (United States)

    Monod, Stéfanie; Chiolero, René; Büla, Christophe; Benaroyo, Lazare


    Providing or withholding nutrition in severely disabled elderly persons is a challenging dilemma for families, health professionals, and institutions. Despite limited evidence that nutrition support improves functional status in vulnerable older persons, especially those suffering from dementia, the issue of nutrition support in this population is strongly debated. Nutrition might be considered a basic need that not only sustains life but provides comfort as well by patients and their families. Consequently, the decision to provide or withhold nutrition support during medical care is often complex and involves clinical, legal, and ethical considerations. This article proposes a guide for health professionals to appraise ethical issues related to nutrition support in severely disabled older persons. This guide is based on an 8-step process to identify the components of a situation, analyze conflicting values that result in the ethical dilemma, and eventually reach a consensus for the most relevant plan of care to implement in a specific clinical situation. A vignette is presented to illustrate the use of this guide when analyzing a clinical situation.

  5. Improving Student Engagement in the Study of Professional Ethics: Concepts and an Example in Cyber Security. (United States)

    Bustard, John D


    In spite of the acknowledged importance of professional ethics, technical students often show little enthusiasm for studying the subject. This paper considers how such engagement might be improved. Four guiding principles for promoting engagement are identified: (1) aligning teaching content with student interests; (2) taking a pragmatic rather than a philosophical approach to issue resolution; (3) addressing the full complexity of real-world case studies; and (4) covering content in a way that students find entertaining. The use of these principles is then discussed with respect to the specific experience of developing and presenting a master's module in Ethical and Legal Issues in Cyber Security at Queens University Belfast. One significant aspect of the resulting design is that it encourages students to see ethical issues in systemic terms rather than from an individual perspective, with issues emerging from a conflict between different groups with different vested interests. Case studies are used to examine how personal and business priorities create conflicts that can lead to negative press, fines and punitive legal action. The module explores the reasons why organisations may be unaware of the risks associated with their actions and how an inappropriate response to an ethical issue can significantly aggravate a situation. The module has been delivered in three successive years since 2014 and been well received on each occasion. The paper describes the design of the module and the experience of delivering it, concluding with a discussion of the effectiveness of the approach.

  6. Design and Development of a Course in Professionalism and Ethics for CDIO Curriculum in China. (United States)

    Fan, Yinghui; Zhang, Xingwei; Xie, Xinlu


    At Shantou University (STU) in 2008, a stand-alone engineering ethics course was first included within a Conceive-Design-Implement-Operate (CDIO) curriculum to address the scarcity of engineering ethics education in China. The philosophy of the course design is to help students to develop an in-depth understanding of social sustainability and to fulfill the obligations of engineers in the twenty-first century within the context of CDIO engineering practices. To guarantee the necessary cooperation of the relevant parties, we have taken advantage of the top-down support from the STU administration. Three themes corresponding to contemporary issues in China were chosen as the course content: engineers' social obligations, intellectual property and engineering safety criteria. Some popular pedagogies are used for ethics instruction such as case studies and group discussions through role-playing. To impart the diverse expertise of the practical professional practice, team teaching is adopted by interdisciplinary instructors with strong qualifications and industrial backgrounds. Although the assessment of the effectiveness of the course in enhancing students' sense of ethics is limited to assignment reports and class discussions, our endeavor is seen as positive and will continue to sustain the CDIO reform initiatives of STU.

  7. Problems of professional ethics standards use in auditors’ practice in Ukraine

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    Bondar V.P.


    Full Text Available Significant problems of the professional ethics principles violation by auditors cause many problems not only in reliability of disclosed audit opinion, but also cause problems of global stakeholders’ mistrust to the audit profession. This generally creates the barriers for ensuring the transparency of mechanisms of disclosure and verification of Ukrainian business data and does not help form appropriate investment climate. The article finds that auditor’s ethical principles should be regulated and organized on all the levels of the audit quality control ensuring. According to the results of this study, the author highlights these four levels (international, national, local, personal and describes the contribution of each level of documents in the organization of the quality control (in part of ethical principles has been. The research proves the system of organizational support for creating ethical principles compliance environment during carrying out audit assignment based on identifying and eliminating threats to auditors’ independence. In this regard, the author proposes the structure and content of organizational and administrative documents, which are the part of the internal audit quality control system.

  8. [Selected psychosocial and psychopathological factors determining criminal behaviours among professional and drafted military personnel--comparison analysis, years: 1990-2000]. (United States)

    Juszczak, Dariusz; Talarowska, Monika


    The structure of armed forces undergoes dynamic changes. The expectations regarding psychophysical performance of military personnel--both professional and drafted members are constantly rising. To answer the question: which psychosocial and psychopathological factors are characteristic to offenders from professional military personnel and drafted military personnel in the years 1990-2000. The research material consisted of 71 forensic-psychiatric assessments issued by experts from Psychiatric Ward of 107 Military Hospital in Walcz between 1990 and 2000. The assessments were issued in ambulatory setting. The cohort of persons with military background had 71 assessments (military personnel included both professional--30, and drafted--41 servicemen). A specially designed questionnaire titled "Charter of Diagnosis of Factors Determining Criminal Activity" has been used. Relevant statistical differences were observed. (1) The main category of offences committed by professional military personnel in mentioned period were the offences against property whereas in the drafted military personnel cohort the offences related to violations of obligatory military service. (2) Offences under the influence of alcohol were significantly more likely to be committed by professional drafted military personnel. (3) Personality disorders were predominant among the diagnoses in both groups. (4) The diagnosis of alcohol dependence were characteristic for professional military personnel.

  9. Professional and institutional morality : Building ethics programmes on the dual loyalty of academic professionals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhof, A.H.J.; Wilderom, C.P.M.; Oost, M.


    Most professionals have the arduous task of managing their own dual loyalty: in one contextual relationship, they are members of a profession while simultaneously they are employed as members of a locally established organisation. This sense of a dual loyalty has to be taken into account when


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    Maria do Carmo Whitaker


    Full Text Available This paper, based on theoretical and field research, aims at showing the importance of preserving confidentiality on a daily basis in the context of an "ethical company”. It reports how this practice besides solidifying the image of the organization can also guarantee the existence of a high level of trust and respect between the participants emphasizing the importance of secretarial professionals in that mission. Besides being a regulated profession, which has a code of ethics with explicit determinations about the importance of confidentiality, secrecy is one of the attributes required for the job. The secretaries are aware and convinced of the necessity of secrecy not only in the exercise of their profession, but in their private lives, considering that private interests should not outweigh the public interest.

  11. Ethical standards for medical research in the Israeli military - review of the changes in the last decade. (United States)

    Hassidim, Ayal; Kayouf, Raeed; Yavnai, Nirit; Panush, Naomi; Dagan, David; Bader, Tarif; Hartal, Michael


    The Israel Defense Forces Medical Corps (IDF MC) institutional review board (IRB) is one of approximately 50 IRBs active in Israel. In addition to routine IRB considerations it must also address in its deliberations specific safeguards in place in the IDF to protect research volunteers in the military environment. In this report, we present the characteristics of the IDF IRB, including the unique circumstances that led to a 2008 change in the pre-IRB advisory and preparatory process (APP). We also present quantitative data on the IRB's throughput and outcomes, in order to provide a benchmark for other IRBs. We reviewed all relevant IDF regulations, both historical and current, pertaining to the structure, activity and oversight of the IRB and of medical research conducted in the IDF. Additionally, we analyzed the ethical review process for all research proposals submitted to the IDF APP between January 1, 2013 and December 31, 2015. In 2008 the IDF implemented several major changes which have had a substantial impact on the ethical regulation of military medical research. The period following these changes has seen a rise in the number of research proposals submitted to the IDF IRB annually. During the years 2013-2015, 377 research proposals entered the APP, of which 329 were deemed appropriate for IRB deliberation. Eight study protocols were granted waivers, 19 were rejected, and the remaining 302 were authorized. Overall, 345 of the 377 research proposals submitted (92 %) were ultimately cleared for execution; 310 of 329 proposals (94 %) deliberated by the IRB were authorized. The IRB required protocol revisions for 47 % of the research proposals, one-third of which were revisions directly associated with military-specific ethical precautions. Guided by the principles of protecting personal autonomy in the complex military setting, the IDF has implemented several unique measures aimed at maintaining the highest ethical standards in medical research. By sharing

  12. Suicide risk factors in the professional military personnel in the Army of Serbia

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    Dedić Gordana


    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Recognition of suicide risk factors is important in taking adequate suicide preventive measures, Suicide Prevention Program for Professional Military Personnel (PMP implemented in the Army of Serbia in 2003. The aim of our study was to establish suicide risk factors in PMP of the Army of Serbia. Methods. Analysis of suicide risk factors in PMP was carried out on the basis of data obtained by psychological suicide autopsy. The controls were demographically similar psychiatric outpatients with no history of suicidal behavior. A descriptive statistics method was used for risk factors analysis. The t-test was used for testing statistical hypotheses. Results. A total of 30 PMP, aged 22-49 years (30.53 ± 6.24 on average committed suicide within the period 1998-2007. Distal suicide risk factors in PMP were considered to be not being married, psychiatric heredity, having no outpatient psychiatric treatment, gambling, regular physical practice (bodybuilding, less transfer to a different post, low motivation for military service (p < 0.001, not having children, parental loss in early childhood, alcohol abuse (p < 0.005, low salary (p < 0.01 uncompleted military school, debts in the family (p < 0.05. The commonest proximal suicide risk factors were: actual family problems (36.6%, actual mental problems (13.3%, burnout (13.3%, negative balance of accounts (13.3%, professional problems (6.7%, behavioral model while for 10.0% PMP suicide risk factors could not be established. Conclusion. According to the presence of multiple suicide risk factors, Suicide Prevention Program for PMP in the Army of Serbia is directed to the prevention of both proximal and distal suicide risk factors.

  13. Faculty and students' self-assessment of client communication skills and professional ethics in three veterinary medical schools. (United States)

    Fogelberg, Katherine; Farnsworth, Charles C


    Client communication skills and professional ethics are areas that have received much attention in veterinary education in recent years. The objectives of this study were to: i) establish the confidence level of faculty teaching in three veterinary schools with regard to their client communication skills, ii) establish a baseline of professional ethics indicators in the same faculty, and iii) compare veterinary students of all levels to faculty in both areas. Students and faculty received identical questionnaires, including statements addressing client communication skills and professional ethics. The results indicate that students are generally comfortable with their communication skills, except in the areas of visual and/or audio aid use, handling emotional clients, and discussing costs of care and payment. Faculty were more comfortable than students in all areas of client communication, although they also had low confidence when dealing with costs of care and payment. Ethically, students and faculty answered similarly. Faculty showed a stronger belief that people are basically honest and ethical, but both cohorts responded similarly when asked about reporting an ethical violation admitted to them by their best friend. Further research is needed to determine whether students are communicating as effectively as they believe they are, with particular attention paid to improving communications with emotional clients and the business aspects of veterinary medicine. Additional work is needed to ensure that veterinary students are learning how to cope with ethical issues objectively. This may begin by ensuring that faculty are teaching and, more importantly, modeling these behaviors during the clinical year(s).

  14. Trends In Geoscience Professional Ethics Indicated By National Association of State Boards of Geology (ASBOG®) Surveys of The Practicing Profession (United States)

    Williams, J. W.; Warner, J. L.


    ASBOG® was founded in 1988 to facilitate cooperation and coordination among states with licensing of practicing professional geologists-currently 29 states and Puerto Rico. ASBOG® creates national exams which are used by all of the states granting licensure. Periodic surveys of the practicing profession every 5 years are used to determine the skills and knowledge needed for professional practice and are used to generate the exam blueprints. Currently questions on professional ethics are included on the national licensing exams. Thirteen professional ethics issues in the geosciences were included on the Task Analysis Surveys (TAS) in 2005, 2010 and 2015. Professional geologists rate the seriousness of and the frequency of contact with these ethics issues. Topics include such items as gift-giving, whistleblowing, plagiarism, etc. The respondents are grouped into one of three categories: practicing licensed geologists in the United States, practicing licensed geologists in Canada, and geologists employed in the academic sector. Regardless of the employment sector, the responses to the professional ethics questions were statistically very similar (r values - Seriousness - USA vs. Academic +0.81, USA vs. Canada +0.94, Academic vs. Canada +0.86: Frequency - USA vs. Academic +0.71, USA vs. Canada +0.85, Academic vs. Canada +0.72). Some differences were detected. For example, plagiarism is regarded by practitioners in the academic sector as more important than this issue among licensed practicing geologists in the United States and Canada. The professional ethics issues asked on the 2010 and 2015 surveys are identical to facilitate detection of any temporal changes in response patterns. Statistically, the responses from practicing geologists in the USA in the 2010 and 2015 surveys are nearly identical, indicating that the profession has maintained virtually the same attitudes with regard to professional ethics (Seriousness r = +0.99, Frequency r = +0.99).


    Jones, Nancy L.; Peiffer, Ann M.; Lambros, Ann; Guthold, Martin; Johnson, A. Daniel; Tytell, Michael; Ronca, April E.; Eldridge, J. Charles


    A curriculum was designed to shape biomedical graduate students into researchers with a high commitment to professionalism and social responsibility, and to provide students with tools to navigate the complex, rapidly evolving academic and societal environments with a strong ethical commitment. Problem-Based Learning (PBL) pedagogy was chosen because it is active, learner-centered, and focuses on skill and process development. Additionally, the small group format provides a high degree of socialization around professional norms. Two courses were developed. Scientific Professionalism Scientific Integrity addressed discipline-specific and broad professional norms and obligations for the ethical practice of science and responsible conduct of research (RCR). Scientific Professionalism Bioethics and Social Responsibility focused on current ethical and bioethical issues within the scientific profession and implications of research for society. Each small-group session examined case scenarios that included: (1) learning objectives for professional norms and obligations; (2) key ethical issues and philosophies within each topic area; (3) one or more of the RCR instructional areas; and (4) at least one type of moral reflection. Cases went beyond covering overt research misconduct to emphasize professional standards, obligations, and underlying philosophies for the ethical practice of science, competing interests of stakeholders, and oversight of science (internal and external). To our knowledge this was the first use of PBL to teach scientific integrity and ethics. Both faculty and students at Wake Forest endorsed the orientation of professionalism, active learning, and acquiring skills in contrast to a compliance-based approach that emphasizes learning rules and regulations. PMID:20797979

  16. A comparative pilot study of the professional ethical thinking of Quebec pharmacy residents and French pharmacy interns. (United States)

    Scharr, Karin; Bussières, Jean-François; Prot-Labarthe, Sonia; Bourdon, Olivier


    The main objective of this pilot study is to compare the professional ethical thinking of Quebec pharmacy residents and French pharmacy interns. The secondary objective is to compare the professional ethical thinking of Quebec pharmacy residents and first year French pharmacy interns. Hospital pharmacy residents from Quebec, Canada and pharmacy interns from France. This is a cross-sectional, descriptive, web-based survey. For this study, professional ethical thinking was defined as the level of agreement/disagreement with statements about pharmacy ethics/dilemmas. A total of 208 usable questionnaires were completed (response rate 91% in Quebec and 11% in France). There were no significant differences between Quebec residents and French interns for 29/43 items (67%). However, there were significant differences in their level of agreement with 14/43 items (33%) surveyed by our questionnaire. The differences related to the following themes: economic aspects (four statements), pharmaceutical care, code of ethics, evaluation, clinical research (two statements each) and training and education, dispensing medications (one statement each). There were statistically significant differences between the two groups in terms of exposure to ethics during academic training and experiential practice. There were significant statistical differences between the two groups of first year pharmacy respondents for 11 statements (26%), with only two out of 11 statements being different from those reported in the overall comparison. Published data on the professional ethical thinking of pharmacy residents and interns remain limited. We believe the higher exposure of Quebec residents to ethics during academic courses and experiential/practical training may have contributed to a higher level of agreement with some ethical statements.


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    Full Text Available The marketing services involve using specific methods and techniques of marketing, adapted to the process of provision of services. Thus, the marketing services are focused on attract clients and establish preferential relations with customers and obtain their loyalty. In the case of accountants, the marketing must provide a description of the services offered by professional accountant, and the description must concords to reality. This paper aims to describe how accountants can promote their activity and, in the same time, to respect the ethical rules

  18. Professional Stress and Burnout in U.S. Military Medical Personnel Deployed to Afghanistan. (United States)

    Adler, Amy B; Adrian, Amanda L; Hemphill, Marla; Scaro, Nicole H; Sipos, Maurice L; Thomas, Jeffrey L


    Studies of medical staff members have consistently documented high levels of burnout compared to those in other professions. Although there are studies of burnout in military medical staff, there are gaps in understanding the experience of medical staff while they are deployed and few occupationally-related factors associated with decreased burnout have been identified in this population. To assess work-related variables accounting for burnout over and above rank, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and professional stressors in the deployed environment. U.S. military medical staff members were surveyed in Afghanistan. The survey assessed burnout (emotional exhaustion and depersonalization), PTSD symptoms, perception of professional stressors, self-care behaviors, taking care of team members (team care), general leadership, and health-promoting leadership. Participants provided informed consent under a protocol approved by the institutional review board at Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, and coordinated through the Washington Headquarters Service and the Joint Casualty Care Research Team located in Afghanistan. A total of 344 individuals provided their consent (83.3%) and completed the survey. Correlations found significant positive relationships between perception of professional stressors and levels of burnout. Significant negative correlations were found between burnout and self-care, team care, general leadership, and health-promoting leadership. Regression analyses found self-care and team care accounted for less burnout even after controlling for rank, PTSD symptoms, and professional stressors. Health-promoting leadership accounted for less burnout even after controlling for these same covariates and general leadership as well. Although a cross-sectional survey, results provide three specific directions for reducing burnout in deployed medical staff. By emphasizing self-care, team care, and health-promoting leadership, policy makers

  19. Military Ethics: Reflections on Principles - the Profession of Arms, Military Leadership, Ethical Practices, War and Morality, Educating the Citizen-Soldier, (United States)


    had their brains dashed against the sides of cages, all in the name of "Machiavel." English Elizabethan theater audiences viewed a procession of...upon. More than that, Greek gymnastics aimed at vic- tory -victory in war and in the competitive games of Education for Leadership and Survival 231...peace. Greek gymnastic exercise was advantageous for military proficiency. One of the famous Spartan exercises was dancing -in heavy armor. This helped

  20. Nursing Students' Use of Electronic and Social Media: Law, Ethics, and E-Professionalism. (United States)

    Westrick, Susan J


    This article discusses the promotion of professionalism in nursing students with regard to the use of electronic and social media. Misuse of social media can lead to disciplinary actions and program dismissal for students and to legal actions and lawsuits for nursing programs. Programs are concemed about breaches of patient confidentiality and release of private or inappropriate information that jeopardizes clinical placements and relationships. The American Nurses Association Code of Ethics and National Council of State Boards of Nursing social media guidelines provide a foundation for promoting e-professionalism in students. Recent law cases involving students who were dismissed from nursing programs due to social media misuse are analyzed. Schools need policies that clearly establish expectations and the consequences of misuse of social media platforms. Lessons learned from the legal cases presented provide further guidance for both nursing students and nursing programs.

  1. Duty to speak up in the health care setting a professionalism and ethics analysis. (United States)

    Topazian, Rachel J; Hook, C Christopher; Mueller, Paul S


    Staff and students working in health care settings are sometimes reluctant to speak up when they perceive patients to be at risk for harm. In this article, we describe four incidents that occurred at our institution (Mayo Clinic). In two of them, health care professionals failed to speak up, which resulted in harm; in the other two, they did speak up, which prevented harm and improved patient care. We analyzed each scenario using the Physician's Charter on Medical Professionalism and prima facie ethics principles to determine whether principles were violated or upheld. We conclude that anyone who works in a health care setting has a duty to speak up when a patient faces harm. We also provide guidance for health care institutions on promoting a culture in which speaking up is encouraged and integrated into routine practice.

  2. A Soldier’s Morality, Religion, and Our Professional Ethic: Does the Army’s Culture Facilitate Integration, Character Development, and Trust in the Profession? (United States)


    service of gays in the military, gender roles, etc., those changes have eventually had a strong in- fluence on the culture of the military professions...inconsistent with the Army’s Ethic and most often causes much bigger problems later.31 Because of the strong admonitions against dishonesty in religious

  3. The importance of professional skills alongside scientific and technical excellence to underpin ethical geoscience practice (United States)

    Allington, Ruth; Fernandez-Fuentes, Isabel


    There is consensus that reliable ground models, based on a sound understanding of the geology and surface processes are vital as a basis for natural hazard identification and risk assessment, and there is a great deal of skill and experience in the geoscience community with mapping, modelling and predicting natural hazards and their likely impacts. This presentation will highlight the contributions of geology and geomorphology in the identification of natural hazards and mitigation of their impacts. It will then consider a range of "professional skills" that are needed by geoscientists working with other specialists and non-specialists (e.g. engineers, emergency services, land-use planners, architects responsible for building codes, politicians, regulators, the public etc) alongside technical and scientific excellence. It will argue that development and application of both scientific/technical and professional skills is essential to ensure that the maps, models and other data relevant to natural hazards and environmental change are used to provide effective public protection through communication, land-use planning and planning for resilience. The professional skills of particular importance include interdisciplinary collaboration; project management; cost-benefit analysis; effective communication with specialists and non specialists (especially the public); and facilitative skills. All the technical, scientific and professional skills need to be applied competently and with the highest standards of ethical underpinning. The contribution will consider how this can be achieved (or at least facilitated) through professional training, award of professional titles, licensure etc, drawing on international examples of best practice in professional codes of conduct and regulation directed to the protection of the public.

  4. Should teachers of medical ethics and health professionals remain value neutral in order to respect the autonomy of students and patients? (United States)

    Bøgeskov, Benjamín Olivares


    This article describes the pedagogical and ethical problems that ensue when ethical neutrality is mandated as the sole acceptable stance for teachers of ethics and health professionals (especially in public institutions). This paper argues that such a mandate can (1) violate public employees' own ethical integrity by forcing them to adopt the current legal order as their own ethical code; (2) erode trust, by requiring that the professional or teacher betray the honesty that patients and students commonly expect; and, finally, (3) undermine--by affirming that all opinions are equally acceptable--he pedagogical aim of generating critical thinking. Nevertheless, the article warns teachers and professionals against defending their own convictions by appealing to authority or the power of public office. The correct way to avoid ethical neutrality, this article asserts, is by distinguishing "opinion" from "argument": by not merely articulating, but providing convincing arguments for, one's own professional ethical opinions.

  5. Corporate core values and professional values of Generation Y from the perspective of the effectiveness of ethics programs

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    Stankiewicz Janina


    Full Text Available In order for a business activity to be ethical, one needs ethical employees. Nevertheless, the ongoing generational change leads to the situation in which the values and the resulting standards of ethical behavior that have been thus far embraced in the workplace may no longer be unacceptable or respected by young people that enter the labor market. The article sets out to answer the following questions: what place do core values occupy in ethics programs of businesses; is there any relationship between them and the professional values of employees; why take into account individual preferences of organization members in terms of value when developing the agenda of corporate values. An important point of the discussion has become the values shared by those entering the labor market (the so-called Generation Y, or millennials and the differences in this regard between them and the employees who have been pursuing their professional careers for years now (Generation X.

  6. No thank you, not today": Supporting Ethical and Professional Relationships in Large Qualitative Studies

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    Lisa J. Blodgett


    Full Text Available Based on an ongoing research study of the development of self-regulation in early childhood (BOYER, 2005a, 2005b; BOYER, BLODGETT, & TURK, 2004, this work explores both the ethical and professional considerations of participant sampling in a large qualitative study. The study involved 146 families of preschool children and 15 educators across 7 preschools. Data collection included 30-45 minute audiotaped individual interviews, twenty-eight 90-120 minute audiotaped focus group sessions, and 30 minute videotaped footage of each child's natural play. The challenge of gaining informed consent and ongoing participation within a large study has been considered in the literature (GALL, GALL, & BORG, 2005. In qualitative studies the participants are selected purposefully because they will be par­ticularly informative about the topic (CRESWELL, 2002. This is a challenge for qualitative re­searchers seeking maximal participation and large sample sizes because volunteer participants "tend to be better educated, higher socioeconomically, more intelligent, more in need of social approval, more sociable, more unconventional, less auth­ori­tarian, and less conforming than nonvolunteers" (MCMILLAN, 2004, p.116. This paper provides a response to these sampling challenges and ad­vo­cates for the building of community relationships based on ethical, interpersonal and professional foundations. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0503353

  7. Civil Military Relations in the Modern Democratic Argentina Era: Army Soldiers as Military Professionals Versus Civilians in Uniform (United States)


    1983. In the wake of a disastrous military campaign fought against Great Britain for sovereignty over the Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas ), the...discredit suffered by the Army about the War Against Subversion, and the Malvinas Islands war, President Menem reinforced civilian control over the military

  8. The discursive production of professionals about humanizing health: singularity, rights and ethics1 (United States)

    Silva, Rose Mary Costa Rosa Andrade; de Oliveira, Denize Cristina; Pereira, Eliane Ramos


    Objective: to describe the discursive production of professionals about the humanization of health. Method: qualitative study of descriptive approach, inspired by the social representation theory, with 24 professionals in the healthcare field, working in a university hospital with the established humanization policy. The selection of participants was conducted according to criteria of adequacy and diversity for an intentional sample. Data collection was conducted by semi-structured interviews. Results: through content analysis, three categories emerged, around which the analyses were conducted: "humanizing health as an act of accepting the other as unique", "humanizing health as a matter of right" and "humanizing health as an ethical issue". The discursive production of professionals is based on a perspective which is based on the humanist prospect with socio-historical bias. Conclusion: healthcare professionals must know the National Humanization Policy in order to provide quality care, promoting the meeting, welcoming and recognition of oneself, others and their profession in the political and socio-historical scenario of their country as a citizen, not only of rights, but also of obligations. PMID:26487145

  9. Ethics in the communicative encounter: seriously ill patients' experiences of health professionals' nonverbal communication. (United States)

    Timmermann, Connie; Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth; Birkelund, Regner


    The communicative encounter has been described as a fundamental element in caring for the patients, and further, in this encounter, the nonverbal body language and the tone of speech are agued to play a crucial role. This study explores how seriously ill hospitalised patients experience and assign meaning to the health professionals' communication with special attention to the nonverbal body language and tone of speech. The study is part of a larger study exploring how seriously ill patients experience and assign meaning to the sensory impressions in the physical hospital environment as well as to the health professionals' communication. The study is based on qualitative interviews supplemented by observations and applies Paul Ricoeur's phenomenological-hermeneutic theory of interpretation in processing the collected data. We included twelve patients with potentially life-threatening illnesses such as cancer, severe lung, liver and heart disease. Through analysis and interpretation of the interviews, we identified two themes in the text: (i) Being confirmed, (ii) Being ignored and an inconvenience. The patients experienced that the health professionals' nonverbal communication was imperative for their experience of being confirmed or in contrast, their experience of being ignored and an inconvenience. The health professionals' nonverbal communication proved essential for the seriously ill patients' experience of well-being in the form of positive thoughts and emotions. Consequently, this sensory dimension of the communicative encounter represents a significant ethical element in caring for the patients. © 2016 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  10. Multiple-role dilemmas for military mental health care providers. (United States)

    Johnson, W Brad; Bacho, Roderick; Heim, Mark; Ralph, John


    Military psychologists and psychiatrists frequently face ethical quandaries involving boundary crossings, or extratherapy contact, and multiple relationships. A multiple relationship is defined as necessarily engaging psychotherapy patients in nonclinical roles, such as coworker, superior officer, neighbor, or friend. In contrast to their civilian counterparts, military mental health professionals must often engage patients in many different contexts and roles. In this article, we consider the distinctive features of mental health practice in the military and offer military providers several practice guidelines for avoiding harm to patients in military settings. This article is also designed to enhance sensitivity to multiple-role risks among nonpsychiatric providers.

  11. The business of ethics: gender, medicine, and the professional codification of the American Physiotherapy Association, 1918-1935. (United States)

    Linker, Beth


    The history of codes of ethics in health care has almost exclusively been told as a story of how medical doctors developed their own professional principles of conduct. Yet telling the history of medical ethics solely from the physicians' perspective neglects not only the numerous allied health care workers who developed their own codes of ethics in tandem with the medical profession, but also the role that gender played in the writing of such professional creeds. By focusing on the predominantly female organization of the American Physiotherapy Association (APA) and its 1935 "Code of Ethics and Discipline," I demonstrate how these women used their creed to at once curry favor from and challenge the authority of the medical profession. Through their Code, APA therapists engaged in a dynamic dialogue with the male physicians of the American Medical Association (AMA) in the name of professional survival. I conclude that, contrary to historians and philosophers who contend that professional women have historically operated under a gender-specific ethic of care, the physiotherapists avoided rhetoric construed as feminine and instead created a "business-like" creed in which they spoke solely about their relationship with physicians and remained silent on the matter of patient care.

  12. Novel Lessons on Behavioral Ethics from the U.S. Military Academy at West Point (United States)

    Offstein, Evan H.; Dufresne, Ronald L.; Childers, J. Stephen, Jr.


    After a spate of business ethics crises over the past two decades, management educators were put on notice: considerably more was needed to improve the ethical grounding of our graduating students. Taking stock of our progress, we contend that management education remains well short of achieving this charge and cannot be content with the state of…

  13. The ethics of professionality in educational care: competence, knowledge and passion

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    Mariagrazia Contini


    Full Text Available The article presents a critical reflection on current cultural contexts paying particular attention to the “sad passions” they connote and the heavy price paid by young people and adolescents reducing their capacity for planning. In order to resist this tendency and open up to the possibility of “joyful passions” we refer to the commitment of educational professionality, to the ethical substratum of its deontology, and to the various competences and meta-competences which characterise it. In particular emphasises the importance of an “emotional knowledge”, which gives value to, and enriches the intersection between knowledge and feeling and favours empowerment on the subjective and social level, promoting passion and growth and to involve oneself in pacific, rich relationships with the Other.

  14. Knowledge, skills and professional ethics of real estate appraiser. Basic dimensions of a training plan

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    Ana Gomez-Bezares Revuelta


    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a research conducted to support a training proposal which enables students to work as real estate appraisers. Nowadays in Spain it is enough to be an architect or an engineer to become a real estate appraiser, while further complementary training rests in the hands of the appraisal companies. Analyzing the knowledge needed to perform adjusted appraisals, the international standards and other empiric analysis, we will try to build a coherent training plan showing how the need for technical training emerges, especially in finance, in psychoeducational skills and professional ethics. Our aim is to claim the capacity of the pedagogic science as a relevant factor in solving important socio-economic problems by diagnosing training needs and the design of programs.

  15. Measuring the impact of code of ethics on the quality of auditors’ professional judgment

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    Hussein Mohammed Alrabba


    Full Text Available The quality of decisions and judgment made by auditors has been a subject that has raised a lot of concerns regarding the auditors’ ability to detect and eliminate any errors in financial samples. This study examined the impact of code of ethics on the quality of auditors’ professional judgment in the case of Jordan. A total sample size of 150 auditors in Jordan was selected to investigate the study phenomenon, out of 150 auditor’s 142 auditors’ responded successfully. The questionnaire method of data collection was preferred in this case for its suitability in collecting personal opinions, experiences and outcomes. Regression analysis and advanced spread sheet were used to analyse the collected data. The study found out that different aspects of auditors have varied influences on their ability to detect any incorrect information in accounting statements. For example, it was evident that the integrity, objectivity and independence of auditors are weakly correlated with the ability to notice the incorrect financial information. However, the study discovered that all ethical aspects of audit profession such as the rules governing the rights to advertising, determination of commission, organizations’ name and form, as well as contingent fees have significant impact on auditor’s capacity to identify financial statements’ misrepresentation.


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    Elena Gennadevna Kozlova


    Full Text Available In this article refers to the self-identity of the person through his work, profession. We can say that religion the first gave answer to the question about the identity of the person and the meaning of his life. Man is a creature of God and his purpose becomes the glorification of the Creator in the creative work. Man can find his salvation in work and pray. Religious Ethics establish its own rules regarding acceptable and prohibited professions regulated the labor relations. Time-wasting is considered a sin, religious texts called for work. Exploring religious traditions M. Weber found that the «spirit» of entrepreneurship, capitalism, professional discipline, austerity can be found primarily in the religious minorities. He finds that in some languages the word «profession» is also set to divine predestination – «calling», which leads to a new type of asceticism – through work and service of his calling, for example, in the Protestant ethic.

  17. Just sustainability? Sustainability and social justice in professional codes of ethics for engineers. (United States)

    Brauer, Cletus S


    Should environmental, social, and economic sustainability be of primary concern to engineers? Should social justice be among these concerns? Although the deterioration of our natural environment and the increase in social injustices are among today's most pressing and important issues, engineering codes of ethics and their paramountcy clause, which contains those values most important to engineering and to what it means to be an engineer, do not yet put either concept on a par with the safety, health, and welfare of the public. This paper addresses a recent proposal by Michelfelder and Jones (2011) to include sustainability in the paramountcy clause as a way of rectifying the current disregard for social justice issues in the engineering codes. That proposal builds on a certain notion of sustainability that includes social justice as one of its dimensions and claims that social justice is a necessary condition for sustainability, not vice versa. The relationship between these concepts is discussed, and the original proposal is rejected. Drawing on insights developed throughout the paper, some suggestions are made as to how one should address the different requirements that theory and practice demand of the value taxonomy of professional codes of ethics.

  18. Management of medical confidentiality in English professional football clubs: some ethical problems and issues. (United States)

    Waddington, I; Roderick, M


    To examine the ways in which confidential matters are dealt with in the context of the relationship between the club doctor (or physiotherapist) and the player as patient in English professional football clubs. Semistructured tape recorded interviews with 12 club doctors, 10 club physiotherapists, and 27 current and former players. A questionnaire was also sent to 90 club doctors; 58 were returned. There is among club doctors and physiotherapists no commonly held code of ethics governing how much and what kind of information about players may properly be passed on to managers; associated with this, there is considerable variation from one club to another in terms of the amount and kind of information passed on to managers. In some clubs, medical staff attempt to operate more or less on the basis of the rules governing confidentiality that apply in general practice, but in other clubs, medical staff are more ready to pass on personal information about players. In some situations, this raises serious ethical questions. Guidelines dealing with confidentiality in practitioner-patient relationships in medical practice have long been available and have recently been restated, specifically in relation to the practice of sports medicine, by the British Olympic Association, the British Medical Association, and the Football Association. This is a welcome first step. However, if the guidelines are to have an impact on practice, detailed consideration needs to be given to ensuring their effective implementation; if this is to be achieved, consideration also needs to be given to identifying those aspects of the culture and organisation of professional football clubs that may hinder the full and effective implementation of those guidelines.

  19. Human genome education model project. Ethical, legal, and social implications of the human genome project: Education of interdisciplinary professionals

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    Weiss, J.O. [Alliance of Genetic Support Groups, Chevy Chase, MD (United States); Lapham, E.V. [Georgetown Univ., Washington, DC (United States). Child Development Center


    This meeting was held June 10, 1996 at Georgetown University. The purpose of this meeting was to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on the human genome education model. Topics of discussion include the following: psychosocial issues; ethical issues for professionals; legislative issues and update; and education issues.

  20. Professional Ethics and the Problem of U.S. GPO Document Withdrawal and Destruction Requests: A Viewpoint. (United States)

    Thompson, Bruce E. R.


    Discusses professional ethics involved in requests from the U.S. Superintendent of Documents to withdraw and destroy documents in library government document collections. Topics addressed include censorship considerations; classified versus unclassified documents; obligations to the parent organization; and examples of specific cases. (Contains 11…

  1. What Are the Ethical Issues Facing Global-Health Trainees Working Overseas? A Multi-Professional Qualitative Study

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    James D. Harrison


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify global health ethical issues that health professional trainees may encounter during electives or placements in resource-limited countries. We conducted a qualitative study involving focus groups and an interview at the University of California San Francisco. Participants were multi-professional from the Schools of Medicine, Nursing and Pharmacy and had experience working, or teaching, as providers in resource-limited countries. Eighteen participants provided examples of ethical dilemmas associated with global-health outreach work. Ethical dilemmas fell into four major themes relating to (1 cultural differences (informed consent, truth-telling, autonomy; (2 professional issues (power dynamics, training of local staff, corruption; (3 limited resources (scope of practice, material shortages; (4 personal moral development (dealing with moral distress, establishing a moral compass, humility and self awareness. Three themes (cultural differences, professional issues, limited resources were grouped under the core category of “external environmental and/or situational issues” that trainees are confronted when overseas. The fourth theme, moral development, refers to the development of a moral compass and the exercise of humility and self-awareness. The study has identified case vignettes that can be used for curriculum content for global-health ethics training.

  2. Call for Papers: Special issue: The Ethics of Non-Professional Translation and Interpreting in Public Services and Legal Settings


    Esther Monzo; Melissa Wallace


    Translation and Interpreting Studies (TIS)Volume 15, Issue 1Special issue: The Ethics of Non-Professional Translation and Interpreting in Public Services and Legal SettingsGuest Editors: Esther Monzó-Nebot (Universitat Jaume I, Spain) and Melissa Wallace (University of Texas at San Antonio, United States)

  3. Using Ethical Reasoning to Amplify the Reach and Resonance of Professional Codes of Conduct in Training Big Data Scientists. (United States)

    Tractenberg, Rochelle E; Russell, Andrew J; Morgan, Gregory J; FitzGerald, Kevin T; Collmann, Jeff; Vinsel, Lee; Steinmann, Michael; Dolling, Lisa M


    The use of Big Data--however the term is defined--involves a wide array of issues and stakeholders, thereby increasing numbers of complex decisions around issues including data acquisition, use, and sharing. Big Data is becoming a significant component of practice in an ever-increasing range of disciplines; however, since it is not a coherent "discipline" itself, specific codes of conduct for Big Data users and researchers do not exist. While many institutions have created, or will create, training opportunities (e.g., degree programs, workshops) to prepare people to work in and around Big Data, insufficient time, space, and thought have been dedicated to training these people to engage with the ethical, legal, and social issues in this new domain. Since Big Data practitioners come from, and work in, diverse contexts, neither a relevant professional code of conduct nor specific formal ethics training are likely to be readily available. This normative paper describes an approach to conceptualizing ethical reasoning and integrating it into training for Big Data use and research. Our approach is based on a published framework that emphasizes ethical reasoning rather than topical knowledge. We describe the formation of professional community norms from two key disciplines that contribute to the emergent field of Big Data: computer science and statistics. Historical analogies from these professions suggest strategies for introducing trainees and orienting practitioners both to ethical reasoning and to a code of professional conduct itself. We include two semester course syllabi to strengthen our thesis that codes of conduct (including and beyond those we describe) can be harnessed to support the development of ethical reasoning in, and a sense of professional identity among, Big Data practitioners.

  4. Teaching Business Ethics: A Practical Guide and Case Studies. SBDC Professional Enrichment. (United States)

    Collins, Denis; Page, Laura V.

    This teaching guide is for instructors who wish to include a discussion of ethical dilemmas in their regular business seminars and workshops. It discusses why it is essential to teach ethics and how to do so. It reviews the format of specially annotated ethics cases that are designed to help teach business ethics and shows how to use them. These…

  5. No one leaves unchanged: insights for civilian mental health care professionals into the military experience and culture. (United States)

    Coll, Jose E; Weiss, Eugenia L; Yarvis, Jeffrey S


    This article aims to elucidate an understanding of military culture and experience, so as to better frame the services offered by civilian clinicians. Service members indoctrinated into such an influential culture can experience adjustment problems upon reentry into the larger society, and thus professional counselors and social workers must be ready to address the reintegration process with veteran clients. Furthermore, this article highlights a few of the major mental health concerns that are prevalent in combat veterans, especially for those returning from Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF), and presents a brief overview of treatment modalities implemented both within and outside of the military. Practical therapeutic suggestions for clinicians with little or no knowledge of the military are discussed. The objective is to educate and prepare civilian mental health practitioners to administer culturally sensitive prevention and intervention services to meet the unique needs of this population.

  6. Identification of Bioethical Dilemmas, Ethical Reasoning, and Decision-Making in Military Emergency Medicine Departments (United States)


    2000. A cover letter attached to the five page questionnaire explained the nature and scope of the study, informed the providers of voluntary ... euthanasia , rather than the application of ethics (theories, principles, concepts, rules) to clinical practice (Msyer, Kerridge & Mitchell, 1995). Not

  7. Theoretical and methodological elements for integrating ethics as a foundation into the education of professional and design disciplines. (United States)

    d'Anjou, Philippe


    The paper addresses the integration of ethics into professional education related to the disciplines responsible for the conception and creation of the artificial (artefactual or technology). The ontological-epistemological paradigm of those disciplines is understood within the frame of the sciences of the artificial as established by Herbert Simon (1969). According to that paradigm, those sciences include disciplines not only related to the production of artefacts (technology), such as engineering, architecture, industrial design, etc, but also disciplines related to devised courses of action aimed at changing existing situations into preferred ones, like medicine, law, education, etc. They are centered on intentional action and at their core is the activity of design, which is their common foundation and attitude, or their common culture. The science of design becomes the broader foundational discipline for any professions engaged in the intentional transformation of the world. The main distinction between design disciplines and scientific ones rests on the object-project dichotomy. Indeed, contrary to Science that sees the world as an object to be observed, Design sees the world as a project and acts upon the world through projects, which are grounded in intentions, ends, and values. Design disciplines are meant to transform the world, or part of it, and are teleological. Being so, they are embodied in an act that is ethical and their ontology-epistemology must be addressed also through practical reason to resituate all professional disciplines according to their involved nature. The paper introduces theoretical, methodological, and ethical elements to establish a model that integrates ethics into the education of the professional disciplines, design-based disciplines, responsible for the creation of the artificial, artefactual or technological, world. The model is articulated around the notions of ethical engagement and responsibility through the act of design

  8. Hepatitis E Virus Seroprevalence in Austrian Adults: A Nationwide Cross-Sectional Study among Civilians and Military Professionals


    Heimo Lagler; Wolfgang Poeppl; Heidi Winkler; Harald Herkner; Angelus Faas; Gerhard Mooseder; Heinz Burgmann


    BACKGROUND: Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) infection is globally increasing. The present study was performed to investigate the HEV seroprevalence, exposure risks as well as occupational risks for military personnel in Austria, a Central European country. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A nationwide cross-sectional seroprevalence study was performed in 997 healthy Austrian adults, professional soldiers and civilians. Routine laboratory and HEV specific antibodies were determined. In addition, epidemiological ...

  9. The History of Ethics and Professionalism within Optometry in the United States of America 1898-2015, Part 1. (United States)

    Bailey, R Norman


    The history surrounding the development of codes of ethics and other official statements of desired professional conduct adopted by the American Optometric Association (AOA) reveals the struggle optometry faced in the United States ofAmerica (USA) in establishing itself as a leading primary health care profession. Information regarding the events and documents reported in this paper were obtained through research of the historical literature and archival material held in The Archives & Museum of Optometry at the American Optometric Association's headquarters at 243 N. Lindbergh Boulevard, St. Louis, MO; through current Association documents; and from discussions with those participating in the drafting of the more recent updates to the Association's ethical statements; codes, oaths, standards, and resolutions. This writing is an update to an earlier paper by the author, The history of ethics in the American Optometric Association 1898-1994. J Am Optom Assoc 1994; 65:427-444, which was written to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the then current Code of Ethics of the AOA. An additional purpose of this present writing is to help the reader understand, from a historical perspective, some of the driving forces and imperatives for the advancement of optometry's professional stature. Forces outside as well as within the profession were found to have influenced the drafting and redrafting of the official ethical and professional conduct statements meant to guide the professional behavior of the membership of the AOA. Ethical codes and other statements of desired conduct have been essential to the establishment of the profession of optometry. As optometry has grown and matured as a provider of primary eye and vision care services, so have its ethical emphases. To further understand the ethical and legal challenges for optometry as it worked to establish itself as a reputable profession, it is suggested the reader investigate in more detail the information provided in the

  10. On Being Authentic: A Response to "No thank you, not today": Supporting Ethical and Professional Relationships in Large Qualitative Studies

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    Catherine Milne


    Full Text Available Written in response to the ethical and professional considerations associated with the conduct of a large qualitative study (BLODGETT, BOYER, & TURK, 2005, I argue the importance of authenticity in the research context, communi­cative interactions of value to the research, and the ethics of the study. I propose some alternative stances to those presented by the researchers in specific aspects of the study including construction of knowledge from the research, "walking in the shoes" of others, vulnerable populations, and insider-outsider interactions. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0503382

  11. A Rasch analysis of patients' opinions of primary health care professionals' ethical behaviour with respect to communication issues. (United States)

    González-de Paz, Luis; Kostov, Belchin; López-Pina, Jose A; Solans-Julián, Pilar; Navarro-Rubio, M Dolors; Sisó-Almirall, Antoni


    Patients' opinions are crucial in assessing the effectiveness of the ethical theories which underlie the care relationship between patients and primary health care professionals. To study the ethical behaviour of primary health care professionals with respect to communication issues according to patients' opinions. Cross-sectional study using a self-administered questionnaire in patients from a network of 15 urban primary health centres. Participants were patients attended at the centres when the study was conducted. We used a Rasch analysis to verify the structure of the 17 questionnaire items, and to calculate interval level measures for patients and items. We analysed differences according to patient subgroups using analysis of variance tests and differences between the endorsement of each item. We analysed 1013 (70.34%) of questionnaires. Data fit to the Rasch model was achieved after collapsing two categories and eliminating five items. Items with the lowest degree of endorsement were related to the management of differences in conflictive situations between patients and health care professionals. We found significant differences (P professionals and their educational level. Patients opined that empathy and traditional communication skills were respected by family physicians and nurses. However, opinions on endorsement were lower when patients disagreed with health care professionals. The differences found between patient subgroups demonstrated the importance of trust and confidence between patients and professionals. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  12. A Constructivist Approach to Business Ethics: Developing a Student Code of Professional Conduct (United States)

    Willey, Lorrie; Burke, Debra D.


    Business ethics may be defined as "the principles, values and standards that guide behavior in the world of business." The importance of ethical awareness in business transactions and education is widely recognized, and evidence shows that ethics education can influence decision making in the workplace. As a result, colleges of business often…

  13. Ethics: A Bridge for Studying the Social Contexts of Professional Communication. (United States)

    Speck, Bruce W.


    Describes a method for helping students evaluate ethical issues in a systematic way, based on Lawrence Kohlberg's stages of moral development. Recommends the case-study approach for creating social constructs in which students face ethical dilemmas, and outlines a case-study ethics unit using Kohlberg's model. (MM)

  14. The occupational toxicologist: professionalism, morality and ethical standards in the context of legal and non-litigation issues. (United States)

    Ballantyne, Bryan


    By its very nature, practice and intended applications, the profession of occupational toxicology has individual and collective responsibilities related to the design, conduct, interpretation and extrapolation of laboratory and controlled human clinical studies in order to determine the potential for industrial xenobiotics to produce adverse effects. The implications for health-related adverse effects in the workplace, and in the domestic and general environment carries many and various responsibilities for the toxicologist which are related to multiple and wide-ranging ethical issues. This review presents and discusses some of the major areas where the occupational toxicologist may experience potential ethical problems related to the conduct of routine professional activities. Emphasis is placed on the design, conduct, interpretation and reporting of laboratory studies; animal welfare; regulatory activities; human clinical volunteer studies; roles and responsibilities in defining workplace safety and protective measures; malpractices in various disciplines and work practices; misconduct in publication; and codes of ethical behavior. Copyright (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. [Single or double moral standards? Professional ethics of psychiatrists regarding self-determination, rights of third parties and involuntary treatment]. (United States)

    Pollmächer, T


    The current intensive discussion on the legal and moral aspects of involuntary treatment of psychiatric patients raises a number of ethical issues. Physicians are unambiguously obligated to protect patient welfare and autonomy; however, in psychiatric patients disease-related restrictions in the capacity of self-determination and behaviors endangering the rights of third parties can seriously challenge this unambiguity. Therefore, psychiatry is assumed to have a double function and is also obligated to third parties and to society in general. Acceptance of such a kind of double obligation carries the risk of double moral standards, placing the psychiatrist ethically outside the community of physicians and questioning the unrestricted obligation towards the patient. The present article formulates a moral position, which places the psychiatrist, like all other physicians, exclusively on the side of the patient in terms of professional ethics and discusses the practical problems arising from this moral position.

  16. How to succeed with ethics reflection groups in community healthcare? Professionals' perceptions. (United States)

    Karlsen, Heidi; Lillemoen, Lillian; Magelssen, Morten; Førde, Reidun; Pedersen, Reidar; Gjerberg, Elisabeth


    Healthcare personnel in the municipal healthcare systems experience many ethical challenges in their everyday work. In Norway, 243 municipalities participated in a national ethics project, aimed to increase ethical competence in municipal healthcare services. In this study, we wanted to map out what participants in ethics reflection groups experienced as promoters or as barriers to successful reflection. To examine what the staff experience as promoters or as barriers to successful ethics reflection. The study has a qualitative design, where 56 participants in municipal healthcare participated in 10 different focus-group interviews. Ethical considerations: The data collection was based on the participants' informed consent and approved by the Data Protection Official of the Norwegian Centre for Research Data. The informants had different experiences from ethics reflection group. Nevertheless, we found that there were several factors that were consistently mentioned: competence, facilitator's role, ethics reflection groups organizing, and organizational support were all experienced as promoters and as a significant effect on ethics reflection groups. The absence of such factors would constitute important barriers to successful ethics reflection. The results are coincident with other studies, and indicate some conditions that may increase the possibility to succeed with ethics reflection groups. A systematic approach seems to be important, the systematics of the actual reflections, but also in the organization of ethics reflection group at the workplace. Community healthcare is characterized by organizational instabilities as many vacancies, high workloads, and lack of predictability. This can be a hinder for ethics reflection group. Both internal and external factors seem to influence the organization of ethics reflection group. The municipalities' instabilities challenging this work, and perceived as a clear inhibitor for the development. The participants

  17. Ethical professional practice: exploring the issues for health services to rural Aboriginal communities. (United States)

    Malone, Judi L


    This article provides a first person account of the experience of professional ethics for a psychologist who has worked in several Aboriginal communities in Alberta, Canada. These small rural communities tend to have few services and health services are typically provided by multidisciplinary health teams. Team members are predominantly community members, creating an embedded service environment that highlights the need for integrity in relationships. As the psychologist travelling to these communities I require sensitivity to cultural considerations, multiple party responsibilities, and community pressure on service delivery. In these settings, in consideration of the principle of respect for the dignity of persons, there is enhanced need for non-discrimination, particularly as most community members are vulnerable persons. Also, the context of small community clinics highlights issues of privacy and confidentiality. Responsible caring in these kinds of general practice also raise ongoing questions about competence and the need for daily risk-benefit analysis. Finally, responsibility to society is also an overarching consideration given the conditions of Canadian Aboriginal communities.

  18. Critical analysis of the implications of new managerialism on ethical, democratic and professional values in public service

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    Jose G. Vargas-Hernández


    Full Text Available This paper aims to critically analyze the implications of the new managerialism in the public service through ethical, democratic and professional values. It assumes the contradictions between the values that seek to promote the public service under the model of managerialism and the reality of its implementation. The method used is analytical-descriptive-normative from the critical perspective of the parallel developments of managerialism and public service. The theoretical and methodological framework that serves as a reference for this critical analysis is provided by the theories of organizational economics and public choice. The discussion concludes that there is a necessary conflict between ethical, democratic and professional values of these new organizational forms promoted by managerialism through the theories of economics and organizational public choice and traditional values of public service.

  19. The Durban World Congress Ethics Round Table IV: health care professional end-of-life decision making. (United States)

    Joynt, Gavin M; Lipman, Jeffrey; Hartog, Christiane; Guidet, Bertrand; Paruk, Fathima; Feldman, Charles; Kissoon, Niranjan; Sprung, Charles L


    When terminal illness exists, it is common clinical practice worldwide to withhold (WH) or withdraw (WD) life-sustaining treatments. Systematic documentation of professional opinion and perceived practice similarities and differences may allow recommendations to be developed. Speakers from invited faculty of the World Federation of Societies of Intensive and Critical Care Medicine Congress that took place in Durban (2013), with an interest in ethics, were approached to participate in an ethics round table. Key domains of health care professional end-of-life decision making were defined, explored by discussion, and then questions related to current practice and opinion developed and subsequently answered by round-table participants to establish the presence or absence of agreement. Agreement was established for the desirability for early goal-of-care discussions and discussions between health care professionals to establish health care provider consensus and confirmation of the grounds for WH/WD, before holding formal WH/WD discussions with patients/surrogates. Nurse and other health care professional involvement were common in most but not all countries/regions. Principles and practical triggers for initiating discussions on WH/WD, such as multiorgan failure, predicted short-term survival, and predicted poor neurologic outcome, were identified. There was majority agreement for many but not all statements describing health care professional end-of-life decision making. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A Professional Development School in Action: Meeting the Needs of Military-Connected Students and Families (United States)

    Risberg, Sandy; Curtis, Laurie; Shivers, Lucas


    In the fall of 2011, an undergraduate student who is also a military spouse and mother of school-aged children, shared with the College of Education (COE) at Kansas State University faculty her concerns about the necessity of intentional preparation of teachers and counselors regarding the unique needs of military-connected children. From that…

  1. Hepatitis E Virus Seroprevalence in Austrian Adults: A Nationwide Cross-Sectional Study among Civilians and Military Professionals (United States)

    Lagler, Heimo; Poeppl, Wolfgang; Winkler, Heidi; Herkner, Harald; Faas, Angelus; Mooseder, Gerhard; Burgmann, Heinz


    Background Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) infection is globally increasing. The present study was performed to investigate the HEV seroprevalence, exposure risks as well as occupational risks for military personnel in Austria, a Central European country. Methods and Findings A nationwide cross-sectional seroprevalence study was performed in 997 healthy Austrian adults, professional soldiers and civilians. Routine laboratory and HEV specific antibodies were determined. In addition, epidemiological information on possible risk factors for exposure to HEV was obtained. The overall seropositivity for HEV antibodies was 14.3% and significantly increased with age. Seroprevalence was significantly higher among individuals with previous military employments abroad (21.4% vs. 9.9%) and among professional soldiers aged 30–39 years (20.2% vs. 7.3%). No association was found for private travel, occupational or private animal contact or regular outdoor activities. Individuals who tested positive for antibodies against HEV had significantly higher laboratory values regarding liver enzymes, lipid levels and blood fasting glucose. Conclusions Exposure to HEV is common in Austria. Military employment abroad could be a potential risk factor for HEV infection. Further studies are required to investigate the significance of pathological laboratory results found among asymptomatic individuals previously exposed to HEV. PMID:24498349

  2. Hepatitis E virus seroprevalence in Austrian adults: a nationwide cross-sectional study among civilians and military professionals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heimo Lagler

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hepatitis E Virus (HEV infection is globally increasing. The present study was performed to investigate the HEV seroprevalence, exposure risks as well as occupational risks for military personnel in Austria, a Central European country. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A nationwide cross-sectional seroprevalence study was performed in 997 healthy Austrian adults, professional soldiers and civilians. Routine laboratory and HEV specific antibodies were determined. In addition, epidemiological information on possible risk factors for exposure to HEV was obtained. The overall seropositivity for HEV antibodies was 14.3% and significantly increased with age. Seroprevalence was significantly higher among individuals with previous military employments abroad (21.4% vs. 9.9% and among professional soldiers aged 30-39 years (20.2% vs. 7.3%. No association was found for private travel, occupational or private animal contact or regular outdoor activities. Individuals who tested positive for antibodies against HEV had significantly higher laboratory values regarding liver enzymes, lipid levels and blood fasting glucose. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to HEV is common in Austria. Military employment abroad could be a potential risk factor for HEV infection. Further studies are required to investigate the significance of pathological laboratory results found among asymptomatic individuals previously exposed to HEV.

  3. The Relationship between Managerial Ethics Perception and Professional Burnout Levels of Employee: A Comparative Study of Five-Star Hotels’ Employees between Turkey and Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonca Kılıç


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the perceptions of the employees in five-star hotels their regarding managerial ethics and professional burnout levels and also to present the relationship between managerial ethics and professional burnout level. Survey method was used as data collection instrument. A total of 385 questionnaires were implemented on employees working in five-star hotels operating in Istanbul, Turkey and Palermo, Italy. Independent Samples t Test was used for the comparison of data obtained from each country. Furthermore, the relationship between managerial ethics and professional burnout was described through correlation and regression analyses, as a result meaningful correlations between the variables (managerial ethics and professional burnout are found.

  4. An Analysis of U.S. Student Drug and Alcohol Policies through the Lens of a Professional Ethic for School Leadership (United States)

    Stamm, Mark E.; Frick, William C.; Mackey, Hollie J.


    This study explored the moral complexity of student drug and alcohol policies that are often disciplinary, punitive, and exclusionary in nature. The Ethic of the Profession and its Model for Students' Best Interests (Shapiro & Stefkovich, 2016; Stefkovich, 2013), a professional ethical construct for educational leadership and for school…

  5. Professional Disclosure Statements and Formal Plans for Supervision: Two Strategies for Minimizing the Risk of Ethical Conflicts in Post-Master's Supervision. (United States)

    Cobia, Debra C.; Boes, Susan R.


    Discusses ethical conflicts related to issues of informed consent, due process, competence, confidentiality, and dual relationships in supervision. Proposes two strategies as ways to minimize the potential for ethical conflict in post-master's supervision: the use of professional disclosure statements by supervisors and the development of formal…

  6. A Qualitative Multi-Case Study of the Influence of Personal and Professional Ethics on the Leadership of Public School Superintendents (United States)

    McDermott, Brian J.


    The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of personal and professional ethics on the leadership of public school superintendents. A multi-case, qualitative research design was used to gather data from four practicing public school superintendents. Transformational leadership theory and the three pillars of ethics of leadership…

  7. Caring for Active Duty Military Personnel in the Civilian Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marylou Noble


    Full Text Available Due to the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, the unmet medical and psychological needs of military personnel are creating major challenges. Increasingly, active duty military personnel are seeking physical and mental health services from civilian professionals. The Civilian Medical Resources Network attempts to address these unmet needs. Participants in the Network include primary care and mental health practitioners in all regions of the country. Network professionals provide independent assessments, clinical interventions in acute situations, and documentation that assists GIs in obtaining reassignment or discharge. Most clients who use Network services come from low-income backgrounds and manifest psychological rather than physical disorders. Qualitative themes in professional-client encounters have focused on ethical conflicts, the impact of violence without meaning (especially violence against civilians, and perceived problems in military health and mental health policies. Unmet needs of active duty military personnel deserve more concerted attention from medical professionals and policy makers.

  8. Caring for Active Duty Military Personnel in the Civilian Sector. (United States)

    Waitzkin, Howard; Noble, Marylou


    Due to the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, the unmet medical and psychological needs of military personnel are creating major challenges. Increasingly, active duty military personnel are seeking physical and mental health services from civilian professionals. The Civilian Medical Resources Network attempts to address these unmet needs. Participants in the Network include primary care and mental health practitioners in all regions of the country. Network professionals provide independent assessments, clinical interventions in acute situations, and documentation that assists GIs in obtaining reassignment or discharge. Most clients who use Network services come from low-income backgrounds and manifest psychological rather than physical disorders. Qualitative themes in professional-client encounters have focused on ethical conflicts, the impact of violence without meaning (especially violence against civilians), and perceived problems in military health and mental health policies. Unmet needs of active duty military personnel deserve more concerted attention from medical professionals and policy makers.

  9. Hüseyin Nail Kubali and Durkheim’s Professional ethics and civic morals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Strenski


    Full Text Available A swirl of puzzles surrounds a work of Émile Durkheim’s that Jonathan Z. Smith claims is the ‘single most provocative treatment of’ the idea of the sacred in the Durkheimian corpus – Professional Ethics and Civic Morals. Why, one asks, was Durkheim’s work first published in Turkey, especially when the lectures that gave rise to this volume had been delivered in France in the early years of the twentieth century? Of what particular importance was Durkheim for modern Turkish thinkers, and what kinds of thinkers might they be? And, what of this particular work of Durkheim’s? What special purpose, moreover, might have been served by publishing it in Turkey when it was – in 1950? Why was the volume edited by (and who was? Hüseyin Nail Kubali? What were his motives – both of a scientific kind or of a wider social or political sort? These are the questions that are addressed in this article. As readers will discover, in answering them, a nest of hidden themes is uncovered – a nest that few readers – even those who know the Durkheim corpus – will have anticipated. Not only are Durkheimian interpretations of religion at issue, but also the particular bearing of Durkheimianism on modern Turkey. This link with modern Turkey, in turn, brings to the surface many of the controversial questions now vexing the European Union as it ponders the possibility of Turkish membership of the EU – questions of human rights, civil society, the rule of law, the relation of religion and state, to name just the most relevant to the content of this article.

  10. From Citizen Militia to Professional Military: Transformation of the Roman Army (United States)


    infantry. Realizing the spirit of the nation was too weak for compulsory military service, Caesar abandoned associating military service with honorary...Halsall, October 1998). Text available on line:, chapters 11-16. 22Naphtali Lewis and Reinhold ...VelleiusPaterculus2_Shipley.htm. 53Naphtali Lewis and Meyer Reinhold , Roman civilization, Selected Readings, vol. 1, The Republic (New York: Columbia

  11. Military Review: The Professional Journal of the U.S. Army. May-June 2000 (United States)


    members of many potential opposing forces who spent their childhood in hygienic squalor. As a result, some infections, to which our opponents may have...almost universally become immune dur- ing childhood , can pose a significant health threat to a deployed US force. The military effect of dif- ferential...erroneous report of Ebola hemorrhagic fever on the island. Emerging infectious diseases have taken a major toll on the US military during both training and

  12. The Impact of Religious Beliefs on Professional Ethics: A Case Study of a New Teacher (United States)

    Barrett, Sarah Elizabeth


    This case study of a math and science teacher in a private religious school looks at the impact of a teacher's religious beliefs on her experience of engaging with ethical issues in her practice. A Freirean ethical framework is used to analyze her struggles with differences between her own personal religious convictions and those of the school in…

  13. Exploratory Study of Common and Challenging Ethical Dilemmas Experienced by Professional School Counselors (United States)

    Bodenhorn, Nancy


    Results of a survey asking public school counselors in Virginia to indicate their most common and most challenging ethical dilemmas are presented. Ninety-two school counselors reported that the most common and challenging ethical dilemmas included those involving student confidentiality, dual relationship with faculty, parental rights, and acting…

  14. Juggling Personal Life and Professionalism: Ethical Implications for Rural School Psychologists (United States)

    Osborn, Amanda


    Rural communities often contain unique features that separate them from more urban communities. Although a body of research is devoted to ethical considerations for psychologists working in rural communities as a whole, much less current research is focused on working in rural schools. This paper specifically highlights ethical considerations…

  15. Prepared for Challenges: The Importance of a Professional and Institutional Ethical Identity (United States)

    Anderson, Sharon K.; Lujan, Linda; Hegeman, Diane L.


    This chapter begins with an overview of the community college culture and the community college's challenges and complexities. Next, the authors discuss the concept of ethical acculturation and the tension that exists when individual ethics and values conflict with those of the institution. Finally, they propose ways for leaders and constituents…

  16. The Role of the State School Psychology Organizations in the Promotion of Professional Ethics. (United States)

    Pryzwansky, Walter B.; Wenger, Ralph D.


    A survey was conducted to examine the role of state school psychology organizations in advocating for and monitoring the ethical practice of their members. Results revealed that 76 percent of the responding organizations had adopted a code of ethics, while only 43 percent had instituted due process procedures. (Author)

  17. Comprometimento e ética profissional: um estudo de suas relações juntos aos contabilistas Commitment and professional ethics: a study of both amongst accouting professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erivan Borges


    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, apresenta-se um estudo das relações do comprometimento com a ética profissional junto aos profissionais da área contábil, na tentativa de averiguar se o nível de introjeção dos valores éticos influencia o seu nível de comprometimento. Na etapa empírica, foram utilizados dois instrumentos de mensuração, sendo um relativo ao comprometimento organizacional de Medeiros (2003, adaptado para a profissão, com 28 (vinte e oito indicadores e outro com 20 (vinte, construído a partir do teorizado por Lisboa et al. (1997, que foi inspirado no código de ética do contador gerencial do Institute of Management Accountants, como um conjunto de quatro preceitos mínimos: a competência, o sigilo, a integridade e a objetividade, que na visão dos autores, representam as bases mínimas exigidas num código de ética, analisados a partir das técnicas de análise fatorial, regressão linear e test "t". Constatou-se que o comprometimento é influenciado pelo nível de introjeção ética e que existe diferenciação no comprometimento por parte das duas categorias profissionais: técnicos e contadores. O resultado do estudo mostra que o profissional de nível superior tem seu comprometimento influenciado diretamente pelo nível de introjeção dos deveres éticos da profissão em quatro bases diferentes, e o técnico em contabilidade em duas. O estudo mostra, também, que a objetividade é o maior preditor do comprometimento, sendo esse mais bem evidenciado pelos aspectos instrumentais e normativos, possibilitando considerar que as relações de troca e de necessidade se apresentam como salientes diante da atuação ética dos contabilistas.This paper presents a study in commitment issues related to professional ethics amongst professionals in Accounting. It aims to verifying whether the introjections of ethical values influence commitment level. In the empirical phase of the research, two measurement instruments were used, one

  18. Contextualising professional ethics: the impact of the prison context on the practices and norms of health care practitioners. (United States)

    White, Karolyn L A; Jordens, Christopher F C; Kerridge, Ian


    Health care is provided in many contexts-not just hospitals, clinics, and community health settings. Different institutional settings may significantly influence the design and delivery of health care and the ethical obligations and practices of health care practitioners working within them. This is particularly true in institutions that are established to constrain freedom, ensure security and authority, and restrict movement and choice. We describe the results of a qualitative study of the experiences of doctors and nurses working within two women's prisons in the state of New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Their accounts make clear how the provision and ethics of health care may be compromised by the physical design of the prison, the institutional policies and practices restricting movement of prisoners and practitioners, the focus on maintaining control and security, and the very purpose of the prison and prison system itself. The results of this study make clear the impact that context has on professional practice and illustrate the importance of sociology and anthropology to bioethics and to the development of a more nuanced account of professional ethics.

  19. A Selected Review of the Underpinnings of Ethics for Human Performance Technology Professionals--Part One: Key Ethical Theories and Research. (United States)

    Dean, Peter J.


    Provides a review of the key ethical theories and relevant empirical research relating to the practice of human performance technology. Topics addressed include ethics, morals, business ethics, ethics officers, empiricism versus normative ethical theory, consequentialism, utilitarianism, nonconsequentialism, Kohlberg model of cognitive moral…

  20. Aequilibrium prudentis: on the necessity for ethics and policy studies in the scientific and technological education of medical professionals. (United States)

    Anderson, Misti Ault; Giordano, James


    The importance of strong science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education continues to grow as society, medicine, and the economy become increasingly focused and dependent upon bioscientific and technological innovation. New advances in frontier sciences (e.g., genetics, neuroscience, bio-engineering, nanoscience, cyberscience) generate ethical issues and questions regarding the use of novel technologies in medicine and public life. In light of current emphasis upon science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education (at the pre-collegiate, undergraduate, graduate, and professional levels), the pace and extent of advancements in science and biotechnology, the increasingly technological orientation and capabilities of medicine, and the ways that medicine - as profession and practice - can engage such scientific and technological power upon the multi-cultural world-stage to affect the human predicament, human condition, and perhaps nature of the human being, we argue that it is critical that science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education go beyond technical understanding and directly address ethical, legal, social, and public policy implications of new innovations. Toward this end, we propose a paradigm of integrative science, technology, ethics, and policy studies that meets these needs through early and continued educational exposure that expands extant curricula of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics programs from the high school through collegiate, graduate, medical, and post-graduate medical education. We posit a synthetic approach that elucidates the historical, current, and potential interaction of scientific and biotechnological development in addition to the ethico-legal and social issues that are important to educate and sustain the next generation of medical and biomedical professionals who can appreciate, articulate, and address the realities of scientific and biotechnological progress given the shifting

  1. Ethical dilemmas among dental professionals in Davangere city- a cross-sectional survey. (United States)

    Priyanka, S G; Singla, Hitashi; Lawrence, Denzy; Veeresh, D J


    To determine the ethical problems faced by dental practitioners, a cross-sectional survey was conducted in Bapuji Dental College and Hospital, College of Dental Sciences and private dental clinics in the city of Davangere. A questionnaire with close-ended questions on eight scenarios was administered to the 135 study participants. In the case of scenario 1, 81.4% of the participants said that the doctor had violated the principle of truthfulness. As for scenario 2, less than 50% of the participants replied that the doctor had breached ethical principles. In case scenario 3, 93% felt that the doctor should have taken the physician's opinion before extracting a tooth. Most dental practitioners faced ethical dilemmas because of the lack of awareness, and there is a need to introduce certain programmes to promote knowledge of ethics.

  2. Early Introduction to Professional and Ethical Dilemmas in a Pharmaceutical Care Laboratory Course


    Smith, Megan G.; Dinkins, Melissa M.


    Objective. To study the effects of an early professional development series in a pharmaceutical care laboratory (PCL) course on first-year pharmacy students’ perceptions of the importance of professional attitudes and action.

  3. The challenges and ethical dilemmas of a military medical officer serving with a peacekeeping operation in regard to the medical care of the local population. (United States)

    Tobin, J


    Medical Officers serving with their national contingents in peacekeeping operations are faced with difficult ethical decisions in regard to their obligations to the local civilian population. Such populations may be under-resourced in regard to medical care, and vulnerable to abuse and exploitation. Though the medical officer may support the local medical services, he/she should never undermine these resources. Adopting a human rights approach and observing the requirements of ethical medicine, aids the doctor in prioritising his/her duties. At times there may be conflict with one's own military superiors. It is wise to discuss potential difficulties prior to setting out on the mission. Human rights abuses cannot be ignored. The medical officer has a duty to do his/her best to report their observations so as to prevent abuse or to bring it to an end.

  4. Dealing with treatment and transfer requests: how PGD-professionals discuss ethical challenges arising in everyday practice. (United States)

    Soto-Lafontaine, Melisa; Dondorp, Wybo; Provoost, Veerle; de Wert, Guido


    How do professionals working in pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) reflect upon their decision making with regard to ethical challenges arising in everyday practice? Two focus group discussions were held with staff of reproductive genetic clinics: one in Utrecht (The Netherlands) with PGD-professionals from Dutch PGD-centres and one in Prague (Czech Republic) with PGD-professionals working in centres in different European countries. Both meetings consisted of two parts, exploring participants' views regarding (1) treatment requests for conditions that may not fulfill traditional indications criteria for PGD, and (2) treatment and transfer requests involving welfare-of-the-child considerations. There was general support for the view that people who come for PGD will have their own good reasons to consider the condition they wish to avoid as serious. But whereas PGD-professionals in the international group tended to stress the applicants' legal right to eventually have the treatment they want (whatever the views of the professional), participants in the Dutch group sketched a picture of shared decision-making, where professionals would go ahead with treatment in cases where they are able to understand the reasonableness of the request in the light of the couple's reproductive history or family experience. In the international focus group there was little support for guidance stating that welfare-of-the child considerations should be taken into account. This was different in the Dutch focus group, where shared decision-making also had the role of reassuring professionals that applicants had adequately considered possible implications for the welfare of the child.

  5. Noncombatant Imnmunity and Military Necessity: Ethical Conflict in the Just War Ethics of William V. O'Brien and Paul Ramsey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gibbs, Jonathan


    William V. O'Brien and Paul Ramsey are two modern just war theorists who have opposite views on the relationship between the jus in bello principle of discrimination and the international law principle of military necessity...

  6. Child Rights as a Framework for Advancing Professional Standards for Practice, Ethics, and Professional Development in School Psychology (United States)

    Nastasi, Bonnie Kaul; Naser, Shereen


    The United Nations (1989) Convention on the Rights of the Child was designed to promote and protect the survival, development, and well-being of children, thus extending human rights to individuals from birth to age 18. This article examines the consistency of the Articles of the Convention with the professional standards for school psychology, as…

  7. The Catholic Church, the American military, and homosexual reorientation therapy. (United States)

    Lutz, David


    Homosexual activist groups have targeted the Catholic Church and the American military as institutions especially in need of transformation. Associations of healthcare professionals are also under assault from homosexual activists. It is, nevertheless, appropriate for the Church and the military to defend themselves against this assault, to affirm that homosexuality is incompatible with Christian ethics and military service, and to help homosexuals free themselves from the vice of homosexuality. Arguments that homosexual reorientation therapy is unethical are unsound. Such therapy is consistent with the Christian virtue of charity.

  8. Military medicine and the ethics of war: British colonial warfare during the Seven Years War (1756-63)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Charters, Erica


    This article examines 18th-century European warfare, tracing the first formal codifications of conventions of war, frequently introduced by military physicians and initially regarding the treatment...

  9. Ethical attitudes on human cloning among professionals in Taiwan and the policy implications for regulation. (United States)

    Yang, Che-Ming; Chung, Chun-Chih; Lu, Meei-Shiow; Lin, Chiou-Fen; Chen, Jiun-Shyan


    This research focused on understanding the attitudes toward human cloning in Taiwan among professionals in healthcare, law, and religion. The study was conducted utilizing a structured questionnaire. 220 healthcare professionals from two regional hospitals located in Taipei, 351 religious professionals in the northern Taiwan and 711 legal professionals were selected by to receive questionnaires. The valid response rate is 42.1% The questions were generated by an expert panel and represented major arguments in the human cloning debate. There were a total of six Likert scaled questions in the questionnaire. The responses were coded from 1 to 5 with 1 representing strong opposition to human cloning, 3 representing a neutral attitude; and 5 representing a strong favorable attitude toward human cloning. Healthcare professionals had the highest overall average score of 2.14 and the religious professionals had the lowest average at 1.58. All three categories of respondents' attitude toward cloning ranged from mild opposition to strong opposition to human cloning. The religious professionals were more strongly opposed to cloning. Age, education, and religion significantly influenced attitudes toward cloning. Professionals between fifty-one and sixty years old, those with less education, and Roman Catholic professionals were more strongly opposed to cloning. Religious professionals were more strongly opposed to human cloning than professionals in healthcare or law. Younger professionals as an age group demonstrated less opposition to human cloning. Regulation of human cloning will be influenced by professionals in healthcare, law, and religion, and the regulatory environment chosen now will play a pivotal role in influencing the acceptance of human cloning in the future.

  10. Learning with Professionals. Selected Works from the Joint Military Intelligence College (United States)


    intelligence is recognized as "the air the nation breathes." Soccer moms discuss intelligence. College students’ interest in intelligence extends...Larry Combest (R-TX) took over the House Intelligence Committee with Congressman Norm Dicks (D-WA) as Ranking Minority Member. Senator Arlen Specter (R-PA...As Mark Lowenthal recalls, “We thought that NIMA would ‘ suck up’ imagery to the military with nothing left over for State, etc. It would be 407 The

  11. Military Review: The Professional Journal of the U.S. Army. March-April 2001 (United States)


    government crack down on the paramilitaries and vacate gov- ernment armed forces and police from 42,000 square kilometers (km) of key terrain in...Occasionally there are incidents of turning back Colombian �displaced persons in FARC chief Marulanda demanded that the government crack down on the para...article is based on Lester W. Grau, � Petroleo y Gas Natural del Mar Caspio, y Asia Central,� Spanish-language edition of Military Re- view (March-April

  12. Military Review: The Professional Journal of the U. S. Army. July-August 2011 (United States)


    of power. 46 What is Old is New: Countering IEDs by Disrupting the Weapon Supply Captain Paulo Shakarian, U.S. Army, with Lieutenant General Charles...record.pdf> (30 June 2010). 41. David Galula, Counterinsurgency Warfare; Theory and Practice (New York: Praeger, 1964); Gian Gentil “A Strategy of...He holds a B.S. from the U.S. Military Academy and an M.S. from Purdue University. Captain Paulo Shakarian is an as- sistant professor in the

  13. A Study of Industry Best Practices in Ethics Programming: Learning from Exemplary Ethical Organizations to Inspire Moral Courage in the Military

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garcia, Trisha A; Spriestersbach, Ryan


    .... We accomplish our objective by commencing with the identification and definition of best practices relating to the promotion of ethical behavior and prevention of unethical behavior in today's corporate environment...

  14. A Study of Industry Best Practices in Ethics Programming: Learning from Exemplary Ethical Organizations to Inspire Moral Courage in the Military (United States)


    scandals that erupted in the 1970s. The subsequent government legislation was designed to enforce new ethical standards in corporate America...trend will undoubtedly continue to grow in breadth and depth as long as the possibility of corporate scandal exists. H. RECENT BUSINESS ETHICS ...Green Mountain Coffee Roasters Inc. N 2 St Paul Travelers Cos. Inc. N 3 Nuveen Investments Inc. N 4 Intel Corp. N 5 Wells Fargo & Co. N 6

  15. Military nurses in Venezuela and training process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Izquierdo-Martínez


    Full Text Available Nursing career professionals with solid-humanistic way scientific, ethical and basis in order that they can properly integrate the multidisciplinary team to creatively solve health problems through nursing care. This article analyzes the formation of the military nurse in Venezuela, with the help of logical historical method to uncover trends and regularities that characterize this process. The nurse is a professional attitudes, values, knowledge and skills to assume their social responsibility, applying theories and models of discipline in the promotion, prevention, recovery and rehabilitation of health. Similarly, military nurse career provides to the military institution and especially health institutions of the country leadership training in the management of custodial care, management and research on health and committed to education continues in his practice.

  16. Youth Work and Ethics: Why the "Professional Turn" Won't Do (United States)

    Davies, Richard


    Youth work is deemed to require a distinctive commitment to ethical behaviour from the adults involved. This is expressed in the requirements for the initial education of workers, in the subject benchmarks and national expectations for youth workers. A significant influence in this debate is Howard Sercombe. Sercombe seeks a substantive framework…

  17. Seeing through Medical Ethics: A Request for Professional Transparency and Accountability (United States)

    Connor, J. T. H.


    This essay is a critique of medical/clinical ethics from the personal perspective of a medical historian in an academic health science centre who has interacted with ethicists. It calls for greater transparency and accountability of ethicists involved in "bedside consulting"; it questions the wisdom of the four principles of biomedical…

  18. The Independence of James Rest's Components of Morality: Evidence from a Professional Ethics Curriculum Study (United States)

    You, Di; Bebeau, Muriel J.


    Rest's hypothesis that the components of morality (i.e., sensitivity, reasoning, motivation, and implementation) are distinct from one another was tested using evidence from a dental ethics curriculum that uses well-validated measures of each component. Archival data from five cohorts ("n" = 385) included the following: (1) transcribed…

  19. Survey the relationship between professional ethics and improve the quality of care with nurses, staff empowerment of the perspective of Ayatollah Rouhani hospital of Babol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Hosseinzadeh


    Full Text Available Ethics, how to live and how to behave in a professional style and in a professional environment, both individual and organizational sets. In this regard, the present study was to determine the relationship between the ethics of the profession and improve the quality of care with nurses, hospital staff empowerment from the perspective of Ayatollah Rouhani was performed. The study was a descriptive one. The population consisted of nurses Ayatollah spiritual Babylon, which uses random sampling method, 163 samples were selected and evaluated. Collection tool was a questionnaire, content validity of the questionnaire in consultation with experts confirmed the reliability of the test-retest on 10% of the total of 2-week interval was calculated, and Cronbach's alpha for the whole questionnaire 0.85respectively. To analyze the data, structural equation modeling was used. The results showed that relations professional ethics to improve the quality of care (P <0.01 and staff empowerment (P <0.01 was significant. The ability of the staff as well as improve the quality of care (P <0.05 there was a significant relationship. Based on the results of research, professional ethics directly and indirectly improve the quality of nursing care was effective (P<0.05. In general it can be said that rely on moral and ethical management, increases the effectiveness of the approach is to improve the quality of care and sense of empowerment among nurses.

  20. Medical ethics at Guantanamo Bay and Abu Ghraib: the problem of dual loyalty. (United States)

    Clark, Peter A


    Although knowledge of torture and physical and psychological abuse was widespread at both the Guantanamo Bay detention facility and Abu Ghraib prison in Iraq, and known to medical personnel, there was no official report before the January 2004 Army investigation of military health personnel reporting abuse, degradation or signs of torture. Military medical personnel are placed in a position of a "dual loyalty" conflict. They have to balance the medical needs of their patients, who happen to be detainees, with their military duty to their employer. The United States military medical system failed to protect detainee's human rights, violated the basic principles of medical ethics and ignored the basic tenets of medical professionalism.

  1. Assessing the "Good Life" in a Military Context: How Does Life and Work-Satisfaction Relate to Orientations to Happiness and Career-Success among Swiss Professional Officers? (United States)

    Proyer, Rene T.; Annen, Hubert; Eggimann, Nadine; Schneider, Andrea; Ruch, Willibald


    The study examines work- and life satisfaction along with orientation to happiness, and their relation to subjective but also objective career success, among Swiss military professional officers. They frequently report worsening of their working conditions due to two reforms that have recently been conducted. A total of N = 221 Swiss career…

  2. Professional Online Presence and Learning Networks: Educating for Ethical Use of Social Media (United States)

    Forbes, Dianne


    In a teacher education context, this study considers the use of social media for building a professional online presence and learning network. This article provides an overview of uses of social media in teacher education, presents a case study of key processes in relation to professional online presence and learning networks, and highlights…

  3. Military Review: The Professional Journal of the U.S. Army. September-October 2006 (United States)


    Urea Firm to Build JV in Bolivia,” People’s Daily Online, 10 Sep- tember 2004. 8. Carlos tramutola, Pablo Monat, lucio Castro, “China, como puede la...paddy.” (It should be noted that the dust jacket of this book and several published biographies do not list any military service for the author. He...Amid the urban violence in Bogota, Fidel emerged as a revolutionary. He read communist tracts not for the his- torical ideas of Karl Marx , but for

  4. The Relevance of Foucauldian Art-of-Living for Ethics Education in a Military Context: Theory and Practice (United States)

    van Baarle, Eva; Verweij, Desiree; Molewijk, Bert; Widdershoven, Guy


    How can ethical decision-making in organizations be further reinforced? This article explores the relevance of Michel Foucault's ideas on art-of-living for ethics education in organizations. First, we present a theoretical analysis of art-of-living in the work of Foucault as well as in the work of two philosophers who greatly influenced his work,…

  5. Identifying and Addressing Potential Conflict of Interest: A Professional Medical Organization’s Code of Ethics


    Heim, Lori


    The new Consumer Alliance agreement between the American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP) and The Coca-Cola Company provides a valuable opportunity to illustrate AAFP’s adherence to its ethical foundation, demonstrate the AAFP’s commitment to serving physicians and the public, and maintain the trust Americans put in their family physicians and the organization that represents them. Throughout the development of this program, as well as in all business interactions, the AAFP consistently ad...

  6. [Continuing education in ethics: from clinical ethics to institutional ethics]. (United States)

    Brazeau-Lamontagne, Lucie


    The mandate of the Ethics Committee of the Conseil de médecins, dentistes et pharmaciens (CMDP) at the Centre hospitalier universitaire de Sherbrooke (CHUS), Sherbrooke, Quebec is three-fold: to guide the clinical decision; to address the institutional ethical function; to create the program for continuing education in ethics (Formation éthique continue or FEC). Might FEC be the means of bridging from individual ethics to institutional ethics at a hospital? To take the FEC perspectives considered appropriate for doctors and consider them for validation or disproving in the context of those of other professionals. Situate the proposed FEC mandate in a reference framework to evaluate (or triangulate) the clinical decision and the institutional ethic. CONVICTION: Sustainable professional development for doctors (DPD) includes ethics; it cannot be ignored. Without constant attention to upgrading one's abilities in professional ethics, these suffer the same fate as other professional aptitudes and competences (for example, techniques and scientific knowledge): decay.

  7. Ethical, legal and social issues in nutrigenomics: the challenges of regulating service delivery and building health professional capacity. (United States)

    Castle, David; Ries, Nola M


    Nutrigenomics, the conjunction of molecular nutrition with human genomics, is among the first publicly available applications of the human genome project. Nutrigenomics raises ethical, legal and social issues particularly with respect to how the public may access nutrigenetic tests and associated nutritional and lifestyle advice. Current regulatory controversy focuses on potential harms associated with direct-to-consumer (DTC) marketing of nutrigenetic tests and especially the need to protect consumers from unreliable tests, false claims and unproven dietary supplements. Nutrigenomics does, however, offer the potential of important health benefits for some individuals. The regulation of nutrigenomic services is slowly evolving, but there is little indication of increased professional capacity to support service delivery. Primary care physicians have minimal training in nutrition and genetics, and medical geneticists are in high demand and short supply. Dietetic practitioners are experts in nutrition science and interest in nutrigenomics is growing among members of this professional group. However, as with physicians, dietetics practitioners would require considerable training to bring nutrigenomics into their practice capacity. A downside of regulatory restrictions on direct consumer access to nutrigenomics companies is that responsible businesses may be hindered in meeting emergent public demand while health care professional groups have not yet developed capacity to provide nutrigenomics services.

  8. "I'm Not Going to Cross That Line, but How Do I Get Closer to It?" A Hedge Fund Manager's Perspective on the Need for Ethical Training and Theory for Finance Professionals (United States)

    Ryther, Cathrine


    Drawing on a finance professional's reflections on his ethical education as an economics undergraduate, Chartered Financial Analyst, and top-tier MBA graduate, this article considers the framing of, and need for philosophy in, ethical training for finance professionals. Role-playing is emphasized as helpful for developing a mature ethical…

  9. Core competencies for health care ethics consultants: in search of professional status in a post-modern world. (United States)

    Engelhardt, H Tristram


    The American Society for Bioethics and the Humanities (ASBH) issued its Core Competencies for Health Care Ethics Consultation just as it is becoming ever clearer that secular ethics is intractably plural and without foundations in any reality that is not a social-historical construction (ASBH Core Competencies for Health Care Ethics Consultation, 2nd edn. American Society for Bioethics and Humanities, Glenview, IL, 2011). Core Competencies fails to recognize that the ethics of health care ethics consultants is not ethics in the usual sense of a morally canonical ethics. Its ethics is the ethics established at law and in enforceable health care public policy in a particular jurisdiction. Its normativity is a legal normativity, so that the wrongness of violating this ethics is simply the legal penalties involved and the likelihood of their being imposed. That the ethics of ethics consultation is that ethics legally established accounts for the circumstance that the major role of hospital ethics consultants is as quasi-lawyers giving legal advice, aiding in risk management, and engaging in mediation. It also indicates why this collage of roles has succeeded so well. This article shows how moral philosophy as it was reborn in the 13th century West led to the ethics of modernity and then finally to the ethics of hospital ethics consultation. It provides a brief history of the emergence of an ethics that is after morality. Against this background, the significance of Core Competencies must be critically reconsidered.

  10. [Relationship health care professional-patient from personalistic perspective. To know how to communicate is like ethical imperative]. (United States)

    Montaner Abasolo, M Carmen; Soler Company, Enrique


    The ability to communicate with patients is part of health care practice and contributes to the humanization of such care and to the objectives. With basic coaching tools and personalized attention, the life of the patient can be transformed from the first moments of intervention. Beyond words, patient, in all their multidimensionality, need to be comforted and fell that they are being taken care of. The health care professionals transmits information verbally and non-verbally. ″Positive″ consultations are described as warm, friendly, firm and reassuring, and there exists an emphatic response to the cognitive and emotional concerns of the patient. The opposite approach involves the assumption of roles and a lack of empathy (paternalism, servility, authoritarianism, laissez-faire, etc.). The ability to communicate is an ethical need in health care training. A personalized perspective, open to transcendence, is especially suitable in the health field, where communication must take into account the complex reality that the patient is living.

  11. The military physician and contested medical humanitarianism: a dueling identity? (United States)

    Gordon, Stuart


    A critical issue in the study of humanitarianism is who counts as a medical humanitarian. Military physicians are often characterized as caught between the potentially incompatible roles of physician and military professional. Medical NGOs, such as Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF), have also vociferously rejected military medical humanitarianism: questioning the mandate, skills, and appropriateness of military involvement in humanitarian medicine as well as the potential impact on 'humanitarian space'. Yet many military doctors contest this. Consequently this study examines the ways in which primarily British military physicians identify and manage their identities as both medical humanitarians and soldiers. The research utilized a mixed method, grounded theory approach involving systematic document searches/expert identification of a core literature of 300 policy and peer reviewed documents, plus grey literature and 53 formal medical post operational reports from units serving in Iraq and Afghanistan between 2004 and 2012. Semi structured interviews involved purposive sampling (34 respondents) ranging from a former Surgeon General to more junior staff. Methods also included an analysis of the original data and literature from the 2003 Medical Services Delphi study (involving an additional 40 experts and an extensive literature review) on military medical identity/future roles as well as direct observation of military doctors in Iraq and Afghanistan (two, 2 month research trips). The research concluded that military physicians conceived of themselves as autonomous medical humanitarians with an individual morality rooted in civilian medical ethics that facilitated resistance to the potentially hegemonic military identity. Nevertheless military physicians were part of a medical organization with fundamentally different priorities from those of civilian humanitarian physicians. Furthermore, the perceived emergence of multiple civilian 'humanitarianisms' has

  12. State of the art in technology-supported resilience training for military professionals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Favié, J.; Vakili, V.; Brinkman, W.P.; Morina, N.; Neerincx, M.A.


    Certain professions carry a risk of experiencing traumatic events and sometimes developing Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Researchers have been working on strategies to prevent professionals in those fields from developing PTSD. Recently, there has been a focus on applying technology that

  13. State of the Art in Technology-Supported Resilience Training For Military Professionals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Favié, Joris; Ghazi Vakili, V.; Brinkman, W.P.; Morina, N; Neerincx, M.A.; Gaggioli, Andrea; Ferscha, Alois; Riva, Giuseppe; Dunne, Stephan; Viaud-Delmon, Isabell

    Certain professions carry a risk of experiencing traumatic events and sometimes developing Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Researchers have been working on strategies to prevent professionals in those fields from developing PTSD. Recently, there has been a focus on applying technology that

  14. The Civil Liability of Accountants: a study focusing the new Brazilian civil code of 2002 from the perspective of professional ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketlyn da Silva Pasquali


    Full Text Available One of the trends in the development of accountancy is the alignment of accounting principles, ethics and civil liability. In this context, this study analyzes the perception of accountants with respect to professional ethics and liability in view of the new Brazilian civil code adopted in 2002. To examine professional ethics, we investigated the perception of accountants as to civil liability, the hypotheses of incidence, and preventive measures for protecting rights and interests in light of the new civil code, using a descriptive and quantitative approach.  Data was collected by means of a questionnaire applied to a sample of 52 accountants belonging to the Accountants Union of Cascavel and Region.  Comparisons were made of the responses using graphical analysis and consensus analysis.  On the basis of the results obtained, we can conclude that the accountants  attribute importance to the use of ethics in their professional practice and that there is very strong consensus on the obligation to carry out the accounting profession zealously and with technical expertise. With regard to the degree of knowledge concerning civil responsibility and liability in the execution of their activities, we observed that these professionals know the penalties for malicious and intentional unethical acts in the exercise of the profession. Future research could explore self-assessment for further investigation with the purpose of developing a sense of individual responsibility and critical spirit.

  15. Psychiatric Residents' Needs for Education about Informed Consent, Principles of Ethics and Professionalism, and Caring for Vulnerable Populations: Results of a Multisite Survey (United States)

    Jain, Shaili; Lapid, Maria I.; Dunn, Laura B.; Roberts, Laura Weiss


    Objective: The authors examined psychiatric residents' perceived needs for education in informed consent, principles of ethics and professionalism, and treating vulnerable populations. Method: A written survey was distributed to psychiatric residents (N = 249) at seven U.S. residency programs in 2005. The survey contained 149 questions in 10…

  16. The doctor and the market: about the influence of market reforms on the professional medical ethics of surgeons and general practitioners in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dwarswaard, J.; Hilhorst, M.; Trappenburg, M.


    To explore whether market reforms in a health care system affect medical professional ethics of hospital-based specialists on the one hand and physicians in independent practices on the other. Qualitative interviews with 27 surgeons and 28 general practitioners in The Netherlands, held 2-3 years

  17. Which will Trump: human rights and professional ethics, or torture redux? (United States)

    Marks, Jonathan H


    Recent political developments in the United States raise concerns about the potential return of aggressive interrogation strategies, particularly in the event of another large-scale terror attack on the U.S. mainland. This essay reviews various legal, ethical and policy responses to revelations of torture during the Bush administration. It asks whether they improve the prospect that, in future, human rights will trump torture, not vice versa. The essay argues that physicians could help prevent further abuses - especially given their access, social status and expertise - but that insufficient steps have been taken to empower them to do so.

  18. Conflicts Between Parents and Health Professionals About a Child's Medical Treatment: Using Clinical Ethics Records to Find Gaps in the Bioethics Literature. (United States)

    McDougall, Rosalind; Notini, Lauren; Phillips, Jessica


    Clinical ethics records offer bioethics researchers a rich source of cases that clinicians have identified as ethically complex. In this paper, we suggest that clinical ethics records can be used to point to types of cases that lack attention in the current bioethics literature, identifying new areas in need of more detailed bioethical work. We conducted an analysis of the clinical ethics records of one paediatric hospital in Australia, focusing specifically on conflicts between parents and health professionals about a child's medical treatment. We identified, analysed, and compared cases of this type from the clinical ethics records with cases of this type discussed in bioethics journals. While the cases from journals tended to describe situations involving imminent risk to the child's life, a significant proportion of the clinical ethics records cases involved different stakes for the child involved. These included distress, poorer functional outcome, poorer psychosocial outcome, or increased risk of surgical complications. Our analysis suggests that one type of case that warrants more detailed ethics research is parental refusal of recommended treatment, where the refusal does not endanger the child's life but rather some other aspect of the child's well-being.

  19. Identifying and Addressing Potential Conflict of Interest: A Professional Medical Organization’s Code of Ethics (United States)

    Heim, Lori


    The new Consumer Alliance agreement between the American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP) and The Coca-Cola Company provides a valuable opportunity to illustrate AAFP’s adherence to its ethical foundation, demonstrate the AAFP’s commitment to serving physicians and the public, and maintain the trust Americans put in their family physicians and the organization that represents them. Throughout the development of this program, as well as in all business interactions, the AAFP consistently addresses possible conflict of interest openly and directly, sharing with our members and the public exactly what measures we take to ensure that, in fact, no unethical conduct or breach of trust would—or will in the future—occur. In this case, the AAFP saw a public health and education need that was both unmet and undermined by the barrage of marketing messages and confusing information, and acted to fill that need. In so doing, the AAFP hewed to its high ethical standards, its core values, and its mission in the decisions made and the actions that followed. PMID:20644192

  20. Identifying and addressing potential conflict of interest: a professional medical organization's code of ethics. (United States)

    Heim, Lori


    The new Consumer Alliance agreement between the American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP) and The Coca-Cola Company provides a valuable opportunity to illustrate AAFP's adherence to its ethical foundation, demonstrate the AAFP's commitment to serving physicians and the public, and maintain the trust Americans put in their family physicians and the organization that represents them. Throughout the development of this program, as well as in all business interactions, the AAFP consistently addresses possible conflict of interest openly and directly, sharing with our members and the public exactly what measures we take to ensure that, in fact, no unethical conduct or breach of trust would--or will in the future--occur. In this case, the AAFP saw a public health and education need that was both unmet and undermined by the barrage of marketing messages and confusing information, and acted to fill that need. In so doing, the AAFP hewed to its high ethical standards, its core values, and its mission in the decisions made and the actions that followed.

  1. Innovation in ethics and professionalism course: Early experience with portfolio-workbook. (United States)

    Shamim, Muhammad Shahid; Zubairi, Nadeem Alam; Sayed, Mohamad Hesham; Gazzaz, Zohair Jamil


    To analyse students' perception regarding the use of portfolio-workbook in ethics course. This mixed method study was conducted at the King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, in 2014, and comprised fourth-year medical students. The "portfolio-workbook", developed on principles of cognitive load and guided learning theories, contained essential reading material. Learning sessions were also facilitated by teaching tools like role-plays, movie/video clips, vignettes, etc., followed by reflective writing exercises. Feedback questionnaire with open- and closed-ended questions was used to collect data. Quantitative data was analysed for frequencies and percentages. Content analysis was conducted for the open-ended responses. Of the 20 participants, 10(50%) considered using portfolio-workbook as difficult initially. However, on completion of module 16(80%) found it easy. Moreover, 17(85%) appreciated it as a learning tool. Besides, 19(95%) students found teaching videos and 13(65%) found open discussions as effective learning tools. Portfolio-workbook as an assessment tool was preferred by 19(95%) students. The use of portfolio-workbook in teaching ethics to undergraduates was found to be encouraging as it generated interest and interaction.

  2. Self-assessment of clinical nurse mentors as dimensions of professional development and the capability of developing ethical values at nursing students: A correlational research study. (United States)

    Skela-Savič, Brigita; Kiger, Alice


    Providing adequate training for mentors, fostering a positive mentorship culture and establishing the necessary operational procedures for ensuring mentorship quality are the keys to effective clinical mentoring of nursing students. The purpose of the research was to explain different dimensions of clinical mentors' professional development and their capability of developing ethical values in nursing students. A non-experimental quantitative research design was employed. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire administered to the population of clinical mentors (N=143). The total number of questions was 36. Descriptive statistics were used, and bivariate analysis, factor analysis, correlation analysis and linear regression analysis were performed. The professional development of clinical nurse mentors was explained (R(2)=0.256) by career advancement (p=0.000), research and learning (p=0.024) and having a career development plan (p=0.043). Increased professional self-confidence (R(2)=0.188) was explained by career advancement (p=0.000) and the time engaged in record keeping (p=0.028). Responsibility for the development of ethical values in nursing students (R(2)=0.145) was explained by the respondents' level of education (p=0.020) and research and learning (p=0.024). Applying ethical principles and norms into practice (R(2)=0.212) was explained by self-assessed knowledge in ethics (p=0.037) and research and learning (p=0.044). Clinical nurse mentors tended to lack a career development plan, had low work time spent on research and insufficiently participated in education and training activities, which turned out to be significant explanatory factors of their professional development and their capability of developing ethical values in nursing students. The research showed that nursing and higher education managers often failed to assume responsibility for the professional development of clinical nurse mentors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  3. Who cares? : an ethical study of the moral attitude of professionals in palliative care practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthuis, Gerrit Jan


    What induces people to devote their active working life to the care of patients who are seriously ill with a life-threatening condition which is usually going to kill them? Why do professional carers want a career in palliative care? What motivates them and what sort of qualities do they need to be

  4. Mediating Teacher Professional Identity: The Emergence of Humanness and Ethical Identity (United States)

    Tran, Ly Thi; Nguyen, Nhai Thi


    Over the past couple of years, international vocational education and training has been much debated at the nexus of the commercialisation of vocational education and social justice for international students. This nexus has significantly affected the professional identity and responsibilities of teachers who are directly involved in providing…

  5. Identifying the Ethical Challenges Encountered by Information Technology Professionals Working within the Nevada Casino Industry (United States)

    Essig, Michael R.


    A thematic analysis qualitative study was used to identify the unethical challenges encountered by Information Technology (IT) professionals working within the Nevada casino industry. Fourteen current and former IT leaders working or who worked in the Nevada casino industry were interviewed. Using thematic analysis, nine themes regarding ethical…

  6. Assessing Professionalism and Ethics Knowledge and Skills: Preferences of Psychiatry Residents (United States)

    Marrero, Isis; Bell, Michael; Dunn, Laura B.; Roberts, Laura Weiss


    Background: Professionalism is one of the fundamental expectations and a core competency in residency education. Although programs use a variety of evaluative methods, little is known about residents' views of and preferences regarding various methods of assessment. Method: The authors surveyed residents at seven psychiatry residency programs…

  7. Ethical Professional Identity and the Development of Moral Exemplar Collegiate Coaches (United States)

    Hamilton, Maya G. B.; LaVoi, Nicole M.


    Coaches have the potential to influence athletes' moral development, especially at the collegiate level--a powerful period of growth in young adults' lives. As central agents in athlete moral education, coaches' moral development and understanding of professionalism is currently unknown. The purpose of this study was to increase understanding of…

  8. Models of professional readiness of students of higher military schools of the Armed Forces of Ukraine

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    Sergienko Y.P.


    Full Text Available Purpose : Creating models of professional readiness, namely, physical, mental, psycho-physiological and functional training based on the integral method developed. Material / Methods : The study involved 60 students of the fourth graduating class of 30 people in the control and experimental groups. To confirm the effectiveness of the developed method was used testing the physical qualities, psychological questionnaires, the study of cognitive processes, as well as functional tests. Results: It was established that at the beginning of the experiment between the control and experimental groups was not significant differences in all indicators. After the study of the experimental group experienced an improvement of performance as compared to the control group. So on average, in terms of physical fitness, they increased by 9.34 %, mental qualities to 21.25 %, physiological capacity of 14.7 % and a functional readiness to 21.13 %. The results obtained are reliable. Conclusions : The developed method allowed to increase the individual results of students to build models that characterize the professional readiness of future officers, as well as increase the adaptive processes of all systems to service and combat activities.

  9. Recurrent Shoulder Instability in a Young, Active, Military Population and Its Professional Implications. (United States)

    Flint, James H; Pickett, Adam; Owens, Brett D; Svoboda, Steven J; Peck, Karen Y; Cameron, Kenneth L; Biery, John; Giuliani, Jeffrey; Rue, John-Paul

    Shoulder instability is a topic of significant interest within the sports medicine literature, particularly regarding recurrence rates and the ideal treatment indications and techniques. Little has been published specifically addressing the occupational implications of symptomatic recurrent shoulder instability. Previous arthroscopic repair will continue to be a significant predisposing factor for recurrent instability in a young, active population, and that recurrent instability may have a negative effect on college graduation and postgraduate occupational selection. Case series. Level 4. We conducted a retrospective review of approved medical waivers for surgical treatment of anterior shoulder dislocation or instability prior to matriculation at the US Military Academy or the US Naval Academy for the graduating classes of 2010 to 2013. Statistical analysis was performed to determine the incidence and risk factors for recurrence and to determine the impact on graduation rate and occupation selection. Fifty-nine patients were evaluated; 34% developed recurrent anterior instability. Patients with previous arthroscopic repair had a significantly higher incidence of recurrence (38%, P = 0.044). Recurrent shoulder instability did not significantly affect graduation rates or self-selected occupation ( P ≥ 0.05). There is a significant rate of recurrent shoulder instability after primary surgical repair, particularly among young, active individuals. In addition, arthroscopic repair resulted in a significantly higher recurrence rate compared with open repair in our population. Surgical repair for shoulder instability should not necessarily preclude young individuals from pursuing (or being considered for) occupations that may place them at greater risk of recurrence. The risk of recurrent instability is greater than the rate typically described, which may suggest that some subpopulations are at greater risk than others. A unique data point regarding instability is the

  10. Psychologists abandon the Nuremberg ethic: concerns for detainee interrogations. (United States)

    Pope, Kenneth S; Gutheil, Thomas G


    In the aftermath of 9-11, the American Psychological Association, one of the largest U.S. health professions, changed its ethics code so that it now runs counter to the Nuremberg Ethic. This historic post-9-11 change allows psychologists to set aside their ethical responsibilities whenever they are in irreconcilable conflict with military orders, governmental regulations, national and local laws, and other forms of governing legal authority. This article discusses the history, wording, rationale, and implications of the ethical standard that U.S. psychologists adopted 7 years ago, particularly in light of concerns over health care professionals' involvement in detainee interrogations and the controversy over psychologists' prominent involvement in settings like the Guantánamo Bay Detainment Camp and the Abu Ghraib prison. It discusses possible approaches to the complex dilemmas arising when ethical responsibilities conflict with laws, regulations, or other governing legal authority.

  11. Ethical issues for librarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Rasche


    Full Text Available It approaches the librarian ethics comprehending the Librarianship constitution from a systemic view. In this way, with the objective to raise issues to discuss professional ethics, it places the librarian in the work world and points approaches between exertion and relation context of the professionals themselves with the human rights and alteration ethics.

  12. Ethics fundamentals. (United States)

    Chambers, David W


    Ethics is about studying the right and the good; morality is about acting as one should. Although there are differences among what is legal, charitable, professional, ethical, and moral, these desirable characteristics tend to cluster and are treasured in dentistry. The traditional approach to professionalism in dentistry is based on a theory of biomedical ethics advanced 30 years ago. Known as the principles approach, general ideals such as respect for autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence, justice, and veracity, are offered as guides. Growth in professionalism consists in learning to interpret the application of these principles as one's peers do. Moral behavior is conceived as a continuous cycle of sensitivity to situations requiring moral response, moral reasoning, the moral courage to take action when necessary, and integration of habits of moral behavior into one's character. This essay is the first of two papers that provide the backbone for the IDEA Project of the College--an online, multiformat, interactive "textbook" of ethics for the profession.

  13. Medical ethics and ethical dilemmas. (United States)

    Iyalomhe, G B S


    Ethical problems routinely arise in the hospital and outpatient practice settings and times of dilemma do occur such that practitioners and patients are at cross-roads where choice and decision making become difficult in terms of ethics. This paper attempts a synopsis of the basic principles of medical ethics, identifies some ethical dilemmas that doctors often encounter and discusses some strategies to address them as well as emphasizes the need for enhanced ethics education both for physicians and patients particularly in Nigeria. Literature and computer programmes (Medline and PsychoInfo databases) were searched for relevant information. The search showed that the fundamental principles suggested by ethicists to assist doctors to evaluate the ethics of a situation while making a decision include respect for autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice. Although the above principles do not give answers as to how to handle a particular situation, they serve as a guide to doctors on what principles ought to apply to actual circumstances. The principles sometimes conflict with each other leading to ethical dilemmas when applied to issues such as abortion, contraception, euthanasia, professional misconduct, confidentiality truth telling, professional relationship with relatives, religion, traditional medicine and business concerns. Resolution of dilemmas demand the best of the doctor's knowledge of relevant laws and ethics, his training and experience, his religious conviction and moral principles as well as his readiness to benefit from ethics consultation and the advice of his colleagues. Ethics education should begin from the impressionable age in homes, continued in the medical schools and after graduation to ensure that doctors develop good ethical practices and acquire the ability to effectively handle ethical dilemmas. Also, education of patients and sanction of unethical behaviour will reduce ethical dilemmas.

  14. Improving Female Participation in Professional Engineering Geology to Bring New Perspectives to Ethics in the Geosciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores Pereira


    Full Text Available Many papers have been published related to the retention and advancement of women in sciences. Engineering geology is one of the professional areas where women have not yet broken the gender barrier. The research issues of this paper are focused on why female students “leak out” at the end of engineering geology studies, and what can be done to encourage them to complete their degrees with an engineering career in mind. The author has studied students’ preferences of the final year project required to complete their degree at the University of Salamanca (Salamanca, Spain. It has been found that most female students are choosing a more theoretical final project instead of a practical one relevant to professional employment, contrary to their male peers. Focus group meetings with the students showed that at the end of five years of engineering geology training, many female students, unsatisfied with the content of their courses, feel that their expectations had not been met. They often have preferences for traditional geology rather than applied branches of the subject. Also, they do not feel comfortable with future job prospects in the profession. From the findings of this research it is clear that tutoring and mentoring would be valuable from the beginning of studies to allow all students to become aware of the content and the potential outcomes of engineering geology studies. In the case of female students, it is particularly important for them to know from the very start that they are about to join what is still a man’s world but that they are capable of achieving just as much as men can in the profession. Most importantly, the involvement of more female engineers in professional engineering, including teaching duties, should serve as example and role models in students’ education and future careers.

  15. Improving female participation in professional engineering geology to bring new perspectives to ethics in the geosciences. (United States)

    Pereira, Dolores


    Many papers have been published related to the retention and advancement of women in sciences. Engineering geology is one of the professional areas where women have not yet broken the gender barrier. The research issues of this paper are focused on why female students "leak out" at the end of engineering geology studies, and what can be done to encourage them to complete their degrees with an engineering career in mind. The author has studied students' preferences of the final year project required to complete their degree at the University of Salamanca (Salamanca, Spain). It has been found that most female students are choosing a more theoretical final project instead of a practical one relevant to professional employment, contrary to their male peers. Focus group meetings with the students showed that at the end of five years of engineering geology training, many female students, unsatisfied with the content of their courses, feel that their expectations had not been met. They often have preferences for traditional geology rather than applied branches of the subject. Also, they do not feel comfortable with future job prospects in the profession. From the findings of this research it is clear that tutoring and mentoring would be valuable from the beginning of studies to allow all students to become aware of the content and the potential outcomes of engineering geology studies. In the case of female students, it is particularly important for them to know from the very start that they are about to join what is still a man's world but that they are capable of achieving just as much as men can in the profession. Most importantly, the involvement of more female engineers in professional engineering, including teaching duties, should serve as example and role models in students' education and future careers.

  16. An Interdisciplinary Approach to Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Clinical Competence, Professional Training, and Ethical Care: Introduction to the Special Issue. (United States)

    Bidell, Markus P; Stepleman, Lara M


    There are exigent reasons to foster lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) competence, training, and ethical care for health professionals within an interdisciplinary paradigm. LGBT individuals experience serious health and psychosocial disparities; moreover, these inequalities can be amplified when other aspects of diversity such as race, ethnicity, age, gender, religion, disability, and socioeconomic status intersect with sexual orientation and gender identity (Institute of Medicine [IOM], 2011). While the origins of LGBT health and psychosocial disparities are manifold, deficiencies in professional training, ethical care, and clinical competence are underlying contributors (IOM, 2011). In addition, LGBT clinical competency advancements are often siloed within the various health care disciplines-thus advances by one group of health professionals often have limited impact for those practicing in different health and human service fields. This special issue explores LGBT clinical competence, professional training, and ethical care within an interdisciplinary context and, to our knowledge, represents the first attempt to address LGBT clinical competence from a multidisciplinary health care perspective.

  17. [Health challenges as the second millenium is ending. Conceptual epidemiology, social pathology, medicine and professional ethics]. (United States)

    Velasco Suárez, M


    In this article it is outlined the work of doctor Bustamante in fighting against diseases such as yellow fever, typhus, malaria, and smallpox; and the development and impel that this professional gave to preventive and social medicine is pointed out. It is established that health care professionals currently must not only highly studied and prepared, as they should manage all features related with public health, but also change-men-and-women who are capable to influence future generations, which will be the responsible in relocating men at the equilibrium point concerned to their health. Said equilibrium point is not only modified in its biopsychosocial aspect, but also its essence is deeply affected. This paper is a warning to physicians to fight together in response to humanity, that has set their confidence in them, as the current problem of drugs and dependence to drugs unhinges everything wholeness. To doctor Suarez is intolerable that, in spite of technological advances in the world, yet exist deaths caused by pneumonia or diarrhea. The hazards of the century are frightened: nuclear war and AIDS; but the characteristics that have distinguished human species and allowed its survival and superation are trusted: mental activity, ability of judgement, and consciousness; which are valuable for a deep philosophic discussion that allows us to continue our advance. An enumeration of the medicine achievements in this century is made.

  18. Vidas em risco: a identidade profissional dos bombeiros militares Lives at risk: the professional identity of the military firemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Regina da Natividade


    Full Text Available Este artigo discute a configuração da identidade profissional do Bombeiro Militar da região da grande Florianópolis, SC. Para contemplar tal objetivo geral, os objetivos específicos e o referencial teórico enfocaram: caracterização da profissão, identidade, trabalho, escolha profissional e qualidade de vida. Quanto ao método, a pesquisa definiu-se como exploratória e descritiva, delineada como um levantamento. Utilizou-se um questionário semi-aberto. Analisaram-se os dados quantitativa e qualitativamente. Participaram da pesquisa 266 Praças do 1º Batalhão do Corpo de Bombeiros. Por meio desta pesquisa, foi possível concluir que esses profissionais sentem-se realizados com sua profissão, muito embora possuam queixas, as quais não são sobre o conteúdo da profissão, mas sim sobre falta de condições para exercê-la e sobre aspectos organizacionais. Esses sujeitos "vivem" a profissão mesmo fora do seu horário de trabalho. Também foi possível verificar que, assim como as teorias afirmam, o trabalho é um fator constituinte da identidade do sujeito.This article discourses the configuration of the professional identity of the Military Firemen from the region of the Greater Florianópolis, SC. To contemplate such general objective, the specific objectives and the theoretical referencial focused on: characterization of the profession, identity, work, professional choice and quality of life. As method, the research was defined as exploratory and descriptive, delineated as a survey. An half-open questionnaire was used. The data was analyzed in a qualitative and quantitative form. Participated in the research, 266 "praças" of the 1st Firemen Battalion. With this research, it was possible to conclude that these professionals feel themselves carried through with their profession although complaints exist, which are not on the content of the profession, but on the lack of conditions to fulfil it and on organizacional aspects. These

  19. Ethical Behavior and Ajzen’s Theory of Planned Behavior Applied to the Decision to Obtain Professional Credentials (United States)


    present a five-step process for making an ethical decision ( Velasquez , Moberg, Meyer, Shanks, McLean, DeCosse, Andre, and Hanson, 2009). This...reasoned action and the theory of planned behavior. Journal of Business Ethics , 17, 1825. Civil engineering body of knowledge for the 21st century...philosophies. Journal of Business Ethics , 11(5), 461. Forsyth, D. R. (2014a). Ethics position questionnaire. Retrieved from https

  20. The Case of Dr. Oz: Ethics, Evidence, and Does Professional Self-Regulation Work? (United States)

    Tilburt, Jon C; Allyse, Megan; Hafferty, Frederic W


    Dr. Mehmet Oz is widely known not just as a successful media personality donning the title "America's Doctor ® ," but, we suggest, also as a physician visibly out of step with his profession. A recent, unsuccessful attempt to censure Dr. Oz raises the issue of whether the medical profession can effectively self-regulate at all. It also raises concern that the medical profession's self-regulation might be selectively activated, perhaps only when the subject of professional censure has achieved a level of public visibility. We argue here that the medical profession must look at itself with a healthy dose of self-doubt about whether it has sufficient knowledge of or handle on the less visible Dr. "Ozes" quietly operating under the profession's presumptive endorsement. © 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Protestant Ethics in Academia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kucharska, Anna


    .... This article seeks to examine professional academic ethics in terms of two chosen theories, that is, the Protestant work ethic of Max Weber and its adaptation to the academic environment by Robert K. Merton...

  2. Formação profissional ética: um compromisso a partir das diretrizes curriculares? Ethical professional education: a commitment based on the curricular guidelines?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirelle Finkler


    Full Text Available Esta reflexão problematiza o discurso e a prática que se estabelecem em torno do tema da formação ética dos profissionais da saúde e, mais particularmente, do cirurgião-dentista, situando o atual momento de implantação das Diretrizes Curriculares Nacionais no ensino superior brasileiro. Procura-se, desta forma, indicar alguns limites e possibilidades para uma formação ética condizente com o novo perfil profissional almejado.This reflection questions the discourse and practice surrounding the ethical education of health professionals and, more particularly, of dentists, situating the current state of deployment of the National Curriculum Guidelines in Brazilian Higher Education. The goal is to point to a few limits and possibilities for an ethical education in line with the new professional profile that is sought.

  3. Behavioral Ethics and Teaching Ethical Decision Making (United States)

    Drumwright, Minette; Prentice, Robert; Biasucci, Cara


    Business education often renders students less likely to act ethically. An infusion of liberal learning in the form of behavioral ethics could improve this situation by prompting students to develop higher levels of professionalism that encompass ethics, social responsibility, self-critical reflection, and personal accountability. More…

  4. Obstetric professionals? perceptions of non-invasive prenatal testing for Down syndrome: clinical usefulness compared with existing tests and ethical implications


    Ngan, Olivia Miu Yung; Yi, Huso; Wong, Samuel Yeung Shan; Sahota, Daljit; Ahmed, Shenaz


    Background While non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) for fetal aneuploidy is commercially available in many countries, little is known about how obstetric professionals in non-Western populations perceive the clinical usefulness of NIPT in comparison with existing first-trimester combined screening (FTS) for Down syndrome (DS) or invasive prenatal diagnosis (IPD), or perceptions of their ethical concerns arising from the use of NIPT. Methods A cross-sectional survey among 327 obstetric profe...

  5. Methods of incorporating understanding of professional and ethical responsibility in the engineering curriculum and results from the Fundamentals of Engineering examination (United States)

    Barry, Brock Edward

    This study evaluated the methods of incorporating professionalism and ethics in the engineering curriculum to determine the nature of the relationship between the curriculum model used and outcomes on a nationally administered, engineering-specific standardized examination. The study's population included engineering students enrolled at one of nine southeastern public universities between October 1996 and April 2005. The institutions are partners in the Multiple-Institution Database for Investigating Engineering Longitudinal Development (MIDFIELD) project. A mixed-methods (quantitative and qualitative) research program was designed and implemented. The qualitative aspects of the study focused on research questions related to the impetus and considerations given to curriculum changes made by the 23 engineering programs that participated in the study. The qualitative research questions were investigated using semi-structured interviews conducted with program representatives and evaluation of 49 ABET Self-Study accreditation documents. The curriculum model used by each of the participating programs were identified and defined for the period of the study and quantitatively compared to performance on the ethics section of the Fundamentals of Engineering (FE) Examination. The FE Examination is prepared and administered by the National Council for Engineering and Surveying (NCEES) and is the only nationally administered, engineering-specific, standardized assessment that measures performance on ABET-related criteria. A student-level dataset of subject scores was obtained for the FE Examination for all of the MIDFIELD programs. This study represents the first published attempt to utilize NCEES data for the purpose of rigorous educational research. Statistical techniques were used to evaluate the relationship between curriculum methods and examination performance. The findings indicate a statistical relationship, but a lack of structure between the amount of required

  6. Military Review: The Professional Journal of the U.S. Army. Volume 81, Number 4, July-August 2001 (United States)


    wars for eco- nomic purposes. The British military serves the monarch and suffers wounds in service of queen and country. British military culture is...noncom- bat operations in a combat zone. 3. American, British, Canadian, Australian (ABCA) RAINBOW SERPENT Post Exercise Report, (Rosslyn, VA: ABCA

  7. The ethics of drone warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatić Aleksandar


    Full Text Available The paper investigates the compatibility of the modern technologies of warfare, specifically the use of offensive drones, with traditional military ethics and suggests that the new technologies radically change the value system of the military in ways which make large parts of the traditional military ethics inapplicable. The author suggests that Agamben’s concept of ‘effectivity’ through ‘special actions’ which mark one’s belonging to a particular community or profession is a useful conceptual strategy to explore the compatibility of drone warfare with traditional military ethics; this strategy shows mixed results at best.

  8. Los Valores Ético-profesionales que Promueven los Documentos Rectores de un Universidad Pública en México. The Professional Ethic Values Promoted by Governing Documents of a Public University in Mexico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cecilia Osuna Lever; Edna Luna Serrano


    This study analyses the professional-ethic values promoted by education policy in public university education in Mexico, the semantic correspondence of said policy with programs, and the strategies...

  9. Code of ethics: principles for ethical leadership. (United States)

    Flite, Cathy A; Harman, Laurinda B


    The code of ethics for a professional association incorporates values, principles, and professional standards. A review and comparative analysis of a 1934 pledge and codes of ethics from 1957, 1977, 1988, 1998, 2004, and 2011 for a health information management association was conducted. Highlights of some changes in the healthcare delivery system are identified as a general context for the codes of ethics. The codes of ethics are examined in terms of professional values and changes in the language used to express the principles of the various codes.

  10. Global Ethics Applied: Global Ethics, Economic Ethics


    Stückelberger, Christoph


    Global Ethics Applied’ in four volumes is a reader of 88 selected articles from the author on 13 domains: Vol. 1 Global Ethics, Economic Ethics; Vol. 2 Environmental Ethics; Vol. 3 Development Ethics, Political Ethics, Dialogue and Peace Ethics, Innovation and Research Ethics, Information and Communication Ethics; Vol. 4 Bioethics and Medical Ethics, Family Ethics and Sexual Ethics, Leadership Ethics, Theological Ethics and Ecclesiology, Methods of Ethics. It concludes with the extended Bibli...

  11. Professionalism and Work Ethic among U. S. and Asian University Students in a Global Classroom: A Multi-Cultural Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Swart


    Full Text Available Professionalism and work ethic, as reflected by selfregulation, has been and continues to be an important attribute of a competitive work force. This paper compared the academic self-regulation of U.S. vs. Asian students enrolled in a Global Classroom course at a large southeastern university. Students were asked to respond to 10 specific pro-academic behaviors in regard to what they were actually doing (actual engagement and what they felt they should be doing (intended engagement specific to achieving academic success. The results indicated that students from both the U.S. and Asia exhibited limited self-regulation in the pursuit of behaviors leading to academic success in comparison to what they reported they should be doing. There was not a significant difference between U.S. and Asian students in self-reported actual engagement in pro-academic behaviors. However, Asian students presented less of a discrepancy between actual and intended engagement in proacademic behaviors in comparison to their U.S. counterparts. This was based on Asian students' rating of intended behaviors lower than U.S. students. A notable difference was also found in that the Asian students self-regulated better than their U.S. counterparts in terms of pro-academic behaviors that were not directly observable. For Asian students there was not a discrepancy in self-reported engagement of observable vs. non-observable behaviors The U.S. students, however, appeared to be more amenable to external motivation (e.g. having the instructor be able to observe their behavior and less likely to engage in non-observable behaviors leading to academic success.

  12. Educating for ethical leadership. (United States)

    Gallagher, Ann; Tschudin, Verena


    In this article we consider the nature of ethical leadership in nursing. An appreciation of the basis of such leadership requires an understanding of responsibility and of key intellectual and ethical qualities or virtues. We examine some of the educational and practice strategies to promote ethical leadership. We argue that there are different levels of ethical leadership. All members of the nursing workforce are ethical leaders in so far as they demonstrate a commitment to ethical practice in their everyday work and act as ethical role models for others. Nurse managers are responsible for influencing their team and for acting as arbiters between organisational and professional values. Nurse educators are role models and ethical leaders as they ensure that the explicit and hidden curriculum demonstrate a commitment to professional values. Nurses who assume political roles have an obligation to lead on ethical agenda compatible with the values of nursing.

  13. [Diagnosis of a systolic murmur among young asymptomatic patient: An assessment of professional practices for the expertise in military medicine]. (United States)

    Boeuf, M-C; Rohel, G; Lamour, G; Piquemal, M; Paleiron, N; Fouilland, X; Le Nestour, C; Vinsonneau, U; Paez, S; Paule, P


    The finding of a systolic heart murmur is common in medical military practice. Albeit often benign among young healthy adults, it can reveal a valvular or a cardiac disease, which could worsen during workout or expose to risk of a sudden death. This study aims to evaluate the diagnostic efficiency of the military general practitioner when discovering a systolic murmur among young asymptomatic patients. During one year, this study involved all the general practitioners of the medical military centres of Brittany and the cardiologists of the military hospital in Brest. It prospectively enrolled a cohort of all military asymptomatic patients under 40, without any underlying known heart condition. Military general practitioners listed, thanks to an anonymous form, the main features of the systolic murmur and of the ECG and proposed an auscultatory diagnosis: innocent or organic murmur. Then cardiologists did the same and finally performed a transthoracic echocardiography giving the diagnosis. Fifty-eight patients were referred, 5 not meeting the inclusion criteria. Of the 53 patients included, military general practitioners found 46 innocent murmurs and 7 organic ones. Cardiologists found 51 innocent murmurs and 2 organic. Transthoracic echocardiography just took on one organic murmur (linked with a bicuspid aortic valve), spotted by the specialist, though judged innocent by the general practitioner. Most of innocent murmurs diagnosed by general practitioners (45/46) were confirmed. Regarding the seven organic murmurs, the main selected criteria (intensity over 3, orthostatic persistence, diffuse irradiation) are mostly in accordance with the literature, proving right medical instincts. Authors propose a practical management of systolic murmurs among asymptomatic young patients. Military general practitioners seem to master symptoms of organic murmur. This assessment argues for a promotion of a holistic clinical examination, which will help not only to rationalize the

  14. Strategic Studies Quarterly: An Air Force-Sponsored Strategic Forum for Military, Government, and Academic Professionals. Volume 1, Number 2 (United States)


    the seminal conflict of the current era and will serve as a paradigm for future strategic decisions." I Thomas R. Mockaitis tells us that Iraq "is...Longman, 1999). 7. Thomas I.. McNaugher, New Weapons, Old Politics: Americas Military Procurement Muddle (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press...greatest military and political victory. Caroline Glick , "Column One: 𔃻 e World According to Olmert," Jerusalem Post, 28 September 2006, hittp://www [138] S

  15. A Normative Model of the Essential Qualities, Characteristics, and Background Requirements for a Professional Senior Military Logistician. (United States)


    definition of logistics which was more concise than the definition of his earlier edition: "Logistics-- That branch of the military art which embraces the...better defini- tion and clarification. (41:2) In short, Masterson contended there was no clear definition of logistics and this was a major source for the military forces. (19:401) Though Masterson said that "no adequate definition of logistics " existed, he nonetheless provided his own

  16. Engineering ethics challenges and opportunities

    CERN Document Server

    Bowen, W Richard


    Engineering Ethics: Challenges and Opportunities aims to set a new agenda for the engineering profession by developing a key challenge: can the great technical innovation of engineering be matched by a corresponding innovation in the acceptance and expression of ethical responsibility?  Central features of this stimulating text include:   ·         An analysis of engineering as a technical and ethical practice providing great opportunities for promoting the wellbeing and agency of individuals and communities. ·         Elucidation of the ethical opportunities of engineering in three key areas:             - Engineering for Peace, emphasising practical amelioration of the root causes of    conflict rather than military solutions.             - Engineering for Health, focusing on close collaboration with healthcare professionals      for both the promotion and restoration of health.             - Engineering for Development, providing effective solution...

  17. Professional Military Reading (United States)


    shortcomings, how would you address them? p. 282. "...’(The stragglers) are damned If they are going to stay (to fight).. .A young sprinting subaltern heads...they should find another line of work. It should also be emphasized that having fun does not mean making sure that there is volleyball time every day or

  18. Study on Military Professionalism (United States)


    eds. Taking Command. Harrisburg: Stackpole Company, 1967. 25. Herzberg , Fredericle. "Mutivation Through Job Enrichment." (Film) Ub Army Film...Catalog Numher MF 61-5277B, 1965. 26. Herzbtrg, Frederick ; Maisnrr, Berna.J; t ad Snyderman, Barbara B. The Motivation to Work. 2d ed. New York: John Wiley

  19. Abiding by codes of ethics and codes of conduct imposed on members of learned and professional geoscience institutions and - a tiresome formality or a win-win for scientific and professional integrity and protection of the public? (United States)

    Allington, Ruth; Fernandez, Isabel


    In 2012, the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) formed the Task Group on Global Geoscience Professionalism ("TG-GGP") to bring together the expanding network of organizations around the world whose primary purpose is self-regulation of geoscience practice. An important part of TG-GGP's mission is to foster a shared understanding of aspects of professionalism relevant to individual scientists and applied practitioners working in one or more sectors of the wider geoscience profession (e.g. research, teaching, industry, geoscience communication and government service). These may be summarised as competence, ethical practice, and professional, technical and scientific accountability. Legal regimes for the oversight of registered or licensed professionals differ around the world and in many jurisdictions there is no registration or licensure with the force of law. However, principles of peer-based self-regulation universally apply. This makes professional geoscience organisations ideal settings within which geoscientists can debate and agree what society should expect of us in the range of roles we fulfil. They can provide the structures needed to best determine what expectations, in the public interest, are appropriate for us collectively to impose on each other. They can also provide the structures for the development of associated procedures necessary to identify and discipline those who do not live up to the expected standards of behaviour established by consensus between peers. Codes of Ethics (sometimes referred to as Codes of Conduct), to which all members of all major professional and/or scientific geoscience organizations are bound (whether or not they are registered or hold professional qualifications awarded by those organisations), incorporate such traditional tenets as: safeguarding the health and safety of the public, scientific integrity, and fairness. Codes also increasingly include obligations concerning welfare of the environment and

  20. Ethical decision-making in forensic psychology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Swanepoel, M


    ..., this article offers material on some important issues - in the context of forensic psychology - such as ethical decision-making and principles, professional ethics, the regulation of psychology...

  1. Ethical Grand Rounds: Teaching Ethics at the Point of Care. (United States)

    Airth-Kindree, Norah M M; Kirkhorn, Lee-Ellen C


    We offer an educational innovation called Ethical Grand Rounds (EGR) as a teaching strategy to enhance ethical decision-making. Nursing students participate in EGR-flexible ethical laboratories, where they take stands on ethical dilemmas, arguing for--or against--an ethical principle. This process provides the opportunity to move past normative ethics, that is, an ideal ethical stance in accord with ethical conduct codes, to applied ethics, what professional nurses would do in actual clinical practice, given the constraints that exist in contemporary care settings. EGR serves as a vehicle to translate "what ought to be" into "what is."

  2. The Ambiguity of Foreign Military Assistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugesen, Henrik

    This study tests the argument that Foreign Military Assistance and the consequently professionalizing of the recipient military has a positive effect on the process of democratization in Kenya.......This study tests the argument that Foreign Military Assistance and the consequently professionalizing of the recipient military has a positive effect on the process of democratization in Kenya....

  3. The ethical landscape of professional care in everyday practice as perceived by staff: A qualitative content analysis of ethical diaries written by staff in child and adolescent psychiatric in-patient care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelto-Piri Veikko


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although there has been some empirical research on ethics concerning the attitudes and approaches of staff in relation to adult patients, there is very little to be found on child and adolescent psychiatric care. In most cases researchers have defined which issues are important, for instance, coercive care. The aim of this study was to provide a qualitative description of situations and experiences that gave rise to ethical problems and considerations as reported by staff members on child and adolescent psychiatric wards, although they were not provided with a definition of the concept. Methods The study took place in six child and adolescent psychiatric wards in Sweden. All staff members involved with patients on these wards were invited to participate. The staff members were asked to keep an ethical diary over the course of one week, and data collection comprised the diaries handed in by 68 persons. Qualitative content analysis was used in order to analyse the diaries. Results In the analysis three themes emerged; 1 good care 2 loyalty and 3 powerlessness. The theme ‘good care’ contains statements about the ideal of commitment but also about problems living up to the ideal. Staff members emphasized the importance of involving patients and parents in the care, but also of the need for professional distance. Participants seldom perceived decisions about coercive measures as problematic, in contrast to those about pressure and restrictions, especially in the case of patients admitted for voluntary care. The theme ‘loyalty’ contains statements in which staff members perceived contradictory expectations from different interested parties, mainly parents but also their supervisor, doctors, colleagues and the social services. The theme ‘powerlessness’ contains statements about situations that create frustration, in which freedom of action is perceived as limited and can concern inadequacy in relation to patients and

  4. The ethical landscape of professional care in everyday practice as perceived by staff: A qualitative content analysis of ethical diaries written by staff in child and adolescent psychiatric in-patient care. (United States)

    Pelto-Piri, Veikko; Engström, Karin; Engström, Ingemar


    Although there has been some empirical research on ethics concerning the attitudes and approaches of staff in relation to adult patients, there is very little to be found on child and adolescent psychiatric care. In most cases researchers have defined which issues are important, for instance, coercive care. The aim of this study was to provide a qualitative description of situations and experiences that gave rise to ethical problems and considerations as reported by staff members on child and adolescent psychiatric wards, although they were not provided with a definition of the concept. The study took place in six child and adolescent psychiatric wards in Sweden. All staff members involved with patients on these wards were invited to participate. The staff members were asked to keep an ethical diary over the course of one week, and data collection comprised the diaries handed in by 68 persons. Qualitative content analysis was used in order to analyse the diaries. In the analysis three themes emerged; 1) good care 2) loyalty and 3) powerlessness. The theme 'good care' contains statements about the ideal of commitment but also about problems living up to the ideal. Staff members emphasized the importance of involving patients and parents in the care, but also of the need for professional distance. Participants seldom perceived decisions about coercive measures as problematic, in contrast to those about pressure and restrictions, especially in the case of patients admitted for voluntary care. The theme 'loyalty' contains statements in which staff members perceived contradictory expectations from different interested parties, mainly parents but also their supervisor, doctors, colleagues and the social services. The theme 'powerlessness' contains statements about situations that create frustration, in which freedom of action is perceived as limited and can concern inadequacy in relation to patients and violations in the workplace. The ethical considerations described by

  5. Ethics for Fundraisers. (United States)

    Anderson, Albert

    Intended for professionals and others in the field of philanthropy, this book applies ethics and ethical decision-making to fund raising. Its primary aim is to enhance the level of ethical fund raising throughout the nonprofit sector by equipping those involved with frameworks for understanding and taking principled actions and preventing…

  6. The Impact of Combat Deployment on Health Care Provider Burnout in a Military Emergency Department: A Cross-Sectional Professional Quality of Life Scale V Survey Study. (United States)

    Cragun, Joshua N; April, Michael D; Thaxton, Robert E


    Compassion fatigue is a problem for many health care providers manifesting as physical, mental, and spiritual exhaustion. Our objective was to evaluate the association between prior combat deployment and compassion fatigue among military emergency medicine providers. We conducted a nonexperimental cross-sectional survey of health care providers assigned to the San Antonio Military Medical Center, Department of Emergency Medicine. We used the Professional Quality of Life Scale V survey instrument that evaluates provider burnout, secondary traumatic stress, and compassion satisfaction. Outcomes included burnout, secondary traumatic stress, and compassion satisfaction raw scores. Scores were compared between providers based on previous combat deployments using two-tailed independent sample t tests and multiple regression models. Surveys were completed by 105 respondents: 42 nurses (20 previously deployed), 30 technicians (11 previously deployed), and 33 physicians (16 previously deployed). No statistically significant differences in burnout, secondary traumatic stress, or compassion satisfaction scores were detected between previously deployed providers versus providers not previously deployed. There was no association between previous combat deployment and emergency department provider burnout, secondary traumatic stress, or compassion satisfaction scores. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  7. Engineering Ethics In Islam: An Evaluative And Comparative Study Between Code Of Ethics Of Institution Of Engineers, Bangladesh (Ieb And Code Of Professional Conduct Of Board Of Engineers Malaysia (BEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Amanullah


    Full Text Available During the past two centuries or so a number of buildings and bridges had been structurally failed and collapsed all over the world. Some of these incidents caused a sizeable number of human casualties. For instance, collapse of Tay Bridge in 1879 killed at least sixty persons. Beside the problems related to their design and construction, probably the failure to follow engineering ethics properly was partially responsible for these incidents. Growing engineering professionalism during the nineteenth century gave rise to the development of a number of famous engineering societies, such as American Institute of Electrical Engineers (AIEE ( (1884, American Institute of Mining Engineers (AIME (1871, etc. On the other hand, responding to series of significant structural failures mentioned above, some engineering societies developed formal codes of ethics. Following these societies, engineers of Bangladesh (previous East Pakistan established Institution of Engineers, Bangladesh (IEB. Likewise, Malaysian engineers established Board of Engineers Malaysia (BEM. Both of these societies have their codes of ethics. Islam also has offered a number of ethics to be followed by the engineers. Analyzing the related verses of the Qur'an and ahadith of the Prophet (pbuh, this paper intends to highlight these Islamic ethics and in light of them, tries to evaluate the codes of ethics of these two societies and compare between them. The paper may conclude that although the codes of ethics of IEB and BEM are supported by Islamic ethics they require further modification.ABSTRAK - Sejak lebih kurang dua abad kebelakangan ini, banyak binaan yang gagal dari segi strukturnya dan juga jambatan yang runtuh di merata dunia. Sesetengah tragedi yang berlaku juga mengakibatkan kehilangan nyawa manusia. Contohnya, robohnya Jambatan Tay pada 1879 telah meragut nyawa lebih kurang enam puluh orang. Selain daripada masalah yang berkaitan dengan reka bentuk dan pembinaanya, mungkin

  8. Obstetric professionals' perceptions of non-invasive prenatal testing for Down syndrome: clinical usefulness compared with existing tests and ethical implications. (United States)

    Ngan, Olivia Miu Yung; Yi, Huso; Wong, Samuel Yeung Shan; Sahota, Daljit; Ahmed, Shenaz


    While non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) for fetal aneuploidy is commercially available in many countries, little is known about how obstetric professionals in non-Western populations perceive the clinical usefulness of NIPT in comparison with existing first-trimester combined screening (FTS) for Down syndrome (DS) or invasive prenatal diagnosis (IPD), or perceptions of their ethical concerns arising from the use of NIPT. A cross-sectional survey among 327 obstetric professionals (237 midwives, 90 obstetricians) in Hong Kong. Compared to FTS, NIPT was believed to: provide more psychological benefits and enable earlier consideration of termination of pregnancy. Compared to IPD, NIPT was believed to: provide less psychological stress for high-risk women and more psychological assurance for low-risk women, and offer an advantage to detect chromosomal abnormalities earlier. Significant differences in perceived clinical usefulness were found by profession and healthcare sector: (1) obstetricians reported more certain views towards the usefulness of NIPT than midwives and (2) professionals in the public sector perceived less usefulness of NIPT than the private sector. Beliefs about earlier detection of DS using NIPT were associated with ethical concerns about increasing abortion. Participants believing that NIPT provided psychological assurance among low-risk women were less likely to be concerned about ethical issues relating to informed decision-making and pre-test consultation for NIPT. Our findings suggest the need for political debate initially on how to ensure pregnant women accessing public services are informed about commercially available more advanced technology, but also on the potential implementation of NIPT within public services to improve access and equity to DS screening services.

  9. Military Review: The Professional Journal of the U.S. Army, June 2008. Special Edition: Interagency Reader (United States)


    ill ia m G re er 24 May-June 2008, p9  MILITARY REVIEW on the whole, America faces major challenges in ensuring it is able to capably...D A N G E R O U S F U T U R E MILITARY REVIEW  September-October 2007, p9 If nATo is to continue to be relevant, especially in an asymmetric...insert non-kinetic events into the training plan were thwarted by commanders who feared “mission creep ” into roles they didn’t think belonged to

  10. Transgressive ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeyer, Klaus; Jensen, Anja Marie Bornø


    of treatment norms, we must move close to everyday work practices and appreciate the importance of material–technical treatment options as well as the interplay of professional ethics and identity. The cardiac treatment of brain-dead donors may thereby illuminate how treatment norms develop on the ground...

  11. Ethics: Can It Be Taught (United States)


    conduct Professional practices Business practices ETHICS : CAN IT BE TAUGHT? 49 Figure 11. Changes in Metacognitive Reasoning Strategy Due to...jealousy manifesting in such behaviors as moodiness, frustration, and loneliness) negatively correlates to ethical decision-making in business rule-based compliance program but not a value-based ETHICS : CAN IT BE TAUGHT? 54 ethics program . . . the importance of leadership

  12. Whistleblowing & Professional Responsibilities. (United States)

    Professional Engineer, 1979


    Discussed are the moral dilemmas encountered daily by professionals and how the teaching of ethics may help resolve the conflicts individuals face with respect to whistleblowing. Included are consideration of responsibilities, role of ethics codes, and courses on professional ethics. (CS)

  13. Ethical issues related to professional exposure of pregnant women in the medical field: monitoring and limiting effective dose. (United States)

    Santos, J A M; Nunes, R


    The International Commission on Radiological Protection recommendations for occupational exposed pregnant women do not imply necessarily the complete avoidance of work with radiation or radioactive materials. Instead, a careful review of the exposure conditions, once the pregnancy is declared, as part of the exercise of the ICRP optimisation principle (based in a teleological ethics point of view) is suggested. The dose limitation (following a deontological ethics point of view) of the fetus/embryo is, however, not clearly well established as happens in the case of workers or members of the public. Also, the justification of practices (to continue to work or not with radiation or radioactive materials) is not clearly addressed in most national or international recommendations. An analysis of this justification (bearing in mind both teleological and deontological ethics) is examined in this work having in mind the best interest of the child-to-be as well as other existing social and economical factors.

  14. The doctor and the market: about the influence of market reforms on the professional medical ethics of surgeons and general practitioners in the Netherlands. (United States)

    Dwarswaard, Jolanda; Hilhorst, Medard; Trappenburg, Margo


    To explore whether market reforms in a health care system affect medical professional ethics of hospital-based specialists on the one hand and physicians in independent practices on the other. Qualitative interviews with 27 surgeons and 28 general practitioners in The Netherlands, held 2-3 years after a major overhaul of the Dutch health care system involving several market reforms. Surgeons now regularly advertise their work (while this was forbidden in the past) and pay more attention to patients with relatively minor afflictions, thus deviating from codes of ethics that oblige physicians to treat each other as brothers and to treat patients according to medical need. Dutch GPs have abandoned their traditional reticence and their fear of medicalization. They now seem to treat more in accordance with patients' preferences and less in accordance with medical need. Market reforms do affect medical professional principles, and it is doubtful whether these changes were intended when Dutch policy makers decided to introduce market elements in the health care system. Policy makers in other countries considering similar reforms should pay attention to these results.

  15. Professionals vs. role-professionals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milana, Marcella; Skrypnyk, Oleksandra


    several occupations in the field of adult education that position themselves along a continuum. Consequently the authors suggest that professionalization among adult education practitioners should be assessed in light of the knowledge about adult learning theories practitioners possess, the ethical...

  16. Introducing the Medical Ethics Bowl. (United States)

    Merrick, Allison; Green, Rochelle; Cunningham, Thomas V; Eisenberg, Leah R; Hester, D Micah


    Although ethics is an essential component of undergraduate medical education, research suggests that current medical ethics curricula face considerable challenges in improving students' ethical reasoning. This article discusses these challenges and introduces a promising new mode of graduate and professional ethics instruction for overcoming them. We begin by describing common ethics curricula, focusing in particular on established problems with current approaches. Next, we describe a novel method of ethics education and assessment for medical students that we have devised: the Medical Ethics Bowl (MEB). Finally, we suggest the pedagogical advantages of the MEB when compared to other ethics curricula.

  17. Ethics problems and theories in public relations


    Grunig, James E.


    Public relations professionals encounter ethical problems as individuals who make decisions about their professional lives. They also serve as ethical counselors to organizations, a role in which they help organizations behave in ethical, responsible, and sustainable ways. This introduction defines ethics and social responsibility and discusses the possibilities and obstacles that public relations professionals face in the role of ethical counselor. Seven research problems in public relations...

  18. From ethical competence to ethical leadership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heres, L.; Lasthuizen, K.M.; Menzel, D.; Cooper, T.


    This book shows students entering the public service as well as professionals in the field how to become ethically competent to provide the leadership needed to advance the public interest. The contributors address three central questions: --What does it mean to be ethically competent? --How does

  19. To Know or Not to Know? Integrating Ethical Aspects of Genomic Healthcare in the Education of Health Professionals (United States)

    Eriksen, Kathrine Krageskov


    Novel possibilities for employing genetic testing as part of the diagnostic process for a wide variety of diseases and conditions are emerging almost every day. This development brings prospects of more efficient treatment and prevention of serious and often lethal conditions. However, it also raises ethical questions concerning the issue of…

  20. Special Education Leadership: Integrating Professional and Personal Codes of Ethics to Serve the Best Interests of the Child (United States)

    Bon, Susan C.; Bigbee, Adam J.


    Special education teachers who also serve as case managers for students with disabilities are in unique leadership positions in which they face complex ethical dilemmas and are called on to make decisions that involve multiple competing interests and pressures. The purpose of this study was to explore how special education leaders identify ethical…

  1. Formulating the American Geophysical Union's Scientific Integrity and Professional Ethics Policy: Challenges and lessons learned: Chapter 8 (United States)

    Gundersen, Linda C.; Townsend, Randy


    Creating an ethics policy for a large, diverse geosciences organization is a challenge, especially in the midst of the current contentious dialogue in the media related to such issues as climate change, sustaining natural resources, and responding to natural hazards. In 2011, the American Geophysical Union (AGU) took on this challenge, creating an Ethics Task Force to update their ethics policies to better support their new Strategic Plan and respond to the changing scientific research environment. Dialogue with AGU members and others during the course of creating the new policy unveiled some of the following issues to be addressed. Scientific results and individual scientists are coming under intense political and public scrutiny, with the efficacy of the science being questioned. In some cases, scientists are asked to take sides and/or provide opinions on issues beyond their research, impacting their objectivity. Pressure related to competition for funding and the need to publish high quality and quantities of papers has led to recent high profile plagiarism, data fabrication, and conflict of interest cases. The complexities of a continuously advancing digital environment for conducting, reviewing, and publishing science has raised concerns over the ease of plagiarism, fabrication, falsification, inappropriate peer review, and the need for better accessibility of data and methods. Finally, students and scientists need consistent education and encouragement on the importance of ethics and integrity in scientific research. The new AGU Scientific Integrity and Ethics Policy tries to address these issues and provides an inspirational code of conduct to encourage a responsible, positive, open, and honest scientific research environment.

  2. The meaning of ethically charged encounters and their possible influence on professional identity in Norwegian public health nursing: a phenomenological hermeneutic study. (United States)

    Dahl, Berit Misund; Clancy, Anne; Andrews, Therese


    In today's health care, new health reforms focus on market values and demands of efficiency influence health workers' professional practice. Norwegian public health nurses work mainly with healthy populations, but the children, families and young people they meet can be in vulnerable and even dependent situations. Strategies in coping with ethically challenging encounters can be important for the identity of the profession. The aim of the study was to illuminate public health nurses' experiences of being in ethically charged encounters and to reflect upon how these experiences can influence their professional identity. A purposive sample of 23 Norwegian public health nurses with experience ranging from 0.5 to 25 years narrated about their work-related experiences. The interviews were interpreted with a phenomenological hermeneutic method inspired by the philosophy of Paul Ricoeur. Four themes were identified: feeling responsible, being committed, feeling confident and feeling inadequate. These experiences were related to both work and private life and involved an emotional commitment to the well-being of children, young people and families. On the basis of the findings, it can be estimated that PHNs are committed to their work, and defending children's rights is a strong driving force. Responsibility for service users is a deciding factor that can overshadow institutional demands. It seems as if value conflicts mobilised courage which is essential in maintaining moral strength. This is in turn important for a strong professional identity and can have positive implications for the quality of public health nursing work. © 2013 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  3. Are We Too Dumb to Execute Our Own Doctrine : An Analysis of Professional Military Education, Talent Management, and Their Ability to Meet the Intent of The Capstone Concept for Joint Operations (United States)


    Based on a loss of intellectual capital and the current gaps in the area of joint professional military education and training, the Joint Force will...never meet the intent of The Capstone Concept for Joint Operations: Joint Force 2020 (CCJO). To stem the loss of joint intellectual capital and

  4. A Short History of War: The Evolution of Warfare and Weapons. Professional Readings in Military Strategy Number 5 (United States)


    CHAPTERS. LETHALITY AND CASUALTIES 105 CHAPTER 7. CONCLUSIONS 113 BIBLIOGRAPHIC ESSAY 117 in MAPS Map 1. The Empire of Sargon of Akkad , 2400 B.C...Sumer for about 200 miles, the site of ancient Akkad can be found. From here, in 2300 B.C., Sargon the Great launched a campaign of military conquest...routinely deployed field armies that were ten times larger than anything seen in the Bronze Age. While the army of Sargon of Akkad in 2300 B.C. is

  5. Scientific Integrity and Professional Ethics at AGU - Strategies and Actions to Impact Sexual Harassment in Science and other Work Climate Issues (United States)

    McPhaden, Michael; Davidson, Eric; McEntee, Christine; Williams, Billy


    The American Geophysical Union (AGU), a scientific society of 62,000 members worldwide, has established a set of scientific integrity and professional ethics guidelines for the actions of its members, for the governance of the union in its internal activities, and for the operations and participation in its publications and scientific meetings. More recently AGU has undertaken strategies and actions to help address the issue of harassment in the sciences and other work climate issues. This presentation will provide an overview of the role of scientific societies in helping to address these important issues, as well as specific strategies and actions underway at AGU and other societies. Progress to date and remaining challenges of this effort will be discussed, including AGU's work to provide additional program strength in this area.

  6. Military Psychology. (United States)


  7. The application of supers theory in the military: culture and gender in the life roles of young professional officers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Kotze


    Full Text Available Political and societal changes in South Africa have resulted in the fundamental transformation of amongst others the personnel composition of the National Defence Force in order to be more representative of the South African population as a whole. As a corollary to this process, the South African Military Academy is making a determined effort to increase the number of black and female students within its student population. Opsomming Politieke en samelewingsveranderinge in Suid-Afrika het aanleiding gegee tot die fundamentele transformasie van ondermeer die personeelsamestelling van die Nasionale Weermag om sodoende verteenwoordigend te wees van die Suid-Afrikaanse bevolking as geheel. Bykomend tot hierdie proses wend die Suid-Afrikaanse Militere Akademie ook n daadwerklike poging aan om die aantal swart en vroulike studente in die studentepopulasie te verhoog.

  8. Corruption or professional dignity: An ethical examination of the phenomenon of "red envelopes" (monetary gifts) in medical practice in China. (United States)

    Zhu, Wei; Wang, Lijie; Yang, Chengshang


    In the medical practice in China, giving and taking "red envelopes" (monetary gifts) is a common phenomenon although few openly admit it. This paper, based on our empirical study including data collected from interviews and questionnaires with medical professionals and patients, attempts to explore why "red envelopes" have become a serious problem in the physician-patient relationship and how the situation can be improved. Previous studies show that scholars tend to correlate the spread of "red envelopes" in health care sector to the commercialization trend, the general erosion of traditional values, and the lowering of the moral level in the medical field. However, in this paper, the authors argue that medical professionals' choice of taking "red envelopes" is actually more a way to compensate for their problematic self-image and marred dignity in real practice. Medical professionals in China as a whole are in an embarrassing situation where the work pressure and income, and the sense of pride that used to be part of their profession are not comparable to each other. Under this circumstance, we believe that the effective way to deal with the "red envelopes" issue does not lie solely in introducing more stringent regulations or granting medical professionals higher payments, but rather in protecting and enhancing the professional dignity of all those working in healthcare. And on top of that, there must also be effort to cultivate a more favorable moral environment. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Virtues and humanitarian ethics. (United States)

    Löfquist, Lars


    This paper analyses the contribution of virtue ethics, the study of good character traits, to the humanitarian context. It argues that a virtue ethics perspective paints a realistic picture of the use of ethical standards in morally complex circumstances. Virtuous relief workers can employ standards in their thinking, but they are also committed to professional excellence that goes beyond any formal code. The concept of virtue ethics places a stress on moral development, which can be facilitated by role models that impart modest and feasible ideals. However, virtue ethics cannot provide simple guidelines on how to resolve difficult situations. It is possible that two virtuous persons can disagree on what should be done in a particular instance. In addition, a virtue ethics perspective emphasises the need for both individuals and organisations to discuss the actual purpose of relief work in order to pinpoint the virtues of a good relief professional. © 2017 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2017.

  10. An empirical analysis of ethical and professional issues in physicians' advertising: A comparative cross-sectional study. (United States)

    Moser, H Ronald; Stevens, Robert; Loudon, David


    The purpose of this study is to investigate current attitudes and opinions of physicians' advertising and to compare them to the attitudes expressed 10 years previously. This study was designed to determine (a) consumers' attitudes toward advertising by physicians, and (b) whether age, occupation, income, education, or sex of consumer accounted for any significant difference in attitudes toward physicians who advertise. The study seems to confirm the belief of many marketing professionals that advertising and marketing do not have a place in the management and operation of professional services.

  11. Code of Ethics. (United States)

    Sheppard, Glenn W.; Schulz, William E.; McMahon, Sylvia-Anne

    This booklet expresses the ethical principles and values of the Canadian Counseling Association and serves as a guide to the professional conduct of all its members. It also informs the public served by the association of the standards of ethical conduct for which members are to be responsible and accountable. This guide reflects the values of…

  12. ASCA Ethical Standards and the Relevance of Eastern Ethical Theories (United States)

    Cook, Amy L.; Houser, Rick A.


    As schools become increasingly diverse through immigration and growth of minority groups, it is important that school counselors incorporate culturally sensitive ethical decision-making in their practice. The use of Western ethical theories in the application of professional codes of ethics provides a specific perspective in ethical…

  13. Research on Ethical Agency : Symposium: empirical ethics in social work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr Ed de Jonge


    Symposium ESWRA - ECSWR 2016: empirical ethics in social work. Objective: ethical aspects of social work (esp. at home) Structure: cooperation of the research group of UAS Utrecht Netherlands with six regional welfare organizations Method: practice based ethics research Focus on professional

  14. Atendimento odontológico ao portador do HIV: medo, preconceito e ética profissional Dental care for HIV-positive individuals: fear, prejudice, and professional ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Augusto César Discacciati


    Full Text Available Objetivo. Descrever os aspectos éticos envolvidos no atendimento odontológico a pacientes HIV soropositivos ou com aids. Métodos. Revisão da literatura mediante consulta a livros texto e busca nos bancos de dados Medline e Lilacs, com ênfase nos trabalhos conduzidos na Faculdade de Odontologia da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais. Foram abordados aspectos como representação social da aids e risco de infecção pelo HIV durante atendimentos, recusa de atendimento, encaminhamento a outro profissional sem motivo justificável, cobrança de honorários diferenciados, imposição de horários especiais e manutenção do sigilo sobre o status sorológico do paciente. Resultados. Ainda existe preconceito e desconhecimento sobre o risco de infecção por HIV e aids, tanto por parte dos cirurgiões dentistas quanto por parte de outros pacientes. Conclusões. É preciso dar início a um projeto de educação nos próprios consultórios e nas universidades que formam novos profissionais, assim como reforçar o papel dos Conselhos Regionais e Federal de Odontologia no esclarecimento sobre a postura ética dos cirurgiões-dentistas diante da infecção por HIV e aids.Objective. To describe the ethical aspects involved in the dental care provided to patients who are HIV-positive or who have AIDS. Methods. Literature review (textbooks and MEDLINE and LILACS databases, with an emphasis on the work developed at the School of Dentistry, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Brazil. We examined the social representation of AIDS, the risk of HIV infection during office visits, the refusal to provide care, referral to other professionals without justification, special charges and office visit hours for HIV-positive patients, and the confidentiality of the serological status of the patient. Results. There is still prejudice and ignorance about the risk of HIV and AIDS infection, on the part of dental surgeons and of patients. Conclusions. An educational

  15. War Machines and Ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Galasz; Buhl, Kenneth Øhlenschlæger


    and save military lives. However, this opens up for discussions about ethical dilemmas about machines that autonomously are able to kill humans: What is an autonomous weapons system? What laws covers the use of fully autonomous weapons systems? Should it apply to International Humanitarian Law?...

  16. Information Warfare and Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Warren


    Full Text Available This paper examines the ethics of the practice of information warfare at both the national and corporate levels. Initially examining the present and past actions of individual hackers, it moves to the more organised, future military and economic warfare scenarios. It examines the lack of legal or policy initiatives in this area.

  17. Toward an horizon in design ethics. (United States)

    d'Anjou, Philippe


    This paper suggests that design ethics can be enriched by considering ethics beyond the traditional approaches of deontology, teleology, and virtue ethics. Design practice and design ethics literature tend to frame ethics in design according to these approaches. The paper argues that a fundamental and concrete ethical understanding of design ethics can also be found in Sartrean Existentialism, a philosophy centered on the individual and his/her absolute freedom. Through the analysis of four core concepts of Sartrean Existentialism that define a specific ethics, the paper illustrates why such philosophical approach is relevant to design ethics. The paper also shows how Sartrean Existentialism and its ethics apply to critical issues of professional practice in design such as professional engagement and design decision-making. The paper finally argues that Sartre's philosophy and ethics is a perspective that offers the designer in design practice a solid ground to engage his/her ethical dilemma.

  18. School Psychologists and Ethical Challenges (United States)

    Kapoulitsas, Maryanne; Corcoran, Tim


    This research explored how psychologists working in the Victorian secondary state school system construct meaning around ethical practice. The specific aims of the research were to examine psychologists understanding of ethics in practice within schools and to explore challenges they faced regarding professional ethics when working in the…

  19. Doctors’ Identity Conflict and Ethical Behaviour in End-of-Life Circumstances Between Professional and Religious Identity


    Carminati, L; Heliot, YingFei; Woods, S


    Purpose Legal changes in medical regulations towards End-of-Life circumstances have led doctors to experience religious and professional identity conflicts and behavioural dilemmas. Despite the detrimental consequences on doctors’ well-being, medicine efficiency and society’s welfare, research on this topic and its underlying mechanisms has been overlooked in organisational studies. The purpose of this propositional paper is to address this gap by offering a new conceptual framework, grounded...

  20. ICT Governance and What to Do About the Toothless Tiger(s: Professional Organizations and Codes of Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Don Gotterbarn


    Full Text Available Information and Communication Technology (ICT has been with us for many years and in the past ten years there has been a growing interest in something called “ICT Governance” as a means of reducing information system disasters. There have been national organizations formed, professional organizations have organized sub-committees to address ICT Governance and it has even been called a “discipline”. The unwrapping of this concept, like many concepts, has several inconsistent interpretations and ineffective implementations in industry. In some cases the concept has been modified to meet a particular sectors needs. This broadening of concepts to fit individual needs is not new and sometimes is quite useful. There is however a fundamental mistake in the narrowness of most interpretations of ICT Governance which make it less likely that it will achieve its ultimate goals. I believe this mistake can and should be addressed by professional computing organizations. In what follows I will examine the various approaches to ICT governance, the difficulty it tries to address and I will argue for what I consider its critical limitations. I will than show how professional organizations can address the weakness of ICT governance using tools they already have at hand.