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Sample records for professional medical judgement

  1. Professional approaches in clinical judgements among senior and junior doctors: implications for medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilhammar Ewa

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical experience has traditionally been highly valued in medical education and clinical healthcare. On account of its multi-faceted nature, clinical experience is mostly difficult to articulate, and is mainly expressed in clinical situations as professional approaches. Due to retirement, hospitals in Scandinavia will soon face a substantial decrease in the number of senior specialist doctors, and it has been discussed whether healthcare will suffer an immense loss of experienced-based knowledge when this senior group leaves the organization. Both senior specialists and junior colleagues are often involved in clinical education, but the way in which these two groups vary in professional approaches and contributions to clinical education has not been so well described. Cognitive psychology has contributed to the understanding of how experience may influence professional approaches, but such studies have not included the effect of differences in position and responsibilities that junior and senior doctors hold in clinical healthcare. In the light of the discussion above, it is essential to describe the professional approaches of senior doctors in relation to those of their junior colleagues. This study therefore aims to describe and compare the professional approaches of junior and senior doctors when making clinical judgements. Methods Critical incident technique was used in interviews with nine senior doctors and nine junior doctors in internal medicine. The interviews were subjected to qualitative content analysis. Result Senior and junior doctors expressed a variety of professional approaches in clinical judgement as follows: use of theoretical knowledge, use of prior experience of cases and courses of events, use of ethical and moral values, meeting and communicating with the patient, focusing on available information, relying on their own ability, getting support and guidance from others and being directed by the

  2. The acceptability of 360-degree judgements as a method of assessing undergraduate medical students' personal and professional behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Charlotte; Shepherd, Maggie

    2005-01-01

    Medical students' personal and professional behaviours have been assessed poorly in medical schools. No research exists exploring the acceptability of 360-degree judgements as a method of assessing such behaviours. This study aims to explore students' and assessors' views and experiences of 360-degree judgements. Sixteen [corrected] students and 12 assessors participated in 4 focus group discussions in spring 2003. Discussions were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim and the transcripts were theme analysed independently by 2 analysts. Although 360-degree judgements were felt to drive students' behaviour positively, they were also thought to influence learning and behaviour adversely. Various factors were thought to influence assessors' abilities to make good quality judgements, such as situational factors like the length of time spent with students, characteristics relating to the assessment criteria and characteristics of the assessor, such as apathy. Additional research using qualitative and quantitative methods is needed to explore these issues further.

  3. Professional nurses' understanding of clinical judgement: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An explorative and descriptive qualitative design was followed in this study to reach an understanding of clinical judgement in the clinical nursing environment from the perspective of professional nurses. Eleven ... Keywords: Clinical nursing environment, Cognitive reasoning skills, Quality nursing care, Nursing student ...

  4. Teachers' professional judgement in real teaching situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Sidse Hølvig; Daugbjerg, Peer; Sommer, Lise

    2017-01-01

    -prepared, well-rehearsed, and experience based. Disturbances, unexpected ruptures or deviations from plan demand that teachers improvise regarding which actions to carry out. The considerations the teachers make in these situations are not directly available for investigation. The actions can be conscious...... as well as unconscious and they are expressed bodily and verbally. The presentation will discuss methodological approach on how to investigate teachers' professional judgement. We will use video recordings of actual teaching situations to generate dialogue with the participating teachers. The dialogue...

  5. Professional nurses' understanding of clinical judgement: A contextual inquiry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna C. van Graan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Higher cognitive skills are essential competencies for nurses joining the technologically and increasingly complex health care environment to provide safe and effective nursing care. Educators and clinical facilitators have recognised that newly qualified nurses do not meet the expectations for entry level clinical judgement and are held accountable for finding adequate learning experiences as preparation for such practice demands. An explorative and descriptive qualitative design was followed in this study to reach an understanding of clinical judgement in the clinical nursing environment from the perspective of professional nurses. Eleven professional nurses (n = 11 working at primary health care clinics, public and private hospitals participated voluntarily. Data was collected by means of the “World Cafe” method, incorporating a combination of techniques such as interviewing, discussions, drawings, narratives and reflection. The focus was on professional nurses' knowledge of the meaning of clinical judgement and factors influencing the development of clinical judgement in the clinical environment. Qualitative thematic content analysis principles were applied during data analysis. The findings were integrated with the relevant literature to culminate in conclusions that should add to the knowledge base of clinical judgement as an essential skill for improving autonomous and accountable nursing care.

  6. Beyond Selection: The Use of Situational Judgement Tests in the Teaching and Assessment of Professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, Barbara D; Ryan, Anna T; Waring, Joshua; Judd, Terry; Chiavaroli, Neville G; O'Brien, Richard Charles; Trumble, Stephen C; McColl, Geoffrey J

    2017-06-01

    Professionalism is a critical attribute of medical graduates. Its measurement is challenging. The authors sought to assess final-year medical students' knowledge of appropriate professional behavior across a broad range of workplace situations. Situational judgement tests (SJTs) are used widely in applicant selection to assess judgement or decision making in work-related settings as well as attributes such as empathy, integrity, and resilience. In 2014, the authors developed three 40-item SJTs with scenarios relevant to interns (first-year junior doctors) and delivered the tests to final-year medical students to assess aspects of professionalism. As preparation, students discussed SJT-style scenarios; after the tests they completed an evaluation. The authors applied the Angoff method for the standard-setting process, delivered electronic individualized feedback reports to students post test, and provided remediation for students failing to meet the cut score. Evaluation revealed that the tests positively affected students' learning and that students accepted them as an assessment tool. Validity and reliability were acceptable. Implementation costs were initially high but will be recouped over time. Recent improvements include changes to pass requirements, question revision based on reliability testing, and provision of detailed item-level feedback. Work is currently under way to expand the item bank and to introduce tests earlier in the course. Future research will explore correlation of SJT performance with other measures of professionalism and focus on the impact of SJTs on professionalism and interns' ability to deal with challenging workplace situations.

  7. Medical judgement analogue studies with applications to spaceflight crew medical officer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarroll, Michele L; Ahmed, Rami A; Schwartz, Alan; Gothard, Michael David; Atkinson, Steven Scott; Hughes, Patrick; Brito, Jose Cepeda; Assad, Lori; Myers, Jerry; George, Richard L

    2017-10-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) developed plans for potential emergency conditions from the Exploration Medical Conditions List. In an effort to mitigate conditions on the Exploration Medical Conditions List, NASA implemented a crew medical officer (CMO) designation for eligible astronauts. This pilot study aims to add knowledge that could be used in the Integrated Medical Model. An analogue population was recruited for two categories: administrative physicians (AP) representing the physician CMOs and technical professionals (TP) representing the non-physician CMOs. Participants completed four medical simulations focused on abdominal pain: cholecystitis (CH) and renal colic (RC) and chest pain: cardiac ischaemia (STEMI; ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction) and pneumothorax (PX). The Medical Judgment Metric (MJM) was used to evaluate medical decision making. There were no significant differences between the AP and TP groups in age, gender, race, ethnicity, education and baseline heart rate. Significant differences were noted in MJM average rater scores in AP versus TP in CH: 13.0 (±2.25), 4.5 (±0.48), p=medical judgement between the two analogue groups of spaceflight CMOs. Future studies should incorporate the MJM in a larger analogue population study to assess the medical risk for spaceflight crewmembers.

  8. Giving “Best Advice”: Proposing a Framework of Community Pharmacist Professional Judgement Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cicely Roche

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Community pharmacy is often portrayed as a marriage of professional and business roles in a commercial domain, thereby creating a need for, and value in, pursuing the development of professional competencies for use in the community pharmacy business. In context, professional judgement is the application of knowledge, skills and attitudes (competencies which, when applied to situations where there is no one or obvious right or wrong way to proceed, gives a patient a better likelihood of a favourable outcome than if a lay-person had made the decision. The challenge for community pharmacists is that professional judgement formation is influenced by professional, commercial and personal criteria with inherent interconnected challenges. In community pharmacy practice in the Republic of Ireland (ROI, this challenge is compounded by the fact that advice is normally provided in an environment where the pharmacist provides professional advice “for free” and then may offer to sell the patient a product or service based on that advice, an activity which amounts to a commercial transaction. While there is currently no evidence to confirm whether or not these professional judgement influences are resolved successfully, their very existence poses a risk that their resolution “in the wrong way” could compromise patient outcomes or professional standing following the delivery of pharmacy services. It is therefore apparent that a community pharmacist requires skills in identifying and analysing professional/commercial/personal influences in order to appreciate the criteria which may affect both parties’ (patient and pharmacist decision making. By contemplating the interaction between the pharmacist’s professional competencies and the individual influences on that pharmacist, we can consider the enhancement of professional competencies that underpin the “best” advice being offered to the patient, regardless of whether that advice is offered in

  9. Integration of professional judgement and decision-making in high-level adventure sports coaching practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Loel; Collins, Dave

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the integration of professional judgement and decision-making processes in adventure sports coaching. The study utilised a thematic analysis approach to investigate the decision-making practices of a sample of high-level adventure sports coaches over a series of sessions. Results revealed that, in order to make judgements and decisions in practice, expert coaches employ a range of practical and pedagogic management strategies to create and opportunistically use time for decision-making. These approaches include span of control and time management strategies to facilitate the decision-making process regarding risk management, venue selection, aims, objectives, session content, and differentiation of the coaching process. The implication for coaches, coach education, and accreditation is the recognition and training of the approaches that "create time" for the judgements in practice, namely "creating space to think". The paper concludes by offering a template for a more expertise-focused progression in adventure sports coaching.

  10. Restoring medical professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernat, James L

    2012-08-21

    The essence of medical professionalism is placing dedication to the welfare of patients above physicians' personal or proprietary interests. Medicine has become deprofessionalized as a consequence of socioeconomic factors leading to increasing commercialization and perverse financial incentives converting it into a business, the presence of unmanaged conflicts of interest, challenges to medical authority by insurance companies and the consumerism movement, and by gradual changes in the attitudes of physicians. Organized medicine has responded by making explicit its standards of professionalism and its dedication to preserving them. Medical educators have studied the means to develop professional attitudes and behaviors among medical students and residents. Modeling the characteristics of professional behavior by virtuous physicians remains the most effective method to instill professional behaviors in trainees. Restoring professionalism may be abetted by changes in physicians' financial incentives through innovative models of health care delivery, by physicians reducing their conflicts of interest, and by medical societies rejecting a guild identity.

  11. Professional judgement and decision-making in adventure sports coaching: the role of interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Loel; Collins, Dave

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study presents the view that coaching practice places demands on the coach's adaptability and flexibility. These requirements for being adaptive and flexible are met through a careful process of professional judgement and decision-making based on context-appropriate bodies of knowledge. Adventure sports coaches were selected for study on the basis that adventure sports create a hyper-dynamic environment in which these features can be examined. Thematic analysis revealed that coaches were generally well informed and practised with respect to the technical aspects of their sporting disciplines. Less positively, however, they often relied on ad hoc contextualisation of generalised theories of coaching practice to respond to the hyper-dynamic environments encountered in adventure sports. We propose that coaching practice reflects the demands of the environment, individual learning needs of the students and the task at hand. Together, these factors outwardly resemble a constraints-led approach but, we suggest, actually reflect manipulation of these parameters from a cognitive rather than an ecological perspective. This process is facilitated by a refined judgement and decision-making process, sophisticated epistemology and an explicit interaction of coaching components.

  12. The Foci of In-Action Professional Judgement and Decision-Making in High-Level Adventure Sports Coaching Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Loel; Collins, Dave

    2017-01-01

    This article continues a theme of previous investigations by the authors and examines the focus of in-action reflection as a component of professional judgement and decision-making (PJDM) processes in high-level adventure sports coaching. We utilised a thematic analysis approach to investigate the decision-making practices of a sample of…

  13. [Medical professionalism-on social responsibilities viewed from historical perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jang Han

    2015-03-01

    What is medical professionalism and does it matter to the patients? Medical professionals take responsibility for their judgements and the consequences that ensue. Traditionally medical professionalism is defined as a set of values, behaviors, and relationships which support the trust the public has in doctors. The public is well aware that absence of professionalism is harmful to their interests. However, the exercise of medical professionalism is endangered by the political and cultural environment. The values of professionalism have been changed throughout the medical history and the meaning of it was also changed according to social theories. Traditional medical professionalism was based on the virtue of autonomy, self-regulation and competency etc. However, in the new millenium era, the meaning of professionalism has changed under the concept of responsibility which includes the classical virtues. The meaning of professionalism nowadays is only based on the structure and conflicting theories which cannot solve all the issues surrounding professionalism in medical practice. The conditions of medical practice are critical determinants for the future of professionalism. The interaction between doctor and patient is central to the medical care, and medical professionalism has roots in almost every aspect of medical care. I argue that doctors have responsibility to act according to the values which have been determined by the medical profession, history and surrounding society. The new millennium medical professionalism which based on the responsibility could initiate a public dialogue about the role of the doctor in creating a fairer society.

  14. Medical Physics Professional Societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mower, Herbert W.

    2008-03-01

    In the United States, two professional organizations provide support and educational activities for the medical physicist: the American Association of Physicists in Medicine and the American College of Medical Physics. The questions to be answered are: (1) what services are provided by each group; (2) how do they differ; and what are the benefits of membership?

  15. Judgement and the role of the metaphysics of values in medical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, T

    2006-06-01

    Despite its authors' intentions, the four principles approach to medical ethics can become crudely algorithmic in practice. The first section sets out the bare bones of the four principles approach drawing out those aspects of Beauchamp and Childress's Principles of biomedical ethics that encourage this misreading. The second section argues that if the emphasis on the guidance of moral judgement is augmented by a particularist account of what disciplines it, then the danger can be reduced. In the third section, I consider how much the resultant picture diverges from Beauchamp and Childress's actual position.

  16. Situational judgement tests in medical education and training: Research, theory and practice: AMEE Guide No. 100.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Fiona; Zibarras, Lara; Ashworth, Vicki

    2016-01-01

    Why use SJTs? Traditionally, selection into medical education professions has focused primarily upon academic ability alone. This approach has been questioned more recently, as although academic attainment predicts performance early in training, research shows it has less predictive power for demonstrating competence in postgraduate clinical practice. Such evidence, coupled with an increasing focus on individuals working in healthcare roles displaying the core values of compassionate care, benevolence and respect, illustrates that individuals should be selected on attributes other than academic ability alone. Moreover, there are mounting calls to widen access to medicine, to ensure that selection methods do not unfairly disadvantage individuals from specific groups (e.g. regarding ethnicity or socio-economic status), so that the future workforce adequately represents society as a whole. These drivers necessitate a method of assessment that allows individuals to be selected on important non-academic attributes that are desirable in healthcare professionals, in a fair, reliable and valid way. What are SJTs? Situational judgement tests (SJTs) are tests used to assess individuals' reactions to a number of hypothetical role-relevant scenarios, which reflect situations candidates are likely to encounter in the target role. These scenarios are based on a detailed analysis of the role and should be developed in collaboration with subject matter experts, in order to accurately assess the key attributes that are associated with competent performance. From a theoretical perspective, SJTs are believed to measure prosocial Implicit Trait Policies (ITPs), which are shaped by socialisation processes that teach the utility of expressing certain traits in different settings such as agreeable expressions (e.g. helping others in need), or disagreeable actions (e.g. advancing ones own interest at others, expense). Are SJTs reliable, valid and fair? Several studies, including good

  17. Health professionals' agreement on density judgements and successful abnormality identification within the UK Breast Screening Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darker, Iain T.; Chen, Yan; Gale, Alastair G.

    2011-03-01

    Higher breast density is associated with a greater chance of developing breast cancer. Additionally, it is well known that higher mammographic breast density is associated with increased difficulty in accurately identifying breast cancer. However, comparatively little is known of the reliability of breast density judgements. All UK breast screeners (primarily radiologists and technologists) annually participate in the PERFORMS self-assessment scheme where they make several judgements about series of challenging recent screening cases of known outcomes. As part of this process, for each case, they provide a radiological assessment of the likelihood of cancer on a confidence scale, alongside an assessment of case density using a three point scale. Analysis of the data from two years of the scheme found that the degree of agreement on case density was significantly greater than no agreement (p < .001). However, only a moderate degree of inter-rater reliability was exhibited (κ = .44) with significant differences between the occupational groups. The reasons for differences between the occupational groups and the relationship between agreement on density rating and case reading ability are explored.

  18. Evaluating the validity of an integrity-based situational judgement test for medical school admissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husbands, Adrian; Rodgerson, Mark J; Dowell, Jon; Patterson, Fiona

    2015-09-02

    While the construct of integrity has emerged as a front-runner amongst the desirable attributes to select for in medical school admissions, it is less clear how best to assess this characteristic. A potential solution lies in the use of Situational Judgement Tests (SJTs) which have gained popularity due to robust psychometric evidence and potential for large-scale administration. This study aims to explore the psychometric properties of an SJT designed to measure the construct of integrity. Ten SJT scenarios, each with five response stems were developed from critical incident interviews with academic and clinical staff. 200 of 520 (38.5 %) Multiple Mini Interview candidates at Dundee Medical School participated in the study during the 2012-2013 admissions cycle. Participants were asked to rate the appropriateness of each SJT response on a 4-point likert scale as well as complete the HEXACO personality inventory and a face validity questionnaire. Pearson's correlations and descriptive statistics were used to examine the associations between SJT score, HEXACO personality traits, pre-admissions measures namely academic and United Kingdom Clinical Aptitude Test (UKCAT) scores, as well as acceptability. Cronbach's alpha reliability for the SJT was .64. Statistically significant correlations ranging from .16 to .36 (.22 to .53 disattenuated) were observed between SJT score and the honesty-humility (integrity), conscientiousness, extraversion and agreeableness dimensions of the HEXACO inventory. A significant correlation of .32 (.47 disattenuated) was observed between SJT and MMI scores and no significant relationship with the UKCAT. Participant reactions to the SJTs were generally positive. Initial findings are encouraging regarding the psychometric robustness of an integrity-based SJT for medical student selection, with significant associations found between the SJTs, integrity, other desirable personality traits and the MMI. The SJTs showed little or no redundancy with

  19. Medical Professionals and Smartphone Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunagiri, Varun; Parimala, M; Ragumani, P; Anbalagan, Kothai

    2017-06-01

    Ever since the advent of Smartphones, Smartphone applications (SAs) are revolutionizing the contemporary medicine. Smartphone application which was created in view of swift communications among the general public has now intruded the medical fraternity. But the ethics for using these applications to transfer patients' medical records through SA is bewildering among the medical professionals (MPs).

  20. Factors Influencing the Application of a Biopsychosocial Perspective in Clinical Judgement of Chronic Pain: Interactive Management with Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Christopher P; McKenna-Plumley, Phoebe E; Durand, Hannah; Gormley, Emer M; Slattery, Brian W; Harney, Owen M; MacNeela, Padraig; McGuire, Brian E

    2017-09-01

    Though there is wide support for the application of biopsychosocial perspectives in clinical judgement of chronic pain cases, such perspectives are often overlooked due to either inadequate training or attitudes favoring a biomedical approach. Recent research has indicated that despite such explanations, both established general practitioners (GP) and medical students account for some psychosocial factors when making clinical judgements regarding chronic pain cases, but report not being likely to apply these in real-world, clinical settings due to numerous factors, including available time with patients. Thus, it is evident that a greater understanding of clinical judgement-making processes and the factors that affect application of these processes is required, particularly regarding chronic pain. The aims of the current study were to investigate medical students' conceptualizations of the factors that influence application of a biopsychosocial approach to clinical judgement-making in cases of chronic pain using interactive management (IM), model the relationships among these factors, and make recommendations to chronic pain treatment policy in light of the findings. The current study used IM to identify and model factors that influence the application of a biopsychosocial approach to clinical judgement-making in cases of chronic pain, based on medical students' conceptualizations of these factors. Two university classrooms. IM is a systems thinking and action mapping strategy used to aid groups in developing outcomes regarding complex issues, through integrating contributions from individuals with diverse views, backgrounds, and perspectives. IM commonly utilizes the nominal group technique and interpretive structural modeling, which in this context were employed to help medical students identify, clarify, and model influences on the application of biopsychosocial perspectives in treating chronic pain patients. Results of IM group work revealed 7 core

  1. Susceptibility (risk and protective) factors for in-patient violence and self-harm: prospective study of structured professional judgement instruments START and SAPROF, DUNDRUM-3 and DUNDRUM-4 in forensic mental health services.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Abidin, Zareena

    2013-01-01

    The START and SAPROF are newly developed fourth generation structured professional judgement instruments assessing strengths and protective factors. The DUNDRUM-3 and DUNDRUM-4 also measure positive factors, programme completion and recovery in forensic settings.

  2. Prospective study of factors influencing conditional discharge from a forensic hospital: the DUNDRUM-3 programme completion and DUNDRUM-4 recovery structured professional judgement instruments and risk.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Davoren, Mary

    2013-01-01

    We set out to examine whether structured professional judgement instruments DUNDRUM-3 programme completion (D-3) and DUNDRUM-4 recovery (D-4) scales along with measures of risk, mental state and global function could distinguish between those forensic patients detained in a secure forensic hospital (not guilty by reason of insanity or unfit to stand trial) who were subsequently discharged by a mental health review board. We also examined the interaction between these measures and risk, need for therapeutic security and eventual conditional discharge.

  3. Professional identity in medical students: pedagogical challenges to medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Ian; Cowin, Leanne S; Johnson, Maree; Young, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Professional identity, or how a doctor thinks of himself or herself as a doctor, is considered to be as critical to medical education as the acquisition of skills and knowledge relevant to patient care. This article examines contemporary literature on the development of professional identity within medicine. Relevant theories of identity construction are explored and their application to medical education and pedagogical approaches to enhancing students' professional identity are proposed. The influence of communities of practice, role models, and narrative reflection within curricula are examined. Medical education needs to be responsive to changes in professional identity being generated from factors within medical student experiences and within contemporary society.

  4. Professionalism and the role of medical colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillis, David J; Grigg, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    There has been substantial interest and emphasis on medical professionalism over the past twenty years. This speaks to the history of the medical profession, but increasingly to a broader understanding of the importance of socialisation and professional identity formation. A literature review was undertaken of professionalism and the role of professions and medical professional organisations. A key outcome has been the recognition that medical professionalism must be actively taught and assessed. Substantial effort is required to improve the educational environment, so that it nurtures the development of professionalism within the work-place. Although medical colleges have been prominent in identifying and progressing the recent developments within professionalism there is still much to be done to deliver fully on the societal contract between the public and the profession. There are key gaps to address, particularly with regards to self-regulation, civil behaviour and effective leadership and advocacy. Medical colleges need to take direct responsibility for the professionalism of their members. The expectations of the community are increasingly clear in this regard. Copyright © 2015 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Pay for performance and medical professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, Marissa A

    2008-01-01

    Health care delivery systems are widely studying and implementing physician pay for performance (P4P) initiatives to improve quality and control costs. However, the increasing focus on quality-driven financial incentives has some troubling implications for medical professionalism. This article examines the P4P concept in light of a notion of medical fiduciary professionalism that dates back to the 18th-century Scottish physician John Gregory. Gregory's principles serve as a framework to assess the appropriateness of P4P initiatives in disseminating the principles of high-quality care without damage to professionalism, the patient-physician relationship, and access to care for all patients.

  6. Construct validation of judgement-based assessments of medical trainees' competency in the workplace using a "Kanesian" approach to validation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McGill, D.A.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der; Clarke, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Evaluations of clinical assessments that use judgement-based methods have frequently shown them to have sub-optimal reliability and internal validity evidence for their interpretation and intended use. The aim of this study was to enhance that validity evidence by an evaluation of the

  7. How virtue ethics informs medical professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCammon, Susan D; Brody, Howard

    2012-12-01

    We argue that a turn toward virtue ethics as a way of understanding medical professionalism represents both a valuable corrective and a missed opportunity. We look at three ways in which a closer appeal to virtue ethics could help address current problems or issues in professionalism education-first, balancing professionalism training with demands for professional virtues as a prerequisite; second, preventing demands for the demonstrable achievement of competencies from working against ideal professionalism education as lifelong learning; and third, avoiding temptations to dismiss moral distress as a mere "hidden curriculum" problem. As a further demonstration of how best to approach a lifelong practice of medical virtue, we will examine altruism as a mean between the extremes of self-sacrifice and selfishness.

  8. A pilot study exploring the relationship between self-compassion, self-judgement, self-kindness, compassion, professional quality of life and wellbeing among UK community nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkin, Mark; Beaumont, Elaine; Hollins Martin, Caroline J; Carson, Jerome

    2016-11-01

    Compassion fatigue and burnout can impact on performance of nurses. This paper explores the relationship between self-compassion, self-judgement, self-kindness, compassion, professional quality of life, and wellbeing among community nurses. To measure associations between self-compassion, compassion fatigue, wellbeing, and burnout in community nurses. Quantitative data were collected using standardised psychometric questionnaires: (1) Professional Quality of Life Scale; (2) Self-Compassion Scale; (3) short Warwick Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale; (4) Compassion For Others Scale, used to measure relationships between self-compassion, compassion fatigue, wellbeing, and burnout. A cross sectional sample of registered community nurses (n=37) studying for a postgraduate diploma at a University in the North of England took part in this study. Results show that community nurses who score high on measures of self-compassion and wellbeing, also report less burnout. Greater compassion satisfaction was also positively associated with compassion for others, and wellbeing, whilst also being negatively correlated with burnout. High levels of self-compassion were linked with lower levels of burnout. Furthermore when community nurses have greater compassion satisfaction they also report more compassion for others, increased wellbeing, and less burnout. The implications of this are discussed alongside suggestions for the promotion of greater compassion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Emergency Medicine Resident Perceptions of Medical Professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauregui, Joshua; Gatewood, Medley O; Ilgen, Jonathan S; Schaninger, Caitlin; Strote, Jared

    2016-05-01

    Medical professionalism is a core competency for emergency medicine (EM) trainees; but defining professionalism remains challenging, leading to difficulties creating objectives and performing assessment. Because professionalism is dynamic, culture-specific, and often taught by modeling, an exploration of trainees' perceptions can highlight their educational baseline and elucidate the importance they place on general conventional professionalism domains. To this end, our objective was to assess the relative value EM residents place on traditional components of professionalism. We performed a cross-sectional, multi-institutional survey of incoming and graduating EM residents at four programs. The survey was developed using the American Board of Internal Medicine's "Project Professionalism" and the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education definition of professionalism competency. We identified 27 attributes within seven domains: clinical excellence, humanism, accountability, altruism, duty and service, honor and integrity, and respect for others. Residents were asked to rate each attribute on a 10-point scale. We analyzed data to assess variance across attributes as well as differences between residents at different training levels or different institutions. Of the 114 residents eligible, 100 (88%) completed the survey. The relative value assigned to different professional attributes varied considerably, with those in the altruism domain valued significantly lower and those in the "respect for others" and "honor and integrity" valued significantly higher (pprofessional attributes and this may be useful to educators. Explanations for these differences are hypothesized, as are the potential implications for professionalism education. Because teaching professional behavior is taught most effectively via behavior modeling, faculty awareness of resident values and faculty development to address potential gaps may improve professionalism education.

  10. Designing Judgement Styles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Albert Fei

    2017-01-01

    help to enhance judgements in response to OCRs through manipulating cue accessibility. Lastly, different judgement modes are expected to entail distinct decisional outcomes in terms of performance and justifiability. To empirically validate the proposed hypotheses, this study proposes a plan...

  11. Professionalism: a framework to guide medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Howard; Doukas, David

    2014-10-01

    Despite considerable advances in the incorporation of professionalism into the formal curriculum, medical students and residents are too often presented with a mechanical, unreflective version of the topic that fails to convey deeper ethical and humanistic aspirations. Some misunderstandings of professionalism are exacerbated by commonly used assessment tools that focus only on superficially observable behaviour and not on moral values and attitudes. Following a selective literature review, we engaged in philosophical ethical analysis to identify the key precepts associated with professionalism that could best guide the development of an appropriately reflective curriculum. The key precepts needed for a robust presentation of professionalism can be grouped under two headings: 'Professionalism as a trust-generating promise' (representing commitment to patients' interests, more than a mere business, a social contract, a public and collective promise, and hard work), and 'Professionalism as application of virtue to practice' (based on virtue, deeper attitudes rather than mere behaviour, and requiring of practical wisdom). These key precepts help students to avoid many common, unreflective misunderstandings of professionalism, and guide faculty staff and students jointly to address the deeper issues required for successful professional identity formation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. The DUNDRUM Quartet: validation of structured professional judgement instruments DUNDRUM-3 assessment of programme completion and DUNDRUM-4 assessment of recovery in forensic mental health services.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Dwyer, Sarah

    2011-07-03

    Abstract Background Moving a forensic mental health patient from one level of therapeutic security to a lower level or to the community is influenced by more than risk assessment and risk management. We set out to construct and validate structured professional judgement instruments for consistency and transparency in decision making Methods Two instruments were developed, the seven-item DUNDRUM-3 programme completion instrument and the six item DUNDRUM-4 recovery instrument. These were assessed for all 95 forensic patients at Ireland\\'s only forensic mental health hospital. Results The two instruments had good internal consistency (Cronbach\\'s alpha 0.911 and 0.887). Scores distinguished those allowed no leave or accompanied leave from those with unaccompanied leave (ANOVA F = 38.1 and 50.3 respectively, p < 0.001). Scores also distinguished those in acute\\/high security units from those in medium or in low secure\\/pre-discharge units. Each individual item distinguished these levels of need significantly. The DUNDRUM-3 and DUNDRUM-4 correlated moderately with measures of dynamic risk and with the CANFOR staff rated unmet need (Spearman r = 0.5, p < 0.001). Conclusions The DUNDRUM-3 programme completion items distinguished significantly between levels of therapeutic security while the DUNDRUM-4 recovery items consistently distinguished those given unaccompanied leave outside the hospital and those in the lowest levels of therapeutic security. This data forms the basis for a prospective study of outcomes now underway.

  13. The DUNDRUM Quartet: validation of structured professional judgement instruments DUNDRUM-3 assessment of programme completion and DUNDRUM-4 assessment of recovery in forensic mental health services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDonnell Kim

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Moving a forensic mental health patient from one level of therapeutic security to a lower level or to the community is influenced by more than risk assessment and risk management. We set out to construct and validate structured professional judgement instruments for consistency and transparency in decision making Methods Two instruments were developed, the seven-item DUNDRUM-3 programme completion instrument and the six item DUNDRUM-4 recovery instrument. These were assessed for all 95 forensic patients at Ireland's only forensic mental health hospital. Results The two instruments had good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha 0.911 and 0.887. Scores distinguished those allowed no leave or accompanied leave from those with unaccompanied leave (ANOVA F = 38.1 and 50.3 respectively, p Conclusions The DUNDRUM-3 programme completion items distinguished significantly between levels of therapeutic security while the DUNDRUM-4 recovery items consistently distinguished those given unaccompanied leave outside the hospital and those in the lowest levels of therapeutic security. This data forms the basis for a prospective study of outcomes now underway.

  14. Does professional autonomy protect medical futility judgments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gampel, Eric

    2006-04-01

    Despite substantial controversy, the use of futility judgments in medicine is quite common, and has been backed by the implementation of hospital policies and professional guidelines on medical futility. The controversy arises when health care professionals (HCPs) consider a treatment futile which patients or families believe to be worthwhile: should HCPs be free to refuse treatments in such a case, or be required to provide them? Most physicians seem convinced that professional autonomy protects them from being forced to provide treatments they judge mentally futile, given the lack of patient benefit as well as the waste of medical resources involved. The argument from professional autonomy has been presented in a number of articles, but it has not been subjected to much critical scrutiny. In this paper I distinguish three versions of the argument: 1) that each physician should be free to exercise his or her own medical judgment; 2) that the medical profession as a whole may provide futility standards to govern the practice of its members; and 3) that the moral integrity of each physician serves as a limit to treatment demands. I maintain that none of these versions succeeds in overcoming the standard objection that futility determinations involve value judgments best left to the patients, their designated surrogates, or their families. Nor do resource considerations change this fact, since they should not influence the properly patient-centered judgment about futility.

  15. Algorithm for professional communication in medical settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaliy Bezsheiko

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This is a short algorithm for professional communication in specific clinical situations. Recommendations are developed on the basis of the guidelines on objective structured clinical examination. It is an educational material, intended for medical students and physicians, who have just started a clinical practice.  

  16. International Society for Medical Publication Professionals (ISMPP) position statement: the role of the professional medical writer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Robert; Bowman, Aly; Fagan, Jean M; Gallagher, Eileen R; Geraci, Anna B; Gertel, Art; Hirsch, Laurence; Ross, Philip D; Stossel, Thomas P; Veitch, Keith; Woods, David

    2007-08-01

    The International Society for Medical Publication Professionals (ISMPP) is an independent, nonprofit professional association with members from the pharmaceutical, medical device, and biotechnology industries; publication planning and medical communications companies; academia; and medical journal staffs, including editors and publishers. ISMPP's mission is to support the educational needs of medical publication professionals by providing a forum to facilitate awareness and development of best practices in publication planning and implementation, and fostering consensus policies related to medical publishing. This position statement reflects our concern about the current climate of mistrust regarding the use of professional medical writers in the preparation of manuscripts. We acknowledge the skills and training of medical writing professionals and support their role in working with research teams to develop clear and concise manuscripts in a timely fashion. Further, we support complete and transparent disclosure of the role of the medical writer and the source of funding for the writing initiative in order to build awareness of, and trust in, the appropriate use of medical writing professionals. ISMPP endorses use of the contributorship model, which offers detailed information on the roles of all who participated in planning, conducting, developing, and publishing medical research. Further, we propose that this model be integrated into the standard operating procedures of the diverse organizations that comprise our membership because the responsibility for authorship disclosure is shared by sponsors, authors, study investigators, and medical writers. Finally, we commend the many organizations that have worked to increase recognition and understanding of the legitimate role of the medical writer, and are eager to work in concert with them to ensure the rigorous maintenance of all ethical standards for reporting the results of medical research.

  17. The influence factors of medical professionalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yifei; Yin, Senlin; Lai, Sike; Tang, Ji; Huang, Jin; Du, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract As the relationship between physicians and patients deteriorated in China recently, medical conflicts occurred more frequently now. Physicians, to a certain extent, also take some responsibilities. Awareness of medical professionalism and its influence factors can be helpful to take targeted measures and alleviate the contradiction. Through a combination of physicians’ self-assessment and patients’ assessment in ambulatory care clinics in Chengdu, this research aims to evaluate the importance of medical professionalism in hospitals and explore the influence factors, hoping to provide decision-making references to improve this grim situation. From February to March, 2013, a cross-sectional study was conducted in 2 tier 3 hospitals, 5 tier 2 hospitals, and 10 community hospitals through a stratified-random sampling method on physicians and patients, at a ratio of 1/5. Questionnaires are adopted from a pilot study. A total of 382 physicians and 1910 patients were matched and surveyed. Regarding the medical professionalism, the scores of the self-assessment for physicians were 85.18 ± 7.267 out of 100 and the scores of patient-assessment were 57.66 ± 7.043 out of 70. The influence factors of self-assessment were physicians’ working years (P = 0.003) and patients’ complaints (P = 0.006), whereas the influence factors of patient-assessment were patients’ ages (P = 0.001) and their physicians’ working years (P professionalism was in accordance with physicians of more working years and no complaint history. Higher patient-assessment was in line with elder patients, the physicians’ more working years, and higher satisfaction on the payment mode. Elder patients, encountering with physicians who worked more years in health care services or with higher satisfaction on the payment mode, contribute to higher scores in patient assessment part. The government should strengthen the medical professionalism for young physicians and improve the

  18. Emergency Medicine Resident Perceptions of Medical Professionalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Jauregui

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Medical professionalism is a core competency for emergency medicine (EM trainees; but defining professionalism remains challenging, leading to difficulties creating objectives and performing assessment. Because professionalism is dynamic, culture-specific, and often taught by modeling, an exploration of trainees’ perceptions can highlight their educational baseline and elucidate the importance they place on general conventional professionalism domains. To this end, our objective was to assess the relative value EM residents place on traditional components of professionalism. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional, multi-institutional survey of incoming and graduating EM residents at four programs. The survey was developed using the American Board of Internal Medicine’s “Project Professionalism” and the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education definition of professionalism competency. We identified 27 attributes within seven domains: clinical excellence, humanism, accountability, altruism, duty and service, honor and integrity, and respect for others. Residents were asked to rate each attribute on a 10-point scale. We analyzed data to assess variance across attributes as well as differences between residents at different training levels or different institutions. Results: Of the 114 residents eligible, 100 (88% completed the survey. The relative value assigned to different professional attributes varied considerably, with those in the altruism domain valued significantly lower and those in the “respect for others” and “honor and integrity” valued significantly higher (p<0.001. Significant differences were found between interns and seniors for five attributes primarily in the “duty and service” domain (p<0.05. Among different residencies, significant differences were found with attributes within the “altruism” and “duty and service” domains (p<0.05. Conclusion: Residents perceive differences in

  19. Parallel to the Situational Judgement Test: is the Educational Performance Measure fair in ranking medical students on the UK Foundation Programme?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Sidhu H

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Harmeet Singh Sidhu,1 Adil Mahmood,2 Ranjodh Sanghera,1 Jay Mandan11Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, UK; 2Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine, King’s College London, London, UKWe readily appraised the expert opinion by Singagireson et al which explored the fairness of using the Situational Judgement Test (SJT to rank medical students as part of the UK Foundation Programme.1 Although we agree with many of the points raised, we feel it is equally important to discuss the role of the Educational Performance Measure (EPM, which has comparable weighting to the SJT in ranking medical students. Therefore, we aim to explore whether the EPM is a fair measure in determining the allocation of foundation-training jobs to newly qualified doctors.View the original paper by Singagireson et al

  20. Exploring reflective 'critical incident' documentation of professionalism lapses in a medical undergraduate setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McLachlan John C

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Measuring professionalism in undergraduate medical students is a difficult process, and no one method has currently emerged as the definitive means of assessment in this field. Student skills in reflection have been shown to be highly important in the development of professional behaviours. By studying student reflections on lapses in professional judgement, recorded as 'critical incidents', it is possible to explore themes which are significant for the development of professional behaviour in an undergraduate setting. Methods We examined critical incident reporting combined with optional written student reflection as a method for exploring professionalism in undergraduate medical students. 228 students split between Year 1 and 2 of one academic year of undergraduate medicine were studied retrospectively and a grounded theory approach to analysis was employed. Results This year generated 16 critical incident reports and corresponding student reflections, all of which were considered. In addition to identifying the nature of the critical incidents, 3 principal themes emerged. These were the impact and consequences of the report having been made, student reactions to the events (both positive and negative, and student responses regarding future actions. Conclusion This study indicates that unprofessional behaviour can be identified and challenged by both the faculty and the students involved, and suggests that positive behavioural changes might be made with the aim of preventing future occurrences. We provide a low cost approach of measuring and recording professional behaviour.

  1. Medical Professionals Designing Hospital Management Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byg, Vibeke

    especially have been reformed due to the high proportion of resources they absorb and the apparent difficulty of prioritizing and coordinating health care within hospitals. There is abundant research literature on the topic of reforming hospital management models. Lacking from the literature, however......, is insight into how we can understand and explain how medical professionals adapt hospital management over time in relation to changing hospital management models that are global in their influence in hospital organizations. The aim of this dissertation is to understand and explain how medical professionals...... adapt, interpret and negotiate hospital management over time in relation to changing hospital management models in hospital organizations in the Nordic health system context, illustrated by the Danish health system....

  2. Teaching and Assessing Professionalism in Medical Learners and Practicing Physicians

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller, Paul S.

    2015-01-01

    Professionalism is a core competency of physicians. Clinical knowledge and skills (and their maintenance and improvement), good communication skills, and sound understanding of ethics constitute the foundation of professionalism. Rising from this foundation are behaviors and attributes of professionalism: accountability, altruism, excellence, and humanism, the capstone of which is professionalism. Patients, medical societies, and accrediting organizations expect physicians to be professional....

  3. Aesthetic Judgements and Motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Archer, Alfred

    Are aesthetic judgements cognitive, belief-like states or non-cognitive, desire-like states? There have been a number of attempts in recent years to evaluate the plausibility of a non-cognitivist theory of aesthetic judgements. These attempts borrow heavily from Non-cognitivism in metaethics. One

  4. Professional liability insurance and medical error disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLennan, Stuart; Shaw, David; Leu, Agnes; Elger, Bernice

    2015-01-01

    To examine medicolegal stakeholders' views about the impact of professional liability insurance in Switzerland on medical error disclosure. Purposive sample of 23 key medicolegal stakeholders in Switzerland from a range of fields between October 2012 and February 2013. Data were collected via individual, face-to-face interviews using a researcher-developed semi-structured interview guide. Interviews were transcribed and analysed using conventional content analysis. Participants, particularly those with a legal or quality background, reported that concerns relating to professional liability insurance often inhibited communication with patients after a medical error. Healthcare providers were reported to be particularly concerned about losing their liability insurance cover for apologising to harmed patients. It was reported that the attempt to limit the exchange of information and communication could lead to a conflict with patient rights law. Participants reported that hospitals could, and in some case are, moving towards self-insurance approaches, which could increase flexibility regarding error communication The reported current practice of at least some liability insurance companies in Switzerland of inhibiting communication with harmed patients after an error is concerning and requires further investigation. With a new ethic of transparency regarding medical errors now prevailing internationally, this approach is increasingly being perceived to be misguided. A move away from hospitals relying solely on liability insurance may allow greater transparency after errors. Legalisation preventing the loss of liability insurance coverage for apologising to harmed patients should also be considered.

  5. Burnout syndrome: understanding of medical teaching professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Brito Vidal Batista

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the understanding of medical teaching professionals about Burnout Syndrome. This is a qualitative, exploratory study, consisting of ten teaching physicians, who work at the hospital of a higher education institution. The data were collected from May to June 2013, through a form with questions pertinent to the proposed research objective, after approval by the Research Ethics Committee (Protocol No. 84022, and analyzed qualitatively, through the content analysis technique (Bardin. Among the 10 participants in the study, eight had adequate knowledge about Burnout Syndrome, while others showed insufficient knowledge. From the empirical material analysis, five thematic categories emerged: Syndrome characterized by physical and psychological exhaustion due to work stress; Physical and psychological signs and symptoms of Burnout Syndrome; Burnout syndrome and its implications for the worker’s health; The most vulnerable workers who develop Burnout Syndrome and Relation of Burnout Syndrome to the work of the teaching physician. The study showed that most participants in the research adequately understand Burnout Syndrome, but the subject is still little explored in academia. Therefore, intervention measures are necessary with the professionals of the risk group and new studies that contribute to expand the knowledge about that syndrome, aiming to improve the quality of life of the workers. Keywords: Worker’s Health; Professional Exhaustion; Doctors; Professors; Work Conditions.   DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3823/2397

  6. Medical professionalism and the social contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Lynette

    2011-01-01

    Conceptions of professionalism in medicine draw on social contract theory; its strengths and weaknesses play out in how we reason about professionalism. The social contract metaphor may be a heuristic device prompting reflection on social responsibility, and as such is appealing: it encourages reasoning about privilege and responsibility, the broader context and consequences of action, and diverse perspectives on medical practice. However, when this metaphor is elevated to the status of a theory, it has well-known limits: the assumed subject position of contractors engenders blind spots about privilege, not critical reflection; its tendency to dress up the status quo in the trappings of a theoretical agreement may limit social negotiation; its attempted reconciliation of social obligation and self-interest fosters the view that ethics and self-interest should coincide; it sets up false expectations by identifying appearance and reality in morality; and its construal of prima facie duties as conditional misdirects ethical attention in particular situations from current needs to supposed past agreements or reciprocities. Using philosophical ideas as heuristic devices in medical ethics is inevitable, but we should be conscious of their limitations. When they limit the ethical scope of debate, we should seek new metaphors.

  7. Wanted: role models--medical students' perceptions of professionalism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Byszewski, Anna; Hendelman, Walter; McGuinty, Caroline; Moineau, Geneviève

    2012-01-01

    .... The purpose of this study was to determine student perception of professionalism at the University of Ottawa and gain insights for improvement in promotion of professionalism in undergraduate medical education...

  8. The specificity of a medical psychologist’s professional identity

    OpenAIRE

    Borysiuk Alla Stepanivna

    2016-01-01

    The article emphasizes that every profession has its own specificity depicted in peculiarities of professional identity formation. The author gives a review of the specificity of a medical psychologist’s professional identity.

  9. Developing a Physician׳s Professional Identity Through Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olive, Kenneth E; Abercrombie, Caroline L

    2017-02-01

    Professionalism represents a fundamental characteristic of physicians. Professional organizations have developed professionalism competencies for physicians and medical students. The aim of teaching medical professionalism is to ensure the development of a professional identity in medical students. Professional identity formation is a process developed through teaching principles and appropriate behavioral responses to the stresses of being a physician. Addressing lapses and critical reflection is an important part of the educational process. The "hidden curriculum" within an institution plays an important role in professional identity formation. Assessment of professionalism involves multiple mechanisms. Steps in remediating professionalism lapses include (1) initial assessment, (2) diagnosis of problems and development of an individualized learning plan, (3) instruction encompassing practice, feedback and reflection and (4) reassessment and certification of competence. No reliable outcomes data exist regarding the effectiveness of different remediation strategies. Copyright © 2017 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Professional deontology and medical practice in prisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. García-Guerrero

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the knowledge on professional deontology amongst doctors in prisons. Materials and Method: Descriptive, transversal and multi-centre study. Labour, collegiate, social, demographic and deontological variables were collected. A descriptive analysis of the variables was performed. A bivariate analysis was made by binary logistic regression models, attending to the odds ratio, and assuming a 95% confidence interval. Data was processed by SPSS v.20 software. Results: 118 doctors replied. 68 men (57.6%, with an average age of 51 years (50-53. 100 know about the Deontology Committee (84.7%, but just 77 (65.3% know its functions properly. 42 (35.6% know about the existence of the Deontological Code, and 37 (31.3% have read and apply it. Those who made a correct definition of deontology do find more deontological issues in their daily work [23(46.9% vs. 18(26.1%; OR: 2.506; IC95%: 1.153-5.451; p=0.020] and would denounce a colleague more often to the Medical Association [40(81.6% vs. 42 (60.9%; OR: 2.857; IC95%: 1.197-6.819; p=0.018]. Older ones know more about the deontology commissions' functions [54(73% vs. 23(52.3%; OR: 2.465; IC95%: 1.127-5.394; p=0.024] and have already denounced situations to the Medical Association [27(36.5% vs. 5(11.4%; OR: 4.481; IC95%: 1.577-12.733; p=0.005], but think that a different Care Ethics Committee is unnecessary [57(77% vs. 42(95.5%; OR: 0.160; IC95%: 0.035- 0.729; p=0.018]. Conclusions: Prison doctors know little about what professional deontology really is. This knowledge increases with age in the profession and is associated with an increased perception of deontological issues in daily practice.

  11. Study to assess the compensation and skills of medical library professionals relative to information technology professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weise, F O; McMullen, T D

    2001-07-01

    The study seeks to determine how medical library professionals performing information-technology (IT) roles are compensated and how their positions are designed compared to information technology staff in their institutions. 550 medical library directors in hospital and academic medical libraries were surveyed. The data was then compared to survey data from other compensation studies of the IT industry. There is a gap in compensation between medical library professionals and IT professionals performing similar functions using information technology. Technology-intense library jobs are compensated at higher levels than more traditional jobs. To compete with IT salaries, managers of medical library professionals will need to be ever more cognizant of the employment practices of IT professionals in nonmedical library disciplines. It is typically in the medical library's best interest to ensure that IT-related jobs, accountabilities, and capabilities of the medical library are known and understood by others, especially in the human resources and information technology staff departments.

  12. From Being Non-Judgemental to Deconstructing Normalising Judgement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winslade, John M.

    2013-01-01

    Beginning with Carl Rogers' exhortation for counsellors to be non-judgemental of their clients, this article explores the rationale for withholding judgement in therapy, including diagnostic judgement. It traces Rogers' incipient sociopolitical analysis as a foundation for this ethic and argues that Michel Foucault provides a stronger…

  13. Passionate Virtue: Conceptions of Medical Professionalism in Popular Romance Fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Medical romance fiction is a subgenre of popular romance fiction that features medical professionals in their work environment. This essay explores the way professionalism is portrayed in popular medical romance fiction written during the early twenty-first century, a period of significant disruption in both the public image and self-understanding of organized medicine. I analyze a selection of contemporary medical romance novels, published between 2008 and 2012, demonstrating that medical romance fiction is a form of public intervention in apparently insular debates over medical professionalism. I conclude that they promote "nostalgic professionalism," a vision of physicians as a select group of highly educated, self-regulated experts who provide, with a caring and altruistic attitude, a vitally important service to society, while at the same time generating implicit critiques of it.

  14. Knowledge of healthcare professionals about medication errors in hospitals

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel-Latif, Mohamed M. M.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Medication errors are the most common types of medical errors in hospitals and leading cause of morbidity and mortality among patients. Aims: The aim of the present study was to assess the knowledge of healthcare professionals about medication errors in hospitals. Settings and Design: A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to randomly selected healthcare professionals in eight hospitals in Madinah, Saudi Arabia. Subjects and Methods: An 18-item survey was designed and comp...

  15. Nurturing Medical Professionalism in the Surgical Community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The teaching of professionalism worldwide is changing for effectiveness. Our aim was to explore the reflection of the surgical teaching community in a Kenyan context on how professionalism can be effectively inculcated through the socio-cultural concept of activity theory. Methods: A sequential mixed-methods ...

  16. Medical professionalism: an experimental look at physicians’ Facebook profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clyde, Joseph W.; Rodríguez, Melanie M. Domenech; Geiser, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Background Use of social networking services (SNS) is on the rise. While many users sign in for personal purposes, it is not uncommon for professionals to connect over SNSs with clients, students, and patients. Methods The present study used an experimental approach to examine how medical doctors’ SNS profiles impacted potential patients’ impressions of professionalism. Participants (N=250 students) were randomly assigned to view one of six Facebook profiles. Profiles were populated with 1) solely professional material, 2) personal material that was strictly healthy, or 3) personal material that included unhealthy behavior. Profiles portrayed a male or female physician resulting in a total of six experimental conditions. Medical professionalism was measured with the First Impressions of Medical Professionalism (FIMP) scale, specifically developed for this study. Results There was a large and statistically significant main effect for profile type, F(2, 250)=54.77, pprofessional followed by profiles with strictly professional content. Personal unhealthy profiles were rated as least professional. Additionally, female profiles consistently received higher professionalism ratings across all three profile types [F(1, 250)=5.04, p=0.026, ηp2=0.02]. Conclusion Our results suggest that a physician's SNS profile affects a patient's perception of that physician's medical professionalism. A personal, healthy profile may augment a patient's perception of that physician's character virtues if the profile content upholds the decorum of the medical field. PMID:24947922

  17. Teaching and Assessing Professionalism in Medical Learners and Practicing Physicians*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Paul S.

    2015-01-01

    Professionalism is a core competency of physicians. Clinical knowledge and skills (and their maintenance and improvement), good communication skills, and sound understanding of ethics constitute the foundation of professionalism. Rising from this foundation are behaviors and attributes of professionalism: accountability, altruism, excellence, and humanism, the capstone of which is professionalism. Patients, medical societies, and accrediting organizations expect physicians to be professional. Furthermore, professionalism is associated with better clinical outcomes. Hence, medical learners and practicing physicians should be taught and assessed for professionalism. A number of methods can be used to teach professionalism (e.g. didactic lectures, web-based modules, role modeling, reflection, interactive methods, etc.). Because of the nature of professionalism, no single tool for assessing it among medical learners and practicing physicians exists. Instead, multiple assessment tools must be used (e.g. multi-source feedback using 360-degree reviews, patient feedback, critical incident reports, etc.). Data should be gathered continuously throughout an individual’s career. For the individual learner or practicing physician, data generated by these tools can be used to create a “professionalism portfolio,” the totality of which represents a picture of the individual’s professionalism. This portfolio in turn can be used for formative and summative feedback. Data from professionalism assessments can also be used for developing professionalism curricula and generating research hypotheses. Health care leaders should support teaching and assessing professionalism at all levels of learning and practice and promote learning environments and institutional cultures that are consistent with professionalism precepts. PMID:25973263

  18. Teaching and Assessing Professionalism in Medical Learners and Practicing Physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul S. Mueller

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Professionalism is a core competency of physicians. Clinical knowledge and skills (and their maintenance and improvement, good communication skills, and sound understanding of ethics constitute the foundation of professionalism. Rising from this foundation are behaviors and attributes of professionalism: accountability, altruism, excellence, and humanism, the capstone of which is professionalism. Patients, medical societies, and accrediting organizations expect physicians to be professional. Furthermore, professionalism is associated with better clinical outcomes. Hence, medical learners and practicing physicians should be taught and assessed for professionalism. A number of methods can be used to teach professionalism (e.g. didactic lectures, web-based modules, role modeling, reflection, interactive methods, etc.. Because of the nature of professionalism, no single tool for assessing it among medical learners and practicing physicians exists. Instead, multiple assessment tools must be used (e.g. multi-source feedback using 360-degree reviews, patient feedback, critical incident reports, etc.. Data should be gathered continuously throughout an individual’s career. For the individual learner or practicing physician, data generated by these tools can be used to create a “professionalism portfolio,” the totality of which represents a picture of the individual’s professionalism. This portfolio in turn can be used for formative and summative feedback. Data from professionalism assessments can also be used for developing professionalism curricula and generating research hypotheses. Health care leaders should support teaching and assessing professionalism at all levels of learning and practice and promote learning environments and institutional cultures that are consistent with professionalism precepts.

  19. When do medical students become professionals? | Williams | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Becoming a medical professional is a gradual process that begins at entry into medical school and continues throughout the entire training period. Four events mark key stages in this process: entry into medical school, beginning of clinical rotations, graduation and beginning of independent practice. Essential ...

  20. Shiraz medical students’ perceptions of their colleagues’ professional behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MEHRDAD ASKARIAN

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Today, development of professionalism is a critical aim of medical schools. Studies have demonstrated that medical students’ perceived level of professionalism is inadequate worldwide. This study aimed to investigate the medical students’ perceptions of their colleagues’ professional behavior. Methods: This study is a cross-sectional study with 280 medical students at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences in their fifth to seventh year of study as the sample. The study was performed during one month in 2013, using stratified random sampling method. The instrument of the study was the Persian version of the questionnaire of the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM.The questionnaire includes demographic information, questions about the meaning of the professionalism, history of medical ethics education programs and 12 behavioral questions. The data were analyzed using student t-test and Pearson correlation test. The significance level was set as 0.05. Results: Forty percent of respondents did not know the meaning of professionalism. The mean±SD score of behavioral questions was 5.91±1.2 on a scale from 0 to 10. The mean±SD score of excellence questions was 4.94±1.7. It was 7.05±1.9 for ‘honor/integrity’, and 6.07±2.1 for ‘altruism/respect’ questions. There was a significant association between gender and excellence score (p=0.007. Conclusion: Medical students assessed their colleagues’ professional behavior as poor. They did not have proper information about professionalism. Medical students are future general practitioners and respecting medical ethics by them is very important in a perfect health system. Universities should emphasize the importance of teaching professionalism to medical students and faculty members, using innovative education methods.

  1. Effectiveness of a biopsychosocial e-learning intervention on the clinical judgements of medical students and GP trainees regarding future risk of disability in patients with chronic lower back pain: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Christopher P; Durand, Hannah; MacNeela, Pádraig; Reynolds, Bronagh; Hamm, Robert M; Main, Christopher J; O'Connor, Laura L; Conneely, Sinéad; Taheny, Darragh; Slattery, Brian W; O'Neill, Ciaran; NicGabhainn, Saoirse; Murphy, Andrew W; Kropmans, Thomas; McGuire, Brian E

    2016-05-26

    Chronic lower back pain (CLBP) is a major healthcare problem with wide ranging effects. It is a priority for appropriate management of CLBP to get individuals back to work as early as possible. Interventions that identify biopsychosocial barriers to recovery have been observed to lead to successfully reduced pain-related work absences and increased return to work for individuals with CLBP. Modern conceptualisations of pain adopt a biopsychosocial approach, such as the flags approach. Biopsychosocial perspectives have been applied to judgements about future adjustment, recovery from pain and risk of long-term disability; and provide a helpful model for understanding the importance of contextual interactions between psychosocial and biological variables in the experience of pain. Medical students and general practitioner (GP) trainees are important groups to target with education about biopsychosocial conceptualisations of pain and related clinical implications. The current study will compare the effects of an e-learning intervention that focuses on a biopsychosocial model of pain, on the clinical judgements of medical students and trainees. Medical student and GP trainee participants will be randomised to 1 of 2 study conditions: (1) a 20 min e-learning intervention focused on the fundamentals of the flags approach to clinical judgement-making regarding risk of future pain-related disability; compared with a (2) wait-list control group on judgement accuracy and weighting (ie, primary outcomes); flags approach knowledge, attitudes and beliefs towards pain, judgement speed and empathy (ie, secondary outcomes). Participants will be assessed at preintervention and postintervention. The study will be performed in agreement with the Declaration of Helsinki and is approved by the National University of Ireland Galway Research Ethics Committee. The results of the trial will be published according to the CONSORT statement and will be presented at conferences and reported

  2. The Medical Professionalism of Korean Physicians: Present and Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soojung; Choi, Sookhee

    2015-08-26

    Medical professionalism is a core aspect of medical education and practice worldwide. Medical professionalism must be reinterpreted to adapt to different social/cultural/historical contexts. We conducted a survey to examine the current understanding and perceived value of medical professionalism among Korean physicians. The survey was distributed to 950 physicians nationwide; 721 (75.89%) completed surveys were returned between 1 April and 31 July 2011. In their practice, Korean physicians prioritized the values and virtues of medical professionalism in the following (descending) order: veracity, respect for patient autonomy, integrity, responsibility, altruism, and honesty. Approximately two-thirds of physicians responded that medical professionalism is an element of their vocation. When asked to choose the most important sets of attributes or virtues of medical professionalism from a provided list, the top three sets (in descending order of frequency) were: "responsibility and duty," "veracity, integrity, and honesty," and "rapport with patients and conversational skill." Korean physicians value moral duties, such as responsibility and veracity, more than they do moral virtues, such as altruism and honesty with patients. It is presumed that physicians are under pressure due to governmental regulation of the national healthcare system and have difficulty exercising their autonomy.

  3. Judgement of abstract paintings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dakulović Sandra

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In two experiments the judgement of twenty one abstract paintings was investigated. In Experiment 1, subjects were asked to make similarity judgements of 210 pairs of paintings on a 7 step bipolar scale (similar-dissimilar. The Multi-dimensional scaling (MDS method was used for data analysis. The distribution of paintings within MDS 2-D space suggested two grouping criteria: colorfullness (e.g. from Klee to Kline and geometrization (e.g. from Vasarely to Kandinsky. In Experiment 2, subjects were asked to judge the same paintings on three factors of the instrument SDF 9 (Marković et al., 2002b: Evaluation, Arousal and Regularity. The purpose of this experiment was to specify the subjective criteria on which the (dissimilarity judgements were based. In the regression analysis the three factors of SDF 9 were defined as predictors, whereas the x and y coordinates of MDS 2-D space were defined as dependent variables. The results have shown that the dimension x was reducible to the Evaluation factor, and dimension y is reducible to the Regularity factor.

  4. Welcome to professional courtesy discounts: the medical community's pandora's box.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, A D

    1998-01-01

    Recent government regulations on fraud and abuse have transformed the tradition of professional courtesy discounts into a legal minefield threatening to explode on the uninformed medical provider. This paper offers an understanding of the issues involved and provider options.

  5. Imagining alternative professional identities: reconfiguring professional boundaries between nursing students and medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langendyk, Vicki; Hegazi, Iman; Cowin, Leanne; Johnson, Maree; Wilson, Ian

    2015-06-01

    The transition of a medical student or a nursing student into a health care practitioner requires many changes. Among these is the development of an appropriate professional identity, which assists in the establishment of a sound base for professional practice and therefore should be a focus for health professions educators. There is evidence, however, that medical education and nursing education face challenges in guiding students' development of appropriate professional identities. In medicine, there is concern that medical education may contribute to the development of professional identities that alienate patients rather than identities that are patient centered. The nursing profession struggles with poor retention rates in the workforce, which have been attributed in part to discrepancies between the professional identities that students develop during nursing school and the realities of professional practice.In this Perspective, the authors explore the importance of and the pedagogical strategies used to facilitate professional identity formation for medical and nursing students. They argue that medical and nursing educators aim to instill in their students strong occupational identities which may perpetuate hierarchical disciplinary boundaries. They suggest that health professions educators should move beyond current disciplinary silos and create interprofessional education opportunities for medical students and nursing students to learn together to facilitate the development of the collaborative interprofessional identities necessary for the delivery of high-quality, patient-centered health care.

  6. Medical Professional and Usage of Social Media

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rabeya Yousuf; Sheikh Muhammad Abu Bakar; Mainul Haque; Md Nurul Islam; Abdus Salam

    2017-01-01

    ... and health care decisions contradict with the openness of the usage of social media. Member of the medical profession can use social media but need to abide by the code of conduct of medical ethics in order to render the best possible services...

  7. Reflections: an inquiry into medical students' professional identity formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Anne; Trollope-Kumar, Karen

    2014-05-01

    Professional identity formation plays a crucial role in the transition from medical student to doctor. At McMaster University, medical students maintain a portfolio of narrative reflections of their experiences, which provides for a rich source of data into their professional development. The purpose of this study was to understand the major influences on medical students' professional identity formation. Sixty-five medical students (46 women; 19 men) from a class of 194 consented to the study of their portfolios. In total, 604 reflections were analysed and coded using thematic narrative analysis. The codes were merged under subthemes and themes. Common or recurrent themes were identified in order to develop a descriptive framework of professional identity formation. Reflections were then analysed longitudinally within and across individual portfolios to examine the professional identity formation over time with respect to these themes. Five major themes were associated with professional identity formation in medical students: prior experiences, role models, patient encounters, curriculum (formal and hidden) and societal expectations. Our longitudinal analysis shows how these themes interact and shape pivotal moments, as well as the iterative nature of professional identity from the multiple ways in which individuals construct meaning from interactions with their environments. Our study provides a window on the dynamic, discursive and constructed nature of professional identity formation. The five key themes associated with professional identity formation provide strategic opportunities to enable positive development. This study also illustrates the power of reflective writing for students and tutors in the professional identity formation process. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Medical professionalism: an experimental look at physicians’ Facebook profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph W. Clyde

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Use of social networking services (SNS is on the rise. While many users sign in for personal purposes, it is not uncommon for professionals to connect over SNSs with clients, students, and patients. Methods: The present study used an experimental approach to examine how medical doctors’ SNS profiles impacted potential patients’ impressions of professionalism. Participants (N=250 students were randomly assigned to view one of six Facebook profiles. Profiles were populated with 1 solely professional material, 2 personal material that was strictly healthy, or 3 personal material that included unhealthy behavior. Profiles portrayed a male or female physician resulting in a total of six experimental conditions. Medical professionalism was measured with the First Impressions of Medical Professionalism (FIMP scale, specifically developed for this study. Results: There was a large and statistically significant main effect for profile type, F(2, 250=54.77, p<0.001, ηp2=0.31. Post hoc tests indicated that personal profiles that contained healthy behavior were rated as most professional followed by profiles with strictly professional content. Personal unhealthy profiles were rated as least professional. Additionally, female profiles consistently received higher professionalism ratings across all three profile types [F(1, 250=5.04, p=0.026, ηp2=0.02]. Conclusion: Our results suggest that a physician's SNS profile affects a patient's perception of that physician's medical professionalism. A personal, healthy profile may augment a patient's perception of that physician's character virtues if the profile content upholds the decorum of the medical field.

  9. Distributive justice and the harm to medical professionals fighting epidemics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertsen, Andreas Brøgger; Thaysen, Jens Damgaard

    2017-01-01

    , cure and care for the vulnerable, luck egalitarianism seems to imply that their claim of justice to medical attention in case of infection is weak or non-existent. The article demonstrates how a recent interpretation of luck egalitarianism offers a solution to this problem. Redefining luck......The exposure of doctors, nurses and other medical professionals to risks in the context of epidemics is significant. While traditional medical ethics offers the thought that these dangers may limit the extent to which a duty to care is applicable in such situations, it has less to say about what we...... might owe to medical professionals who are disadvantaged in these contexts. Luck egalitarianism, a responsibility-sensitive theory of distributive justice, appears to fare particularly badly in that regard. If we want to maintain that medical professionals are responsible for their decisions to help...

  10. Twelve Tips for teaching medical professionalism at all levels of medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Eraky, Mohamed Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Review of studies published in medical education journals over the last decade reveals that teaching medical professionalism is essential, yet challenging. According to a recent Best Evidence in Medical Education (BEME) guide, there is no consensus on a theoretical or practical model to integrate the teaching of professionalism into medical education. The aim of this article is to outline a practical manual for teaching professionalism at all levels of medical education. Drawing from research literature and author's experience, Twelve Tips are listed and organised in four clusters with relevance to (1) the context, (2) the teachers, (3) the curriculum, and (4) the networking. With a better understanding of the guiding educational principles for teaching medical professionalism, medical educators will be able to teach one of the most challenging constructs in medical education.

  11. English for Medical Purposes for Saudi Medical and Health Professionals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fahad Alqurashi

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the English language needs of 156 Saudi fellowship doctors and students of medical majors who are enrolled at medical and training programs in Australian hospitals and universities...

  12. Erosion of Digital Professionalism During Medical Students' Core Clinical Clerkships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostaghimi, Arash; Olszewski, Aleksandra E; Bell, Sigall K; Roberts, David H; Crotty, Bradley H

    2017-05-03

    The increased use of social media, cloud computing, and mobile devices has led to the emergence of guidelines and novel teaching efforts to guide students toward the appropriate use of technology. Despite this, violations of professional conduct are common. We sought to explore professional behaviors specific to appropriate use of technology by looking at changes in third-year medical students' attitudes and behaviors at the beginning and conclusion of their clinical clerkships. After formal teaching about digital professionalism, we administered a survey to medical students that described 35 technology-related behaviors and queried students about professionalism of the behavior (on a 5-point Likert scale), observation of others engaging in the behavior (yes or no), as well as personal participation in the behavior (yes or no). Students were resurveyed at the end of the academic year. Over the year, perceptions of what is considered acceptable behavior regarding privacy, data security, communications, and social media boundaries changed, despite formal teaching sessions to reinforce professional behavior. Furthermore, medical students who observed unprofessional behaviors were more likely to participate in such behaviors. Although technology is a useful tool to enhance teaching and learning, our results reflect an erosion of professionalism related to information security that occurred despite medical school and hospital-based teaching sessions to promote digital professionalism. True alteration of trainee behavior will require a cultural shift that includes continual education, better role models, and frequent reminders for faculty, house staff, students, and staff.

  13. Your professionalism is not my professionalism: congruence and variance in the views of medical students and faculty about professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattar, Kamran; Roff, Sue; Meo, Sultan Ayoub

    2016-11-08

    Medical professionalism is an essential aspect of medical education and practice worldwide and it must be adopted according to different social and cultural contexts. We examined the current congruence and variance in the perception of professionalism in undergraduate medical students and faculty members in one medical school in Saudi Arabia. The target population was first year to final year medical students of College of Medicine, King Saud University. Out of a total of 1431 students at College of Medicine 750 students (52 %) participated in the study. Fifty faculty members from clinical and non-clinical departments of the College of Medicine were randomly selected for this study and all participated in the study. The respondents recorded their responses through the Bristol online survey system, using a bilingual (English and Arabic) version of the Dundee Polyprofessionalism Inventory I: Academic integrity, which has 34 items. There are 17 lapses (50 % of the total) in professional behaviour where none of the faculty recommend the ignore sanction while students recommended a variable ignore sanction in a range of 6-29 % for different behaviours. Students and faculty recommended similar sanctions for 5 lapses (14.7 % of the total) in professional behaviours. Furthermore, there is statistically significant two level difference between the sanctions approved by faculty and students in the recommended sanctions for 12 lapses (35 % of the total (p professionalism. It is therefore, important to enhance their learning around the attributes of medical professionalism.

  14. Transforming medical professionalism to fit changing health needs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plochg, Thomas; Klazinga, Niek S.; Starfield, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The professional organization of medical work no longer reflects the changing health needs caused by the growing number of complex and chronically ill patients. Key stakeholders enforce coordination and remove power from the medical professions in order allow for these changes.

  15. Transforming medical professionalism to fit changing health needs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plochg, T.; Klazinga, N.S.; Starfield, B.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The professional organization of medical work no longer reflects the changing health needs caused by the growing number of complex and chronically ill patients. Key stakeholders enforce coordination and remove power from the medical professions in order allow for these changes. However,

  16. Medical students' professional identity development in an early nursing attachment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmich, E.; Derksen, E.; Prevoo, M.; Laan, R.F.J.M.; Bolhuis, S.; Koopmans, R.T.C.M.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The importance of early clinical experience for medical training is well documented. However, to our knowledge there are no studies that assess the influence of very early nursing attachments on the professional development and identity construction of medical students. Working as an

  17. Participation and Progression: New Medical Graduates Entering Professional Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearman, Margaret; Lawson, Mary; Jones, Alison

    2011-01-01

    The first year of practice after medical school is considered to be an essential part of becoming a medical practitioner in Australia. Previous qualitative investigations have investigated a number of significant aspects of this early stage of professional development. This qualitative study explores experiences and developing professional…

  18. Distributive justice and the harm to medical professionals fighting epidemics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertsen, Andreas; Thaysen, Jens Damgaard

    2017-01-01

    The exposure of doctors, nurses and other medical professionals to risks in the context of epidemics is significant. While traditional medical ethics offers the thought that these dangers may limit the extent to which a duty to care is applicable in such situations, it has less to say about what ...

  19. Perception of professionalism among first year medical students in OIU

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Material and methods: The first year medical students at the Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Omdurman Islamic University were taught the Human Rights declaration issued by the United ... About 9(5.4%) -24(12.4%) are not clear about the role of the medical professional in the society in advocating for patients.

  20. The Overlapping Spheres of Medical Professionalism and Medical Ethics: A Conceptual Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruitenberg, Claudia W.

    2016-01-01

    This essay examines the concepts of "professionalism" and "ethics" as they are used in health professions education and, in particular, medical education. It proposes that, in order to make sense of the construct of "professional ethics," it would be helpful to conceive of professionalism and ethics as overlapping but…

  1. Study to assess the compensation and skills of medical library professionals relative to information technology professionals*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weise, Frieda O.; McMullen, Thomas D.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: The study seeks to determine how medical library professionals performing information-technology (IT) roles are compensated and how their positions are designed compared to information technology staff in their institutions. Methods: 550 medical library directors in hospital and academic medical libraries were surveyed. The data was then compared to survey data from other compensation studies of the IT industry. Results: There is a gap in compensation between medical library professionals and IT professionals performing similar functions using information technology. Technology-intense library jobs are compensated at higher levels than more traditional jobs. Conclusions: To compete with IT salaries, managers of medical library professionals will need to be ever more cognizant of the employment practices of IT professionals in nonmedical library disciplines. It is typically in the medical library's best interest to ensure that IT-related jobs, accountabilities, and capabilities of the medical library are known and understood by others, especially in the human resources and information technology staff departments. PMID:11465684

  2. [Criteria for forensic medical evaluation of professional working capacity loss].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapustin, A V; Tomilin, V V; Ol'khovik, V P; Panfilenko, O A; Serebriakova, V G

    2000-01-01

    The main and additional criteria used in evaluation (in percent) of loss of professional working capacity are characterized. Criteria common for forensic medical and medical social expert evaluations and differences between them are discussed. These differences are due to the fact that forensic medical expert evaluations are based on the Civil and Civil Processual Codes of the Russian Federation but not on the departamental norm-setting documents.

  3. Professionalism score and academic performance in osteopathic medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, Karen T; Johnson, Jane C

    2014-11-01

    During the first 2 years of osteopathic medical school, osteopathic manipulative medicine (OMM) courses use an objective professionalism score to measure student timeliness and appropriate dress for learning activities. To assess for correlations between this score and the numeric course grades of all first- and second-year basic science and clinical courses at a single osteopathic medical school. The professionalism scores obtained for each of the 7 quarters of the OMM course (2007-2012) were compared with the students' numeric final course grades and combined grade point average (GPA) of all courses in the corresponding quarter. Spearman correlation coefficients were used to determine the strength of the relationship between the professionalism score and the final course grades and the combined GPA. The mean (SD) professionalism score was 98.6% (3.3%), and scores ranged from 23.1% to 100%. Excluding the OMM course, the professionalism score was positively correlated with 29% of first-year course grades and 65% of second-year course grades. The professionalism score was predictive of academic performance in 16 of 23 clinical courses with the highest correlation for Principles of Medicine and Dermatology (ρ=0.28 and ρ=0.25, respectively). The OMM professionalism score was positively associated with GPA for quarters 1, 6, and 7 (P=.006, Posteopathic medical school courses, particularly clinical courses in the second-year curriculum. © 2014 The American Osteopathic Association.

  4. Medication prescribing practices of healthcare professionals in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drug prescribing patterns of healthcare workers, including medical officers, nurses, and community health officers were assessed. Data were analyzed using WHO's drug use indicators, including average number of drugs per encounter, percentage of (drugs prescribed by generic name, encounter with an antibiotic ...

  5. The Osler Student Societies of the University of Texas medical branch: a medical professionalism translational tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, Michael H

    2012-12-01

    This essay reviews some of the issues associated with the challenge of integrating the concepts of medical professionalism into the socialization and identity formation of the undergraduate medical student. A narrative-based approach to the integration of professionalism in medical education proposed by Coulehan (Acad Med 80(10):892-898, 2005) offers an appealing method to accomplish the task in a less didactic format and in a way that promotes more personal growth. In this essay, I review how the Osler Student Societies of the University of Texas Medical Branch developed and how they offer a convenient vehicle to carry out this narrative-based approach to professionalism. Through mentor-modeled professional behavior, opportunities for student self-reflection, the development of narrative skills through reflection on great literature, and opportunities for community service, the Osler Student Societies provide a ready-made narrative-based approach to medical professionalism education.

  6. Bureaucratization and medical professionals' values: A cross-national analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racko, Girts

    2017-05-01

    Understanding the impact of the bureaucratization of governance systems on the occupational values of medical professionals is a fundamental concern of the sociological research of healthcare professions. While previous studies have examined the impact of bureaucratized management, organizations, and healthcare fields on medical professionals' values, there is a lack of cross-national research on the normative impact of the bureaucratized systems of national governance. Using the European Social Survey data for 29 countries, this study examines the impact of the bureaucratization of national governance systems on the occupational values of medical professionals. The findings indicate that medical professionals who are employed in countries with the more bureaucratized systems of national governance are less concerned with openness to change values, that emphasize autonomy and creativity, and self-transcendence values, that emphasize common good. The findings also indicate that the negative effect of the bureaucratization of national governance on the openness to change values is stronger for medical professionals in more bureaucratized organizations with more rationalized administration systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Professional reading and the Medical Radiation Science Practitioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanahan, Madeleine, E-mail: mshanahan@rmit.edu.a [School of Medical Science, RMIT University, Bundoora, Victoria (Australia); Herrington, Anthony [Head, School of Regional, Remote and eLearning (RRE), Curtin University, Perth (Australia); Herrington, Jan [School of Education, Murdoch University, Perth (Australia)

    2010-11-15

    Purpose: Updating professional knowledge is a central tenet of Continuing Professional Development (CPD) and professional reading is a common method health practitioners use to update their professional knowledge. This paper reports the level of professional reading by Medical Radiation Science (MRS) practitioners in Australia and examines organisational support for professional reading. Materials and Methods: Survey design was used to collect data from MRS practitioners. A questionnaire was sent to 1142 Australian practitioners, which allowed self-report data to be collected on the length of time practitioners engage in professional reading and the time workplaces allocate to practitioners for professional reading. Results: Of the 362 MRS practitioners who returned the survey, 93.9% engaged in professional reading on a weekly basis. In contrast, only 28.9% of respondents reported that their workplace allocates time for professional reading to practitioners. MRS practitioners employed in universities engaged in higher levels of reading than their colleagues employed in clinical workplaces (p < 0.01) and more university workplaces allocated time for professional reading to their employees than clinical workplaces (p < 0.01). There were no significant differences for clinical practitioners in level of reading across geographic, organisational and professional demographic factors. Significant differences in workplace allocation of time for professional reading in clinical workplaces were evident for health sector (p < 0.01); work environment (p < 0.01); geographic location (p < 0.01) and area of specialisation (p < 0.01). Conclusion: The vast majority of respondent MRS practitioners engage in professional reading to update their professional knowledge. This demonstrates an ongoing commitment at the individual practitioner level for updating professional knowledge. Updating professional knowledge is an organisational as well as an individual practitioner issue. Whilst

  8. Young immigrants’ access to education and vocational training. An assessment of the Constitutional Court Judgement 236/2007 and the vocational and professional training reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Moya

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available As a mean to ensure social cohesion and immigrants’ integration, Spanish Society and its Public Administration should grant immigrant children full access to education and vocational and professional training, at least on an equal footing with Spanish nationals. Furthermore, there are strong reasons to consider the creation and deployment of a pull of services aimed at granting children quick access to education and vocational training in certain situations, independently of their legal status. At present, apart from a Constitutional Court decision allowing minors in administrative irregularity to accede to these services, Spanish legislation is not clear about their rights. Without a solid legal basis, Regional and Local Administrations are reluctant to adapt their educative systems to integrate immigrant young people and to promote the acquisition of the necessary professional skills to accede to the labour market and, eventually, regularize their administrative status

  9. Preclinical medical student observations associated with later professionalism concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Cynthia A; Lambros, M Ann; Atkinson, Hal H; Russell, Greg; Fitch, Michael T

    2017-01-01

    Professionalism is a core physician competency and identifying students at risk for poor professional development early in their careers may allow for mentoring. This study identified indicators in the preclinical years associated with later professionalism concerns. A retrospective analysis of observable indicators in the preclinical and clinical years was conducted using two classes of students (n = 226). Relationships between five potential indicators of poor professionalism in the preclinical years and observations related to professional concerns in the clinical years were analyzed. Fifty-three medical students were identified with at least one preclinical indicator and one professionalism concern during the clinical years. Two observable preclinical indicators were significantly correlated with unprofessional conduct during the clinical years: Three or more absences from attendance-required sessions (odds ratio 4.47; p=.006) and negative peer assessment (odds ratio 3.35; p=.049). We identified two significant observable preclinical indicators associated with later professionalism concerns: excessive absences and negative peer assessments. Early recognition of students at risk for future professionalism struggles would provide an opportunity for proactive professional development prior to the clinical years, when students' permanent records may be affected. Peer assessment, coupled with attention to frequent absences, may be a method to provide early recognition.

  10. Transforming medical professionalism to fit changing health needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Starfield Barbara

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The professional organization of medical work no longer reflects the changing health needs caused by the growing number of complex and chronically ill patients. Key stakeholders enforce coordination and remove power from the medical professions in order allow for these changes. However, it may also be necessary to initiate basic changes to way in which the medical professionals work in order to adapt to the changing health needs. Discussion Medical leaders, supported by health policy makers, can consciously activate the self-regulatory capacity of medical professionalism in order to transform the medical profession and the related professional processes of care so that it can adapt to the changing health needs. In doing so, they would open up additional routes to the improvement of the health services system and to health improvement. This involves three consecutive steps: (1 defining and categorizing the health needs of the population; (2 reorganizing the specialty domains around the needs of population groups; (3 reorganizing the specialty domains by eliminating work that could be done by less educated personnel or by the patients themselves. We suggest seven strategies that are required in order to achieve this transformation. Summary Changing medical professionalism to fit the changing health needs will not be easy. It will need strong leadership. But, if the medical world does not embark on this endeavour, good doctoring will become merely a bureaucratic and/or marketing exercise that obscures the ultimate goal of medicine which is to optimize the health of both individuals and the entire population.

  11. Medical laboratory professional's perceptions of continuous medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmaa Alyaemni

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Most laboratory technicians in our study reported favourable perceptions of CME programmes, feeling that they increased professional confidence and competency. We recommend that core competencies be integrated into credentialing using profession-specific CME in a workplace setting. In addition, MLTs should be involved in designing the programmes as well. Further studies in a multicentre institution are needed to analyse the difference in perception among those who have attended CME and those who have not.

  12. Using movies to teach professionalism to medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemenc-Ketis, Zalika; Kersnik, Janko

    2011-08-23

    Professionalism topics are usually not covered as a separate lesson within formal curriculum, but in subtler and less officially recognized educational activities, which makes them difficult to teach and assess. Interactive methods (e.g. movies) could be efficient teaching methods but are rarely studied. The aims of this study were: 1) to test the relevance and usefulness of movies in teaching professionalism to fourth year medical students and, 2) to assess the impact of this teaching method on students' attitudes towards some professionalism topics. This was an education study with qualitative data analysis in a group of eleven fourth year medical students from the Medical School of University Maribor who attended an elective four month course on professionalism. There were 8 (66.7%) female students in the group. The mean age of the students was 21.9 ± 0.9 years. The authors used students' written reports and oral presentations as the basis for qualitative analysis using thematic codes. Students recognised the following dimensions in the movie: communication, empathy, doctors' personal interests and palliative care. It also made them think about their attitudes towards life, death and dying. The controlled environment of movies successfully enables students to explore their values, beliefs, and attitudes towards features of professionalism without feeling that their personal integrity had been threatened. Interactive teaching methods could become an indispensible aid in teaching professionalism to new generations.

  13. Using movies to teach professionalism to medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klemenc-Ketis Zalika

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Professionalism topics are usually not covered as a separate lesson within formal curriculum, but in subtler and less officially recognized educational activities, which makes them difficult to teach and assess. Interactive methods (e.g. movies could be efficient teaching methods but are rarely studied. The aims of this study were: 1 to test the relevance and usefulness of movies in teaching professionalism to fourth year medical students and, 2 to assess the impact of this teaching method on students' attitudes towards some professionalism topics. Method This was an education study with qualitative data analysis in a group of eleven fourth year medical students from the Medical School of University Maribor who attended an elective four month course on professionalism. There were 8 (66.7% female students in the group. The mean age of the students was 21.9 ± 0.9 years. The authors used students' written reports and oral presentations as the basis for qualitative analysis using thematic codes. Results Students recognised the following dimensions in the movie: communication, empathy, doctors' personal interests and palliative care. It also made them think about their attitudes towards life, death and dying. Conclusions The controlled environment of movies successfully enables students to explore their values, beliefs, and attitudes towards features of professionalism without feeling that their personal integrity had been threatened. Interactive teaching methods could become an indispensible aid in teaching professionalism to new generations.

  14. Faculty development for learning and teaching of medical professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Eraky, Mohamed M; Donkers, Jeroen; Wajid, Gohar; Van Merrienboer, Jeroen J G

    2015-04-01

    Professionalism must be explicitly taught, but teaching professionalism is challenging, because medical teachers are not prepared to teach this content area. This study aims at designing and evaluating a faculty development programme on learning and teaching professionalism in the Arabian context. Programme development: The study used a participatory design, where four authors and 28 teachers shared the responsibility in programme design in three steps: orientation workshop for teachers, vignette development, and teaching professionalism to students. The workshop provided the cognitive base on the salient attributes of professionalism in the Arabian context. After the workshop, authors helped teachers to develop a total of 32 vignettes in various clinical aspects, portraying a blend of professionalism dilemmas. A battery of seven questions/triggers was suggested to guide students' reflection. The programme was evaluated with regard to its "construct" and its "outcomes". The programme has fulfilled the guiding principles for its design and it has emerged from a genuine professionalism framework from local scholarly studies in the Arabian context. Programme outcomes were evaluated at the four levels of Kirkpatrick's model; reaction, learning, behaviour, and results. The study communicates a number of context-specific issues that should be considered when teaching professionalism in Arabian culture with respect to teachers and students. Three lessons were learned from developing vignettes, as reported by the authors. This study advocates the significance of transforming faculty development from the training discourse of stand-alone interventions to mentorship paradigm of the communities of learning. A three-step approach (orientation workshop, vignettes development, and teaching professionalism) proved effective for faculty development for learning and teaching of professionalism. Professionalism can be taught using vignettes that demonstrate professionalism dilemmas

  15. Wanted: role models - medical students’ perceptions of professionalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byszewski Anna

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transformation of medical students to become medical professionals is a core competency required for physicians in the 21st century. Role modeling was traditionally the key method of transmitting this skill. Medical schools are developing medical curricula which are explicit in ensuring students develop the professional competency and understand the values and attributes of this role. The purpose of this study was to determine student perception of professionalism at the University of Ottawa and gain insights for improvement in promotion of professionalism in undergraduate medical education. Methods Survey on student perception of professionalism in general, the curriculum and learning environment at the University of Ottawa, and the perception of student behaviors, was developed by faculty and students and sent electronically to all University of Ottawa medical students. The survey included both quantitative items including an adapted Pritzker list and qualitative responses to eight open ended questions on professionalism at the Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa. All analyses were performed using SAS version 9.1 (SAS Institute Inc. Cary, NC, USA. Chi-square and Fischer’s exact test (for cell count less than 5 were used to derive p-values for categorical variables by level of student learning. Results The response rate was 45.6% (255 of 559 students for all four years of the curriculum. 63% of the responses were from students in years 1 and 2 (preclerkship. Students identified role modeling as the single most important aspect of professionalism. The strongest curricular recommendations included faculty-led case scenario sessions, enhancing interprofessional interactions and the creation of special awards to staff and students to “celebrate” professionalism. Current evaluation systems were considered least effective. The importance of role modeling and information on how to report lapses and breaches was

  16. Wanted: role models--medical students' perceptions of professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byszewski, Anna; Hendelman, Walter; McGuinty, Caroline; Moineau, Geneviève

    2012-11-15

    Transformation of medical students to become medical professionals is a core competency required for physicians in the 21st century. Role modeling was traditionally the key method of transmitting this skill. Medical schools are developing medical curricula which are explicit in ensuring students develop the professional competency and understand the values and attributes of this role. The purpose of this study was to determine student perception of professionalism at the University of Ottawa and gain insights for improvement in promotion of professionalism in undergraduate medical education. Survey on student perception of professionalism in general, the curriculum and learning environment at the University of Ottawa, and the perception of student behaviors, was developed by faculty and students and sent electronically to all University of Ottawa medical students. The survey included both quantitative items including an adapted Pritzker list and qualitative responses to eight open ended questions on professionalism at the Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa. All analyses were performed using SAS version 9.1 (SAS Institute Inc. Cary, NC, USA). Chi-square and Fischer's exact test (for cell count less than 5) were used to derive p-values for categorical variables by level of student learning. The response rate was 45.6% (255 of 559 students) for all four years of the curriculum. 63% of the responses were from students in years 1 and 2 (preclerkship). Students identified role modeling as the single most important aspect of professionalism. The strongest curricular recommendations included faculty-led case scenario sessions, enhancing interprofessional interactions and the creation of special awards to staff and students to "celebrate" professionalism. Current evaluation systems were considered least effective. The importance of role modeling and information on how to report lapses and breaches was highlighted in the answers to the open ended questions. Students

  17. Preference for detail in medical illustrations amongst professionals and laypersons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Jesse; Erolin, Caroline

    2013-06-01

    This study investigated the preferences of medical professionals and laypersons with respect to the level of detail shown in medical illustrations (i.e. graphic art shown in patient education materials) and the complexity of the subject being depicted (i.e. a visually simple versus a visually complex subject). Additionally, respondent's age, gender, and art background were recorded to yield further insight. The results showed that generally there was preference for high-detail (complex) illustrations between the two groups, though the professionals group was somewhat more diverse in their choices. The other variables had no impact on illustration preference.

  18. The eroding principle of justice in teaching medical professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Jason E

    2012-12-01

    This article examines the difficulties encountered in teaching professionalism to medical students in the current social and political climate where economic considerations take top priority in health care decision making. The conflict between the commitment to advocate at all times the interests of one's patients over one's own interests is discussed. With personal, institutional, tech industry, pharmaceutical industry, and third-party payer financial imperatives that stand between patients and the delivery of health care, this article investigates how medical ethics instructors are to teach professionalism in a responsible way that does not avoid dealing with the principle of justice.

  19. Medical professional responsibility for postvasectomy pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Blasco, C; Arimany-Manso, J; Gómez-Durán, E L; Martin Fumadó, C; Piqueras-Bartolomé, M; Capdevila-Querol, S; Laborda-Rodriguez, A

    2016-01-01

    The follow-up of patients postvasectomy is frequently limited to a seminogram at 3months if azoospermia is observed. This study evaluates a series of cases of complaints for postvasectomy pregnancy to establish follow-up recommendations that increase the clinical safety and reduce the risk of complaints. We reviewed the database of the Department of Professional Responsibility of the Council of the College of Physicians of Catalonia, finding 28 complaints for postvasectomy pregnancy between 1992 and 2011. We analysed the clinical and legal variables of the cases. A total of 13 extrajudicial complaints (46.43%), 13 civil lawsuits (46.43%) and 2 criminal lawsuits (7.14%) were recorded. Only 10 cases had a signed document of informed consent specific to vasectomy. In 26 cases, the data from the spermogram was available. A single spermogram was conducted in 20 cases (76.92%), 2 spermograms were conducted in 4 cases (15.38%) and none were performed in 2 cases (7.69%). For 9 of the cases (45%) where only a single spermogram was performed, the test was performed before 3months postvasectomy. In 17 cases (65.38%), the result of the last spermogram was azoospermia, and 3 cases had oligospermia (11.54%). There were 2 failures of interpretation of the spermogram (7.69%) and 2 of normospermia (7.69%). In 2 cases, a spermogram was not performed (7.69%). Pregnancy occurred between 4 and 50 months after the intervention. In 12 cases (42.86%), it was considered that the practitioner was responsible. It is recommended that physicians emphasise (during the patient information stage) the possibility of spontaneous recanalisation and to request 2 spermograms, whose result should be azoospermia. Performing the test in the 3months after vasectomy is risky, as is basing the waiting time on the number of ejaculations. Copyright © 2016 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Formation of medical student professional identity: categorizing lapses of professionalism, and the learning environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendelman, Walter; Byszewski, Anna

    2014-07-09

    Acquiring the values of medical professionalism has become a critical issue in medical education. The purpose of this study was to identify lapses in professionalism witnessed by medical students during their four year MD curriculum, and to categorize, from the students' perspective, who was responsible and the settings in which these occurred. An electronic survey, developed by faculty and medical students, was sent to all students with two email reminders. It included quantitative responses and some open-ended opportunities for comments. All analyses were performed with SAS version 9.1. The response rate was 45.6% (255 of 559 students) for all four years of the medical school curriculum. Thirty six percent of students had witnessed or been part of an exemplary demonstration of professionalism; 64% responded that they had witnessed a lapse of professionalism. At the pre-clerkship level, the most frequent lapses involved students: arrogance (42.2%), impairment (24.2%), followed by cultural or religious insensitivity (20.5%). At the clerkship level of training, where students are exposed to real clinical situations, the lapses involved primarily faculty (including preceptor and clinician) or other staff; these included arrogance (55.3%), breach of confidentiality (28.3%), and cultural or religious insensitivity (26.6%); impairment involved mostly students (25.5%). These findings are analyzed from the perspective of role modeling by faculty and in the context of the learning environment. Medical students witnessed a lapse of professionalism involving both fellow students as well as faculty and administrative staff, in several domains. Results from this study emphasize the importance of role modeling and the need for faculty development, to improve the learning environment. This study adds to the limited emerging literature on the forces that influence medical student professional identity formation.

  1. Formation of medical student professional identity: categorizing lapses of professionalism, and the learning environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Acquiring the values of medical professionalism has become a critical issue in medical education. The purpose of this study was to identify lapses in professionalism witnessed by medical students during their four year MD curriculum, and to categorize, from the students’ perspective, who was responsible and the settings in which these occurred. Methods An electronic survey, developed by faculty and medical students, was sent to all students with two email reminders. It included quantitative responses and some open-ended opportunities for comments. All analyses were performed with SAS version 9.1. Results The response rate was 45.6% (255 of 559 students) for all four years of the medical school curriculum. Thirty six percent of students had witnessed or been part of an exemplary demonstration of professionalism; 64% responded that they had witnessed a lapse of professionalism. At the pre-clerkship level, the most frequent lapses involved students: arrogance (42.2%), impairment (24.2%), followed by cultural or religious insensitivity (20.5%). At the clerkship level of training, where students are exposed to real clinical situations, the lapses involved primarily faculty (including preceptor and clinician) or other staff; these included arrogance (55.3%), breach of confidentiality (28.3%), and cultural or religious insensitivity (26.6%); impairment involved mostly students (25.5%). These findings are analyzed from the perspective of role modeling by faculty and in the context of the learning environment. Conclusions Medical students witnessed a lapse of professionalism involving both fellow students as well as faculty and administrative staff, in several domains. Results from this study emphasize the importance of role modeling and the need for faculty development, to improve the learning environment. This study adds to the limited emerging literature on the forces that influence medical student professional identity formation. PMID:25004924

  2. Medical professionalism on television: student perceptions and pedagogical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Roslyn; Wilson, Ian; Langendyk, Vicki

    2014-11-01

    Previous research has pointed to the role television can play in informing health practices and beliefs. Within the academic setting in particular, some educators have raised concerns about the influence of medical dramas on students. Less research, however, draws on the perspectives of students, and this study therefore explores medical students' perceptions of medical practice and professionalism in popular medical television programmes. Qualitative data from surveys of Australian undergraduate medical students showed that students perceived professionalism in dichotomous ways, with three main themes: cure-care, where a doctor's skill is either technical or interpersonal; work-leisure, where a doctor is either dedicated to work or personal life; and clinical-administration, where work is either direct patient care or administration. There continue to be imagined divisions between curing and caring for students, who express concerns about balancing work and leisure, and expectations that doctors should have little administrative work. Given students were able to identify these important contemporary issues around professionalism on television, there is pedagogical value in using popular images of the medical world in medical education. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Publication misconduct among medical professionals in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhingra, Dhulika; Mishra, Devendra

    2014-04-01

    This study was planned as an exploratory study to determine the extent of occurrence of misconduct in publication (gift-authorship,ghost-authorship, falsification of data, fabrication of data,plagiarism, and duplication) amongst biomedical researchers.It was a questionnaire-based study, conducted at 9 institutions;6 medical colleges (4 government-run and 2 private), 7 non teaching government hospital, and 2 corporate hospitals, located in northern, central and southern India. The study was conducted between August 2072 and March 2073. 755 senior residents (information was collected. In addition to personal characteristics, the information collected included their knowledge of publication ethics, their opinions about the prevalence of these practices among their colleagues, and details of any first-hand information on publication misconduct. 7 55 responses were included for analysis. 7 4 7 (9 7 %) respondents agreed that they had some knowledge of publication ethics; but only 29% believed it was adequate. The most commonly observed misconduct was offering gift authorship, reported by 707 (65%); followed by alteration of data reported by 88 (56%). Plagiarism was observed by 83 respondents (53%); while 52 (33.5%) respondents had observed a colleague's name being omitted from a paper to which she/he had significantly contributed. A majority of respondents in the present study reported witnessing publication misconduct,thereby revealing the common occurrence of this problem among Indian biomedical researchers.

  4. Perception of Medical Professionalism among Clinical Students at Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mohd Dzulkhairi Mohd Rani; Jamilah Jamaludin; Ahmad Najib Azmi; Shalinawati Ramli; Mohd Irwan Subri; Ariff Osman; Nik Mohd Nasri Nik Ismail

    2017-01-01

    .... In Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia, medical professionalism is integrated throughout the 6-year medical programme through courses in Fundamental Islamic knowledge, Medical ethics, clinical teaching...

  5. Medical professionalism across cultures: a challenge for medicine and medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Vikram; Mclean, Michelle; Gibbs, Trevor J; Sandars, John

    2015-01-01

    The recognition of medical professionalism as a complex social construct makes context, geographical location and culture important considerations in any discussion of professional behaviour. Medical students, medical educators and practitioners are now much more on the move globally, exposing them to cultural and social attitudes, values and beliefs that may differ from their own traditional perceptions of professionalism. This paper uses the model of the intercultural development continuum and the concept of "cultural fit" to discuss what might transpire when a student, teacher or doctor is faced with a new cultural environment. Using our own experiences as medical educators working abroad and supported by evidence in the literature, we have developed four anecdotal scenarios to highlight some of the challenges that different cultural contexts bring to our current (Western) understanding of professionalism. The scenarios highlight some of the potentially different regional and/or cultural perspectives and nuances of professional behaviours, attitudes or values that many of us either take for granted or find difficult, depending on our training and socio-cultural upbringing. With this paper, we hope to start a long overdue conversation about global professionalism amongst medical educators, identify potential areas for research and highlight a need for medical schools to embrace a "global" approach to how professionalism is embedded in their curricula.

  6. Development of an instrument to assess professional behaviour of foreign medical graduates.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tromp, F.; Rademakers, J.J.D.J.M.; Cate, Th.J. ten

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Foreign medical graduates have to overcome challenges such as language proficiency and cultural differences. Several studies indicate that foreign medical graduates show deficiencies in professional behaviour. For the assessment of foreign medical graduates' professional behaviour, a

  7. Teaching professionalism to first year medical students using video clips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevell, Allison Haley; Thomas, Aliki; Fuks, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    Medical schools are confronted with the challenge of teaching professionalism during medical training. The aim of this study was to examine medical students' perceptions of using video clips as a beneficial teaching tool to learn professionalism and other aspects of physicianship. As part of the longitudinal Physician Apprenticeship course at McGill University, first year medical students viewed video clips from the television series ER. The study used qualitative description and thematic analysis to interpret responses to questionnaires, which explored the educational merits of this exercise. Completed questionnaires were submitted by 112 students from 21 small groups. A major theme concerned the students' perceptions of the utility of video clips as a teaching tool, and consisted of comments organized into 10 categories: "authenticity and believability", "thought provoking", "skills and approaches", "setting", "medium", "level of training", "mentorship", "experiential learning", "effectiveness" and "relevance to practice". Another major theme reflected the qualities of physicianship portrayed in video clips, and included seven categories: "patient-centeredness", "communication", "physician-patient relationship", "professionalism", "ethical behavior", "interprofessional practice" and "mentorship". This study demonstrated that students perceived the value of using video clips from a television series as a means of teaching professionalism and other aspects of physicianship.

  8. Evaluation of the Noncognitive Professional Traits of Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, Sharon; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A University of New Mexico medical school program to evaluate students having difficulty with noncognitive professional traits (responsibility, reliability, maturity, self-assessment, communication, honesty, integrity, respect for patients and peers) has identified 10 students with difficulties and provided interventions and remediation over a…

  9. What causes patients to trust medical professionals? Insights from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trust in medical professionals is an important aspect of demand for health care in South Sudan, without which many patients may never attempt to access clinics and hospitals. This qualitative research study used in-depth biographical interviews to explore family health histories according to the experiences of South ...

  10. The future of medical professionalism | Williams | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medical professionalism is under threat today and its future is quite uncertain. In order to influence the future rather than let it be determined by external forces, physicians and their associations need to understand its past and its present status, including the challenges posed by commercialism, consumerism, ...

  11. Facebook and the professional behaviours of undergraduate medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Jayne; O'Sullivan, Helen

    2010-06-01

    The rapid growth and accessibility of social networking websites has fundamentally changed the way people manage information about their personal and professional lives. In particular, it has been suggested that interaction in virtual communities erodes elements of responsibility, accountability and social trust that build traditionally meaningful communities. The purpose of this study was to investigate how undergraduate medical students use the social network website Facebook, and to identify any unprofessional behaviour displayed online. A voluntary anonymous online survey was devised by the University of Liverpool, and emailed to students. Question topics included the use of Facebook, privacy settings, groups relating to the course and professional behaviours. Results were input to spss for analysis. The response rate was 31 per cent (n = 56). The majority of respondents did have a Facebook account and admitted there were photos they found embarrassing on the site. Over half of the respondents reported they had seen unprofessional behaviour by their colleagues on Facebook. Although students say that they are aware of the UK's General Medical Council (GMC) guidance, unprofessional behaviour is still demonstrated on the site. This research highlights the issue of social networking websites and professionalism amongst medical students. Further guidance from the GMC and medical schools should remind students that images and information placed on social networking sites is in the public domain, and could impact upon their professional reputation and identity. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2010.

  12. Log analysis to understand medical professionals' image searching behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsikrika, Theodora; Müller, Henning; Kahn, Charles E

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on the analysis of the query logs of a visual medical information retrieval system that provides access to radiology resources. Our analysis shows that, despite sharing similarities with general Web search and also with biomedical text search, query formulation and query modification when searching for visual biomedical information have unique characteristics that need to be taken into account in order to enhance the effectiveness of the search support offered by such systems. Typical information needs of medical professionals searching radiology resources are also identified with the goal to create realistic search tasks for a medical image retrieval evaluation benchmark.

  13. Professionalism among multicultural medical students in the United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulrahman, Mahera; Alsalehi, Shahd; Husain, Zahra S M; Nair, Satish C; Carrick, Frederick Robert

    2017-01-01

    Moral competencies and ethical practices of medical professionals are among the desired outcomes of academic training. Unfortunately, academic dishonesty and misconduct are reported from medical colleges across the world. This study investigates the level of academic dishonesty/misconduct among multicultural medical students. The aim of this study is to investigate the level of academic dishonesty/misconduct among multicultural medical students. Validated and customized version of Dundee Polyprofessionalism Inventory-1 detailing lapses of professionalism in undergraduate health professions education was used to determine the perceived prevalence and self-reported lapses of academic integrity in this study. This study shows that the majority (458/554, 83%) of medical students have admitted to acts of academic dishonesty mentioned in the questionnaire. Approximately 42% (231/554) of the students have given proxy for attendance and 71% of them considered this as an offense. Similarly, 12% (66/554) have copied from the record books of others, and 86% (477/554) have considered it unethical. In addition, 5% (28/554) of the students revealed forging a teacher's signature in their record or logbooks, with 16% (91/554) of them reporting that they have seen others forge signatures. This is the first multi-center, multi-cultural and multi-ethnic study involving a large number of participants that addresses academic professionalism among medical students in the Middle East. Certainly, the paucity of data limits definitive conclusions about the best approach to prevent academic misconduct in the UAE medical schools. Yet, the results of our study are anticipated not only to benefit the UAE but also to find application in the Arab world, with similar medical school programs, values, culture and tradition.

  14. Professionalism among multicultural medical students in the United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulrahman, Mahera; Alsalehi, Shahd; Husain, Zahra S. M.; Nair, Satish C.; Carrick, Frederick Robert

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Moral competencies and ethical practices of medical professionals are among the desired outcomes of academic training. Unfortunately, academic dishonesty and misconduct are reported from medical colleges across the world. This study investigates the level of academic dishonesty/misconduct among multicultural medical students. Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the level of academic dishonesty/misconduct among multicultural medical students. Design: Validated and customized version of Dundee Polyprofessionalism Inventory-1 detailing lapses of professionalism in undergraduate health professions education was used to determine the perceived prevalence and self-reported lapses of academic integrity in this study. Results: This study shows that the majority (458/554, 83%) of medical students have admitted to acts of academic dishonesty mentioned in the questionnaire. Approximately 42% (231/554) of the students have given proxy for attendance and 71% of them considered this as an offense. Similarly, 12% (66/554) have copied from the record books of others, and 86% (477/554) have considered it unethical. In addition, 5% (28/554) of the students revealed forging a teacher’s signature in their record or logbooks, with 16% (91/554) of them reporting that they have seen others forge signatures. Conclusion: This is the first multi-center, multi-cultural and multi-ethnic study involving a large number of participants that addresses academic professionalism among medical students in the Middle East. Certainly, the paucity of data limits definitive conclusions about the best approach to prevent academic misconduct in the UAE medical schools. Yet, the results of our study are anticipated not only to benefit the UAE but also to find application in the Arab world, with similar medical school programs, values, culture and tradition. PMID:28918704

  15. Professional dynamics and the changing nature of medical work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafferty, F W; Light, D W

    1995-01-01

    The organization and delivery of health care in the United States is undergoing significant social, organizational, economic, political, and cultural changes with important implications for the future of medicine as a profession. This essay will draw upon some of these changes and briefly review major sociological writings on the nature of medicine's professional status to examine the nature of professional dynamics in a changing environment. To this end, we focus on the nature of medical work and how this work impacts on and is impacted by medicine's own internal differentiation and the presence of contested domains at medicine's periphery. We trace this dynamic through a number of issues including the multidimensional nature of medical work, the role of elites in that work, and how changes in the terms and conditions of work can exert changes at medicine's technical core. We close with some thoughts on the relationship of public policy to medicine's professional status, the role health policy might take in shaping a new professional status, the role health policy might take in shaping a new professional ethnic for medicine, and the role sociologists might play in this process.

  16. Professionalism, professionalization, expertise and compassion: a qualitative study of medical residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Susan P; Dalgarno, Nancy

    2017-01-23

    Formal and informal medical curricula convey expectations about professionalization, that is, the development of physician identity, and also about professionalism. This study examined whether, in general, junior residents experienced any dissonance between these roles and focused particularly on how they negotiated conflicts between compassion, self-care, duty and medical expertise. In 2015, purposive sampling was used to select 21 first-year residents at a Canadian medical school. Participants listened to a 5-min audio-recording narrated in either male or female voice. Facing compassion fatigue after three obstetrical disasters over less than 2 days the resident narrator asks to go home. Participants reacted in writing to questions about this request and relevant teaching/modelling. Responses were analyzed using a qualitative, exploratory, thematic research design. Four themes were identified: i) empathy, self-doubt and fear of weakness, ii) the need for support from and communication with physicians and others, iii) education received, and iv) professionalization outranks professionalism. Participants agreed that under the circumstances the narrator's care, compassion and request were appropriate. Never the less, many grappled with feeling that asking to be relieved of work demonstrated weakness and a shirking of responsibility. Respondents had received no formal teaching about balancing compassion for patients or self with professional duty. Preceptors' informal teaching and modeling valorized scientific disengagement above all else. What emerged was participants' drive to become detached clinicians who set aside emotional responses and interactions that could impede and be incompatible with professionalization. However, participants also recognized and lamented what was lost in such a transformation. In the transition from student to practitioner, trainees' views and the modeling they receive shift emotion and compassion, whether for self or patients, from

  17. [Professionalism: Values and competences in specialized medical training].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez, N; Alcaraz, J; Gavagnach, M; Kazan, R; Arévalo, A; Rodríguez-Carballeira, M

    To determine the perception of healthcare professionals (tutors, residents and teaching collaborators) involved in specialist medical training on the core values and skills to develop their tasks. A tailor-made questionnaire aimed at healthcare professionals in 9health care centres and a referral hospital. Questionnaire: 4 sections and 51 variables (scale 1-10). A total of 287 professionals participated, which included 97% tutors (n=59), 38% residents (n=61), and 56% others (97 teaching collaborators and 70 not associated with teaching). The alfa Cronbach coefficient was 0.945. Best rated values were work compliance (8.7 points), ethics in professional practice (8.6 points), and respect for their team (8.3 points). The best rated competence was communication with patients and families (8.1 points), followed by self-motivating leadership (7.9 points), and the practical application of medical and healthcare theoretical knowledge (7.8 points). The values received, on average, 0.7 points above competences (95% CI: 0.5-0.9). There were no differences between tutors and residents, although differences were found between doctors and nurses, and between males and females. Most of the professionals (tutors, residents, and teaching collaborators) share the same perception of the values and competencies that influence their professional development. This perception was influenced by the professional category and gender, but not age or working in a hospital or primary health care. Copyright © 2016 SECA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of the noncognitive professional traits of medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, S; Obenshain, S S; Galey, W R

    1993-10-01

    Professional attributes such as honesty, integrity, and reliability are critical to success in medical school and postgraduate practice, yet such noncognitive attributes have traditionally been poorly evaluated. A program of evaluating students' noncognitive professional attributes at the University of New Mexico School of Medicine was reviewed over a four-year period, from 1987-88 through 1990-91, involving the approximately 525 students enrolled at the school at that time. The evaluation program enabled faculty and staff to quantify their impressions of problem students in a uniform manner, by using an evaluation form that listed and described seven basic professional traits. Over the study years the program identified ten students with difficulties in the basic science and clinical years regarding their character and professionalism. For these ten students, interventions ranged from nothing being done, in one case, to such significant remediations as recommendations of extensive counseling and a leave of absence. One student was dismissed, on the basis of poor academic performance, and the other nine have graduated. In some cases, students noticeably improved their professional behaviors, but whether their behaviors changed as a result of the interventions can't be determined. By identifying and tracking students with difficulties, the program offers the opportunity for intervention and, ideally, remediation. This program can complement systems that evaluate academic performance. Such a program can help an institution assure not only the cognitive competence of its graduates, but the competence of their professional behaviors as well.

  19. The sunshine act and medical publications: Guidance from professional medical associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toroser, Dikran; DeTora, Lisa; Cairns, Angela; Juneja, Renu; Georgieva, Anna; Weigel, Al; Pepitone, Kim

    2015-01-01

    To review guidance from professional medical associations to physicians on the Sunshine Act, with a focus on industry support for medical publications. Using 'Sunshine Act' as a search term, we searched PubMed (dates February 2013 to November 2014) and the 'grey literature' using Google and Google Scholar. Online information was extracted from websites of pre-identified professional medical associations. Some professional medical associations have published peer-reviewed recommendations, position statements or general advice on their websites and in journals around the Sunshine Act. Associations also provided broad online educational resources for physicians. There was universal agreement between peer-reviewed publications, including guidelines, for the need for full transparency and disclosure of industry support. Surveys by some professional associations showed variance in opinion on the forecasted impact of the Sunshine Act on physician-industry relationships. There was scarce information specifically related to reporting requirements for industry-supported medical publications. There is a shortage of information for physicians from professional associations regarding the Sunshine Act and support for medical publications. Due to the lack of clear guidance regarding support for publications, there are presently varying interpretations of the Sunshine Act. The literature debates the potential impact of the Sunshine Act and expresses some concerns that physician-enabled innovation in drug development may be hindered.

  20. Socialization to professionalism in medical schools: a Canadian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byszewski, Anna; Gill, Jeewanjit S; Lochnan, Heather

    2015-11-17

    Accrediting bodies now recognize the importance of developing the professionalism competency, by setting standards that require medical schools to identify where professionalism is addressed and how it is evaluated within the formal curriculum. The objective of this study was to compare how professionalism competency is formally addressed in the curricula of Canadian medical schools, and to better understand the Canadian approach to reporting and remediation of lapses. A literature review was performed and with the input of the AFMC(Association of Faculties of Medicine of Canada) Professionalism group, questionnaires were generated. An electronic survey was circulated to key leaders across the country at all the medical schools. In-depth telephone interviews were used to further explore themes, and a subsequent focus group was held to discuss challenges, particularly related to reporting and remediation. The preponderance of formal professionalism teaching remains in the form of lectures and small group sessions in the preclinical years. Formal teaching declines significantly in the clerkship/clinical years. Evaluation is usually performed by a clinical supervisor, but OSCE, portfolio, and concern notes are increasingly used. Role modeling is heavily relied upon in clinical years, suggesting faculty training can help ensure clinical teachers recognize their influence on trainees. Formal remediation strategies are in place at most schools, and often involve essay writing, reflection exercises, or completion of learning modules about professionalism. Lack of clarity on what defines a lapse and fear of reprisal (for both trainees and faculty) limits reporting. This study provides an overview of how professional identity formation is supported in the Canadian context, guided by the standards set out by CanMEDS. Despite a rich literature that describes the definition, program design and evaluation methods for professionalism, in some areas of the curriculum there is

  1. Satisfaction amid professional challenges: International medical graduates in rural Tasmania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R Terry

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background At the time of recruitment, migration, and placement, international medical graduates (IMGs encounter professional challenges. These challenges may include a loss of status and professional identity, professional isolation in rural practice, restrictions on medical practice, and social isolation. Understanding the nature of these challenges may facilitate the recruitment, placement, and success of international medical graduates within rural Tasmania. Aims The aim of this study was to investigate the experiences, challenges,and barriers that IMGs encounter as they work and live in rural Tasmania. Methods The study used a mixed-methods design where data were collected using a questionnaire and semi-structured interviews across the south, north, and northwest of Tasmania. IMGs were recruited through purposive snowball and convenience sampling. Results A total of 105 questionnaires were returned (response rate 30.0per cent and 23semi-structured interviews were conducted with IMGs across Tasmania. Questionnaire participants indicated that the majority of IMGs are satisfied in their current employment; however, interview participants indicated there were a number of barriers to practising medicine in Tasmania as well as factors that would influence ongoing employment in the state. Despite these challenges, professional support was recognised as a key contributor to professional satisfaction, particularly among IMGs who had just arrived. Conclusion The study contributes to the current knowledge and understanding of IMGs who live and work in rural areas. The study shows that there are high levels of satisfaction among IMGs with their current position; however, the research also provides insight into the complexities and factors that impact IMGs as they work and live within rural areas such as Tasmania. This study offers an understanding for policy to improve greater retention of IMGs across rural areas.

  2. Social and physiological peculiarities and professional orientation of medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Toussova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes personality features, self-regulation patterns and professional orientation of medical students. It represents the results of the study conducted among the fourth year students. The sample is characterized with high enough behavior regulation, extraversion, high learning potential, flexible thinking, following intuition and personal opinion in profession choice. High anxiety as personality feature and stress vulnerability is typical for female students; independence tendency is typical for male students.

  3. Use of Internet resources by German medical professionals.

    OpenAIRE

    Obst, O

    1998-01-01

    A survey of German medical professionals, students, and librarians was performed in 1995 to examine how they used the Internet. The great majority used e-mail, the Web, and Internet sources based in the United States. Respondents claimed various advantages from Internet use. There was a clearly expressed need for Internet courses as well as evaluation and presentation of Internet sources. A majority of respondents wanted the librarians to provide Internet related services. A follow-up survey ...

  4. Measuring conscientiousness and professionalism in undergraduate medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLachlan, John

    2010-03-01

    there is gathering evidence that concern about professionalism expressed by staff with regard to undergraduate medical students represents a statistically significant risk factor for referral for disciplinary action in later clinical practice. But, 'professionalism' as a concept is variously defined, and is generally seen as difficult to measure. This is because such measures are usually highly subjective, and take place on limited numbers of occasions. We are interested in hints from the literature that a significant part of professionalism is what might be thought of as diligence or conscientiousness. we award students points on every occasion when they might be conscientious in performing simple tasks (such as attending compulsory sessions, providing essential documentation and participating in required administrative procedures). This is aggregated over the year to give a continuous, objective and multi-occasion score that is inexpensive to construct. We then determine the relationship of this score with independent staff and student estimates of professionalism.  we observe a positive correlation between conscientiousness and professionalism at both high and low ends of the spectrum. this correlation raises a number of further questions. What is the sensitivity and specificity of this measure? How might it best be used with students: as a formative tool to change behaviours or as a summative tool to affect progression? And how will students react to its use? Finally, can it be extended to spheres other than undergraduate education, for instance with postgraduate trainees? Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2010.

  5. Professionalism perspectives among medical students of a novel medical graduate school in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Mainul; Zulkifli, Zainal; Haque, Seraj Zohurul; Kamal, Zubair M; Salam, Abdus; Bhagat, Vidya; Alattraqchi, Ahmed Ghazi; Rahman, Nor Iza A

    2016-01-01

    Defining professionalism in this constantly evolving world is not easy. How do you measure degrees of benevolence and compassion? If it is so obvious to our profession, what professionalism is, then why is it so difficult to teach it to medical students and residents? Today’s definition of medical professionalism is evolving – from autonomy to accountability, from expert opinion to evidence-based medicine, and from self-interest to teamwork and shared responsibility. However, medical professionalism is defined as the basis for the trust in the patient–physician relationship, caring and compassion, insight, openness, respect for patient dignity, confidentiality, autonomy, presence, altruism, and those qualities that lead to trust-competence, integrity, honesty, morality, and ethical conduct. The purpose of this study is to explore professionalism in terms of its fundamental elements among medical students of Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA). This was a cross-sectional study carried out on medical students of UniSZA. The study population included preclinical and clinical medical students of UniSZA from Year I to Year V of academic session 2014/2015. The simple random sampling technique was used to select the sample. Data were collected using a validated instrument. The data were then compiled and analyzed using SPSS Version 21. Out of 165 questionnaires distributed randomly among Year I to Year V medical students of UniSZA, 144 returned, giving a response rate of 87%. Among the study participants, 38% (54) and 62% (90) were males and females, respectively. The grand total score was 170.92±19.08. A total of 166.98±20.15 and 173.49±18.09 were the total professionalism score of male and female study participants, respectively, with no statistically significant (P=0.61) differences. This study found almost similar levels of familiarity with all fundamental issues of professionalism with no statistically (P>0.05) significant differences. Medical faculty

  6. Summative assessment of medical students' communication skills and professional attitudes through observation in clinical practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haes, J. C. J. M.; Oort, F. J.; Hulsman, R. L.

    2005-01-01

    To establish medical students' professional competence for the medical profession, we designed a standardized observation procedure and the Amsterdam Attitude and Communication Scale ( AACS) with nine five-point scale items, for summative assessment of their communication skills and professional

  7. Standardised Testing: What Space for Professional Judgement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doecke, Brenton; Reynolds, Gail; Roberts, Arlene

    2002-01-01

    Gives an account of Gail Reynolds's experience in administrating the DART (Developmental assessment resource for teachers) and AIM (Achievement improvement monitor) tests at her school. Reflects on how the test results compared with her own judgments of the literacy abilities of individual students in her class. Offers four case studies that draw…

  8. Professional competencies learned through working on a medication education project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hämeen-Anttila, Katri; Saano, Susanna; Vainio, Kirsti

    2010-08-10

    To implement a medication education project and assess the competencies students learned and implemented in professional practice after graduation. Fourth-year pharmacy students planned, carried out, and reported on a real-life project during 1 study year. Outside experts and 2 faculty members facilitated the work. The aim of the medication education project was to create material that schoolteachers could use to teach children about rational use of medicines. All students who had participated in the medication education program during its 3 years were contacted (n = 31). A questionnaire was sent to the 21 students who had graduated (18 responded), and a focus group was conducted with the 10 students completing their final year of pharmacy school (9 participants). The competencies that the students reported learning most were teamwork and social interaction skills. They considered the project motivating but also found it challenging and the deadlines frustrating. Through participation in a medication education project, students learned interpersonal skills, time management, conflict resolution, and other skills that many of them already were finding valuable in their professional practice.

  9. Using professional interpreters in undergraduate medical consultation skills teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bansal A

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aarti Bansal,1 Jennifer Swann,1 William Henry Smithson2 1Academic Unit of Primary Medical Care, University of Sheffield, UK; 2Department of General Practice, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland Abstract: The ability to work with interpreters is a core skill for UK medical graduates. At the University of Sheffield Medical School, this teaching was identified as a gap in the curriculum. Teaching was developed to use professional interpreters in role-play, based on evidence that professional interpreters improve health outcomes for patients with limited English proficiency. Other principles guiding the development of the teaching were an experiential learning format, integration to the core consultation skills curriculum, and sustainable delivery. The session was aligned with existing consultation skills teaching to retain the small-group experiential format and general practitioner (GP tutor. Core curricular time was found through conversion of an existing consultation skills session. Language pairs of professional interpreters worked with each small group, with one playing patient and the other playing interpreter. These professional interpreters attended training in the scenarios so that they could learn to act as patient and family interpreter. GP tutors attended training sessions to help them facilitate the session. This enhanced the sustainability of the session by providing a cohort of tutors able to pass on their expertise to new staff through the existing shadowing process. Tutors felt that the involvement of professional interpreters improved student engagement. Student evaluation of the teaching suggests that the learning objectives were achieved. Faculty evaluation by GP tutors suggests that they perceived the teaching to be worthwhile and that the training they received had helped improve their own clinical practice in consulting through interpreters. We offer the following recommendations to others who may be interested in

  10. 76 FR 68198 - Lists of Designated Primary Medical Care, Mental Health, and Dental Health Professional Shortage...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ... Administration Lists of Designated Primary Medical Care, Mental Health, and Dental Health Professional Shortage... designated as primary medical care, mental health, and dental health professional shortage areas (HPSAs) as... seven health professional types (primary medical care, dental, psychiatric, vision care, podiatric...

  11. Perspective: Medical professionalism and medical education should not involve commitments to political advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddle, Thomas S

    2011-03-01

    It is increasingly suggested that political advocacy is a core professional responsibility for physicians. The author argues that this is an error. Advocacy on behalf of societal goals, even those goals as unexceptionable as the betterment of human health, is inevitably political. Claims that political advocacy are a professional responsibility are mistaken, the author argues, because (1) civic virtues are outside the professional realm, (2) even if civic virtues were professionally obligatory, it is unclear that civic participation is necessary for such virtue, and (3) the profession of medicine ought not to require any particular political stance of its members. Claims that academic health centers should systematically foster advocacy are also deeply problematic. Although advocacy may coexist alongside the core university activities of research and education, insofar as it infects those activities, advocacy is likely to subvert them, as advocacy seeks change rather than knowledge. And official efforts on behalf of advocacy will undermine university aspirations to objectivity and neutrality.American society has conferred remarkable success and prosperity on its medical profession. Physicians are deserving of such success only insofar as they succeed in offering society excellence and dedication in professional work. Mandatory professional advocacy must displace such work but cannot substitute for it. The medical profession should steadfastly resist attempts to add advocacy to its essential professional commitments.

  12. A study to enhance medical students’ professional decision-making, using teaching interventions on common medications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Wilcock

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To create sustained improvements in medical students’ critical thinking skills through short teaching interventions in pharmacology. Method: The ability to make professional decisions was assessed by providing year-4 medical students at a UK medical school with a novel medical scenario (antenatal pertussis vaccination. Forty-seven students in the 2012 cohort acted as a pretest group, answering a questionnaire on this novel scenario. To improve professional decision-making skills, 48 students from the 2013 cohort were introduced to three commonly used medications, through tutor-led 40-min teaching interventions, among six small groups using a structured presentation of evidence-based medicine and ethical considerations. Student members then volunteered to peer-teach on a further three medications. After a gap of 8 weeks, this cohort (post-test group was assessed for professional decision-making skills using the pretest questionnaire, and differences in the 2-year groups analysed. Results: Students enjoyed presenting on medications to their peers but had difficulty interpreting studies and discussing ethical dimensions; this was improved by contextualising information via patient scenarios. After 8 weeks, most students did not show enhanced clinical curiosity, a desire to understand evidence, or ethical questioning when presented with a novel medical scenario compared to the previous year group who had not had the intervention. Students expressed a high degree of trust in guidelines and expert tutors and felt that responsibility for their own actions lay with these bodies. Conclusion: Short teaching interventions in pharmacology did not lead to sustained improvements in their critical thinking skills in enhancing professional practice. It appears that students require earlier and more frequent exposure to these skills in their medical training.

  13. Could situational judgement tests be used for selection into dental foundation training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, F; Ashworth, V; Mehra, S; Falcon, H

    2012-07-13

    To pilot and evaluate a machine-markable situational judgement test (SJT) designed to select candidates into UK dental foundation training. Single centre pilot study. UK postgraduate deanery in 2010. Seventy-four candidates attending interview for dental foundation training in Oxford and Wessex Deaneries volunteered to complete the situational judgement test. The situational judgement test was developed to assess relevant professional attributes for dentistry (for example, empathy and integrity) in a machine-markable format. Test content was developed by subject matter experts working with experienced psychometricians. Evaluation of psychometric properties of the pilot situational judgement test (for example, reliability, validity and fairness). Scores in the dental foundation training selection process (short-listing and interviews) were used to examine criterion-related validity. Candidates completed an evaluation questionnaire to examine candidate reactions and face validity of the new test. Forty-six candidates were female and 28 male; mean age was 23.5-years-old (range 22-32). Situational judgement test scores were normally distributed and the test showed good internal reliability when corrected for test length (α = 0.74). Situational judgement test scores positively correlated with the management, leadership and professionalism interview (N = 50; r = 0.43, p situational judgement test is designed to test non-cognitive professional attributes beyond clinical knowledge. Most candidates perceived the situational judgement test as relevant to dentistry, appropriate for their training level, and fair. This initial pilot study suggests that a situational judgement test is an appropriate and innovative method to measure professional attributes (eg empathy and integrity) for selection into foundation training. Further research will explore the long-term predictive validity of the situational judgement test once candidates have entered training.

  14. Professionalism perspectives among medical students of a novel medical graduate school in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haque M

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Mainul Haque,1 Zainal Zulkifli,2 Seraj Zohurul Haque,3 Zubair M Kamal,4 Abdus Salam,5 Vidya Bhagat,2 Ahmed Ghazi Alattraqchi,2 Nor Iza A Rahman2 1Unit of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine and Defense Health, National Defense University of Malaysia, Kem Sungai Besi, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 2Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Jalan Sultan Mahmud, Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia; 3School of Medicine, University of Dundee, Ninewells Hospital & Medical School, Dundee, UK; 4Sleep Research Unit, Toronto Western Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, ON, Canada; 5Department of Medical Education, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Cheras, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Abstract: Defining professionalism in this constantly evolving world is not easy. How do you measure degrees of benevolence and compassion? If it is so obvious to our profession, what professionalism is, then why is it so difficult to teach it to medical students and residents? Today’s definition of medical professionalism is evolving – from autonomy to accountability, from expert opinion to evidence-based medicine, and from self-interest to teamwork and shared responsibility. However, medical professionalism is defined as the basis for the trust in the patient–physician relationship, caring and compassion, insight, openness, respect for patient dignity, confidentiality, autonomy, presence, altruism, and those qualities that lead to trust-competence, integrity, honesty, morality, and ethical conduct. The purpose of this study is to explore professionalism in terms of its fundamental elements among medical students of Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA. This was a cross-sectional study carried out on medical students of UniSZA. The study population included preclinical and clinical medical students of UniSZA from Year I to Year V of academic session 2014/2015. The simple random sampling technique was used to select the sample. Data were

  15. Experiences of combat medical technician continuous professional development on operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall-Carrick, J V

    2012-09-01

    Whilst on operations, British military medical staff strive to provide high quality medical care to deployed soldiers. The application of UK Health Care Governance principles, particularly Clinical Professional Development (CPD), is especially challenging on operations. This article highlights some of the difficulties faced and the solutions generated to facilitate good CPD of Combat Medical Technicians (CMTs) deployed to Afghanistan on Operation HERRICK 13. The article describes the opportunities for CMTs to develop their skills in the assessment and management of trauma and primary health complaints. It also describes the difficulties in capturing this development especially when the supervision of CMTs was limited, with variable communication modalities and within the current limitations of the CMT portfolio. Solutions described include the use of individual reflective practice, face-to-face supervision and assessment by Medical Officers, Significant Event Reports, the mandatory After Action Review Process, and the development of formal standardised CMT CPD. This included refresher training after return from leave, Senior Medical Officer (SMO) weekly lectures and the SMO weekly report. Finally, the future of CMT CPD is raised and it is hoped that this article will stimulate debate into how to approach these challenges and refine these processes further.

  16. Pedagogical and professional compromises by medical teachers in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Jenny; Scott, Karen

    2014-08-01

    Following research about workplace constraints reducing the effectiveness of teaching and the motivation to teach, this study sought to understand how medical teachers in hospitals respond to the institutional context for their teaching of medical students. Through purposive sampling, younger and older male and female teachers in a range of medical and surgical paediatrics subspecialties participated in this qualitative study. We drew on ethnographic methods in interviews so that answers to the questions came from the teachers' own emphases. The systematic coding and categorising procedures used in the inductive analysis of the interview transcripts reflect the constant comparison approach of grounded theory, locating features, patterns and conceptual categories. We identified four main concepts: teachers' goals and motivations; their approaches to teaching; teachers' preferences; and, finally, as discussed in this article, the teachers' perceptions of contextual and institutional pressures in hospital-based medical teaching and related compromises. The teachers perceive constraints resulting from the various mismatches that they experience, a loss of autonomy, and the paucity of acknowledgement and resources. They suggest that the compromises they make in response are both pedagogical and institutional. We conclude that professional development is not enough to address these issues: the conditions for medical teaching and teachers in hospitals require workplace responses to enable a more productive connection between the students, curriculum and pedagogy. In particular, teachers' responsibilities in teaching and curriculum development need to be acknowledged, and practising teachers need to be supported and included in the education mission. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Preclinical medical students' understandings of academic and medical professionalism: visual analysis of mind maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janczukowicz, Janusz; Rees, Charlotte E

    2017-08-18

    Several studies have begun to explore medical students' understandings of professionalism generally and medical professionalism specifically. Despite espoused relationships between academic (AP) and medical professionalism (MP), previous research has not yet investigated students' conceptualisations of AP and MP and the relationships between the two. The current study, based on innovative visual analysis of mind maps, therefore aims to contribute to the developing literature on how professionalism is understood. We performed a multilayered analysis of 98 mind maps from 262 first-year medical students, including analysing textual and graphical elements of AP, MP and the relationships between AP and MP. The most common textual attributes of AP were learning, lifestyle and personality, while attributes of MP were knowledge, ethics and patient-doctor relations. Images of books, academic caps and teachers were used most often to represent AP, while images of the stethoscope, doctor and red cross were used to symbolise MP. While AP-MP relations were sometimes indicated through co-occurring text, visual connections and higher-order visual metaphors, many students struggled to articulate the relationships between AP and MP. While the mind maps' textual attributes shared similarities with those found in previous research, suggesting the universality of some professionalism attributes, our study provides new insights into students' conceptualisations of AP, MP and AP-MP relationships. We encourage medical educators to help students develop their understandings of AP, MP and AP-MP relationships, plus consider the feasibility and value of mind maps as a source of visual data for medical education research. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. Preclinical medical students’ understandings of academic and medical professionalism: visual analysis of mind maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Charlotte E

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Several studies have begun to explore medical students’ understandings of professionalism generally and medical professionalism specifically. Despite espoused relationships between academic (AP) and medical professionalism (MP), previous research has not yet investigated students’ conceptualisations of AP and MP and the relationships between the two. Objectives The current study, based on innovative visual analysis of mind maps, therefore aims to contribute to the developing literature on how professionalism is understood. Methods We performed a multilayered analysis of 98 mind maps from 262 first-year medical students, including analysing textual and graphical elements of AP, MP and the relationships between AP and MP. Results The most common textual attributes of AP were learning, lifestyle and personality, while attributes of MP were knowledge, ethics and patient-doctor relations. Images of books, academic caps and teachers were used most often to represent AP, while images of the stethoscope, doctor and red cross were used to symbolise MP. While AP-MP relations were sometimes indicated through co-occurring text, visual connections and higher-order visual metaphors, many students struggled to articulate the relationships between AP and MP. Conclusions While the mind maps’ textual attributes shared similarities with those found in previous research, suggesting the universality of some professionalism attributes, our study provides new insights into students’ conceptualisations of AP, MP and AP-MP relationships. We encourage medical educators to help students develop their understandings of AP, MP and AP-MP relationships, plus consider the feasibility and value of mind maps as a source of visual data for medical education research. PMID:28821520

  19. Female genital mutilation: the role of medical professional organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazi, Tony

    2017-04-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) refers to alteration of the external genitalia of girls without medical benefit. It is estimated by United Nations agencies that 200 million living girls and women have been subjected to different forms of FGM worldwide. Despite the criminalization of the procedure in the vast majority of countries where it is practiced, the decline in the incidence of this ritual is far from satisfactory. Immediate and long-term ill effects are well documented. Most publications of relevance originate from countries outside the map of FGM. In addition, there are major gaps in research related to this issue, considering the magnitude of the problem. International medical organizations and societies should assume their responsibility by providing a platform to professionals engaged in the prevention and treatment of the consequences of FGM, especially those living in the communities where the practice is endemic.

  20. Incorporating Inter-Professional Education into a Veterinary Medical Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Amara H; Behar-Horenstein, Linda; Estrada, Daniel J; Black, Erik; Kwiatkowski, Alison; Bzoch, Annie; Blue, Amy

    Inter-professional education (IPE) is identified as an important component of health profession training and is listed in the accreditation requirements for many fields, including veterinary medicine. The goals of IPE are to develop inter-professional skills and to improve patient-oriented care and community health outcomes. To meet these goals, IPE relies on enhanced teamwork, a high level of communication, mutual planning, collective decision making, and shared responsibilities. One Health initiatives have also become integral parts of core competencies for veterinary curricular development. While the overall objectives of an IPE program are similar to those of a One Health initiative, they are not identical. There are unique differences in expectations and outcomes for an IPE program. The purpose of this study was to explore veterinary medical students' perceptions of their interprofessional experiences following participation in a required IPE course that brought together beginning health profession students from the colleges of medicine, dentistry, nursing, pharmacy, nutrition, public health and health professions, and veterinary medicine. Using qualitative research methods, we found that there is powerful experiential learning that occurs for both the veterinary students and the other health profession students when they work together at the beginning of their curriculum as an inter-professional team.

  1. Glossary of technical terms for the medical technology professionals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Felipe García Rodríguez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The current work is a glossary of technical terms in English language for Medical Health Professionals, has been prepared due to the lack of technical lexicon the students have during and after their university studies, that is, the students have a deficit of technical words which limits their professional competence and accountability. This shortage limits them and makes it a great laboring challenge if they have to work overseas in English-speaking countries. The glossary comprises the main and necessary words which are needed for this type of professional in their field of action. These graduates have a solid knowledge and comprehension of biological, biochemical and biophysical fundamentals in their mother tongue but they do not have the necessary elements in the target language to operate properly. It is a need that they can work appropriately in the spheres of prevention, promotion and health recovery to support a diagnosis, a treatment and a management not only in their mother tongue but in English for their future work.

  2. Student characteristics, professional preferences, and admission to medical school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesternich, Iris

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: A potential new avenue to address the shortage of country doctors is to change the rules for admission to medical school. We therefore study the link between high-school grade point average and prospective physicians’ choice to work in rural areas. To further inform the discussion about rules for admission, we also study the effects of other predictors: a measure of students’ attitudes towards risk; whether they waited for their place of study (; whether their parents worked as medical doctors; and whether they have some practical experience in the medical sector.Methods: We conducted two internet surveys in 2012 and 2014. In the first survey, the sample comprised 701 students and in the second, 474 students. In both surveys, we asked students for their regional preferences; in the 2014 survey, we additionally asked students for their first, second, and third preferences among a comprehensive set of specializations, including becoming a general practitioner. In both surveys, we asked students for basic demographic information (age and gender, their parents’ occupation, a measure of subjective income expectations, a measure of risk attitudes, and their high-school grade point average (, and First National Boards Examination grade (. In 2014, we additionally asked for waiting periods ( as well as for prior professional experience in the health-care sector.Results: We find that three factors increase the probability of having a preference for working in a rural area significantly, holding constant all other influences: Moreover, we find that those willing to work in the countryside have significantly more experience in the medical sector before admission to medical school.Discussion: Our results suggest that a change in the selection process for medical school may increase the supply of country doctors. Instead of focusing on the high-school grade point average, universities could even more intensely screen for study motivation

  3. Virtues Education in Medical School: The Foundation for Professional Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seoane, Leonardo; Tompkins, Lisa M.; De Conciliis, Anthony; Boysen, Philip G.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Studies have shown that medical students have high rates of burnout accompanied by a loss of empathy as they progress through their training. This article describes a course for medical students at The University of Queensland-Ochsner Clinical School in New Orleans, LA, that focuses on the development of virtues and character strengths necessary in the practice of medicine. Staff of the Ochsner Clinical School and of the Institute of Medicine, Education, and Spirituality at Ochsner, a research and consulting group of Ochsner Health System, developed the course. It is a curricular innovation designed to explicitly teach virtues and their associated prosocial behaviors as a means of promoting professional formation among medical students. Virtues are core to the development of prosocial behaviors that are essential for appropriate professional formation. Methods: Fourth-year medical students receive instruction in the virtues as part of the required Medicine in Society (MIS) course. The virtues instruction consists of five 3-hour sessions during orientation week of the MIS course and a wrapup session at the end of the 8-week rotation. Six virtues—courage, wisdom, temperance, humanity, transcendence, and justice—are taught in a clinical context, using personal narratives, experiential exercises, contemplative practices, and reflective practices. Results: As of July 2015, 30 medical students had completed and evaluated the virtues course. Ninety-seven percent of students felt the course was well structured. After completing the course, 100% of students felt they understood and could explain the character strengths that improve physician engagement and patient care, 100% of students reported understanding the importance of virtues in the practice of medicine, and 83% felt the course provided a guide to help them deal with the complexities of medical practice. Ninety-three percent of students stated they would use the character strengths for their own

  4. Virtues Education in Medical School: The Foundation for Professional Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seoane, Leonardo; Tompkins, Lisa M; De Conciliis, Anthony; Boysen, Philip G

    2016-01-01

    Studies have shown that medical students have high rates of burnout accompanied by a loss of empathy as they progress through their training. This article describes a course for medical students at The University of Queensland-Ochsner Clinical School in New Orleans, LA, that focuses on the development of virtues and character strengths necessary in the practice of medicine. Staff of the Ochsner Clinical School and of the Institute of Medicine, Education, and Spirituality at Ochsner, a research and consulting group of Ochsner Health System, developed the course. It is a curricular innovation designed to explicitly teach virtues and their associated prosocial behaviors as a means of promoting professional formation among medical students. Virtues are core to the development of prosocial behaviors that are essential for appropriate professional formation. Fourth-year medical students receive instruction in the virtues as part of the required Medicine in Society (MIS) course. The virtues instruction consists of five 3-hour sessions during orientation week of the MIS course and a wrapup session at the end of the 8-week rotation. Six virtues-courage, wisdom, temperance, humanity, transcendence, and justice-are taught in a clinical context, using personal narratives, experiential exercises, contemplative practices, and reflective practices. As of July 2015, 30 medical students had completed and evaluated the virtues course. Ninety-seven percent of students felt the course was well structured. After completing the course, 100% of students felt they understood and could explain the character strengths that improve physician engagement and patient care, 100% of students reported understanding the importance of virtues in the practice of medicine, and 83% felt the course provided a guide to help them deal with the complexities of medical practice. Ninety-three percent of students stated they would use the character strengths for their own well-being, and 90% said they would

  5. Factor Analysis of Teacher Professional Development in Chinese Military Medical Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Juan-Juan; Chen, Gang; Wang, Zhen-Wei; Liu, Wei-Dong

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose: Teacher professional development potentially enhances teachers' professional morale, knowledge, skills and autonomy, which helps improve the quality of education. The military medical university is an important medical education institution in China; however, studies of teacher professional development within military…

  6. Perinatal asphyxia and medical professional liability: A case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Verzeletti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context of medical professional liability, obstetrics is one of the most involved medical specialties because the unfavorable outcome of a pregnancy is difficult to accept for parents, who tend to reduce it to inappropriate care that occurred during pregnancy or birth. 32 cases of perinatal asphyxia were evaluated by the Institute of Forensic Medicine in Brescia during the period between 1999 and 2014 (13 in Civil Court and 19 in Penal Court. 9 out of the 32 pregnancies were twins, so the considerations were carried out on a total of 41 fetuses/newborns. Profiles of inadequacy were identified in 66% of cases (85% of the cases evaluated in Civil Court; 53% of the cases evaluated in Penal Court. The existence of a causal relationship between the medical conduct and the onset of asphyxia was recognized in 79% of civil cases and in 38% of penal cases. There is a “greater rigor” in the verification of causal relationship and malpractice profiles in penal cases compared to civil ones: this is in harmony with the most recent Italian Court decisions, characterized by compelling suspect’s protection in the presence of a reasonable doubt in criminal matters and by victim’s protection in civil ones.

  7. Student characteristics, professional preferences, and admission to medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesternich, Iris; Schumacher, Heiner; Winter, Joachim; Fischer, Martin R; Holzer, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: A potential new avenue to address the shortage of country doctors is to change the rules for admission to medical school. We therefore study the link between high-school grade point average and prospective physicians' choice to work in rural areas. To further inform the discussion about rules for admission, we also study the effects of other predictors: a measure of students' attitudes towards risk; whether they waited for their place of study (Wartesemester); whether their parents worked as medical doctors; and whether they have some practical experience in the medical sector. Methods: We conducted two internet surveys in 2012 and 2014. In the first survey, the sample comprised 701 students and in the second, 474 students. In both surveys, we asked students for their regional preferences; in the 2014 survey, we additionally asked students for their first, second, and third preferences among a comprehensive set of specializations, including becoming a general practitioner. In both surveys, we asked students for basic demographic information (age and gender), their parents' occupation, a measure of subjective income expectations, a measure of risk attitudes, and their high-school grade point average (Abiturnote), and First National Boards Examination grade (Physikum). In 2014, we additionally asked for waiting periods (Wartesemester) as well as for prior professional experience in the health-care sector. Results: We find that three factors increase the probability of having a preference for working in a rural area significantly, holding constant all other influences: having a medical doctor among the parents, having worse grades in the high-school grade point average, and being more risk averse. Moreover, we find that those willing to work in the countryside have significantly more experience in the medical sector before admission to medical school. Discussion: Our results suggest that a change in the selection process for medical school may increase the

  8. Medical students as EMTs: skill building, confidence and professional formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Kwiatkowski

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The first course of the medical curriculum at the Hofstra North Shore-LIJ School of Medicine, From the Person to the Professional: Challenges, Privileges and Responsibilities, provides an innovative early clinical immersion. The course content specific to the Emergency Medical Technician (EMT curriculum was developed using the New York State Emergency Medical Technician curriculum. Students gain early legitimate clinical experience and practice clinical skills as team members in the pre-hospital environment. We hypothesized this novel curriculum would increase students’ confidence in their ability to perform patient care skills and enhance students’ comfort with team-building skills early in their training. Methods: Quantitative and qualitative data were collected from first-year medical students (n=97 through a survey developed to assess students’ confidence in patient care and team-building skills. The survey was completed prior to medical school, during the final week of the course, and at the end of their first year. A paired-samples t-test was conducted to compare self-ratings on 12 patient care and 12 team-building skills before and after the course, and a theme analysis was conducted to examine open-ended responses. Results: Following the course, student confidence in patient care skills showed a significant increase from baseline (p<0.05 for all identified skills. Student confidence in team-building skills showed a significant increase (p<0.05 in 4 of the 12 identified skills. By the end of the first year, 84% of the first-year students reported the EMT curriculum had ‘some impact’ to ‘great impact’ on their patient care skills, while 72% reported the EMT curriculum had ‘some impact’ to ‘great impact’ on their team-building skills. Conclusions: The incorporation of EMT training early in a medical school curriculum provides students with meaningful clinical experiences that increase their self

  9. Historical context for the growth of medical professionalism and curriculum reform in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chiung-Hsuan; Arrigo, Linda Gail; Tsai, Duujian

    2009-09-01

    Medical school curricular reform to address humanism is now a prominent issue in Taiwan. Taiwan's community of medical professionals have for the last 100 years played a leading role in the nation's modernization and democratization. With the democratic opening of 1990, they took up the cause of humanistic reform of medical education. Although the reform has not sufficiently specified the depth and breadth of professionalism to be achieved through the medical school curriculum, it points at least to the most desired professionalism goals. Collaboration with the international community, particularly with Taiwanese-American medical educators and researchers who bring their experience back to Taiwan, has been a potent force for the advancement of the humanities and professionalism in medical education. This paper presents the definition of professionalism and the history of the medical profession from the perspective of medical education in Taiwan, and discusses recent transitions.

  10. Historical Context for the Growth of Medical Professionalism and Curriculum Reform in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiung-Hsuan Chiu

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Medical school curricular reform to address humanism is now a prominent issue in Taiwan. Taiwan's community of medical professionals have for the last 100 years played a leading role in the nation's modernization and democratization. With the democratic opening of 1990, they took up the cause of humanistic reform of medical education. Although the reform has not sufficiently specified the depth and breadth of professionalism to be achieved through the medical school curriculum, it points at least to the most desired professionalism goals. Collaboration with the international community, particularly with Taiwanese-American medical educators and researchers who bring their experience back to Taiwan, has been a potent force for the advancement of the humanities and professionalism in medical education. This paper presents the definition of professionalism and the history of the medical profession from the perspective of medical education in Taiwan, and discusses recent transitions.

  11. Professional Activities, Needed Competencies and Training Needs of Medical Librarians in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Midrar; Ameen, Kanwal; Bakhtar, Salman

    2011-01-01

    The study aims to explore the professional activities, needed competencies and education/training needs of medical librarians in Pakistan. The following questions guided the study: what are the current professional activities of medical librarians in Pakistan? What is their perception of the competencies needed of medical librarians? And what are…

  12. 77 FR 38838 - Lists of Designated Primary Medical Care, Mental Health, and Dental Health Professional Shortage...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Lists of Designated Primary Medical Care... primary medical care, mental health, and dental health professional shortage areas (HPSAs) as of April 1.... Criteria then were defined for each of seven health professional types (primary medical care, dental...

  13. Medical professionalism from a socio-cultural perspective: evaluating medical residents communicative attitudes during the medical encounter in malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganasegeran, K; Al-Dubai, S A R

    2014-01-01

    The practice of medicine requires good communication skills to foster excellent rapport in doctor patient relationship. Reports on communication skills learning attitude among medical professionals are key essentials toward improving patient safety and quality of care. We aimed to determine factors affecting communication skills learning attitudes among medical residents in Malaysia. Cross-sectional survey, in a Malaysian public health hospital. A total of 191 medical residents across medical and surgical based rotations were included. We assessed the validated communication skills attitude scale among medical residents from different rotations. Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS®) (version 16.0, IBM, Armonk, NY) was used. Cronbach's alpha was used to test the internal consistency of the scale. Descriptive analysis was conducted for all variables. Bivariate analysis was employed across the socio-demographic variables. Majority of the residents believed that communication skills training should be made compulsory in Malaysia (78.5%). Medical residents agreed that acquiring good communication skills is essential to be a good doctor. However, the majority cited time pressures for not being able to learn communication skills. Significant differences in communication skills learning attitude scores were found between Malays and Chinese. The majority of medical residents had a positive attitude toward communication skills learning. Socio-demographic factors influenced communication skills learning attitude among medical residents. Incorporating communicative skills modules during hospital Continuous Medical Education for medical residents is essential to cultivate communicative skills attitudes for effective doctor-patient relationship during the routine medical encounters.

  14. 'Part of the team': professional identity and social exclusivity in medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Roslyn; Peters, Kath; Koch, Jane; Wilson, Ian

    2011-12-01

    Medical students must develop not only their professional identity but also inclusive social attitudes for effective medical practice in the future. This study explores the elements that contribute to medical students' sense of professional identity and investigates the concept of social exclusivity and how this might relate to students' development of their identity as medical professionals. The study is based on qualitative data gathered in telephone interviews with 13 medical students enrolled in Years 1 or 3 at an undergraduate medical school at a university in Australia. The questions were open-ended and asked students about their experiences in medical school, sense of identity and social connections. Two main components contributed to a strong sense of professional identity in medical students: professional inclusivity and social exclusivity. Students experienced professional inclusivity when they attended clinical placements and when they were treated as future medical professionals by lecturers, doctors and patients. Social exclusivity was demonstrated by participants' perceptions of themselves as socially separate from non-medical students and isolated from students in other disciplines. Students described a sense of peer unity and a shared sense of identity as medical students within the medical school. It is important to understand how students develop their sense of identity as medical professionals and the ways in which medical education and clinical placements can influence this professional identity. Although this study noted a very strong sense of social exclusivity in its findings, there were also high levels of intra-discipline inclusivity. These results suggest that there is a reciprocal and reinforcing relationship between student experiences of professional inclusivity and social exclusivity that creates a defined sense of professional identity. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2011.

  15. Genomics education for medical professionals - the current UK landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Ingrid; Subramanian, Deepak N; Burton, Hilary

    2016-08-01

    Genomics education in the UK is at an early stage of development, and its pace of evolution has lagged behind that of the genomics research upon which it is based. As a result, knowledge of genomics and its applications remains limited among non-specialist clinicians. In this review article, we describe the complex landscape for genomics education within the UK, and highlight the large number and variety of organisations that can influence, direct and provide genomics training to medical professionals. Postgraduate genomics education is being shaped by the work of the Health Education England (HEE) Genomics Education Programme, working in conjunction with the Joint Committee on Genomics in Medicine. The success of their work will be greatly enhanced by the full cooperation and engagement of the many groups, societies and organisations involved with medical education and training (such as the royal colleges). Without this cooperation, there is a risk of poor coordination and unnecessary duplication of work. Leadership from an organisation such as the HEE Genomics Education Programme will have a key role in guiding the formulation and delivery of genomics education policy by various stakeholders among the different disciplines in medicine. © 2016 Royal College of Physicians.

  16. [Professional orientation of medical students--personal training (review)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorbenadze, T; Shakarashvili, M; Jikia, I; Khvichia, N

    2011-09-01

    An innate intention of subjects to reach the leading position on a regular job scale substantially accentuates the interest to the training study processes. The country that owns well-educated physicians possesses a better chance to attain the superior position in medical managing innovations. The modern scientific knowledge has to invade systematically thus into the ordinary common practice. The ambition to qualify the professional resources via regular training courses is systematically intensified therefore. Any person happens to possess several alternatives for successes in life. The particular important among is the choice of a concrete profession that being motivated by the job dynamics while regulates subjects' activities and intensifies personal interests to the training events. The carrier options of young peoples are influenced by various factors. The most efficient items from appear the family, friends, surroundings, reading literature, television, moviesThe selection of a profession is not finished at all by the university entering: due to life circumstances the dramatic shifts in definite job objectives can occur later. Correctly organized personal trainings along with conventional group exercises, generally, for medical students and young physicians, particularly, can promote the proper choice of fixed carrier aims. Detailed description and showing of appropriate contacts of physicians with patients can enrich the capacities of medical students and young physicians and can improve their behavior in own practice. University study as well as combined group and personal graduate and postgraduate training courses increase the activities of involved persons, intensify the trusts for knowledge and love to the profession, favor the desire to advance the level of theoretical and practical skills, and improve consequently the occupational level.

  17. [Family and religious traditions present in medical discourses by medical professionals about children with genetic diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Antilia Januária; Cardoso, Maria Helena Cabral de Almeida; Llerena, Juan Clinton; Moreira, Martha Cristina Nunes

    2012-02-01

    This study explores the influences of cultural traditions rooted in the tone of medical discourse at the Instituto Fernandes Figueira/ Fundação Oswaldo Cruz by physicians regarding children with genetic diseases involving malformations and mental retardation, as well as reflections upon the professional care for these children. Data were collected using oral interviews (in the form of conversational narratives) and were submitted to semiotic analysis. The results pointed to four main cultural traditions present in medical discourse: the norm, the reason, the family and the Jewish-Christian religiosity. This article, however, focuses on the latter two, emphasizing how the notion of the family, mainly the mythification of the mother, can make the child with a genetic disease 'invisible,' in addition to contributing towards womanhood being underestimated when contrasted with motherhood. Such concepts overlap with those brought by the religious traditions and directly influence the medical perceptions towards patients and their families.

  18. The predictive validity of a situational judgement test, a clinical problem solving test and the core medical training selection methods for performance in specialty training .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Fiona; Lopes, Safiatu; Harding, Stephen; Vaux, Emma; Berkin, Liz; Black, David

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to follow up a sample of physicians who began core medical training (CMT) in 2009. This paper examines the long-term validity of CMT and GP selection methods in predicting performance in the Membership of Royal College of Physicians (MRCP(UK)) examinations. We performed a longitudinal study, examining the extent to which the GP and CMT selection methods (T1) predict performance in the MRCP(UK) examinations (T2). A total of 2,569 applicants from 2008-09 who completed CMT and GP selection methods were included in the study. Looking at MRCP(UK) part 1, part 2 written and PACES scores, both CMT and GP selection methods show evidence of predictive validity for the outcome variables, and hierarchical regressions show the GP methods add significant value to the CMT selection process. CMT selection methods predict performance in important outcomes and have good evidence of validity; the GP methods may have an additional role alongside the CMT selection methods. © Royal College of Physicians 2017. All rights reserved.

  19. Development and validation of a computer-based situational judgement test to assess medical students' communication skills in the field of shared decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiessling, Claudia; Bauer, Johannes; Gartmeier, Martin; Iblher, Peter; Karsten, Gudrun; Kiesewetter, Jan; Moeller, Grit E; Wiesbeck, Anne; Zupanic, Michaela; Fischer, Martin R

    2016-11-01

    To develop a computer-based test (CBT) measuring medical students' communication skills in the field of shared decision making (SDM) and to evaluate its construct validity. The CBT was developed in the context of an experimental study comparing three different trainings for SDM (including e-learning and/or role-play) and a control group. Assessment included a CBT (Part A: seven context-poor questions, Part B: 15 context-rich questions) and interviews with two simulated patients (SP-assessment). Cronbach's α was used to test the internal consistency. Correlations between CBT and SP-assessment were used to further evaluate construct validity of the CBT. Seventy-two students took part in the study. Mean value for the CBT score was 72% of the total score. Cronbach's α was 0.582. After eliminating three items, Cronbach's α increased to 0.625. Correlations between the CBT and SP-assessment were low to moderate. The control group scored significantly lower than the training settings (pstudent numbers to consider CBT as a feasible assessment method for cognitive aspects of communication skills. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Developing personal attributes of professionalism during clinical rotations: views of final year bachelor of clinical medical practice students

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Medical professionalism as a set of behaviours that transcends personal values, beliefs and attitudes to incorporate ethical and moral principles is considered a covenant between society and the practice of medicine. The Bachelor of Clinical Medical Practice (BCMP) a three year professional degree was launched at the University of the Witwatersrand in January 2009 in response to a documented shortage of doctors especially in the rural areas of South Africa. The BCMP programme is unique in its offering as it requires a teaching approach that meets the needs of an integrated curriculum, providing for an accelerated transition from the classroom to the patient’s bedside. Methods Following five week attachments in designated District Education Campuses, 25 final year BCMP students were required to reflect individually on the covenant that exists between society and the practice of medicine based on their daily interactions with health care workers and patients for three of the five rotations in a one page document. A retrospective, descriptive case study employed qualitative methods to group emerging themes from 71 portfolios. Ethical clearance was obtained from the Human Research Ethics Committee at the University of the Witwatersrand. Results As an outcome of an ethical analysis, the majority of BCMP students reflected on the determinants of accountable and responsible practice (N=54). The commitment to the Oath became significant with a personalised reference to patients ‘as my patients’. Students acknowledged professional health care workers (HCWs) who demonstrated commitment to core values of good practice as they recognised the value of constantly reflecting as a skill (n=51). As the students reflected on feeling like ‘guinea pigs’ (n=25) migrating through periods of uncertainity to become ‘teachable learners’, they made ethical judgements that demonstrated the development of their moral integrity. A few students felt vulnerable in

  1. Developing personal attributes of professionalism during clinical rotations: views of final year bachelor of clinical medical practice students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapukata-Sondzaba, Nontsikelelo; Dhai, Ames; Tsotsi, Norma; Ross, Eleanor

    2014-07-16

    Medical professionalism as a set of behaviours that transcends personal values, beliefs and attitudes to incorporate ethical and moral principles is considered a covenant between society and the practice of medicine. The Bachelor of Clinical Medical Practice (BCMP) a three year professional degree was launched at the University of the Witwatersrand in January 2009 in response to a documented shortage of doctors especially in the rural areas of South Africa. The BCMP programme is unique in its offering as it requires a teaching approach that meets the needs of an integrated curriculum, providing for an accelerated transition from the classroom to the patient's bedside. Following five week attachments in designated District Education Campuses, 25 final year BCMP students were required to reflect individually on the covenant that exists between society and the practice of medicine based on their daily interactions with health care workers and patients for three of the five rotations in a one page document. A retrospective, descriptive case study employed qualitative methods to group emerging themes from 71 portfolios. Ethical clearance was obtained from the Human Research Ethics Committee at the University of the Witwatersrand. As an outcome of an ethical analysis, the majority of BCMP students reflected on the determinants of accountable and responsible practice (N=54). The commitment to the Oath became significant with a personalised reference to patients 'as my patients'. Students acknowledged professional health care workers (HCWs) who demonstrated commitment to core values of good practice as they recognised the value of constantly reflecting as a skill (n=51). As the students reflected on feeling like 'guinea pigs' (n=25) migrating through periods of uncertainity to become 'teachable learners', they made ethical judgements that demonstrated the development of their moral integrity. A few students felt vulnerable in instances where they were pressured into

  2. "In our own words": Defining medical professionalism from a Latin American perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puschel, Klaus; Repetto, Paula; Bernales, Margarita; Barros, Jorge; Perez, Ivan; Snell, Linda

    2017-01-01

    Latin America has experienced a tremendous growth in a number of medical schools, and there are concerns about their quality of training in critical areas such as professionalism. Medical professionalism is a cultural construct. The aim of the study was to compare published definitions of medical professionalism from Latin American and non-Latin American regions and to design an original and culturally sound definition. A mixed methods approach was used with three phases. First, a systematic search and thematic analysis of the literature were conducted. Second, a Delphi methodology was used to design a local definition of medical professionalism. Third, we used a qualitative approach that combined focus groups and personal interviews with students and deans from four medical schools in Chile to understand various aspects of professionalism education. The data were analyzed using NVivo software. A total of 115 nonrepeated articles were identified in the three databases searched. No original definitions of medical professionalism from Latin America were found. Twenty-six articles met at least one of the three decisional criteria defined and were fully reviewed. Three theoretical perspectives were identified: contractualism, personalism, and deontology. Attributes of medical professionalism were classified in five dimensions: personal, interpersonal, societal, formative, and practical. Participants of the Delphi panel, focus groups, and personal interviews included 36 medical students, 12 faculties, and four deans. They took a personalistic approach to design an original definition of medical professionalism and highlighted the relevance of respecting life, human dignity, and the virtue of prudence in medical practice. Students and scholars differed on the value given to empathy and compassion. This study provides an original and culturally sound definition of medical professionalism that could be useful in Latin American medical schools. The methodology used in the

  3. A schematic representation of the professional identity formation and socialization of medical students and residents: a guide for medical educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruess, Richard L; Cruess, Sylvia R; Boudreau, J Donald; Snell, Linda; Steinert, Yvonne

    2015-06-01

    Recent calls to focus on identity formation in medicine propose that educators establish as a goal of medical education the support and guidance of students and residents as they develop their professional identity. Those entering medical school arrive with a personal identity formed since birth. As they proceed through the educational continuum, they successively develop the identity of a medical student, a resident, and a physician. Each individual's journey from layperson to skilled professional is unique and is affected by "who they are" at the beginning and "who they wish to become."Identity formation is a dynamic process achieved through socialization; it results in individuals joining the medical community of practice. Multiple factors within and outside of the educational system affect the formation of an individual's professional identity. Each learner reacts to different factors in her or his own fashion, with the anticipated outcome being the emergence of a professional identity. However, the inherent logic in the related processes of professional identity formation and socialization may be obscured by their complexity and the large number of factors involved.Drawing on the identity formation and socialization literature, as well as experience gained in teaching professionalism, the authors developed schematic representations of these processes. They adapted them to the medical context to guide educators as they initiate educational interventions, which aim to explicitly support professional identity formation and the ultimate goal of medical education-to ensure that medical students and residents come to "think, act, and feel like a physician."

  4. The Hidden Curriculum in Medical and Law Schools: A Role for Student Affairs Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Linda A.; Phye, Julie

    2006-01-01

    This chapter discusses responsibilities for student affairs professionals in law and medical schools. It poses that student affairs staff are particularly suited to teach the hidden curriculum of the professional schools, described as inculcating professional values. The chapter ends with four strategies for such instruction.

  5. Fungal contamination in white medical coats of dentistry professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benicio Barros Brandão

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The white medical coats used by health professionals may serve as a source of infection in health services because it is a potential vehicle for transmission of microorganisms. There are several studies that warn of the inherent dangers in bacterial contamination in lab coats, but there are few reports of fungal contamination in this personal protection equipment. Aims: The study aims to identify fungi in dental lab coats. Method: Samples were collected from ten dentists from a dentistry-school clinic of a higher education institution of Teresina, Piauí, Brazil, using sterile swab, soaked in saline contained in a test tube. Each sample was inoculated on chloramphenicol-containing Saboroud Dextrose agar and incubated at room temperature for fungal growth. Phenotypic and biochemical methods were used to identify the colonies. Results: Fungal growth was observed in all samples of the lab coats, and 19 isolates were counted. The genera Cladosporium and Aspergillus were the most frequent in this study. The results emphasize the role of fungi as contaminants in lab coats; and, as an effective means of transmission of pathogens in the community. Conclusions: This study suggests a methodology for the proper washing and decontamination of the lab coat and advocates the need to implement more rigid norms in concern to the use of lab coats, as well as educational campaigns to guide dentists about the correct use of this Personal Protection Equipment (PPE. Keywords: Individual Protection Equipment. Fungi. Cross infection.

  6. Medical professionalism from a socio-cultural perspective: Evaluating medical residents communicative attitudes during the medical encounter in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Ganasegeran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The practice of medicine requires good communication skills to foster excellent rapport in doctor patient relationship. Reports on communication skills learning attitude among medical professionals are key essentials toward improving patient safety and quality of care. Aims: We aimed to determine factors affecting communication skills learning attitudes among medical residents in Malaysia. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional survey, in a Malaysian public health hospital. Materials and Methods: A total of 191 medical residents across medical and surgical based rotations were included. We assessed the validated communication skills attitude scale among medical residents from different rotations. Statistical Analysis: Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS® (version 16.0, IBM, Armonk, NY was used. Cronbach′s alpha was used to test the internal consistency of the scale. Descriptive analysis was conducted for all variables. Bivariate analysis was employed across the socio-demographic variables. Results: Majority of the residents believed that communication skills training should be made compulsory in Malaysia (78.5%. Medical residents agreed that acquiring good communication skills is essential to be a good doctor. However, the majority cited time pressures for not being able to learn communication skills. Significant differences in communication skills learning attitude scores were found between Malays and Chinese. Conclusion: The majority of medical residents had a positive attitude toward communication skills learning. Socio-demographic factors influenced communication skills learning attitude among medical residents. Incorporating communicative skills modules during hospital Continuous Medical Education for medical residents is essential to cultivate communicative skills attitudes for effective doctor-patient relationship during the routine medical encounters.

  7. Awareness of medico-legal issues among medical and dental college health professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Senthilkumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The changing doctor-patient relationship and commercialization of modem medical practice has affected the practice of medicine. The fundamental values of medicine insist that the doctors should be aware about the various medico-legal issues which help in proper recording of medical management details. Aim: To evaluate the knowledge on Medico-legal Issues among Medical and Dental College Health Professionals of Meenakshi University (MAHER, Tamilnadu. Materials & Method: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among health professionals of Meenakshi University (MAHER, Tamilnadu. A total o f320 health professionals (163 medical and 157 dental participated in the study. A structured, closed ended, self-administered questionnaire was used for collection of data. Chi-square test was used to compare the awareness of medico-legal issues between medical and dental health professionals. Results: Among the 320 health professionals, 87.4% of medical and 76.1% of dental professionals were aware about the informed consent, 18.8% of medical and 5.7% of dental professionals had awareness about COPRA and only 14.3% of medical and 7.6% of dental professionals had awareness regarding the Medico-legal programs/courses. Conclusions: The results illustrated that the participants had little awareness on medico-legal issues. Hence there is an urgent need to update the understanding of these issues to be on a legally safer side.

  8. Validation of a Method for Measuring Medical Students' Critical Reflections on Professionalism in Gross Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittich, Christopher M.; Pawlina, Wojciech; Drake, Richard L.; Szostek, Jason H.; Reed, Darcy A.; Lachman, Nirusha; McBride, Jennifer M.; Mandrekar, Jayawant N.; Beckman, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    Improving professional attitudes and behaviors requires critical self reflection. Research on reflection is necessary to understand professionalism among medical students. The aims of this prospective validation study at the Mayo Medical School and Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine were: (1) to develop and validate a new instrument for…

  9. Conceptual Representations of Flu and Microbial Illness Held by Students, Teachers, and Medical Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M. Gail; Rua, Melissa J.

    2008-01-01

    This study describes 5th, 8th, and 11th-grade students', teachers', and medical professionals' conceptions of flu and microbial illness. Participants constructed a concept map on "flu" and participated in a semi-structured interview. The results showed that these groups of students, teachers and medical professionals held and structured their…

  10. Cultural Complementarity : Reshaping Professional and Organizational Logics in Developing Frontline Medical Leadership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordegraaf, Mirko|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/141945753; Schneider, Magriet; Boselie, Paul|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/177012277; van Rensen, E.L.J.

    2016-01-01

    With the rise of clinical management, new skills of medical doctors stand out, including leadership skills. Medical doctors organize medical work and improve patient care. The training of frontline leadership skills, however, is weakly developed in residency programmes. Medical professional cultures

  11. Development and validation of a professionalism assessment scale for medical students

    OpenAIRE

    Klemenc-Ketis, Zalika; Vrecko, Helena

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To develop and validate a scale for the assess-ment of professionalism in medical students based on students' perceptions of and attitudes towards professional-ism in medicine. Methods This was a mixed methods study with under-graduate medical students. Two focus groups were carried out with 12 students, followed by a transcript analysis (grounded theory method with open coding). Then, a 3-round Delphi with 20 family medicine experts was carried out. A psychometric assessment of th...

  12. A qualitative thematic content analysis of medical students' essays on professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, So-Youn; Shon, Changwoo; Kwon, Oh Young; Yoon, Tai Young; Kwon, Ivo

    2017-05-03

    Physicians in both Western and Eastern countries are being confronted by changes in health care delivery systems and medical professionalism values. The traditional concept of "In-Sul" (benevolent art) and the modern history of South Korea have led to cultural differences between South Korea and other countries in conceptualizing medical professionalism; thus, we studied medical students' perceptions of professionalism as described in essays written on this topic. In 2014, we asked 109 first-year medical students who were enrolled in a compulsory ethics course to anonymously write a description of an instance of medical professionalism that they had witnessed, as well as reflecting on their own professional context. We then processed 105 valid essays using thematic content analysis with computer-assisted qualitative data analysis software. Thematic analysis of the students' essays revealed two core aspects of professionalism in South Korea, one focused on respect for patients and the other on physicians' accountability. The most common theme regarding physician-patient relationships was trust. By contrast, distributive justice was thought to be a non-essential aspect of professionalism. In Western countries, physicians tend to promote justice in the health care system, including fair distribution of medical resources; however, we found that medical students in South Korea were more inclined to emphasize doctors' relationships with patients. Medical educators should develop curricular interventions regarding medical professionalism to meet the legitimate needs of patients in their own culture. Because professionalism is a dynamic construct of culture, medical educators should reaffirm cultural context-specific definitions of professionalism for development of associated curricula.

  13. A scoping review of medical professionalism research published in the Chinese language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Shih, Julie; Kuo, Fen-Ju; Ho, Ming-Jung

    2016-11-23

    The Chinese Medical Doctors Association (CMDA) adopted the Charter of Medical Professionalism in the New Millennium (Charter) and published the Chinese Medical Doctor Declaration (Declaration). This is an important step to re-building medical professionalism in China at a time when the commercialization of health care has led to a decline in physician accountability and public trust in the profession. In response, authors have begun to examine and promote medical professionalism in China. This study aims to present the key research themes, identify research gaps and offer recommendations from reviewing the increasing pool of Chinese-language literature on medical professionalism. A scoping review of Chinese language papers was conducted using the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (including China Academic Journals Full-text Database, China Doctoral Dissertations Full-text Database, Masters' Theses Full-text Database, China Core Newspapers Full-text Database, and China Yearbooks Full-text Database) (CNKI) database. Four major research themes were identified in Chinese discourse: (1) teaching professionalism, (2) practicing professionalism, (3) conceptualizing professionalism and (4) assessing professionalism. Overall, authors were concerned with the cultivation of humanism in physicians and emphasized the importance of communication skills to improve the physician-patient relationship in China. They explored the role of traditional Chinese values, such as Confucian and Taoist values, as well as the Communist Party's political values, in promoting professional behaviour. Authors demonstrate increasing interest in medical professionalism in China. The literature is of variable quality and further empirical studies are required in order to evaluate teaching interventions and guide professionalism assessment. A common professionalism framework is absent and could be developed with consideration to China's socio-cultural context.

  14. [Realities and professional expectations of medical students attending Guinea Bissau's medical school in 2007 school year].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronteira, Inês; Rodrigues, Amabélia; Pereira, Camilo; Silva, Augusto P; Mercer, Hugo; Dussault, Guilles; Ferrinho, Paulo

    2011-01-01

    In Guinea Bissau, the majority of university level professionals are still being trained abroad and most of them do not return to their country. This was a major incentive for creating Guinea Bissau's Medical School. An observational, cross-sectional, analytic study was conducted on the second trimester of 2007 to characterize the socio-demographic, familial and educational profile of medical students, their satisfaction levels, difficulties and expectations concerning the medicine course. A questionnaire was used and a response rate of 63% achieved (81 students). Data was analyzed using SPSS v.17 for descriptive statistics. Students are very committed to their education. They tend to decide to take the medicine course early in their lives and are influenced by their relatives. They choose to be medical doctors because they like it but also for altruistic reasons and the desire to save lives. Although many face financial and material difficulties, they tend to have success in their academic live. They live with their parents, do not have children and some have side jobs to provide for extra income to help with their education. They expect their education to make them good doctors in any part of the world and want to work simultaneously in the public (to serve their country and pay their debt to the State) and in the private sector (to enhance their income). The large majority wants to work in a hospital, in Bissau, and to be a pediatrician or obstetrician. They have unreasonably high expectations concerning their future income as medical doctors.

  15. A preliminary survey of professionalism teaching practices in anatomy education among Indian Medical Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunakaran, Ilavenil; Thirumalaikolundusubramanian, Ponniah; Nalinakumari, Sheela Das

    2017-09-01

    Professionalism and ethics have gained widespread recognition as competencies to be fulfilled, taught, and assessed within medical education. The role of the anatomy course in developed nations has evolved over time and now encompasses multiple domains, including knowledge, skills, and the inculcation of professionalism and ethics. The Medical Council of India recently recommended the integration of professionalism teaching in undergraduate medical curricula. The authors investigated whether the initial orientation lectures and instructions given by faculty at the outset of undergraduate medical anatomy courses throughout India served a "hidden curriculum" regarding professionalism practices, and whether these orientation messages could serve as an early exposure to medical professionalism and ethics for medical students. An online survey was carried out among 102 anatomy faculty members across India requesting details about specific professionalism protocols and instructions regarding behavior in the dissection hall that are routinely given to preclinical students, as well as the importance that they placed on professional behavior. It was found that most faculty members regularly instruct students regarding expected behavior during the anatomy course, including dissection practices. These instructions stress attributes of professionalism like humanism, accountability, and honesty. However, there needs to be a more concentrated effort by educators to prohibit such unprofessional practices like dissection hall photography, and better information is required regarding biomedical waste disposal. Despite the absence of clear guidelines for professionalism teaching in medical education in India, the existing framework of anatomy education provides an opportunity to introduce the concept of professionalism to the first-year medical student. This opportunity may provide an early foundation for designing a professionalism-integrated curriculum. Anat Sci Educ 10: 433

  16. The challenge of promoting professionalism through medical ethics and humanities education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doukas, David J; McCullough, Laurence B; Wear, Stephen; Lehmann, Lisa S; Nixon, Lois LaCivita; Carrese, Joseph A; Shapiro, Johanna F; Green, Michael J; Kirch, Darrell G

    2013-11-01

    Given recent emphasis on professionalism training in medical schools by accrediting organizations, medical ethics and humanities educators need to develop a comprehensive understanding of this emphasis. To achieve this, the Project to Rebalance and Integrate Medical Education (PRIME) II Workshop (May 2011) enlisted representatives of the three major accreditation organizations to join with a national expert panel of medical educators in ethics, history, literature, and the visual arts. PRIME II faculty engaged in a dialogue on the future of professionalism in medical education. The authors present three overarching themes that resulted from the PRIME II discussions: transformation, question everything, and unity of vision and purpose.The first theme highlights that education toward professionalism requires transformational change, whereby medical ethics and humanities educators would make explicit the centrality of professionalism to the formation of physicians. The second theme emphasizes that the flourishing of professionalism must be based on first addressing the dysfunctional aspects of the current system of health care delivery and financing that undermine the goals of medical education. The third theme focuses on how ethics and humanities educators must have unity of vision and purpose in order to collaborate and identify how their disciplines advance professionalism. These themes should help shape discussions of the future of medical ethics and humanities teaching.The authors argue that improvement of the ethics and humanities-based knowledge, skills, and conduct that fosters professionalism should enhance patient care and be evaluated for its distinctive contributions to educational processes aimed at producing this outcome.

  17. Evaluating Explicit and Implicit Stigma of Mental Illness in Mental Health Professionals and Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopera, Maciej; Suszek, Hubert; Bonar, Erin; Myszka, Maciej; Gmaj, Bartłomiej; Ilgen, Mark; Wojnar, Marcin

    2015-07-01

    The study investigated explicit and implicit attitudes towards people with mental illness among medical students (non-professionals) with no previous contact with mentally ill patients and psychiatrists and psychotherapists (professionals) who had at least 2 years of professional contact with mentally ill patients. Explicit attitudes where assessed by self-report. Implicit attitudes were measured with the Go/No-Go Association Task, a variant of the Implicit Association Test that does not require the use of a comparison category. Compared to non-professionals, mental health professionals reported significantly higher approach emotions than non-professionals towards people with mental illness, showed a lesser tendency to discriminate against them, and held less restrictive attitudes. Both groups reported negative implicit attitudes towards mentally ill. Results suggest that both non-professionals and professionals display ambivalent attitudes towards people with mental illness and that professional, long-term contact with people with mental illness does not necessarily modify negative implicit attitudes.

  18. Advanced medical students’ experiences and views on professionalism at Kuwait University

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Professionalism is a core competency in the medical profession worldwide. Numerous studies investigate how this competency is taught and learned. However, there are few reports on the students’ views and experiences with professionalism especially in the Arab world. Our aim was to explore the experiences and views of Kuwait final-year medical students on professionalism. Methods This was a questionnaire study of final-year medical students at Kuwait University (n = 95). Open- and close-ended questions were used to determine the students’ experiences and views on: definition, teaching, learning, and assessment of professionalism. Results Eighty-five of the students completed the questionnaire (89.5%). A total of 252 attributes defining professionalism were listed by our respondents. The majority (98.0%) of these attributes were categorized under the CanMEDS theme describing professionalism as commitment to patients, profession, and society through ethical practice. The most helpful methods in learning about professionalism for the students were contact with positive role models, patients and families, and with their own families, relatives and peers. The students’ rating of the quality and quantity of teaching professionalism in the institution was quite variable. Despite this, 68.2% of the students felt very or somewhat comfortable explaining the meaning of medical professionalism to junior medical students. Almost half of the students felt that their education had always or sometimes helped them deal with professionally-challenging situations. Majority (77.6%) of the students thought that their academic assessments should include assessment of professionalism and should be used as a selection criterion in their future academic careers (62.3%). Most of the students discussed and sought advice regarding professionally-challenging situations from their fellow medical students and colleagues. Seventy-five (88.2%) students did not know which

  19. Advanced medical students' experiences and views on professionalism at Kuwait University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Abdulrazzaq, Dalia; Al-Fadhli, Amani; Arshad, Andleeb

    2014-07-23

    Professionalism is a core competency in the medical profession worldwide. Numerous studies investigate how this competency is taught and learned. However, there are few reports on the students' views and experiences with professionalism especially in the Arab world. Our aim was to explore the experiences and views of Kuwait final-year medical students on professionalism. This was a questionnaire study of final-year medical students at Kuwait University (n = 95). Open- and close-ended questions were used to determine the students' experiences and views on: definition, teaching, learning, and assessment of professionalism. Eighty-five of the students completed the questionnaire (89.5%). A total of 252 attributes defining professionalism were listed by our respondents. The majority (98.0%) of these attributes were categorized under the CanMEDS theme describing professionalism as commitment to patients, profession, and society through ethical practice. The most helpful methods in learning about professionalism for the students were contact with positive role models, patients and families, and with their own families, relatives and peers. The students' rating of the quality and quantity of teaching professionalism in the institution was quite variable. Despite this, 68.2% of the students felt very or somewhat comfortable explaining the meaning of medical professionalism to junior medical students. Almost half of the students felt that their education had always or sometimes helped them deal with professionally-challenging situations. Majority (77.6%) of the students thought that their academic assessments should include assessment of professionalism and should be used as a selection criterion in their future academic careers (62.3%). Most of the students discussed and sought advice regarding professionally-challenging situations from their fellow medical students and colleagues. Seventy-five (88.2%) students did not know which organizational body in the institution

  20. Speaking up: using OSTEs to understand how medical students address professionalism lapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Constance R; Choby, Beth A; Moore, Andrew; Parker, Robert Scott; Zambetti, Benjamin R; Naids, Sarah; Scott, Jillian; Loome, Jennifer; Gaffney, Sierra

    2016-01-01

    Objective-structured teaching encounters (OSTEs) are used across many disciplines to assess teaching ability. The OSTE detailed in this paper assesses 191 fourth-year medical students' (M4) ability to identify and address lapses in professionalism based on Association of American Medical Colleges' professionalism competencies. The research questions addressed are How frequently do M4s address professionalism lapses observed during an OSTE? What factors influence whether M4s provide feedback when they observe professionalism lapses in an OSTE? Standardized patients (SPs) and standardized learners (SLs) were recruited and trained to participate in a standardized encounter with specific cognitive, social, and behavioral errors, including professionalism lapses. M4s viewed this encounter and then offered feedback to the SL, while remotely observed by faculty. Post-encounter, the SL and faculty completed identical checklists to assess both teaching readiness and ability to address professionalism concerns. An analysis of frequencies showed that six of the Association of American Medical Colleges' nine professional competencies were addressed in the checklist and/or discussed in the focus group. Analysis of transcribed debriefing sessions confirmed that M4s did not consistently address professionalism lapses by their peers. In focus groups, M4s indicated that, while they noticed professionalism issues, they were uncomfortable discussing them with the SLs. Findings of the current study suggest how medical educators might support learners' ability to address lapses in professionalism as well as topics for future research.

  1. Dressing up posture: The interactive effects of posture and clothing on competency judgements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurney, Daniel J; Howlett, Neil; Pine, Karen; Tracey, Megan; Moggridge, Rachel

    2017-05-01

    Individuals often receive judgements from others based on their clothing and their posture. While both of these factors have been found to influence judgements of competency independently, their relative importance in impression formation is yet to be investigated. We address this by examining interactive effects of posture and clothing on four competency measures: confidence, professionalism, approachability, and likeliness of a high salary. Participants rated photographs of both male and female models pictured in different postures (strong, neutral, weak) in smart clothing (a suit for males; both a trouser suit and skirt suit for females) and casual clothing. We confirm that posture manipulations affected judgements of individuals differently according to the clothing they were pictured in. The nature of these interactions varied by gender and, for women, competency judgements differed according to attire type (trouser or skirt suit). The implications of these findings in relation to impression formation are discussed. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  2. (Re-)reading medical trade catalogs: the uses of professional advertising in British medical practice, 1870-1914.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Claire L

    2012-01-01

    This article explores how medical practitioners read, used, and experienced medical trade catalogs in late-nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century Britain. Reader responses to the catalog, a book-like publication promoting medical tools, appliances, and pharmaceuticals, have been chronically understudied, as have professional reading practices within medicine more generally. Yet, evidence suggests that clinicians frequently used the catalog and did so in three main ways: to order medical products, to acquire new information about these products, and to display their own product endorsements and product designs. The seemingly widespread nature of these practices demonstrates an individual and collective professional desire to improve medical practice and highlights the importance of studying professional reading practices in the cultural history of medicine.

  3. Attitudes of Pakistani and Pakistani heritage medical students regarding professionalism at a medical college in Karachi, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background An increased interest in professionalism has been reported in the field of medical education due to concerns regarding deterioration of humanism and professional values in the teaching and practice of medicine. The primary aim of this study was to assess attitudes of Pakistani and Pakistani heritage students at a medical college in Pakistan about important elements of professionalism that an ideal medical doctor should possess. A further objective of the study was to determine students’ preferred ways of learning professionalism. Methods A written survey was distributed to undergraduate medical students at a public sector medical college at Karachi, Pakistan in 2011. Using the Penn State College of Medicine (PSCOM) Professionalism Questionnaire, attitudes of medical students of semester 1, 5, and 8 regarding professionalism were assessed anonymously. Results The mean age of the students was 21.11 ± 2.72 years. Forty-three percent of the respondents were male. Forty percent of the students held Pakistani citizenship. Thirty-five percent students were US citizens with Pakistani parents and twenty-five percent were Pakistani heritage students that had dual citizenships. No significant differences in the elements of professionalism (Accountability, Altruism, Duty, Excellence, Honesty & Integrity and Respect) mean scores or in the overall mean score of professionalism among the various classes were found. The total overall Cronbach alpha value for all elements of the professionalism in the selected classes was above 0.9. The most preferred methods for learning professionalism were role modeling by faculty, case based scenarios and role plays. Conclusion The students rated all the attributes of professionalism as important and there was no difference across the study years. The overall internal consistency of each element of professionalism was high in different classes. Faculty role models, case based scenarios and role plays may be used to teach

  4. Canaries in the coal mine: Personal and professional impact of undergoing whole genome sequencing on medical professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zierhut, Heather; McCarthy Veach, Patricia; LeRoy, Bonnie

    2015-11-01

    Public interest in personal whole genome sequencing is increasing. The technology is publicly available and is being used as an educational tool in higher education. Empirical evidence regarding its utility is vital. The goals of this study were to characterize the process of whole genome sequencing in a population of medical and basic science professionals undergoing whole genome sequencing as a part of an educational symposium. Thirty-eight individuals completed one or more surveys from the time of informed consent for whole genome sequencing to 3 months post-symposium. The four surveys assessed demographics, decision-making, communication, decision regret, and personal and professional impact. The most prevalent motivation to participate was professional enhancement, followed by curiosity about the technology, and personal health benefits. The most important initial impact concerned medical implications. Over time, however, impact on professional development was greater than on personal health. Anticipated reactions to receiving whole genome sequencing results generally matched participants' actual reactions and decision regret remained low over time. Benefits and risks of whole genome sequencing included medically actionable results and misunderstanding by healthcare providers. Whole genome sequencing generally had a positive impact professionally and personally on participants. Further education of providers and the public about whole genome sequencing and psychosocial support is warranted. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Transforming educational accountability in medical ethics and humanities education toward professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doukas, David J; Kirch, Darrell G; Brigham, Timothy P; Barzansky, Barbara M; Wear, Stephen; Carrese, Joseph A; Fins, Joseph J; Lederer, Susan E

    2015-06-01

    Effectively developing professionalism requires a programmatic view on how medical ethics and humanities should be incorporated into an educational continuum that begins in premedical studies, stretches across medical school and residency, and is sustained throughout one's practice. The Project to Rebalance and Integrate Medical Education National Conference on Medical Ethics and Humanities in Medical Education (May 2012) invited representatives from the three major medical education and accreditation organizations to engage with an expert panel of nationally known medical educators in ethics, history, literature, and the visual arts. This article, based on the views of these representatives and their respondents, offers a future-tense account of how professionalism can be incorporated into medical education.The themes that are emphasized herein include the need to respond to four issues. The first theme highlights how ethics and humanities can provide a response to the dissonance that occurs in current health care delivery. The second theme focuses on how to facilitate preprofessional readiness for applicants through reform of the medical school admission process. The third theme emphasizes the importance of integrating ethics and humanities into the medical school administrative structure. The fourth theme underscores how outcomes-based assessment should reflect developmental milestones for professional attributes and conduct. The participants emphasized that ethics and humanities-based knowledge, skills, and conduct that promote professionalism should be taught with accountability, flexibility, and the premise that all these traits are essential to the formation of a modern professional physician.

  6. Creating a Framework for Medical Professionalism: An Initial Consensus Statement From an Arab Nation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Razig, Sawsan; Ibrahim, Halah; Alameri, Hatem; Hamdy, Hossam; Haleeqa, Khaled Abu; Qayed, Khalil I; Obaid, Laila O; Al Fahim, Maha; Ezimokhai, Mutairu; Sulaiman, Nabil D; Fares, Saleh; Al Darei, Maitha Mohammed; Shahin, Nhayan Qassim; Al Shamsi, Noora Abdulla Omran; Alnooryani, Rashed Arif; Al Falahi, Salama Zayed

    2016-05-01

    Background Medical professionalism has received increased worldwide attention, yet there is limited information on the applicability and utility of established Western professionalism frameworks in non-Western nations. Objective We developed a locally derived consensus definition of medical professionalism for the United Arab Emirates (UAE), which reflects the cultural and social constructs of the UAE and the Middle East. Methods We used a purposive sample of 14 physicians working in the UAE as clinical and education leaders. This expert panel used qualitative methods, including the world café, nominal group technique, the Delphi method, and an interpretive thematic analysis to develop the consensus statement. Results The expert panel defined 9 attributes of medical professionalism. There was considerable overlap with accepted Western definitions, along with important differences in 3 aspects: (1) the primacy of social justice and societal rights; (2) the role of the physician's personal faith and spirituality in guiding professional practices; and (3) societal expectations for professional attributes of physicians that extend beyond the practice of medicine. Conclusions Professionalism is a social construct influenced by cultural and religious contexts. It is imperative that definitions of professionalism used in the education of physicians in training and in the assessment of practicing physicians be formulated locally and encompass specific competencies relevant to the local, social, and cultural context for medical practice. Our goal was to develop a secular consensus statement that encompasses culture and values relevant to professionalism for the UAE and the Arab region.

  7. Knowledge of medical professionalism in medical students and physicians at Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences and affiliated hospitals-Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seif-Farshad, Mehran; Bazmi, Shabnam; Amiri, Farzad; Fattahi, Faeze; Kiani, Mehrzad

    2016-11-01

    Although medical professionalism is a fundamental aspect of competence in medicine and a distinct facet of physicians' competence, evidence suggests that the subject of professionalism is not taught or assessed as part of medical students' curricula in Iran and many other countries. Assessing the knowledge of medical students and physicians about medical professionalism seems to be helpful in identifying the weaknesses of training in the field of professionalism and devise plans for future training on the subject.The present cross-sectional, quantitative, observational, and prevalence study recruited 149 medical interns, clinical residents, physicians, and professors working in hospitals selected through stratified random sampling using a questionnaire designed by the researchers and confirmed for its validity and reliability. The results were analyzed by Stata at a significance level of 0.05.Out of 149 cases, 61.64% were male with the mean age of 30.81 years. A total of 66 participants (44.29%) (95% confidence interval [CI]: 36.44%-52.44%) had heard and 83 (55.70%) (95% CI: 47.55%-63.55%) had not heard the term "medical professionalism" before the study. After adjusting for potential confounders, age and degree did not have statistically significant difference in assessed knowledge of medical professionalism, but sex had (mean difference: 5.88, P = 0.045), and the mean of the female was significantly higher than that of the male participants. The mean percentage of correct answers was 47.67.The present study demonstrated that the medical professionals working in the national healthcare system have an unfavorable theoretical knowledge about medical professionalism in Iran; although this does not indicate that their practices are unethical, it should be noted that one of the prerequisites of possessing a high level of medical professionalism and for establishing a proper relationship between the medical community and the patients is to have a proper knowledge of

  8. [Pedagogical Professional Development of Medical Teachers: The Experience of NOVA Medical School / Universidade Nova de Lisboa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Joana; Rosado-Pinto, Patrícia

    2017-03-31

    To be a college teacher requires a permanent effort in developing specific competencies, namely in the pedagogical domain. This paper aims both to describe the pedagogical professional development program offered by the Medical Education Office of NOVA Medical School of Universidade Nova de Lisboa and to analyse its role in the enhancement of reflection around curriculum and teaching practice. Description of the pedagogical programme offered between 2010 and 2016. We focused the analysis on different kinds of data - opinions of the participants in the training programme (questionnaire before and after the training); pedagogical products elaborated by the participants in the programme - design of lessons, modules or curricular units; questionnaire sent in 2016 to NOVA Medical School teachers responsible for the curricular units, about the contribution of their disciplines to the accomplishment of the core learning outcomes of the NOVA Medical School medical graduates. The pedagogical training needs identified by the teachers focused mainly on improving practice, critically analysing the curriculum and sharing experiences. Globally the training programme was deeply appreciated and considered very good by 97% of the participants. The lesson plans delivered showed that the teachers were able to integrate and apply the concepts developed during the training. The answers from the 46 faculty responsible for the curricular units (the majority of them had attended the Medical Education Office training programme) highlighted their capacity to critically approach content and pedagogical strategies within their disciplines as well as their contribution to the main goals of the medical curriculum. The results underlined the importance of a pedagogical training focused on the critical analysis of curriculum and pedagogical practice. On the other hand, the pedagogical products analyzed revealed great mastery by teachers of the content and pedagogical strategies present in the

  9. Chinese physicians' attitudes toward and understanding of medical professionalism: results of a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Linying; Yin, Xiuyun; Bao, Xiaolei; Nie, Jin-Bao

    2014-01-01

    Medical professionalism has been developing in the Peoples' Republic of China as one way to better address perennial and new challenges in healthcare in an ever-changing society. Among many recent developments in this area is promotion by the national Chinese Medical Doctor Association of the principles and values contained in the international document, "Medical Professionalism in the New Millennium: A Physician Charter." To discover Chinese physicians' attitudes toward and understanding of medical professionalism. The authors distributed a self-reporting questionnaire that included 34 statements and four case scenarios concerning the general principles of medical professionalism: the primacy of patients' welfare, respect for patients' autonomy, promotion of social justice, and professional self-regulation. The questionnaire included controversial issues such as the role of the family in decision making and reporting medical errors. A total of 2,966 practicing physicians, randomly selected from the Chinese Medical Association database, were surveyed, and 1,198 valid questionnaires were returned. Our sample covered 23 provinces and 51 cities throughout the Peoples' Republic of China. More than 80 percent of the physicians who responded agreed that the physician-patient relationship should be a relationship of trust founded on professional altruism, and that informed consent is necessary. More than 95 percent agreed that physicians should promote professional self-regulation as well as social justice. More than half agreed with the principle of the primacy of patients' welfare (62.8 percent), and that physicians have a responsibility to report medical errors and incompetent colleagues (51.0 percent). In certain cases, a great majority of Chinese physicians favored familism and paternalism. The study does not include data on how Chinese physicians practice medical professionalism, or the perspectives of physicians working in smaller cities and in rural areas. Based

  10. Mentoring by design: integrating medical professional competencies into bioengineering and medical physics graduate training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Kendra V; Peek, Kathryn E; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    2014-12-01

    Many students in bioengineering and medical physics doctoral programs plan careers in translational research. However, while such students generally have strong quantitative abilities, they often lack experience with the culture, communication norms, and practice of bedside medicine. This may limit students' ability to function as members of multidisciplinary translational research teams. To improve students' preparation for careers in cancer translational research, we developed and implemented a mentoring program that is integrated with students' doctoral studies and aims to promote competencies in communication, biomedical ethics, teamwork, altruism, multiculturalism, and accountability. Throughout the program, patient-centered approaches and professional competencies are presented as foundational to optimal clinical care and integral to translational research. Mentoring is conducted by senior biomedical faculty and administrators and includes didactic teaching, online learning, laboratory mini-courses, clinical practicums, and multidisciplinary patient planning conferences (year 1); student development and facilitation of problem-based patient cases (year 2); and individualized mentoring based on research problems and progress toward degree completion (years 3-5). Each phase includes formative and summative evaluations. Nineteen students entered the program from 2009 through 2011. On periodic anonymous surveys, the most recent in September 2013, students indicated that the program substantially improved their knowledge of cancer biology, cancer medicine, and academic medicine; that the mentors were knowledgeable, good teachers, and dedicated to students; and that the program motivated them to become well-rounded scientists and scholars. We believe this program can be modified and disseminated to other graduate research and professional health care programs.

  11. Whodunnit? Electrophysiological correlates of agency judgements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Kühn

    Full Text Available Sense of agency refers to the feeling that "I" am responsible for those external events that are directly produced by one's own voluntary actions. Recent theories distinguish between a non-conceptual "feeling" of agency linked to changes in the processing of self-generated sensory events, and a higher-order judgement of agency, which attributes sensory events to the self. In the current study we explore the neural correlates of the judgement of agency by means of electrophysiology. We measured event-related potentials to tones that were either perceived or not perceived as triggered by participants' voluntary actions and related these potentials to later judgements of agency over the tones. Replicating earlier findings on predictive sensory attenuation, we found that the N1 component was attenuated for congruent tones that corresponded to the learned action-effect mapping as opposed to incongruent tones that did not correspond to the previously acquired associations between actions and tones. The P3a component, but not the N1, directly reflected the judgement of agency: deflections in this component were greater for tones judged as self-generated than for tones judged as externally produced. The fact that the outcome of the later agency judgement was predictable based on the P3a component demonstrates that agency judgements incorporate early information processing components and are not purely reconstructive, post-hoc evaluations generated at time of judgement.

  12. Medical professionalism: what the study of literature can contribute to the conversation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Johanna; Nixon, Lois L; Wear, Stephen E; Doukas, David J

    2015-06-27

    Medical school curricula, although traditionally and historically dominated by science, have generally accepted, appreciated, and welcomed the inclusion of literature over the past several decades. Recent concerns about medical professional formation have led to discussions about the specific role and contribution of literature and stories. In this article, we demonstrate how professionalism and the study of literature can be brought into relationship through critical and interrogative interactions based in the literary skill of close reading. Literature in medicine can question the meaning of "professionalism" itself (as well as its virtues), thereby resisting standardization in favor of diversity method and of outcome. Literature can also actively engage learners with questions about the human condition, providing a larger context within which to consider professional identity formation. Our fundamental contention is that, within a medical education framework, literature is highly suited to assist learners in questioning conventional thinking and assumptions about various dimensions of professionalism.

  13. Knowledge of medical professionalism in medical students and physicians at Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences and affiliated hospitals—Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seif-Farshad, Mehran; Bazmi, Shabnam; Amiri, Farzad; Fattahi, Faeze; Kiani, Mehrzad

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although medical professionalism is a fundamental aspect of competence in medicine and a distinct facet of physicians’ competence, evidence suggests that the subject of professionalism is not taught or assessed as part of medical students’ curricula in Iran and many other countries. Assessing the knowledge of medical students and physicians about medical professionalism seems to be helpful in identifying the weaknesses of training in the field of professionalism and devise plans for future training on the subject. The present cross-sectional, quantitative, observational, and prevalence study recruited 149 medical interns, clinical residents, physicians, and professors working in hospitals selected through stratified random sampling using a questionnaire designed by the researchers and confirmed for its validity and reliability. The results were analyzed by Stata at a significance level of 0.05. Out of 149 cases, 61.64% were male with the mean age of 30.81 years. A total of 66 participants (44.29%) (95% confidence interval [CI]: 36.44%–52.44%) had heard and 83 (55.70%) (95% CI: 47.55%–63.55%) had not heard the term “medical professionalism” before the study. After adjusting for potential confounders, age and degree did not have statistically significant difference in assessed knowledge of medical professionalism, but sex had (mean difference: 5.88, P = 0.045), and the mean of the female was significantly higher than that of the male participants. The mean percentage of correct answers was 47.67. The present study demonstrated that the medical professionals working in the national healthcare system have an unfavorable theoretical knowledge about medical professionalism in Iran; although this does not indicate that their practices are unethical, it should be noted that one of the prerequisites of possessing a high level of medical professionalism and for establishing a proper relationship between the medical community and the patients is to

  14. Recognition and Judgement in Social Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Søren

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to argue for recognition as a normative ideal for social work and to confront the ideal with the reality found in the social institutions. I shall use the concept "judgement" to describe institutional routines and ways of thinking which constitute barriers...... to recognition. In the first part, I outline the normative ideal and show its relevance for practical social work on the basis of social clients' experiences of disrespect. In the second, I expalin the concept of judgement and criticise the prevailing forms of judgement to be found in the social institutions...

  15. Assessment of professional behaviour in undergraduate medical education : Peer assessment enhances performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schonrock-Adema, Johanna; Heijne - Penninga, Marjolein; van Duijn, Marijtje A J; Geertsma, Jelle; Cohen - Schotanus, Janke

    OBJECTIVES To examine whether peer assessment can enhance scores on professional behaviour, with the expectation that students who assess peers score more highly on professional behaviour than students who do not assess peers. METHODS Undergraduate medical students in their first and second

  16. An Examination of Career Satisfaction for Medical Laboratory Professionals Using Wlodkowski's Motivational Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenwright, Kathleen M.

    2016-01-01

    Medical laboratory science professionals are healthcare practitioners who provide laboratory data that aids in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease. However, there is a large shortage of these professionals who perform the laboratory tests behind the scenes with very minimal patient contact. The purpose of this research was to…

  17. A medical curriculum in transition: audit and student perspective of undergraduate teaching of ethics and professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Toni C; Riley, Stephen; Hain, Richard

    2017-11-01

    The General Medical Council (GMC) stipulates that doctors must be competent professionals, not merely scholars and practitioners. Medical school curricula should enable students to develop professional values and competencies. Additionally, medical schools are moving towards integrated undergraduate curricula, Cardiff's C21 being one such example. We carried out an audit to determine the extent to which C21 delivers GMC professionalism competencies, and a student questionnaire to explore student perspective on ethics and professionalism. C21 delivers explicit or implicit teaching for all major GMC competencies, though some missed opportunities remain. The questionnaire responses showed that most students value ethics and professionalism teaching, and that it is most well received when delivered in a variety of ways and contexts throughout the curriculum. We also note that some respondents confuse ethics and professionalism with the policing of student behaviour. C21 and curricula like it offer many opportunities for nurturing ethically and professionally competent physicians. Students appear to value this, though there remains confusion between medical school discipline and ethics and professionalism which needs further explication. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. Current Practices in Assessing Professionalism in United States and Canadian Allopathic Medical Students and Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nittur, Nandini

    2017-01-01

    Professionalism is a critically important competency that must be evaluated in medical trainees but is a complex construct that is hard to assess. A systematic review was undertaken to give insight into the current best practices for assessment of professionalism in medical trainees and to identify new research priorities in the field. A search was conducted on PubMed for behavioral assessments of medical students and residents among the United States and Canadian allopathic schools in the last 15 years. An initial search yielded 594 results, 28 of which met our inclusion criteria. Our analysis indicated that there are robust generic definitions of the major attributes of medical professionalism. The most commonly used assessment tools are survey instruments that use Likert scales tied to attributes of professionalism. While significant progress has been made in this field in recent years, several opportunities for system-wide improvement were identified that require further research. These include a paucity of information about assessment reliability, the need for rater training, a need to better define competency in professionalism according to learner level (preclinical, clerkship, resident etc.) and ways to remediate lapses in professionalism. Student acceptance of assessment of professionalism may be increased if assessment tools are shifted to better incorporate feedback. Tackling the impact of the hidden curriculum in which students may observe lapses in professionalism by faculty and other health care providers is another priority for further study. PMID:28652951

  19. Six Values Never to Silence: Jewish Perspectives on Nazi Medical Professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolman, Jacob M; Miller, Susan M

    2018-01-29

    An ideological case study based on medical profession norms during the Third Reich will be used to exemplify the importance of diversity in the manifestations of professional ethics. The German professional medical community banned their Jewish colleagues from treating German citizens. This included legally mandated employment discrimination and outright censure which led to a professional ethic devoid of diverse voices. While the escalation to the T-4 program and medicalized genocide was influenced by many causes, the intentional, ethnocentric-based exclusion of voices was an important contributing element to the chronicled degradation of societal mores. For illustration, six core Jewish values-life, peace, justice, mercy, scholarship, and sincerity of intention-will be detailed for their potential to inspire health-care professionals to defend and protect minorities and for readers to think critically about the role of medical professionalism in Third Reich society. The Jewish teachings highlight the inherent professional obligations physicians have toward their patients in contrast to the Third Reich's corruption of patient-centered professionalism. More fundamentally, juxtaposing Jewish and Nazi teachings exposes the loss of perspective when a profession's identity spurns diversity. To ensure respect for persons in all vulnerable minorities, the first step is addressing professional inclusion of minority voices.

  20. Six Values Never to Silence: Jewish Perspectives on Nazi Medical Professionalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob M. Kolman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An ideological case study based on medical profession norms during the Third Reich will be used to exemplify the importance of diversity in the manifestations of professional ethics. The German professional medical community banned their Jewish colleagues from treating German citizens. This included legally mandated employment discrimination and outright censure which led to a professional ethic devoid of diverse voices. While the escalation to the T-4 program and medicalized genocide was influenced by many causes, the intentional, ethnocentric-based exclusion of voices was an important contributing element to the chronicled degradation of societal mores. For illustration, six core Jewish values—life, peace, justice, mercy, scholarship, and sincerity of intention—will be detailed for their potential to inspire health-care professionals to defend and protect minorities and for readers to think critically about the role of medical professionalism in Third Reich society. The Jewish teachings highlight the inherent professional obligations physicians have toward their patients in contrast to the Third Reich’s corruption of patient-centered professionalism. More fundamentally, juxtaposing Jewish and Nazi teachings exposes the loss of perspective when a profession’s identity spurns diversity. To ensure respect for persons in all vulnerable minorities, the first step is addressing professional inclusion of minority voices.

  1. A Preliminary Survey of Professionalism Teaching Practices in Anatomy Education among Indian Medical Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunakaran, Ilavenil; Thirumalaikolundusubramanian, Ponniah; Nalinakumari, Sheela Das

    2017-01-01

    Professionalism and ethics have gained widespread recognition as competencies to be fulfilled, taught, and assessed within medical education. The role of the anatomy course in developed nations has evolved over time and now encompasses multiple domains, including knowledge, skills, and the inculcation of professionalism and ethics. The Medical…

  2. The utility of reflective writing after a palliative care experience: can we assess medical students' professionalism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Ursula K; Gill, Anne C; Teal, Cayla R; Morrison, Laura J

    2013-11-01

    Medical education leaders have called for a curriculum that proactively teaches knowledge, skills, and attitudes required for professional practice and have identified professionalism as a competency domain for medical students. Exposure to palliative care (PC), an often deeply moving clinical experience, is an optimal trigger for rich student reflection, and students' reflective writings can be explored for professional attitudes. Our aim was to evaluate the merit of using student reflective writing about a PC clinical experience to teach and assess professionalism. After a PC patient visit, students wrote a brief reflective essay. We explored qualitatively if/how evidence of students' professionalism was reflected in their writing. Five essays were randomly chosen to develop a preliminary thematic structure, which then guided analysis of 30 additional, randomly chosen essays. Analysts coded transcripts independently, then collaboratively, developed thematic categories, and selected illustrative quotes for each theme and subtheme. Essays revealed content reflecting more rich information about students' progress toward achieving two professionalism competencies (demonstrating awareness of one's own perspectives and biases; demonstrating caring, compassion, empathy, and respect) than two others (displaying self-awareness of performance; recognizing and taking actions to correct deficiencies in one's own behavior, knowledge, and skill). Professional attitudes were evident in all essays. The essays had limited use for formal summative assessment of professionalism competencies. However, given the increasing presence of PC clinical experiences at medical schools nationwide, we believe this assessment strategy for professionalism has merit and deserves further investigation.

  3. Medication Adherence in Schizophrenia: Exploring Patients', Carers' and Professionals' Views

    OpenAIRE

    Kikkert, Martijn J.; Schene, Aart H.; Koeter, Maarten W. J.; Robson, Debbie; Born, Anja; Helm, Hedda; Nose, Michela; Goss, Claudia; Thornicroft, Graham; Gray, Richard J.

    2006-01-01

    One of the major clinical problems in the treatment of people with schizophrenia is suboptimal medication adherence. Most research focusing on determinants of nonadherence use quantitative research methods. These studies have some important limitations in exploring the decision-making process of patients concerning medication. In this study we explore factors influencing medication adherence behavior in people with schizophrenia using concept mapping. Concept mapping is a structured qualitati...

  4. Who's afraid of EBM? Medical professionalism from the perspective of evidence-based medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salloch, Sabine

    2017-03-01

    Evidence-based medicine (EBM) and medical professionalism are two prominent notions in current medical debates. However, proponents of professionalism fear a restriction in doctors' freedom to make their best decisions for individual patients caused by the influence of EBM and highly standardised decision procedures. The challenge which EBM allegedly poses to physicians' discretion forms the starting point for an analysis of the relationship between professionalism, as an inherent value system of medical practice, and EBM, as an approach to optimise the decision-making for individual patients. The analysis starts with a brief conceptual clarification of the ambiguous term "professionalism". It then focuses on three key aspects of medical professionalism which may come into conflict with the basic tenets of EBM. The potential tensions between (a) professional autonomy and clinical practice guidelines, (b) individualised care and standardisation, and (c) esoteric authority and public accountability are analysed and a suggestion for reconcilement regarding each point is made. The article closes with a summary on how a better reflection on medical professionalism may help towards a fuller understanding of EBM and vice versa.

  5. Personal and professional correlates of US medical students' vegetarianism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Elsa Helene; Elon, Lisa Katz; Frank, Erica

    2007-01-01

    To determine prevalence and correlates of US medical students' self-identification as vegetarians. Medical students were anonymously surveyed via questionnaire three times: at freshmen orientation, orientation to wards, and during senior year. Medical students in the Class of 2003 (n=1,849) at 15 US medical schools (response rate 80%). We examined self-reported vegetarianism, abstinence from meat items on a food frequency questionnaire, and associations between students' vegetarianism and their health-related outcomes. Bivariate associations were tested with chi(2) tests. During medical school, 7.2% of students self-identified as vegetarians; this percentage declined over time. Those who were vegetarians for health reasons (66% of vegetarians) ate more fruits and vegetables than those who were vegetarians for nonhealth reasons (P=0.02). Vegetarians were more likely (PVegetarian students were no more likely to counsel patients about nutrition than were nonvegetarians. Prevalence of vegetarianism was higher among US medical students than among other US adults, although the prevalence declined during medical school. Medical students and physicians with healthful personal practices are more likely to encourage such behaviors in their patients, although the specific nutrition habit of vegetarianism among medical students was unassociated with their nutrition counseling practices.

  6. The impact of social media on medical professionalism: a systematic qualitative review of challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami-Kordkheili, Fatemeh; Wild, Verina; Strech, Daniel

    2013-08-28

    The rising impact of social media on the private and working lives of health care professionals has made researchers and health care institutions study and rethink the concept and content of medical professionalism in the digital age. In the last decade, several specific policies, original research studies, and comments have been published on the responsible use of social media by health care professionals. However, there is no systematic literature review that analyzes the full spectrum of (1) social media-related challenges imposed on medical professionalism and (2) social media-related opportunities to both undermine and improve medical professionalism. The aim of this systematic qualitative review is to present this full spectrum of social media-related challenges and opportunities. We performed a systematic literature search in PubMed (restricted to English and German literature published between 2002 and 2011) for papers that address social media-related challenges and opportunities for medical professionalism. To operationalize "medical professionalism", we refer to the 10 commitments presented in the physicians' charter "Medical professionalism in the new millennium" published by the ABIM Foundation. We applied qualitative text analysis to categorize the spectrum of social media-related challenges and opportunities for medical professionalism. The literature review retrieved 108 references, consisting of 46 original research studies and 62 commentaries, editorials, or opinion papers. All references together mentioned a spectrum of 23 broad and 12 further-specified, narrow categories for social media-related opportunities (n=10) and challenges (n=13) for medical professionalism, grouped under the 10 commitments of the physicians' charter. The accommodation of the traditional core values of medicine to the characteristics of social media presents opportunities as well as challenges for medical professionalism. As a profession that is entitled to self

  7. The views of Medical Students on professionalism in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    physician-patient relationship. Market forces, societal pressures, and administrative exigencies must not compromise this principle.”1. The principle was universally ac- cepted as the foundation of every student or doctor's behavioural patterns and thought processes about professionalism. “Serving the interest of the patient.

  8. Continuous professional training of medical laboratory scientists in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Training and re-training of healthcare workers is pivotal to improved service delivery. Objective. To determine the proportion of practising medical laboratory scientists with in-service training in Benin City, Nigeria and areas covered by these programmes. Methods. Medical laboratory scientists from Benin City ...

  9. Medical Student Attitudes: The Development of Concepts of Professional Distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolies, Robert; And Others

    Medical school curricula are attempting to enhance positive attitudes toward a biopsychosocial model of illness and to correct prejudicial stereotypes toward various patient groups through affective education. To explore the evaluative attitudes of first and second year medical students in the areas of trends in predispositions toward different…

  10. Confidence and clinical judgement in community nurses managing venous leg ulceration - A judgement analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adderley, Una J; Thompson, Carl

    2017-07-19

    The variation in the management of venous leg ulceration in the UK is partly attributable to an uncertain clinical environment but the quality of judgements is influenced by the how well nurses' confidence and accuracy are aligned. To assess UK community nurses' confidence in the accuracy of their diagnostic judgements and treatment choices when managing venous leg ulceration. Judgement Analysis. UK community and primary care nursing services. 18 community non-specialist nurses working in district (home) nursing teams and general practitioner services and 18 community tissue viability specialist nurses. Using judgement analysis methods, 18 community non-specialist nurses and 18 community tissue viability specialist nurses made diagnoses and treatment judgements about compression therapy for 110 clinical scenarios and indicated their confidence for each judgement. An expert panel made consensus judgements for the same scenarios and these judgements were used as a standard against which to compare the participants. Confidence analysis was used to assess the nurses' confidence about their diagnostic judgements and treatment choices. Despite being very experienced, both non-specialist nurses' and specialist tissue viability nurses' levels of confidence were not well calibrated with their levels of accuracy. The results of this study are important as errors resulting from both over and under-confidence at the diagnostic phase of management may influence treatment choices, and thus increase the chances of treatment error. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Professional identity formation in the transition from medical school to working life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Lasson, Lydia; Just, Eva; Stegeager, Nikolaj W.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background The transition from student to medical doctor is challenging and stressful to many junior doctors. To practice with confidence and professionalism the junior doctors have to develop a strong professional identity. Various suggestions on how to facilitate formation of professional...... identity have been offered including the possible positive effect of group-coaching courses. The purpose of this study was to explore how group-coaching might facilitate professional identity formation among junior doctors in the transition period. Methods Group-coaching courses comprising three whole...

  12. The sense of responsibility in the context of professional activities in Medical Genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva-Teles, Natália

    2011-11-01

    Medical Genetics is a relatively new field of scientific work that involves a lot of enthusiastic professionals, both in routine (clinical) and research (scientific projects). In either field, different geneticists feel different responsibilities for their work, either because they are different people (personal responsibility) or because they have a different rank in the respective departments (professional responsibility). This paper presents the philosophical views of several authors on the sense of responsibility from the Classical times until the present and reveals the practical, daily responsibilities that are met by these professionals, in four areas of responsibility: personal, professional, scientific and sociatal framework.

  13. In Pursuit of Educational Integrity: Professional Identity Formation in the Harvard Medical School Cambridge Integrated Clerkship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaufberg, Elizabeth; Bor, David; Dinardo, Perry; Krupat, Edward; Pine, Elizabeth; Ogur, Barbara; Hirsh, David A

    2017-01-01

    Graduates of Harvard Medical School's Cambridge Integrated Clerkship (CIC) describe several core processes that may underlie professional identity formation (PIF): encouragement to integrate pre-professional and professional identities; support for learner autonomy in discovering meaningful roles and responsibilities; learning through caring relationships; and a curriculum and an institutional culture that make values explicit. The authors suggest that the benefits of educational integrity accrue when idealistic learners inhabit an educational model that aligns with their own core values, and when professional development occurs in the context of an institutional home that upholds these values. Medical educators should clarify and animate principles within curricula and learning environments explicitly in order to support the professional identity formation of their learners.

  14. [Professional adaptation of nurses as a factor influencing the efficiency of medical care for hospitalised patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogala-Pawelczyk, Grazyna; Parkitna, Joanna; Panek, Dariusz

    2002-01-01

    Adaptation is defined as a specific kind of human accommodation to a particular environment. Such definition allows to describe professional adaptation as a process which prepares an employee to work effectively in a given position. Professional adaptation may comprise an employee's adaptation for professional work as well as his working community. An employee learns to perform his professional as well as social duties in a new workplace. Professional adaptation is one of the components of management in employment policy which influences the effectiveness of operation of the health care system. In the present study the author tries to answer the following questions. What are the factors influencing the course of nurses' professional adaptation? How do nurses evaluate the course of their professional adaptation? Do nurses think that the process of professional adaptation influences the effectiveness of medical operations performed by nurses with regard to hospitalised patients? The research included 120 section nurses employed for the first time in maintenance departments of different hospitals (not including clinical hospitals). The research was conducted in the autumn of 2000 in the whole country. A questionnaire for section nurses was employed. As a result of the analysis of the data obtained in the research the posed questions (among other things) were answered. The investigated nurses positively assess the course of professional adaptation which they underwent at the beginning of their professional careers. Among the factors influencing the course of professional adaptation the following were named among others: adaptation programme, choice of adaptation tutor, organisation of the working process and allocation of tasks during adaptation, the relations in the group, the equipment in departments. According to the investigated nurses correct course, properly prepared and realised professional adaptation programme helps to reduce professional difficulties and is

  15. [Development of a code of professional conduct for medical students and residents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Hee; Lee, Young-Mee; Kwon, Hyo Jin

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the development of a code of professional conduct that should be practiced by medical students and residents. The content of a draft version of a code of professional conduct was generated through extensive literature reviews and the results of surveys that were administered to students and residents. The content validity for the draft version was reviewed by an expert panel: five experts in medical ethics and eight specialists in medical education. The survey was distributed as an email questionnaire and included closed-ended items and open comments. SPSS for Windows version 12.0 (SPSS Inc.) was used for the analysis. After analyzing the experts' reviews and holding a reiterative discussion, we developed the final version of a code of conduct for professional behavior. It consists of nine categories and 44 items for students and 44 items for residents. The nine categories were academic integrity, responsibility during clerkship or hospital work, endeavor to improve clinical competency, respect for patients and keeping confidentiality, honesty in patient care, boundary issues and conflicts of interests, impaired physician behaviors, respect for others, and research ethics. Because our code of conduct for professional behaviors cannot extensively include all aspects of medical professionalism, we focused on behaviors that can be used to monitor and prevent misconduct by medical learners. Further studies and discourse among stakeholders should be performed to develop a national consensus statement or code of conduct to reinforce professionalism for learners in medicine.

  16. The Association Between Peer and Self-Assessments and Professionalism Lapses Among Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Leslie A; Shew, Ronald L; Vu, T Robert; Brokaw, James J; Frankel, Richard M

    2017-06-01

    Peer and self-assessments are widely used to assess professionalism during medical school as part of a multisource feedback model. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between peer and self-assessments and professionalism lapses at a large medical school. A retrospective case-control study design was used to compare peer and self-assessment scores from Years 1 to 3 of medical school for students who had been cited for professionalism lapses during medical school (case group; n = 78) with those of a randomly selected control group ( n = 230). Students in the case group had significantly lower peer assessment scores than students in the control group during all 3 years. Year 3 peer assessment scores showed the greatest difference (cases = 7.81 ± 0.65, controls = 8.22 ± 0.34, p peer assessment scores were also significantly more likely to have been cited for a professionalism lapse (odds ratio = 6.25, 95% CI [3.13, 11.11], p peer assessments of professionalism, which may be useful to help identify students who may be at risk for professionalism lapses during medical school.

  17. The invisible work of distributed medical education: exploring the contributions of audiovisual professionals, administrative professionals and faculty teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Anna; Kits, Olga; Mann, Karen; Tummons, Jonathan; Wilson, Keith W

    2017-08-01

    Distributed medical education (DME) is becoming increasingly prevalent. Much of the published literature on DME has focused on the experiences of learners in distributed programs; however, our empirical work leads us to believe that DME changes the context significantly, not only for learners, but also for other important members of the educational community including audiovisual professionals, administrative professionals and faculty teachers. Based on a three-year ethnographic study, we provide a detailed account of how alliances between various workers involved in DME develop to produce and deliver an undergraduate medical curriculum across geographically separate campuses. We explore the question 'What is the work involved in the delivery of a DME program?' and cast a critical gaze on the essential but invisible, and therefore potentially unrecognized and underappreciated, contributions of AV professionals, administrative professionals, and faculty teachers. Our goal is to make visible the complexity of DME, including the essential contributions of these workers. The study was theoretically framed in sociomateriality and conceptually framed in Star and Strauss' notion of articulation work.

  18. Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices regarding Whole Body Donation among Medical Professionals in a Hospital in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballala, Kirthinath; Shetty, Avinash; Malpe, Surekha Bhat

    2011-01-01

    Voluntary body donation has become an important source of cadavers for anatomical study and education. The objective of this study was to assess knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) regarding whole body donation among medical professionals in a medical institute in India. A cross sectional study was conducted at Kasturba Hospital, Manipal,…

  19. Nurturing professionalism and humanism in the 21st century medical professional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Rajput, MD

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a need to redefine physician excellence through promoting professionalism with humanism to meet the needs of a diverse generational and cultural society. My goal is to bring together and advance concepts that cultivate emotional and social intelligence to complement the clinical skills required for the effective practice of medicine in the complex milieu of the 21st century

  20. Guidelines for Professional Training of Junior Medical Staff in the Context of European Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sosnova Myroslava

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with outlining guidelines for improving professional training of junior medical staff based on European experience. Consequently, guidelines and recommendations on enhancing the efficiency of medical education in general and junior medical specialists’ professional training, in particular, published by European Union of Medical Specialists, General Medical Council, World Federation for Medical Education have been studied, analyzed, justified and presented in the paper. According to European Union of Medical Specialists it has been concluded that general aspects of medical specialists’ training are based on the selection process for the access to the medical specialists’ training, duration of training, common trunk, training program and quality assurance; requirements for training institutions involve recognition, size, quality assurance and teaching infructructure; requirements for instructors encompass qualification, training program, teacher/trainee ratio; requirements for trainees cover experience, language and logbook. In addition, the components that define the quality of junior medical specialists’ professional training based on N. Novosolova’s ideas have been indicated. Finally, based on the positive aspects of the guidelines analyzed the appropriate ones that, in our opinion, may be of use in Ukraine, have been presented.

  1. Social network utilization (Facebook) & e-Professionalism among medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawaid, Masood; Khan, Muhammad Hassaan; Bhutto, Shahzadi Nisar

    2015-01-01

    To find out the frequency and contents of online social networking (Facebook) among medical students of Dow University of Health Sciences. The sample of the study comprised of final year students of two medical colleges of Dow University of Health Sciences - Karachi. Systematic search for the face book profiles of the students was carried out with a new Facebook account. In the initial phase of search, it was determined whether each student had a Facebook account and the status of account as ''private'' ''intermediate'' or ''public'' was also sought. In the second phase of the study, objective information including gender, education, personal views, likes, tag pictures etc. were recorded for the publicly available accounts. An in depth qualitative content analysis of the public profiles of ten medical students, selected randomly with the help of random number generator technique was conducted. Social networking with Facebook is common among medical students with 66.9% having an account out of a total 535 students. One fifth of profiles 18.9% were publicly open, 36.6% profiles were private and 56.9% were identified to have an intermediate privacy setting, having customized settings for the profile information. In-depth analysis of some public profiles showed that potentially unprofessional material mostly related to violence and politics was posted by medical students. The usage of social network (Facebook) is very common among students of the university. Some unprofessional posts were also found on students' profiles mostly related to violence and politics.

  2. Twelve tips for addressing medical student and resident physician lapses in professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rougas, Steven; Gentilesco, Bethany; Green, Emily; Flores, Libertad

    2015-01-01

    Medical educators have gained significant ground in the practical and scholarly approach to professionalism. When a lapse occurs, thoughtful remediation to address the underlying issue can have a positive impact on medical students and resident physicians, while failure to address lapses, or to do so ineffectively, can have long-term consequences for learners and potentially patients. Despite these high stakes, educators are often hesitant to address lapses in professionalism, possibly due to a lack of time and familiarity with the process. Attention must be paid to generalizable, hands-on recommendations for daily use so that clinicians and administrators feel well equipped to tackle this often difficult yet valuable task. This article reviews the literature related to addressing unprofessional behavior among trainees in medicine and connects it to the shared experience of medical educators at one institution. The framework presented aims to provide practical guidance and empowerment for educators responsible for addressing medical student and resident physician lapses in professionalism.

  3. PROFILE OF NURSING PROFESSIONALS ON MEDICAL WASTE MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, Gisele Loise; Franco, Gianfábio Pimentel; Sarturi, Fernanda; Martins, Cleverson Antonio Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/2236130811318 The aim of this study was to analyze the behavior with respect to the correct classification of medical waste of nurses working at hospitals in two cities located in the north and northwest of the state of Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil). This is an exploratory-descriptive and cross-sectional study on medical waste management (MWM). It was found that the nurses have difficulty in identifying and sorting the waste according to the classification proposed in t...

  4. Longitudinal mentorship to support the development of medical students? future professional role: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Kal?n, Susanne; Ponzer, Sari; Seeberger, Astrid; Kiessling, Anna; Sil?n, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Background Mentoring has been employed in medical education in recent years, but there is extensive variation in the published literature concerning the goals of mentoring and the role of the mentor. Therefore, there is still a need for a deeper understanding of the meaning of mentoring for medical students? learning and development. The aim of this qualitative study is to explore how formal and longitudinal mentoring can contribute to medical students? professional development. Methods Sixte...

  5. Visible Facebook profiles and e-professionalism in undergraduate medical students in India

    OpenAIRE

    Setu Gupta; Satendra Singh; Upreet Dhaliwal

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to assess medical students’ presence on Facebook and the extent of their visible activity, with particular reference to online professionalism. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study including all medical students enrolled in the University College of Medical Sciences, University of Delhi, India during the period of the study, which was conducted from 2011 to 2012. After approval by the Institutional Ethical Committee, the full names of all students were obtained ...

  6. Ethical and professional conduct of medical students: review of current assessment measures and controversies

    OpenAIRE

    Boon, K; Turner, J

    2004-01-01

    As medical education increasingly acknowledges the importance of the ethical and professional conduct of practitioners, and moves towards more formal assessment of these issues, it is important to consider the evidence base which exists in this area. This article discusses literature about the health needs and problems experienced by medical practitioners as a background to a review of the current efforts in medical education to promote ethical conduct and develop mechanisms for the detection...

  7. Ethics and professionalism in medical physics: A survey of AAPM members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Naim; Armato, Samuel G.; Giger, Maryellen L.; Serago, Christopher F.; Ross, Lainie F.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To assess current education, practices, attitudes, and perceptions pertaining to ethics and professionalism in medical physics. Methods: A link to a web-based survey was distributed to the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) e-mail membership list, with a follow-up e-mail sent two weeks later. The survey included questions about ethics/professionalism education, direct personal knowledge of ethically questionable practices in clinical care, research, education (teaching and mentoring), and professionalism, respondents’ assessment of their ability to address ethical/professional dilemmas, and demographics. For analysis, reports of unethical or ethically questionable practices or behaviors by approximately 40% or more of respondents were classified as “frequent.” Results: Partial or complete responses were received from 18% (1394/7708) of AAPM members. Overall, 60% (827/1377) of the respondents stated that they had not received ethics/professionalism education during their medical physics training. Respondents currently in training were more likely to state that they received instruction in ethics/professionalism (80%, 127/159) versus respondents who were post-training (35%, 401/1159). Respondents’ preferred method of instruction in ethics/professionalism was structured periodic discussions involving both faculty and students/trainees. More than 90% (1271/1384) supported continuing education in ethics/professionalism and 75% (1043/1386) stated they would attend ethics/professionalism sessions at professional/scientific meetings. In the research setting, reports about ethically questionable authorship assignment were frequent (approximately 40%) whereas incidents of ethically questionable practices about human subjects protections were quite infrequent (5%). In the clinical setting, there was frequent recollection of incidents regarding lack of training, resources and skills, and error/incident reporting. In the educational setting

  8. Ethics and professionalism in medical physics: a survey of AAPM members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Naim; Armato, Samuel G; Giger, Maryellen L; Serago, Christopher F; Ross, Lainie F

    2013-04-01

    To assess current education, practices, attitudes, and perceptions pertaining to ethics and professionalism in medical physics. A link to a web-based survey was distributed to the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) e-mail membership list, with a follow-up e-mail sent two weeks later. The survey included questions about ethics/professionalism education, direct personal knowledge of ethically questionable practices in clinical care, research, education (teaching and mentoring), and professionalism, respondents' assessment of their ability to address ethical/professional dilemmas, and demographics. For analysis, reports of unethical or ethically questionable practices or behaviors by approximately 40% or more of respondents were classified as "frequent." Partial or complete responses were received from 18% (1394/7708) of AAPM members. Overall, 60% (827/1377) of the respondents stated that they had not received ethics/professionalism education during their medical physics training. Respondents currently in training were more likely to state that they received instruction in ethics/professionalism (80%, 127/159) versus respondents who were post-training (35%, 401/1159). Respondents' preferred method of instruction in ethics/professionalism was structured periodic discussions involving both faculty and students/trainees. More than 90% (1271/1384) supported continuing education in ethics/professionalism and 75% (1043/1386) stated they would attend ethics/professionalism sessions at professional/scientific meetings. In the research setting, reports about ethically questionable authorship assignment were frequent (approximately 40%) whereas incidents of ethically questionable practices about human subjects protections were quite infrequent (5%). In the clinical setting, there was frequent recollection of incidents regarding lack of training, resources and skills, and error/incident reporting. In the educational setting, incidents of unethical or ethically

  9. Research bias in judgement bias studies : A systematic review of valuation judgement literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klamer, Pim; Bakker, C.; Gruis, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    Valuation judgement bias has been a research topic for several years due to its proclaimed effect on valuation accuracy. However, little is known on the emphasis of literature on judgement bias, with regard to, for instance, research methodologies, research context and robustness of research

  10. Research bias in judgement bias studies : a systematic review of valuation judgement literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klamer, Pim; Bakker, Cok; Gruis, V.H.

    2017-01-01

    Valuation judgement bias has been a research topic for several years due to its proclaimed effect on valuation accuracy. However, little is known on the emphasis of literature on judgement bias, with regard to, for instance, research methodologies, research context and robustness of research

  11. Medication adherence in schizophrenia: exploring patients', carers' and professionals' views

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kikkert, Martijn J.; Schene, Aart H.; Koeter, Maarten W. J.; Robson, Debbie; Born, Anja; Helm, Hedda; Nose, Michela; Goss, Claudia; Thornicroft, Graham; Gray, Richard J.

    2006-01-01

    One of the major clinical problems in the treatment of people with schizophrenia is suboptimal medication adherence. Most research focusing on determinants of nonadherence use quantitative research methods. These studies have some important limitations in exploring the decision-making process of

  12. Education and Professional Training of Undergraduate Medical Students Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrukh, A.; Mayberry, J. F.

    2014-01-01

    During the last twenty years there has been a significant growth in the training of overseas students especially within the European Union. This development has been paralleled by the emergence of off-shore medical schools in the American hemisphere. These facilities are to be found in both traditional established universities as well as less…

  13. Gendered Pedagogic Identities and Academic Professionalism in Greek Medical Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsouroufli, Maria

    2018-01-01

    Feminist scholarship has considered how pedagogical identities and emotions are implicated in the gender politics of belonging and othering in higher education. This paper examines how gendered and embodied pedagogy is mobilised in Greek medical schools to construct notions of the ideal academic and assert women's position women in Academic…

  14. LOCUS: immunizing medical students against the loss of professional values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carufel-Wert, Donald A; Younkin, Sharon; Foertsch, Julie; Eisenberg, Todd; Haq, Cynthia L; Crouse, Byron J; Frey Iii, John J

    2007-05-01

    The Leadership Opportunities with Communities, the Underserved, and Special populations (LOCUS) program at the University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health is a longitudinal, extracurricular experience for medical students who wish to develop leadership skills and expand their involvement in community health activities during medical school. The program consists of a core curriculum delivered through retreats, workshops, and seminars; a mentor relationship with a physician who is engaged in community health services; and a community service project. On-line surveys and interviews with current and past participants as well as direct observations were used to evaluate the effects of the program on participants. Participants indicated that the program was worthwhile, relevant, and effective in building a community of like-minded peers and physician role models. Participants also reported that the program sustained their interest in and commitment to community service and allowed them to cultivate new skills during medical school. The curriculum and structure of the LOCUS program offers a successful method for helping medical students learn important leadership skills and maintain an altruistic commitment to service.

  15. Cultural similarities and differences in medical professionalism: a multi-region study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandratilake, Madawa; McAleer, Sean; Gibson, John

    2012-03-01

    Over the last two decades, many medical educators have sought to define professionalism. Initial attempts to do so were focused on defining professionalism in a manner that allowed for universal agreement. This quest was later transformed into an effort to 'understand professionalism' as many researchers realised that professionalism is a social construct and is culture-sensitive. The determination of cultural differences in the understanding of professionalism, however, has been subject to very little research, possibly because of the practical difficulties of doing so. In this multi-region study, we illustrate the universal and culture-specific aspects of medical professionalism as it is perceived by medical practitioners. Forty-six professional attributes were identified by reviewing the literature. A total of 584 medical practitioners, representing the UK, Europe, North America and Asia, participated in a survey in which they indicated the importance of each of these attributes. We determined the 'essentialness' of each attribute in different geographic regions using the content validity index, supplemented with kappa statistics. With acceptable levels of consensus, all regional groups identified 29 attributes as 'essential', thereby indicating the universality of these professional attributes, and six attributes as non-essential. The essentialness of the rest varied by regional group. This study has helped to identify regional similarities and dissimilarities in understandings of professionalism, most of which can be explained by cultural differences in line with the theories of cultural dimensions and cultural value. However, certain dissonances among regions may well be attributable to socio-economic factors. Some of the responses appear to be counter-cultural and demonstrate practitioners' keenness to overcome cultural barriers in order to provide better patient care. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2012.

  16. Cinemeducation: A pilot student project using movies to help students learn medical professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumlertgul, Nuttha; Kijpaisalratana, Naruchorn; Pityaratstian, Nuttorn; Wangsaturaka, Danai

    2009-07-01

    Using movies has been accepted worldwide as a tool to help students learn medical professionalism. In the second year, a group of medical students conducted the "Cinemeducation" project to promote professionalism in the "Medical Ethics and Critical Thinking" course. Five movies with professionalism issues were screened with 20-30 students attending each session. After the show, participants then were asked to reflect on what they had learned in terms of professionalism. Two students led group discussion emphasizing questioning and argumentation for 60 min. Additional learning issues emerging from each session were also explored in more depth and arranged into a report. In the Cinemeducation Project, medical students have learned five main ethical issues in each film, which were the doctor-patient relationship, informed consent and clinical trials in patients, management of genetic disorders, patient management, and brain death and organ transplantation. In addition to issues of professionalism, they also developed critical thinking and moral reasoning skills. Using a case-based scenario in movies has proven to be an effective and entertaining method of facilitating students with learning on professionalism.

  17. The physician charter on medical professionalism from the Chinese perspective: a comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Pingyue

    2015-07-01

    The charter of medical professionalism in the new millennium (Charter) has been endorsed worldwide, including by the Chinese Medical Doctor Association from 2005. Six years later, the association drafted a Chinese version of medical professionalism based on the Charter, the Chinese Medical Doctor Declaration (Declaration). This Declaration encompasses six tenets, which have large areas of overlap with the Charter. Meanwhile, certain differences also exist between the universal professionalism that the Charter aims to disseminate and the ideal Chinese professionalism that the Declaration endeavours to bolster. In this paper, we explore the unique aspects of the Declaration in contrast with the Charter to gain a deeper understanding of professionalism in the particular context of China. The Declaration may omit some valuable commitments found in the Charter, but it includes longstanding Confucian and cultural traditions of China, as well as consideration of current social circumstances. The Declaration thus re-establishes the ideal of universal professionalism in light of the Chinese context. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. Perpetuating stigma? Differences between advertisements for psychiatric and non-psychiatric medication in two professional journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Juliet L H

    2010-02-01

    Continuing debates regarding advertising and the pharmaceutical industry, and others detailing the continued stigmatization of mental health problems. To establish whether there are any differences in advertisements for psychiatric and non-psychiatric medication aimed at health professionals. Quantitative (t-tests, Chi-squared) and qualitative analysis of all unique advertisements for medication that appeared in two professional journals (the British Medical Journal and the British Journal of Psychiatry) between October 2005 and September 2006 was undertaken. Close attention was paid to both images and text used in the advertisements. Significant differences were found between advertisements for psychiatric and non-psychiatric medication in both quantitative and qualitative analysis: advertisements for psychiatric medication contain less text and are less likely to include specific information about the actual drug than non-psychiatric medication advertisements; images used in advertisements for psychiatric medication are more negative than those used for non-psychiatric medication, and are less likely to portray people in everyday situations. A distinction between mental health problems and other forms of ill health is clearly being maintained in medication advertisements; this has potentially stigmatizing consequences, both for professional and public perceptions. There are also troubling implications in light of the debates surrounding Direct to Consumer Advertising.

  19. Quality of life and its influencing factors among medical professionals in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Siying; Zhu, Wei; Li, Huangyuan; Yu, Ignatius Tak-Sun; Lin, Sihao; Wang, Xiaorong; Yang, Shujuan

    2010-10-01

    The present study is to evaluate quality of life (QOL) among Chinese medical professionals and explore its main influencing factors. A total of 2,721 medical professionals were selected from two provinces by using stratified cluster sampling method. The Chinese version of Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36) was used to measure QOL; Occupation Stress Inventory-Revised Edition (OSI-R) was used for occupational stress and coping resources. Other potential influencing factors for QOL were collected using a structured questionnaire. Multivariate analysis approach was applied to determine the influencing factors for QOL. QOL in the medical professionals was less desirable in comparison with the general population. Occupational stress, long working hour, occupation (being nurse), department (working in surgery) were unfavorable factors for PCS and MCS, and recreation, performance recognized, drinking and physical activity were protective factors for PCS, while rational coping, recreation, social support, performance recognized, drinking and physical activity were favorable factors for MCS. The results suggest that occupational factors, behavioral factors and coping resources, as well as age, play significant roles in QOL in the medical professionals. Accordingly, interventional program designed to target relieving occupational stress, adjusting behavioral habits and increasing coping resources may be useful to improve QOL among medical professionals.

  20. Development of a seminar on medical professionalism accompanying the dissection course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiozawa, T; Griewatz, J; Hirt, B; Zipfel, S; Lammerding-Koeppel, M; Herrmann-Werner, A

    2016-11-01

    Medical professionalism is an increasingly important issue in medical education. The dissection course represents a profound experience for undergraduate medical students, which may be suitable to address competencies such as self-reflection and professional behavior. Based on a needs assessment, a seminar on medical professionalism was developed to parallel the dissection course. The conceptual framework for the teaching intervention is experiential learning. Specific learning goals and an interview guideline were formulated. After a pilot run, peer-teaching was introduced. Over three terms (winter 2012/13, 2013/14, 2014/15), an average of 129 students voluntarily participated in the seminar, corresponding to 40% of the student cohort. The evaluation (n=38) shows a majority of students agreeing that the seminar offers support with this extraordinary situation in general and also that the seminar helps them to become first impressions on how to cope with death and dying in their later professional life as a doctor, and, that it also provides them the means to reflect upon their own coping mechanisms. Although not yet implemented as an obligatory course, the seminar is appreciated and positively evaluated. Medical professionalism is an implicit aspect of the dissection course. To emphasize its importance, a teaching intervention to explicitly discuss this topic is advisable. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Knowledge: a possible tool in shaping medical professionals' attitudes towards homosexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunjić-Kostić, Bojana; Pantović, Maja; Vuković, Vuk; Randjelović, Dunja; Totić-Poznanović, Sanja; Damjanović, Aleksandar; Jašović-Gašić, Miroslava; Ivković, Maja

    2012-06-01

    The attitudes of medical professionals towards homosexuals can influence their willingness to provide these individuals with medical help. The study evaluated the medical professionals' knowledge about homosexuality and their attitudes towards it. The sample consisted of 177 participants (physicians n=79 and students n=98). The study respondents anonymously completed three questionnaires (socio-demographic questionnaire, the questionnaire on knowledge, and the questionnaire on attitudes towards homosexuals). Male and religious participants showed a lower level of knowledge and a greater tendency to stigmatize. Furthermore, the subjects who knew more about homosexuality tended to hold less stigmatizing attitude. Age group, specialty (psychiatry, gynecology, internal medicine and surgery), and student's/physician's status had no effect on stigmatization. The study showed that the final year students/ residents had more knowledge than the second year students/specialists did. Knowledge had significant negative predictive effect on attitudes in the analyzed predictive model. To our knowledge, this has been the first study in Serbia and Eastern Europe, which provides information on knowledge and attitudes of health professionals towards homosexuality. We would like to point out the degree of knowledge on homosexuality as a possible, but not exclusive tool in shaping the attitudes towards homosexuals and reducing stigmatization. However, regardless of the personal attitude, knowledge and variable acceptance of the homosexuals' rights, medical professionals' main task is to resist discriminative behavior and provide professional medical help to both homosexual and heterosexual patients.

  2. Academic mentorship: an effective professional development strategy for medical reference librarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H

    2001-01-01

    Academic mentorship is a professional development strategy that enables fledgling professionals to take advantage of the skills and expertise of the senior members for professional growth. Although widely practiced in many other professions, academic mentorship has not been widely reported in medical librarianship. Drawing upon personal experience, the author reports the success story of an academic mentorship program implemented in an academic medical library and argues for academic mentorship to be widely adopted in academic medical libraries. This paper first reviews the literature on the concept of mentoring in an academic setting, and then describes the background, rationale, methods, and results of the mentorship programs the author has experienced. Lastly, based upon an analysis of several surveys and studies on coping skills for quality job performance of health sciences reference librarians, the paper discusses mentorship as one effective means to ease a new medical reference librarian's transition from his/her pre-service experience to the professional world of medical librarianship. It calls on other health sciences librarians to consider developing their own mentorship programs to promote their professional development and personal growth.

  3. Medical wage slave or worthy professional? The Dutch medical profession and the health funds 1900-1941

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.A. van der Valk (Loes)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractSummary The development of mutual and commercial health insurance, and state health insurance programs in particular, typically provoked much criticism from the professionals involved with them. Moreover, the efforts of the Dutch medical association, the NMG, to influence state proposals

  4. Managing complex medication regimens: perspectives of consumers with osteoarthritis and healthcare professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manias, Elizabeth; Claydon-Platt, Kate; McColl, Geoffrey J; Bucknall, Tracey K; Brand, Caroline A

    2007-05-01

    Managing medications is complex, particularly for consumers with multiple coexisting conditions for whom benefits and adverse effects are unpredictable and health priorities may be variable. To investigate perceptions of and experiences with managing drug regimens from the perspectives of consumers with osteoarthritis and coexisting chronic conditions and of healthcare professionals from diverse backgrounds. Using an exploratory research design, focus groups were formed with 34 consumers and 19 healthcare professionals. Individual interviews were undertaken with 3 community medical practitioners. Consumers' management of medications was explored in terms of 3 themes: administration of medications, provision of information, and the perceived role of healthcare professionals. In general, consumers lacked understanding regarding the reason that they were prescribed certain medications. Since all consumer participants had at least 2 chronic conditions, they were taking many drugs to relieve undesirable symptoms. Some consumers were unable to achieve improved pain relief and were reluctant to take analgesics prescribed on an as-needed basis. Healthcare professionals discussed the importance of using non-pharmacologic measures to improve symptoms; however, consumers stated that physicians encourage them to continue using medications, often for prolonged periods, even when these agents are not helpful. Consumers were dissatisfied about the complexity of their medication regimens and also lacked understanding as to how to take their drugs effectively. Dedicated time should be devoted during medical consultations to facilitate verbal exchange of information about medications. Pharmacists must communicate regularly with physicians about consumers' medication needs to help preempt any problems that may arise. Instructions need to be revised through collaboration between physicians and pharmacists so that "as needed" directions provide more explicit advice about when and how

  5. Expert judgement models in quantitative risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosqvist, T. [VTT Automation, Helsinki (Finland); Tuominen, R. [VTT Automation, Tampere (Finland)

    1999-12-01

    Expert judgement is a valuable source of information in risk management. Especially, risk-based decision making relies significantly on quantitative risk assessment, which requires numerical data describing the initiator event frequencies and conditional probabilities in the risk model. This data is seldom found in databases and has to be elicited from qualified experts. In this report, we discuss some modelling approaches to expert judgement in risk modelling. A classical and a Bayesian expert model is presented and applied to real case expert judgement data. The cornerstone in the models is the log-normal distribution, which is argued to be a satisfactory choice for modelling degree-of-belief type probability distributions with respect to the unknown parameters in a risk model. Expert judgements are qualified according to bias, dispersion, and dependency, which are treated differently in the classical and Bayesian approaches. The differences are pointed out and related to the application task. Differences in the results obtained from the different approaches, as applied to real case expert judgement data, are discussed. Also, the role of a degree-of-belief type probability in risk decision making is discussed.

  6. A Digital Ethnography of Medical Students who Use Twitter for Professional Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chretien, Katherine C; Tuck, Matthew G; Simon, Michael; Singh, Lisa O; Kind, Terry

    2015-11-01

    While researchers have studied negative professional consequences of medical trainee social media use, little is known about how medical students informally use social media for education and career development. This knowledge may help future and current physicians succeed in the digital age. We aimed to explore how and why medical students use Twitter for professional development. This was a digital ethnography. Medical student "superusers" of Twitter participated in the study The postings ("tweets") of 31 medical student superusers were observed for 8 months (May-December 2013), and structured field notes recorded. Through purposive sampling, individual key informant interviews were conducted to explore Twitter use and values until thematic saturation was reached (ten students). Three faculty key informant interviews were also conducted. Ego network and subnetwork analysis of student key informants was performed. Qualitative analysis included inductive coding of field notes and interviews, triangulation of data, and analytic memos in an iterative process. Twitter served as a professional tool that supplemented the traditional medical school experience. Superusers approached their use of Twitter with purpose and were mindful of online professionalism as well as of being good Twitter citizens. Their tweets reflected a mix of personal and professional content. Student key informants had a high number of followers. The subnetwork of key informants was well-connected, showing evidence of a social network versus information network. Twitter provided value in two major domains: access and voice. Students gained access to information, to experts, to a variety of perspectives including patient and public perspectives, and to communities of support. They also gained a platform for advocacy, control of their digital footprint, and a sense of equalization within the medical hierarchy. Twitter can serve as a professional tool that supplements traditional education. Students

  7. Unmasking identity dissonance: exploring medical students' professional identity formation through mask making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Kimera; Bader, Karlen; Wilson, Sara; Walker, Melissa; Stephens, Mark; Varpio, Lara

    2017-04-01

    Professional identity formation is an on-going, integrative process underlying trainees' experiences of medical education. Since each medical student's professional identity formation process is an individual, internal, and often times emotionally charged unconscious experience, it can be difficult for educators to understand each student's unique experience. We investigate if mask making can provide learners and educators the opportunity to explore medical students' professional identity formation experiences. In 2014 and 2015, 30 third year medical students created masks, with a brief accompanying written narrative, to creatively express their medical education experiences. Using a paradigmatic case selection approach, four masks were analyzed using techniques from visual rhetoric and the Listening Guide. The research team clearly detected identity dissonance in each case. Each case provided insights into the unique personal experiences of the dissonance process for each trainee at a particular point in their medical school training. We propose that mask making accompanied by a brief narrative reflection can help educators identify students experiencing identity dissonance, and explore each student's unique experience of that dissonance. The process of making these artistic expressions may also provide a form of intervention that can enable educators to help students navigate professional identity formation and identity dissonance experiences.

  8. Continuing professional development systems for medical physicists: a global survey and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Round, W Howell

    2013-05-01

    Continuing professional development (CPD) and continuing professional education (CPE) are seen as being necessary for medical physicists to ensure that they are up-to-date with current clinical practice. CPD is more than just continuing professional education, but can include research publication, working group contribution, thesis examination and many other activities. A systematic way of assessing and recording such activities that a medical physicist undertakes is used in a number of countries. This can be used for certification and licensing renewal purposes. Such systems are used in 27 countries, but they should be implemented in all countries where clinical medical physicists are employed. A survey of the CPD systems that are currently operated around the world is presented. In general they are quite similar although there are a few countries that have CPD systems that differ significantly from the others in many respects. Generally they ensure that medical physicists are kept up-to-date, although there are some that clearly will fail to achieve that. An analysis of what is required to construct a useful medical physics CPD system is made. Finally, the need for medical physicist professional organizations to cooperate and share in the production and distribution of CPD and CPE materials is emphasized. Copyright © 2012 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Attitudes towards professionalism in graduate and non-graduate entrants to medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Flynn, Siún; Power, Stephen; Horgan, Mary; O'Tuathaigh, Colm M P

    2014-01-01

    The number of places available in Ireland and the United Kingdom (UK) for graduate entry to medical school has increased in the past decade. Research has primarily focused on academic and career outcomes in this cohort, but attitudes towards professionalism in medicine have not been systematically assessed. The purpose of this study was to compare the importance of items related to professional behaviour among graduate entrants and their 'school-leaver' counterparts. This was a quantitative cross-sectional study, conducted in University College Cork (UCC), Ireland. A validated questionnaire was distributed to undergraduate-entry (UG) and graduate-entry (GE) students with items addressing the following areas: Demographic and academic characteristics and attitudes towards several classes of professional behaviours in medicine. GE students ascribed greater importance, relative to UG students, to various aspects of professionalism across the personal characteristics, interaction with patients and social responsibility categories. Additionally, in UG students, a significant decrease in perceived importance of the following professionalism items was evident across the course of the degree programme: Respect for patients as individuals, treating the underprivileged and reporting dishonesty of others. Among both groups of students, individual mentoring was rated the most important method for teaching professionalism in medicine. This study is the first comparison of attitudes to professionalism in UG and GE students. This study highlighted important group differences between GE and UG students in attitudes towards professional behaviours, together with different perspectives regarding how professionalism might be incorporated within the curriculum.

  10. The Medical Library Association: promoting new roles for health information professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homan, J Michael; McGowan, Julie J

    2002-01-01

    As the Medical Library Association (MLA) enters its second century, its role in providing leadership and focus for the education of health information professionals in a changing environment will be critical. MLA members face dramatic changes in the health care environment as well as significant opportunities and must position themselves to thrive in the new environment. This paper examines new roles for health information professionals, new approaches to education and training, and related issues of credentialing, certification/and licensure.

  11. A professional development model for medical laboratory scientists working in the immunohematology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, Melinda N; Pulido, Lila A; Amerson, Megan; Ali, Faheem A; Greenhill, Brandy A; Griffin, Gary; Alvarez, Enrique; Whatley, Marsha; Hu, Peter C

    2012-01-01

    Transfusion medicine, a section of the Department of Laboratory Medicine at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center is committed to the education and advancement of its health care professionals. It is our belief that giving medical laboratory professionals a path for advancement leads to excellence and increases overall professionalism in the Immunohematology Laboratory. As a result of this strong commitment to excellence and professionalism, the Immunohematology laboratory has instituted a Professional Development Model (PDM) that aims to create Medical Laboratory Scientists (MLS) that are not only more knowledgeable, but are continually striving for excellence. In addition, these MLS are poised for advancement in their careers. The professional development model consists of four levels: Discovery, Application, Maturation, and Expert. The model was formulated to serve as a detailed path to the mastery of all process and methods in the Immunohematology Laboratory. Each level in the professional development model consists of tasks that optimize the laboratory workflow and allow for concurrent training. Completion of a level in the PDM is rewarded with financial incentive and further advancement in the field. The PDM for Medical Laboratory Scientists in the Immunohematology Laboratory fosters personal development, rewards growth and competency, and sets high standards for all services and skills provided. This model is a vital component of the Immunohematology Laboratory and aims to ensure the highest quality of care and standards in their testing. It is because of the success of this model and the robustness of its content that we hope other medical laboratories aim to reach the same level of excellence and professionalism, and adapt this model into their own environment.

  12. Teaching professionalism in graduate medical education: What is the role of simulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wali, Eisha; Pinto, Jayant M; Cappaert, Melissa; Lambrix, Marcie; Blood, Angela D; Blair, Elizabeth A; Small, Stephen D

    2016-09-01

    We systematically reviewed the literature concerning simulation-based teaching and assessment of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education professionalism competencies to elucidate best practices and facilitate further research. A systematic review of English literature for "professionalism" and "simulation(s)" yielded 697 abstracts. Two independent raters chose abstracts that (1) focused on graduate medical education, (2) described the simulation method, and (3) used simulation to train or assess professionalism. Fifty abstracts met the criteria, and seven were excluded for lack of relevant information. The raters, 6 professionals with medical education, simulation, and clinical experience, discussed 5 of these articles as a group; they calibrated coding and applied further refinements, resulting in a final, iteratively developed evaluation form. The raters then divided into 2 teams to read and assess the remaining articles. Overall, 15 articles were eliminated, and 28 articles underwent final analysis. Papers addressed a heterogeneous range of professionalism content via multiple methods. Common specialties represented were surgery (46.4%), pediatrics (17.9%), and emergency medicine (14.3%). Sixteen articles (57%) referenced a professionalism framework; 14 (50%) incorporated an assessment tool; and 17 (60.7%) reported debriefing participants, though in limited detail. Twenty-three (82.1%) articles evaluated programs, mostly using subjective trainee reports. Despite early innovation, reporting of simulation-based professionalism training and assessment is nonstandardized in methods and terminology and lacks the details required for replication. We offer minimum standards for reporting of future professionalism-focused simulation training and assessment as well as a basic framework for better mapping proper simulation methods to the targeted domain of professionalism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. SU-E-E-03: Ethics and Professionalism Education in Medical Physics: A Needs Assessment Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, N; Armato, S; Giger, M L; Serago, C; Ross, L F

    2012-06-01

    To perform a needs assessment survey of ethics/professionalism education in medical physics and ethical/professional challenges in clinical,research and educational settings with the intent of supplementing and customizing TG159 recommended ethics curriculum for medical physics trainees. A web-based survey was conducted among AAPM members to assess current practices, attitudes and perceptions pertaining to ethics/professionalism education and ethical/professional misconduct or questionable behavior and practices in the field. The survey was distributed by AAPM to 7708 members via email; 1362 (17.7%) responded. Seventy-five percent of the respondents were male. Sixty percent (805/1345) stated they received no education in ethics/professionalism. Eighty-one percent (126/155) of current trainees received instruction in ethics/professionalism, as opposed to 35% (392/1130) of those who are post-training. There was strong support (>90%) for continuing education in ethics/professionalism; seventy-five percent (1019/1354) supported sessions on ethics and professionalism at national meetings. Most preferred method of ethics instruction was periodic discussion sessions involving faculty and trainees, with the least interest expressed for a separate course. Many reported direct personal knowledge of one or more instances of a variety of professional/ethical misconduct or questionable behavior. Thirty eight percent (458/1192) reported poor mentorship, with women reporting this concern more often than men (129/281,46% versus 316/877, 36%, pmedical physics trainees at our institution. This effort may be useful to other medical physics programs which offer ethics training/education. This work has been funded in part by a grant from the National Institutes of Health, T32 EB002103-22S1. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  14. Working styles of medicine professionals in emergency medical service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarević Marija

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Transactional analysis is a personality and communication theory established by psychiatrist Eric Berne, at the end of the fifties. Counter script is the way of life in accordance with parental imperative. The person with a counter-script has a compulsion to fulfill the required task in order to avoid the disaster of ban. There are five drivers that are considered essential, and these are: 'Be perfect!', 'Be strong!', 'Hurry up!', 'Please others!' and 'Work hard!' Objective: a Determination of the most dominant driver in this medical service. b Because of the specifics of this job which requires speed and humanity, the emphasis will be on doublet: 'Hurry up!' and 'Please others!' Method: The study was conducted on a group of subjects employed in a general service with medical emergency. The instrument used in the study was Julie Hay's questionnaire for diagnosing the working styles. Results: Statistical research was conducted on a sample of 30 subjects employed in the emergency medical service. Availability of all afore mentioned drivers was tested. The research hypotheses were formulated as follows: H0: The driver is not present among the employees in this service; H1: The driver is present among the employees in this service. Calculated value of the t-statistics for the driver 'Hurry up!' is 1.398; for the driver 'Be perfect!' 3.616; for the driver 'Please others!' 11.693; for the driver 'Work hard!' -0.673; and for the driver 'Be strong!' 3.880. Since the realizable value of the t-statistics for the drivers: 'Be perfect!' and 'Please others!' and 'Be strong!' is bigger than the critical value 1.699, and p<0.05 we reject the null hypothesis and we accept the alternative hypothesis on the significance level of 95%. For the drivers 'Hurry up!' and 'Work hard!' the values of t-statistics are lower than the critical value 1.699 for significance level of 95%, so the alternative hypothesis are not acceptable. Conclusion: The results of

  15. Regulatory science of new technology: tendency of medical professionals' interests on silicone breast implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazaki, Tomomichi; Ikeda, Koji; Iwasaki, Kiyotaka; Umezu, Mitsuo

    2016-09-01

    New technology related to artificial organs is most attractive for worldwide researchers. We believe they must contribute for the future patients against untreatable diseases. Regulatory science is a new science to establish 'social acceptance' of new technology into the clinical market as soon as possible. In the history of silicone breast implants, we could recognize risks many times; however, we missed such chances to prevent a subsequent crisis. We analyzed the trend of published literature related to silicone breast implants to review the medical professionals' interests on such risks. This trend showed, despite issues of a social acceptance of silicone breast implants in a few countries, other countries' medical professionals had no interest. Our hypothesis is 'medical professionals face the government and do not have contributed to re-establish the social acceptance of new technologies for patients'. Any technology does not have the complete evidence of safety, efficacy and quality, despite regulatory authorities' review and approval with clinical evidences. medical professionals need to conduct subsequently the epidemiological study, to take a meta-analysis periodically and to create/update the guidance for their patients under their professional ethics after the marketing of new technologies. We need to take seriously the 'lesson learned' from the history of silicone breast implants for all kind of new technologies existed in the present.

  16. STRUCTURE OF READINESS OF MEDICAL COLLEGE STUDENTS FOR PROFESSIONAL SELF-DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Кирило Соцький

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article reflects the analysis of the existing approaches to interpretation of the notion of selfdevelopment in psychological and pedagogical literature. It has been determined, that professional and personal self-development is carried out with the help of mechanisms of self-knowledge, self-organization, self-education, self-esteem, self-control. The research also presents the clarified essence and structure of the readiness of medical college students for professional self-development. Value, motivational, cognitive, operating, and volitional components have been singled out. Factors and stages of intending medical employees’ selfdevelopment have been substantiated in the article.

  17. [Medical-psychological and social aspects of professional adaptation of staff of criminal-executive system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'iakovich, M P; Pavlov, A V

    2010-02-01

    There was observed medical-psychological and social aspects of professional adaptation of staff of criminal-executive system, was given evaluation of conditions of their work. Was learned risk of damage of health, adaptational potential, personal peculiarities of staff Was learned valuable-motivation sphere, self-concept of competitionability, type of life position, several elements of mode of life of the staff. Was educed decreasing of adaptational capabilities, high personal anxiety and low stress firmness among high number of young specialists. Was formed an apprehension about effectiveness of their professional adaptation in conditions of absence of system of dynamic medical-psychological observe and prophylactic measures.

  18. MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGY OF PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF STAFF IN MEDICAL ORGANIZA TIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Revskaia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the mechanisms and technology management personnel professionalization of medical organizations. The question is now becoming even more relevant within the health care sector optimization, the main purpose of which is claimed to improve the quality of health care by improving the efficiency of health care organizations and their personnel, including the availability of physicians and medical staff, their skills and professionalism. The problems of improving the technology of postgraduate education of doctors examined.

  19. Introduction of evidence-based medicine in undergraduate medical curriculum for development of professional competencies in medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotur, Premanath F

    2012-12-01

    Current undergraduate medical curricula in most institutions around the globe do not nurture the skills, needed for self-directed lifelong learning in medical graduates, and it needs to be reformed in such a way that the medical graduate who is trained through this reformed curriculum, possesses all the competencies of a self-directed learner. Evidence-based medicine (EBM), a new vision of physician learning which is based on continuous development and assessment of competencies needed for creating self-directed learners is to be strongly advocated for inclusion in the undergraduate medical curriculum. Clinical teaching opportunities which are available while treating patients, in outpatient clinic, operating room, and by the bedside need to be utilized to teach EBM. Medical curricula, both undergraduate and postgraduate, should incorporate both EBM and quality improvement training, and these should be taught in a holistic fashion. Evidence-based practice competency was shown to increase, regardless of whether evidence-based practice is delivered to medical students at an undergraduate or postgraduate level.Early introduction of EBM in the undergraduate medical curriculum, in the form of a short course, using various modes of instruction, enhances the competence of critical thinking and also influences change in attitude towards EBM positively in medical students. Introduction of EBM in undergraduate medical curriculum helps in the development of professional competencies of self-directed learners in medical students.

  20. Subjective judgements in scientific practice and art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regidor, Enrique

    2011-12-01

    Since art and science went their separate ways in the 18th century, the purpose of science has been to generate true knowledge based on reason and objectivity. However, during the second half of the 20th century, opinions emerged within science that showed the impossibility of eliminating subjectivity in scientific practice. This paper describes the similarity of the subjective judgements that form part of the peer-review system-the method devised by the scientific community to guarantee truth and objectivity-and the subjective judgements involved in artistic evaluation.

  1. MEDICAL PROFESSIONAL RESPONSIBILITY IN VIH CONTAGION AFTER BLOOD TRANSFUSIONS

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    R. Ortiz de Lejarazu Leonardo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARYIn Spain a million and a half blood transfusions by year are carried out, that supposes between 2 and 10 cases of infection of VIH by year. The present state of science invites to do something more with tests to detect other virological and immunological markers, in order to identify seronegative carriers and thus avoid HIV transmission by them. We must consider the possibility to incur in professional responsibilities if we do not report adequate of this risk or if we do not provide patients all the cares that require, according to the state of the science so called lex artis.RESUMENEn España se realizan un millón y medio de transfusiones de sangre al año, lo que supone un riesgo de entre 2 y 10 casos de infección de VIH a través de las mismas. El estado actual de la ciencia invita a hacer algo más pudiéndose ampliar los estudios de marcadores víricos e inmunológicos, para identificar a portadores seronegativos y así tratar de evitar la transmisión del virus de inmunodeficiencia humana a través de ellos. Debemos considerar la posibilidad de incurrir en responsabilidades profesionales si no informamos adecuadamente de este riesgo o si no proporcionamos a los pacientes todos los cuidados que requieren, según el estado actual de la ciencia, lo que denominamos lex artis.

  2. Professional medical organizations and commercial conflicts of interest: ethical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Howard

    2010-01-01

    The American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP) has recently been criticized for accepting a large corporate donation from Coca-Cola to fund patient education on obesity prevention. Conflicts of interest, whether individual or organizational, occur when one enters into arrangements that reasonably tempt one to put aside one's primary obligations in favor of secondary interests, such as financial self-interest. Accepting funds from commercial sources that seek to influence physician organizational behavior in a direction that could run counter to the public health represents one of those circumstances and so constitutes a conflict of interest. Most of the defenses offered by AAFP are rationalizations rather than ethical counterarguments. Medical organizations, as the public face of medicine and as formulator of codes of ethics for their physician members, have special obligations to adhere to high ethical standards.

  3. The association between parental socioeconomic status (SES) and medical students' personal and professional development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Angela P C; Chen, Chen-Huan; Su, Tong-Ping; Shih, Wan-Jing; Lee, Chen-Hsen; Hou, Sheng-Mou

    2007-09-01

    In order to commit to their mission and placement requirements, medical education policy-makers are required to understand the background and character of students in order to admit, cultivate and support them efficiently and effectively. This study sample consisted of 408 homogeneous medical students with the same level of education, occupation, school and societal environment. They differed mainly in their family background. Therefore, this study used part of a multidimensional "student portfolio system" database to assess the correlation between family status (indexed by parental education and occupation) and medical students' mental health status and characters. The controls were a group of 181 non-medical students in another university. The parents of the medical students were from a higher socioeconomic status (SES) than the parents of those in the control group. This showed the heritability of genetic and environment conditions as well as the socioeconomic forces at play in medical education. Students' personal and professional development were associated with their parents' SES. The mother's SES was associated with the student's selfreported stress, mental disturbances, attitude towards life, personality, health, discipline, internationalisation and professionalism. The fathers' SES did not show a statistically significant association with the above stress, physical and mental health factors, but showed an association with some of the personality factors. The greater the educational difference between both parents, the more stress, hopelessness and pessimism the student manifested. Medical educators need to be aware that socioeconomic factors have meaningful patterns of association with students' mental and physical health, and their characters relating to personal and professional development. Low maternal SES negatively influences medical students' personal and professional development, suggesting that medical education policy-makers need to initiate

  4. Rethinking medical professionalism: the role of information technology and practice innovations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechanic, David

    2008-06-01

    Physician leaders and the public have become increasingly concerned about the erosion of medical professionalism. Changes in the organization, economics, and technology of medical care have made it difficult to maintain competence, meet patients' expectations, escape serious conflicts of interest, and distribute finite resources fairly. Information technology (IT), electronic health records (EHRs), improved models of disease management, and new ways of relating to and sharing responsibility for patients' care can contribute to both professionalism and quality of care. The potential of IT, EHRs, and other practice facilitators for professionalism is assessed through diverse but relevant literatures, examination of relevant websites, and experience in working with medical leaders on renewing professionalism. IT and EHRs are the basis of needed efforts to reinforce medical competence, improve relationships with patients, implement disease management programs, and, by increasing transparency and accountability, help reduce some conflicts of interest. Barriers include the misalignment of goals with payment incentives and time pressures in meeting patients' expectations and practice demands. Implementing IT and EHRs in small, dispersed medical practices is particularly challenging because of short-term financial costs, disruptions in practice caused by learning and adaptation, and the lack of confidence in needed support services. Large organized systems like the VA, Kaiser Permanente, and general practice in the United Kingdom have successfully overcome such challenges. IT and the other tools examined in this article are important adjuncts to professional capacities and aspirations. They have potential to help reverse the decline of primary care and make physicians' practices more effective and rewarding. The cooperation, collaboration, and shared responsibility of government, insurers, medical organizations, and physicians, as well as financial and technical support

  5. Professional formation and deformation: repression of personal values and qualities in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabow, Michael W; Evans, Carrie N; Remen, Rachel N

    2013-01-01

    During medical training, students gain professional competence but may lose elements of personal humanity. Little is known about what personal qualities or values students themselves experience to be at risk or surrendered during medical school. Medical students participating in the Healer's Art elective in the United States and internationally during 2008--2009 were asked to reflect, identify, and draw a part of themselves that they were wary about revealing, not comfortable showing, or felt may be diminished in medical school and label this part with a word. Using a team-based qualitative approach, these words were categorized into common themes and the themes analyzed using descriptive and chi-square statistics. Words from 673 students from 31 medical schools were analyzed. Most students were female (58.7%) and in their first year (86.3%). Eleven themes were identified: spirituality, emotional engagement, identity/self-expression, freedom/spontaneity, relationships, self-care, creativity, negative emotions, values, other, and joy/happiness. The most common individual words used were creativity, family, balance, freedom, love, peace, compassion, relationships, and reflection. There were only rare differences in distributions of themes across gender, year in school, school size, or school nationality. An international cadre of Healer's Art students identified core personal qualities and values that they may not reveal or feel may be diminished in medical school. Medical training involves not only professional formation but exposure to professional deformation as well. Educators must attend to both gains in professional competence and the personal qualities and values that are at risk in the course of professional development.

  6. Medical Professionalism: the Effects of Sociodemographic Diversity and Curricular Organization on the Attitudinal Performance of Medical Students

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    Wilton Silva dos Santos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Socioeconomic and demographic diversity in the educational environment and the development of professional attitudes enhance the quality of health care delivery. Despite the importance of diversity for equity and accessibility to health care, its repercussions for students’ attitudinal learning have not been adequately evaluated. Purpose: Evaluate the influence of academic sociodemographic diversity and curricular organization in the development of professional attitudes in different phases of the undergraduate medical curriculum. Method: In 2012, the attitudinal performance of 310 socioeconomically diverse medical students was evaluated by the administration of a five-point professional attitudes scale. The participants were at different points in their education at a Brazilian public school of medicine in Brasília, Federal District. The scale comprised 6 factors: communication, ethics, professional excellence, self-assessment, beliefs, social determinants; and a general factor called medical professionalism and was validated for the purpose of this research. The reliability coefficients (aCronbach ranged from 0.65 to 0.87, according to different scale dimensions. Student diversity was analyzed according to differences in gender, age, religious affiliation, system of student selection and socioeconomic background. Results: The authors observed a decline in the mean attitude scores during the clinical phase compared to the preclinical phase of the curriculum. Female students displayed more positive attitudes than male students, and the students who declared a religious affiliation recorded higher attitude scores compared to those who declared themselves atheist, agnostic or non-religious. There was no correlation between family income or the system of student selection and the students’ attitude scores. The students who had attended public schools expressed a greater interest in working in the public health system

  7. Similarities and variances in perception of professionalism among Saudi and Egyptian Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattar, Kamran; Roff, Sue; Meo, Sultan Ayoub

    2016-01-01

    Professionalism has a number of culturally specific elements, therefore, it is imperative to identify areas of congruence and variations in the behaviors in which professionalism is understood in different countries. This study aimed to explore and compare the recommendation of sanctions by medical students of College of Medicine, King Saud University (KSU), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia and students from three medical colleges in Egypt. The responses were recorded using an anonymous, self-administered survey " Dundee Polyprofessionalism Inventory I: Academic Integrity". In the study 750 medical students of College of Medicine, KSU, Riyadh were invited and a questionnaire was electronically sent. They rated the importance of professionalism lapses by choosing from a hierarchical menu of sanctions for first time lapses with no justifying circumstances. These responses were compared with published data from 219 students from three medical schools in Egypt. We found variance for 23 (76.66%) behaviors such as "physically assaulting a university employee or student" and "plagiarizing work from a fellow student or publications/internet". We also found similarities for 7 (23.33%) behaviors including "lack of punctuality for classes" and drinking alcohol over lunch and interviewing a patient in the afternoon", when comparing the median recommended sanctions from medical students in Saudi Arabia and Egypt. There are more variances than congruence regarding perceptions of professionalism between the two cohorts. The students at KSU were also found to recommend the sanction of "ignore" for a behavior, a response, which otherwise was absent from Egyptian cohort.

  8. Health professionals' attitudes to depot injection antipsychotic medication: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besenius, C; Clark-Carter, D; Nolan, P

    2010-06-01

    Healthcare professionals are key providers of information about antipsychotic medication and may have a significant influence on the decisions that service users make about how their medication is delivered. This systematic review aimed to explore health professionals' attitudes and beliefs towards antipsychotic depot medication. A systematic search of AMED, BNI, CINAHL, EMBASE, HEALTH BUSINESS ELITE, HMIC, MEDLINE and PsycINFO was carried out, as well as hand searches of journals and citation searches. Studies were selected if the terms 'attitudes/beliefs' and 'depot/injection' were included in the title or abstract, if health professionals were participants in the study and if original data were included. The search strategy produced 131 papers. Eight relevant studies were then selected for the review. They included six cross-sectional surveys and two qualitative studies. It was shown that the research carried out is still very sparse. Depots are seen as old fashioned, stigmatizing, causingside effects and being costly, and they are often not prescribed because of a presumed adherence to oral medication. More research needs to be carried out to further explore these issues, to look at the role of non-medical prescribers and explore the relationship between health professionals' attitudes and those of service users.

  9. Comparison of recommended sanctions for lapses in professionalism of undergraduate medical students in a Saudi Arabian and a Scottish medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattar, Kamran; Roff, Sue

    2016-12-01

    Medical Professionalism is recognized as a cultural construct. We explore perceptions of the severity of lapses in professionalism of undergraduate medical students at two medical schools with different cultural contexts. Respondents from two medical schools (Saudi Arabia & UK) recommended sanctions for the first time, unmitigated lapses in academic professionalism, using the Dundee Polyprofessionalism Inventory 1: Academic Integrity. While more than two-thirds of the recommended sanctions for the 30 items of poor professionalism were fully or nearly congruent among the 1125 respondents, there were substantial differences in recommended response for one-third of the items, with a strong tendency for the Saudi students to recommend more lenient sanctions than the Scottish students. The strategy of using recommended sanctions as a proxy for the perception of the severity of different lapses in professionalism may be a useful tool in learning and teaching academic professionalism among medical students in different cultural contexts.

  10. Sustainability of professionals' adherence to clinical practice guidelines in medical care: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ament, Stephanie M C; de Groot, Jeanny J A; Maessen, José M C; Dirksen, Carmen D; van der Weijden, Trudy; Kleijnen, Jos

    2015-12-29

    To evaluate (1) the state of the art in sustainability research and (2) the outcomes of professionals' adherence to guideline recommendations in medical practice. Systematic review. Searches were conducted until August 2015 in MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and the Guidelines International Network (GIN) library. A snowball strategy, in which reference sections of other reviews and of included papers were searched, was used to identify additional papers. Studies needed to be focused on sustainability and on professionals' adherence to clinical practice guidelines in medical care. Studies had to include at least 2 measurements: 1 before (PRE) or immediately after implementation (EARLY POST) and 1 measurement longer than 1 year after active implementation (LATE POST). The search retrieved 4219 items, of which 14 studies met the inclusion criteria, involving 18 sustainability evaluations. The mean timeframe between the end of active implementation and the sustainability evaluation was 2.6 years (minimum 1.5-maximum 7.0). The studies were heterogeneous with respect to their methodology. Sustainability was considered to be successful if performance in terms of professionals' adherence was fully maintained in the late postimplementation phase. Long-term sustainability of professionals' adherence was reported in 7 out of 18 evaluations, adherence was not sustained in 6 evaluations, 4 evaluations showed mixed sustainability results and in 1 evaluation it was unclear whether the professional adherence was sustained. (2) Professionals' adherence to a clinical practice guideline in medical care decreased after more than 1 year after implementation in about half of the cases. (1) Owing to the limited number of studies, the absence of a uniform definition, the high risk of bias, and the mixed results of studies, no firm conclusion about the sustainability of professionals' adherence to guidelines in medical practice can be drawn

  11. A descriptive study of prevalence, pattern and attitude of self-medication among second professional medical students in a tertiary care center

    OpenAIRE

    Vineeta Sawhney; Mohammad Younis Bhat; Zorawar Singh

    2015-01-01

    Background: The implications of self-medication practices are increasingly recognized around the world as self-medication is a common practice worldwide and irrational use of drugs is a cause of concern more so among medical students as they are future medical practitioners. The objective was to determine the prevalence, attitude, and knowledge of self-medication among second professional medical students. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among medical students in February-Ma...

  12. Psychosocial issues and care in pediatric oncology: medical and nursing professionals' perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiernan, Gemma; Meyler, Emma; Guerin, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    Children with cancer and their families have psychosocial support needs. Medical and nursing professionals in pediatrics and pediatric oncology are in a position to identify and help manage these. However, little is known about their perceptions of psychosocial issues and interventions. The purpose of this study was to investigate physicians' and nurses' perceptions of psychosocial issues in pediatric oncology including their awareness of the psychosocial impact of childhood cancer on families and their knowledge and views of psychosocial interventions. A phenomenological approach was taken whereby semistructured interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 10 physicians and nurses. Findings showed that despite a lack of formal training in psychosocial issues, professionals identified a number of psychosocial issues associated with childhood cancer, including effects for family members. In addition, findings illustrated the psychosocial roles that they frequently adopt in relation to the identification, treatment, and referral of psychosocial issues. Finally, physicians and nurses recognized the value of formal intervention, reporting benefits for children, families, and themselves. These findings give a preliminary insight into physicians' and nurses' perceptions and awareness of the psychosocial issues experienced by children with cancer and their families and their knowledge of psychosocial interventions. They highlight ways to enhance the delivery of care in pediatric oncology. Specifically, they suggest the need for more formal training on psychosocial issues for medical and nursing professionals, for additional experienced psychosocial professionals to be recruited, and for more access to services for both families and medical and nursing professionals.

  13. Medical students' perceptions of professional misconduct: relationship with typology and year of programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkifli, Juliana; Noel, Brad; Bennett, Deirdre; O'Flynn, Siun; O'Tuathaigh, Colm

    2018-02-01

    To examine the contribution of programme year and demographic factors to medical students' perceptions of evidence-based classification categories of professional misconduct. Students at an Irish medical school were administered a cross-sectional survey comprising 31 vignettes of professional misconduct, which mapped onto a 12-category classification system. Students scored each item using a 5-point Likert scale, where 1 represents the least severe form of misconduct and 5 the most severe. Of the 1012 eligible respondents, 561 students completed the survey, providing a response rate of 55%. Items pertaining to disclosure of conflict of interest were ranked as the least severe examples of professional misconduct, and this perception was highest among finalyear students. While ratings of severity declined for items related to 'inappropriate conduct not in relation to patient' and 'inappropriate use of social media' between years 1 and 3, ratings for both categories increased again among clinical cycle (fourth and final year) students. Increased clinical exposure during years 4 and 5 of the undergraduate programme was associated with better recognition of the importance of selected professional domains. Disclosure of conflict of interest is identified as an area of medical professionalism that requires greater emphasis for students who are at the point of transition from student to doctor. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. A Comparative Judgement Approach to Teacher Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Suzanne; Jones, Ian

    2015-01-01

    We report one teacher's response to a top-down shift from external examinations to internal teacher assessment for summative purposes in the Republic of Ireland. The teacher adopted a comparative judgement approach to the assessment of secondary students' understanding of a chemistry experiment. The aims of the research were to investigate whether…

  15. Structural-functional model of medical students’ professional-applied physical training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Petryshyn

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to work out and experimentally prove model of professional-applied physical training of medical higher educational establishments’ students. Material: in the research 80 students participated. In questioning physical education instructors of medical higher education establishments (n=20 participated. Results: influence of students’ professionally important characteristics on general physical fitness indicators and functional state has been shown. Directions of students’ physical fitness parameters’ individual diagnostic and control over physical education effectiveness have been offered. Volumes of physical exercises in the structure of training have been found: special training (15-20% and competition exercises (20-30%. Conclusions: the need in raising the level of professionally important for students’ abilities has been noted: speed power, static power endurance, power endurance, coordination of arms’ movements, static balance.

  16. PERIODONTAL DISEASES & TREATMENT FROM PERSPECTIVE OF MEDICAL PROFESSIONALS: A SURVEY STUDY

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    Mundhe Priti G, Neelima Rajhans S, Nilofer Sheikh.S, Nikesh Moolya N, Nilkanth Mhaske, Nikhil Gutte D

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodontics is fast evolving dental specialty. But periodontics is still seen to be nascent & perception of it is variable among different health professionals. Aim: To assess the awareness of periodontal diseases, it’s causes & treatment modalities available among medical professionals. Materials & methods: Two hundred & five medical professionals working in Ahmednagar were interviewed through questionnaire. The questionnaire was consist of different terminologies, periodontal diseases their cause, it’s systemic effects, different treatment techniques used and newer treatment modalities. Results: positive attitude towards periodontal diseases were observed. The level of awareness was marginally higher with consultants. The difference was statistically significant among three groups. Conclusion: Awareness about periodontal diseases, it’s aetiology and association between systemic diseases was observed. But awareness about periodontal therapy & newer treatment modalities was poor.

  17. Health Care Professionals' Perceptions of the Use of Electronic Medical Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyeye, Adebisi

    2015-01-01

    Electronic medical record (EMR) use has improved significantly in health care organizations. However, many barriers and factors influence the success of EMR implementation and adoption. The purpose of the descriptive qualitative single-case study was to explore health care professionals' perceptions of the use of EMRs at a hospital division of a…

  18. Impact of Uncertainty on Non-Medical Professionals' Estimates of Sexual Abuse Probability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fargason, Crayton A., Jr.; Peralta-Carcelen, Myriam C.; Fountain, Kathleen E.; Amaya, Michelle I.; Centor, Robert

    1997-01-01

    Assesses how an educational intervention describing uncertainty in child sexual-abuse assessments affects estimates of sexual abuse probability by non-physician child-abuse professionals (CAPs). Results, based on evaluations of 89 CAPs after the intervention, indicate they undervalued medical-exam findings and had difficulty adjusting for medical…

  19. Medical students' professionalism narratives: a window on the informal and hidden curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnieli-Miller, Orit; Vu, T Robert; Holtman, Matthew C; Clyman, Stephen G; Inui, Thomas S

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to use medical students' critical incident narratives to deepen understanding of the informal and hidden curricula. The authors conducted a thematic analysis of 272 stories of events recorded by 135 third-year medical students that "taught them something about professionalism and professional values." Students wrote these narratives in a "professionalism journal" during their internal medicine clerkships at Indiana University School of Medicine, June through November 2007. The majority of students' recorded experiences involved witnessing positive embodiment of professional values, rather than breaches. Attending physicians and residents were the central figures in the incidents. Analyses revealed two main thematic categories. The first focused on medical-clinical interactions, especially on persons who were role models interacting with patients, families, coworkers, and colleagues. The second focused on events in the teaching-and-learning environment, particularly on students' experiences as learners in the clinical setting. The findings strongly suggest that students' reflective narratives are a rich source of information about the elements of both the informal and hidden curricula, in which medical students learn to become physicians. Experiences with both positive and negative behaviors shaped the students' perceptions of the profession and its values. In particular, interactions that manifest respect and other qualities of good communication with patients, families, and colleagues taught powerfully.

  20. An Examination of Current Navy Medical Professionals Management Oriented Service Short Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-17

    ANALYSIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 A. INTRODUCTION ........... ................. .. 29 B. LEADERSHIP / MANAGEMENT COURSES...that could be tailored to meet the leadership and management requirements of Navy medical professionals. The first course was Leadership Management Education...BRP) recommended that Navy Medicine "...develop leadership / management skills and training requirements for a formal command development process, and

  1. Dermatoethics: a curriculum in bioethics and professionalism for dermatology residents at Brown Medical School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercovitch, Lionel; Long, Thomas P

    2007-04-01

    Both American and Canadian residency accreditation bodies have formal requirements in core competencies that include training in ethics and professionalism without prescribing content. A structured seminar series in medical ethics and professionalism relating to dermatology practice was started at Brown Medical School's dermatology residency in 2001. Methods of instruction include discussion groups, review of medical and lay literature, book review, didactic teaching, case presentation, and informal e-mail exchange. Some of the topics that have been covered include basic medical ethics, research ethics, physician-industry relationships, truth telling, privacy and confidentiality, duty to treat, and ethical and legal issues in cosmetic dermatology, dermatologic surgery, dermatologic genetics, occupational dermatology, and pediatric dermatology. The main goals of the curriculum are to fulfill the core competency requirement in professionalism of the specialty certifying boards, introduce trainees to the cross-disciplinary literature of biomedical ethics and current ethical controversies, and encourage dialogue on ethics and professionalism among faculty, colleagues in other specialties, and dermatology trainees.

  2. Examining Sense of Community among Medical Professionals in an Online Graduate Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadriye O. Lewis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As the number of online degree programs continues to grow, one of the greatest challenges is developing a sense of community among learners who do not convene at the same time and place. This study examined the sense of community among medical professionals in an online graduate program for healthcare professionals. We took the sample from a fully online program delivered jointly by a state university and a local children's hospital in the Midwest. We administered Rovai's Classroom Community Survey with 11 additional demographic questions. We also utilized online interviews to further explore students’ understanding of sense of community. A bi-factor model was fitted to the online sense of community survey data. Using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA and univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA we identified potential group differences. The qualitative data were analyzed thematically in a recursive and iterative process. Study results suggested that a dominant factor existed: sense of community with two sub-domain factors including sense of learning and sense of connectedness. No significant differences in sense of community with regard to gender, native language, or area of medical practice were detected. However, results showed a difference in sense of community between the three courses examined. This study is the first to examine the sense of community among online medical professionals. Since our findings are in contrast to those of previous studies, this opens the door to additional studies around the possible differences between the community characteristics and needs of medical professionals as online students.

  3. An Exploration of Emerging Professional Identity in Women Osteopathic Medical Students: Does Gender Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunatov, Linda J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this narrative inquiry study was to gain a richer understanding from the perspective of gender about how third and fourth year women osteopathic medical students at the University of Pikeville-Kentucky College of Osteopathic Medicine (KYCOM) constructed their developing professional identities as future osteopathic physicians. This…

  4. Taiwanese Medical Students' Narratives of Intercultural Professionalism Dilemmas: Exploring Tensions between Western Medicine and Taiwanese Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Ming-Jung; Gosselin, Katherine; Chandratilake, Madawa; Monrouxe, Lynn V.; Rees, Charlotte E.

    2017-01-01

    In an era of globalization, cultural competence is necessary for the provision of quality healthcare. Although this topic has been well explored in non-Western cultures within Western contexts, the authors explore how Taiwanese medical students trained in Western medicine address intercultural professionalism dilemmas related to tensions between…

  5. [The system of continuing professional education of medical doctors in Austria. Structure, guidelines and quality management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routil, W

    2006-05-01

    This article describes the system of continuing medical education in Austria. Pursuant to section sign 49 para.1* of the Austrian Medical Law 1998/Amendment 2001, Austrian doctors are under the obligation to participate in continuing professional education according to the guidelines of the Austrian Medical Chamber. The Austrian doctors see themselves as members of an independent profession. The Austrian system of continuing (physician) professional education developed continuously, for one, based on the principle of self-responsibility of licensed doctors and for the other, on the responsibility for self-administration of the medical profession. The participation in CPD or CME events, which are quality assured by a given set of rules, is documented by a time-limited diploma issued by the Austrian Medical Chamber. The recognition system comprises CPD-CME events in Austria as well as abroad, literature study under specific rules including an assessment system and the use of electronic media. The CPD-CME guidelines are updated annually by the Austrian Medical Chamber. The permanent maintenance and administration of the CPD-CME Programme of the Austrian Medical Chamber (Diplom-Fortbildungs-Programm, DFP), was handed over to the Austrian Academy of Physicians, which is under the obligation to report to its founding body, the Austrian Medical Chamber.

  6. The becoming: students' reflections on the process of professional identity formation in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpless, Joanna; Baldwin, Nell; Cook, Robert; Kofman, Aaron; Morley-Fletcher, Alessio; Slotkin, Rebecca; Wald, Hedy S

    2015-06-01

    Professional identity formation (PIF) within medical education is the multifaceted, individualized process through which students develop new ways of being in becoming physicians. Personal backgrounds, values, expectations, interests, goals, relationships, and role models can all influence PIF and may account for diversity of both experience and the active constructive process of professional formation. Guided reflection, including reflective writing, has been used to enhance awareness and meaning making within the PIF process for both students and medical educators and to shed light on what aspects of medical education are most constructive for healthy PIF. Student voices about the PIF process now emerging in the literature are often considered and interpreted by medical educators within qualitative studies or in broad theoretical overviews of PIF.In this Commentary, the authors present a chorus of individual student voices from along the medical education trajectory. Medical students (years 1-4) and a first-year resident in pediatrics respond to a variety of questions based on prevalent PIF themes extracted from the literature to reflect on their personal experiences of PIF. Topics queried included pretending in medical education, role of relationships, impact of formal and informal curricula on PIF (valuable aspects as well as suggestions for change), and navigating and developing interprofessional relationships and identities. This work aims to vividly illustrate the diverse and personal forces at play in individual students' PIF processes and to encourage future pedagogic efforts supporting healthy, integrated PIF in medical education.

  7. A Study of the Relationship Between Nurses' Professional Self-Concept and Professional Ethics in Hospitals Affiliated to Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parandavar, Nehleh; Rahmanian, Afifeh; Badiyepeymaie Jahromi, Zohreh

    2015-07-31

    Commitment to ethics usually results in nurses' better professional performance and advancement. Professional self-concept of nurses refers to their information and beliefs about their roles, values, and behaviors. The objective of this study is to analyze the relationship between nurses' professional self-concept and professional ethics in hospitals affiliated to Jahrom University of Medical Sciences. This cross sectional-analytical study was conducted in 2014. The 270 participants were practicing nurses and head-nurses at the teaching hospitals of Peimanieh and Motahari in Jahrom University of Medical Science. Sampling was based on sencus method. Data was collected using Cowin's Nurses' self-concept questionnaire (NSCQ) and the researcher-made questionnaire of professional ethics. The average of the sample's professional self-concept score was 6.48±0.03 out of 8. The average of the sample's commitment to professional ethics score was 4.08±0.08 out of 5. Based on Pearson's correlation test, there is a significant relationship between professional ethics and professional self-concept (P=0.01, r=0.16). In view of the correlation between professional self-concept and professional ethics, it is recommended that nurses' self-concept, which can boost their commitment to ethics, be given more consideration.

  8. A Study of the Relationship Between Nurses’ Professional Self-Concept and Professional Ethics in Hospitals Affiliated to Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parandavar, Nehleh; Rahmanian, Afifeh; Jahromi, Zohreh Badiyepeymaie

    2016-01-01

    Background: Commitment to ethics usually results in nurses’ better professional performance and advancement. Professional self-concept of nurses refers to their information and beliefs about their roles, values, and behaviors. The objective of this study is to analyze the relationship between nurses’ professional self-concept and professional ethics in hospitals affiliated to Jahrom University of Medical Sciences. Methods: This cross sectional-analytical study was conducted in 2014. The 270 participants were practicing nurses and head-nurses at the teaching hospitals of Peimanieh and Motahari in Jahrom University of Medical Science. Sampling was based on sencus method. Data was collected using Cowin's Nurses’ self-concept questionnaire (NSCQ) and the researcher-made questionnaire of professional ethics. Results: The average of the sample's professional self-concept score was 6.48±0.03 out of 8. The average of the sample's commitment to professional ethics score was 4.08±0.08 out of 5. Based on Pearson's correlation test, there is a significant relationship between professional ethics and professional self-concept (P=0.01, r=0.16). Conclusion: In view of the correlation between professional self-concept and professional ethics, it is recommended that nurses’ self-concept, which can boost their commitment to ethics, be given more consideration. PMID:26573035

  9. Professional Ethics and Organizational Commitment Among the Education Department Staff of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences

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    Ali Imani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Concepts such as organizational commitment and employees’ and managers’ ethics provide decision-makers and policy makers with potentially useful information which can result in increasing organizational efficiency and effectiveness. This study aimed to explore the relationship between professional ethics and organizational commitment among the staff working in the education departments of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2015. The study population consisted of all staff working as educational experts in the education departments of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences (N = 65. Data collection instruments used in this study were two standard questionnaires on professional ethics and organizational commitment. SPSS software version 21 was used to analyze the data. Results: According to the results, mean scores obtained for professional ethics and organizational commitment were (91.57± 9.13 (95% CI, 89.23-93.91 and (64.89 ± 10.37 (95% CI, 62.2367.54, respectively. A significant relationship was observed between professional ethics and organizational commitment among the educational experts working in Tabriz University of Medical Sciences (correlation coefficient = 0.405 (P = 0.001 (at 95% confidence level. Furthermore, there was a significant relationship between professional ethics and work experience (P = 0.043. The highest level of professional ethics observed was associated with those participants having a work experience of ranging from 6 to 10 years. Individuals with fulltime employment scored the highest in organizational commitment. Conclusion: Educational experts possessed a high level of professional ethics. The finding provides the grounds for promoting organizational commitment, which will lead to higher levels of organizational effectiveness.

  10. Health inequalities, physician citizens and professional medical associations: an Australian case study

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    Naccarella Lucio

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As socioeconomic health inequalities persist and widen, the health effects of adversity are a constant presence in the daily work of physicians. Gruen and colleagues suggest that, in responding to important population health issues such as this, defining those areas of professional obligation in contrast to professional aspiration should be on the basis of evidence and feasibility. Drawing this line between obligation and aspiration is a part of the work of professional medical colleges and associations, and in doing so they must respond to members as well as a range of other interest groups. Our aim was to explore the usefulness of Gruen's model of physician responsibility in defining how professional medical colleges and associations should lead the profession in responding to socioeconomic health inequalities. Methods We report a case study of how the Royal Australian College of General Practitioners is responding to the issue of health inequalities through its work. We undertook a consultation (80 interviews with stakeholders internal and external to the College and two focus groups with general practitioners and program and policy review of core programs of College interest and responsibility: general practitioner training and setting of practice standards, as well as its work in public advocacy. Results Some strategies within each of these College program areas were seen as legitimate professional obligations in responding to socioeconomic health inequality. However, other strategies, while potentially professional obligations within Gruen's model, were nevertheless contested. The key difference between these lay in different moral orientations. Actions where agreement existed were based on an ethos of care and compassion. Actions that were contested were based on an ethos of justice and human rights. Conclusion Colleges and professional medical associations have a role in explicitly leading a debate about values

  11. Medical professionalism in China and the United States: a transcultural interpretation.

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    Nie, Jing-Bao; Smith, Kirk L; Cong, Yali; Hu, Linying; Tucker, Joseph D

    2015-01-01

    As in other societies, medical professionalism in the Peoples' Republic of China has been rapidly evolving. One of the major events in this process was the endorsement in 2005 of the document, "Medical Professionalism in the New Millennium: A Physician Charter," by the Chinese Medical Doctor Association (hereafter, the Charter)(1). More recently, a national survey, the first on such a large scale, was conducted on Chinese physicians' attitudes toward the fundamental principles and core commitments put forward in the Charter. Based on empirical findings from that study and comparing them to the published results of a similar American survey, the authors offer an in-depth interpretation of significant cross-cultural differences and important transcultural commonalities. The broader historical, socio-economic, and ethical issues relating to salient Chinese cultural practices such as family consent, familism (the custom of deferring decisions to family members), and the withholding of medical information, as well as controversial topics such as not respecting patients' autonomy, are examined. The Chinese Survey found that Chinese physicians supported the principles of the Charter in general. Here we argue that Chinese culture and traditional medical ethics are broadly compatible with the moral commitments demanded by modern medical professionalism. Methodologically and theoretically-recognizing the problems inherent in the hoary but still popular habit of dichotomizing cultures and in relativism-a transcultural approach is adopted that gives greater (due) weight to the internal moral diversity present within every culture, the common ground shared by different cultures, and the primacy of morality. Genuine cross-cultural dialogue, including a constructive Chinese-American dialogue in the area of medical professionalism, is not only possible, but necessary. Copyright 2015 The Journal of Clinical Ethics. All rights reserved.

  12. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of health professionals and women towards medication use in breastfeeding: A review

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    Dermele Narmin

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many breastfeeding women require and regularly take medicines, especially those available over-the-counter, and the safe use of these is dependent on the advice provided by health professionals such as general practitioners and pharmacists. The primary aim of this review therefore, was to investigate the literature relating to health professionals' and women's knowledge, attitudes and practices towards medication use and safety in breastfeeding. The limited literature that was uncovered identified that general practitioners and pharmacists have poor knowledge, but positive attitudes, and variable practices that are mostly guided by personal experience. They tend to make decisions about the use of a medicine whilst breastfeeding based on the potential 'risk' that it poses to the infant in terms of possible adverse reactions, rather than its 'compatibility' with breast milk. The decision-making process between health professionals and women is usually not a negotiated process, and women are often asked to stop breastfeeding whilst taking a medicine. Women, in turn, are left dissatisfied with the advice received, many choosing not to initiate therapy or not to continue breastfeeding. Some directions for future research have been suggested to address the issues identified in this critical area. This review is important from a societal perspective because many breastfeeding women require and regularly take medications, especially those available without prescription, and the safe use of these is dependent on the advice provided by health professionals, which is ultimately influenced by their knowledge, attitudes and practices. However, there is an absence of high quality evidence from randomised controlled trials on the safety of medications taken during breastfeeding, which naturally would hinder health professionals from appropriately advising women. It is equally important to know about women's experiences of advice received from health

  13. Professional networks and the alignment of individual perceptions about medical innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacopino, Valentina; Mascia, Daniele; Cicchetti, Americo

    In recent decades, the role of technology in health care organizations has become increasingly relevant because it enhances health care outcomes and the achievement of clinical goals. Extant research demonstrates that the effectiveness of a medical innovation depends largely on health care professionals' perceptions of its usefulness and impact on their activities and practices. We also know that interaction among social actors contributes to the shaping of their judgments and opinions regarding innovation. This study investigated the role of professionals' social networks and social capital in the formation of similar individual perceptions about a highly innovative robotic surgical system. We collected data from a sample of 50 professionals, including both physicians and nurses, working in three hospital wards belonging to an Italian hospital organization. Using a survey, we gathered data on professionals' demographic characteristics, the adoption and impact of the new technology, and social networks. We tested our hypotheses using a dyadic perspective and logistic regression quadratic assignment procedures. Our findings document that professionals' perceptions regarding technological change were more likely to be similar when they were connected and exhibited similarity in some social capital characteristics and adoption behavior. These results have important implications for health care executives and administrators, as well as for health professionals characterized by high degrees of autonomy and for which organizational change can be affected by professional or organizational resistance.

  14. The future of 'pure' medical science: the need for a new specialist professional research system.

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    Charlton, Bruce G; Andras, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Over recent decades, medical research has become mostly an 'applied' science which implicitly aims at steady progress by an accumulation of small improvements, each increment having a high probability of validity. Applied medical science is, therefore, a social system of communications for generating pre-publication peer-reviewed knowledge that is ready for implementation. However, the need for predictability makes modern medical science risk-averse and this is leading to a decline in major therapeutic breakthroughs where new treatments for new diseases are required. There is need for the evolution of a specialized professional research system of pure medial science, whose role would be to generate and critically evaluate radically novel and potentially important theories, techniques, therapies and technologies. Pure science ideas typically have a lower probability of being valid, but the possibility of much greater benefit if they turn out to be true. The domination of medical research by applied criteria means that even good ideas from pure medical science are typically ignored or summarily rejected as being too speculative. Of course, radical and potentially important ideas may currently be published, but at present there is no formal mechanism by which pure science publications may be received, critiqued, evaluated and extended to become suitable for 'application'. Pure medical science needs to evolve to constitute a typical specialized scientific system of formal communications among a professional community. The members of this putative profession would interact via close research groupings, journals, meetings, electronic and web communications--like any other science. Pure medical science units might arise as elite grouping linked to existing world-class applied medical research institutions. However, the pure medical science system would have its own separate aims, procedures for scientific evaluation, institutional organization, funding and support

  15. Do Normative Judgements Aim to Represent the World?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Streumer, Bart

    2013-01-01

    Many philosophers think that normative judgements do not aim to represent the world. In this paper, I argue that this view is incompatible with the thought that when two people make conflicting normative judgements, at most one of these judgements is correct. I argue that this shows that normative

  16. Can medical drama motivate students to have an interest in the healthcare professionalism?

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    Hwang, Jee-Young; Baek, Seolhyang; Lee, Jong Im; Nam, Joo Hyun; Kim, Yung Kyu

    2013-12-01

    This study was planned to evaluate that a lecture employing medical drama could motivate students to have an interest in the professionalism of healthcare personnel, which has currently become a critical subject in the field of medical education. We analyzed subject headings, learning objectives, and further plans developed by students and their responses after two drama modules, 'car crash' and 'refusal of instruction', which were selected based on the conditions made by our faculty members, were given through video or paper to our 121 second-grade medical and nursing students in year 2012. Meaningful subject headings and learning objectives developed by students were 58.2%~60.0% and 36.8%~38.0% and significantly more in the 'refusal of instruction' than the 'car crash' (p=0.000). According to the students' major, medical students developed significantly more than nursing students (p=0.000). In the analysis of responses, 91.7% of students reported as impressive to the educational modules and 55.3% of them described their ideas associated with healthcare professionalism. Our study results suggest a possibility that the educational module employing selected medical drama could motivate students' healthcare professionalism.

  17. Antecedents and Consequences of Medical Students' Moral Decision Making during Professionalism Dilemmas.

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    Monrouxe, Lynn; Shaw, Malissa; Rees, Charlotte

    2017-06-01

    Medical students often experience professionalism dilemmas (which differ from ethical dilemmas) wherein students sometimes witness and/or participate in patient safety, dignity, and consent lapses. When faced with such dilemmas, students make moral decisions. If students' action (or inaction) runs counter to their perceived moral values-often due to organizational constraints or power hierarchies-they can suffer moral distress, burnout, or a desire to leave the profession. If moral transgressions are rationalized as being for the greater good, moral distress can decrease as dilemmas are experienced more frequently (habituation); if no learner benefit is seen, distress can increase with greater exposure to dilemmas (disturbance). We suggest how medical educators can support students' understandings of ethical dilemmas and facilitate their habits of enacting professionalism: by modeling appropriate resistance behaviors. © 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Impact of vocational interests, previous academic experience, gender and age on Situational Judgement Test performance

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    Schripsema, Nienke R.; Trigt, van Anke M.; Borleffs, Jan C. C.; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    Situational Judgement Tests (SJTs) are increasingly implemented in medical school admissions. In this paper, we investigate the effects of vocational interests, previous academic experience, gender and age on SJT performance. The SJT was part of the selection process for the Bachelor's degree

  19. Health Care Professional Factors Influencing Shared Medical Decision Making in Korea

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    Kae-Hwa Jo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Till date, the medical decision-making process in Korea has followed the paternalist model, relying on the instructions of physicians. However, in recent years, shared decision making at the end-of-life between physicians and nurses is now emphasized in Korea. The purpose of this study was conducted to explore how health care professionals’ characteristics, attitude toward dignified dying, and moral sensitivity affect their shared medical decision making. The design was descriptive survey. This study was undertaken in two university hospitals in two metropolitan cities, South Korea. The participants were 344 nurses and 80 physicians who work at university hospitals selected by convenience sampling method. Data were collected from January 10 through March 20, 2014 using the Dignified Dying Scale, Moral Sensitivity Scale, and Shared Medical Decision-Making Scale. Shared medical decision making, attitude toward dignified dying, moral sensitivity, age, and working experience had a significant correlation with each other. The factors affecting shared medical decision making of Korean health care professionals were moral sensitivity and attitude toward dignified dying. These variables explained 22.4% of the shared medical decision making. Moral sensitivity and a positive attitude toward dignified dying should be promoted among health care professionals as a part of an educational program for shared medical decision making.

  20. Professional identity formation: creating a longitudinal framework through TIME (Transformation in Medical Education).

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    Holden, Mark D; Buck, Era; Luk, John; Ambriz, Frank; Boisaubin, Eugene V; Clark, Mark A; Mihalic, Angela P; Sadler, John Z; Sapire, Kenneth J; Spike, Jeffrey P; Vince, Alan; Dalrymple, John L

    2015-06-01

    The University of Texas System established the Transformation in Medical Education (TIME) initiative to reconfigure and shorten medical education from college matriculation through medical school graduation. One of the key changes proposed as part of the TIME initiative was to begin emphasizing professional identity formation (PIF) at the premedical level. The TIME Steering Committee appointed an interdisciplinary task force to explore the fundamentals of PIF and to formulate strategies that would help students develop their professional identity as they transform into physicians. In this article, the authors describe the task force's process for defining PIF and developing a framework, which includes 10 key aspects, 6 domains, and 30 subdomains to characterize the complexity of physician identity. The task force mapped this framework onto three developmental phases of medical education typified by the undergraduate student, the clerkship-level medical student, and the graduating medical student. The task force provided strategies for the promotion and assessment of PIF for each subdomain at each of the three phases, in addition to references and resources. Assessments were suggested for student feedback, curriculum evaluation, and theoretical development. The authors emphasize the importance of longitudinal, formative assessment using a combination of existing assessment methods. Though not unique to the medical profession, PIF is critical to the practice of exemplary medicine and the well-being of patients and physicians.

  1. [Assessment of perception about medication reconciliation among healthcare professionals at Saint-Justine hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drancourt, P; Atkinson, S; Lebel, D; Bussières, J-F

    2016-07-01

    Our main objective is to assess nurses and doctors perception about medication reconciliation. This is a descriptive and cross-sectional study. We have created three surveys, one for each health worker (nurses, doctors, resident, pharmacists). Each survey consists of single or multi-choice closed questions. A four-point Likert scale was used to collect the perception. Descriptive statistics have been calculated. A total of 114 nurses, 98 doctors and residents and 26 pharmacists from all care services, replied to the survey. The majority of doctors (58%), pharmacists (60%) and nurses (52%) recognized the relevance and utility of medication reconciliation in healthcare safety. However, few healthcare professionals (6% of doctors, 13% of nurses et 46% of pharmacists) know that medication reconciliation is a required organizational practice. Only 25% of doctors always consult the best possible medication history after a patient admission while the majority do not use it because of unreliability issues. So, there have been some major changes to optimize medication reconciliation process in our hospital. This study shows a increasing interest to medication reconciliation by healthcare professionals. However, the use of medication reconciliation remains marginal. Copyright © 2015 Académie Nationale de Pharmacie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. [Qualification concept for delegation of medical tasks to nonmedical professional groups. The "Greifswalder 3-level model"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, W; van den Berg, N; Dreier, A

    2013-04-01

    To manage the current demographics and the expected medical, nursing, and social care needs of the population, structural changes are needed in the German health care system. On the regional level, there is a shortage of general practitioners in Germany. In the future, the number of affected regions will likely increase. These trends require new support strategies, which include the delegation of medical tasks to nonphysician professionals of which nurses and medical assistants are the primary profession. Thus, they will expand their traditional scope of work. However, their traditional training does not qualify them to perform medical tasks responsibly and with high quality. Hence, there is a need for further development of advanced training programs. The goal is to tailor modular advanced training to the specific support needs of the patients. A recent law (GKV-Versorgungsstrukturgesetz, GKV-VStG, 1 January 2012) was passed that specifies and extends the delegation options of medical tasks beyond the restrictions defined in previous German legislation (§ 63, SGB V in 2008). In this article, we present a three-stage model for qualifying nonphysician medical professionals for defined ranges of medical tasks.

  3. The Effect of Burnout on Medical Errors and Professionalism in First-Year Internal Medicine Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwah, Jason; Weintraub, Jennifer; Fallar, Robert; Ripp, Jonathan

    2016-10-01

    Burnout is a common issue in internal medicine residents, and its impact on medical errors and professionalism is an important subject of investigation. To evaluate differences in medical errors and professionalism in internal medicine residents with and without burnout. A single institution observational cohort study was conducted between June 2011 and July 2012. Burnout was measured using the Maslach Burnout Inventory to generate subscores for the following 3 domains: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and sense of personal accomplishment. By convention, burnout was defined as a high emotional exhaustion or depersonalization subscore. Medication prescription error rate was the chosen measure of medical errors. Professionalism was measured cumulatively through examining discharge summaries completed within 48 hours, outpatient charts completed within 72 hours, and the average time to review outpatient laboratory tests. Of a total of 54 eligible first-year residents, 53 (98%) and 32 (59%) completed the initial and follow-up surveys, respectively. Residents with year-end burnout had a lower rate of medication prescription errors (0.553 versus 0.780, P  = .007). Discharge summaries completed within 48 hours of discharge (83.8% versus 84.0%, P  = .93), outpatient charts completed within 72 hours of encounter (93.7% versus 94.3%, P  = .31), and time (minutes) to review outpatient laboratory test results (72.3 versus 26.9, P  = .28) were similar between residents with and without year-end burnout. This study found a small decrease in medical errors in residents with year-end burnout compared to burnout-free residents and no difference in selected measures of professionalism.

  4. "Convenience Editing" in Action: Comparing English Teachers' and Medical Professionals' Revisions of a Medical Abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willey, Ian; Tanimoto, Kimie

    2012-01-01

    Native English-speaking (NES) English teachers at universities in English as a foreign language (EFL) contexts are sometimes asked to edit English manuscripts written by non-native English-speaking (NNES) colleagues in scientific fields. However, professional peers may differ from English teachers in their approach towards editing scientific…

  5. The limits of social justice as an aspect of medical professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddle, Thomas S

    2013-08-01

    Contemporary accounts of medical ethics and professionalism emphasize the importance of social justice as an ideal for physicians. This ideal is often specified as a commitment to attaining the universal availability of some level of health care, if not of other elements of a "decent minimum" standard of living. I observe that physicians, in general, have not accepted the importance of social justice for professional ethics, and I further argue that social justice does not belong among professional norms. Social justice is a norm of civic rather than professional life; professional groups may demand that their members conform to the requirements of citizenship but ought not to require civic virtues such as social justice. Nor should any such requirements foreclose reasonable disagreement as to the content of civic norms, as requiring adherence to common specifications of social justice would do. Demands for any given form of social justice among physicians are unlikely to bear fruit as medical education is powerless to produce this virtue.

  6. Medical students and professional anatomists do not perceive gender bias within imagery featuring anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Susan; Plaisant, Odile; Lignier, Baptiste; Moxham, Bernard J

    2017-09-01

    Previous studies suggest that, while both medical students and professional anatomists recognize the importance of gender issues and do not wish to associate with sexism, most are unaware of the possible negative aspects of sexism within anatomy (Morgan et al. , J. Anat. 224:352-365; , Clin. Anat. 29:892-910). To further investigate this issue, we provided second year medical students at Cardiff University (n = 293) and at the University of Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité (n = 142) and professional anatomists (n = 208) with a questionnaire inviting them to address the possibility that gender factors within anatomical imagery (both historical and contemporary) hinder the dispassionate representation of anatomy. Ethical approval for the survey was obtained from the universities at both Cardiff and Paris. In the light of previous findings, the hypothesis tested was that medical students and professional anatomists do not perceive a gender bias when reflected in imagery that is based on anatomical iconography. Our survey results support this hypothesis and suggest that most students and anatomists are unaware of the possible negative aspects of sexism within the culture of anatomy. We consequently recommend that teachers of anatomy and authors of anatomical textbooks should be aware of the possibility of adverse effects on professional matters relating to equality and diversity issues when using imagery. Clin. Anat. 30:711-732, 2017. © 2017Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Levels of empathy and professional ethics in candidates to Medical Graduate School

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    José Luis Jiménez-López

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The current perception of a dehumanized medical attention and its low quality has questioned the empathic capacity and ethics of the health professionals. The research in this field reports variations in this attributes along the doctors’ education. Objective: to explore the global levels of empathy and professional ethics, as well as the levels of each component of both attributes in a sample of applicants to a medical graduate program. Methodology: 65 residents that applied for graduation studies in a very specialized medical unit were included. As part of the application process, they answered the Cognitive and Affective Empathy Test and the Professional Ethical Attitudes Scale. Results: The average scores of the sample got Average in empathy and Optimal in professional ethics. The comparison by gender, specialty and competences showed less affective and better ethical competence in women, more cognitive empathy in surgical specialties, and in general an absence of correlation between the two variables and specifically by competence. Conclusions: The importance of measuring the specific competences of each attribute is highlighted given that the variation in specific competences impact in different aspects the doctor’s education, as the specialty choice, the student selection, the development of academic programs and the adequate learning about the construction of an effective relation doctor-patient. © Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Sociales

  8. [The confrontation of sexuality in the professional practice of future physicians: the viewpoint of medical interns].

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    Salinas Urbina, Addis Abeba; Jarillo Soto, Edgar Carlos

    2013-03-01

    The subject of sexuality in academic and service institutions is perceived through predominantly biological conceptual perspectives, blurring the subjective component that is imbued in social and cultural processes. The meanings that medical staff construct around sexuality have implications in their professional development and practice. This work presents results from a qualitative study into the meaning of sexuality among medical interns from the Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Xochimilco. In-depth interviews were conducted with students during their community service. This group was selected because they had finished their studies and were performing an independent and autonomous professional practice. The results, which were analyzed based on Grounded Theory, revealed three dichotomies: biology vs. social construction, individual vs. professional and theoretical learning vs. experiences in the community. The most relevant aspect revealed was the antagonism found between a medical intern's biology-centered academic knowledge and the challenge posed by their patients' reproductive and sexual health needs. The interns recognize that they lack the necessary skills to face issues of sexuality in their professional practice.

  9. The Development and Impact of a Social Media and Professionalism Course for Medical Students.

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    Gomes, Alexandra W; Butera, Gisela; Chretien, Katherine C; Kind, Terry

    2017-01-01

    Inappropriate social media behavior can have detrimental effects on students' future opportunities, but medical students are given little opportunity to reflect upon ways of integrating their social media identities with their newly forming professional identities. In 2012, a required educational session was developed for 1st-year medical students on social media and professional identity. Objectives include identifying professionalism issues and recognizing positive social media use. The 2-hour large-group session uses student-generated social media examples to stimulate discussion and concludes with an expert panel. Students complete a postsession reflection assignment. The required social media session occurs early in the 1st year and is part of the Professionalism curriculum in The George Washington University School of Medicine. Reflection papers are graded for completion. The study began in 2012 and ran through 2014; a total of 313/505 participants (62%) volunteered for the study. Assessment occurred through qualitative analysis of students' reflection assignments. Most students (65%, 203/313) reported considering changes in their social media presence due to the session. The analysis revealed themes relating to a broader understanding of online identity and opportunities to enhance careers. In a 6-month follow-up survey of 76 students in the 2014 cohort who completed the entire survey, 73 (94%) reported some increase in awareness, and 48 (64%) made changes to their social media behavior due to the session (response rate = 76/165; 46%), reflecting the longer term impact. Opportunities for discussion and reflection are essential for transformational learning to occur, enabling understanding of other perspectives. Incorporating student-submitted social media examples heightened student interest and engagement. The social media environment is continually changing, so curricular approaches should remain adaptable to ensure timeliness and relevance. Including

  10. How Do Medical Schools Identify and Remediate Professionalism Lapses in Medical Students? A Study of U.S. and Canadian Medical Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziring, Deborah; Danoff, Deborah; Grosseman, Suely; Langer, Debra; Esposito, Amanda; Jan, Mian Kouresch; Rosenzweig, Steven; Novack, Dennis

    2015-07-01

    Teaching and assessing professionalism is an essential element of medical education, mandated by accrediting bodies. Responding to a call for comprehensive research on remediation of student professionalism lapses, the authors explored current medical school policies and practices. In 2012-2013, key administrators at U.S. and Canadian medical schools accredited by the Liaison Committee on Medical Education were interviewed via telephone or e-mail. The structured interview questionnaire contained open-ended and closed questions about practices for monitoring student professionalism, strategies for remediating lapses, and strengths and limitations of current systems. The authors employed a mixed-methods approach, using descriptive statistics and qualitative analysis based on grounded theory. Ninety-three (60.8%) of 153 eligible schools participated. Most (74/93; 79.6%) had specific policies and processes regarding professionalism lapses. Student affairs deans and course/clerkship directors were typically responsible for remediation oversight. Approaches for identifying lapses included incident-based reporting and routine student evaluations. The most common remediation strategies reported by schools that had remediated lapses were mandated mental health evaluation (74/90; 82.2%), remediation assignments (66/90; 73.3%), and professionalism mentoring (66/90; 73.3%). System strengths included catching minor offenses early, emphasizing professionalism schoolwide, focusing on helping rather than punishing students, and assuring transparency and good communication. System weaknesses included reluctance to report (by students and faculty), lack of faculty training, unclear policies, and ineffective remediation. In addition, considerable variability in feedforward processes existed between schools. The identified strengths can be used in developing best practices until studies of the strategies' effectiveness are conducted.

  11. Who deserves to be sick? An exploration of the relationships between belief in a just world, illness causal attributions and their fairness judgements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nudelman, Gabriel; Shiloh, Shoshana

    2011-12-01

    This research explored relationships between beliefs about justice, illness causal attributions and fairness judgements of those causes. Participants (n = 200) completed questionnaires assessing their belief in a just world (BJW) and measuring causal attributions and fairness judgements for 42 illness causes classified into behavioural, environmental and hidden (genetic, mystic, psychosocial) categories. As predicted, BJW was correlated positively with all fairness judgements, but with none of the illness causal attributions. Behavioural causes of illness were judged to be fairer than environmental causes, which were judged fairer than hidden causes. Finally, for environmental and hidden causes (uncontrollable illness attributions), positive correlations between causal attributions and their corresponding fairness judgements were found only among participants with high BJW. Implications of these findings for decision makers and health professionals are discussed, with emphasis on the need to consider the combined effect of causal attributions and BJW on illness fairness judgements.

  12. Professional identity formation in the transition from medical school to working life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Lasson, Lydia; Just, Eva; Stegeager, Nikolaj W.M.

    2016-01-01

    that this would endanger their professional career. Many found new ways to respond to everyday challenges mainly through a new awareness of patterns of thinking and feeling. Conclusions The participants found that the group-coaching course supported their professional identity formation (thinking, feeling...... and acting as a doctor), adoption to medical culture, career planning and managing a healthy work/life-balance. Further studies in different contexts are recommended as well as studies using other methods to test the results of this qualitative study....

  13. Evaluating Medical Student Communication/Professionalism Skills from a Patient's Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Larry E; King, Molly K; Wayne, Sharon J; Kalishman, Summers G

    2012-01-01

    Evaluate medical students' communication and professionalism skills from the perspective of the ambulatory patient and later compare these skills in their first year of residency. Students in third year neurology clerkship clinics see patients alone followed by a revisit with an attending neurologist. The patient is then asked to complete a voluntary, anonymous, Likert scale questionnaire rating the student on friendliness, listening to the patient, respecting the patient, using understandable language, and grooming. For students who had completed 1 year of residency these professionalism ratings were compared with those from their residency director. Seven hundred forty-two questionnaires for 165 clerkship students from 2007 to 2009 were analyzed. Eighty-three percent of forms were returned with an average of 5 per student. In 64% of questionnaires, patients rated students very good in all five categories; in 35% patients selected either very good or good ratings; and student fair. No students were rated poor or very poor. Sixty-two percent of patients wrote complimentary comments about the students. From the Class of 2008, 52% of students received "better than their peers" professionalism ratings from their PGY1 residency directors and only one student was rated "below their peers." This questionnaire allowed patient perceptions of their students' communication/professionalism skills to be evaluated in a systematic manner. Residency director ratings of professionalism of the same students at the end of their first year of residency confirms continued professional behavior.

  14. Opinions on conscientious objection to induced abortion among Finnish medical and nursing students and professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieminen, Petteri; Lappalainen, Saara; Ristimäki, Pauliina; Myllykangas, Markku; Mustonen, Anne-Mari

    2015-03-25

    Conscientious objection (CO) to participating in induced abortion is not present in the Finnish health care system or legislation unlike in many other European countries. We conducted a questionnaire survey with the 1(st)- and the last-year medical and nursing students and professionals (548 respondents; response rate 66-100%) including several aspects of the abortion process and their relation to CO in 2013. The male medical respondents chose later time points of pregnancy than the nursing respondents when considering when the embryo/fetus "becomes a person". Of all respondents, 3.5-14.1% expressed a personal wish to CO. The medical professionals supported the right to CO more often (34.2%) than the nursing professionals (21.4%), while ≥62.4% could work with someone expressing CO. Yet ≥57.9% of the respondents anticipated social problems at work communities caused by CO. Most respondents considered self-reported religious/ethical conviction to be adequate for CO but, at the same time, 30.1-50.7% considered that no conviction would be sufficient. The respondents most commonly included the medical doctor conducting surgical or medical abortion to be eligible to CO. The nursing respondents considered that vacuum suction would be a better justification for CO than medical abortion. The indications most commonly included to potential CO were second-trimester abortions and social reasons. Among the medical respondents, the men were more willing to grant CO also in case of a life-threatening emergency of the pregnant woman. While the respondents mostly seemed to consider the continuation of adequate services important if CO is introduced, the viewpoint was often focused on the staff and surgical abortion procedure instead of the patients. The issue proved to be complex, which should be taken into consideration for legislation.

  15. [Attitudes among Spanish and Latin American non-medical health professionals to living donor liver transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos, Antonio; López-Navas, Ana; Ayala-García, Marco; Sebastián, María José; Abdo-Cuza, Anselmo; Martínez-Alarcón, Laura; Ramírez, Ector Jaime; Muñoz, Gerardo; Suárez-López, Juliette; Castellanos, Roberto; González, Beatriz; Martínez, Miguel Ángel; Díaz, Ernesto; Ramírez, Pablo; Parrilla, Pascual

    2012-11-01

    Hospital professionals are an opinion group that influences the general population. To analyze attitudes to living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) among non-medical professionals working in Spanish and Latin American hospitals and to determine the variables that influence these attitudes. A random sample, stratified by department, was selected from non-medical staff in the "International Donor Collaborative Project": there were three hospitals in Spain, five in Mexico and two in Cuba. Attitudes were evaluated through a validated, anonymous, self-administered questionnaire. There were 951 non-medical professionals: 277 from Spain, 632 from Mexico and 42 from Cuba. A total of 86% (n = 818) were in favor of related living donation and 31% (n = 299) were in favor of unrelated living donation. This attitude was associated with the following: country (Mexico 88%, Cuba 83%, Spain 81%) (p =0.016), female sex (p =0.026), having experience of donation and transplantation (p =0.001), having a favorable attitude to donation (P believing that one's religion was in favor of donation and transplantation (P<0.001), and not worrying about bodily mutilation after donation (P <0.001). Attitudes toward related LDLT among non-medical staff in various Spanish, Mexican and Cuban hospitals are favorable. In 86% of those surveyed, this attitude was not influenced by classical psychosocial factors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  16. The provision of medical care in English professional football: An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, Dominic; Scott-Bell, Andrea; Waddington, Ivan

    2017-12-01

    To compare the current methods of appointment, qualifications and occupational experience of club doctors and physiotherapists in English professional football with (i) those outlined in a study published in 1999, and (ii) Football Association (FA) medical regulations. Qualitative. Postal questionnaire survey of (head) doctors and physiotherapists at each of the clubs in the English Premiership, Championship and Football Leagues 1 and 2. Response rates of 35.8% and 45.6% respectively were obtained. The majority of football club doctors are GPs who have sports medicine qualifications and relevant occupational experience. Time commitments vary from full time to a few hours per week. Most are appointed through personal contacts rather than job advertisements and/or interview. Almost all football clubs have a chartered physiotherapist, many of whom have a postgraduate qualification. They work full time and long hours. Most are appointed through personal contacts rather than job advertisements. They are frequently interviewed but not always by someone qualified to judge their professional expertise. Football club medical provision has become more extensive and increasingly professional over the last 10-20years, with better qualified, more career-oriented and more formally contracted staff. It is likely that clinical autonomy has subsequently increased. However recruitment procedures still need to be improved, especially in relation to advertising vacancies, interviewing candidates, and including medical personnel on interview panels. In two aspects clubs appear not to be compliant with current FA medical regulations. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Does the inclusion of 'professional development' teaching improve medical students' communication skills?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubacki Angela M

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study investigated whether the introduction of professional development teaching in the first two years of a medical course improved students' observed communication skills with simulated patients. Students' observed communication skills were related to patient-centred attitudes, confidence in communicating with patients and performance in later clinical examinations. Methods Eighty-two medical students from two consecutive cohorts at a UK medical school completed two videoed consultations with a simulated patient: one at the beginning of year 1 and one at the end of year 2. Group 1 (n = 35 received a traditional pre-clinical curriculum. Group 2 (n = 47 received a curriculum that included communication skills training integrated into a 'professional development' vertical module. Videoed consultations were rated using the Evans Interview Rating Scale by communication skills tutors. A subset of 27% were double-coded. Inter-rater reliability is reported. Results Students who had received the professional development teaching achieved higher ratings for use of silence, not interrupting the patient, and keeping the discussion relevant compared to students receiving the traditional curriculum. Patient-centred attitudes were not related to observed communication. Students who were less nervous and felt they knew how to listen were rated as better communicators. Students receiving the traditional curriculum and who had been rated as better communicators when they entered medical school performed less well in the final year clinical examination. Conclusions Students receiving the professional development training showed significant improvements in certain communication skills, but students in both cohorts improved over time. The lack of a relationship between observed communication skills and patient-centred attitudes may be a reflection of students' inexperience in working with patients, resulting in 'patient-centredness' being

  18. Does the inclusion of 'professional development' teaching improve medical students' communication skills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background This study investigated whether the introduction of professional development teaching in the first two years of a medical course improved students' observed communication skills with simulated patients. Students' observed communication skills were related to patient-centred attitudes, confidence in communicating with patients and performance in later clinical examinations. Methods Eighty-two medical students from two consecutive cohorts at a UK medical school completed two videoed consultations with a simulated patient: one at the beginning of year 1 and one at the end of year 2. Group 1 (n = 35) received a traditional pre-clinical curriculum. Group 2 (n = 47) received a curriculum that included communication skills training integrated into a 'professional development' vertical module. Videoed consultations were rated using the Evans Interview Rating Scale by communication skills tutors. A subset of 27% were double-coded. Inter-rater reliability is reported. Results Students who had received the professional development teaching achieved higher ratings for use of silence, not interrupting the patient, and keeping the discussion relevant compared to students receiving the traditional curriculum. Patient-centred attitudes were not related to observed communication. Students who were less nervous and felt they knew how to listen were rated as better communicators. Students receiving the traditional curriculum and who had been rated as better communicators when they entered medical school performed less well in the final year clinical examination. Conclusions Students receiving the professional development training showed significant improvements in certain communication skills, but students in both cohorts improved over time. The lack of a relationship between observed communication skills and patient-centred attitudes may be a reflection of students' inexperience in working with patients, resulting in 'patient-centredness' being an abstract concept

  19. Does the inclusion of 'professional development' teaching improve medical students' communication skills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joekes, Katherine; Noble, Lorraine M; Kubacki, Angela M; Potts, Henry W W; Lloyd, Margaret

    2011-06-27

    This study investigated whether the introduction of professional development teaching in the first two years of a medical course improved students' observed communication skills with simulated patients. Students' observed communication skills were related to patient-centred attitudes, confidence in communicating with patients and performance in later clinical examinations. Eighty-two medical students from two consecutive cohorts at a UK medical school completed two videoed consultations with a simulated patient: one at the beginning of year 1 and one at the end of year 2. Group 1 (n = 35) received a traditional pre-clinical curriculum. Group 2 (n = 47) received a curriculum that included communication skills training integrated into a 'professional development' vertical module. Videoed consultations were rated using the Evans Interview Rating Scale by communication skills tutors. A subset of 27% were double-coded. Inter-rater reliability is reported. Students who had received the professional development teaching achieved higher ratings for use of silence, not interrupting the patient, and keeping the discussion relevant compared to students receiving the traditional curriculum. Patient-centred attitudes were not related to observed communication. Students who were less nervous and felt they knew how to listen were rated as better communicators. Students receiving the traditional curriculum and who had been rated as better communicators when they entered medical school performed less well in the final year clinical examination. Students receiving the professional development training showed significant improvements in certain communication skills, but students in both cohorts improved over time. The lack of a relationship between observed communication skills and patient-centred attitudes may be a reflection of students' inexperience in working with patients, resulting in 'patient-centredness' being an abstract concept. Students in the early years of their medical

  20. Damage to the prefrontal cortex increases utilitarian moral judgements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenigs, Michael; Young, Liane; Adolphs, Ralph; Tranel, Daniel; Cushman, Fiery; Hauser, Marc; Damasio, Antonio

    2007-04-19

    The psychological and neurobiological processes underlying moral judgement have been the focus of many recent empirical studies. Of central interest is whether emotions play a causal role in moral judgement, and, in parallel, how emotion-related areas of the brain contribute to moral judgement. Here we show that six patients with focal bilateral damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPC), a brain region necessary for the normal generation of emotions and, in particular, social emotions, produce an abnormally 'utilitarian' pattern of judgements on moral dilemmas that pit compelling considerations of aggregate welfare against highly emotionally aversive behaviours (for example, having to sacrifice one person's life to save a number of other lives). In contrast, the VMPC patients' judgements were normal in other classes of moral dilemmas. These findings indicate that, for a selective set of moral dilemmas, the VMPC is critical for normal judgements of right and wrong. The findings support a necessary role for emotion in the generation of those judgements.

  1. The training and professional expectations of medical students in Angola, Guinea-Bissau and Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrinho, Paulo; Sidat, Mohsin; Fresta, Mário Jorge; Rodrigues, Amabélia; Fronteira, Inês; da Silva, Florinda; Mercer, Hugo; Cabral, Jorge; Dussault, Gilles

    2011-04-07

    The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyze the professional expectations of medical students during the 2007-2008 academic year at the public medical schools of Angola, Guinea-Bissau and Mozambique, and to identify their social and geographical origins, their professional expectations and difficulties relating to their education and professional future. Data were collected through a standardised questionnaire applied to all medical students registered during the 2007-2008 academic year. Students decide to study medicine at an early age. Relatives and friends seem to have an especially important influence in encouraging, reinforcing and promoting the desire to be a doctor.The degree of feminization of the student population differs among the different countries.Although most medical students are from outside the capital cities, expectations of getting into medical school are already associated with migration from the periphery to the capital city, even before entering medical education.Academic performance is poor. This seems to be related to difficulties in accessing materials, finances and insufficient high school preparation.Medical students recognize the public sector demand but their expectations are to combine public sector practice with private work, in order to improve their earnings. Salary expectations of students vary between the three countries.Approximately 75% want to train as hospital specialists and to follow a hospital-based career. A significant proportion is unsure about their future area of specialization, which for many students is equated with migration to study abroad. Medical education is an important national investment, but the returns obtained are not as efficient as expected. Investments in high-school preparation, tutoring, and infrastructure are likely to have a significant impact on the success rate of medical schools. Special attention should be given to the socialization of students and the role model status of their

  2. The training and professional expectations of medical students in Angola, Guinea-Bissau and Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fronteira Inês

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyze the professional expectations of medical students during the 2007-2008 academic year at the public medical schools of Angola, Guinea-Bissau and Mozambique, and to identify their social and geographical origins, their professional expectations and difficulties relating to their education and professional future. Methods Data were collected through a standardised questionnaire applied to all medical students registered during the 2007-2008 academic year. Results Students decide to study medicine at an early age. Relatives and friends seem to have an especially important influence in encouraging, reinforcing and promoting the desire to be a doctor. The degree of feminization of the student population differs among the different countries. Although most medical students are from outside the capital cities, expectations of getting into medical school are already associated with migration from the periphery to the capital city, even before entering medical education. Academic performance is poor. This seems to be related to difficulties in accessing materials, finances and insufficient high school preparation. Medical students recognize the public sector demand but their expectations are to combine public sector practice with private work, in order to improve their earnings. Salary expectations of students vary between the three countries. Approximately 75% want to train as hospital specialists and to follow a hospital-based career. A significant proportion is unsure about their future area of specialization, which for many students is equated with migration to study abroad. Conclusions Medical education is an important national investment, but the returns obtained are not as efficient as expected. Investments in high-school preparation, tutoring, and infrastructure are likely to have a significant impact on the success rate of medical schools. Special attention should be given

  3. Impact of vocational interests, previous academic experience, gender and age on Situational Judgement Test performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schripsema, Nienke R; van Trigt, Anke M; Borleffs, Jan C C; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    2017-05-01

    Situational Judgement Tests (SJTs) are increasingly implemented in medical school admissions. In this paper, we investigate the effects of vocational interests, previous academic experience, gender and age on SJT performance. The SJT was part of the selection process for the Bachelor's degree programme in Medicine at University of Groningen, the Netherlands. All applicants for the academic year 2015-2016 were included and had to choose between learning communities Global Health (n = 126), Sustainable Care (n = 149), Intramural Care (n = 225), or Molecular Medicine (n = 116). This choice was used as a proxy for vocational interest. In addition, all graduate-entry applicants for academic year 2015-2016 (n = 213) were included to examine the effect of previous academic experience on performance. We used MANCOVA analyses with Bonferroni post hoc multiple comparisons tests for applicant performance on a six-scenario SJT. The MANCOVA analyses showed that for all scenarios, the independent variables were significantly related to performance (Pillai's Trace: 0.02-0.47, p performance on three scenarios (p performance on two scenarios (p performance, as was previous academic experience. Gender and age were related to performance on SJT scenarios in different settings. Especially the first effect might be helpful in selecting appropriate candidates for areas of health care in which more professionals are needed.

  4. Interprofessional training for nursing and medical students in Norway: Exploring different professional perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aase, Ingunn; Hansen, Britt Sætre; Aase, Karina; Reeves, Scott

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an explorative case study focusing on interprofessional training for medical and nursing students in Norway. Based on interviews with, and observations of, multiple stakeholder groups--students, university faculty, and hospital staff--content analysis was applied to investigate their perspectives regarding the design of such educational training. The findings revealed a positive perspective amongst stakeholders while voicing some concerns related to how communication issues, collaboration, workflow, and professional role patterns should be reflected in such training. Based on our data analysis we derive three themes that must be considered for successful interprofessional training of nursing and medical students: clinical professionalism, team performance, and patient-centered perspective. These themes must be balanced contingent on the students' background and the learning objectives of future interprofessional training efforts.

  5. Medical Student Professionalism Narratives: A Thematic Analysis and Interdisciplinary Comparative Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Aaron W

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Professionalism development is influenced by the informal and hidden curriculum. The primary objective of this study was to better understand this experiential learning in the setting of the Emergency Department (ED. Secondarily, the study aimed to explore differences in the informal curriculum between Emergency Medicine (EM and Internal Medicine (IM clerkships. Methods A thematic analysis was conducted on 377 professionalism narratives from medical students completing a required EM clerkship from July 2008 through May 2010. The narratives were analyzed using established thematic categories from prior research as well as basic descriptive characteristics. Chi-square analysis was used to compare the frequency of thematic categories to prior research in IM. Finally, emerging themes not fully appreciated in the established thematic categories were created using grounded theory. Results Observations involving interactions between attending physician and patient were most abundant. The narratives were coded as positive 198 times, negative 128 times, and hybrid 37 times. The two most abundant narrative themes involved manifesting respect (36.9% and spending time (23.7%. Both of these themes were statistically more likely to be noted by students on EM clerkships compared to IM clerkships. Finally, one new theme regarding cynicism emerged during analysis. Conclusions This analysis describes an informal curriculum that is diverse in themes. Student narratives suggest their clinical experiences to be influential on professionalism development. Medical students focus on different aspects of professionalism depending on clerkship specialty.

  6. Medical student professionalism narratives: a thematic analysis and interdisciplinary comparative investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Aaron W; Malone, Matthew; Kman, Nicholas E; Caterino, Jeffrey M; Khandelwal, Sorabh

    2011-08-12

    Professionalism development is influenced by the informal and hidden curriculum. The primary objective of this study was to better understand this experiential learning in the setting of the Emergency Department (ED). Secondarily, the study aimed to explore differences in the informal curriculum between Emergency Medicine (EM) and Internal Medicine (IM) clerkships. A thematic analysis was conducted on 377 professionalism narratives from medical students completing a required EM clerkship from July 2008 through May 2010. The narratives were analyzed using established thematic categories from prior research as well as basic descriptive characteristics. Chi-square analysis was used to compare the frequency of thematic categories to prior research in IM. Finally, emerging themes not fully appreciated in the established thematic categories were created using grounded theory. Observations involving interactions between attending physician and patient were most abundant. The narratives were coded as positive 198 times, negative 128 times, and hybrid 37 times. The two most abundant narrative themes involved manifesting respect (36.9%) and spending time (23.7%). Both of these themes were statistically more likely to be noted by students on EM clerkships compared to IM clerkships. Finally, one new theme regarding cynicism emerged during analysis. This analysis describes an informal curriculum that is diverse in themes. Student narratives suggest their clinical experiences to be influential on professionalism development. Medical students focus on different aspects of professionalism depending on clerkship specialty.

  7. The current and future role of the medical oncologist in the professional care for cancer patients: a position paper by the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, R A; Schäfer, R; Califano, R; Eckert, R; Coleman, R; Douillard, J-Y; Cervantes, A; Casali, P G; Sessa, C; Van Cutsem, E; de Vries, E; Pavlidis, N; Fumasoli, K; Wörmann, B; Samonigg, H; Cascinu, S; Cruz Hernández, J J; Howard, A J; Ciardiello, F; Stahel, R A; Piccart, M

    2014-01-01

    The number of cancer patients in Europe is rising and significant advances in basic and applied cancer research are making the provision of optimal care more challenging. The concept of cancer as a systemic, highly heterogeneous and complex disease has increased the awareness that quality cancer care should be provided by a multidisciplinary team (MDT) of highly qualified healthcare professionals. Cancer patients also have the right to benefit from medical progress by receiving optimal treatment from adequately trained and highly skilled medical professionals. Built on the highest standards of professional training and continuing medical education, medical oncology is recognised as an independent medical specialty in many European countries. Medical oncology is a core member of the MDT and offers cancer patients a comprehensive and systemic approach to treatment and care, while ensuring evidence-based, safe and cost-effective use of cancer drugs and preserving the quality of life of cancer patients through the entire 'cancer journey'. Medical oncologists are also engaged in clinical and translational research to promote innovation and new therapies and they contribute to cancer diagnosis, prevention and research, making a difference for patients in a dynamic, stimulating professional environment. Medical oncologists play an important role in shaping the future of healthcare through innovation and are also actively involved at the political level to ensure a maximum contribution of the profession to Society and to tackle future challenges. This position paper summarises the multifarious and vital contributions of medical oncology and medical oncologists to today's and tomorrow's professional cancer care.

  8. Predicting medical professionals' intention to allow family presence during resuscitation: A cross sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Meng-Kuan; Aritejo, Bayu Aji; Tang, Jing-Shia; Chen, Chien-Liang; Chuang, Chia-Chang

    2017-05-01

    Family presence during resuscitation is an emerging trend, yet it remains controversial, even in countries with relatively high acceptance of family presence during resuscitation among medical professionals. Family presence during resuscitation is not common in many countries, and medical professionals in these regions are unfamiliar with family presence during resuscitation. Therefore, this study predicted the medical professionals' intention to allow family presence during resuscitation by applying the theory of planned behaviour. A cross-sectional survey. A single medical centre in southern Taiwan. Medical staffs including physicians and nurses in a single medical centre (n=714). A questionnaire was constructed to measure the theory of planned behaviour constructs of attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control, and behavioural intentions as well as the awareness of family presence during resuscitation and demographics. In total, 950 questionnaires were distributed to doctors and nurses in a medical centre. Among the 714 valid questionnaires, only 11 participants were aware of any association in Taiwan that promotes family presence during resuscitation; 94.7% replied that they were unsure (30.4%) or that their unit did not have a family presence during resuscitation policy (74.8%). Regression analysis was performed to predict medical professionals' intention to allow family presence during resuscitation. The results indicated that only positive attitudes and subjective norms regarding family presence during resuscitation and clinical tenure could predict the intention to allow family presence during resuscitation. Because Family presence during resuscitation practice is not common in Taiwan and only 26.19% of the participants agreed to both items measuring the intention to allow family presence during resuscitation, we recommend the implementation of a family presence during resuscitation education program that will enhance the positive beliefs

  9. Medical library downsizing administrative, professional, and personal strategies for coping with change

    CERN Document Server

    Schott, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Learn how to stay ahead of the game when budgets and staff are cut Medical Library Downsizing: Administrative, Professional, and Personal Strategies for Coping with Change explores corporate downsizing and other company-wide events as they relate to medical librarians in their organization. This training manual is designed to help librarians prepare for a new era where shrinking budgets, inflated journal costs, and the increasing demand for new and expensive services now put salaries and jobs at risk. While focused on health care issues, this book will appeal to a general library audience and

  10. 2005 Distinguished Academician Lecture: Evolution of postgraduate medical education in Singapore--role of professional associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugaratnam, K

    2005-12-01

    From 1910 to 1945, doctors in Singapore received postgraduate training through apprenticeship. During the early post-war period, some doctors in the public service were given scholarships to study in Britain and to obtain higher professional qualifications from the British Royal Colleges. The events that most influenced subsequent development of postgraduate education in Singapore occurred between 1956 and 1969: the formation of the Academy of Medicine and the Singapore Medical Association (SMA); organisation of courses for candidates preparing for examinations of the Royal Australasian and British Colleges; competition between the Academy and the University over responsibility for postgraduate medical education; the inauguration of the School of Postgraduate Medical Studies (SPMS); and the introduction of Master of Medicine (M Med) degrees in various medical specialties. From 1970 to 1999, there was expansion in several aspects of postgraduate medical education: SPMS awarded more than 2000 M Med degrees; the Singapore Medical Council (SMC) established a Register of Specialists and formed a Specialist Accreditation Board; the Academy formed Chapters in 10 specialties and developed Advanced Specialty Training programmes leading to Fellowship of the Academy of Medicine Singapore (FAMS); the SMA formed Societies in some 20 specialties; and a College of Family Physicians was inaugurated. There have been more developments from 2000 to 2005: the University restructured SPMS as a Division of Graduate Medical Studies within the Faculty of Medicine; the SMC implemented compulsory Continuing Medical Education; and the Academy converted 6 of its 10 Chapters into Colleges.

  11. How do postgraduate qualifications in medical education impact on health professionals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Ahsan; Schofield, Susie; Ajjawi, Rola; McAleer, Sean

    2016-01-01

    The number of degree-awarding programmes in medical education is steadily increasing. Despite the popularity and extensive investment in these courses, there is little research into their impact. This study investigated the perceived impact of an internationally-renowned postgraduate programme in medical education on health professionals' development as educators. An online survey of the 2008-12 graduates from the Centre for Medical Education, University of Dundee was carried out. Their self-reported shifts in various educational competencies and scholarship activities were analysed using non-parametric statistics. Qualitative data were also collected and analysed to add depth to the quantitative findings. Of the 504 graduates who received the online questionnaire 224 responded. Participants reported that a qualification in medical education had significantly (p educational practices and engagement in scholarly activities. Masters graduates reported greater impact compared to Certificate graduates on all items, including ability to facilitate curriculum reforms, and in assessment and feedback practices. Masters graduates also reported more engagement in scholarship activities, with significantly greater contributions to journals. These qualifications equally benefited all participants regardless of age. International graduates reported greater impact of the qualification than their UK counterparts. A postgraduate medical education programme can significantly impact on the practices and behaviours of health professionals in education, improving self-efficacy and instilling an increased sense of belonging to the educational community.

  12. The impact of social media and technology on professionalism in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essary, Alison C

    2011-01-01

    The use of social media is the norm among the digital native generation, with 75% of the Millennial Generation connected through Facebook. For students in medical education who struggle to distinguish between personal and professional boundaries, social media provides yet another challenge. Incidents of unprofessional conduct and academic dismissal have been reported. Administration, faculty, and students would benefit from clear policies and procedures, case scenarios of social media violations, and suggestions for using social media wisely.

  13. Visible Facebook profiles and e-professionalism in undergraduate medical students in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setu Gupta

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study aimed to assess medical students’ presence on Facebook and the extent of their visible activity, with particular reference to online professionalism. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study including all medical students enrolled in the University College of Medical Sciences, University of Delhi, India during the period of the study, which was conducted from 2011 to 2012. After approval by the Institutional Ethical Committee, the full names of all students were obtained from our institution. After creating a fictitious profile, Facebook was searched for students’ profiles, and those found were examined for visible content and unprofessional behaviour. Results: Of 611 students, 477 (78.1% had detectable Facebook profiles. Out of 477 profiles, date of birth, address, email, phone number, religion, and political views were rarely shared; sexual orientation and relationship status were displayed on approximately one third of the profiles; and an identifiable profile picture (80.3%, field of study (51.6%, and institution (86.2% were commonly shared . The visible content included friend lists (88.7%, photo albums (36.1%, and associations with diverse groups and pages (97.1%. Five profiles (1.05% displayed unprofessional content, including one profile photograph depicting alcohol consumption, one association with groups relating to excessive alcohol consumption, two profiles containing sexually explicit language, and one association with a sexist page. Conclusion: Most of our students use Facebook’s privacy settings to hide some content from others. Unprofessional content was rarely visible from a stranger’s profile. However, even when hidden from strangers, unprofessional behaviour is still unprofessional behaviour. As Facebook is an integral part of life, it is important for medical educators and students to understand the implications and importance of e-professionalism. Professionalism curricula should address e-professionalism.

  14. A Code of Professional Ethical Conduct for the American Medical Informatics Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurdle, John F.; Adams, Samantha; Brokel, Jane; Chang, Betty; Embi, Peter; Petersen, Carolyn; Terrazas, Enrique; Winkelstein, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The AMIA Board of Directors has decided to periodically publish AMIA’s Code of Professional Ethical Conduct for its members in the Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association. The Code also will be available on the AMIA Web site at www.amia.org as it continues to evolve in response to feedback from the AMIA membership. The AMIA Board acknowledges the continuing work and dedication of the AMIA Ethics Committee. AMIA is the copyright holder of this work. PMID:17460125

  15. Visible Facebook profiles and e-professionalism in undergraduate medical students in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Setu; Singh, Satendra; Dhaliwal, Upreet

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to assess medical students' presence on Facebook and the extent of their visible activity, with particular reference to online professionalism. This was a cross-sectional study including all medical students enrolled in the University College of Medical Sciences, University of Delhi, India during the period of the study, which was conducted from 2011 to 2012. After approval by the Institutional Ethical Committee, the full names of all students were obtained from our institution. After creating a fictitious profile, Facebook was searched for students' profiles, and those found were examined for visible content and unprofessional behaviour. Of 611 students, 477 (78.1%) had detectable Facebook profiles. Out of 477 profiles, date of birth, address, email, phone number, religion, and political views were rarely shared; sexual orientation and relationship status were displayed on approximately one third of the profiles; and an identifiable profile picture (80.3%), field of study (51.6%), and institution (86.2%) were commonly shared . The visible content included friend lists (88.7%), photo albums (36.1%), and associations with diverse groups and pages (97.1%). Five profiles (1.05%) displayed unprofessional content, including one profile photograph depicting alcohol consumption, one association with groups relating to excessive alcohol consumption, two profiles containing sexually explicit language, and one association with a sexist page. Most of our students use Facebook's privacy settings to hide some content from others. Unprofessional content was rarely visible from a stranger's profile. However, even when hidden from strangers, unprofessional behaviour is still unprofessional behaviour. As Facebook is an integral part of life, it is important for medical educators and students to understand the implications and importance of e-professionalism. Professionalism curricula should address e-professionalism.

  16. 'A world of difference': a qualitative study of medical students' views on professionalism and the 'good doctor'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta-Briand, Beatriz; Auret, Kirsten; Johnson, Paula; Playford, Denese

    2014-04-12

    The importance of professional behaviour has been emphasized in medical school curricula. However, the lack of consensus on what constitutes professionalism poses a challenge to medical educators, who often resort to a negative model of assessment based on the identification of unacceptable behaviour. This paper presents results from a study exploring medical students' views on professionalism, and reports on students' constructs of the 'good' and the 'professional' doctor. Data for this qualitative study were collected through focus groups conducted with medical students from one Western Australian university over a period of four years. Students were recruited through unit coordinators and invited to participate in a focus group. De-identified socio-demographic data were obtained through a brief questionnaire. Focus groups were audio-recorded, transcribed and subjected to inductive thematic analysis. A total of 49 medical students took part in 13 focus groups. Differences between students' understandings of the 'good' and 'professional' doctor were observed. Being competent, a good communicator and a good teacher were the main characteristics of the 'good' doctor. Professionalism was strongly associated with the adoption of a professional persona; following a code of practice and professional guidelines, and treating others with respect were also associated with the 'professional' doctor. Students felt more connected to the notion of the 'good' doctor, and perceived professionalism as an external and imposed construct. When both constructs were seen as acting in opposition, students tended to forgo professionalism in favour of becoming a 'good' doctor.Results suggest that the teaching of professionalism should incorporate more formal reflection on the complexities of medical practice, allowing students and educators to openly explore and articulate any perceived tensions between what is formally taught and what is being observed in clinical practice.

  17. Clinical judgement within the South African clinical nursing environment: A concept analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna C. van Graan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Reform in the South African healthcare and educational system were characterized by the ideals that the country needs to produce independent, critical thinkers. Nurses need to cope with diversity in a more creative way, defining their role in a complex, uncertain, rapidly changing health care environment. Quality clinical judgement is therefore imperative as an identified characteristic of newly qualified professional nurses. The objective of this study was to explore and describe clinical judgement through various data sources and review of literature to clarify the meaning and promote a common understanding through formulating the characteristics and developing a connotative (theoretical definition of the concept. An explorative, descriptive qualitative design was used to discover the complexity and meaning of the phenomenon. Multiple data sources and search strategies were used, for the time frame 1982—2013. A concept analysis was used to arrive at a theoretical definition of the concept of ‘clinical judgement’ as a complex cognitive skill to evaluate patient needs, adaption of current treatment protocols as well as new treatment strategies, prevention of adverse side effects through being proactive rather than reactive within the clinical nursing environment. The findings emphasized clinical judgement as skill within the clinical nursing environment, thereby improving autonomous and accountable nursing care. These findings will assist nurse leaders and clinical nurse educators in developing a teaching-learning strategy to promote clinical judgement in undergraduate nursing students, thereby contributing to the quality of nursing care.

  18. Taiwanese medical students' narratives of intercultural professionalism dilemmas: exploring tensions between Western medicine and Taiwanese culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Ming-Jung; Gosselin, Katherine; Chandratilake, Madawa; Monrouxe, Lynn V; Rees, Charlotte E

    2017-05-01

    In an era of globalization, cultural competence is necessary for the provision of quality healthcare. Although this topic has been well explored in non-Western cultures within Western contexts, the authors explore how Taiwanese medical students trained in Western medicine address intercultural professionalism dilemmas related to tensions between Western medicine and Taiwanese culture. A narrative interview method was employed with 64 Taiwanese medical students to collect narratives of professionalism dilemmas. Noting the prominence of culture in students' narratives, we explored this theme further using secondary analysis, identifying tensions between Western medicine and Taiwanese culture and categorizing students' intercultural professionalism dilemmas according to Friedman and Berthoin Antal's 'intercultural competence' framework: involving combinations of advocacy (i.e., championing one's own culture) and inquiry (i.e., exploring one's own and others' cultures). One or more intercultural dilemmas were identified in nearly half of students' professionalism dilemma narratives. Qualitative themes included: family relations, local policy, end-of-life care, traditional medicine, gender relations and Taiwanese language. Of the 62 narratives with sufficient detail for further analysis, the majority demonstrated the 'suboptimal' low advocacy/low inquiry approach (i.e., withdrawal or inaction), while very few demonstrated the 'ideal' high advocacy/high inquiry approach (i.e., generating mutual understanding, so 'intercultural competence'). Though nearly half of students' professionalism narratives concerned intercultural dilemmas, most narratives represented disengagement from intercultural dilemmas, highlighting a possible need for more attention on intercultural competence training in Taiwan. The advocacy/inquiry framework may help educators to address similar disconnects between Western medicine and non-Western cultures in other contexts.

  19. The situational judgement test: a student’s worst nightmare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najim M

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Muhammad Najim, Riham Rabee, Yusuf Sherwani, Maroof Ahmed, Muhammad Ashraf, Osama Al-Jibury, Rula NajimImperial College London, South Kensington, London, UKThe expert opinion by Singagireson et al1 questioning the fairness of the Situational Judgement Test (SJT is a fascinating insight and has brought to light a pertinent issue regarding job allocation for junior doctors.The 2010 Improving Selection to the Foundation Programme: Appendix D FY1 Job Analysis report2 introduced a two-fold system in which newly graduated doctors are allocated jobs based solely on their educational performance measure (EPM and SJT score. The EPM reflects the graduate’s medical school performance based on their rank within their year group, as well as any other degrees and publications they have. The remaining 50% of a graduate’s FY1 job allocation is based on the SJT.View original paper by Singagireson et al

  20. Learning medical English: A prerequisite for successful academic and professional education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milosavljević Nataša

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present specificities of the English language teaching necessary for successful education and professional training of medical students. In contemporary globalized world the English language has become the basic language of communication in all scientific fields including the field of medical science. It is well established that Medical English teaching should primarily focus on stable linguistic competence in English that is created by means of content and context based curriculum, thus preparing students for active use of English upon graduation. In order to achieve this it is very important that English language teaching be based on specific real situations in which the language is to be used. In addition, students should be encouraged to adapt practical skills applicable in specific future professional setting. Medical English teaching represents constant challenge for teachers because they need to be flexible, open to new approaches and methods, make decisions and adapt themselves to constant changes. In addition, long-term learning is at the core of higher education, and being equal partners, both students and teachers should be aware that education is a two-way process.

  1. Relevance of the rationalist-intuitionist debate for ethics and professionalism in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leffel, G Michael; Oakes Mueller, Ross A; Curlin, Farr A; Yoon, John D

    2015-12-01

    Despite widespread pedagogical efforts to modify discrete behaviors in developing physicians, the professionalism movement has generally shied away from essential questions such as what virtues characterize the good physician, and how are those virtues formed? Although there is widespread adoption of medical ethics curricula, there is still no consensus about the primary goals of ethics education. Two prevailing perspectives dominate the literature, constituting what is sometimes referred to as the "virtue/skill dichotomy". The first perspective argues that teaching ethics is a means of providing physicians with a skill set for analyzing and resolving ethical dilemmas. The second perspective suggests that teaching ethics is a means of creating virtuous physicians. The authors argue that this debate about medical ethics education mirrors the Rationalist-Intuitionist debate in contemporary moral psychology. In the following essay, the authors sketch the relevance of the Rationalist-Intuitionist debate to medical ethics and professionalism. They then outline a moral intuitionist model of virtuous caring that derives from but also extends the "social intuitionist model" of moral action and virtue. This moral intuitionist model suggests several practical implications specifically for medical character education but also for health science education in general. This approach proposes that character development is best accomplished by tuning-up (activating) moral intuitions, amplifying (intensifying) moral emotions related to intuitions, and strengthening (expanding) intuition-expressive, emotion-related moral virtues, more than by "learning" explicit ethical rules or principles.

  2. Nurses' critical event risk assessments: a judgement analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Carl; Bucknall, Tracey; Estabrookes, Carole A; Hutchinson, Alison; Fraser, Kim; de Vos, Rien; Binnecade, Jan; Barrat, Gez; Saunders, Jane

    2009-02-01

    To explore and explain nurses' use of readily available clinical information when deciding whether a patient is at risk of a critical event. Half of inpatients who suffer a cardiac arrest have documented but unacted upon clinical signs of deterioration in the 24 hours prior to the event. Nurses appear to be both misinterpreting and mismanaging the nursing-knowledge 'basics' such as heart rate, respiratory rate and oxygenation. Whilst many medical interventions originate from nurses, up to 26% of nurses' responses to abnormal signs result in delays of between one and three hours. A double system judgement analysis using Brunswik's lens model of cognition was undertaken with 245 Dutch, UK, Canadian and Australian acute care nurses. Nurses were asked to judge the likelihood of a critical event, 'at-risk' status, and whether they would intervene in response to 50 computer-presented clinical scenarios in which data on heart rate, systolic blood pressure, urine output, oxygen saturation, conscious level and oxygenation support were varied. Nurses were also presented with a protocol recommendation and also placed under time pressure for some of the scenarios. The ecological criterion was the predicted level of risk from the Modified Early Warning Score assessments of 232 UK acute care inpatients. Despite receiving identical information, nurses varied considerably in their risk assessments. The differences can be partly explained by variability in weightings given to information. Time and protocol recommendations were given more weighting than clinical information for key dichotomous choices such as classifying a patient as 'at risk' and deciding to intervene. Nurses' weighting of cues did not mirror the same information's contribution to risk in real patients. Nurses synthesized information in non-linear ways that contributed little to decisional accuracy. The low-moderate achievement (R(a)) statistics suggests that nurses' assessments of risk were largely inaccurate

  3. Professional Stress and Burnout in U.S. Military Medical Personnel Deployed to Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Amy B; Adrian, Amanda L; Hemphill, Marla; Scaro, Nicole H; Sipos, Maurice L; Thomas, Jeffrey L

    2017-03-01

    Studies of medical staff members have consistently documented high levels of burnout compared to those in other professions. Although there are studies of burnout in military medical staff, there are gaps in understanding the experience of medical staff while they are deployed and few occupationally-related factors associated with decreased burnout have been identified in this population. To assess work-related variables accounting for burnout over and above rank, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and professional stressors in the deployed environment. U.S. military medical staff members were surveyed in Afghanistan. The survey assessed burnout (emotional exhaustion and depersonalization), PTSD symptoms, perception of professional stressors, self-care behaviors, taking care of team members (team care), general leadership, and health-promoting leadership. Participants provided informed consent under a protocol approved by the institutional review board at Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, and coordinated through the Washington Headquarters Service and the Joint Casualty Care Research Team located in Afghanistan. A total of 344 individuals provided their consent (83.3%) and completed the survey. Correlations found significant positive relationships between perception of professional stressors and levels of burnout. Significant negative correlations were found between burnout and self-care, team care, general leadership, and health-promoting leadership. Regression analyses found self-care and team care accounted for less burnout even after controlling for rank, PTSD symptoms, and professional stressors. Health-promoting leadership accounted for less burnout even after controlling for these same covariates and general leadership as well. Although a cross-sectional survey, results provide three specific directions for reducing burnout in deployed medical staff. By emphasizing self-care, team care, and health-promoting leadership, policy makers

  4. [The professionalized transformation of medical witchcraft in the Qin-Han Dynasties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Liu, Changhua

    2014-03-01

    By witchcraft, it refers to the activities of imagining and intending to affect or control the object through"supernatural power". Ancient witchcraft was applied extensively in which those applied for medical purpose included sorcery, praying, superstitious art of anti-disaster, and tabooing, were collectively called"medical witchcraft". During the Qin-Han periods, witchcraft was transformed by the theory of Yin-Yang and Five-Phases as a part of technical profession. Among them, the system of demon-ghost witchcraft was replaced by the necromantic ghost system; exorcism and taboo system were infiltrated with the conception of the art of mathematics and technical system; whereas the superstitious art of anti-disaster was replaced by incantation. The remnants of medical witchcraft not yet totally transformed were also applied by the technical professionals of the Qin-Han Dynasties.

  5. The development of an electronic educational portfolio: an outline for medical education professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Kadriye O; Baker, Raymond C

    2007-01-01

    A growing body of literature shows that many universities and colleges are making educational portfolios part of their faculty assessment and student's learning plan for both undergraduate and graduate programs. We provide an outline for the development of a medical educator's portfolio, including an electronic version. Guidelines for the development of an educational portfolio focusing on medical education are provided, including design, format, and content. An electronic version of the portfolio, which combines flexibility and ease of revision, is also described, including formats for publication and distribution. Student reflections on the e-portfolio are presented, and potential applications of the e-portfolio in medical education are described. We believe that portfolio development is a valuable application that provides rich documentation of participants' educational history, accomplishments, and intellectual property as related to their professional learning and growth.

  6. The Australian Medical Council draft code of professional conduct: good practice or creeping authoritarianism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komesaroff, Paul A; Kerridge, Ian H

    2009-02-16

    In preparation for a national medical registration system, the Australian Medical Council has proposed a code of conduct ("the Code") that provides a comprehensive description of how doctors should behave. While containing much that will be widely acceptable to doctors, the Code has some major weaknesses: Many of its provisions focus on values and aspirations of a very general nature and will be impossible to enforce. It is based on a narrow, culturally specific view of medicine and ethics that does not reflect the multicultural diversity of Australian society. It confuses the roles of ethics and law in medicine, leading to inappropriate and mistaken injunctions about decision making and responsibilities. In place of the existing, effective, democratic and devolved (if imperfect) system of ethical and professional decision making, it threatens to establish a centralised, authoritarian regime. Because of its limited, ideological view of medicine, its implementation would impoverish medical practice and erode the ability to respond to individual circumstances and needs.

  7. Continuous professional competence (CPC) for emergency medical technicians in Ireland: educational needs assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Shane; Cullen, Walter; Dunne, Colum

    2013-12-17

    As in other countries, the Irish Regulator for Pre-Hospital practitioners, the Pre-Hospital Emergency Care Council (PHECC), will introduce a Continuous Professional Competence (CPC) framework for all Emergency Medical Technicians (EMTs), Paramedics and Advanced Paramedics (APs). This framework involves EMTs participating in regular and structured training to maintain professional competence and enable continuous professional developments. To inform the development of this framework, this study aimed to identify what EMTs consider the optimum educational outcomes and activity and their attitude towards CPC. All EMTs registered in Ireland (n = 925) were invited via email to complete an anonymous online survey. Survey questions were designed based on Continuous Professional Development (CPD) questionnaires used by other healthcare professions. Quantitative and qualitative analyses were performed. Response rate was 43% (n = 399). 84% of participants had been registered in Ireland for less than 24 months, while 59% had been registered EMTs for more than one year. Outcomes were: evidence of CPC should be a condition for EMT registration in Ireland (95%), 78% believed that EMTs who do not maintain CPC should be denied the option to re-register. Although not required to do so at the time of survey, 69% maintained a professional portfolio and 24% had completed up to 20 hours of CPC activities in the prior 12 months. From a list of 22 proposed CPC activities, 97% stated that practical scenario-based exercises were most relevant to their role. E-learning curricula without practical components were considered irrelevant (32%), but the majority of participants (91%) welcomed access to e-learning when supplemented by related practical modules. EMTs are supportive of CPC as a key part of their professional development and registration. Blended learning, which involves clinical and practical skills and e-learning, is the optimum approach.

  8. Changing Expectations, Same Perspective: Preservice Teachers' Judgments of Professional Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Graham; Spendlove, David; Shortt, Damien

    2015-01-01

    This two-part study tracks and measures the professional self-efficacy judgements of two cohorts of pre-service teachers (PST). In Part One, the GTCE's Code of Conduct and Practice (GTCE, 2009) was used to help form an instrument which tracked changes in the professional self-efficacy judgements of 211 PST through a one-year graduate program.…

  9. Personal, professional, and work factors associated with Australian clinical medical practitioners' experiences of workplace aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Danny J; Joyce, Catherine M

    2013-08-01

    This study examined the extent to which a range of personal, professional, and work factors are associated with workplace aggression experienced by medical practitioners in Australian clinical practice settings. An exploratory, descriptive study of cross-sectional, self-report survey design was undertaken in the third wave of the Medicine in Australia: Balancing Employment and Life survey during 2010-2011. Of 16 327 medical practitioners sampled, 9951 (60.9%) responded and 9449 (57.9%) worked in clinical practice. Logistic regression was undertaken to detect statistically significant associations between a suite of personal, professional, and work variables and eight binary outcome variables measuring exposure to verbal or written and physical aggression from patients, patients' relatives or carers, co-workers and others external to the workplace during the previous year. Age was consistently negatively associated and external control orientation was consistently positively associated with workplace aggression exposure from each source. Key variables related to work conditions (total hours worked, unpredictable work hours, a poor support network of other doctors, patients with unrealistic expectations, patients with complex health and social problems) and the presence of workplace aggression prevention and minimization strategies (alerts to high risk of aggression, restricting or withdrawing access for aggressive persons and optimized patient waiting) were also associated with aggression exposure. A broader implementation of strategies to prevent and minimize the likelihood and consequences of workplace aggression is required and needs to take account of both the individual and sub-group profiles of medical practitioners. Strategies need to mitigate the more challenging aspects of medical work, including excessive work hours, inadequate access to professional support networks, and larger caseloads of patients with complex conditions.

  10. [Criminal claims about medical professional liability in the Instituto de Medicina Legal of Lima, Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Sandoval, Cleyber; Arones-Guevara, Shermany; Carrera-Palao, Rosa; Casana-Jara, Kelly; Colque-Jaliri, Tomasa

    2013-07-01

    To determine the characteristics of the criminal complaints claining medical professional liability, based on the expert reports issued by the Forensic Examination Division of Lima, Peru. A cross-sectional study was carried out, which included all the expert reports issued between 2005 and 2010 at the Forensic Examination Division of Lima, Peru. A descriptive analysis of each of the variables was performed. 60.3% (495/821) of the criminal complaints for medical professional liability were valued as being in accordance with the lex artis while 16.8% (138/821) were not in accordance with the lex artis. In 13% (107/821) of the cases, conclusions could not be drawn;in 9.9% (81/821) of the cases, the conclusions in the expert report did not include an valuations of the medical act.The cases in which the injury was attributed to the process of the disease itself accounted for 80.9% (502/620), and those in which in the injury was considered a result of the health care received were 19.0% (118/620). The distribution of the cause of the injury based on accordance with the lex artis showed significant differences. In our country, the number of claims for claimed medical liability is increasing, predominantly in relation to surgical specialties, where a medical act is more likely to be considered not in accordance with the lex artis. In addition, in a significant percentage of cases, no conclusions are drawn about the medical act.

  11. Sports reporting: a comprehensive review of the medical literature regarding North American professional sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhni, Eric C; Buza, John A; Byram, Ian; Ahmad, Christopher S

    2014-05-01

    The increased physical demands of professional athletes predispose this patient population to a unique set of injuries typically not seen in the general population. This systematic literature review investigates the nature of injury reporting (both orthopedic and nonorthopedic conditions) in the medical literature of professional athletes in the National Football League (NFL), Major League Baseball (MLB), the National Basketball Association (NBA), and the National Hockey League (NHL). Rigorous reporting of sports injuries helps clinicians better understand disease mechanisms relevant to specific sports. The nature of injury reporting will differ within each professional sport and reflect the anatomic emphasis of each sport. An electronic literature search of all publications addressing injuries and medical conditions among professional athletes in the NFL, MLB, NBA, and NHL was conducted using the Pubmed/Medline, Scopus, and Embase databases through January 2013. Retrieved publications were categorized by journal type, medical type, and area of focus. A total of 536 publications met all inclusion criteria. There were a higher number of articles regarding the NFL (n = 211) and MLB (n = 216) when compared with the NBA (n = 34) or NHL (n = 75). The NFL had significantly more articles addressing nonorthopedic injuries/medical issues than were found with the MLB, NBA, or NHL (109 vs 75, 14, 41, respectively). Both the NFL (33 of 109, 30%) and NHL (6 of 41, 15%) had a relatively high percentage of articles regarding concussions/neurology, and MLB had a relatively high percentage of articles dedicated to vascular medicine (13 of 65, 20%). The proportion of publications dedicated to the knee/lower leg were highest in the NFL (29 of 102, 28%) and NBA (9 of 20, 45%), those dedicated to the shoulder/elbow were highest in MLB (113 of 151, 75%), and those dedicated to the hip/pelvis were highest in the NHL (16 of 34, 47%). The number and type of publications vary among the 4

  12. Characteristics of nursing professionals and the practice of ecologically sustainable actions in the medication processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia de Oliveira Furukawa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives: to verify the correlation between the characteristics of professionals and the practice of sustainable actions in the medication processes in an ICU, and to determine if interventions such as training and awareness can promote sustainable practices performed by nursing staff in the hospital. Methods: before-and-after design study using Lean Six Sigma methodology, applied in an intensive care unit. Nursing staff were observed regarding the practice of ecologically sustainable actions during medication processes (n = 324 cases for each group (pre and post-intervention through a data collection instrument. The processes analyzed involved 99 professionals in the pre-intervention phase and 97 in the post-intervention phase. Data were analyzed quantitatively and the association of variables was accomplished by means of statistical inference, according to the nature of the related variables. Results: the education level was the only characteristic that showed to be relevant to an increase in sustainable practices, with a statistically significant difference (p = 0.002. When comparing before and after the intervention, there was an increase in environmentally friendly actions with statistically significant differences (p = 0.001. Conclusions: the results suggest that institutions should encourage and invest in formal education, as well as training of health professionals to promote sustainable practices in the hospital.

  13. Professional identity (trans)formation in medical education: reflection, relationship, resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, Hedy S

    2015-06-01

    A fundamental goal of medical education is the active, constructive, transformative process of professional identity formation (PIF). Medical educators are thus charged with designing standardized and personalized curricula for guiding, supporting, and challenging learners on the developmental professional identity pathway, including the process of socialization. The author of this Commentary provides an overview of foundational principles and key drivers of PIF supporting the being, relating, and doing the work of a compassionate and competent physician. Key elements of PIF including guided reflection, use of personal narratives, integral role of relationships and role modeling, and community of practice are viewed through various lenses of PIF theory and pedagogy. Questions informing the PIF discourse are raised, including interprofessional identity considerations. Central emergent themes of reflective practice, relationships, and resilience are described as supporting and reciprocally enhancing PIF. Overarching lessons include attending to learners' and faculty's PIF within a developmental trajectory of the professional life cycle; process and content within PIF curricula as well as learners' individual and collective voices; curricular/extracurricular factors contributing to socialization, self-awareness, development of core values, and moral leadership; integrating PIF domains within pedagogy; faculty development for skilled mentoring and reflective coaching; and implementing resilience-promoting skill sets as "protective" within PIF. Outcomes assessment including the impact of curricula on learners and on patient-centered care can be challenging, and potential next steps toward this goal are discussed.

  14. Concussion knowledge and management practices among coaches and medical staff in Irish professional rugby teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraas, M R; Coughlan, G F; Hart, E C; McCarthy, C

    2015-06-01

    Self-reported concussion rates among U-20 and elite rugby union players in Ireland are 45-48%. Half of these injuries go unreported. Accurate knowledge of concussion signs and symptoms and appropriate management practices among coaches and medical staff is important to improve the welfare of players. Examine concussion knowledge among coaches, and management techniques among medical staff of professional Irish rugby teams. Surveys were administered to 11 coaches and 12 medical staff at the end of the 2010-2011 season. Coaches demonstrated an accurate knowledge of concussion with a good understanding of concussion-related symptoms. Medical staff reported using a variety of methods for assessing concussion and making return-to-play decisions. Reliance on subjective clinical methods was evident, with less reliance on objective postural stability performance. Overall, the coaches in this investigation have accurate knowledge of concussion and medical staff use effective techniques for managing this injury. On-going education is needed to assist coaches in identifying concussion signs and symptoms. It is recommended that medical staff increase their reliance on objective methods for assessment and return-to-play decision making.

  15. AME survey-003 A2: on the attractiveness of an medicine career in current China with a survey of 7,508 medical professionals and 443 non-medical professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wáng, Yì Xiáng J; Li, Yáo T

    2016-02-01

    This is a part of the study of AME survey-003, aiming to understand the motivation and attractiveness of a career in medicine in China. The surveys were conducted on DXY platform with 3,564 medical professionals during October 26 to November 20; on Sojump platform with 1,587 medical professionals during October 28 to December 14, and 443 non-medical professionals during November 15 to December, all in 2015. Similar to our previous result, the not regretted participants vs. regretted participants (N/Y) ratio was 1.1 (Pcareer choice among medical professionals' children (104/508, 20.5%), followed by finance and economics (74/508, 14.4%), and then electronic engineering or computer science (67/508, 13.2%). Among the 443 non-medical professionals, 122 have children who are attending university or have graduated, 12 (9.8%, 12/122) of them are pursuing a career in medicine. For the 100 non-medical professional parents whose children did not study medicine and if a choice could be given to them to start again, 60 parents (54.5%) replied they would support their children to study medicine. Our results consistently show medicine remained an attractive profession in China.

  16. Damage to the prefrontal cortex increases utilitarian moral judgements

    OpenAIRE

    Koenigs, Michael; Young, Liane; Adolphs, Ralph; Tranel, Daniel; Cushman, Fiery; Hauser, Marc; Damasio, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    The psychological and neurobiological processes underlying moral judgement have been the focus of many recent empirical studies1–11. Of central interest is whether emotions play a causal role in moral judgement, and, in parallel, how emotion-related areas of the brain contribute to moral judgement. Here we show that six patients with focal bilateral damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPC), a brain region necessary for the normal generation of emotions and, in particular, social em...

  17. [Medical professionals on the subject of their core values: the importance of practice-based stories and intrinsic motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witman, Y.; Kerkhof, P.C. van de; Braat, D.D.M.

    2013-01-01

    In the current system for guaranteeing quality of care, emphasis is placed firmly on external control of professionals. We looked for a way to appeal to the intrinsic motivation of medical professionals and to discover what they mean by 'good work'. This was achieved with the aid of reflective

  18. Management of adaptation of graduates of medical schools to conditions of independent professional activity: research and optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erugina M.V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Objective: research of regularities of adaptation of graduates of medical schools to conditions of independent professional activity and justification of the directions of optimization of management by this process. Material and Methods. Object of research included functioning of system of adaptation of graduates of medical schools to conditions of independent professional activity. Are carried out: The study of reports of the Saratov region for 2006-2012, documentation of 16 treatment-and-prophylactic medical organizations and 84 responses on graduates of Saratov State Medical University n.a. V. I. Razumovsky; anonymous retrospective questioning of 164 doctors after professional retraining at the faculty of professional development; expert questionnaire of 15 persons of the faculty of organizational chairs have been carried out. Results. In the work "complex adaptation factor"; dynamics of level of social and psychological, psychophysiological, organizational and professional indicators of adaptation of graduates to conditions of independent professional activity; the characteristic of "lagging behind" doctors; purposes of management of adaptation, importance of stages of its organizational support have been established. The ways to evaluate the success of individual adaptation and management of this process have been worked out, which are designed on the basis of the corresponding authorized optimization technology. Conclusion. Results of the conducted research allowed to expand idea of adaptation of graduates of medical schools to conditions of independent professional activity and to solve a number of applied problems of its optimization.

  19. Developing personal attributes of professionalism during clinical rotations: views of final year bachelor of clinical medical practice students

    OpenAIRE

    Mapukata-Sondzaba, Nontsikelelo; Dhai, Ames; Tsotsi, Norma; Ross, Eleanor

    2014-01-01

    Background Medical professionalism as a set of behaviours that transcends personal values, beliefs and attitudes to incorporate ethical and moral principles is considered a covenant between society and the practice of medicine. The Bachelor of Clinical Medical Practice (BCMP) a three year professional degree was launched at the University of the Witwatersrand in January 2009 in response to a documented shortage of doctors especially in the rural areas of South Africa. The BCMP programme is un...

  20. Emotional Burnout, Perceived Sources of Job Stress, Professional Fulfillment, and Engagement among Medical Residents in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Abdo Radman Al-Dubai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was the first to explore factors associated with emotional burnout (EB among medical residents in Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a universal sample of 205 medical residents in a Malaysian general hospital. The self-administered questionnaire used consisted of questions on sociodemographics and work characteristics, sources of job stress, professional fulfillment, engagement, and EB. EB was measured using the emotional exhaustion subscale, the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI. Mean (±SD age of the respondents was 26.5 (±1.6. The most common source of job stress was “fear of making mistakes.” Most of the participants were dissatisfied with the increase of residentship period from one year to two years. A high level of EB was reported by 36.6% of the respondents. In multivariate analysis, the most important correlates of EB were sources of job stress, professional fulfillment, and engagement. A high prevalence of EB was found among medical residents. Sociodemographic characteristics, performance pressure, and satisfaction with policies were significantly associated with EB. Although this study was limited by its cross-sectional design, its findings posit a sufficient foundation to relevant authorities to construct, amend, and amalgamate existing and future policies.

  1. Smartphone Use and the Perception of Professionalism Among Medical Students and Surgical Faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Silka; Lidor, Anne; Sanyal, Abanti; Goepfert, Alice R; Hueppchen, Nancy

    2017-08-03

    To understand the perception of professionalism surrounding smartphone use (wards/educational activities) among medical students and surgical faculty. A prospective cohort study was conducted using an electronic survey and distributed to third- and fourth-year medical students, obstetrics/gynecology, and surgery faculty members. Five cases were randomly presented; participants were asked to review and rate the clinician's behavior on a 5-point Likert scale. The study was completed at The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, a tertiary care institution, in the departments of gyn/ob and surgery. A total of 123 medical students (51% response rate) from the class of 2015/2016 along with 73 surgical faculty in the departments of gyn/ob and surgery completed the study. Of the surgical faculty, 48% were ob/gyn (54% response rate) and 52% were surgery (21% response rate). Of note, when quarrying the department of surgery all surgical faculty were included, however, only those with direct student interaction were asked to complete the survey leading to the lower response rate. In 3 of 5 scenarios, students and faculty had significant differences in perception of professionalism (pperception of acceptable behavior in certain scenarios. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of a personal and professional development module in an undergraduate medical curriculum in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komattil, Ramnarayan; Hande, Shyamala Handattu; Mohammed, Ciraj Ali; Subramaniam, Barathi

    2016-03-01

    The study aimed at evaluating the personal and professional development (PPD) module in the undergraduate medical curriculum in Melaka Manipal Medical College, India. PPD hours were incorporated in the curriculum. A team of faculty members and a faculty coordinator identified relevant topics and students were introduced to topics such as medical humanities, leadership skills, communication skills, ethics, professional behavior, and patient narratives. The module was evaluated using a prevalidated course feedback questionnaire which was administered to three consecutive batches of students from March 2011 to March 2013. To analyze faculty perspectives, one to one in-depth interviews and focus group discussions were conducted by the coordinators with faculty members who conducted the PPD classes. Analysis of the course feedback form revealed that majority (80%) of students agreed that the module was well prepared and was "highly relevant" to the profession. Faculty found the topics new and interdisciplinary and there was a sense of sharing responsibility and workload by the faculty. PPD modules are necessary components of the curriculum and help to mould students while they are still acquiescent as they assume their roles as doctors of the future.

  3. Evaluation of a personal and professional development module in an undergraduate medical curriculum in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramnarayan Komattil

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at evaluating the personal and professional development (PPD module in the undergraduate medical curriculum in Melaka Manipal Medical College, India. PPD hours were incorporated in the curriculum. A team of faculty members and a faculty coordinator identified relevant topics and students were introduced to topics such as medical humanities, leadership skills, communication skills, ethics, professional behavior, and patient narratives. The module was evaluated using a prevalidated course feedback questionnaire which was administered to three consecutive batches of students from March 2011 to March 2013. To analyze faculty perspectives, one to one in-depth interviews and focus group discussions were conducted by the coordinators with faculty members who conducted the PPD classes. Analysis of the course feedback form revealed that majority (80% of students agreed that the module was well prepared and was "highly relevant" to the profession. Faculty found the topics new and interdisciplinary and there was a sense of sharing responsibility and workload by the faculty. PPD modules are necessary components of the curriculum and help to mould students while they are still acquiescent as they assume their roles as doctors of the future.

  4. Self-Care in Palliative Care Nursing and Medical Professionals: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Jason; Wand, Timothy; Fraser, Jennifer A

    2017-06-01

    Self-care is an important consideration for palliative care professionals. To date, few details have been recorded about the nature or uptake of self-care practices in the palliative care workforce. As part of a broader mixed methods study, this article reports findings from a national survey of nurses and doctors. The objective of this study was to examine perceptions, education, and practices relating to self-care among palliative care nursing and medical professionals. A cross-sectional survey using REDCap software was conducted between April and May 2015. Perceived importance of self-care, self-care education and planning, and self-care strategies most utilized were explored. Descriptive statistics were calculated and content analysis used to identify domains of self-care. Three hundred seventy-two palliative care nursing and medical professionals practicing in Australia. Most respondents regarded self-care as very important (86%). Some rarely practised self-care and less than half (39%) had received training in self-care. Physical self-care strategies were most commonly reported, followed closely by social self-care and inner self-care. Self-care plans had been used by a small proportion of respondents (6%) and over two-thirds (70%) would consider using self-care plans if training could be provided. Self-care is practised across multiple health related domains, with physical self-care strategies used most frequently. Australian palliative care nurses and doctors recognize the importance of self-care practice, but further education and training are needed to increase their understanding of, and consistency in, using effective self-care strategies. These findings carry implications for professional practice and future research.

  5. Risk assessment as collective clinical judgement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Denis

    2002-01-01

    Risk assessment occupies an increasingly important position in psychiatry. This paper contends that collective judgement is the optimal method of assessing risk. Risk has a dual meaning: emotional and judgemental. Assaults, threats and survival anxiety. Staff wariness and resistance, attribution of blame. For a group to function well it must have a clear task. Custodial roles can lead to ambiguity. Externally directed hostility, internal homogenization of views. Rituals can develop in forensic institutions, as well as militarism. ANTI-THERAPEUTIC CULTURE: Sadism may develop where a marked power differential develops. Danger intensifies the feelings about leaders, perhaps idealization, perhaps disaffection. Leaders and others need to agree on risk assessment or fragmentation will occur. The assessment of risk may modify it. Mutual hostility must be reduced. Dialogue and understanding are needed. The environment should be less authoritarian and more democratic, so that patients can join a group and internalize its values. Reflective space is also required. Risk assessment is best described in terms of human endeavour, not in the language of scientific measurement.

  6. Social judgement in borderline personality disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Nicol

    Full Text Available Borderline personality disorder (BPD is a common and serious mental illness, associated with a high risk of suicide and self harm. Those with a diagnosis of BPD often display difficulties with social interaction and struggle to form and maintain interpersonal relationships. Here we investigated the ability of participants with BPD to make social inferences from faces.20 participants with BPD and 21 healthy controls were shown a series of faces and asked to judge these according to one of six characteristics (age, distinctiveness, attractiveness, intelligence, approachability, trustworthiness. The number and direction of errors made (compared to population norms were recorded for analysis.Participants with a diagnosis of BPD displayed significant impairments in making judgements from faces. In particular, the BPD Group judged faces as less approachable and less trustworthy than controls. Furthermore, within the BPD Group there was a correlation between scores on the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ and bias towards judging faces as unapproachable.Individuals with a diagnosis of BPD have difficulty making appropriate social judgements about others from their faces. Judging more faces as unapproachable and untrustworthy indicates that this group may have a heightened sensitivity to perceiving potential threat, and this should be considered in clinical management and treatment.

  7. The contemporary healthcare crisis in China and the role of medical professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Edwin C

    2010-08-01

    The healthcare crisis that has developed in the last two decades during China's economic reform has caused healthcare and hospital financing reforms to be largely experienced by patients as a crisis in the patient-healthcare professional relationship (PPR) at the bedside. The nature and magnitude of this crisis were epitomized by the "Harbin Scandal"-an incident that took place in August 2005 in a Harbin teaching hospital in which the family of an elderly patient hospitalized in the intensive care unit (ICU) for 66 days paid over RMB yen6 million. The news was publicized globally and ended in the firing of six top hospital administrators including the hospital president and the ICU director. This paper seeks to show that the Chinese healthcare crisis is ultimately linked to a conflict of interests between patients and healthcare professionals (HCPs), which is inherent in the reformed healthcare system of China. Hence the crisis is, at its core, a crisis of fidelity and confidence that must be restored to the PPR. At the "macro" level, it is simplistic to blame the crisis on the failure of the market system, and at the "micro" level, it is naïve to expect that a contractual understanding of the PPR will effectively restore the confidence of patients. This paper will show that the fiduciary relationship and medical professionalism share similar attributes, with fidelity being the core value of both. It concludes that the loss of medical fidelity implies the dissolution of the PPR and the demise of the medical profession and challenges Chinese HCPs to keep their fidelity as a means to both protect their patients' interests and to preserve their profession's survival.

  8. Professional experiences of international medical graduates practicing primary care in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peggy Guey-Chi; Nunez-Smith, Marcella; Bernheim, Susannah May; Berg, David; Gozu, Aysegul; Curry, Leslie Ann

    2010-09-01

    International medical graduates (IMGs) comprise approximately 25% of the US physician workforce, with significant representation in primary care and care of vulnerable populations. Despite the central role of IMGs in the US healthcare system, understanding of their professional experiences is limited. To characterize the professional experiences of non-US born IMGs from limited-resource nations practicing primary care in the US. Qualitative study based on in-depth in-person interviews. Purposeful sample of IMGs (n = 25) diverse in country of origin, length of practice in the US, specialty (internal medicine, family medicine and pediatrics), age and gender. Participants were currently practicing primary care physicians in New York, New Jersey or Connecticut. A standardized interview guide was used to explore professional experiences of IMGs. Four recurrent and unifying themes characterize these experiences: 1) IMGs experience both overt and subtle forms of workplace bias and discrimination; 2) IMGs recognize professional limitations as part of "the deal"; 3) IMGs describe challenges in the transition to the culture and practice of medicine in the US; 4) IMGs bring unique skills and advantages to the workplace. Our data reveal that IMGs face workplace challenges throughout their careers. Despite diversity in professional background and demographic characteristics, IMGs in our study reported common experiences in the transition to and practice of medicine in the US. Findings suggest that both workforce and workplace interventions are needed to enable IMG physicians to sustain their essential and growing role in the US healthcare system. Finally, commonalities with experiences of other minority groups within the US healthcare system suggest that optimizing IMGs' experiences may also improve the experiences of an increasingly diverse healthcare workforce.

  9. Enhancing medical students' reflectivity in mentoring groups for professional development - a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Gabriele; Pankoke, Nina; Goldblatt, Hadass; Hofmann, Marzellus; Zupanic, Michaela

    2017-07-14

    Professional competence is important in delivering high quality patient care, and it can be enhanced by reflection and reflective discourse e.g. in mentoring groups. However, students are often reluctant though to engage in this discourse. A group mentoring program involving all preclinical students as well as faculty members and co-mentoring clinical students was initiated at Witten-Herdecke University. This study explores both the attitudes of those students towards such a program and factors that might hinder or enhance how students engage in reflective discourse. A qualitative design was applied using semi-structured focus group interviews with preclinical students and semi-structured individual interviews with mentors and co-mentors. The interview data were analyzed using thematic content analysis. Students' attitudes towards reflective discourse on professional challenges were diverse. Some students valued the new program and named positive outcomes regarding several features of professional development. Enriching experiences were described. Others expressed aversive attitudes. Three reasons for these were given: unclear goals and benefits, interpersonal problems within the groups hindering development and intrapersonal issues such as insecurity and traditional views of medical education. Participants mentioned several program setup factors that could enhance how students engage in such groups: explaining the program thoroughly, setting expectations and integrating the reflective discourse in a meaningful way into the curriculum, obliging participation without coercion, developing a sense of security, trust and interest in each other within the groups, randomizing group composition and facilitating group moderators as positive peer and faculty role models and as learning group members. A well-designed and empathetic setup of group mentoring programs can help raise openness towards engaging in meaningful reflective discourse. Reflection on and communication of

  10. Health professionals as mobile content creators: teaching medical students to develop mHealth applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Ken

    2014-10-01

    Patient access to health information and patient-provider communication is integral to medicine, and can be facilitated by mobile applications ("apps"). Traditionally, student training in mobile Health (mHealth) has focussed on health professionals as consumers of information, with negative impacts on the quality and value of medical apps. This study focuses on teaching medical students to develop their own medical apps. At Sultan Qaboos University, Oman, an app development environment, iBuildApp, was taught to medical students and used to develop their first apps. Students were surveyed on their perceptions of the project. Of the 166 students, 107 (64.5%) completed the survey. There was an increase in the perceived need for such learning, apps were aimed primarily at patients, and previous programming experience was the strongest influencer of a positive experience. A majority (77.6%) wanted more sophisticated development environments in spite of their apparent struggles. The impact of previous experience is similar to other studies; the perceived value and focus on patient apps is indicative of an awareness of patients' use of the devices not reflected in all literature. It is possible to teach medical students the fundamentals of app design so that they may contribute to app development in the future.

  11. How we implemented an integrated professionalism curriculum to 2nd year medical students at the National University of Ireland Galway Medical School, with examples from students' final output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNair, Antonia; Moran, Conor; McGrath, Erinn; Naqvi, Syed; Connolly, Claire; McKenna, Verna; Kropmans, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Since the introduction of professionalism in medical curricula worldwide, little evidence has been published to exemplify good educational practice. The Medical school at the National University of Ireland Galway teaches professionalism in an interdisciplinary manner, integrating the learning objectives of health informatics, understanding health & illness in society, medical law and ethics. Students work in small groups on clinical cases. Enquiry-based learning is used as the teaching method following a few introductory lectures on specific objectives. Students present their work in the format of a scientific essay. The latter is assessed by a board of reviewers. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate evidence of excellent professional output and illustrate the benefits to a fully integrated professionalism curriculum.

  12. Enhancing Entrepreneurship and Professionalism in Medical Informatics Instruction: A Collaborative Training Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Cathryn A.; Rychlewski, Walt; Teat, Marty; Clawson, Darrin

    2004-01-01

    This report describes an innovative training program designed to foster entrepreneurship and professionalism in students interested in the field of medical informatics. The course was developed through a private–public interinstitutional collaboration involving four academic institutions, one private firm specializing in health care information management systems, and a philanthropic organization. The program challenged students to serve in multiple roles on multidisciplinary teams and develop an innovative hand-held solution for drug information retrieval. Although the course was technically and behaviorally rigorous and required extensive hands-on experience in a nontraditional learning environment, both students and faculty responded positively. PMID:15064292

  13. Moral erosion: how can medical professionals safeguard against the slippery slope?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebowitz, Jason

    2011-06-01

    The extensive participation of German physicians in the atrocities of the Holocaust raises many questions concerning the potential for moral erosion in medicine. What circumstances and methods of rationalisation allowed doctors to turn from healers into accomplices of genocide? Are physicians still vulnerable to corruption of their guiding principles and, if so, what can be done to prevent this process from occurring? With these thoughts in mind, the author reflects on his experiences participating in the Fellowships at Auschwitz for the Study of Professional Ethics program and offers a medical student's perspective on the ethical issues encountered in clinical training and the practice of medicine.

  14. The professional stress of nurses employed in medical institutions in the Lublin Region

    OpenAIRE

    Michalik, Joanna; Zawadka, Magdalena; Wolski, Dariusz; Stanisławek, Andrzej; Węgorowski, Paweł

    2017-01-01

    Michalik Joanna, Zawadka Magdalena, Wolski Dariusz, Stanisławek Andrzej, Węgorowski Paweł. The professional stress of nurses employed in medical institutions in the Lublin Region. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2017;7(8):296-308. eISSN 2391-8306. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.847992 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/4732 The journal has had 7 points in Ministry of Science and Higher Education parametric evaluation. Part B item 12...

  15. Medical professionals convicted of accessing child pornography--presumptive lifetime prohibition on paediatric practice? Health Care Complaints Commission v Wingate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shats, Kathy; Faunce, Thomas

    2008-05-01

    Health Care Complaints Commission v Wingate [2007] NSWCA 326 concerns an appeal from the New South Wales Medical Tribunal regarding its findings on professional misconduct outside the practice of medicine in relation to a doctor convicted of possessing child pornography. The latest in a number of cases on this issue in Australia, it highlights the complexity of such decisions before medical tribunals and boards, as well as the diversity of approaches taken. Considering both this case and the recent Medical Practitioners Board of Victoria case of Re Stephanopoulos [2006] MPBV 12, this column argues that Australian tribunals and medical boards may not yet have achieved the right balance here in terms of protecting public safety and the reputation of the profession as a whole. It makes the case for a position statement from Australian professional bodies to create a presumption of a lifetime prohibition on paediatric practice after a medical professional has been convicted of accessing child pornography.

  16. The vicious circle of patient-physician mistrust in China: health professionals' perspectives, institutional conflict of interest, and building trust through medical professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Jing-Bao; Cheng, Yu; Zou, Xiang; Gong, Ni; Tucker, Joseph D; Wong, Bonnie; Kleinman, Arthur

    2017-09-18

    To investigate the phenomenon of patient-physician mistrust in China, a qualitative study involving 107 physicians, nurses and health officials in Guangdong Province, southern China, was conducted through semi-structured interviews and focus groups. In this paper we report the key findings of the empirical study and argue for the essential role of medical professionalism in rebuilding patient-physician trust. Health professionals are trapped in a vicious circle of mistrust. Mistrust (particularly physicians' distrust of patients and their relatives) leads to increased levels of fear and self-protection by doctors which exacerbate difficulties in communication; in turn, this increases physician workloads, adding to a strong sense of injustice and victimization. These factors produce poorer healthcare outcomes and increasingly discontented and angry patients, escalate conflicts and disputes, and result in negative media coverage, all these ultimately contributing to even greater levels of mistrust. The vicious circle indicates not only the crisis of patient-physician relationship but the crisis of medicine as a profession and institution. Underlying the circle is the inherent conflict of interest in the healthcare system by which health professionals and hospitals have become profit-driven. This institutional conflict of interest seriously compromises the fundamental principle of medical professionalism-the primacy of patient welfare-as well as the traditional Chinese ideal of "medicine as the art of humanity". Patient trust can be restored through rectifying this institutional conflict of interest and promoting medical professionalism via a series of recommended practical measures. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Behavioural elements of professionalism: assessment of a fundamental concept in medical care.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tromp, F.; Vernooij-Dassen, M.J.F.J.; Kramer, A.; Grol, R.P.T.M.; Bottema, B.J.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Nijmegen Professionalism Scale, an instrument for assessing professional behaviour of general practitioner (GP) trainees, consists of four domains: professional behaviour towards patients, other professionals, society and oneself. The purpose of the instrument is to provide formative

  18. Between professional autonomy and economic orientation - The medical profession in a changing health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kälble, Karl

    2005-02-17

    The current discussions surrounding the German health care system are being determined and defined by the concepts of "profitability", "efficiency" and "saving". These concepts also determine the demands made on this system and have had an effect on the medical profession. The economy's growing influence on physicians' decision-making and the increasing necessity to look at and regulate services under economic aspects arising from the need to save costs are seen by the medical profession as a threat to its autonomous conduct and freedom to make decisions, in other words it sees it as a danger to its medical orientation. Conflicts between medical autonomy and economic orientation in physicians' conduct are therefore already foreseeable, as are conflicts between medicine and economy in regards to who has the power to define the terms of the public health system. This article will outline the area of conflict based on the available literature. It will discuss how the political and economic regulatory attempts affect the medical profession's autonomous conduct. It will also discuss which conflicts of conduct emerge for physicians, what types of solutions the medical profession tends to develop as a reaction, and whether or not this tension between medical and economic orientation can be resolved in an acceptable way. This article should first outline the changed economic and political basic conditions and the attempts to reform the German health care system, using this as a starting point. Following this, it will explore the significance professional autonomy acquires within the concept of profession from the point of view of the sociology of professions. With this in mind, the third part of this article will describe and analyze the effects of advanced economization on the medical profession's autonomous conduct, which has long been regarded as uncontested. This part of the article will also describe and analyze the medical profession's strategies it uses to defend

  19. Management of medical confidentiality in English professional football clubs: some ethical problems and issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddington, I; Roderick, M

    2002-04-01

    To examine the ways in which confidential matters are dealt with in the context of the relationship between the club doctor (or physiotherapist) and the player as patient in English professional football clubs. Semistructured tape recorded interviews with 12 club doctors, 10 club physiotherapists, and 27 current and former players. A questionnaire was also sent to 90 club doctors; 58 were returned. There is among club doctors and physiotherapists no commonly held code of ethics governing how much and what kind of information about players may properly be passed on to managers; associated with this, there is considerable variation from one club to another in terms of the amount and kind of information passed on to managers. In some clubs, medical staff attempt to operate more or less on the basis of the rules governing confidentiality that apply in general practice, but in other clubs, medical staff are more ready to pass on personal information about players. In some situations, this raises serious ethical questions. Guidelines dealing with confidentiality in practitioner-patient relationships in medical practice have long been available and have recently been restated, specifically in relation to the practice of sports medicine, by the British Olympic Association, the British Medical Association, and the Football Association. This is a welcome first step. However, if the guidelines are to have an impact on practice, detailed consideration needs to be given to ensuring their effective implementation; if this is to be achieved, consideration also needs to be given to identifying those aspects of the culture and organisation of professional football clubs that may hinder the full and effective implementation of those guidelines.

  20. Between professional values, social regulations and patient preferences: medical doctors' perceptions of ethical dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bringedal, Berit; Isaksson Rø, Karin; Magelssen, Morten; Førde, Reidun; Aasland, Olaf Gjerløv

    2017-11-18

    We present and discuss the results of a Norwegian survey of medical doctors' views on potential ethical dilemmas in professional practice. The study was conducted in 2015 as a postal questionnaire to a representative sample of 1612 doctors, among which 1261 responded (78%). We provided a list of 41 potential ethical dilemmas and asked whether each was considered a dilemma, and whether the doctor would perform the task, if in a position to do so. Conceptually, dilemmas arise because of tensions between two or more of four doctor roles: the patient's advocate, a steward of societal interests, a member of a profession and a private individual. 27 of the potential dilemmas were considered dilemmas by at least 50% of the respondents. For more than half of the dilemmas, the anticipated course of action varied substantially within the professional group, with at least 20% choosing a different course than their colleagues, indicating low consensus in the profession. Doctors experience a large range of ethical dilemmas, of which many have been given little attention by academic medical ethics. The less-discussed dilemmas are characterised by a low degree of consensus in the profession about how to handle them. There is a need for medical ethicists, medical education, postgraduate courses and clinical ethics support to address common dilemmas in clinical practice. Viewing dilemmas as role conflicts can be a fruitful approach to these discussions. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. [Medical professionals on the subject of their core values: the importance of practice-based stories and intrinsic motivation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witman, Yolande; van den Kerkhof, Peter C M; Braat, Didi D M

    2013-01-01

    In the current system for guaranteeing quality of care, emphasis is placed firmly on external control of professionals. We looked for a way to appeal to the intrinsic motivation of medical professionals and to discover what they mean by 'good work'. This was achieved with the aid of reflective sessions using the toolkit 'Good Work': in four sessions three different groups of medical professionals (medical department chairs, residents and interns) from a Dutch university hospital reflected on the topics 'excellence', 'moral responsibility' and 'personal engagement'. The participants exchanged practice-based stories during the sessions. The most important theme was moral responsibility, with its accompanying dilemmas. The sessions gave rise to feelings of mutual acknowledgement, recognition, inspiration and motivation. Sharing meaningful practice-based stories can be considered as a 'moment of learning', strengthening professional identity and stimulating intrinsic motivation. More space for this form of reflection might restore the balance with external control systems.

  2. Causes and characteristics of medical student referrals to a professional behaviour board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhoorn, Pieter C; Bolk, Jan H; Ottenhoff-de Jonge, Marleen W; van Mook, Walther N K A; de Beaufort, Arnout Jan

    2017-01-15

    To describe the nature of unprofessional behaviour displayed by medical students, as well as the characteristics of students referred to the professional behaviour board. A descriptive mixed methods approach was taken, in which qualitative data on unprofessional behaviour, as well as quantitative data on the demographics of referred students were collected during the study period between June 1, 2009 and January 1, 2014. In order to compare the referred students with the total student population, data on gender, nationality and phase in the curriculum of the total student population, collected from the student administration desk, were also used. In the study period, a total of 107 referrals were reported, concerning 93 different students (3% of the total student population). Sixty-five of the 107 referrals (61%) concerned male students. Thirty referrals (28%) concerned non-Dutch students. Most referrals (71%) occurred during clinical rotations. The referrals were equally distributed over three professional behaviour domains: dealing with oneself, dealing with others, and dealing with tasks/work. 'Withdrawn behaviour' was reported 17 times, 'insufficient Dutch language proficiency' 14 times, 'impertinent emails' 9 times and 'placing privacy-sensitive photos on the internet' 3 times. Although only a minority of students are referred to a professional behaviour board, this study shows that student characteristics such as gender and nationality may correlate to a higher incidence of unprofessional behaviour. Further explanatory and exploratory research is needed to unravel this relationship, and to study the influence of curriculum reforms on these relationships, respectively.

  3. A test to identify judgement bias in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boleij, H.; van't Klooster, J.; Lavrijsen, M.; Kirchhoff, S.; Arndt, S.S.; Ohl, F.

    2012-01-01

    Emotional states are known to affect cognitive processes. For example highly anxious individuals interpret ambiguous stimuli more negatively than low anxious people, an effect called negative judgement bias. Recently, the measurement of judgement bias has been used to try and indicate emotional

  4. Using the Monte Carlo technique to calculate dose conversion coefficients for medical professionals in interventional radiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, W. S.; Carvalho, A. B., Jr.; Hunt, J. G.; Maia, A. F.

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate doses in the physician and the nurse assistant at different positions during interventional radiology procedures. In this study, effective doses obtained for the physician and at points occupied by other workers were normalised by air kerma-area product (KAP). The simulations were performed for two X-ray spectra (70 kVp and 87 kVp) using the radiation transport code MCNPX (version 2.7.0), and a pair of anthropomorphic voxel phantoms (MASH/FASH) used to represent both the patient and the medical professional at positions from 7 cm to 47 cm from the patient. The X-ray tube was represented by a point source positioned in the anterior posterior (AP) and posterior anterior (PA) projections. The CC can be useful to calculate effective doses, which in turn are related to stochastic effects. With the knowledge of the values of CCs and KAP measured in an X-ray equipment, at a similar exposure, medical professionals will be able to know their own effective dose.

  5. Medical students and professionalism - Do the hidden curriculum and current role models fail our future doctors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joynt, Gavin Matthew; Wong, Wai-Tat; Ling, Lowell; Lee, Anna

    2017-12-21

    Formal medical curricula aim to promote professionalism through learning from lectures, interactive tutorials and simulations. We report an exploratory voting exercise, conducted within a new integrated professional teaching module, examining the likely influence on students' knowledge and perceptions of truth telling. Responses were collected from cohorts of final year students over a six-year period. Students were asked to pick between two responses to a standardized clinical vignette, firstly the response that they personally thought was the more desirable action, and subsequently the response they believed would most likely result in the context of everyday real-life clinical practice. The difference (proportional change) in voting for "avoid full disclosure" from vote 1 (more desirable action) to vote 2 (likely real-life response) was 50% (95% CI: 36-64%, p curriculum, and the perception generated by the hidden curriculum. Medical Schools should develop strategies to manage the hidden curriculum, prepare clinical teachers to be good role models, and prepare students to be discerning about the hidden curriculum and when choosing role models.

  6. Teaching medical professionals and trainees about adolescent suicide prevention: five key problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, Leo

    2012-01-01

    Predicting and preventing suicide represent very difficult challenges for clinicians. The awareness of adolescent suicide as a major social and medical problem has increased over the past years. However, many health care professionals who have frequent contact with adolescents are not sufficiently trained in suicide evaluation techniques and approaches to adolescents with suicidal behavior. Suicide prevention efforts among adolescents are restricted by the fact that there are five key problems related to the evaluation and management of suicidality in adolescents: 1. Many clinicians underestimate the importance of the problem of adolescent suicidal behavior and underestimate its prevalence. 2. There is a misconception that direct questioning of adolescents about suicidality is sufficient to evaluate suicide risk. 3. Another misconception is that adolescents with non-psychiatric illnesses do not need to be evaluated for suicidality. 4. Many clinicians do not know about or underestimate the role of contagion in adolescent suicidal behavior. 5. There is a mistaken belief that adolescent males are at lower suicide risk than adolescent females. Educating medical professionals and trainees about the warning signs and symptoms of adolescent suicide and providing them with tools to recognize, evaluate, and manage suicidal patients represent a promising approach to adolescent suicide prevention.

  7. Adherence to multiple, prescribed medications in diabetic kidney disease: A qualitative study of consumers' and health professionals' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Allison F; Manias, Elizabeth; Walker, Rowan

    2008-12-01

    Individuals are adherent to approximately 50% of their prescribed medications, which decreases when multiple, chronic conditions are involved. To examine factors affecting adherence to multiple prescribed medications for consumers with co-existing diabetes and chronic kidney disease (diabetic kidney disease) from the time of prescription to the time they took their medications. A descriptive exploratory design was used incorporating in-depth interviews and focus groups. The diabetes and nephrology departments of two metropolitan, public hospitals in Melbourne, Australia. A convenience sample of 23 consumers with diabetic kidney disease participated in an in-depth interview. Inclusion criteria involved English-speaking individuals, aged > or =18 years, with co-existing diabetes and chronic kidney disease, and who were mentally competent. Exclusion criteria included impending commencement on dialysis, pregnancy, an aggressive form of cancer, or a mental syndrome that was not stabilised with medication. Sixteen health professionals working in diabetes and nephrology departments in Melbourne, Australia also participated in one of two focus groups. In-depth structured interviews and focus groups were conducted and analysed according to a model of medication adherence. Consumers were not convinced of the need, effectiveness and safety of all of their medications. Alternatively, health professionals focussed on the importance of consumers taking their medications as prescribed and believed that the risk of medication-related adverse effects was over-rated. Accessing prescribed medications and difficulties surrounding continuity of care contributed to consumers' unintentional medication non-adherence. In particular, it was hard for consumers to persist taking their ongoing medication prescriptions. Healthcare system inadequacies were highlighted, which affected relationships between consumers with diabetic kidney disease and health professionals. Acknowledging the barriers

  8. Epidemiology of self-medication with modern medicines among health care professionals in Nekemte town, western Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sado, Edao; Kassahun, Endashaw; Bayisa, Getu; Gebre, Mohammed; Tadesse, Ayana; Mosisa, Balisa

    2017-10-30

    Self-medication is defined as use of medicines to treat self-recognized illnesses. It is widely used in Ethiopia. However, its extent of use is unknown among health professionals. This study aimed to assess prevalence and reasons of self-medication with modern medicines among health professionals. A cross-sectional study was conducted on the health professionals, working in the public health facilities. Data were collected from March to May, 2016 using semi-structured questionnaire. Data were entered and analyzed using statistical package for the social sciences. A chi square test was used as test of significance at 95% of confidence interval. A total of 154 health professionals were enrolled, with 53% were being females. The finding revealed that prevalence of self-medication with modern medicines was 67.5%. Financial constraints (32.5%) and familiarity with medicines (24%) were the major reasons of self-medication. It also showed that self-medication with modern medicines was significantly associated with marital status (χ(2) = 19.57, P = 0.00). Analgesics (53%) and antibiotics (36%) were the most commonly used categories of medicines. Self-medication with modern medicines was highly practiced among health professionals. Financial constraints and familiarity with medicines were the two major reasons of practicing.

  9. Knowledge levels and training needs of disaster medicine among health professionals, medical students, and local residents in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Tong; Han, Xue; Chen, Fei; Du, Yan; Zhang, Hongwei; Yin, Jianhua; Tan, Xiaojie; Chang, Wenjun; Ding, Yibo; Han, Yifang; Cao, Guangwen

    2013-01-01

    Disaster is a serious public health issue. Health professionals and community residents are main players in disaster responses but their knowledge levels of disaster medicine are not readily available. This study aimed to evaluate knowledge levels and training needs of disaster medicine among potential disaster responders and presented a necessity to popularize disaster medicine education. A self-reporting questionnaire survey on knowledge level and training needs of disaster medicine was conducted in Shanghai, China, in 2012. A total of randomly selected 547 health professionals, 456 medical students, and 1,526 local residents provided intact information. The total response rate was 93.7%. Overall, 1.3% of these participants have received systematic disaster medicine training. News media (87.1%) was the most common channel to acquire disaster medicine knowledge. Although health professionals were more knowledgeable than community residents, their knowledge structure of disaster medicine was not intact. Medical teachers were more knowledgeable than medical practitioners and health administrators (p = 0.002). Clinicians performed better than public health physicians (pstudents performed better than clinical medical students (pTraining needs of disaster medicine were generally high among the surveyed. 'Lecture' and 'practical training' were preferred teaching methods. The selected key and interested contents on disaster medicine training were similar between health professionals and medical students, while the priorities chosen by local residents were quite different from health professionals and medical students (ptraining needs into consideration.

  10. Corruption or professional dignity: An ethical examination of the phenomenon of "red envelopes" (monetary gifts) in medical practice in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei; Wang, Lijie; Yang, Chengshang

    2017-05-21

    In the medical practice in China, giving and taking "red envelopes" (monetary gifts) is a common phenomenon although few openly admit it. This paper, based on our empirical study including data collected from interviews and questionnaires with medical professionals and patients, attempts to explore why "red envelopes" have become a serious problem in the physician-patient relationship and how the situation can be improved. Previous studies show that scholars tend to correlate the spread of "red envelopes" in health care sector to the commercialization trend, the general erosion of traditional values, and the lowering of the moral level in the medical field. However, in this paper, the authors argue that medical professionals' choice of taking "red envelopes" is actually more a way to compensate for their problematic self-image and marred dignity in real practice. Medical professionals in China as a whole are in an embarrassing situation where the work pressure and income, and the sense of pride that used to be part of their profession are not comparable to each other. Under this circumstance, we believe that the effective way to deal with the "red envelopes" issue does not lie solely in introducing more stringent regulations or granting medical professionals higher payments, but rather in protecting and enhancing the professional dignity of all those working in healthcare. And on top of that, there must also be effort to cultivate a more favorable moral environment. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Freud reconsidered: bisexuality, homosexuality, and moral judgement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, T F

    This article examines methodological problems and unacknowledged moral judgements in Freud's theory of homosexuality. Freud raises the issue of bisexuality in connection with the origins of homosexuality. When critically examined, the theory of bisexuality reduces to a theory of the capacity to be attracted to either females or males, and in that sense explains little about the origin of exclusive homosexual orientation. Freud's further investigations into the origin of homosexuality, strictly speaking, do not provide a clear explanation of sexual exclusivity. Finally, it is argued that Freud's moral assumptions color the nature of his conclusions. At the very least, without morally justifying his procedure, he transforms the course of psychosexual development as determined by psychoanalysis into a moral imperative against which homosexuality is judged a fixated and immature state.

  12. Teaching professional writing in an academic health sciences center: the Writing Center model at the Medical University of South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tom G; Ariail, Jennie; Richards-Slaughter, Shannon; Kerr, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Writing is taught as professional competency in higher education generally, but the health science education literature emphasizes writing as a pedagogical means rather than a professional end. The Medical University of South Carolina established a Writing Center in 1994 to teach professional writing. This report describes the rationale for profession-specific, graduate-level writing instruction; summarizes the Writing Center model; and reports usage data. Students have reported improvement in particular texts and said they would be better able to complete writing tasks in the future. Interventions modeled after the Writing Center and staffed with professionally trained writing teachers may provide a means to pool resources to teach writing as professional competency. The Writing Center has provided the expertise to teach professional writing without demanding curricular revision.

  13. Multidimensional representations: The knowledge domain of germs held by students, teachers and medical professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rua, Melissa Jo

    The present study examined the understandings held by 5th, 8th, and 11th-grade students, their teachers and medical professionals about germs. Specifically, this study describes the content and structure of students' and adults' conceptions in the areas of germ contraction, transmission, and treatment of infectious and non-infectious diseases caused by microorganisms. Naturalistic and empirical research methods were used to investigate participants' conceptions. Between and within group similarities were found using data from concept maps on the topic "flu," drawings of germs, a 20 word card sort related to germs and illness, and a semi-structured interview. Concept maps were coded according to techniques by Novak and Gowan (1984). Drawings of germs were coded into four main categories (bacteria, viruses, animal cell, other) and five subcategories (disease, caricature, insect, protozoa, unclassified). Cluster patterns for the card sorts of each group were found using multidimensional scaling techniques. Six coding categories emerged from the interview transcripts: (a) transmission, (b) treatment, (c) effect of weather on illness, (d) immune response, (e) location of germs, and (f) similarities and differences between bacteria and viruses. The findings showed students, teachers and medical professionals have different understandings about bacteria and viruses and the structures of those understandings vary. Gaps or holes in the participants knowledge were found in areas such as: (a) how germs are transmitted, (b) where germs are found, (c) how the body transports and uses medicine, (d) how the immune system functions, (e) the difference between vaccines and non-prescription medicines, (f) differences that exist between bacteria and viruses, and (g) bacterial resistance to medication. The youngest students relied heavily upon personal experiences with germs rather than formal instruction when explaining their conceptions. As a result, the influence of media was

  14. Emotional burnout, perceived sources of job stress, professional fulfillment, and engagement among medical residents in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dubai, Sami Abdo Radman; Ganasegeran, Kurubaran; Perianayagam, Wilson; Rampal, Krishna Gopal

    2013-01-01

    This study was the first to explore factors associated with emotional burnout (EB) among medical residents in Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a universal sample of 205 medical residents in a Malaysian general hospital. The self-administered questionnaire used consisted of questions on sociodemographics and work characteristics, sources of job stress, professional fulfillment, engagement, and EB. EB was measured using the emotional exhaustion subscale, the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). Mean (±SD) age of the respondents was 26.5 (±1.6). The most common source of job stress was "fear of making mistakes." Most of the participants were dissatisfied with the increase of residentship period from one year to two years. A high level of EB was reported by 36.6% of the respondents. In multivariate analysis, the most important correlates of EB were sources of job stress, professional fulfillment, and engagement. A high prevalence of EB was found among medical residents. Sociodemographic characteristics, performance pressure, and satisfaction with policies were significantly associated with EB. Although this study was limited by its cross-sectional design, its findings posit a sufficient foundation to relevant authorities to construct, amend, and amalgamate existing and future policies. Nothing will sustain you more potently than the power to recognize in your humdrum routine, as perhaps it may be thought, the true poetry of life-the poetry of the common place, of the common man, of the plain, toil-worn woman, with their loves and their joys, their sorrows and their grief.SirWilliam Osler, Aphorisms from the Student Life (Aequanimitas, 1952).

  15. Medical ward round competence in internal medicine - an interview study towards an interprofessional development of an Entrustable Professional Activity (EPA)

    OpenAIRE

    Wölfel, Teresa; Beltermann, Esther; Lottspeich, Christian; Vietz, Elisa; Fischer, Martin R.; Schmidmaier, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Background The medical ward round is a central but complex activity that is of relevance from the first day of work. However, difficulties for young doctors have been reported. Instruction of ward round competence in medical curricula is hampered by the lack of a standardized description of the procedure. This paper aims to identify and describe physicians? tasks and relevant competences for conducting a medical ward round on the first day of professional work. Methods A review of recent lite...

  16. "I have the right to a private life": medical students' views about professionalism in a digital world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Shelley; Lai, Krista; Walton, Jennifer M; Kirwan, Paul; White, Jonathan S

    2013-10-01

    Social media site use is ubiquitous, particularly Facebook. Postings on social media can have an impact on the perceived professionalism of students and practitioners. In this study, we explored the attitudes and understanding of undergraduate medical students towards professionalism, with a specific focus on online behaviour. A volunteer sample of students (n = 236) responded to an online survey about understanding of professionalism and perceptions of professionalism in online environments. Respondents were encouraged to provide free text examples and to elaborate on their responses through free text comments. Descriptive analyzes and emergent themes analysis were carried out. Respondents were nearly unanimous on most questions of professionalism in the workplace, while 43% felt that students should act professionally at all times (including free time). Sixty-four free text comments revealed three themes: "free time is private time";" professionalism is unrealistic as a way of life"; and "professionalism should be a way of life". Our findings indicate a disconnect between what students report of what they understand of professionalism, and what students feel is appropriate and inappropriate in both online and real life behaviour. Curriculum needs to target understanding of professionalism in online and real environments and communicate realistic expectations for students.

  17. Professional identity formation in medical education for humanistic, resilient physicians: pedagogic strategies for bridging theory to practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, Hedy S; Anthony, David; Hutchinson, Tom A; Liben, Stephen; Smilovitch, Mark; Donato, Anthony A

    2015-06-01

    Recent calls for an expanded perspective on medical education and training include focusing on complexities of professional identity formation (PIF). Medical educators are challenged to facilitate the active constructive, integrative developmental process of PIF within standardized and personalized and/or formal and informal curricular approaches. How can we best support the complex iterative PIF process for a humanistic, resilient health care professional? How can we effectively scaffold the necessary critical reflective learning and practice skill set for our learners to support the shaping of a professional identity?The authors present three pedagogic innovations contributing to the PIF process within undergraduate and graduate medical education (GME) at their institutions. These are (1) interactive reflective writing fostering reflective capacity, emotional awareness, and resiliency (as complexities within physician-patient interactions are explored) for personal and professional development; (2) synergistic teaching modules about mindful clinical practice and resilient responses to difficult interactions, to foster clinician resilience and enhanced well-being for effective professional functioning; and (3) strategies for effective use of a professional development e-portfolio and faculty development of reflective coaching skills in GME.These strategies as "bridges from theory to practice" embody and integrate key elements of promoting and enriching PIF, including guided reflection, the significant role of relationships (faculty and peers), mindfulness, adequate feedback, and creating collaborative learning environments. Ideally, such pedagogic innovations can make a significant contribution toward enhancing quality of care and caring with resilience for the being, relating, and doing of a humanistic health care professional.

  18. The Demographics and Education of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) Professionals: A National Longitudinal Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Melissa A; Shoben, Abigail; Levine, Roger

    2016-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess longitudinal and cross-sectional changes in Emergency Medical Technician (EMT)-Basics and Paramedics: (1) demographics, (2) employment characteristics, and (3) initial Emergency Medical Services (EMS) education. These data were collected between 1999 and 2008 employing survey techniques aimed at collecting valid data. A random, stratified sample was utilized to allow results to be generalizable to the nationally certified EMS population. Survey weights that were adjusted for each stratum's response were estimated. Weighted percentages, averages for continuous variables, and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Significant changes over time were noted when the CIs did not overlap. In all 10 years of data collection, the proportion of EMT-Paramedics who were male was greater than the proportion of EMT-Basics who were male. A substantial proportion of respondents performed EMS services for more than one agency: between 39.8% and 43.5% of EMT-Paramedics and 18.4% and 22.4% of EMT-Basic respondents reported this. The most common type of employer for both EMT-Basics and EMT-Paramedics was fire-based organizations. About one-third of EMT-Basics (32.3%-40.1%) and almost one-half of EMT-Paramedics (43.1%-45.3%) reported that these organizations were their main EMS employer. Rural areas (Emergency Medical Services (EMS) professionals: a national longitudinal investigation. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016;31(Suppl. 1):s18-s29.

  19. Single item measures of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization are useful for assessing burnout in medical professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Colin P; Dyrbye, Liselotte N; Sloan, Jeff A; Shanafelt, Tait D

    2009-12-01

    Burnout has negative effects on work performance and patient care. The current standard for burnout assessment is the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), a well-validated instrument consisting of 22 items answered on a 7-point Likert scale. However, the length of the MBI can limit its utility in physician surveys. To evaluate the performance of two questions relative to the full MBI for measuring burnout. Cross-sectional data from 2,248 medical students, 333 internal medicine residents, 465 internal medicine faculty, and 7,905 practicing surgeons. The single questions with the highest factor loading on the emotional exhaustion (EE) ("I feel burned out from my work") and depersonalization (DP) ("I have become more callous toward people since I took this job") domains of burnout were evaluated in four large samples of medical students, internal medicine residents, internal medicine faculty, and practicing surgeons. Spearman correlations between the single EE question and the full EE domain score minus that question ranged from 0.76-0.83. Spearman correlations between the single DP question and the full DP domain score minus that question ranged from 0.61-0.72. Responses to the single item measures of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization stratified risk of high burnout in the relevant domain on the full MBI, with consistent patterns across the four sampled groups. Single item measures of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization provide meaningful information on burnout in medical professionals.

  20. Development and implementation of a web-based continuing professional development (CPD) programme on medical genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulatunga, Gumindu G A K; Marasinghe, Rohana B; Karunathilake, Indika M; Dissanayake, Vajira H W

    2013-10-01

    We developed, implemented and evaluated a web-based continuing professional development (CPD) programme on medical genetics. Development of the CPD programme followed the ADDIE model, i.e. Analysis, Design, Develop, Implement and Evaluation. An invitation to participate in a needs analysis survey was sent to all doctors on the email list of the Sri Lanka Medical Association. A total of 129 completed surveys was received (57% of the 228 who accessed the online survey). The average age of respondents was 42 years (range 27-81). The male: female ratio was approximately 2 : 1. Almost all respondents (96%) selected web-based CPD programmes, or web-based and conventional lectures, as their preferred method of learning. The programme was piloted on a group of 10 doctors. The average pre-knowledge score was 40.3 and the post-knowledge score was 62.1 marks out of 100 (P = 0.002). We conclude that a web-based CPD programme on medical genetics is feasible in Sri Lanka.

  1. Entrustable professional activities (EPAs) for teachers in medical education: Has the time come?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewey, Charlene M; Jonker, Gersten; Ten Cate, Olle; Turner, Teri L

    2017-08-01

    On a daily basis, patients put their trust in the healthcare system for safe and high-quality healthcare. However, what evidence do we have as an educational community that our supervising faculty members are competent to fulfill this responsibility? Few, if any, requirements exist for faculty members to have continuous professional development in the field of medical education. Many faculty "love to teach", however, this love of teaching does not make them competent to teach or assess the competence of trainees whom they supervise. Faculty members who have a significant role as a teacher in the clinical setting should be assessed with regards to their baseline competence in applicable teaching EPAs. When competence is reached, an entrustment decision can be made. Once proficient or expert, a statement of awarded responsibility (STAR) may be granted. The time has come to reach beyond the "standards" of the old adage "see one, do one, teach one" in medical education. In this personal view, the authors outline an argument for and list the potential benefits for teachers, learners, and patients when we assess clinical teachers using EPAs within a competency-based medical education framework.

  2. Professional or administrative value patterns? Clinical pathways in medical problem-solving processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, Leif

    2007-11-01

    A health-care organization simultaneously belongs to two different institutional value patterns: a professional and an administrative value pattern. At the administrative level, medical problem-solving processes are generally perceived as the efficient application of familiar chains of activities to well-defined problems; and a low task uncertainty is therefore assumed at the work-floor level. This assumption is further reinforced through clinical pathways and other administrative guidelines. However, studies have shown that in clinical practice such administrative guidelines are often considered inadequate and difficult to implement mainly because physicians generally perceive task uncertainty to be high and that the guidelines do not cover the scope of encountered deviations. The current administrative level guidelines impose uniform structural features that meet the requirement for low task uncertainty. Within these structural constraints, physicians must organize medical problem-solving processes to meet any task uncertainty that may be encountered. Medical problem-solving processes with low task uncertainty need to be organized independently of processes with high task uncertainty. Each process must be evaluated according to different performance standards and needs to have autonomous administrative guideline models. Although clinical pathways seem appropriate when there is low task uncertainty, other kinds of guidelines are required when the task uncertainty is high.

  3. The International Accounting Standards Board’s Progress in Promoting Judgement Through Objectives-Oriented Accounting Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Lakovic

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes how the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB promotes professional judgement by issuing objectives-oriented accounting standards and exposure drafts.  We focus on the the role of judgement as outlined in Phase I of the IASB Conceptual Framework (CF, Chapter 1, “Objective of General Purpose Financial Statements” and Chapter 3, “Qualitative Characteristics of Useful Financial Information” (IASB 2010. We discuss how the framework, when viewed through the prism of 'objectives-oriented accounting standards' as recommended by the United States Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC Report in its “Study Pursuant to Section 108(d of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 on the Adoption by the United States Financial Reporting System of a Principles-Based Accounting System” (July 2003, encourages professional judgement. We analyze International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS and Exposure Drafts (ED issued by the IASB since its inception in 2002 to determine if those documents are consistent with objectives-oriented accounting standards. Our analysis is useful for gaining insights into how the IASB integrates the CF with the SEC’s recommended objectives-oriented accounting approach to promote judgement in the interest of IASB/FASB convergence of accounting standards.

  4. James Edmund Reeves (1829-1896) and the contentious 19th century battle for medical professionalism in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, John M

    2015-08-01

    During his life, Dr James E Reeves was a national figure in the US. His work included multiple professional publications, civic and professional leadership positions, and the drafting of a landmark law that confirmed the right of states to regulate the medical profession. While much of Reeves' work supported the successful struggle of 19th century regular physicians to gain control of the practice of medicine, he challenged his colleagues when their self-interests conflicted with his perception of the public good. He was frequently lauded for this work by physicians and the public but he also made professional enemies. Perhaps for this reason, his considerable accomplishments were forgotten after his death. His story reminds us of the difficult contradiction that exists within the regulation of medicine, guarding the public's welfare while protecting the interests of medical professionals. It also reminds us that history may temporarily overlook those who fight our difficult battles. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Regional medical professionals' confidence in providing palliative care, associated difficulties and availability of specialized palliative care services in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirooka, Kayo; Miyashita, Mitsunori; Morita, Tatsuya; Ichikawa, Takeyuki; Yoshida, Saran; Akizuki, Nobuya; Akiyama, Miki; Shirahige, Yutaka; Eguchi, Kenji

    2014-03-01

    Although confidence in providing palliative care services is an essential component of providing such care, factors relating to this have not been investigated in Japan. This study aimed to explore confidence in the ability to provide palliative care and associated difficulties and to explore correlations between these variables. Design A cross-sectional mail survey of medical doctors and registered nurses in Japan was performed as part of a regional intervention trial: the Outreach Palliative Care Trial of Integrated Regional Model study. Subjects Questionnaires were sent to 7905 medical professionals, and 409 hospital doctors, 235 general practitioners, 2160 hospital nurses and 115 home visiting nurses completed them. Confidence in providing palliative care was low and difficulties frequent for all types of medical professionals assessed. In particular, only 8-24% of them, depending on category, agreed to 'having adequate knowledge and skills regarding cancer pain management'. In particular, 55-80% of medical professionals acknowledged difficulty with 'alleviation of cancer pain'. Multiple regression analysis revealed that confidence was positively correlated with the amount of relevant experience and, for medical doctors, with 'prescriptions of opioids (per year)'. Moreover, difficulties were negatively correlated with the amount of relevant clinical experience. Effective strategies for developing regional palliative care programs include basic education of medical professionals on management of cancer-related pain (especially regarding opioids) and other symptoms.

  6. [Management of complex medication regimes in chronic illness - challenges and support needs from the health professional's view].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, Doris; Müller-Mundt, Gabriele

    2012-02-01

    While chronic illness are mostly treated with pharmaceutical means, the management of medication regimes in everyday life often remains inadequate, especially for elderly people. In Germany, most efforts to change this situation focus on the role of physicians or pharmacists respectively. In contrast, this study concentrates on home care nurses and posits their potential to improve the management of complex medication regimes. To explore the professional's view 26 expert interviews with representatives of the different healthcare professions were conducted and analysed. The results indicate that regardless of their profession, all interviewees see a need to modify existing medication regimes and share the view that there is a necessity of communicative and educational support of patients. They also agree that improvements in the management of medication require a multi-professional approach and that home care nurses could provide substantial support to chronically ill in managing their daily medication regimes. Nevertheless, the experts also report structural and professional barriers to hinder professionals in meeting these demands. We conclude that an enhancement of nurses' clinical and educational skills is inevitable, if they are to support chronically ill in managing their daily medication regimes in cooperation with other professions.

  7. Causes and characteristics of medical student referrals to a professional behaviour board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolk, Jan H.; Ottenhoff- de Jonge, Marleen W.; van Mook, Walther N.K.A.; de Beaufort, Arnout Jan

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To describe the nature of unprofessional behaviour displayed by medical students, as well as the characteristics of students referred to the professional behaviour board. Methods A descriptive mixed methods approach was taken, in which qualitative data on unprofessional behaviour, as well as quantitative data on the demographics of referred students were collected during the study period between June 1, 2009 and January 1, 2014. In order to compare the referred students with the total student population, data on gender, nationality and phase in the curriculum of the total student population, collected from the student administration desk, were also used. Results In the study period, a total of 107 referrals were reported, concerning 93 different students (3% of the total student population). Sixty-five of the 107 referrals (61%) concerned male students. Thirty referrals (28%) concerned non-Dutch students. Most referrals (71%) occurred during clinical rotations. The referrals were equally distributed over three professional behaviour domains: dealing with oneself, dealing with others, and dealing with tasks/work. ‘Withdrawn behaviour’ was reported 17 times, ‘insufficient Dutch language proficiency’ 14 times, ‘impertinent emails’ 9 times and ‘placing privacy-sensitive photos on the internet’ 3 times. Conclusions Although only a minority of students are referred to a professional behaviour board, this study shows that student characteristics such as gender and nationality may correlate to a higher incidence of unprofessional behaviour. Further explanatory and exploratory research is needed to unravel this relationship, and to study the influence of curriculum reforms on these relationships, respectively. PMID:28088777

  8. Sir William Burnett (1779-1861), professional head of the Royal Naval Medical Department and entrepreneur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, Christopher

    2004-08-01

    Sir William Burnett (1779-1861) had an active career as a Royal Navy surgeon in the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, including service at the battles of St Vincent, the Nile and Trafalgar. From 1822 to 1855 he was professional head of the Royal Naval Medical Department, when he provided effective leadership in a time of great change. Although his official work earned him the reputation of a "hard-working, unimaginative, somewhat harsh man", his correspondence shows a very humane centre under the official carapace. His official performance and reputation were both eroded towards the end of his career by his determined promotion of zinc chloride, for which he held lucrative patents.

  9. Impact of Professional Student Mentored Research Fellowship on Medical Education and Academic Medicine Career Path.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areephanthu, Christopher James; Bole, Raevti; Stratton, Terry; Kelly, Thomas H; Starnes, Catherine P; Sawaya, B Peter

    2015-10-01

    This study explores the long-term impact of the Professional Student Mentored Research Fellowship (PSMRF) program at the University of Kentucky College of Medicine (UKCOM) on medical students' research productivity and career paths. Demographic characteristics, academic profiles, number of publications and residency placements from 2007 to 2012 were used to assess 119 PSMRF graduates against a comparison cohort of 898 UKCOM (non-PSMRF) students. PSMRF students had higher MCAT scores at admission (31.5 ± 0.6 vs. 30.6 ± 0.2, p = 0.007) and achieved higher USMLE Step 1 scores (228 ± 4.2 vs. 223 ± 1.5, p = 0.03) than comparison group. PSMRF students were more likely to publish PubMed-indexed papers (36.7% vs. 17.9%, p Periodicals, Inc.

  10. A conceptual framework to facilitate clinical judgement in nursing: A methodological perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna C. van Graan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The South African health care and education systems are challenged to provide independent, critical thinking nurses who can cope with diversity in a creative way and define their role in a complex, uncertain, rapidly changing health care environment. Quality clinical judgement is an imperative characteristic that newly qualified professional nurses should possess. To accommodate these needs, SANC in line with the SAQA Act, advocated the development of teaching and learning strategies to balance theory and practice opportunities together with an outcome-based, student centred approach and appropriate clinical supervision. This resulted in a positive outcome to facilitate the integration/fusion of theory and practice. The purpose of this study was to synthesise a teaching–learning strategy for creating an enabling learning environment to facilitate clinical judgement in South African undergraduate nursing students. The proposed teaching–learning strategyis grounded in modern-day constructivist approach of learning. The conceptual or theoretical framework of this study aimed to link the central concepts that were identified from the conclusions of four (4 strategic objectives of the two preceding phases of the study into a new structure of meaning that served as a basis for the proposed strategy. The implementation of the proposed action plan to achieve the stated strategic objectives should empower the relevant role players to facilitate clinical judgement in undergraduate nursing students and thereby promote autonomous and accountable nursing care.

  11. The roles of veterinary, medical and environmental professionals to achieve ONE HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahendra Pal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the WHO- “Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely an absence of disease or infirmity”. The good health is the fundamental right of all the people on earth. The concept of ‘One Medicine’ coined by Calvin W. Schwabe evolves towards ’One Health’ which comprises collaborative efforts of multiple disciplines to achieve perfect health of people, animals, and our environment. ‘One Health’ deals with the challenges at the intersection of animal, human and environment health including the infectious diseases, the global food crises, and climate change due to global warming. The cordial and active association of various disciplines such as medicine, veterinary, public health, environment, wildlife, ecology, and food hygiene is highly emphasized in order to achieve the goal of ‘One Health’. This mini-review describes brief history of ‘one health’, the roles of veterinary, medical and environmental professionals, and developing collaboration with various concern professionals to achieve ‘one health’. In addition, the selected achievements of ‘one health’ in the past 10 years have been described along with the challenges ahead for the successful implementation of such concept.

  12. Sexism within anatomy as perceived by professional anatomists and in comparison with the perceptions of medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Susan; Plaisant, Odile; Lignier, Baptiste; Moxham, Bernard J

    2016-10-01

    Two hundred and eight professional anatomists responded to a questionnaire inviting them to address the possibility that social/gender factors hinder the dispassionate representation of anatomy. Ethical approval for the study was obtained from Cardiff University. The results of the survey provided comparisons with the attitudes of medical students that have previously been reported (Morgan et al., 2014). Although a few differences were discerned between females and males in our surveys and between anatomists and medical students, overall our findings suggest that, while both professional anatomists and medical students recognize the importance of gender issues and do not wish to associate with sexism, most are unaware of the possible negative aspects of sexism within anatomy. We recommend that teachers of anatomy should become more aware of the possibility of adverse effects on professional matters relating to equality and diversity issues. Clin. Anat. 29:892-910, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Assessing medical professionalism: A systematic review of instruments and their measurement properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honghe Li

    Full Text Available Over the last three decades, various instruments were developed and employed to assess medical professionalism, but their measurement properties have yet to be fully evaluated. This study aimed to systematically evaluate these instruments' measurement properties and the methodological quality of their related studies within a universally acceptable standardized framework and then provide corresponding recommendations.A systematic search of the electronic databases PubMed, Web of Science, and PsycINFO was conducted to collect studies published from 1990-2015. After screening titles, abstracts, and full texts for eligibility, the articles included in this study were classified according to their respective instrument's usage. A two-phase assessment was conducted: 1 methodological quality was assessed by following the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health status Measurement INstruments (COSMIN checklist; and 2 the quality of measurement properties was assessed according to Terwee's criteria. Results were integrated using best-evidence synthesis to look for recommendable instruments.After screening 2,959 records, 74 instruments from 80 existing studies were included. The overall methodological quality of these studies was unsatisfactory, with reasons including but not limited to unknown missing data, inadequate sample sizes, and vague hypotheses. Content validity, cross-cultural validity, and criterion validity were either unreported or negative ratings in most studies. Based on best-evidence synthesis, three instruments were recommended: Hisar's instrument for nursing students, Nurse Practitioners' Roles and Competencies Scale, and Perceived Faculty Competency Inventory.Although instruments measuring medical professionalism are diverse, only a limited number of studies were methodologically sound. Future studies should give priority to systematically improving the performance of existing instruments and to longitudinal studies.

  14. Assessing medical professionalism: A systematic review of instruments and their measurement properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Honghe; Liu, Yang; Wen, Deliang

    2017-01-01

    Background Over the last three decades, various instruments were developed and employed to assess medical professionalism, but their measurement properties have yet to be fully evaluated. This study aimed to systematically evaluate these instruments’ measurement properties and the methodological quality of their related studies within a universally acceptable standardized framework and then provide corresponding recommendations. Methods A systematic search of the electronic databases PubMed, Web of Science, and PsycINFO was conducted to collect studies published from 1990–2015. After screening titles, abstracts, and full texts for eligibility, the articles included in this study were classified according to their respective instrument’s usage. A two-phase assessment was conducted: 1) methodological quality was assessed by following the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health status Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist; and 2) the quality of measurement properties was assessed according to Terwee’s criteria. Results were integrated using best-evidence synthesis to look for recommendable instruments. Results After screening 2,959 records, 74 instruments from 80 existing studies were included. The overall methodological quality of these studies was unsatisfactory, with reasons including but not limited to unknown missing data, inadequate sample sizes, and vague hypotheses. Content validity, cross-cultural validity, and criterion validity were either unreported or negative ratings in most studies. Based on best-evidence synthesis, three instruments were recommended: Hisar’s instrument for nursing students, Nurse Practitioners’ Roles and Competencies Scale, and Perceived Faculty Competency Inventory. Conclusion Although instruments measuring medical professionalism are diverse, only a limited number of studies were methodologically sound. Future studies should give priority to systematically improving the performance of existing

  15. Unmet needs in continuing medical education programs for rural Chinese township health professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhua Yi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study aimed to describe the system of continuing medical education (CME in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region and to ascertain the perceived needs related to that system, in order to improve the performance of health professionals in Chinese township health centers (THCs. Methods: In-depth key informant interviews were conducted to gain insights into the current CME system. A cross-sectional survey using a self-administered structured questionnaire was also carried out from March to August 2014 in order to identify perceived needs among THC personnel in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. Logistic regression was used to identify factors related to respondents’ interest in pursuing different levels of degree study. Results: The areas of need perceived by the respondents included general clinical competence and emergency or first aid knowledge. Most respondents wanted to study at medical colleges in order to obtain a higher degree. Respondents aged below 45 years with neutral or positive attitudes about the benefit of degree study for the licensure examination were more likely to attend a bachelor-level CME program than their older peers and respondents with negative attitudes towards degree study. Female respondents and respondents aged below 45 years were more likely to attend a junior college CME program than males and older respondents, respectively. Conclusion: It is necessary to develop degree-linked CME programs to meet the need for young health professionals in Chinese THCs; therefore, this programs can improve the expertise of poorly educated young health workers, who overwhelm rural Chinese heath systems.

  16. Medical Photograhpy: Historical Development and Basic Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sertaç Ata Güler

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In general medical visual documentation, narrowly medical photography, is a method frequently used in almost every branch of health care especially for education, archiving, judicial, and scientific publications. Until the development of digital technology, medical photography, which is carried out professionally through analogue (filmed photographic machines and hospital photographers, became individualized and relatively acquired by amateur photographers with the development of digital technology and all healthcare professionals, especially physicians, acquiring their digital photographic machines and have been taken over by relatively amateur hands, along with a significant increase in the number of medical visual recordings as health professionals begin to attract professional photographs themselves, it has caused the quality of acquired images to decrease. The reason for bad images; is the premise that health professionals do not have basic photo information and preliminary judgement that quality pictures can be taken with a mobile phone which is almost automatic in all settings. For this reason, bringing the concept of medical photography to the forefont, it has become imperative to obtain medical images suitable for high quality and ethical rules in combination with digital cameras and developing technology. In this article; basic photography, medical and ethical sensitivities required for better quality and effective medical photography taking.

  17. Some comments on the substituted judgement standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egonsson, Dan

    2010-02-01

    On a traditional interpretation of the substituted judgement standard (SJS) a person who makes treatment decisions on behalf of a non-competent patient (e.g. concerning euthanasia) ought to decide as the patient would have decided had she been competent. I propose an alternative interpretation of SJS in which the surrogate is required to infer what the patient actually thought about these end-of-life decisions. In clarifying SJS it is also important to differentiate the patient's consent and preference. If SJS is part of an autonomy ideal of the sort found in Kantian ethics, consent seems more important than preference. From a utilitarian perspective a preference-based reading of SJS seems natural. I argue that the justification of SJS within a utilitarian framework will boil down to the question whether a non-competent patient can be said to have any surviving preferences. If we give a virtue-ethical justification of SJS the relative importance of consent and preferences depends on which virtue one stresses--respect or care. I argue that SJS might be an independent normative method for extending the patient's autonomy, both from a Kantian and a virtue ethical perspective.

  18. Language issues: an important professional practice dimension for Australian International Medical Graduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Pam; Henderson, David; Holewa, Hamish

    2013-01-01

    Issues associated with speech and language have been noted in the international literature as an important aspect of the process of integration for Australian International Medical Graduates (IMGs). This paper makes a contribution through the presentation of a sub-set of findings on the factors associated with speech and language practices for IMGs, taken from a qualitative study which examined the IMGs' experience of integration into the Australian healthcare system. A purposive sample of 30 IMGs were interviewed via telephone. Participants were asked to share their experience with communicating in English with patients and other health professionals in the context of the Australian healthcare system. The taped interviews were transcribed verbatim and then coded and thematically analysed. The findings indicate that the months following the point of entry into a medical position are a critical time for the majority of IMGs in terms of difficulties with communicating in English. A range of suggestions to improve speech and language skills for IMGs is provided. The findings emphasize the importance of speech and language skills and the serious implications of this issue for the clinical practice of IMGs.

  19. Professional medical associations and their relationships with industry: a proposal for controlling conflict of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, David J; McDonald, Walter J; Berkowitz, Carol D; Chimonas, Susan C; DeAngelis, Catherine D; Hale, Ralph W; Nissen, Steven E; Osborn, June E; Scully, James H; Thomson, Gerald E; Wofsy, David

    2009-04-01

    Professional medical associations (PMAs) play an essential role in defining and advancing health care standards. Their conferences, continuing medical education courses, practice guidelines, definitions of ethical norms, and public advocacy positions carry great weight with physicians and the public. Because many PMAs receive extensive funding from pharmaceutical and device companies, it is crucial that their guidelines manage both real and perceived conflict of interests. Any threat to the integrity of PMAs must be thoroughly and effectively resolved. Current PMA policies, however, are not uniform and often lack stringency. To address this situation, the authors first identified and analyzed conflicts of interest that may affect the activities, leadership, and members of PMAs. The authors then went on to formulate guidelines, both short-term and long-term, to prevent the appearance or reality of undue industry influence. The recommendations are rigorous and would require many PMAs to transform their mode of operation and perhaps, to forgo valuable activities. To maintain integrity, sacrifice may be required. Nevertheless, these changes are in the best interest of the PMAs, the profession, their members, and the larger society.

  20. The effect of in-service English education on medical professionals' language proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajjadi, Samad; Ahmadi, Majid; Heidarpour, Maryam; Yakta, Ali Salahi; Khadembashi, Naghmeh; Rafatbakhsh, Mohammad

    2012-02-01

    Despite its inevitable significance, the effect of in-service English education on medical professionals has rarely been studied longitudinally. The reason can be issues such as physicians' heavy workload, commuting problems, inappropriate class times, and inexperienced teaching staff. A needs assessment worksheet was administered to faculty members of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences in Tehran and the responses were analyzed. A project for the promotion of faculty members' English proficiency was formulated. Then, following a placement test, 235 applicants from the university colleges and hospitals were classified into 28 homogeneous groups. After four terms of instruction, the participants' scores on the pre- and post- assessments were analyzed. There was significant improvement in participants' total scores on different communicative skills (Pgrammar (P<0.001), but failed to progress significantly on reading comprehension (P = 0.523). The administration of in-service education for skill-oriented courses, over a long period, can be quite encouraging and should be further strengthened. Regular instructions on each individual skill on the one hand and on their combination on the other are essential for success in such education.

  1. Medication Information Seeking Behavior in a Social Context: The Role of Lay and Professional Social Network Contacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea L. Kjos, Pharm.D., Ph.D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study provided a view of the social context of medication information seeking from a patient’s perspective.This was an exploratory qualitative study with 40 adults to determine how patients communicate within social networks to seek medication information. Semi-structured interviews were used to determine the structure (who, the content provided (what, and the function of social sources of information (how/why. Data underwent ethnographic content analysis using theory and prior research driven themes. Coding matrices were created to identify emerging patterns for who supplied what information and how the information was used. Participants described seeking medication information from health professional or lay social network sources. Health professional sources’ strongest role was to provide factual information. In contrast, lay sources provided factual information and affective information such as personal experiences and beliefs or attitudes. Information sought from social sources displayed similar functioning roles in terms of how the information was used by the participants seeking the information. The study concluded that medication information is sought from social sources both inside and outside of healthcare. Emerging patterns found that lay sources may provide patients more than affective information about medications. Further, patients may be receiving factually based information other than from health professionals. By coming to a more complete understanding of the social nature of the information environment, health professionals can better understand information needs from a patient’s perspective.

  2. May I see your ID, please? An explorative study of the professional identity of undergraduate medical education leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundberg, Kristina; Josephson, Anna; Reeves, Scott; Nordquist, Jonas

    2017-02-01

    The mission of undergraduate medical education leaders is to strive towards the enhancement of quality of medical education and health care. The aim of this qualitative study is, with the help of critical perspectives, to contribute to the research area of undergraduate medical education leaders and their identity formation; how can the identity of undergraduate medical education leaders be defined and further explored from a power perspective? In this explorative study, 14 educational leaders at a medical programme in Scandinavia were interviewed through semi-structured interviews. The data was analysed through Moustakas' structured, phenomenological analysis approach and then pattern matched with Gee's power-based identity model. Educational leaders identify themselves more as mediators than leaders and do not feel to any larger extent that their professional identity is authorised by the university. These factors potentially create difficulties when trying to communicate with medical teachers, often also with a weaker sense of professional identity, about medical education. The perceptions of the professional identity of undergraduate medical education leaders provide us with important notions on the complexities on executing their important mission to develop medical education: their perceptions of ambiguity towards the process of trying to lead teachers toward educational development and a perceived lack of authorisation of their work from the university level. These are important flaws to observe and correct when improving the context in which undergraduate medical education leaders are trying to develop and improve undergraduate medical programmes. A practical outcome of the results of this study is the facilitation of design of faculty development programmes for educational leaders in undergraduate medial education.

  3. A proposal for clinical genetics (genetics in medicine) education for medical technologists and other health professionals in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohzaki, Hidetsugu

    2014-01-01

    Since the completion of the Human Genome Project, technology has developed markedly in fields such as medical genetics and genetic counseling in the medical arena. In particular, this technology has advanced the discovery of and ways of understanding various genes responsible for genetic diseases, and genetic polymorphisms thought to be associated with disease. Some have been implicated as factors in common lifestyle diseases and have increased the significance of genetic testing. In Japan, doctors and other health professionals, such as nurse and medical technologists have been engaged in genetic testing and genetic disease treatment. Chromosomal and gene aberrations were detected mainly by medical technologists. However, due to the nature of medical technologists who have to provide various clinical tests, such as blood test, pre-medical technology students are required to cover tremendous knowledge of different academic fields to pass the national exam. Therefore, the time allowed for such students to study chromosomal and gene analysis is quite limited. Moreover, they are forced to enter the medical setting without receiving sufficient training. Among them, only few medical technologists specialize in chromosomal and gene analysis. However, with the advancement of clinical genetics and development of chromosomal and gene analysis, conducting clinical practice is becoming more and more difficult for medical technologists who just passed the national exam. Also, doctors and other health professionals have not been able to keep up with service demands either. This paper attempts to address knowledge and skills gaps (especially clinical genetics, English, and ICT literacy) of medical technologists and we propose educational methods to prepare medical genetics professionals in Japan to meet these gaps.

  4. Continuing professional development training needs of medical laboratory personnel in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasvosve, Ishmael; Ledikwe, Jenny H; Phumaphi, Othilia; Mpofu, Mulamuli; Nyangah, Robert; Motswaledi, Modisa S; Martin, Robert; Semo, Bazghina-Werq

    2014-08-18

    Laboratory professionals are expected to maintain their knowledge on the most recent advances in laboratory testing and continuing professional development (CPD) programs can address this expectation. In developing countries, accessing CPD programs is a major challenge for laboratory personnel, partly due to their limited availability. An assessment was conducted among clinical laboratory workforce in Botswana to identify and prioritize CPD training needs as well as preferred modes of CPD delivery. A self-administered questionnaire was disseminated to medical laboratory scientists and technicians registered with the Botswana Health Professions Council. Questions were organized into domains of competency related to (i) quality management systems, (ii) technical competence, (iii) laboratory management, leadership, and coaching, and (iv) pathophysiology, data interpretation, and research. Participants were asked to rank their self-perceived training needs using a 3-point scale in order of importance (most, moderate, and least). Furthermore, participants were asked to select any three preferences for delivery formats for the CPD. Out of 350 questionnaires that were distributed, 275 were completed and returned giving an overall response rate of 79%. The most frequently selected topics for training in rank order according to key themes were (mean, range) (i) quality management systems, most important (79%, 74-84%); (ii) pathophysiology, data interpretation, and research (68%, 52-78%); (iii) technical competence (65%, 44-73%); and (iv) laboratory management, leadership, and coaching (60%, 37-77%). The top three topics selected by the participants were (i) quality systems essentials for medical laboratory, (ii) implementing a quality management system, and (iii) techniques to identify and control sources of error in laboratory procedures. The top three preferred CPD delivery modes, in rank order, were training workshops, hands-on workshops, and internet-based learning

  5. Defining Medical Professionalism Across the Years of Training and Experience at the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Virginia F; Foster, Christopher W; Olsen, Cara H; Warwick, Anne B; Fernandez, Katrina A; Crouch, Gary

    2016-10-01

    Many medical institutions have moved forward with curricular objectives aimed at teaching professionalism, but the question remains: are we teaching the most appropriate content at the most opportune times to maximize sustained learning? The students' point of view of professionalism is helpful in addressing this question. To describe the views of professionalism held by students and faculty at the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences. In e-mailed surveys, students and faculty free-texted the three most important characteristics of a professional. Qualitative analysis was used to analyze the results. Data were compared on the basis of the percentage of each group affirming one of the characteristics. Fourteen characteristics of professionalism were found. There were significant differences across all participant groups in the characteristics that each indicated were most important. Differences emerge between definitions of professionalism that appear to relate to training and experience. Students' views of professionalism reflect the immediate context of their educational environment. Curricula targeted to the students' foci are relevant in teaching professionalism. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  6. Role of Gender, Emotional Empathy, Interpersonal Attraction on Moral Judgement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barnabas E Nwankwo

    2013-01-01

      This study investigated the role of emotional empathy, interpersonal attraction and gender on moral judgement among secondaiy school teachers in Ozubulu, in Ekwusigo local government area in Anambra state...

  7. Procedural Skills of the Entrustable Professional Activities: Are Graduating US Medical Students Prepared to Perform Procedures in Residency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Adrienne N; Kumar, Anagha; Malekzadeh, Sonya

    Competency-based medical education has been successfully instituted in graduate medical education through the development of Milestones. Consequently, the Association of American Medical Colleges implemented the core entrustable professional activities initiative to complement this framework in undergraduate medical education. We sought to determine its efficacy by examining the experiences and confidence of recent medical school graduates with general procedural skills (entrustable professional activities 12). We administered an electronic survey to the MedStar Georgetown University Hospital intern class assessing their experiences with learning and evaluation as well as their confidence with procedural skills training during medical school. Simple linear regression was used to compare respondent confidence and the presence of formal evaluation in medical school. We received 28 complete responses, resulting in a 33% response rate, whereas most respondents indicated that basic cardiopulmonary resuscitation, bag/mask ventilation, and universal precautions were important to and evaluated by their medical school, this emphasis was not present for venipuncture, intravenous catheter placement, and arterial puncture. Mean summed scores of confidence for each skill indicated a statistically significant effect between confidence and evaluation of universal precaution skills. More advanced procedural skills are not considered as important for graduating medical students and are less likely to be taught and formally evaluated before graduation. Formal evaluation of some procedural skills is associated with increased confidence of the learner. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Review of Ophthalmology Medical Professional Liability Claims in the United States from 2006 through 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Atalie C; Parikh, P Divya; Lad, Eleonora M

    2018-01-13

    To describe characteristics of closed medical professional liability (MPL) claims against ophthalmologists in the United States. Retrospective analysis of MPL claims from 2006-2015. Data were obtained from the Physician Insurers Association of America (PIAA) Data Sharing Project (DSP). Comparison was made between ophthalmology and all healthcare specialties for physician demographics, prevalence and costs associated with closed claims, and resolution of claims. The most prevalent chief medical factor, presenting medical condition, operative procedure, outcomes, and resolution of ophthalmology claims were compared between the 2006-2010 and 2011-2015 periods. From 2006-2015, 90 743 MPL claims were closed: 2.6% (2325/90 743) of closed claims and 2.2% (564/24 670) of all paid claims were against ophthalmologists. Retrospective analysis of MPL claims captured by the PIAA DSP over a 10-year period. Subspecialty pertaining to the claim, number of claims closed and paid, indemnity paid, allocated loss adjustment expenses, chief medical factor, presenting medical condition, operative procedure, outcome, and resolution. Only 24% of closed claims against ophthalmologists resulted in payment. Two-thirds were dropped, withdrawn, or dismissed. Ninety percent of claims that received a verdict were favorable toward the ophthalmologist. Cataract and cornea surgeries were the most prevalent and most costly operative procedures, accounting for 50% of all claims and $47 641 376 and $32 570 148 in total paid indemnity, respectively. Average indemnity was higher for corneal procedures ($304 476) than vitreoretinal procedures ($270 141) or oculoplastic procedures on the eyelid ($222 471) or orbit and eyeball ($183 467). The prevalence and cost of claims related to endophthalmitis declined from 2006-2010 (n = 38/1160 [3.3%]; average indemnity, $516 875) period to the 2011-2015 (n = 26/1165 [2.2%]; average indemnity, $247 083) period. Average indemnity paid

  9. Informal teacher communities enhancing the professional development of medical teachers: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lankveld, Thea; Schoonenboom, Judith; Kusurkar, Rashmi; Beishuizen, Jos; Croiset, Gerda; Volman, Monique

    2016-04-14

    Informal peer learning is a particularly powerful form of learning for medical teachers, although it does not always occur automatically in the departments of medical schools. In this article, the authors explore the role of teacher communities in enhancing informal peer learning among undergraduate medical teachers. Teacher communities are groups of teachers who voluntarily gather on a regular basis to develop and share knowledge. Outside of medical education, these informal teacher communities have proved to be an effective means of enhancing peer learning of academic teachers. The processes underlying this outcome are, however, not known. This study therefore aims to explore the processes that make informal teacher communities effective in supporting peer learning of teachers. A qualitative study was performed at a Dutch medical school, where a student-centred undergraduate curriculum had recently been introduced. As part of this curriculum, tutors are segregated into separate specialty areas and thus have only limited opportunities for informal learning with other tutors. The authors followed two informal teacher communities aimed at supporting these tutors. They observed the interactions within the teacher communities and held semi-structured interviews with ten of the participants. The observation notes and interview data were analysed using thematic analysis. The informal teacher communities allowed the tutors to engage in a dialogue with colleagues and share questions, solutions, and interpretations. The teacher communities also provided opportunities to explicate tacit expertise, which helped the tutors to develop an idea of their role and form a frame of reference for their own experiences. Furthermore, the communities enhanced the tutors' sense of belonging. The tutors felt more secure in their role and they felt valued by the organisation due to the teacher communities. This study shows that informal teacher communities not only support the professional

  10. Psychosocial perspective of first year medical students entered in a professional course – a cross sectional study from Davangere, Karnataka

    OpenAIRE

    Prasad Budri Kallingappa; Sindhuja Asokan

    2014-01-01

    Background The perception of stress is frequently influenced by socio cultural factors; the results of studies on one region cannot be generalized to the other. This study is an attempt to explore the perception of stress and allied stressors among Indian medical students who have just entered into professional course. Methods A cross-sectional study was done on medical students of SSIMSRC, Davangere, Karnataka. Depression, anxiety and stress scores were noted using DASS questionna...

  11. Community partnerships for health information training: medical librarians working with health-care professionals and consumers in Tennessee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Priscilla L; Green, Brenda F; Wallace, Richard L; Earl, Martha F; Orick, Jan T; Taylor, Mary Virginia

    2004-06-01

    In Tennessee, several medical library outreach projects have involved collaborative work with health-care professionals, public librarians, consumers, faith-based organizations and community service agencies. The authors are medical librarians who worked as consultants, trainers and project directors to promote health literacy using PubMed medline and other health information resources in the several funding projects described here. We explain the programmes briefly, focusing on lessons learned and suggestions for those who follow us.

  12. Strengthening medical training programmes by focusing on professional transitions: a national bridging programme to prepare medical school graduates for their role as medical interns in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peluso, Michael J; Luckett, Rebecca; Mantzor, Savara; Bedada, Alemayhu G; Saleeb, Paul; Haverkamp, Miriam; Mosepele, Mosepele; Haverkamp, Cecil; Maoto, Rosa; Prozesky, Detlef; Tapela, Neo; Nkomazana, Oathokwa; Barak, Tomer

    2017-12-21

    The improvement of existing medical training programmes in resource-constrained settings is seen as key to addressing the challenge of retaining medical graduates trained at considerable cost both in-country and abroad. In Botswana, the establishment of the national Medical Internship Training Programme (MIT) in 2014 was a first step in efforts to promote retention through the expansion and standardization of internship training, but MIT faces a major challenge related to variability between incoming trainees due to factors such as their completion of undergraduate medical training in different settings. To address this challenge, in August 2016 we piloted a bridging programme for foreign and locally trained medical graduates that aimed to facilitate their transition into internship training. This study aimed to describe the programme and evaluate its impact on the participants' self-rated perceptions of their knowledge, experience, clinical skills, and familiarity with Botswana's healthcare system. We conducted a national, intensive, two-week programme designed to facilitate the transition from medical student to intern and to prepare all incoming interns for their work in Botswana's health system. Participants included all interns entering in August 2016. Formats included lectures, workshops, simulations, discussions, and reflection-oriented activities. The Kellogg Foundation Outcomes Logic Model was used to evaluate the programme, and participants self-rated their knowledge, skills, and attitudes across each of the programme objectives on paired questionnaires before and after participation. 48/54 participants (89%) provided paired data. Participants reported a high degree of satisfaction with the programme (mean 4.2/5). Self-rated preparedness improved after participation (mean 3.2 versus 3.7, p programme prepared them for their internship training. Exploratory analysis revealed that 20/25 participants (80%) reporting either no effect or a negative effect

  13. Impact of partial participation in integrated family planning training on medical knowledge, patient communication and professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinauer, Jody E; Turk, Jema K; Preskill, Felisa; Devaskar, Sangita; Freedman, Lori; Landy, Uta

    2014-04-01

    Obstetrics and gynecology residency programs are required to provide access to abortion training, but residents can opt out of participating for religious or moral reasons. Quantitative data suggest that most residents who opt out of doing abortions participate and gain skills in other aspects of the family planning training. However, little is known about their experience and perspective. Between June 2010 and June 2011, we conducted semistructured interviews with current and former residents who opted out of some or all of the family planning training at ob-gyn residency programs affiliated with the Kenneth J. Ryan Residency Training Program in Abortion and Family Planning. Residents were either self-identified or were identified by their Ryan Program directors as having opted out of some training. The interviews were transcribed and coded using modified grounded theory. Twenty-six physicians were interviewed by telephone. Interviewees were from geographically diverse programs (35% Midwest, 31% West, 19% South/Southeast and 15% North/Northeast). We identified four dominant themes about their experience: (a) skills valued in the family planning training, (b) improved patient-centered care, (c) changes in attitudes about abortion and (d) miscommunication as a source of negative feelings. Respondents valued the ability to partially participate in the family planning training and identified specific aspects of their training which will impact future patient care. Many of the effects described in the interviews address core competencies in medical knowledge, patient care, communication and professionalism. We recommend that programs offer a spectrum of partial participation in family planning training to all residents, including residents who choose to opt out of doing some or all abortions. Learners who morally object to abortion but participate in training in family planning and abortion, up to their level of comfort, gain clinical and professional skills. We

  14. Clinical medical students’ experiences of unprofessional behaviour and how these should inform approaches to teaching of professionalism

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Abu, Ozotu Rosemary

    2016-08-01

    This mixed method research explores unprofessional behaviour experienced by clinical Medical students, during clinical training in Ireland; with a view to obtaining learning points that inform future design of modules on Professionalism. It also looks at the impact of these on students and the relationship between gender\\/ethnicity and students’ experiences of these behaviours.

  15. A structural equation model relating work stress, coping resource, and quality of life among Chinese medical professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Siying; Li, Huangyuan; Zhu, Wei; Li, Jian; Wang, Xiaorong

    2010-11-01

    Work stress and coping resource may contribute to the quality of life in medical professionals. This study is to determine the relationships among work stressor, personal strain, coping resource and the quality of life (QOL) and its two dimensions in medical professionals. The Chinese version of Short Form-36 Health Survey was used to measure QOL, the modified edition of the Occupational Stress Inventory was applied to evaluate the work stressor, personal strain and coping resources among 2,721 medical professionals. The structural equation model was established to assess the relationships among these variables. Work stressor and coping resources had both direct and indirect effects on QOL and its two dimensions, the indirect effects were mediated by personal strain. Personal strain had a negative direct effect on QOL and its two dimensions. This study confirmed a complex relationship among these variables. Countermeasures targeting work stressor, reducing personal strain and strengthening coping resources are necessary in order to improve the QOL among medical professionals. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Promoting professional behaviour in undergraduate medical, dental and veterinary curricula in the Netherlands: evaluation of a joint effort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Luijk, S.J.; Gorter, R.C.; van Mook, W.N.K.A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: From 2002 onwards, a nationwide working group of representatives from all medical (8), dental (3) and veterinary medicine (1) schools collaborated in order to develop and implement recommendations for teaching and assessing professional behaviour. Aim: The aim of this article is to

  17. Electronic Medical Records (EMR): An Empirical Testing of Factors Contributing to Healthcare Professionals' Resistance to Use EMR Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazile, Emmanuel Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The benefits of using electronic medical records (EMRs) have been well documented; however, despite numerous financial benefits and cost reductions being offered by the federal government, some healthcare professionals have been reluctant to implement EMR systems. In fact, prior research provides evidence of failed EMR implementations due to…

  18. “My patients are better than yours”: optimistic bias about patients’ medication adherence by European health care professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clyne W

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Wendy Clyne,1 Sarah McLachlan,2 Comfort Mshelia,3 Peter Jones,4 Sabina De Geest,5,6 Todd Ruppar,7 Kaat Siebens,6 Fabienne Dobbels,6 Przemyslaw Kardas8 1Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Coventry University, Coventry, 2Department of Physiotherapy, King’s College London, London, 3Leeds Institute of Health Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds, 4Institute of Science and Technology in Medicines, Keele University, Keele, UK; 5Institute of Nursing Science, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 6Academic Center for Nursing and Midwifery, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium; 7Sinclair School of Nursing, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA; 8Department of Family Medicine, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland Objectives: The objectives of this study were to determine the perceptions of European physicians, nurses, and pharmacists about the extent of nonadherence by patients in their country relative to their perception of nonadherence by their own patients, and to investigate the occurrence of optimistic bias about medication adherence. The study explored a key cognitive bias for prevalence and likelihood estimates in the context of health care professionals’ beliefs about patients’ use of medicines.Methods: A cross-sectional online survey of 3,196 physicians (855, nurses (1,294, and pharmacists (1,047 in ten European countries (Austria, Belgium, England, France, Germany, Hungary, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, and Switzerland was used.Results: Participants differed in their perceptions of the prevalence of medication adherence initiation, implementation, and persistence present in their own patients with a chronic illness in comparison to patients with a chronic illness in general. Health care professionals demonstrated optimistic bias for initiation and persistence with medicine taking, perceiving their own patients to be more likely to initiate and persist with treatment than other patients, but reported significantly lower prevalence

  19. Putting the puzzle together: the role of 'problem definition' in complex clinical judgement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristancho, Sayra; Lingard, Lorelei; Forbes, Thomas; Ott, Michael; Novick, Richard

    2017-02-01

    We teach judgement in pieces; that is, we talk about each aspect separately (patient, plan, resources, technique, etc.). We also let trainees figure out how to put the pieces together. In complex situations, this might be problematic. Using data from a drawing-based study on surgeons' experiences with complex situations, we explore the notion of 'problem definition' in real-world clinical judgement using the theoretical lens of systems engineering. 'Emergence', the sensitising concept for analysis, is rooted in two key systems premises: that person and context are inseparable and that what emerges is an act of choice. Via a 'gallery walk' we used these premises to perform analysis on individual drawings as well as cross-comparisons of multiple drawings. Our focus was to understand similarities and differences among the vantage points used by multiple surgeons. In this paper we challenge two assumptions from current models of clinical judgement: that experts hold a fixed and static definition of the problem and that consequently the focus of the expert's work is on solving the problem. Each situation described by our participants revealed different but complementary perspectives of what a surgical problem might come to be: from concerns about ensuring standard of care, to balancing personal emotions versus care choices, to coordinating resources, and to maintaining control while in the midst of personality clashes. We suggest that it is only at the situation and system level, not at the individual level, that we are able to appreciate the nuances of defining the problem when experts make judgements during real-world complex situations. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.

  20. Oral health knowledge, attitude and practices among health professionals in King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Abdul Baseer

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Oral health knowledge among the health professionals working in KFMC, Riyadh was lower than what would be expected of these groups, which had higher literacy levels in health care, but they showed a positive attitude toward professional dental care.

  1. Humanities mini-course curricula for midcareer health professionals at the Penn State Milton S. Hershey Medical Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Kimberly R; George, Daniel R

    2012-08-01

    The field of medical humanities has traditionally focused on medical students and, more recently, on premedical undergraduates. Comparatively little formal humanities pedagogy has been dedicated to midcareer health professionals. To address this lack, the Department of Humanities at the Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine and the Milton S. Hershey Medical Center designed eight annual humanities mini-courses for faculty and staff throughout the college and medical center.These mini-courses fell into four categories: reading, reflection, and discussion; creative expression; technology; and ethics. They were geared toward midcareer health professionals who were seeking new intellectual and creative stimulation and variety in daily routine. They also provided humanities faculty the opportunity to devote attention to topics that capitalize on their professional training and that interest them personally.Participants indicated a high degree of satisfaction with the mini-courses for four principal reasons: (1) learning the tools and methodologies of a new discipline or domain other than biomedicine, (2) using their minds and training in uncustomary ways, (3) forming new alliances with colleagues (which served to lessen the sense of professional isolation), and (4) enjoying a respite from the stressful flow of the workday. Humanities faculty facilitators provided more mixed responses but agreed that conducting the mini-courses had been a positive overall experience.Although this article provides a foundational framework for the development of a humanities mini-course series, the authors encourage others to replicate these curricula in other medical settings as an important step toward a robust pedagogy designed for midcareer health care professionals.

  2. Attitudes on cost-effectiveness and equity: a cross-sectional study examining the viewpoints of medical professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, David G; Wong, Gordon X; Martin, David T; Tybor, David J; Kim, Jennifer; Lasker, Jeffrey; Mitty, Roger; Salem, Deeb

    2017-08-01

    To determine the attitudes of physicians and trainees in regard to the roles of both cost-effectiveness and equity in clinical decision making. In this cross-sectional study, electronic surveys containing a hypothetical decision-making scenario were sent to medical professionals to select between two colon cancer screening tests for a population. Three Greater Boston academic medical institutions: Tufts University School of Medicine, Tufts Medical Centre and Lahey Hospital and Medical Centre. 819 medical students, 497 residents-in-training and 671 practising physicians were contacted electronically using institutional and organisational directories. Stratified opinions of medical providers and trainee subgroups regarding cost-effectiveness and equity. A total of 881 respondents comprising 512 medical students, 133 medical residents-in-training and 236 practising physicians completed the survey (total response rate 44.3%). Thirty-six per cent of medical students, 44% of residents-in-training and 53% of practising physicians favoured the less effective and more equitable screening test. Residents-in-training (OR 1.49, CI 1.01 to 2.21; p=0.044) and practising physicians (OR 2.12, CI 1.54 to 2.92; pmedical students. Moreover, female responders across all three cohorts favoured the more equitable screening test to a greater degree than did male responders (OR 1.70, CI 1.29 to 2.24; pmedical professionals place on equity. Among medical professionals, practising physicians appear to be more egalitarian than residents-in-training, while medical students appear to be most utilitarian and cost-effective. Meanwhile, female respondents in all three cohorts favoured the more equitable option to a greater degree than their male counterparts. Healthcare policies that trade off equity in favour of cost-effectiveness may be unacceptable to many medical professionals, especially practising physicians and women. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated

  3. The Role of Oral Health Care Professionals in Providing Medical Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Michael; Greenberg, Barbara L

    2017-08-01

    Integration of oral health care professionals (OHCPs) into medical care could advance efforts to control increasingly prevalent conditions such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, human immunodeficiency virus infection, and hepatitis C infection, each of which is associated with significant morbidity and health care costs. Prevention and early intervention are effective for reducing the incidence and severity of these diseases, while increasing cost of health care may drive the need for nontraditional models of health education and delivery. Studies have suggested that a dental office is a suitable setting for the purpose of screening and referrals for these conditions and may result in medical expenditure savings. Such innovations would challenge the current dental educational model and the education and training of faculty. Implementing this change would require recognizing opportunities and challenges for the profession and the need for new competencies in dental curricula. Challenges and opportunities are described, including reimbursement models and integration of OHCPs into emerging health care delivery models. Ideas for curricular change are presented, including the need for added emphasis on biological sciences and the introduction of new courses to address systems thinking and forces driving preventive behavior. To embrace the evolving health care arena and be a part of the future interprofessional health care delivery dynamic, dental curricula should also include substantive interprofessional education opportunities. Such opportunities would provide the basic skills and training to recognize and appreciate patients' oral health issues in the broader context of their overall health and well-being. This article was written as part of the project "Advancing Dental Education in the 21(st) Century."

  4. The Invisible Work of Distributed Medical Education: Exploring the Contributions of Audiovisual Professionals, Administrative Professionals and Faculty Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Anna; Kits, Olga; Mann, Karen; Tummons, Jonathan; Wilson, Keith W.

    2017-01-01

    Distributed medical education (DME) is becoming increasingly prevalent. Much of the published literature on DME has focused on the experiences of learners in distributed programs; however, our empirical work leads us to believe that DME changes the context significantly, not only for learners, but also for other important members of the…

  5. Leadership development in a professional medical society using 360-degree survey feedback to assess emotional intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Paul J; Robbins, Benjamin; Schwaitzberg, Steven D; Harmon, Larry

    2016-12-30

    The current research evaluated the potential utility of a 360-degree survey feedback program for measuring leadership quality in potential committee leaders of a professional medical association (PMA). Emotional intelligence as measured by the extent to which self-other agreement existed in the 360-degree survey ratings was explored as a key predictor of leadership quality in the potential leaders. A non-experimental correlational survey design was implemented to assess the variation in leadership quality scores across the sample of potential leaders. A total of 63 of 86 (76%) of those invited to participate did so. All potential leaders received feedback from PMA Leadership, PMA Colleagues, and PMA Staff and were asked to complete self-ratings regarding their behavior. Analyses of variance revealed a consistent pattern of results as Under-Estimators and Accurate Estimators-Favorable were rated significantly higher than Over-Estimators in several leadership behaviors. Emotional intelligence as conceptualized in this study was positively related to overall performance ratings of potential leaders. The ever-increasing roles and potential responsibilities for PMAs suggest that these organizations should consider multisource performance reviews as these potential future PMA executives rise through their organizations to assume leadership positions with profound potential impact on healthcare. The current findings support the notion that potential leaders who demonstrated a humble pattern or an accurate pattern of self-rating scored significantly higher in their leadership, teamwork, and interpersonal/communication skills than those with an aggrandizing self-rating.

  6. Knowledge of different medical and dental professional groups in Switzerland about halitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Barbara; Oppliger, Nathalie; Filippi, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Although halitosis is a widespread condition, it is still seen as too personal or embarrassing to talk about. The cause of real halitosis can be intraoral or extraoral. In order to determine the level of knowledge of health care providers in Switzerland, a survey was conducted over a period of three years in which 150 family physicians, 150 ear, nose and throat specialists, 154 dentists and 151 dental hygienists were personally interviewed. The survey shows that only 46.7% of the dentists and only 47.0% of the dental hygienists are consulted by patients for their halitosis, whereas 58.0% of the family physicians and 50.7% of the ENT specialists reported treating 1-10 patients for halitosis per year, while 46.7% of the ENT doctors even reported treating 11-100 patients for halitosis per year. 81.5% of all interviewed doctors and dental hygienists were of the opinion that halitosis mainly originates intraorally. 76.0% of the dentists and 72.8% of the dental hygienists as well as 33.3% of the family physicians recommend periodontitis therapy as halitosis treatment. This proves that a large percentage of medical professionals thinks that marginal periodontitis is the most common cause of halitosis. This study also shows that patients seek first consultations with dentists and dental hygienists less often than with family physicians and ENT specialists, despite the fact that the cause of halitosis is primarily intraoral.

  7. Medical teachers' perception of professional roles in the framework of the German National Competence-Based Learning Objectives for Undergraduate Medical Education (NKLM)-A multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griewatz, Jan; Wiechers, Steffen; Ben-Karacobanim, Hadiye; Lammerding-Koeppel, Maria

    2016-11-01

    Based on CanMEDS and others, the German National Competence-Based Learning Objectives for Undergraduate Medical Education (NKLM) were recently consented. International studies recommend integrating national and cultural context when transferring a professional roles framework in different countries. Teachers' misconceptions may establish barriers in role understanding and implementation. The aim is to analyze medical teachers' rating and perception of NKLM roles in order to reveal differences to official definitions. A two-step sequential mixed methods design was used including a survey and focus groups with N = 80 medical teachers from four German universities. Most of the teachers highly valued the importance of the role "Medical Expert" and understood comprehensively. The Communicator and the Collaborator were rated fairly and perceived to a large extent. Other intrinsic roles like Health Advocate and Scholar showed more deficits in perception and less importance by the participants. This was seen generally problematic and should be considered carefully. Manager and professional showed one-sided weaknesses either in importance or perception. Medical teachers considered NKLM roles relevant for medical practice, although their role perception differed considerably. The value and risk matrix visualizes the specific role profile and offers strategic implications for NKLM communication and handling, thus supporting change management.

  8. Guerra, terror, julgamento War, terror, judgement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. J. Walker

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo responde a uma variedade de tentativas precoces de interpretar o significado mais amplo da violência do 11 de setembro de 2001. Seu argumento central diz respeito às bases do julgamento político. Aborda uma variedade de interpretações correntes para as formas contemporâneas de violência em parte relacionadas às alegações de uma política weberiana de responsabilidade, em parte relacionadas às tensões estruturais entre princípios de multilateralismo e unilateralismo. O artigo sugere que nem o multilateralismo nem o unilateralismo são suficientes para dar conta das questões sobre autoridade legítima e violência, para as quais o 11 de setembro de 2001 pelo menos trouxe um pouco mais de clareza. Conclui com uma breve alusão à crescente dificuldade para se desenhar linhas, não somente entre os civilizados e os bárbaros, mas também as linhas físicas que foram usadas para criar o sistema moderno de Estados, em muitos contextos, mas esta é uma dificuldade que está na raiz de problemas mais sérios envolvidos na formação do julgamento político moderno.This article responds to the variety of early attempts to interpret the broader significance of the violence of September 11, 2001. Its central argument concerns the grounds for political judgement. It reads a variety of current interpretations of contemporary forms of violence partly in relation to claims about a Weberian politics of responsibility and partly in relation to structural tensions between principles of multilateralism and unilateralism. Neither multilateralism nor unilateralism, the article suggests, is sufficient to engage the questions about legitimate authority and violence to which September 11, 2001 at least brought greater clarity. It concludes with a brief allusion to the increasing difficulty of drawing lines; not only lines between the civilized and the barbarian but also the physical lines that have been used to create a modern system of

  9. Historically black medical schools: addressing the minority health professional pipeline and the public mission of care for vulnerable populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Keith C; Baker, Richard S; Taylor, Robert; Montgomery-Rice, Valerie; Higginbotham, Eve J; Riley, Wayne J; Maupin, John; Drew-Ivie, Sylvia; Reede, Joan Y; Gibbons, Gary

    2009-09-01

    Substantial changes in not only access to care, cost, and quality of care, but also health professions education are needed to ensure effective national healthcare reform. Since the actionable determinants of health such as personal beliefs and behaviors, socioeconomic factors, and the environment disproportionately affect the poor (and often racial/ethnic minorities), many have suggested that focusing efforts on this population will both directly and indirectly improve the overall health of the nation. Key to the success of such strategies are the ongoing efforts by historically black medical schools (HBMSs) as well as other minority serving medical and health professional schools, who produce a disproportionate percentage of the high-quality and diverse health professionals that are dedicated to maintaining the health of an increasingly diverse nation. Despite their public mission, HBMSs receive limited public support threatening their ability to not only meet the increasing minority health workforce needs but to even sustain their existing contributions. Substantial changes in health education policy and funding are needed to ensure HBMSs as well as other minority-serving medical and health professional schools can continue to produce the diverse, high-quality health professional workforce necessary to maintain the health of an increasingly diverse nation. We explore several model initiatives including focused partnerships with legislative and business leaders that are urgently needed to ensure the ability of HBMSs to maintain their legacy of providing compassionate, quality care to the communities in greatest need.

  10. A Novel Approach to Assessing Professionalism in Preclinical Medical Students Using Multisource Feedback Through Paired Self- and Peer Evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emke, Amanda R; Cheng, Steven; Chen, Ling; Tian, Dajun; Dufault, Carolyn

    2017-01-01

    Phenomenon: Professionalism is integral to the role of the physician. Most professionalism assessments in medical training are delayed until clinical rotations where multisource feedback is available. This leaves a gap in student assessment portfolios and potentially delays professional development. A total of 246 second-year medical students (2013-2015) completed self- and peer assessments of professional behaviors in 2 courses following a series of Team-Based Learning exercises. Correlation and regression analyses were used to examine the alignment or misalignment in the relationship between the 2 types of assessments. Four subgroups were formed based on observed patterns of initial self- and peer assessment alignment or misalignment, and subgroup membership stability over time was assessed. A missing data analysis examined differences between average peer assessment scores as a function of selective nonparticipation. Spearman correlation demonstrated moderate to strong correlation between self-assessments completed alone (no simultaneous peer assessment) and self-assessments completed at the time of peer assessments (ρ = .59, p weak correlation between the two self-assessments and peer assessments (alone: ρ = .13, p students who completed all self-assessments had significantly higher average peer assessment ratings compared to students who completed one or no self-assessments with a difference of -0.32, 95% confidence interval [-0.48, -0.15]. Insights: Multiple measurements of simultaneous self- and peer assessment identified a subgroup of students who consistently rated themselves higher on professionalism attributes relative to the low ratings given by their peers. This subgroup of preclinical students, along with those who elected to not complete self-assessments, may be at risk for professionalism concerns. Use of this multisource feedback tool to measure perceptual stability of professionalism behaviors is a new approach that may assist with early

  11. Medical professional perception, attitude, knowledge, and experience about child abuse and neglect in Bagalkot district of north Karnataka: A survey report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S V Kirankumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim of this study was to analyze medical professional, perception, attitude, knowledge, and experience about child abuse and neglect in Bagalkot district, north Karnataka, India. Materials and Methods: Two hundred medical professional, working in both public and private sectors in the province were interviewed by a single operator. Descriptive analyses were carried out by using the obtained data. Results: Medical professional′s perception about child abuse and neglect (CAN is low and these professionals have poor attitude and knowledge toward CAN in accordance with the code of conduct and law. The available information and education is also poor. Conclusions: The results obtained from the study showed that there is lack of knowledge and poor attitude and perception about CAN among medical professionals that prevents them from detecting and identifying suspected cases. Continuing medical education is required to enhance the ability of professionals to detect CAN cases.

  12. Relations between professional medical associations and the health-care industry, concerning scientific communication and continuing medical education: a policy statement from the European Society of Cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Physicians have an ethical duty to keep up-to-date with current knowledge. Professional medical associations such as the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) support these obligations. In Europe, the costs of continuing medical education (CME) are insufficiently supported from governments and employers; however, medical associations have been criticized for accepting alternative financial support from industry. Medical education and training in research include learning how to assess the quality and reliability of any information. There is some risk of bias in any form of scientific communication including intellectual, professional, and financial and it is essential that in particular, the latter must be acknowledged by full disclosure. It is essential that there is strong collaboration between basic and clinical researchers from academic institutions on the one hand, with engineers and scientists from the research divisions of device and pharmaceutical companies on the other. This is vital so that new diagnostic methods and treatments are developed. Promotion of advances by industry may accelerate their implementation into clinical practice. Universities now frequently exhort their academic staff to protect their intellectual property or commercialize their research. Thus, it is not commercial activity or links per se that have become the target for criticism but the perceived influence of commercial enterprises on clinical decision-making or on messages conveyed by professional medical organizations. This document offers the perspective of the ESC on the current debate, and it recommends how to minimize bias in scientific communications and CME and how to ensure proper ethical standards and transparency in relations between the medical profession and industry.

  13. Relations between professional medical associations and healthcare industry, concerning scientific communication and continuing medical education: a policy statement from the European Society of Cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Physicians have an ethical duty to keep up-to-date with current knowledge. Professional medical associations such as the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) support these obligations. In Europe, the costs of continuing medical education (CME) are insufficiently supported from governments and employers; however, medical associations have been criticized for accepting alternative financial support from industry. Medical education and training in research include learning how to assess the quality and reliability of any information. There is some risk of bias in any form of scientific communication including intellectual, professional, and financial and it is essential that in particular, the latter must be acknowledged by full disclosure. It is essential that there is strong collaboration between basic and clinical researchers from academic institutions on the one hand, with engineers and scientists from the research divisions of device and pharmaceutical companies on the other. This is vital so that new diagnostic methods and treatments are developed. Promotion of advances by industry may accelerate their implementation into clinical practice. Universities now frequently exhort their academic staff to protect their intellectual property or commercialize their research. Thus, it is not commercial activity or links per se that have become the target for criticism but the perceived influence of commercial enterprises on clinical decision-making or on messages conveyed by professional medical organizations. This document offers the perspective of the ESC on the current debate, and it recommends how to minimize bias in scientific communications and CME and how to ensure proper ethical standards and transparency in relations between the medical profession and industry. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier España.

  14. An open-system approach to medical professionalism: a controversy within the sociology of professions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Correia

    Full Text Available This article focuses on a specific debate within theories of professions. Despite different trends, there has been difficulty in theorizing some dimensions of the dominant perspectives because of predominant institutional attention. The aim here was to reinforce the debate with complementary conceptualization of professionalism and, consequently, to foster new understandings of professional relationships. The argument lies in shifting the analytical level from the professions to professionals, as a basic step in conceptualizing individual action within professional contexts. This concern becomes increasingly important as the professional discretion structurally held by individuals becomes greater, since the ability to choose leads more explicitly to internal differentiation of professions. Systemic influence is felt given that social structures are intrinsically involved in actions, which represent exteriorizations of individually internalized processes. Consequently, it becomes necessary to consider the reasons for behaviors and the meanings individually conferred on professional dimensions.

  15. Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of the Impact of Adoption of a Mobile Application for the Assessment of Professionalism in Medical Trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cendán, Juan C; Castiglioni, Analia; Johnson, Teresa R; Eakins, Mike; Verduin, Marcia L; Asmar, Abdo; Metcalf, David; Hernandez, Caridad

    2017-11-01

    Capturing either lapses or excellence in behaviors related to medical professionalism is difficult. The authors report a mixed-methods analysis of a novel mobile platform for assessing medical professionalism in a training environment. A mobile Web-based platform to facilitate professionalism assessment in a situated clinical setting (Professional Mobile Monitoring of Behaviors [PROMOBES]) was developed. A professionalism framework consisting of six domains (reliability, adaptability, peer relationships, upholding principles, team relationships, and scholarship) encompassing 25 subelements underpins the reporting structure. This pilot study involved 26 faculty supervising 93 medical trainees at two sites from January 12 to August 8, 2016. Notable professionalism behaviors were linked to the framework domains and elements; narrative details about incidences were captured on mobile devices. Surveys gauged the technological functionality and impact of PROMOBES on faculty assessment of professionalism. Qualitative focus groups were employed to elucidate user experience. Although users anticipated PROMOBES's utility would be for reporting lapses in professionalism, 94.7% of reports were for commendation. Comfort assessing professionalism (P = .04) and recognition of the reporting procedures for professionalism-related concerns (P = .01) improved. PROMOBES attained high acceptance ratings. Focus group analysis revealed that the explicit connection to the professionalism framework was powerful; similarly, the near real-time reporting capability, multiple observer inputs, and positive feedback facilitation were strengths. Making the professionalism framework visible and accessible via a mobile platform significantly strengthens faculty knowledge and behaviors regarding assessment. The strong desire to capture positive behaviors was an unexpected finding.

  16. 78 FR 38718 - Lists of Designated Primary Medical Care, Mental Health, and Dental Health Professional Shortage...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Lists of Designated Primary Medical Care... geographic areas, population groups, and facilities designated as primary medical care, mental health, and... (primary medical care, dental, psychiatric, vision care, podiatric, pharmacy, and veterinary care). The...

  17. The importance of professional values from clinical nurses' perspective in hospitals of a medical university in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poorchangizi, Batool; Farokhzadian, Jamileh; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Mirzaee, Moghaddameh; Borhani, Fariba

    2017-03-01

    Today, nurses are required to have knowledge and awareness concerning professional values as standards to provide safe and high-quality ethical care. Nurses' perspective on professional values affects decision-making and patient care. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the importance of professional values from clinical nurses' perspective. The present cross-sectional study was conducted in 2016 in four educational hospitals of Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Iran. Data were collected via the Persian version of Nursing Professional Values Scale-Revised (NPVS-R) by Weis and Schank. Sampling was conducted through the use of stratified random sampling method and 250 clinical nurses participated in the study. Results indicated that the total score of the nurses' professional values was high. (102.57 ± 11.94). From nurses' perspective items such as "Maintaining confidentiality of patients" and "Safeguarding patients' right to privacy" had more importance; however, "Recognizing role of professional nursing associations in shaping healthcare policy" and "Participating in nursing research and/or implementing research findings appropriate to practice had less importance. A statistically significant relationship was observed between NPVS-R mean scores and nurses' age, work experience as well as participation in professional ethical training (P values was high, the importance of certain values was at a lower level. Owing to the emerging ethical challenges, it is indispensable to design educational programs in order to improve nurses' awareness and understanding of the comprehensive importance of professional values. Furthermore, it is recommended that mixed methods studies should be conducted in order to design an instrument to evaluate the use of values in nursing practice.

  18. [Variability of physician judgements in school entry examinations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyer, S; Wedegärtner, F

    2007-11-01

    Data from school entry examinations were used for studying the variability of judgements between physicians performing the examinations. Two diagnoses were subject to examination: 1) Obesity, because an external criterion was available for this one. The medical classifications were compared with automated classifications using an external criterion. 2) Language anomalies, because these are the most frequent diagnoses. No external criterion had been available, thus differences within the group of examining physicians were considered. Data from all school entry examinations performed in the city of Hannover between 1998 and 2001 were used. Altogether 14 physicians were involved, but due to low case numbers the data of two had to be omitted. The analyses are based on 18,303 datasets. For obesity the agreement rates between physicians' and automatically generated diagnoses were ascertained by calculating sensitivity and specificity. Comparisons of differences between physicians with respect to chances of getting a diagnosis were performed using logistic regression. The sensitivity of classifying body weights above the 75 (th) percentile correctly was 0.64 over all years of observation. The respective sensitivity of classifying children with body weights above the 97 (th) percentile was 0.70. Considerable differences over the four years of observation occurred. For performing logistic regressions, the diagnoses of the physician with the smallest difference from an external criterion were used as standard of comparison. The diagnoses of the physician with the largest difference yielded an OR=0.08. The overall variability within the group of examining physicians was large. With respect to language anomalies, although considerable, the within-group differences were smaller. The largest odds ratio in this case was OR=0.40. Diagnoses from school entry examinations vary according to the physicians involved. Thus the data should not be used for epidemiological studies. In

  19. Specific entrustable professional activities for undergraduate medical internships: a method compatible with the academic curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamui-Sutton, Alicia; Monterrosas-Rojas, Ana María; Ortiz-Montalvo, Armando; Flores-Morones, Felipe; Torruco-García, Uri; Navarrete-Martínez, Andrea; Arrioja-Guerrero, Araceli

    2017-08-25

    Competency-based education has been considered the most important pedagogical trend in Medicine in the last two decades. In clinical contexts, competencies are implemented through Entrustable Professional Activities (EPAs) which are observable and measurable. The aim of this paper is to describe the methodology used in the design of educational tools to assess students´ competencies in clinical practice during their undergraduate internship (UI). In this paper, we present the construction of specific APROCs (Actividades Profesionales Confiables) in Surgery (S), Gynecology and Obstetrics (GO) and Family Medicine (FM) rotations with three levels of performance. The study considered a mixed method exploratory type design, a qualitative phase followed by a quantitative validation exercise. In the first stage data was obtained from three rotations (FM, GO and S) through focus groups about real and expected activities of medical interns. Triangulation with other sources was made to construct benchmarks. In the second stage, narrative descriptions with the three levels were validated by professors who teach the different subjects using the Delphi technique. The results may be described both curricular and methodological wise. From the curricular point of view, APROCs were identified in three UI rotations within clinical contexts in Mexico City, benchmarks were developed by levels and validated by experts' consensus. In regard to methodological issues, this research contributed to the development of a strategy, following six steps, to build APROCs using mixed methods. Developing benchmarks provides a regular and standardized language that helps to evaluate student's performance and define educational strategies efficiently and accurately. The university academic program was aligned with APROCs in clinical contexts to assure the acquisition of competencies by students.