Griggs, Walter S.; Rubin, Harvey W.
The growing number of professional liability suits against professors warrants a close examination of the need for and provisions of available insurance coverage. The evolution of tort liability, the question of negligence, and the professional liability policy are discussed. (LBH)
White, K C
Once again, I find Mr. Cooper quote-worthy for his statement, "It is incumbent upon the trial bar not to support the status quo merely because it is in our economic interest. Change is in the wind, and our tort system will be blown away on the winds of change for change's sake unless we participate in correcting deficiencies in the tort system and civil jury trial process." I suggest that we cannot ask for change for our own economic interest, nor can we lay blame exclusively to the other etiologic elements. We must improve those elements within our purview. The prayer of serenity may serve us well: God, grant me the serenity to accept the things I cannot change, the courage to change the things I can, and the wisdom to know the difference. In the game of professional liability litigation as played by the rules extant there are clearly winners and losers. The winners are the legal profession, both plaintiff and defense, and the insurers, who in the face of adversity simply increase premiums or withdraw from the market. The losers are the medical profession, the patients for whom they care and, in the broadest sense, our society as a whole. So as not to close on a note of gloom, one last quote. Lawrence H. Cooke, former Chief Judge of New York State, in remarks to the April 1986 National Symposium on Civil Justice Issues stated, "Our justice systems are beset with very real problems.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Huang, Hui-Man; Sun, Fan-Ko
Liability attribution and professional negligence in pediatric nursing are topics that have been neglected in Taiwan. (1) Identify the definitions of related criminal activities in accordance with domestic criminal law; (2) Elucidate the facts and the dispute in a current case involving a pediatric nurse; (3) Elucidate the principle of 'no punishment without law'; (4) Explore the reasons why the pediatric nurse in the current case received a verdict of 'not guilty'. A literature review and case study approach were used to analyze a sentence reconsideration of the first instance No. 1 (2011) issued by the Taiwan high court, Kaohsiung branch court. The conditions for the scrutiny of criminal activity under Taiwan criminal law are statement of facts, illegality (justifiable cause), and liability (excuse). In this case, the pediatric nurse was accused of failing to prevent an infant from suffocation and of not discharging her obligations as a nurse. The pediatric nurse rebutted the charge of criminal negligence. The intervening behaviors of the pediatric nurse were found to be legal and not culpable. In this case, the High Court and Supreme Court made a final criminal judgment based on the presumption of innocence, and the pediatric nurse was pronounced innocent of the charge. This article intends to assist pediatric nurses understand their liabilities under Taiwan's criminal law. Pediatric nurses should gain a better understanding of the nature of liability for professional negligence in order to clarify how actions that may be illegal do not necessarily make nurses culpable.
SADUSK, J F; HASSARD, H; WATERSON, R
The most important lessons for the physician to learn in regard to his professional liability insurance coverage are the following:1. The physician should carefully read his professional liability policy and should secure the educated aid of his attorney and his insurance broker, if they are conversant with this field.2. He should particularly read the definition of coverage and carefully survey the exclusion clauses which may deny him coverage under certain circumstances.3. If the physician is in partnership or in a group, he should be certain that he has contingent partnership coverage.4. The physician should accept coverage only from an insurance carrier of sufficient size and stability that he can be sure his coverage will be guaranteed for "latent liability" claims as the years go along-certainly for his lifetime.5. The insurance carrier offering the professional liability policy should be prepared to offer coverages up to at least $100,000/$300,000.6. The physician should be assured that the insurance carrier has claims-handling personnel and legal counsel who are experienced and expert in the professional liability field and who are locally available for service.7. The physician is best protected by a local or state group program, next best by a national group program, and last, by individual coverage.8. The physician should look with suspicion on a cancellation clause in which his policy may be summarily cancelled on brief notice.9. The physician should not buy professional liability insurance on the basis of price alone; adequacy of coverage and service and a good insurance company for his protection should be the deciding factors.
The radon technologist will want to protect himself from lawsuits by plaintiffs who believe they have suffered consequences of a false measurement or erroneous recommendation. The author may be sued for negligence or on the contract. A plaintiff is more likely to be successful in a suit for monetary losses associated with real estate transactions or remediation than in a suit for personal injury. To avoid liability, the radon technologist will want to keep aware of the state of the art; use standard protocols; carefully supervise employees; take all technical precaution; and get legal advice in contracting. The author should also adhere to applicable federal, state, or local regulations. Disclosing the limits of measurement procedures and emphasizing the importance of maintaining standardized environmental conditions in the building are important. Since it is extremely difficult for an individual to get adequate professional liability insurance at a reasonable price, radon technologists should cooperate, perhaps through their professional societies, to negotiate the best possible insurance policies
Ketlyn da Silva Pasquali
Full Text Available One of the trends in the development of accountancy is the alignment of accounting principles, ethics and civil liability. In this context, this study analyzes the perception of accountants with respect to professional ethics and liability in view of the new Brazilian civil code adopted in 2002. To examine professional ethics, we investigated the perception of accountants as to civil liability, the hypotheses of incidence, and preventive measures for protecting rights and interests in light of the new civil code, using a descriptive and quantitative approach. Data was collected by means of a questionnaire applied to a sample of 52 accountants belonging to the Accountants Union of Cascavel and Region. Comparisons were made of the responses using graphical analysis and consensus analysis. On the basis of the results obtained, we can conclude that the accountants attribute importance to the use of ethics in their professional practice and that there is very strong consensus on the obligation to carry out the accounting profession zealously and with technical expertise. With regard to the degree of knowledge concerning civil responsibility and liability in the execution of their activities, we observed that these professionals know the penalties for malicious and intentional unethical acts in the exercise of the profession. Future research could explore self-assessment for further investigation with the purpose of developing a sense of individual responsibility and critical spirit.
Full Text Available The signs of professional liability insurance are generalized in the article. It is the presence of losses, additional costs that require mechanisms and sources of compensation. The essence of the professional responsibility concept is determined and it is characterized like specialists material liability of different professions, lack of qualifications, errors and omissions are due to carelessness or negligence may cause harm to the client The main elements of the professional liability insurance contract, such as insurance objects, insurance compensation, insurance risks are described. The types of professional liability insurance are characterized. There are such types of the professional liability insurance: professional liability insurance of architect, lawyer, auditor (accountant, appraiser, notary, customs broker and doctor. It is determined, that the most widespread in Ukraine is the professional liability insurance of lawyer and customs broker because the policy is purchased for the sole purpose to obtain a license. The size of insurance rates in the provision of professional liability insurance in different insurance companies of Ukraine are analyzed. It is established that insurance rate depends on the type of professional activity, scope of service, qualifications and the other factors. The development impulse can only provide judicial and legal definition of professions wide list that are subject under mandatory professional liability insurance.
Dolz-Güerri, F; Gómez-Durán, E L; Martínez-Palmer, A; Castilla Céspedes, M; Arimany-Manso, J
Patient safety is an international public health priority. Ophthalmology scientific societies and organisations have intensified their efforts in this field. As a tool to learn from errors, these efforts have been linked to the management of medical professional liability insurance through the analysis of claims. A review is performed on the improvements in patient safety, as well as professional liability issues in Ophthalmology. There is a high frequency of claims and risk of economic reparation of damage in the event of a claim in Ophthalmology. Special complaints, such as wrong surgery or lack of information, have a high risk of financial compensation and need strong efforts to prevent these potentially avoidable events. Studies focused on pathologies or specific procedures provide information of special interest to sub-specialists. The specialist in Ophthalmology, like any other doctor, is subject to the current legal provisions and appropriate mandatory training in the medical-legal aspects of health care is essential. Professionals must be aware of the fundamental aspects of medical professional liability, as well as specific aspects, such as defensive medicine and clinical safety. The understanding of these medical-legal aspects in the routine clinical practice can help to pave the way towards a satisfactory and safe professional career, and help in increasing patient safety. The aim of this review is to contribute to this training, for the benefit of professionals and patients. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Matheson, J.A.; Price, A.A.; Scott, J.B.
In Texas, the theories of liability under which professionals can be held liable are breach of contract, common law fraud or misrepresentation, failure to disclose, and the Texas Deceptive Trade Practices Act. Because case law involving safety or environmental professionals is scarce it is necessary to draw analogies from cases involving architects and engineers. These cases, however, may be directly applicable to those who are engineers. This paper reviews examples of these types of liabilities providing case references for each. The paper finishes with preventative steps for minimizing the liabilities of both consulting groups and practicing professionals
Vargas-Blasco, César; Gómez-Durán, Esperanza L; Arimany-Manso, Josep; Pera-Bajo, Francisco
Clinical safety and medical professional liability are international major concerns, especially in surgical specialties such as urology. This article analyzes the claims filed at the Council of Medical Colleges of Catalonia between 1990 and 2012, exploring urology procedures. The review of the 173 cases identified in the database highlighted the importance of surgical procedures (74%). Higher frequencies related to scrotal-testicular pathology (34%), especially testicular torsion (7.5%) and vasectomy (19.6%), and prostate pathology (26 %), more specifically the surgical treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (17.9%). Although urology is not among the specialties with the higher frequency of claims, there are special areas of litigation in which it is advisable to implement improvements in clinical safety. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
Murthy, Karna; Grobman, William A; Lee, Todd A; Holl, Jane L
To estimate the association between changes in Illinois professional liability premiums for obstetrician-gynecologists and singleton primary cesarean delivery rates. Data from the National Center for Health Statistics were used to identify all singleton births between 37 weeks and 44 weeks of gestation occurring in Illinois from 1998 through 2003. Primary cesarean delivery rates for women delivered between 37 weeks and 44 weeks of gestation per 1,000 gravid women eligible to have a primary cesarean delivery were calculated for each Illinois county. The annual medical professional liability premium for each county in Illinois was represented by the reported professional liability insurance rate charges (adjusted to 2004 dollars) from the ISMIE Mutual Insurance Company. Separate analyses were conducted for nulliparous and multiparous women. The independent association between county-level primary cesarean delivery rates and the previous year's insurance premiums was evaluated using linear regression models. During the study period, 817,521 women were eligible for inclusion in the analysis. The county-level mean primary cesarean delivery rate increased from 126 to 163 per 1,000 (Pinsurance premiums also rose significantly (from $60,766 in 1997 to $83,167 in 2002, Pinsurance premium increase, the primary cesarean delivery rate increased by 15.7 per 1,000 for nulliparous women. This association also was evident for multiparous women, who had an increase in cesarean deliveries of 4.7 per 1,000 for every $10,000 increase. Higher rates of primary cesarean delivery are associated with increased medical professional liability premiums for obstetrician-gynecologists in Illinois. II.
Full Text Available In the context of medical professional liability, obstetrics is one of the most involved medical specialties because the unfavorable outcome of a pregnancy is difficult to accept for parents, who tend to reduce it to inappropriate care that occurred during pregnancy or birth. 32 cases of perinatal asphyxia were evaluated by the Institute of Forensic Medicine in Brescia during the period between 1999 and 2014 (13 in Civil Court and 19 in Penal Court. 9 out of the 32 pregnancies were twins, so the considerations were carried out on a total of 41 fetuses/newborns. Profiles of inadequacy were identified in 66% of cases (85% of the cases evaluated in Civil Court; 53% of the cases evaluated in Penal Court. The existence of a causal relationship between the medical conduct and the onset of asphyxia was recognized in 79% of civil cases and in 38% of penal cases. There is a “greater rigor” in the verification of causal relationship and malpractice profiles in penal cases compared to civil ones: this is in harmony with the most recent Italian Court decisions, characterized by compelling suspect’s protection in the presence of a reasonable doubt in criminal matters and by victim’s protection in civil ones.
Di Lorenzo, Pierpaolo; Paternoster, Mariano; Nugnes, Mariarosaria; Pantaleo, Giuseppe; Graziano, Vincenzo; Niola, Massimo
In Italy there has been an increase in claims for damages for alleged medical malpractice. A study was therefore conducted that aimed at assessing the content of the coverage of insurance policy contracts offered to oral health professionals by the insurance market. The sample analysed composed of 11 insurance policy contracts for professional dental liability offered from 2010 to 2015 by leading insurance companies operating in the Italian market. The insurance products analysed are structured on the "claims made" clause. No policy contract examined covers the damage due to the failure to acquire consent for dental treatment and, in most cases, damage due to unsatisfactory outcomes of treatment of an aesthetic nature and the failure to respect regulatory obligations on privacy. On entering into a professional liability insurance policy contract, the dentist should pay particular attention to the period covered by the guarantee, the risks both covered and excluded, as well as the extent of the limit of liability and any possible fixed/percentage excess. When choosing a professional liability contract, a dentist should examine the risks in relation to the professional activity carried out before signing.
Navarro-Sandoval, Cleyber; Arones-Guevara, Shermany; Carrera-Palao, Rosa; Casana-Jara, Kelly; Colque-Jaliri, Tomasa
To determine the characteristics of the criminal complaints claining medical professional liability, based on the expert reports issued by the Forensic Examination Division of Lima, Peru. A cross-sectional study was carried out, which included all the expert reports issued between 2005 and 2010 at the Forensic Examination Division of Lima, Peru. A descriptive analysis of each of the variables was performed. 60.3% (495/821) of the criminal complaints for medical professional liability were valued as being in accordance with the lex artis while 16.8% (138/821) were not in accordance with the lex artis. In 13% (107/821) of the cases, conclusions could not be drawn;in 9.9% (81/821) of the cases, the conclusions in the expert report did not include an valuations of the medical act.The cases in which the injury was attributed to the process of the disease itself accounted for 80.9% (502/620), and those in which in the injury was considered a result of the health care received were 19.0% (118/620). The distribution of the cause of the injury based on accordance with the lex artis showed significant differences. In our country, the number of claims for claimed medical liability is increasing, predominantly in relation to surgical specialties, where a medical act is more likely to be considered not in accordance with the lex artis. In addition, in a significant percentage of cases, no conclusions are drawn about the medical act.
Kläning, Ulla; Trumbetta, Susan L; Gottesman, Irving I
whether variance in schizophrenia liability attributable to environmental factors may have decreased with successive cohorts exposed to improvements in public health. ICD-10 diagnoses were determined by clinical interview. Although the best-fitting, most parsimonious biometric model of schizophrenia...
Bori, G; Gómez-Durán, E L; Combalia, A; Trilla, A; Prat, A; Bruguera, M; Arimany-Manso, J
The specialist in orthopaedic and traumatological surgery, like any other doctor, is subject to the current legal provisions while exercising their profession. Mandatory training in the medical-legal aspects of health care is essential. Claims against doctors are a reality, and orthopaedic and traumatological surgery holds first place in terms of frequency of claims according to the data from the General Council of Official Colleges of Doctors of Catalonia. Professionals must be aware of the fundamental aspects of medical professional liability, as well as specific aspects, such as defensive medicine and clinical safety. The understanding of these medical-legal aspects in the routine clinical practice can help to pave the way towards a satisfactory and safe professional career. The aim of this review is to contribute to this training, for the benefit of professionals and patients. Copyright © 2015 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Tarantino, Umberto; Giai Via, Alessio; Macrì, Ernesto; Eramo, Alessandro; Marino, Valeria; Marsella, Luigi Tonino
Interest in medical errors has increased during the last few years owing to the number of medical malpractice claims. Reasons for the increasing number of claims may be related to patients' higher expectations, iatrogenic injury, and the growth of the legal services industry. Claims analysis provides helpful information in specialties in which a higher number of errors occur, highlighting areas where orthopaedic care might be improved. We determined: (1) the number of claims involving orthopaedics and traumatology in Rome; (2) the risk of litigation in elective and trauma surgery; (3) the most common surgical procedures involved in claims and indemnity payments; (4) the time between the adverse medical event and the judgment date; and (5) issues related to informed consent. We analyzed 1925 malpractice judgments decided in the Civil Court of Rome between 2004 and 2010. In total, 243 orthopaedics claims were filed, and in 75% of these cases surgeons were found liable; 149 (61%) of these resulted from elective surgery. Surgical teams were sued in 30 claims and found liable in 22. The total indemnity payment ordered was more than €12,350,000 (USD 16,190,000). THA and spinal surgery were the most common surgical procedures involved. Inadequate informed consent was reported in 5.3% of cases. Our study shows that careful medical examination, accurate documentation in medical records, and adequate informed consent might reduce the number of claims. We suggest monitoring of court judgments would be useful to develop prevention strategies to reduce claims.
Park, Junmo; Seo, Deokseok
In Korea, defect lawsuits for apartment buildings, the most common housing style, are becoming a social issue. Among various issues in defect lawsuits, warranty of liability is very important. This is because the business entities are responsible for assuring the maintenance of the defects during this period, and at the same time, the residents can request fair compensation for the defects. However, provisions on the term of warranty of liability provided in the current Housing Act were made 40 years ago when the social basis were weak. Thus, it does not have any rational foundation. In order to improve these problems, basic research on the warranty of liability by major types of apartments is needed. In this study, the defect cases for miscellaneous works of apartments were examined and analyzed. Miscellaneous work consists of ondol work, kitchenware work, indoor and outdoor equipment work, and metallic work. Among them, kitchenware work and metallic work showed a lot of defects. On the other hand, warranty of liability covers up to 10 years in total. The defect occurrence for the entire miscellaneous work showed a tendency to concentrate in the first and the second year. It is the third year that the total defects reach 95%, and the fourth year that exceeds 99%. The ondol work, indoor and outdoor equipment work and metallic work had this tendency. On the other hand, for kitchenware work, it is the third year that the defect occurrence reaches 99%, and it implies that the defect tends to occur more quickly than in other detailed works.
Lim, Chang Seon
Recently the suits for medical malpractice are gradually increasing in this country. The main purpose of this study is to excavate the most suitable theories about civil liabilities on medical malpractice by radiological technologist. To solve the above-mentioned problems in medical malpractice, I have proceeded to make a survey of traditional theories and tried to excavate the most suitable theories for our medical circumstances among those theories. Both domestic and foreign relevant professional literatures and legal cases were investigated in this study. Several important findings of this study are as follows. First, the nature of legal interrelationship between radiological technologist and physician(or the representative of a hospital) is to define the content of employment. But in the eye of medical law, the interrelationship between radiological technologist and physician is written that radiological technologist should be directed by physician. Second, the nature of legal interrelationship between patient and physician(or the representative of a hospital) is to define the content of legal obligation of physician(or the representative of a hospital), and radiological technologist execute his obligation as proxy for physician. Therefore, patient can not clame any legal right to radiological technologist. Third, radiological technologist has the obligation of Due Care in medical practice. Fourth, on the medical malpractice by radiological technologist the civil liability can be treated as either tortious liability or contractual liability, and physician (or the representative of hospital) take the responsibility for the damage compensation. In this case, physician has the right of indemnity to radiological technologist. But it should be dinied or extremely limited
Nithman, Robert W
The Bureau of Labor statistics indicates only a 50% four-year survivability rate among businesses classified as "education and health services." Gaining knowledge of IRS business entities can result in cost savings, operational efficiency, reduced liability, and enhanced sustainability. Each entity has unique disadvantages, depending on size, diversity of ownership, desire to expand, and profitability. Business structures should be compatible with organizational mission or vision statements, services and products, and professional codes of ethics. Healthcare reform will require greater business acumen. We have an ethical duty to disseminate and acquire the knowledge to properly establish and manage healthcare practices to ensure sustainable services that protect and serve the community.
Full Text Available In the higher education system in Romania, from the professors' perspective, the problem of ethical responsibility distinguishes among the didactic activities of the teaching staff, which is why the educational process must take place in a civilized and ethical environment based on mutual respect between professors and students, respectively between the scientific research activities of the teaching staff, from this perspective guaranteeing the good conduct of the professional in his/her scientific research activity. Both aspects regarding the ethical responsibility of the teaching staff in the higher education have been regulated since 2004, when an institutional reform was being carried out on the entire territory of Romania on the introduction of ethical codes as ethical tools for regulating from that perspective in particular the professions in the public domain.
There are no special legal arrangements for the field of aesthetic medicine; rather, the general medico-legal regulations apply although they raise specific questions as far as aesthetic medicine is concerned. Legally, a contract exists between physician and patient which is also applicable to aesthetic medicine. This means that the physician owes the patient only the provision of a proper, non-defective service, but does not need to guarantee that it actually leads to the desired outcome. Before performing a medically non-indicated procedure the physician is obliged to provide the patient with particularly thorough information about this procedure. Various problems and issues are raised by the advertising limitations for medical professionals and the maintenance of the boundaries confining the special field of aesthetic medicine. Medically indicated procedures are suitable for statutory reimbursement if the patient suffers from "physical disfigurement" or somatic complaints that lead to considerable impairment and if there are no other, cheaper treatment options available.
Veling, W; Counotte, J; Pot-Kolder, R; van Os, J; van der Gaag, M
Childhood trauma is associated with higher risk for mental disorders, including psychosis. Heightened sensitivity to social stress may be a mechanism. This virtual reality study tested the effect of childhood trauma on level of paranoid ideations and distress in response to social stress, in interaction with psychosis liability and level of social stress exposure. Seventy-five individuals with higher psychosis liability (55 with recent onset psychotic disorder and 20 at ultra-high risk for psychosis) and 95 individuals with lower psychosis liability (42 siblings and 53 controls) were exposed to a virtual café in five experiments with 0-3 social stressors (crowded, other ethnicity and hostility). Paranoid ideation was measured after each experiment. Subjective distress was self-rated before and after experiments. Multilevel random regression analyses were used to test main effects of childhood trauma and interaction effects. Childhood trauma was more prevalent in individuals with higher psychosis liability, and was associated with higher level of (subclinical) psychotic and affective symptoms. Individuals with a history of childhood trauma responded with more subjective distress to virtual social stress exposures. The effects of childhood trauma on paranoia and subjective distress were significantly stronger when the number of virtual environmental stressors increased. Higher psychosis liability increased the effect of childhood trauma on peak subjective distress and stress reactivity during experiments. Childhood trauma is associated with heightened social stress sensitivity and may contribute to psychotic and affective dysregulation later in life, through a sensitized paranoid and stress response to social stressors.
Anderson, S. E.
Full Text Available Liability risks may embody far-reaching financial consequences for individuals, business enterprises and professional people. This paper focuses on the underwriting process which should be taken into consideration by short-term insurers when they are underwriting the main types of liability insurance, which include employer’s, householder’s, personal, product, professional and public liability insurance. The improvement of financial decision-making by short-term insurers when underwriting liability insurance represents the objective of this research. A study of secondary data was done to identify the existing literature, which formed the basis for compiling a questionnaire to obtain primary data. The top 10 short-term insurers which are the market leaders of liability insurance in South Africa and who received more than 85% of the annual gross written premiums for liability insurance in South Africa, represented the sample of the empirical study. This paper highlights the importance of the underwriting factors concerning liability insurance, how often the stipulations of insurance policies should be adjusted by the short-term insurers to account for the underwriting factors, as well as the problem areas which the underwriters may experience when they are underwriting liability insurance. Possible solutions to solve the problem areas were also addressed
Nielsen, David A; Kreek, Mary Jeanne
Opioid addiction, whether to opiates such as heroin and morphine, and/or to non-medical use of opioids, is a major problem worldwide. Although drug-induced and environmental factors are essential for the liability to develop opioid addiction, the genetic background of an individual is now known also to play a substantial role. The overall goal of this article is to address the common and specific liabilities to addiction in the context of approaches to studies of one addiction, opioid addiction. Literature on identifying genetic variants that may play a role in the development of opioid addiction was reviewed. A substantial number of genetic variants have been reported to be associated with opioid addiction. No single variant has been found in any of the reported GWAS studies with a substantial effect size on the liability to develop heroin addiction. It appears that there is a complex interaction of a large number of variants, some rare, some common, which interact with the environment and in response to specific drugs of abuse to increase the liability of developing opioid addiction. In spite of the inherent difficulties in obtaining large well-phenotyped cohorts for genetic studies, new findings have been reported that are being used to develop testable hypotheses into the biological basis of opioid addiction. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Lee, D. S.; Chung, W. S.; Yun, S. W.; Kim, H. J.; Lee, J. H.
This study is for making system of the fast and adequate compensation to the victim in the nuclear accident of domestic and foreign country. As a method to come true the purpose we reviewed Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage (hereinafter 'CSC') and designed enabling laws for joining the CSC. Moreover international workshop regarding the CSC was hold as a main assignment of this study for sharing knowledge and information with neighboring countries. Convention relating to Civil Liability in the Field of Maritime Carriage on Nuclear Material, 1971 shall be analyzed in this study. Legal approach to the CSC and designing enabling laws for joining the CSC were enclosed to this study. As a result of the international workshop this study shows how U.S. (CSC member country) deals with CSC and mandatory obligation of donating the public funds. Finally Convention relating to Civil Liability in the Field of Maritime Carriage on Nuclear Material, 1971 is analyzed legally
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies of risk factors for disability pension (DP have mainly focused on psychosocial, or environmental, factors, while the relative importance of genetic effects has been less studied. Sex differences in biological mechanisms have not been investigated at all. METHODS: The study sample included 46,454 Swedish twins, consisting of 23,227 complete twin pairs, born 1928-1958, who were followed during 1993-2008. Data on DP, including diagnoses, were obtained from the National Social Insurance Agency. Within-pair similarity in liability to DP was assessed by calculating intraclass correlations. Genetic and environmental influences on liability to DP were estimated by applying discrete-time frailty modeling. RESULTS: During follow-up, 7,669 individuals were granted DP (18.8% women and 14.1% men. Intraclass correlations were generally higher in MZ pairs than DZ pairs, while DZ same-sexed pairs were more similar than opposite-sexed pairs. The best-fitting model indicated that genetic factors contributed 49% (95% CI: 39-59 to the variance in DP due to mental diagnoses, 35% (95% CI: 29-41 due to musculoskeletal diagnoses, and 27% (95% CI: 20-33 due to all other diagnoses. In both sexes, genetic effects common to all ages explained one-third, whereas age-specific factors almost two-thirds, of the total variance in liability to DP irrespective of diagnosis. Sex differences in liability to DP were indicated, in that partly different sets of genes were found to operate in women and men, even though the magnitude of genetic variance explained was equal for both sexes. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of the study suggest that genetic effects are important for liability to DP due to different diagnoses. Moreover, genetic contributions to liability to DP tend to differ between women and men, even though the overall relative contribution of genetic influences does not differ by sex. Hence, the pathways leading to DP might differ between women and
Jacoline van Jaarsveld
Full Text Available Liabilities play a very important financial role in business operations, professional service providers as well as in the personal lives of people. It is possible that a single claim may even lead to the bankruptcy of the defendant. The claims handling process of liability insurance by short-term insurers is therefore very important to these parties as it should be clear that liability claims may have enormous and far-reaching financial implications for them. The objective of this research paper embodies the improvement of financial decision-making by short-term insurers with regard to the claims handling process of liability insurance. Secondary data was initially studied which provided the basis to compile a questionnaire for the empirical survey. The leaders of liability insurance in the South African short-term insurance market that represented 69.5% of the annual gross written premiums received for liability insurance in South Africa were the respondents of the empirical study. The perceptions of these short-term insurers provided the primary data for the vital conclusions of this research. This paper pays special attention to the importance of the claims handling factors of liability insurance, how often the stipulations of liability insurance policies are adjusted by the short-term insurers to take the claims handling factors into consideration, as well as the problem areas which short-term insurers may experience during the claims handling process. Feasible solutions to address the problem areas are also discussed.
Sasajima, M; Tarumoto, Y; Aihara, H; Tanaka, Y; Saito, S
Physical dependence liability of chlorphenesin carbamate (CPC) was studied in parallel with phenobarbital-Na (PB). Beagle dogs were used and the overall duration of the experiment was 85 days, i.e. the first dosing period was 42 dyas (6 weeks) in which drugs were repeatedly administered orally once daily, followed by a withdrawal period (7 days), the second dosing period was continued from the 50th-78th day in which the form and schedule of drug administration was as in the first dosing period. The last 79th to 85th days were used for substitution experiments. In both dosing periods, PB but not CPC showed signs of tolerance formation. Severe withdrawal syndrome was observed in PB administered dogs whereas there were no changes of behavior observed in CPC-dogs by withdrawal and substitution procedures, respectively. CPC apparently does not have a physical dependence liability.
Rodica Diana Apan
Full Text Available The study aims at identifying the new elements that the Insolvency Code in Romania, Law 85 of 2014, brings in what concerns entailing the liability of the managing body as well as that of other persons having contributed to the debtor's state of insolvency, compared to the previous regulation provided by Law 85 of 2006. The identification of these elements is carried out by making reference to the types of deeds that, following taken legal action, can entail liability and the coverage of the debts by the members of the managing body as well as by other persons having contributed to the debtor's state of insolvency. The analysis of the deeds concentrates around two connected centers of interest: The analysis of the deeds such as they are regulated by the two regulations and the case where for certain deeds there need to be identified the elements of repeatability in the two regulations and then the relevant case-law applicable for the respective deed is analyzed. In conclusion, in this way are identified the case-law variations met by the regulations applicable to the respective deed, in the judgments grounded on Law 85 of 2006. These variations represent landmarks for the regulations comprised by the Romanian Insolvency Code – Law 85 of 2014. Following the analyzed legal precedents – a number of 30 case-law judgments issued by courts of appeal being at the highest level of jurisdiction, there are identified in concreto, the type of acts which may entail the liability of the managing body for the insolvency of the enterprise. Through the present study we aim to guide the local administrators, as well as the future foreign investors who engage in foreign direct investments (FDI in Romania with regard to the liability of the managing body in within the insolvency proceedings.
Professional liability insurance in Obstetrics and Gynaecology: estimate of the level of knowledge about malpractice insurance policies and definition of an informative tool for the management of the professional activity
Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, due to the increasingly hostile environment in the medical malpractice field and related lawsuits in Italy, physicians began informing themselves regarding their comprehensive medical malpractice coverage. Methods In order to estimate the level of knowledge of medical professionals on liability insurance coverage for healthcare malpractice, a sample of 60 hospital health professionals of the obstetrics and gynaecology area of Messina (Sicily, Italy were recluted. A survey was administered to evaluate their knowledge as to the meaning of professional liability insurance coverage but above all on the most frequent policy forms ("loss occurrence", "claims made" and "I-II risk". Professionals were classified according to age and professional title and descriptive statistics were calculated for all the professional groups and answers. Results Most of the surveyed professionals were unaware or had very bad knowledge of the professional liability insurance coverage negotiated by the general manager, so most of the personnel believed it useful to subscribe individual "private" policies. Several subjects declared they were aware of the possibility of obtaining an extended coverage for gross negligence and substantially all the surveyed had never seen the loss occurrence and claims made form of the policy. Moreover, the sample was practically unaware of the related issues about insurance coverage for damages related to breaches on informed consent. The results revealed the relative lack of knowledge--among the operators in the field of obstetrics and gynaecology--of the effective coverage provided by the policies signed by the hospital managers for damages in medical malpractice. The authors thus proposed a useful information tool to help professionals working in obstetrics and gynaecology regarding aspects of insurance coverage provided on the basis of Italian civil law. Conclusion Italy must introduce a compulsory
Taure Mendez, J. M.; Rodriguez Escobar, R.
The law 26/2007 of environmental liability determines a series of obligations. These ones are particularly relevant for that economical or professional activities with a bigger pollution potential. It will be applied to sewage works the new environmental liability system on its stricter form, since the activity developed is included inside Attachment III of the law 26/2007. this article studies the key concepts of the law, like environmental damages, operator, economic or professional activities, objective and unlimited liability, the measures of prevention, avoidance and repair, the compulsory constitution of financial guarantees and the determination of its amount. (Author) 8 refs.
Cantor, R.; Rayner, S.; Braid, B.
At the 1984 Annual Meeting of the Society for Risk Analysis, Steve Rayner presented a paper that challenged the conventional wisdom of risk management research. In that paper, he argued that resolving the question, ''How safe is safe enough.'' is less important in making societal technology choices than ''How fair is safe enough.'' Adopting the fairness question as the concern of risk management would imply that the process of technology choice explicitly recognize the preferred principles different parties hold with respect to obtaining consent from those affected by the risks, distributing the liabilities, and justifying trust in the relevant institutions. This paper discusses a recent empirical pilot study which explored the fairness hypothesis in the context of nuclear power. Individual interviews and focus groups were conducted to examine whether or not preferred principles for liability distributions were consistent with those suggested by the cultural characteristics of the constituency. The results suggest that for this type of societal technology choice, violation of these preferred principles may be a major source of the conflict between different constituencies. Additionally, the study contributes towards the development of a new approach in risk management that combines the cultural model of risk perceptions with the decision-theoretic approaches found in economics and psychology
Nuclear liability conventions try to provide a set of rules to govern third party liability. Not all States are parties to one of the existing liability conventions. There are a number of reasons why individual States may choose not to join one of the existing conventions. These include limits of compensation, jurisdiction issues, complexity, cost and definition of damage among others. This paper looks at the existing conventions and identifies some of the main issues in the existing conventions which prevent some States from signing them. The paper attempts to tease out some of the perceived gaps in the existing conventions and give a brief description of the reasons why non-Contracting Parties have difficulty with the provisions of the conventions. The paper recognizes that there has been work done in this area previously by the International Expert Group on Nuclear Liability (INLEX) and others to try to develop the existing frameworks to enhance global adherence by nuclear and non-nuclear States to an effective nuclear liability regime. (author)
Phillips, Susan P; Dalgarno, Nancy
Formal and informal medical curricula convey expectations about professionalization, that is, the development of physician identity, and also about professionalism. This study examined whether, in general, junior residents experienced any dissonance between these roles and focused particularly on how they negotiated conflicts between compassion, self-care, duty and medical expertise. In 2015, purposive sampling was used to select 21 first-year residents at a Canadian medical school. Participants listened to a 5-min audio-recording narrated in either male or female voice. Facing compassion fatigue after three obstetrical disasters over less than 2 days the resident narrator asks to go home. Participants reacted in writing to questions about this request and relevant teaching/modelling. Responses were analyzed using a qualitative, exploratory, thematic research design. Four themes were identified: i) empathy, self-doubt and fear of weakness, ii) the need for support from and communication with physicians and others, iii) education received, and iv) professionalization outranks professionalism. Participants agreed that under the circumstances the narrator's care, compassion and request were appropriate. Never the less, many grappled with feeling that asking to be relieved of work demonstrated weakness and a shirking of responsibility. Respondents had received no formal teaching about balancing compassion for patients or self with professional duty. Preceptors' informal teaching and modeling valorized scientific disengagement above all else. What emerged was participants' drive to become detached clinicians who set aside emotional responses and interactions that could impede and be incompatible with professionalization. However, participants also recognized and lamented what was lost in such a transformation. In the transition from student to practitioner, trainees' views and the modeling they receive shift emotion and compassion, whether for self or patients, from
Negative and positive externalities pose symmetrical problems to social welfare. The law internalizes negative externalities by providing general tort liability rules. According to such rules, those who cause harm to others should pay compensation. In theory, in the presence of positive
Bartosz Mackowiak; Mirko Wiederholt
Decision-makers often face limited liability and thus know that their loss will be bounded. We study how limited liability affects the behavior of an agent who chooses how much information to acquire and process in order to take a good decision. We find that an agent facing limited liability processes less information than an agent with unlimited liability. The informational gap between the two agents is larger in bad times than in good times and when information is more costly to process.
Full Text Available This chapter is an overview of the current status of the law in the United States regarding prenatal genetic testing with an emphasis on issues related to professional liability and other challenges affecting patient access to prenatal genetic testing. The chapter discusses the roles that federal regulations, promulgated by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA and the Federal Trade Commission (FTC, play in the regulation of prenatal genetic tests. The chapter discusses tort litigation based on allegations of malpractice in the provision of prenatal genetic testing and how courts have analyzed issues related to causation, damages and mitigation of damages. The chapter provides reference information regarding how individual states address causes of action under the tort theories of wrongful birth and wrongful life. The chapter concludes with a discussion of future legal issues that may affect clinical prenatal genetic testing services arising from the continued expansion of prenatal genetic testing, legal restrictions on access to abortion and the potential development of embryonic treatments.
Luíza Valéria de Abreu Maia
Full Text Available This study evaluated the ethical and legal conducts of orthodontists regarding the professional/patient relationship, documentation used and degree of knowledge on the professional liability during the exercise of their specialty. This study sought to assess whether the time since graduation of the dentist as an expert interfered with their knowledge degree about the dental professional liability. The object population of the present study consisted of 56 dental surgeons, specialized in orthodontics, from the city of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The research was carried out using a survey addressed to these professionals, and descriptive statistics of the data. Chi-square test was used to check independence between factors and comparisons of proportions. 100% interviewed professionals request orthodontic documentation prior to the start of treatment; 71.5% request final documentation; 91% professionals affirmed they file this documentation; however, only 21.4% keep records for over 20 years; and most professionals (86% use some sort of contract at the start of treatment, and a small percentage (30.4% regard the liability of orthodontists as objective. It can be concluded that the interviewed professionals should acquire a higher level of knowledge regarding the professional liability and current legislation involving dental surgeons.
Varga, T; Szabó, A; Dósa, A; Bartha, F
The authors examine the criminal cases involving physicians and other health care workers between January 1996 and December 2000 inclusive. in Hungary. The data are based on the registry of the Criminal Prosecutor's Office. Altogether 94 cases were initiated in this period of time, the accused of the criminal proceeding was a registered nurse in 9 cases, an ambulance paramedic in 5 cases, a pharmacist in 3, and a physician in 77 cases. In cases where registered nurses were involved, the most common act was negligent change of medication or providing inadequate custody of a patient in need, pharmacists were also accused for negligent change of medicinal products. In case of ambulance assistants the most common violation of the professional rules was diagnostic failure or not responding to the call in time. As to physicians, mostly primary care physicians were accused (29%), usually for failing to examine the patient or for diagnostic error, obstetricians-gynecologists (17 %) and traumatologists (12 %) were also frequently accused.
... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limiting liability to client... Office Code of Professional Responsibility § 10.78 Limiting liability to client. A practitioner shall not attempt to exonerate himself or herself from, or limit his or her liability to, a client for his or her...
Full Text Available Burnout is a response to stress, the source of which is the situation at work. This phenomenon concerns mainly representatives of professions whose essence is to work with people, including doctors, nurses, paramedics and others; their close committed interactions with others constitute the core of professional activity and determine the success and development. Participants of the study were 281 students of extramural complementary nursing course at the University of Warmia and Mazury, mostly aged 40-60 years, employed in hospital wards and with employment contracts. In the study, the authors’ demographic questionnaire of structuralized interview and the MBI questionnaire, developed by Maslach and Jackson, in the Polish version by Pasikowski (2004, were used. The obtained results were statistically analysed. The performed analysis of burnout has confirmed that emotional exhaustion is associated with the length of employment, the number of days off and the number of institutions where nurses were employed. We did not observe, however, any correlation with these variables between depersonalisation and a sense of the lack of achievements. Furthermore, no dependence of the severity of the professional burnout symptoms on the surveyed groups’ age was found. It turned out that the persons working in shifts system felt much stronger depletion of emotion than nurses working in a daily system. It was also observed that nurses employed in hospitals felt much stronger symptoms in both areas of occupational burnout than those working in other institutions. Furthermore, it was not confirmed that the absence of the sense of achievement depended on where the respondents were employed. Taking into account the reference levels of the three dimensions of burnout acc. to MBI it was found out that most respondents were characterized by a low value within the emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation and a high value in terms of a sense of the lack of
Veling, Wim; Pot-Kolder, Roos; Counotte, Jacqueline; van Os, Jim; van der Gaag, Mark
The impact of social environments on mental states is difficult to assess, limiting the understanding of which aspects of the social environment contribute to the onset of psychotic symptoms and how individual characteristics moderate this outcome. This study aimed to test sensitivity to environmental social stress as a mechanism of psychosis using Virtual Reality (VR) experiments. Fifty-five patients with recent onset psychotic disorder, 20 patients at ultra high risk for psychosis, 42 siblings of patients with psychosis, and 53 controls walked 5 times in a virtual bar with different levels of environmental social stress. Virtual social stressors were population density, ethnic density and hostility. Paranoia about virtual humans and subjective distress in response to virtual social stress exposures were measured with State Social Paranoia Scale (SSPS) and self-rated momentary subjective distress (SUD), respectively. Pre-existing (subclinical) symptoms were assessed with the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences (CAPE), Green Paranoid Thoughts Scale (GPTS) and the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS). Paranoia and subjective distress increased with degree of social stress in the environment. Psychosis liability and pre-existing symptoms, in particular negative affect, positively impacted the level of paranoia and distress in response to social stress. These results provide experimental evidence that heightened sensitivity to environmental social stress may play an important role in the onset and course of psychosis. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Park, Junmo; Seo, DeokSeok
The defect lawsuit of the apartment which is the representative residential style of Korea continues and becomes a social problem. In the defect lawsuit, the term of warranty liability is a period that can demand the defect repair according to defect occurrence, and the exclusion period of the exercise of rights. However, the term of warranty liability stipulated in relevant laws such as Enforcement Decree of the Housing Act is being changed arbitrarily, without any established grounds. Therefore, a reasonable standard for establishing the term of warranty liability is required. In this study, the defects of water supply, drainage and sanitation arrangement work were studied. As a result of analyzing the number of defect occurrence in the apartment, it was shown that the defects in water supply, drainage and sanitation arrangement work occurred more than 80% in the 1st ∼ 2nd year after completion. However, the occurrence of defects from the 3rd year was extremely slight. On the other hand, it was confirmed that the defect occurrence continued until fairly late point of time as the end point of time of the defects was in the 7th to 9th years.
Weiss, Kenneth J; Van Dell, Landon
Malingering is a medical diagnosis, but not a psychiatric disorder. The label imputes that an evaluee has intentionally engaged in false behavior or statements. By diagnosing malingering, psychiatrists pass judgment on truthfulness. Evaluees taking exception to the label may claim that the professional has committed defamation of character (libel or slander) when the diagnosis is wrong and costs the claimant money or benefits. Clinicians may counter by claiming immunity or that the diagnosis was made in good faith. This problem has come into focus in military and veterans' contexts, where diagnoses become thresholds for benefits. Through historical and literary examples, case law, and military/veterans' claims of disability and entitlement, the authors examine the potency of the malingering label and the potential liability for professionals and institutions of making this diagnosis. © 2017 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.
Terranova, Claudio; Rocca, Gabriele
Interest in psychiatrists' professional liability in Italy has increased in recent years because of the number of medical malpractice claims. Professional liability for failure to prevent violent behaviour by psychiatric patients is particularly debated. This study describes three Italian cases in which health professionals - physicians and nurses - were found guilty of manslaughter for murders committed by psychiatric patients. Examination of the cases focuses on claims of malpractice, patients' characteristics, the circumstances of the homicide and the reasons for the court's judgment. In particular, the predictability of violent behaviour and the concept of causal links are examined in detail. The cases provide an opportunity for a study of comparative jurisprudence. The topics discussed are relevant not only to practicing psychiatrists but also to experts assessing medical liability in cases of criminal acts committed by psychiatric patients. © The Author(s) 2015.
This paper reports a preliminary laboratory experiment in which traders make investments to increase the reliability of tradable instruments that represent greenhouse gas emissions allowances. In one half of the sessions these investments are unobservable, while in the other half traders can invite costless and accurate inspections that make reliability investments public. We implement a buyer liability rule, so that if emissions reductions are unreliable (i.e., sellers default), the buyer of the allowances cannot redeem them to cover emissions. We find that allowing inspections significantly increases the reliability investment rate and overall efficiency. Prices of uninspected allowances usually trade at a substantial discount due to the buyer liability rule, which provides a strong market incentive for sellers to invest in reliability
Full Text Available The civil nuclear industry plays an important role in improving environmental quality and safeguarding energy security in China. Nevertheless, the industry is facing a huge risk of nuclear accident damage. The legal system of nuclear damage compensation is of vital importance for the industry to address potential risks. The Nuclear Safety Law, which has recently been published in China, stipulates two articles about nuclear damage compensation in principle. However, in general, the current nuclear damage compensation legal system in China has not yet been made systematic and there are still problems, such as a lack of maneuverability and details. This paper adopts qualitative and quantitative methodologies to summarize and analyze the current legislation and regulation pertaining to civil nuclear damage compensation liability in China and analyzes the shortages and deficiencies of these rules in detail by using legal analysis methods. Suggestions to establish and perfect China’s legal system of nuclear damage compensation are proposed to safeguard the healthy development of the civil nuclear industry and remedy damages brought about by nuclear accidents. Such a legal system should contain the elements of clear legislative goals and objectives, a specific definition and scope of nuclear damage, strict and sole responsibility principles for operators, an appropriate liability amount, a stable financial guarantee for operators, and national supplementary liability.
Richards, K. Andrew; Eberline, Andrew D.; Templin, Thomas J.
Secondary professional socialization is a phase of occupational socialization theory that focuses on graduate education in preparation for a career in academia. Due to the need to present and publish research and make professional contacts, professional organizations likely serve an important socializing function during graduate education. The…
Rodica Diana APAN
Full Text Available The present study focuses on the analysis of the legal status of the affectation patrimony of the registered sole trader authorised to carry out trading activity as well as that of the simple partnership. Representing a distinct part of assets within the individual's own patrimony, the affectation patrimony attract the segregation of the professional creditors who can pursue the assets mainly for the professional obligations. But the effect of constituting the affectation patrimony is not that of preventing the creditors to pursue the other properties within the individual's own assets in the case where they have not been satiated from the affectation patrimony. We conclude that the patrimony of the persons that form a partnership from the individual type of business are exposed up to various degrees to be being pursued for the obligations towards the third parties.
This paper discusses the importance of managing liabilities in the nuclear industry and considers the main ingredients which make for successful liabilities management. It looks specifically at UKAEA's experience to date and lists its key management principles, including the use of the liabilities management ratio which is the company's current bottom-line performance measure. (Author)
concept of damages in the Finnish nuclear liability legislation should be broadened. Legislation should also be clarified so as to specify the current reference in the Nuclear Liability Act to the Damages Act. Similarly, it should be studied how compensating damages caused by terrorist actions against nuclear installations could be brought under the compensation system in so far as they are not yet covered by the liability to take out an insurance. This report includes a dissenting opinion of the representative of the Finnish Energy Industries Federation Finenergy. (orig.)
Bergkamp, L.; Faure, M.G.; Hinteregger, M.; Philipsen, N.J.
Third party liability has been identified as an issue that could adversely impact the European security industry. Limitless third party liability for security product and services is believed to have the potential to reduce investments in innovation. In the US, the Safety Act (discussed in this
Full Text Available This research was aimed at analyzing and finding the principle of liability in telemedicine medical practice proportionally.This research is a legal research with the approach of statute approach, conceptual approach and comparative approach, as well as the approach to the case approach. According to Article 24 paragraph (1 of the 1945 Constitution and Article 5 (1 of Act No. 48 of 2009 on Judicial Authority, determine that the judge shall explore, and understand the legal values and sense of justice in society. Thus Article 1367 paragraph (3 BW and Article 46 of Act No. 44 of 2009 on Hospitals in the application must be in the context of the intended. The principle of liability risk in medical practice telemedicine in proportion refers to professional liability among medical practitioners telemedicine. The theoretical legitimacy is based on professional relationships in the delegation of medical action based on the code of ethics, professional standards, and service standards, and standard operating procedures. Consequences on liability does not necessarily have to be based on errors primary physician (primary care physician / PCP or primary nurse as subordinate as mean vicarious liability doctrine. Nomenclature "proportional" in a significant liability risk as the distribution of rights and obligations of professionals in proportion to each party's fault based on the values of equality (equitability, feasibility and appropriateness (fair and reasionableness. Accountability based on the viewpoint of interactive justice according to the values of professional skill, prudence or accuracy, responsibility, and colleague and the desire to do good for the sake of healing patients (doing good.
The principles of the nuclear liability regime, including their application to the case of transport, are described in the IAEA Handbook on Nuclear Law, and will not be repeated in this paper. Rather, this paper examines some specific aspects of liability during transport, and particularly draws on some of the work of the IAEA International Expert Group on Nuclear Liability (INLEX). In that regard, particular reference is made to the Explanatory Texts published in 2004
Carbonara, Emanuela; Guerra, Alice; Parisi, Francesco
Economic models of tort law evaluate the efficiency of liability rules in terms of care and activity levels. A liability regime is optimal when it creates incentives to maximize the value of risky activities net of accident and precaution costs. The allocation of primary and residual liability...... for policy makers and courts in awarding damages in a large number of real-world accident cases....
This paper contains a brief review of the basic principles which govern the special regime of liability and compensation for nuclear damage originating on nuclear installations, in particular the strict and exclusive liability of the nuclear operator, the provision of a financial security to cover this liability and the limits applicable both in amount and in time. The paper also reviews the most important international agreements currently in force which constitute the foundation of this special regime. (author)
Full Text Available The State contract is one of the most important tools for public management. The formation, execution and liquidation of State contracts are also a potential cause of State patrimonial damages. Perhaps for this reason, many State contractors are prosecuted as if they were public spending managers. The question, however, is not as simple. The fiscal liability process has a qualified recipient: the fiscal manager. In this article, through a conceptual exposition and a case study, we identify the criterion for determining in which cases a State contractor acquires the function of controlling public funds and when he/she can be subjected to a fiscal liability.
Sadnicki, Mike; MacKerron, Gordon.
This paper sets out a framework for a fundamental reappraisal of the management of nuclear liabilities in the United Kingdom, built around two policy objectives, sustainable development and cost-effectiveness. The practical implications of the policy objectives are explored in relation to nuclear liability strategies, such as the adequacy or otherwise of current funding arrangements, the completeness of liability estimates and the distribution of financial responsibility between the public and private sector. A fundamental review of the management of nuclear liabilities is urged in the light of inadequacies identified in this paper. (UK)
Oh, Keun Bae; Choi, Yeong Myeong; Ham, Chol Hoon; Lee, Kwang Seok; Lee, Byeong Uk; Lee, Jae Seong; Choi, Yeong Rok; Ko, Han Seok
The overall objectives of this study are to analyze the international nuclear export control system and the international non-proliferation circumstance, to establish national strategies for the NPT extension, to suggest revisions of the IAEA Statute Article VI giving Korea permanent membership on the IAEA board of Governors, and to analyze and establish counter measurements for nuclear liability in verious fields. (Author)
Helena Aro; Teemu Pennanen
This paper studies optimal investment from the point of view of an investor with longevity-linked liabilities. The relevant optimization problems rarely are analytically tractable, but we are able to show numerically that liability driven investment can significantly outperform common strategies that do not take the liabilities into account. In problems without liabilities the advantage disappears, which suggests that the superiority of the proposed strategies is indeed based on connections b...
Presents a case study of an online course that was designed for staff professional development at Manchester Metropolitan University (United Kingdom). Discusses the flexibility of online courses; course design; activities for short online workshops; evaluation methods for course evaluation; and results of participant questionnaires. (LRW)
Kläning, Ulla; Trumbetta, Susan L; Gottesman, Irving I; Skytthe, Axel; Kyvik, Kirsten O; Bertelsen, Aksel
We studied schizophrenia liability in a Danish population-based sample of 44 twin pairs (13 MZ, 31 DZ, SS plus OS) in order to replicate previous twin study findings using contemporary diagnostic criteria, to examine genetic liability shared between schizophrenia and other disorders, and to explore whether variance in schizophrenia liability attributable to environmental factors may have decreased with successive cohorts exposed to improvements in public health. ICD-10 diagnoses were determined by clinical interview. Although the best-fitting, most parsimonious biometric model of schizophrenia liability specified variance attributable to additive genetic and non-shared environmental factors, this model did not differ significantly from a model that also included non-additive genetic factors, consistent with recent interview-based twin studies. Schizophrenia showed strong genetic links to other psychotic disorders but much less so for the broader category of psychiatric disorders in general. We also observed a marginally significant decline in schizophrenia variance attributable to environmental factors over successive Western European cohorts, consistent perhaps with improvements in diagnosis and in prenatal and perinatal care and with a secular decline in the prevalence of schizophrenia in that region.
The main nuclear liability principles are examined. Then, aspects newly introduced by the 1997 Convention on Supplementary Compensation and by the new austrian nuclear liability law are studied. Then general deliberations on the extent and the limits of a civil nuclear liability regime are tackled. (N.C.)
Sayyed Mohammad Mahdi Qabuli Dorafshan
Full Text Available Nuclear facilities, though have large advantages for human being, they also creates heavy hazards. Thus, the question of civil liability results from events of mentioned facilities are so significant. This paper studies the question of the basis and responsible for compensation results from aforementioned events in international instruments, Iran and French law. Outcome of this study shows that in this regard, Paris and Vienna conventions and the other related conventions and protocols adjust a special legal régime. In this respect, the international instruments while distancing themselves from liability based on fault, highlight the exclusive responsibility of the operator of nuclear facilities and they have commited the operator to insurance or appropriate secure financing. Also French legal régime have followed this manner with the impact of the Paris Convention and its amendments and additions. There is no special provisions in Iran legal régime in this matter so civil liability results from nuclear events is under general rules of civil liability and rules such Itlaf (loss, Tasbib (causation, Taqsir (fault and La-zarar (no damage in the context of Imamye jurisprudence. Ofcourse, the responsible is basically the one who the damage is attributable to him. Finaly, It is appropriate that the Iranian legislator predict favorable régime and provides special financial fund for compensation of possible injured parties in accordance with necessities and specific requirements related to nuclear energy
Financial economists and actuaries do not always talk the same language. One particular difference of concern to actuaries is the method of treatment (or non-treatment) of the liabilities of an investor in the portfolio selection problem. Another difference relates to the way in which liabilities are valued. In this paper, these differences are discussed and possible way forward are suggested.
An analysis is made of the civil liability for nuclear damage since there is a need to adjust the existing rules to the new situations created. The conventions that set up the new disciplining rules not considered in the common law for the liability of nuclear damage are also mentioned. (A.L.) [pt
The regime of civil liability for nuclear damages in the Romanian legislation is defined especially by the Law no. 703/2001 on civil liability for nuclear damage, as well as the Government Decision no. 894/2003 for the approval of the Norms for the enforcement of Law no. 703/2001. These two documents constitute the legal framework that regulates the third party civil liability for nuclear damages. The paper is proposing to present the main elements of the relatively recent legal framework, namely: the principles content in the international acts on civil liability for nuclear damages, the subject to whom such law applies, the regime of civil liability for nuclear damages in Romania and provisions regarding the terrorist acts.(author)
Ossi, G.J. [Venable, LLP (United States)
Among the most immediate issues facing operations with a workforce represented by the United Mine Workers of America (UMWA) are the so-called 'legacy liabilities'. Legacy liabilities fall under two categories: retiree health care and pension. The retiree health benefit obligations fall into two categories; statutory - those created under the Coal Industry Retiree Health Benefit Act of 1992 and contractual - the 1993 Employer Benefit Plan and the Individual Employer Plans. The pension liabilities are more straightforward; there are three different retirement plans in the NBCWA; the UMWA 1950 Pension Plan, the UMWA 1974 Pension Plan and the UMWA Cash Deferred Savings Plan of 1988.
Mondello, Gerard Camille
The civil strict liability regime of the electronuclear industry is a fundamental variable for preventing risk. Because prices of other energies as oil or gas are becoming higher and unpredictable, nuclear power becomes cost-effective and may favour the partial privatization of nuclear parks. By considering theoretical traditional liability models, we study the conditions that ensure the most efficient safety level when comparing natural monopoly situation and Bertrand duopoly. Our results are that natural monopoly is safer than duopoly only when strict liability is fully applied. We define conditions that neutralize risk for applying some privatization plan to nuclear park
Alexandre Ricardo Machado
Full Text Available This paper is to discuss how were treated the legal and environmental consequen- ces caused by the large oil spill occurred in the FRADE FIELD, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil by the Company CHEVRON Brazil, in the face of brazilian authorities. On the text it will be discussed important decisions taken related to objective liability from the Company due to damages and the theories that have been taken into consideration for the extinction of two public civil actions filed by the Federal Public Ministry by an agre- ement called “Conduct Adjustment Term”. This study will make a chronological analysis of the facts that occurred on the two oil spills and how the company Chevron Brazil handled the incident, especially after be signed the undertaking between this Company, the Federal Public Ministry (MPF, National Agency Petroleum (ANP and the Brazilian Institute of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources (IBAMA solving the two public civil actions and proposals related to incidents in the Frade field in 2011 and 2012. The process also triggered imposition of financial penalties, already collected. On this comments shall be made considerations related to the incident and its “solution” for this legal formula and, given the severity of the accident, the indicated measures show hit or not the sectors involved.
Full Text Available Financial economists and actuaries do not always talk the same language. One particular difference of concern to actuaries is the method of treatment (or non-treatment of the liabilities of an investor in the portfolio selection problem. Another difference relates to the way in which liabilities are valued. In this paper, these differences are discussed and possible way forward are suggested.
Environmental liability guideline, the environmental damage law, execution and implementation deficiencies. A study on the structural execution suitability; Die Umwelthaftungsrichtlinie, das Umweltschadensgesetz, Vollzugs- und Implementationsdefizite. Eine Untersuchung zur strukturellen Vollzugseignung
Is there an effective liability for environmental damage? The sinking of the tanker ''Exxon Valdez'' has brought about an innovation in US environmental law. The dying of large areas of great forest and the Sandoz case have inspired thought in Germany. Who is responsible for the damages already incurred? How are damages to be replaced? Can environmental damage be quantified? For the replacement of damages, legal liability systems have been created, which are primarily of civil law, the compensation of damages between two private parties. In Germany there is a public liability system, which places the party ''generality'' against the operator of plants as an opponent and demands compensation, restoration of natural species and habitats, water bodies and soils. In 2004, the Directive on environmental liability with regard to the prevention and remedying of environmental damage (the Environmental Liability Directive or UHRL), was adopted. In Germany, the appropriate implementation took place in 2007 with the Environmental Damages Act (USchadG). A comparison with US environmental legislation and an overview of the implementation of the Environmental Liability Directive in the Member States completes the study. Julia-Carolina Holz gives a detailed look at the fundamentals and research status of enforcement deficits and examines the enforcement of the Environmental Liability Directive as well as the Environmental Damages Act.
The Liabilities Management Group (LMG) was initiated by DTI. It is a cooperative forum which was set up in 1995. The current participants are DTI, UKAEA, NLM (for BNFL), MOD and Magnox Electric. The LMG was initiated to produce closer cooperation between public sector liability management organizations, achieve more cost-effective management of UK nuclear liabilities and enhance development of the UK nuclear decommissioning and waste management strategy. The objectives are to compare practices between liabilities management organizations discuss the scope for collaboration identify priority areas for possible collaboration agree action plans for exploring and undertaking such collaboration.Four task forces have been formed to look at specific areas (R and D, safety, contracts, and project management) and each reports separately to the LMG. The LMG has achieved its original aim of bringing together those with public sector liability management responsibilities. All participants feel that the LMG has been useful and that it should continue. Looking to the future, there is a continuing need for the LMG to facilitate removal of barriers to the achievement of best value for money. The LMG might also consider addressing the 'business process' elements that a liability management organization must be good at in order to define best practice in these. (author)
Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The possibilities for pollution control still offered today Blackburn J.’s celebrated rule of strict liability, now almost 130 years old, has ensured its continuing popularity. There can be few tort lawyers, however, who have not increasingly wondered how much time should be devoted to a case which has received little judicial attention in recent years, and which was last subjected to detailed consideration by the House of Lords nearly 50 years ago, until, that is, the much-published decision of the House of Lords in Cambridge Water Co. Ltd v. Eastern Countries Leather Plc. (Environmental Law and The Strict Liability Application In the Common Law System (The Case Study of Cambridge Water Co. Ltd V. Eastern Countries Leather Plc
Walder, Deborah J; Faraone, Stephen V; Glatt, Stephen J; Tsuang, Ming T; Seidman, Larry J
The familial ("genetic") high-risk (FHR) paradigm enables assessment of individuals at risk for schizophrenia based on a positive family history of schizophrenia in first-degree, biological relatives. This strategy presumes genetic transmission of abnormal traits given high heritability of the illness. It is plausible, however, that adverse environmental factors are also transmitted in these families. Few studies have evaluated both biological and environmental factors within a FHR study of adolescents. We conceptualize four precursors to psychosis pathogenesis: two biological (genetic predisposition, prenatal health issues (PHIs)) and two environmental (family environment, stressful life events (SLEs)). Participants assessed between 1998 and 2007 (ages 13-25) included 40 (20F/20M) adolescents at FHR for schizophrenia (FHRs) and 55 (31F/24M) community controls. 'Genetic load' indexed number of affected family members relative to pedigree size. PHI was significantly greater among FHRs, and family cohesion and expressiveness were less (and family conflict was higher) among FHRs; however, groups did not significantly differ in SLE indices. Among FHRs, genetic liability was significantly associated with PHI and family expressiveness. Prenatal and family environmental disruptions are elevated in families with a first-degree relative with schizophrenia. Findings support our proposed 'polygenic neurodevelopmental diathesis-stress model' whereby psychosis susceptibility (and resilience) involves the independent and synergistic confluence of (temporally-sensitive) biological and environmental factors across development. Recognition of biological and social environmental influences across critical developmental periods points to key issues relevant for enhanced identification of psychosis susceptibility, facilitation of more precise models of illness risk, and development of novel prevention strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limited partnerships, limited liability partnerships..., limited liability partnerships, limited liability companies, corporations, and other similar legal entities. (a) A limited partnership, limited liability partnership, limited liability company, corporation...
Márcio Ribeiro da Fonseca
Full Text Available This study evaluate the influence of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR in brand image (BI and corporate reputation (CR analyzing Brazilian companies in the cosmetics industry. The empirical investigation explores the perception of two large Brazilian brand cosmetic companies interviewing undergraduate students belonging to highincome classes. The objective was to compare the perceptions and the differences between the two companies that publish social reports with GRI methodology. The development of this study occurred in two stages: the first stage involved a literature review, verifying theories and published research on corporate social responsibility, IM and CR. The second stage involved collecting data through a survey. The results demonstrate that the CSR has a positive influence on the IM, but such effect demonstrated only significant for one of the brands studied, and moderately to the second. Among the contributions of this work are to review the literature on the subject, identified the influence of variables of CSR in BI and RC and the differences in consumer perception for each of the brands studied, as well recommendations for future studies.
Veling, W.; Counotte, J.; Pot-Kolder, R.; van Os, J.; van der Gaag, M.
Background. Childhood trauma is associated with higher risk for mental disorders, including psychosis. Heightened sensitivity to social stress may be a mechanism. This virtual reality study tested the effect of childhood trauma on level of paranoid ideations and distress in response to social
Veling, Wim; Pot-Kolder, Roos; Counotte, Jacqueline; van Os, Jim; van der Gaag, Mark
The impact of social environments on mental states is difficult to assess, limiting the understanding of which aspects of the social environment contribute to the onset of psychotic symptoms and how individual characteristics moderate this outcome. This study aimed to test sensitivity to
Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Presnall, Ned; Drake, Brett; Fox, Louis; Bierut, Laura; Reich, Wendy; Kane, Phyllis; Todd, Richard D.; Constantino, John N.
Objective: Evidence is steadily accumulating that a preventable environmental hazard, child maltreatment, exerts causal influences on the development of long-standing patterns of antisocial behavior in humans. The relationship between child maltreatment and antisocial outcome, however, has never previously been tested in a large-scale study in…
Full Text Available Limited liability is a human invention which has facilitated enormous economic growth around the world, particularly since the time of its general application in advanced countries during the nineteenth century. The individual legal identity of companies, coupled with the limited liability of their owners, has provided protection for investors from the risks associated with their investments. It has thus contributed to increase the sources of capital available to finance projects which might otherwise have been considered unviable. However, the legal protection offered to investors has negative consequences for other participants in economies. Speculation in stock markets often damages society. It is very important to study the drawbacks of limited liability and to suggest modifications to achieve a more stable, less volatile, economic growth in the world. Although this article goes to some lengths to recognise the work of authors who emphasise the positive historical economic contribution of limited lability, its main objective is to provoke a reflection around texts which point out the drawbacks and propose solutions.
The paper gives a history of safety legislation in nuclear plants. A change has been suggested to the present law which would put total liability for damage or injury on the owner of the plant. This new legislation is being introduced in Switzerland. It covers even natural disasters as well as acts of war, but excludes injuries caused through negligence or irresponsibility of employee, however, third party injured as a consequence is to be compensated. The liability stretches over 30 years after the event. (G.R.S.)
Werlauff, Erik; Foged-Ladefoged, Lise Kolding
The article examines the question of whether rules on the limitation of auditors’ liability within the perspective of EU law are needed, and if so, which rules can provide an appropriate balance between the potential injured party’s interests and those of the auditing sector, including with respect...... to the fact that the insurance premiums associated with an unlimited liability must of course make the auditor’s tasks more expensive. Relevant EU recommendations and a comparative glance at other EU countries’ proposed solutions to the problem are included....
... because the warehouseman--which otherwise has no incentive to agree to liability--can avoid liability... based on an unjust enrichment theory? The court rejected such an approach in Middle Atlantic, 353 F...
The UK Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) is responsible for managing its liabilities for redundant research reactors and other active facilities concerned with the development of the UK nuclear technology programme since 1947. These liabilities include irradiated graphite from a variety of different sources including low irradiation temperature reactor graphite (the Windscale Piles 1 and 2, British Energy Pile O and Graphite Low Energy Experimental Pile at Harwell and the Material Testing Reactors at Harwell and Dounreay), advanced gas-cooled reactor graphite (from the Windscale Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor) and graphite from fast reactor systems (neutron shield graphite from the Dounreay Prototype Fast Reactor and Dounreay Fast Reactor). The decommissioning and dismantling of these facilities will give rise to over 6,000 tonnes of graphite requiring disposal. The first graphite will be retrieved from the dismantling of Windscale Pile 1 and the Windscale Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor during the next five years. UKAEA has undertaken extensive studies to consider the best practicable options for disposing of these graphite liabilities in a manner that is safe whilst minimising the associated costs and technical risks. These options include (but are not limited to), disposal as Low Level Waste, incineration, or encapsulation and disposal as Intermediate Level Waste. There are a number of technical issues associated with each of these proposed disposal options; these include Wigner energy, radionuclide inventory determination, encapsulation of graphite dust, galvanic coupling interactions enhancing the corrosion of mild steel and public acceptability. UKAEA is currently developing packaging concepts and designing packaging plants for processing these graphite wastes in consultation with other holders of graphite wastes throughout Europe. 'Letters of Comfort' have been sought from both the Low Level Waste and the Intermediate Level Waste disposal organisations to support the
The author discusses the liability of producers and the diligence required, which has to come up to technical standards and the latest state of technology. The consequences of this requirement with regard to claims for damages are outlined and proposals for reforms are pointed out. (HSCH) [de
There are at present at least three international regimes of maritime cargo liability in force in different countries of the world - the original Hague rules (1924), the updated version known as the Hague-Visby rules (1968, further amended 1979), and...
Frese, Richard C; Weber, Ryan J
To reduce and control their level of tail liability, hospitals should: Utilize a self-insurance vehicle; Consider combined limits between the hospital and physicians; Communicate any program changes to the actuary, underwriter, and auditor; Continue risk management and safety practices; Ensure credit is given to the organization's own medical malpractice program.
This paper reviews Slovenian national legislation in the field of third party liability for nuclear damage, applicability of the international nuclear liability treaties in Slovenia legal system and outlines some main provisions of national legislation. It is worth mentioning that legal instruments covering third party liability and compulsory insurance of such liability exist in Slovenia for almost 20 years and that our nuclear facilities are covered by relevant international treaties and conventions in this field, among them also by the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage (from 1977) and the Joint Protocol Relating to the Application of the Vienna Convention and the Paris Convention (from 1994). (author)
carefully studied. The exclusive liability of the operator thereby protects the interests of channelling the liability to a person who is in the best position to control a nuclear risk. A reform which would abolish the exclusive liability for the operator represents a step backwards from the point of view of the victims access to compensation. The Paris Convention, the Vienna Convention and the Joint Protocol relating to the Application of the Vienna Convention and the Paris Convention are the basis of nuclear civil laws adopted by the countries in western Europe and more recently in central and eastern Europe. Over the last few years, the IAEA and the OECD/NEA have been working to further strengthen the international nuclear liability regime. That work has resulted in a Protocol to Amend the Vienna Convention and the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage adopted in September 1997. These two instruments should substantially enhance the global framework for compensation well beyond that foreseen by existing conventions. The exclusive liability of the nuclear operator is an essential part of the international nuclear liability regime. Without this, the current effort of strengthening the regime cannot be developed for the benefit of victims of a possible nuclear accident. (author)
Johnson I IKPO
Full Text Available This paper reviews the obligations of a builder after the expiration of the contracted defects liability period using relevant decided cases. The common areas identified as forming the bedrock of litigation pertain to structural and dimensional stability, freedom from damp, durability, adequate drainage, good waste disposal works, and effective service installations. Particular reference is made to walls, roofs, and services, which from the pilot study account for about 46%, 23%, and 17% respectively of the total defects attributable to the builder. It is concluded that the builder is responsible for defects arising from his product till the effluxion of reasonable time, except he establishes an element of contributory negligence.
Full Text Available In this study we aimed to analyze guilt, in the form of negligence, that is governed in Romanian criminal laws in Article 16 paragraph (4 of the Criminal Code, as follows:“An offence is perpetrated in negligence when the offender:a foresees the outcome of his actions but does not accept it, deeming that it is unlikely for it to occur; b does not foresee the outcome of his actions, although he should and could have.”This form of guilt applies in the case of all incriminations stipulated in the criminal law perpetrated in a negligent manner, while keeping in mind that, in accordance with Article 16 paragraph (6 of the Criminal Code “an offence committed in negligence amounts to a criminal offence when expressly provided by law”.
This report deals with future financial liabilities arising from nuclear activities, in particular electricity generation. Future financial liabilities are defined as costs which an organisation or company is expected to meet beyond some five years as a consequence of its current and past activities. The study provides a comprehensive picture on policies for recognizing and funding future financial liabilities arising from nuclear activities and their implementation schemes in Nea Member countries. Mechanisms for reporting and funding future financial liabilities are described, analysed and compared. The report offers some findings, conclusions and recommendations for consideration by Member countries. The nuclear activities considered in the report include nuclear research and development, nuclear industry sectors such as uranium mining and milling, conversion and enrichment, nuclear fuel fabrication, nuclear power plant operation and maintenance, and radioisotopes production. Future financial liabilities arising from these activities cover management and disposal of radioactive wastes, reprocessing of spent fuels when applicable and decommissioning of facilities at the end of their life time. 12 refs., 14 figs., 16 tabs
We consider the professional development of in-service teachers and review traditional development efforts that have been used in the past. An alternative form of professional development using Japanese lesson study is proposed and discussed as a possibility. A case study involving the Mpumalanga Secondary Science ...
Dinmohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Peyrovi, Hamid; Mehrdad, Neda
Introduction: Professional socialization is a critical aspect of nursing students' development, which begins with entry into the nursing program and continues when their professional practice begins. The aim of this study was to explore the socialization of Iranian BSN students in the nursing profession. Methods: An exploratory qualitative approach utilizing Straussian version of the grounded theory (1998) method was used. Individual in-depth semi-structured interviews were undertaken with 14 participants chosen from two large nursing schools in an urban area through purposive and theoretical sampling. The data were analyzed, using the constant comparative method. Results: Five main categories and eleven subcategories emerged and integrated around one core category. Professional metamorphosis as the core variable was a complex and interrelated process (consisting of three stages: dependence, disintegration, and integration) with dynamic, ongoing, and personal features influenced by professional and extra-professional context. The students assumed a passive role in the initial of their studies. However, during the last year of the educational program, they gradually involved actively in dealing with own personal and professional issues. Conclusion: This study introduced "professional metamorphosis of BSN students" as a substantive grounded theory in the socio-cultural context of the health care system in Iran. During this process, students move from outsider personal position to insider professional position. The nurse educators and administrators may develop effective educational interventions to promote professional socialization of students with an understanding of the promoting and driving forces influencing socialization.
Bohlken, Marc M; Brouwer, Rachel M; Mandl, René C W; Kahn, René S; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E
BACKGROUND: Alterations in intellectual ability and brain structure are important genetic markers for schizophrenia liability. How variations in these phenotypes interact with variance in schizophrenia liability due to genetic or environmental factors is an area of active investigation. Studying
Studies the nature of the torts liability incurred in strikes and the extent of existing immunities bestowed on strikers and their organizers, and explores the principles that should govern liability and immunity. Available from Israel Law Review Association, c/o Faculty of Law, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Mount Scopus, P.O.B. 24100, Jerusalem…
Sweeney, Anthony P.; Hohenshil, Thomas H.; Fortune, Jimmie C.
Study examines job satisfaction in a national sample of employee assistance program (EAP) professionals. Data were collected from 210 EAP professionals through mailed surveys. Results indicate that respondents employed by external EAP organizations were more satisfied with their jobs than those who were employed by internal EAPs. (Contains 20…
Veenstra, Gepke L.; Ahaus, Kees; Welker, Gera A.; Heineman, Erik; van der Laan, Maarten J.; Muntinghe, Friso L. H.
OBJECTIVE: Although the guiding principle of clinical governance states that healthcare professionals are the leading contributors to quality and safety in healthcare, little is known about what healthcare professionals perceive as important for clinical governance. The aim of this study is to
Joellen Killion is senior advisor to Learning Forward. In each issue of "The Learning Professional", Killion explores a recent research study to help practitioners understand the impact of particular professional learning practices on student outcomes. In this Issue Mary Kennedy conducts a review and analysis of the research on…
Mook, W.N. van; Grave, W.S. De; Gorter, S.L.; Zwaveling, J.H.; Schuwirth, L.W.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der
The Competency-Based Training program in Intensive Care Medicine in Europe identified 12 competency domains. Professionalism was given a prominence equal to technical ability. However, little information pertaining to fellows' views on professionalism is available. A nationwide qualitative study was
Ciarocco, Natalie J.; Dinella, Lisa M.; Hatchard, Christine J.; Valosin, Jayde
The current study empirically tested the effectiveness of a modular approach to integrating professional development across an undergraduate psychology curriculum. Researchers conducted a two-group, between-subjects experiment on 269 undergraduate psychology students assessing perceptions of professional preparedness and learning. Analysis…
Completely updated for the 2011 version of the PMP exam! If you're preparing for the Project Management Professional (PMP) exam, this thorough book is what you need. Not only does it reflect the very latest version of the exam, it is written by popular project management expert Kim Heldman—author of the five previous editions of this top-selling book—and it also includes a CD with practice exams, exam prep software, electronic flashcards, and over two hours of additional audio review. All exam objectives, as well as essential PMP topics, concepts, and key terms are covered.Prepares
The civil liability theory in the actual context is shown in the first and second part of this thesis, including some considerations about concepts and types of liability in dangerous and not dangerous activities. In the third part, the legal aspects of civil liability for the nuclear activities are analyzed, with a brief description of the history evolution, standard systems, inspection corporation and juridical regulation. (C.G.C.). 239 refs
On 11 March 2011, Japan endured one of the worst natural disasters in its history when a massive earthquake struck the Pacific coast of the country and was followed by a tsunami which led to considerable loss of lives. It also led to a major accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. Soon afterwards, the operator of the plant, Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO), assumed responsibility and liability for the nuclear accident. On 28 April 2011, TEPCO established a dedicated contact line to provide consulting services for financial compensation related to the damage caused
Allana Alexandre Cardoso
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Body image is multidimensional, dynamic, and entirely linked to the body in motion, which entails relevant bodily concerns in the routine of professional dancers, who need to maintain their body aesthetics constantly. The objective was summarizing the scientific production on the body image of professional dancers and to understand how they perceive it. This review is composed by seven studies that investigated professional dancers of classical ballet, jazz and contemporary dance. The results demonstrate that even though they are lean and had appropriate body mass index, professional dancers are dissatisfied with their body and wish to be thinner, that is, professional dancers constitute a risk group for the development of eating disorders.
Ţenovici Cristina Otilia
Full Text Available Nowadays, the activity performed by professional accountants should be transparent and the communication process should be an efficient one so that the data transmitted is relevant and reliable. Such characteristics can become achievable only within a quality accounting referential, based on international accounting standards likely to integrate the public field particularities. The need to obtain comparable and transparent information in the public sector has determined the emergence of IPSAS standards, high quality standards with benefice consequences upon the world economy. The purpose of the disclose study is to analyse the development of accountancy in Romania and the level of accounting harmonization and convergence with IPSAS 19 “Provisions, contingent liabilities and contingent assets”. We are also focusing on performing a comparison between the main characteristics of the disclose national and international regulations, with the mention of resemblances and differences on provisions, contingent liabilities and contingent assets in order to identify the range of convergent and divergent issues.
Cetinkaya-Uslusoy, Esin; Paslı-Gürdogan, Eylem; Aydınlı, Ayse
Professional values improve the quality of nurses' professional lives, reduce emotional exhaustion and depersonalization, increase personal success, and help to make collaborations with the members of the healthcare team more frequent. The purpose of this study was to describe the professional values of Turkish nurses and to explore the relationships between nurses' characteristics. This was a descriptive study of a convenience sample consisting of 269 clinical nurses. A questionnaire was used to identify socio-demographic characteristics, and the Nurses' Professional Values Scale was applied. Ethical considerations: Permission to conduct the study was received from the hospital and the Institutional Review Boards of the Süleyman Demirel University ethic committee. The mean scale score of the participant nurses was 165.41 ± 20.79. The results of this study revealed that human dignity was the most important professional value for nurses, and the importance attached to these values showed statistically significant differences by age, length of service, educational level, marital status, position at work, and receiving relevant in-service training. Nurses' Professional Values Scale scores showed that nurses give above average and attached importance to professional values.
Cruz, Hans G; Hoever, Petra; Chakraborty, Bijan; Schoedel, Kerri; Sellers, Edward M; Dingemanse, Jasper
Dual orexin receptor antagonists (DORAs) enable initiation and maintenance of sleep in patients with primary insomnia. Blockade of the orexin system has shown reduction of drug-seeking behavior in animal studies, supporting the role of orexin antagonism as a novel approach for treating substance abuse. Since hypnotics are traditionally associated with misuse, a lack of abuse liability of DORAs would offer significant benefits over current therapies for sleep disorders. In this randomized, crossover, proof-of-concept study, single oral doses of the DORA almorexant (200, 400, and 1,000 mg) were administered to healthy subjects with previous non-therapeutic experience with central nervous system depressants and were compared with placebo and single oral doses of zolpidem (20 and 40 mg), a benzodiazepine-like drug. Subjective measures of abuse potential (visual analog scales [VAS], Addiction Research Center Inventory, and Subjective Drug Value) and objective measures (divided attention [DA]) were evaluated over 24 h post-dose in 33 evaluable subjects. Drug Liking VAS peak effect (E max; primary endpoint) was significantly higher for all doses of almorexant and zolpidem compared with placebo (p<0.001). Almorexant 200 mg showed significantly less 'Drug Liking' than both zolpidem doses (p<0.01), and almorexant 400 mg had smaller effects than zolpidem 20 mg (p<0.05), while almorexant 1,000 mg was not different from either zolpidem dose. Results were similar for other subjective measures, although almorexant generally showed smaller negative and perceptual effects compared with zolpidem. Almorexant also showed less cognitive impairment compared with zolpidem on most DA endpoints. This study in humans investigating single doses of almorexant is the first to explore and show abuse liability of a DORA, a class of compounds that is not only promising for the treatment of sleep disorders, but also of addiction.
Gallagher, Jennifer E; Clarke, Wendy; Eaton, Kenneth A; Wilson, Nairn H F
New graduates in the UK presently spend one year in training as Vocational Dental Practitioners (VDPs) in preparation for primary dental care. There is a growing recognition that the emerging workforce has very different professional expectations to those of earlier generations, with implications for the profession, patients and the performance of health systems. The objectives of this study were to investigate why VDPs' in England and Wales perceive they chose dentistry as a professional career; how they perceive their vision has changed and the implications for their professional career plans, both short- and longterm. Purposive sampling of schemes was undertaken to include urban, rural and metropolitan schemes, schemes in areas with and without dental schools and geographic coverage across England and Wales. All VDPs in these schemes were initiated to participate in this qualitative study using focus groups. A topic guide was utilised to standardise data collection. Informants' views were recorded on tape and in field notes. Data were transcribed and analysed using Framework Methodology. A total of 99 VDPs participated in the 10 focus groups. Their choice of dentistry as a professional career was motivated by multiple categories of influence: 'academic', 'healthcare', 'lifestyle', the influence of 'family', 'friends', 'careers advice' and 'work experience'. Consideration of the features of the 'professional job' appears to have been key to their choice of dentistry and the 'active rejection of medicine' as an alternative career.Entry into the profession was proving a challenging process for some but not all VDPs. Informants perceived that their vision had been moderated as a result of 'personal student debt', 'national workforce initiatives', 'limitations on clinical practice' and the 'cost of additional training'.Short term goals focused around 'recovery from the past' and 'preparation for the future'. Longterm goals covered the spectrum of opportunities within
Full Text Available This study analyses a current and highly important problem because we are in front of an unrecorded growth of the production volume in parallel with its diversification. Due to the fact that the introduction in production of the new products is preceded by the subsequent execution of some manually manufactured prototypes, the products are manufactured afterwards on an industrial scale. Under these circumstances there is the possibility of small errors which affect the consumer’s behaviour towards the new products. That is why, in auditing the focus is on the careful supervision of the opinions of the consumers and especially of the shortcomings of some products indicated by consumers in order to remove these from the manufacturing line. Under these circumstances, a very tight connection is required between the producers and the consumers, and a special liability of the producers towards those products. At the same time this is also a worldwide concern for the regulation of the products responsibility which has already been adopted by some large manufacturing countries. The recent example of USA was followed by the European legislation. That is why American organisations which export to Europe have to be warned because the law of product liability has been adopted in many European countries. The insurance companies are usually paying the initial losses for the cases of product liability. The manufacturer of a product has to protect itself from the risk of being brought to trial or at least to reduce the risk to a level where he could afford a reasonable profit or a continuous growth. In order to meet this objective, we need a product liability prevention program. This study analyses the product liability prevention program and presents some of the essential common elements for such a program. Therefore, one can argue that in order to have an effective product liability prevention program, some operations are required as for example
Rogova, Evgenia E.; Pankratova, Irina A.; Zholudeva, Svetlana V.; Sheveleva, Anna M.; Naumenko, Marina V.; Skrynnik, Natalya E.
The article focuses on some peculiarities of interrelation of professional motivation and professional concepts of specialists with different professional orientation. The results of empirical research are revealed on the sampling of 164 specialists in the field of management who have been divided into five subgroups according to the types of…
Strober, M; Freeman, R; Lampert, C; Diamond, J; Kaye, W
Lifetime rates of full and partial anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa were determined in first-degree relatives of diagnostically pure proband groups and relatives of matched, never-ill comparison subjects. Rates of each eating disorder were obtained for 1,831 relatives of 504 probands on the basis of personal structured clinical interviews and family history. Best-estimate diagnoses based on all available information were rendered without knowledge of proband status and pedigree identity. Only definite and probable diagnoses were considered. Whereas anorexia nervosa was rare in families of the comparison subjects, full and partial syndromes of anorexia nervosa aggregated in female relatives of both anorexic and bulimic probands. For the full syndrome of anorexia nervosa, the relative risks were 11.3 and 12.3 in female relatives of anorexic and bulimic probands, respectively. Bulimia nervosa was more common than anorexia nervosa in female relatives of comparison subjects, but it, too, aggregated in the families of ill probands; the corresponding relative risks for bulimia nervosa were 4.2 and 4.4 for female relatives of anorexic and bulimic probands, respectively. When partial syndromes of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa were considered, relative risks fell by one-half in each group of ill probands. Both anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are familial. Their cross-transmission in families suggests a common, or shared, familial diathesis. The additional observation that familial aggregation and cross-transmission extend to milder phenotypes suggests the validity of their inclusion in a continuum of familial liability.
Although transport of nuclear substances represents only a very small part of the global transport of dangerous goods, it takes place every day all over the world and it is part of our daily life. Transport of nuclear material takes also place at every stage of the nuclear fuel cycle; radioactive materials are carried out all over the world by all major modes of transport: sea, air, road and rail. Despite the large number of nuclear transports, they are not considered as posing a serious risk. A major nuclear incident is almost always associated with the operating of fixed installations such as nuclear power plants; just think about Three Mile Island and Chernobyl. This perception is strengthened by the absence so far of serious accidents in the nuclear transport sector and this finding is in fact proof of the very safe conditions of nuclear transport. But accidents can never be excluded entirely and in some cases damages could be as large as those caused by fixed installations. This means that protection of the interests of possible victims should also be covered in a correct way. That is why the special nuclear liability regime has also been developed to cover damage caused by a nuclear transport accident. As stated by Patrick Reyners, the prime motivation for originally adopting a special nuclear regime was the harmonisation of national legislation and that nowhere more than in the field of international transport operations is such harmonisation felt desirable . The international legal regime has been developed along two tracks, one based on the mode of transport and the other based on the notion of dangerous goods. The linkage between those two tracks is of permanent concern and the mode of transport is the key element to determine which international instrument should be applicable. The purpose of this paper is to briefly introduce the financial security provided by the insurance industry to cover the international nuclear liability regime for nuclear
Saqib, Anum; Atif, Muhammad; Ikram, Raazeyah; Riaz, Fatima; Abubakar, Muhammad; Scahill, Shane
Patients' knowledge about their prescribed medicines is one of the most important antecedents of successful therapy. Poor knowledge about medicines can lead to serious consequences such as non-adherence and misunderstanding of the significance of adverse events. The objective of this study is to understand the factors that are responsible for a patients' lack of knowledge regarding their medicines, by taking the perspective of the patient as well as that of healthcare professionals. Much of the work in this area has been undertaken in the setting of developed or semi-developed countries, and there is a scarcity of information from developing nations such as Pakistan. This was a large qualitative study set in the hospital outpatient environment in a teaching hospital in the Punjab province of Pakistan. Data were collected from dialogue with patients (n = 19) and healthcare providers (n = 16) i.e., doctors and dispensers (where a dispenser is a person who merely dispenses medicines; i.e. is not a pharmacist) through in-depth semi-structured interviews. Patients having limited knowledge about their dispensed medicines were assessed using a checklist. The healthcare providers were recruited through a convenience sampling strategy, based on their availability and willingness to participate in the study. Based on the objectives of the study, a pilot tested interview protocol was developed, and used to conduct the interviews. The sample size was controlled by using saturation point criteria. All interviews were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. The data were analyzed to draw conclusions using inductive thematic content analysis. The analysis of data yielded 31 categories (patients = 19, healthcare professionals = 12), 10 subthemes and three themes. The major themes were healthcare professional-related factors, patient-related factors and system-related factors. The health professional related subthemes included: behaviour and attitude and professional liabilities
Arghya Kusum Mukherjee
Full Text Available Swarnajayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY is a government-sponsored microfinance program. The scheme is based on four features: group lending with joint liability, progressive lending, back-ended subsidy, and social capital. We propose a new model of SGSY having these features: group lending with individual liability, progressive lending, back-ended subsidy, and social capital. “Joint liability” clause of the existing model is replaced with individual liability in the new model. The paper shows that problem of adverse selection is removed in both models, i.e. in “SGSY with group lending and joint liability” and “SGSY with group lending and individual liability.” The problem of “moral hazard” is more severe in the existing model of SGSY compared with the proposed model of SGSY. Borrowers are also benefitted from participation in the proposed scheme of SGSY than that in the existing model of SGSY.
Full Text Available Among the various forms of legal liability there are many points of contact reflected in their common goal - the encouragement of active members of society. Starting from the statement - the independent nature of the various forms of legal liability does not mean they are excluded - in what follows, given the legal autonomy of spheres of social relations protected by various laws, we will consider disciplinary overlapping with other forms of legal liability - criminal liability. Of course, this is possible only if the act committed by the employee is both disciplinary and criminal. This form of accumulation are possible without violating the principle of non bis in idem that since each of the envisaged legal rules protect different social relations. In addition of this applying the same principle prohibits two or more same kind sanctions for an unlawful action
This paper gives some basic data about nuclear installations in Slovenia, reviews Slovenian national legislation in the field of third-party liability for nuclear damage, applicability of the international nuclear liability treaties in the Slovenian legal system and outlines some main provisions of national legislation. It also aims to give some facts about history and present status of nuclear insurance pool and the insurance of nuclear risks in Slovenia. Paper finally indicates also some future legislative steps with respect to nuclear third party liability, at national and international level. (author)
Galán Gutiérrez, J C; Galán Cortés, J C
An analysis is made of the controversial application of the theory of disproportionate damage in the anaesthetic act, due to the high inherent risk, and regardless of the seriousness and importance of the surgery being performed. The existence of a disproportionate damage, that is, damage not foreseen nor accountable within the framework of the professional performance of the anaesthetist, does not by itself determine the existence of liability on the part of the anaesthetist, but the demand from the professionals themselves for a coherent explanation of the serious disagreement between the initial risk implied by their actions and the final consequence produced. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Theresa M. Sullivan
Full Text Available Background: Professionalism is a dynamic, socially constructed idea, rendering it difficult to comprehend. Though characterized by the demonstration of values and behaviors, its meaning has not been fully explored and remains tacit. To explore how first- and second-year master’s of occupational therapy students conceptualize professionalism. Method: This qualitative pilot study evolved from an interpretivist theoretical perspective. Convenience sampling yielded four first-year and seven second-year students from one entry-level master’s program to participate in two separate focus groups. Line-by-line constant comparison methods were used to analyze the data and identify categories. An audit trail, peer debriefing, and member checking were employed. Results: Data analysis of the first-year focus group generated three categories: Searching for explicit examples, Responsibility to the profession, and Building and fulfilling societal responsibility. Analysis of the second-year focus group yielded two categories: Professional values and behaviors and Professionalism as socially constructed. Conclusion: Professionalism is a dynamic concept requiring nuanced understandings specific to context. Students should be encouraged to develop reflective abilities allowing them to analyze and act in a way that is most appropriate for the situation. Understanding students’ conceptualizations of professionalism may better allow occupational therapy regulators, managers, and academic and fieldwork educators to identify teaching and research priorities.
Solomon, K.A.; Okrent, D.
This study conducts an overview of large technological systems in society to ascertain prevalence, if any, of situations that can lead to catastrophic effects where the resultant liabilities far exceed the insurances or assets subject to suit in court, thereby imposing de facto limits on liability. Several potential situations are examined: dam rupture, aircraft crash into a sports stadium, chemical plant accident, shipping disaster, and a toxic drug disaster. All of these events are estimated to have probabilities per year similar to or larger than a major nuclear accident and they are found to involve potential liability far exceeding the available resources, such as insurance, corporation assets, or government revenues
Hudson, J.A.; Long, J.P.; Miller, M.M.
This pilot study project explored the problem of providing access to the nomadic worker who desires to connect a computer through network access points at a number of different locations within the SNL/NM campus as well as outside the campus. The design and prototype development gathered knowledge that may allow a design to be developed that could be extended to a larger number of SNL/NM network drop boxes. The focus was to provide a capability for a worker to access the SNL IRN from a network drop box (e.g. in a conference room) as easily as when accessing the computer network from the office normally used by the worker. Additional study was done on new methods to authenticate the off campus worker, and protect and control access to data.
Full Text Available We debated in this article the civil liability for environmental damages as stipulated in ourlegislation with reference to Community law. The theory of legal liability in environmental law is basedon the duty of all citizens to respect and protect the environment. Considering the importance ofenvironment in which we live, the liability for environmental damages is treated by the Constitution as aprinciple and a fundamental obligation. Many human activities cause environmental damages and, in linewith the principle of sustainable development, they should be avoided. However, when this is notpossible, they must be regulated (by criminal or administrative law in order to limit their adverse effectsand, according to the polluter pays principle, to internalize in advance their externalities (through taxes,insurances or other forms of financial security products. Communication aims to analyze these issues andlegal regulations dealing with the issue of liability for environmental damage.
von Feilitzen, Helena
Non‐maturing liabilities, such as savings accounts, lack both predetermined maturity and reset dates due to the fact that the depositor is free to withdraw funds at any time and that the depository institution is free to change the rate. These attributes complicate the risk management of such products and no standardized solution exists. The problem is important however since non‐maturing liabilities typically make up a considerable part of the funding of a bank. In this report different mode...
The Price-Anderson Act Adopted by US Congress in 1957 as the world's first national nuclear liability regime. It is a comprehensive, complicated and unique system and stems from special features of US legal regime and federal system of government. It differs from other systems by providing for 'economic', not legal; channeling of liability to facility operator and not recommended as model for other states, but most features adopted by other states and international conventions
Hall, Scott S.; Harden, Amy; Pucciarelli, Deanna L.
A national study of family and consumer sciences (FCS) professionals in higher education was analyzed as a case study to illustrate procedures useful for investigating issues related to FCS. The authors analyzed response rates of more than 1,900 FCS faculty and administrators by comparing those invited to participate and the 345 individuals who…
The negligent performance of professional duties is the most probable type of legal action against a medical physicist. A mistake resulting from ignorance or inadvertence is an example; an error in professional judgement is not negligence if an ordinary, prudent physicist in the same situation would have made the same decision. A physicist or any hospital employee has a duty to protect his employer from liability even to the extent of reporting to the hospital medical practices which could harm the patient. Suggestions for reducing legal risk include recommendations for professional knowledge, record keeping and outside verification of important elements of operating systems
Ham, Chul Hoon.; Kim, Tae Myeong [The Catholic University, Seoul (Korea)
System of nuclear damage compensation was prepares to protect the interested parties in the implementation of nuclearenterprise and conciliate the conflicts of interests of them. The Light-water Reactor (LWR) Project to supply two units of light-water reactors to North Korea faced difficulties concerning nuclear damage compensation system due to decline of the international reliability and aggravation of economic condition of North Korea. It is necessary to study the special nuclear damage compensation system of the LWR Project to promote the Project and peaceful uses of atomic energy in northeast Asia. The contents and scope of the study is composed as follows; 1. Background of the LWR Project . the pending issues of them and the necessary of the special nuclear damage compensation system 2. Investigation of nuclear damage compensation system of United States, Japan, German, France and Korea 3. Account of conventions on liability for nuclear damage, especially Vienna Convention and its Protocols 4. Searching for issues of the nuclear damage compensation system of the LWR Project and its resolution 5. Comprehensive arrangement on the main issues through the study. 4 tabs. (Author)
N. O. Tkachenko
Full Text Available Today professionalism is important not only for the characteristics of an individual, but also for the manifestation of professional activities. Self-education, self-training and training on the working place are integral elements of the whole continuous professional development. Various components of professionalism form the social responsibility of pharmacist in contemporary conditions. During all professional activities of pharmacists the continuous formation of administrative, economic, legal, communication, social and information competence takes place. Professionally oriented periodical publications, scientific and practical activities act as assistants in it. The aim of this work was to study the sources of the information professional field of pharmaceutical establishments’ staff in the South-eastern region of Ukraine and to determine the frequency of their use and orientation. Gathering of information was carried out using questionnaires. The structure of the developed questionnaire provided conventional separation of questions into two blocks. The first set of questions in the questionnaire provided respondents’ characteristics by demographic and psychological criteria: age, position, length of service, type of enterprise’s ownership. The second set of questions provided the opportunity to identify the main sources of professional information of the specialists in the region, the frequency of their use and the orientation of information for practical activities. Results and discussion. The respondents were proposed the list of periodicals, which today pharmacy specialists are guided by for understanding of modern trends in medicine and pharmacy. The survey results made it possible to determine the most required in practice, sources of information on modern medicine and pharmacy: special edition "Mister blister", "Weekly Drugstore" and "Pharmacist Practical worker". Experts of various levels of pharmacy management use these
Salloch, Sabine; Apitzsch, Birgit; Wilkesmann, Maximiliane; Ruiner, Caroline
In contrast to other countries, the appearance of locum physicians as independent contractors constitutes a rather new phenomenon in the German health care system and emerged out of a growing economization and shortage of medical staff in the hospital sector. Locums are a special type of self-employed professionals who are only temporally embedded in organisational contexts of hospitals, and this might have consequences for their professional practice. Therefore, questions arise regarding how locums perceive their ethical duties as medical professionals. In this first qualitative study on German locum physicians, the locums' own perspective is complemented by the viewpoint of permanently employed physician colleagues. Eighteen semi-structured interviews were conducted in 2014 to explore the professional practice of locum physicians from both groups' perspectives with respect to doctor-patient-relationship, cooperation with colleagues and physicians' role in society. The data were analysed using qualitative content analysis, including a deductive application and an inductive development of codes. The results were related to key tenets of medical professionalism with respect to the question: how far do locums fulfil their ethical duties towards patients, colleagues and the society? The study indicates that although ethical requirements are met broadly, difficulties remain with respect to close doctor-patient contact and the sustainability of hiring locums as a remedy in times of staff shortage. Further qualitative and quantitative research on locum physicians' professional practice, including patient perspectives and economic health care system analyses, is needed to better understand the ethical impact of hiring independent contractors in the hospital sector.
This paper articulates an Aristotelian theory of professional virtue and provides an application of that theory to the subject of engineering ethics. The leading idea is that Aristotle's analysis of the definitive function of human beings, and of the virtues humans require to fulfill that function, can serve as a model for an analysis of the definitive function or social role of a profession and thus of the virtues professionals must exhibit to fulfill that role. Special attention is given to a virtue of professional self-awareness, an analogue to Aristotle's phronesis or practical wisdom. In the course of laying out my account I argue that the virtuous professional is the successful professional, just as the virtuous life is the happy life for Aristotle. I close by suggesting that a virtue ethics approach toward professional ethics can enrich the pedagogy of professional ethics courses and help foster a sense of pride and responsibility in young professionals.
Fernanda Heloisa Macedo Soares
Full Text Available O presente estudo refere-se à Responsabilidade Civil dos Registradores, objetivando estabelecer as situações em que estes profissionais são responsáveis por danos causados no exercício de suas funções. O foco principal foi a responsabilidade civil dos registradores, sendo evidente que para um desenvolvimento coerente e sequencial do tema proposto, foi necessário a abordagem de conceitos fundamentais inerentes à responsabilidade civil, assim como o conceito de registradores. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi analisar o ordenamento jurídico brasileiro sobre os registradores e, a partir de uma interpretação sistemática das normas existentes, identificar qual o tipo de responsabilidade que deve ser atribuída a estes, que embora sejam dotados de fé pública dos atos em que intervêm e das declarações que retratam, não são funcionários públicos. Com o intuito de atingir este objetivo, foi necessário abordar sobre a responsabilidade civil, desde seus aspectos históricos, seus pressupostos, chegando a sua classificação como responsabilidade contratual ou extracontratual, objetiva ou subjetiva. Também se fez menção quanto à responsabilidade civil do Estado; ademais, foi explanado sobre os registradores desde suas origens, com ênfase em suas funções e atos praticados. A metodologia utilizada foi à pesquisa bibliográfica. Diante do que foi exposto no desenvolvimento da presente monografia, chegou-se à conclusão que a responsabilidade civil dos registradores trata-se de responsabilidade civil subjetiva, ou seja, aquela que exige a comprovação do elemento culpa, uma vez que estes são pessoas físicas e não se encaixam no disposto do artigo 36, § 7º da Constituição Federal. Palavras-Chave: Responsabilidade Civil, Registrador, Imobiliário The present study refers to the Liability and Registrars , aiming to establish the situations in which these professionals are responsible for damage caused in the exercise of
There has been a marked decline in the character, moral values and general behaviour of students coming out of the Zimbabwean education system. Accordingly, this study sought to investigate issues of ethics and professionalism in the Zimbabwean education system, and examine how the trend of the gradual erosion of ...
Reynolds, Amy L.
The purpose of this study was to gather student affairs professionals' perceptions of the knowledge and skills needed to effectively help students. Using the Delphi method, 159 entry-level and mid-level student affairs administrators from institutions across the United States were surveyed regarding their perceptions of the helping skills they use…
Full Text Available Microcredit program has been widely adopted by some coutries to enhance low-end enterprieses which is also a part of anti-poverty program. However, the implementation of microcredit distribution has been criticized for its high number of bad credit cases and less-optimacy in decreasing the poverty. Those problems have attracted researchers’ interest to investigate the ideal management model for microcredit program to decrease poverty cases of the members. This case-study shows that Mitra Manindo Copperative in North Sumatera has successfully decreased the poverty faced by the members through the application of the joint and several liability system (JSL. This JSL model successfully enhance the social power shared among the members by grouping method. Institutional dynamicity of the JSL application has also grown trusts among the members which appeared to be the main input to enhance the social cohesion and social capital. Strong social capital has diseminated various values that enhance the productivity of the members’ enterprises. The result of this study can be used as the proliferation in constructing ideal management procedures to apply in microcredit programs by loan providers in order to efficiently and effectively increase members’ earnings.
Jiménez-López, F Rosa; Roales-Nieto, Jesus Gil; Seco, Guillermo Vallejo; Preciado, Juan
Many studies have explored personal values in nursing, but none has assessed whether the predictions made by the theory of intergenerational value change are true for the different generations of nursing professionals and students. This theory predicts a shift in those personal values held by younger generations towards ones focussed on self-expression. The purpose of the study was to identify intergenerational differences in personal values among nursing professionals and nursing students and to determine whether generational value profiles fit the predictions made by the theory. An exploratory comparative design with a cross-sectional survey method was used. Participants were recruited from four public hospitals and 10 Primary Care Centres in medium-size cities in Spain. A sample of 589 nurses and 2295 nursing students participated in the study. An open survey method was used to collect data that were classified grouping reported values into categories following a method of value lexicon construction and analysed by contingency tables with Pearson's χ (2) and standardized residuals. Approval to conduct the study was obtained from the Deans of the nursing schools and the Directors of Nursing of the institutions. Anonymity was guaranteed, participation was voluntary and participants were informed of the purpose of the study. The results can be synthesized in two age-related trends in the reporting of values among three groups of participants. First, among younger nurses and students, some nursing core values (e.g. ethical and professional) decreased in importance, while other values centred on social relationships and personal well-being increased. This study shows intergenerational change in personal values among both nursing students and young nursing professionals. Findings suggest the need to pay more attention to value training and professional socialization during the schooling period. © The Author(s) 2014.
Hammond, Ralph; Cross, Vinette; Moore, Ann
The U.K. Frances Report and increasing societal expectations of healthcare have challenged physiotherapists to reconsider professionalism. Physiotherapy has viewed identity as a fixed entity emphasising coherence, continuity and distinctiveness. Socialisation has required the acquisition of a professional identity as one necessary 'asset' for novices. Yet how do physiotherapists come to be the physiotherapists they are? Qualitative study using Collective Memory Work. Eight physiotherapists in South West England met for two hours, once a fortnight, for six months. Seventeen hours of group discussions were recorded and transcribed. Data were managed via the creation of crafted dialogues and analysed using narrative analysis. Participants shared ethical dilemmas: successes and unresolved anxiety about the limits of personal actions in social situations. These included matters of authenticity, role strain, morality, diversity. Participants made claims about their identity; claims made to support an attitude, belief, motivation or value. Professional identity in physiotherapy is more complex than traditionally thought; fluid across time and place, co-constructed within changing communities of practice. An ongoing and dynamic process, physiotherapists make sense and (re)interpret their professional self-concept based on evolving attributes, beliefs, values, and motives. Participants co-constructed the meaning of being a physiotherapist within intra-professional and inter-professional communities of practice. Patients informed this, and it was mediated by workplace and institutional discourses, boundaries and hierarchies, through an unfolding career and the contingencies of a life story. More empirical data are required to understand how physiotherapists negotiate the dilemmas they face and enact the values the profession espouses. Copyright © 2015 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Huang, Hui-Man; Liao, Chi-Chun
Nurses are expected to discharge their duty of care effectively and professionally to prevent medical negligence. Only three articles have previously focused on medical negligence. Duty of care and medical negligence in nursing are topics that have been neglected in Taiwan. (1) Classify the duty of care of professional nurses; (2) Investigate the facts and disputes in the current case; (3) Clarify the legal issues involved with regard to duty-of-care violations in the current case; (4) Explore the causal relationships in a legal context between nurses' duty-of-care violations and patient harm / injury. Literature analysis and a case study are used to analyze Supreme Court Verdict No.5550 (2010). Duty of care for nursing professionals may be classified into seven broad categories. Each category has its distinct correlatives. In nursing practice, every nursing behavior has a corresponding duty. In this case, the case study nurse did not discharge her obstetric professional duty and failed to inform the doctor in a timely manner. Negligence resulted in prenatal death and the case study nurse was found guilty. In order to prevent committing a crime, nurses should gain a better understanding of their duty of care and adequately discharge these duties in daily practice.
Basic principles of nuclear liability legislation are discussed including absolute and limited liability and the role of the Sovereign State in idemnifying the operator for damage in excess of limited liability. European counrties realised the need for unifying the law of nuclear instability and efforts were made accordingly towards producing workable international conventions. The world's first legislation on nuclear liability - the USA Price-Anderson Act - is described in detail and a digest of nuclear liability claims experience is given. Observations of the present status of nuclear third party liability are outlined. (Author)
Full Text Available Statutory organs of business companies (and similarly of co-operatives have numerous obligations imposed by generally binding provisions; relied with these is the liability for non-fulfilment of the latter. Some of the obligations are imposed directly by the laws, some are assumed on contractual basis. Their infringements may lead to the liability for the situation and consequences occurred. The regulation of the liability of persons engaged in the company’s bodies covers persons that are entrusted by the management of foreign assets. Sometimes these are in fact not entirely foreign assets because, although the assets are legally owned by the business company, persons acting as statutory organs are mostly partners (shareholders in these companies as well. As such they manage the foreign assets but the company properties were created by their contributions or through the business by themselves. The paper analyses the requirements laid down for the function of managing directors (jednatel in the limited company. Consequently it analyses the scope of the liability of managing directors firstly, in relationship to the company’s creditors (persons standing outside the company and, subsequently, in relationship to the shareholders. It also presents and characterises the recent trends in the Commercial Court’s judgement of the conditions required for the liability for damage and claims for damages put forward by action to recover damages by the managing directors. De lege ferenda the paper recommends that the legal regulation will be amended by provisions limiting the scope of persons to be appointed as executive director and/or extending the liability for damages for the partners of the company in cases where the damage in such cases can not be compensated by the executive director and the partners should bear consequences for their culpa in eligendo.
Full Text Available The purpose of the present study is to establish a relationship between the unpredictability theory and the contractual liability, from both theoretical and practical point of view. Usually, the unpredictability is invoked by way of defense by the debtor, refusing to perform the excessively onerous obligation. However the unpredictability theory shall apply also to the hypothesis of a performed obligation, by way of main action, depending on more factors: the nature of the agreement, investigating the attitude of the party affected by the unpredictability. Observing the conditions and the effects of these two ways of invoking the unpredictability will form the objectives of the present study.The debtor of the excessively onerous, in order to avoid the contractual liability, shall nevertheless perform such obligation, by carrying along some additional costs. If subsequently, the creditor shall refuse to revise the agreement and implicitly, to reimburse the exorbitant costs, the debtor will have to raise the unpredictability by way of action, in order to recover the exorbitant costs in performing the obligation. In such case, the unpredictability is accompanied by another legal issue: the contractual liability of the co-contractor of the party affected by unpredictability.
Tack, Hanne; Valcke, Martin; Rots, Isabel; Struyven, Katrien; Vanderlinde, Ruben
Taking into account the pressing need to understand more about what teacher educators' professional development characterises, this article adopts a mixed method approach to explore Flemish (Dutch-speaking part of Belgium) teacher educators' professional development needs and opportunities. Analysis results of a large-scale survey study with 611…
Compensation for pollution damage caused by spills from oil tankers is governed by an international regime elaborated under the auspices of the International Maritime Organization (I.M.O.). The framework for the regime was originally by the 1969 International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage (1969 Civil liability convention) and the 1971 International Convention on the Establishment of an International Fund for Compensation for Oil Pollution Damage (1971 Fund Convention). This old regime was amended in 1992 by two protocols, and the amended Conventions are known as 1992 Civil Liability Convention and the 1992 Fund Convention. The Civil Liability conventions govern the liability of ship-owners for oil pollution damage. The Conventions lay down the principle of strict liability for ship-owners and create a system of compulsory liability insurance. The ship-owner is normally entitled to limit his liability to an amount which is linked to the tonnage of his ship. The regime of liability and the funds created by the 1971 and 1992 Conventions are analyzed in detail. Are studied as following: the concepts of pollution damage and the safeguard measures or preventive measures, the question of receivability for compensation demands (damage to properties, cleansing operations, costs, economic loss). The question of compensation conditions for the only economic loss and the damage to environment are tackled. This expose is concluded by enlightening the contribution brought by the previously named Conventions to the International law about the civil liability. (N.C.)
Crosby, Neil; Lavers, Anthony; Foster , Henry
This paper is the second of two papers which aim to examine the major legal liability implications of changes to the commercial property loan valuation process caused by the recession in the UK property market and to make recommendations to valuers and their professional institutions to improve the quality of the process and the result. The objectives of this paper are to address a number of the practical implications of changes to the loan valuation process within the context of legal liabil...
An international Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage was adopted in Vienna on 19 May 1963 by a sixty-nation conference convened by the International Atomic Energy Agency. The Convention, which is subject to ratification by the States signing it, will come into force three months after the deposit of the fifth instrument of ratification. The Convention is designee only to establish minimum rules regarding civil liability for nuclear damage; it may thus well be described as a framework convention, the main provisions of which represent the essential common denomination acceptable to as many States as possible. It leaves wide scope for national legislation and regional arrangements with a view to implementing these provisions The Convention does not purport to create a uniform civil law in this field, but it contains the minimal essential for protection of the public and forms the legal basis for uniform world-wide liability rules
The nuclear liability regime was thoroughly reviewed by nuclear plant operators, officials of regulatory authorities, and legal and insurance experts at the Symposium on Nuclear Third Party Liability and Insurance, held in September 1984 in Munich, Federal Republic of Germany. The symposium highlighted specific areas where adjustments or improvements would be needed in order to cope with practical problems encountered or emerging issues. By focusing on questions of legitimate concern to the public, it also sought to promote confidence in a compensation system for public protection that is in many ways unique. Topics addressed included the following: greater harmonization of the compensation amounts for nuclear damage established in different countries and in territorial scope; the concept of unlimited liability; the time limitation for compensation claims; the problem of proving causation; the concept of nuclear damage; and insurance coverage
France and the USA wish to cooperate in order to promote an international regime of civil liability in order to give a fair compensation to victims of nuclear accidents as it is recommended by IAEA. On the other hand the European Commission has launched a consultation to see the necessity or not to harmonize all the civil liability regimes valid throughout Europe. According to the Commission the potential victims of nuclear accidents would not receive equal treatment at the European scale in terms of insurance cover and compensation which might distort competition in the nuclear sector. (A.C.)
Wayne Wells; Gary Yoshimoto
In recent years, businesses in many states have been given the opportunity to select a new form in which to conduct business called the limited liability company. This form provides the advantage of the personal liability protection of a corporation, while being taxed as a partnership. If most states create the limited liability company and current issues of uncertainty are favorably resolved, the limited liability company should become the most advantageous business form for most small and m...
Freeman, Donald; Reynolds, Dudley; Toledo, Will; Abu-Tineh, Abdullah Mohammad Hamdan
This paper argues that understanding what is offered as professional development frames what matters in English language teaching in a national education system. Analyzing these offerings articulates the values and perceptions of the work environment in which teachers live professionally. The "Learning4Teaching" ("L4T") project…
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... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authorized liabilities. 965.2 Section 965.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK LIABILITIES SOURCE OF FUNDS § 965.2 Authorized liabilities. As a source of funds for business operations, each Bank is authorized to...
The Environmental Liability Act (Umwelthaftungsgesetz) enacted January 1, 1991 is claimed to have substantially tightened the environmental liability regime in Germany. The economic consequences of the amendment of the German environmental liability legislation initiated by the Sandoz accident are investigated for a portfolio of firms in the chemical industry. By means of an event study it is determined whether the UmweltHG has led to a revision of expectations regarding the profitability of ...
Lakkala, Suvi; Turunen, Tuija A.; Kangas, Hennariikka; Pulju, Marja; Kuukasjärvi, Ulla; Autti, Hanna
This paper explores ways of enhancing inter-professional skills as part of professional development during university studies. From a socio-psychological viewpoint, inter-professional teamwork can be regarded as an interface between the group and individual levels, where collective commitment, efficiency, shared processes and outcomes, as well as…
Simon, Steffen T; Ramsenthaler, Christina; Bausewein, Claudia; Krischke, Norbert; Geiss, Gerlinde
Self-awareness of one's own reactions towards patients and their relatives is of paramount importance for all professionals in palliative care. 'Core attitude' describes the way in which a person perceives himself and the world, and forms the basis for his actions and thoughts. The aim of this study is to explore what core attitude means for palliative care professionals and whether there is a specific core attitude in palliative care. Qualitative study with 10 face-to-face in-depth interviews with experts in palliative care (nurses, physicians, social workers, psychologists, chaplain) in Germany. Core attitude in palliative care can be best described with the following three domains: 1) personal characteristics; 2) experience of care; and 3) competence in care. Authenticity is the most important characteristic of professionals, along with honesty and mindfulness. Core attitude primarily becomes apparent in the relationship with the patient. Perception and listening are key competences. The experts emphasized the universality of the core attitude in the care of ill people. They stressed the importance and relevance of teaching core attitudes in palliative care education. In the field of palliative care, core attitude consists predominately of authenticity, manifests itself in relationships, and requires a high degree of perceptiveness.
Lidiya Mikhailovna Protopopova
Full Text Available Purpose. The article is devoted to the analysis of professional expectations of students of full-time courses (№ 104 who study in the following directions: choreography, musical art, art and theater. The research was conducted in March-May of 2017 in the city of Yakutsk. The creative youth as socially-demographic, professional group is distinguished by the increased motivation level to creative activity and need of self-realization for art. Professional expectations belong to structure of the vital purposes and plans of the personality, they are defined as a set of ideas of the individual of the professional future, mediated by personal, micro and macrosocial socially-psychological factors. A creativity role for students, factors of the choice of future specialty, satisfaction with process of training and vital prospects are also considered. Method: primary sociological information was received as a result of the conducted structured questionnaire. Results. Young respondents identify their future profession as a way to express themselves, their thoughts and feelings. Respondents note that creative abilities on average at everyone have begun to be shown in the childhood aged from 6–13. It was revealed that the main motives in the choice of specialty and educational institution were realization of students’ abilities and talents, satisfaction of their own interests and knowledge acquisition. After graduating from educational institution 73,0% of students plan to continue work on the specialty in the sphere of culture and art. It was defined that for respondents of young residents of Yakutsk vital values were an opportunity to realize the talent, successful professional activity and family happiness. It was established that the most of respondents had positive professional expectations in relation to the received specialty, they hoped to self-actualize in the future creative profession. The creative youth of Yakutia considers the profession
Stern, Ralph D.
The emphasis of this chapter is on the tort liability of principals, especially their commission of unintentional torts or torts resulting from negligent conduct. A tort is defined as a wrongful act, not including a breach of contract or trust, which results in injury to another's person, property, or reputation and for which the injured party is…
Rieder, Robert W.; Woodruff, William B., Jr.
Analyzes sports injury claims against colleges and universities in recent years to help administrators better understand and minimize liability risks for certain curricular and cocurricular activities. Reviews court cases in areas of duty of care and negligence and proximate cause, and discusses defenses. (Author/NB)
Oprescu, Florin; McAllister, Margaret; Duncan, David; Jones, Christian
Because there is a global shortage of nurse educators, highly productive and committed nurse educators are needed to supply a rapidly expanding and changing health landscape. To support the aforementioned effort professional development needs of nurse educators must be systematically identified. This study explores practical issues around professional development needs of nurse educators. One hundred and thirty eight Australian nurse educators based in Queensland answered an online survey around professional development needs. Results indicate that 83% (n = 115) of the respondents were enthusiastic about nurse education yet only 45% (n = 62) were confident in their skills and less than 10% (n = 13) saw themselves as expert nurse educators. The most desired areas of future development in teaching were information technology skills, assessment and technical knowledge. There seems to be a shared need for developing global online and offline support resources and communities of practice to support nurse educators in their teaching and research endeavours. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Eduardo Salvador Vila Merino
Full Text Available With this article we investigate through a narrative inquiry into the links between parenting, and life experience, education and professional practice. The study involved 24 collaborators, whose status as parents and educators has allowed us to biographical approach to the links between the two facets of their lives. In the studywe have assumed a unique perspective and opinion of the experience of parenthood, read in conjunction withmale socialization processes, and embedded in professional development of each employee. The work resulted in each case the collection and analysis of data through personal accounts, with the approach we were looking for new ways to address parenting and its influence on educational craft itself. In this article, apart from general considerations derived from the analysis of the 24 stories, 4 cases recovered from their singularities to try to show each employee’s subjective sense and understanding of social and relational scenarios in which these subjectivities are going setting, here by trying to expand personal conceptions, political and social justice is the education profession, placed in relation to male gender identity. Fromthe analysis of the stories related conclusions emerge formative potential of narrative, the implications of parenthood in personal and professional life and your relationships, look changes that have occurred from there and the importance of reflecting on these issues from alternative male models to the hegemonic.We finished the job pointing out possible future research and action in the light of the stories.
Arango Aramburo, Marcela; Olaya, Yris
Mining environmental liabilities (PAM from its acronym in Spanish) are areas where there is a need for restoration, mitigation or compensation for environmental damage or unmanaged impact, produced by inactive or abandoned mining that threatens health, quality of life or public or private property. In Colombia the environmental liabilities from mining have not been regulated, but given the age and the prevalence of informality in mining, there is increasing interest in defining, regulating and managing these obligations. In this paper we approach the problem of valuing mining environmental liabilities by examining different management approaches for such liabilities around the world. We also identify key information requirements to manage mining environmental liabilities in Colombia.
Hamidah Abdul Rahman
Full Text Available There have been many studies conducted to determine variables that affect professional contentment. Some of these studies hav e looked at factors such as organizational involvement and commitment to organi zations. Several of these studies found that a larger percentage of unemploye d and employed personnel expressed dissatisfaction with their work commitmen t. The implications of those studies suggested that unemployed could reflect und erlying adjustment disorders which have an impact on someone’s potential for suc cessful employment. However, for those who are contented with their per formance, in the long run these workers would have a higher gratification. Th ey would give more attention on the quality of their work, more committed to the organization, have a higher retention rates, and would be more productive. Refl ecting on these findings and how severe this issue may render, this study is con ducted to identify the level of professional satisfaction of the academic staffs in a research university in the southern part of Malaysia. This paper will present the findings of the study which aimed to determine the level of satisfaction based on factors such as pay, promotion, supervision, fringe benefit, contingent eward, operating condition, coworkers, nature of work and communication
Current legislation, namely Law no. 95/2006 on healthcare reform in the medical malpractice domain stipulates that medical staff can be held accountable in the following forms: disciplinary liability, administrative liability, civil liability and criminal liability. Each form of legal liability presents its features, aspects that are found mainly in the procedural rules. However, the differences between the various legal forms of liability are not met only in the procedural rules but also in their effects and consequences. It is necessary to know what the procedure for disciplinary responsibility, administrative liability, civil liability, or criminal liability is. In addition to the differentiation determined by the consequences that may arise from the different forms of legal liability, it is important to know the competent authorities to investigate a case further and the solutions which various public institutions can take regarding the medical staff. Depending on the type of legal liability, authorities have a specialized authority. If the Disciplinary Committee is encountered at the College of Physicians, it may not intervene in cases before the monitoring and competence for malpractice cases Committee. The latter two committees cannot intervene directly in the legal assessment of civil or criminal cases, as no criminal investigation authorities cannot intervene in strictly civilian cases. Therefore, the importance of knowing the competent institutions is imperative.
Del Olmo-Romero, Francisco; González-Blanco, María; Sarró, Salvador; Grácio, Jaime; Martín-Carrasco, Manuel; Martinez-Cabezón, Ana C; Perna, Giampaolo; Pomarol-Clotet, Edith; Varandas, Pedro; Ballesteros-Rodríguez, Javier; Rebolleda-Gil, Carlos; Vanni, Giovanna; González-Fraile, Eduardo
Research shows that personnel working in mental health facilities may share some of the societal prejudices towards mental illness. This might result in stigmatizing behaviours towards people suffering from mental disorders, undermining the quality of their care. To describe and compare attitudes towards mental illness across a sample of professionals working in a wide range of mental health facilities in Spain, Portugal and Italy. We administered a survey to personnel including two questionnaires related to stigmatizing attitudes: The Community Attitudes toward the Mentally Ill (CAMI) and the Attribution Questionnaire (AQ-27). Data were compared according to professional category, work setting and country. 34.06% (1525) professionals of the surveyed population responded adequately. Psychologists and social therapists had the most positive attitudes, and nursing assistants the most negative, on most factors of CAMI and AQ-27. Community staff had more positive attitudes than hospital-based professionals in most factors on CAMI and in discriminatory responses on AQ-27. Globally, mental health professionals showed a positive attitude towards mental illness, but also a relative support to coercive treatments. There are differences in attitudes modulated by professional category and setting. Results can guide preventive strategies, particularly for the hospital-based and nursing staff.
Full Text Available The traditional concepts of water resource development and utilization have caused serious hydrological and environmental issues in some regions. In addition, policy issues in China have led to a severe water crisis. The quantitative accounting of water resources is a theoretical approach to solving these problems. In this paper, 13 indicators were selected from four classes, including resources, the environment, society, and efficiency, and a case study of Jinan, Shandong Province, was performed using a set pair analysis model to calculate the water resource assets from 2011–2015. In previous methods of water resource accounting, the water quality was not considered; therefore, the loss coefficient of water resource assets was proposed to improve the reliability of accounting. According to the relationships among the unit price of water, water quantity, and water quality, physical and quantitative accounting methods were used to create water balance sheets from 2011–2015. The calculation results showed that the physical change in water resource assets in Jinan City was −30 million m 3 , and water resource assets initially increased and then decreased. In 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, and 2015, water resource assets totalled 36.5 million USD, 45.9 million USD, 66.7 million USD, 35.5 million USD, and 37.5 million USD, respectively (at 6.4588, 6.3125, 6.1932, 6.2166, 6.2284 USRMB, respectively. This initial accounting provides quantitative and physical support for the improved management of water resources.
Barry, Arden R; Pearson, Glen J
A recent trend among health care professionals is the use of social media for professional purposes. These rapidly expanding media allow for timely and efficient access to health information, but they also carry the potential for increased liability. There is a paucity of research detailing how health care professionals, specifically pharmacists, use social media. To characterize the use of social media by pharmacists in the Canadian province of Alberta and to identify independent determinants of and perceived barriers to using social media for professional purposes. Data for this mixed-methods study were collected by an online survey in March and April 2014. Alberta pharmacists were invited to participate via e-mail distributed by 2 professional organizations. The survey had 273 respondents. Of these, 226 (82.8%) stated that they had a social media account for either personal or professional purposes, and 138 (61.1%) of these reported using social media for professional purposes, although most respondents used social media predominantly for personal reasons. The most commonly reported social media applications were Facebook and Twitter, accessed primarily via smartphones. Of the 273 respondents, 206 (75.5%) had a Facebook account, and 101 (49.0%) of these used Facebook to some extent for professional purposes. Twitter users (104 [38.1%] of respondents) had a higher rate of professional utilization (57/104 [54.8%]). The most commonly identified barrier to using social media for professional purposes was concern over liability. Positive predictors of use of social media for professional purposes included younger age and fewer years of professional experience. Participants perceived the most beneficial aspect of social media (in professional terms) as connecting with pharmacist colleagues. More than 80% of pharmacists in Alberta reported that they had a social media account, and over half of them reported using their accounts for professional purposes. Although
The liability of operators of nuclear installations in the FRG is limited under current law to the sum of one thousand million DM (section 31 of the Atomic Energy law). Since about the autumn of 1979, the Federal Ministry of the Interior is making inquiries into the necessity and appropriateness of abandoning the provision on liability limitations, in order to improve the victims compensation. The legal problems involved in this decision are presented by the author, trying to answer the question of whether the current system of liability limitations should be maintained or abandoned by discussing this issue from the point of view of the legal functions ''justice'' and ''expedience'' of this provision. The manifold international interlacement of the atomic energy law does not allow this study to be restricted to the law of the FRG. A brief review of the development and current state of the international nuclear liability law is the basis of this study into the problems of a possible modification of the German nuclear liability provisions. The study is carried out with the purpose of elaborating model solutions. (orig./HP) [de
Nelson, Leonard J; Morrisey, Michael A; Becker, David J
We examine the impact of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) on medical liability and the controversy over whether federal medical reform including a damages cap could make a useful contribution to health care reform. By providing guaranteed access to health care insurance at community rates, the ACA could reduce the problem of under-compensation resulting from damages caps. However, it may also exacerbate the problem of under-claiming in the malpractice system, thereby reducing incentives to invest in loss prevention activities. Shifting losses from liability insurers to health insurers could further undermine the already weak deterrent effect of the medical liability system. Republicans in Congress and physician groups both pushed for the adoption of a federal damages cap as part of health care reform. Physician support for damages caps could be explained by concerns about the insurance cycle and the consequent instability of the market. Our own study presented here suggests that there is greater insurance market stability in states with caps on non-economic damages. Republicans in Congress argued that the enactment of damages caps would reduce aggregate health care costs. The Congressional Budget Office included savings from reduced health care utilization in its estimates of cost savings that would result from the enactment of a federal damages cap. But notwithstanding recent opinions offered by the CBO, it is not clear that caps will significantly reduce health care costs or that any savings will be passed on to consumers. The ACA included funding for state level demonstration projects for promising reforms such as offer and disclosure and health courts, but at this time the benefits of these reforms are also uncertain. There is a need for further studies on these issues.
Purpose: This study aims to assess the level of job satisfaction among the practicing Library and Information Science (LIS) professionals in India. Some of the key variables studied include salary, work environment, professional position, working hours, location, employee participation in administrative matters, recognition, and advancement. Scope: The study is limited to LIS professionals in India; however, the results of the study show some degree of commonality among LIS professionals acro...
Choi, Jong Hak; Kim, Chang Kyun; Kim, Won Chul; Kim, Seung Chul
This study explored several agenda related to license system, education, professional work of radiological technologists (RTs) and a transition process of law for them to investigate a developmental strategy of RTs as a professional career. The results are as followings: 1. The national license system for RTs was started from 1965, 1965-1972 x-ray technicians (medical assistance), 1973-present (2006) radiotechnologist (medical technologist) since then. 2. The average pass ratio of national license examination (1965-2006) for RTs was 46.6%. The method, subjects and level of the examination should be improved. 3. The education term for RTs has been changed since 1963; 1963-1990 two year college. 1991-1999 three year college, 2000-2006 four year and three year college depending on universities and colleges. As of 2006, there are twelve 4-year universities and eighteen 3-year colleges. The total number of new students were 1,965. 4. The new developmental paradigm should be made for technology education of RTs corresponding to the development of medicine and science. 5. The qualification system of clinical specialists in radio-technology field needs to be operated not by the non-governmental body (The-Korean Radiological Technologists Association) but by the governmental body. 6. The vertical relationship among RTs, doctors and other medical workers should be rebuilt through the revision of law. Especially, doctors and dentists 'guidance authority' for RTs should be changed to 'request authority'. 7. The service extent of RTs should be extended in medical fields corresponding to professional work of RTs and a revision of the law needed for this situation
Araujo, C; Siqueira, M
Healthcare professionals have a crucial role in organ donation and transplantation processes. Their attitude toward organ donation can affect public opinion and the donation decision made by deceased donors' relatives. The objectives of the study were to analyze the attitude of medical and nursing personnel toward deceased organ donation in two hospitals in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and the factors that can affect this attitude. A random sample (n = 162) was selected from the population of nurses and physicians in the hospitals analyzed. The sample was stratified by age, sex, marital status, religion, professional category, and educational level. A validated questionnaire addressing psychosocial aspects of organ donation was used to evaluate attitudes. The χ 2 and Mann-Whitney U tests were applied for statistical analysis. Of personnel surveyed, 86.4% (n = 140) were in favor of deceased organ donation, whereas 11.1% (n = 18) were not sure and 2.5% (n = 4) were against. The favorable attitude was related to the following aspects: (1) educational level, (2) having spoken with family members about organ donation, (3) having a chronic disease, (4) favorable attitude of one's family, (5) belief that organ donation can save lives, (6) concerns about body manipulation, illegal trade of organs, and organ donation being against God's will, (7) feeling proud of working with organ donation/transplantation, (8) self-assessment of experience and knowledge in organ donation/transplantation activities (P organ donation is well accepted among the healthcare professionals surveyed, and the attitude is affected by socio-personal variables. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Morton, James P; Robertson, Colin; Sutton, Laura; MacLaren, Don P M
Professional boxing is a combat sport categorized into a series of weight classes. Given the sport's underpinning culture, boxers' typical approach to "making weight" is usually via severe acute and/or chronic energy restriction and dehydration. Such practices have implications for physical performance and also carry health risks. This article provides a case-study account outlining a more structured and gradual approach to helping a professional male boxer make weight for the 59-kg superfeatherweight division. Over a 12-week period, the client athlete adhered to a daily diet approximately equivalent to his resting metabolic rate (6-7 MJ; 40% carbohydrate, 38% protein, 22% fat). Average body-mass loss was 0.9 + or - 0.4 kg/wk, equating to a total loss of 9.4 kg. This weight loss resulted in a decrease in percent body fat from 12.1% to 7.0%. In the 30 hr between weigh-in and competition, the client consumed a high-carbohydrate diet (12 g/kg body mass) supported by appropriate hydration strategies and subsequently entered the ring at a fighting weight of 63.2 kg. This nutritional strategy represented a major change in the client's habitual weight-making practices and did not rely on any form of intended dehydration during the training period or before weighing in. The intervention demonstrates that a more gradual approach to making weight in professional boxing can be successfully achieved via a combination of restricted energy intake and increased energy expenditure, providing there is willingness on the part of the athlete and coaches involved to adopt novel practices.
Faria, N.M. de; Cruz, A.S.C. da
Topics are treated with reference to articles of the Law 6.453 of october 17, 1977, relating to the nuclear penal liability. At the same time, the Penal Code disposes on illicits which may involve nuclear activity. With regard to the Jurisdiction, mention is made to the Federal Justice competence, due to the constitutional disposal. On the international field, the Convention on Physic Protection on Nuclear Material Transport disposes on illicit fact in which nuclear material may be involved. (Author) [pt
Laurent Franckx; F.P. de Vries
This paper presents a multitask principal-agent model to examine how environmental liability rules for individual managers within a corporate hierarchy affect, on the one hand, the incentive schemes the organization provides and, on the other hand, the choice between a functional or a product-based organizational structure. If managers are risk neutral, a product-based organization dominates a functional organization and allows to obtain first-best effort level. If, moreover, there are no dis...
Mastroianni, Fabio C; Noto, Ana Regina
Drugs are a frequent subject in the news media. Despite the existence of an important dynamic interplay between the print media, public opinion, and public policies, studies on these relationships are still scarce regarding the drug issue. The objective of this study is to understand the newsmaking process regarding drugs from the vantage point of Brazilian journalism professionals. Using qualitative research, semistructured interviews were conducted among an intentional sample of 22 professionals who write news stories and articles about drugs in nationwide news media. Interviewees mentioned illegality and crime as the main factors leading to the production of stories and articles. They claimed that by instilling fear among readers, newspapers and magazines tend to increase their audiences and/or sales. Most interviewees considered the coverage of drugs in Brazil as weak. Main problems reported include lack of knowledge on the subject, and not enough time to prepare the stories. It was concluded that the newsmaking process regarding drugs undergoes a series of interferences that compromise the content of the stories, therefore social strategies are needed in order to improve the quality of the material published in Brazil.
Gârbo Viorica Irina
Full Text Available Malpractice insurance of medical staff is probably the oldest professional liability insurance underwritten in the insurance market in Romania. The aim of our research is to theoretically examine in a qualitative inquiry the usefulness of insurance completion by the practitioners from the Romanian health system at both state and private, in order to improve a best practice medical insurance. The medical profession is practiced in Romania under the Code of Medical Ethics 30 March 2012 prepared in code that complies with international standards contained in the Geneva Declaration of 1948, as amended by the World Medical Association and the International Code of Medical Ethics. The forms of medical liability are: disciplinary, administrative, civil and criminal and only the civil liability can be taken into insurance because only it meets the conditions of insurability. Once we explain in general and the insurance liability in particular we show articles of the Romanian Civil Code which establishes the obligation the one that caused an injury to a third person for the repair or indemnify and conditions provided by the Civil Code as an act to be considered liability. Then we refer to situations where the patient may be damaged through the fault of the doctor or the doctor unit operates. The object of malpractice insurance is loss of money that the insured would have to pay a patient whom he caused injury as a result of acts or deeds of negligence committed to, during and in relation to professional activity. Risks taken in the insurance are personal injury, illness or death of the patient and / or moral damages. Regarding the excluded risks we have presented an overview of the more common contracts underwritten by Romanian insurance companies. We show the way of underwriting, the insured sums of the standard insurance and the additional one which subscribes moral damages, to companies in Romania agreed by bodies which organize and supervise the
Водопьянова, Наталия Е; Чикер, Вера А; Потявина, Валерия В
In the article, the issues concerning hope, which is one of the most important resources for specialists of many nurturant professions, are observed. The theoretical analysis of hope and its categorization from the perspective of subjective and resource-based view is given. The special scientific and practical interest to human subjective and personal resources is determined by their unique role not only in human life support, but also in overcoming hard situations and extreme obstacles, including crisis situations in professional activity, with the example of the profession of a doctor. The aim of the empirical research is studying the correlation between hope and such manifestations of subjective regulations medical practice as inner subjective control and failure avoidance motivation. 120 doctors (60 men and 60 women) working in St. Petersburg hospitals took part in the research. Several research methods were used, such as 'Resource map' application form, R. Snyder's hope scale adapted by K. Muzdybayev, 'Subjective control level' method by E. Bazhin, E. Golynkina and L. Etkind, 'Failure avoidance motivation' method by T. Ehlers. Doctors think that Hope and Optimism are among important components of their professional practice, together with willing features helping them to reach their goals (such as persistence, patience, eagerness, insistence and endurance) and such personal qualities as self-assuredness, motion control in different situations, ability to solve hard problems. According the data of correlation and regression analyses, the anticipation that hope is determined by high level of inner control locus and low failure avoidance motivation (responsibility for patients' lives) within medical practice. Most doctors have average or high level of hope, which lets determine this personal disposition quality as one of the important ones for this profession. Being the positive result of professional practice and not depending on the doctors' sex and
liabilities and liaison. The patient related subthemes included: eagerness of the patients and lack of understanding and misconception. The system-related factors included: patients with special needs, perceived role of the pharmacist, prescription and medicines, and staff workload.Healthcare professional related, patient related and system related factors have a significant influence on patients' knowledge about dispensed medicines. The non-professional behaviour of doctors, increased staff workload, inadequate time and attention provided by healthcare professionals to patients, illiteracy of patients, lack of specialized labelling on medicines for illiterate patients and absence of pharmacists at the hospital, were the major concerns identified in this study. The study points to a need for appropriate patient education and counselling with regards medicines, improved coordination between hospital staff, and provision of some basic system-related facilities which are pivotal for enhancing patients' knowledge and adherence to their treatment regimens.
van Heugten, Petra; Heijne-Penninga, Marjolein; Paans, Wolter; Wolfensberger, Marca
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the characteristics of talent in relation to international business to facilitate selection and development of talent in human resources (HR) and human resource development (HRD). Design/methodology/approach: A mixed method design was used: focus groups with business professionals to identify the…
Following a review of the legal principles governing nuclear third party liability which are applied in most countries, this paper discusses certain reforms to this regime which have already been applied or are being studied in certain countries - namely the fixing of an unlimited amount of liability for nuclear damage. (NEA) [fr
Full Text Available In the actual study, starting from the international experience, we revealed the role that should be taken by the Assets and Liabilities Committee (ALCO within the Romanian commercial banks. ALCO became one of the tools used by the executive management of the banks to take decisions regarding the future policy of assets and liabilities management, relying on the synthetic information prepared by well trained technicians but without voting right (usually middle management staff. We consider that the implementation of an assets and liabilities management strategy cannot be done without an appropriate corporate governance structure, even though the bank is having highly specialized staff. Models of some western banking institutions may be considered as benchmarks by the Romanian banks.
Full Text Available Abstract In July 2009, a group of over 80 FSL teachers from British Columbia (BC participated in a two-week sojourn at the Centre d’Approches vivantes des Langues et des Médias (CAVILAM in Vichy, France, as part of an initiative to address the critical shortage of qualified French language teachers in the province. After almost four decades of study abroad (SA research, the literature offers little insight into teachers’ professional development abroad. The following article attempts to situate the recent sojourn of the BC teachers within the field by presenting an overview of some of the major research trends of SA research as well as summarizing how teachers have been acknowledged in the literature to date. A description of the program at CAVILAM and the current research study is presented to highlight some of the emerging opportunities for future research on teacher education within a SA context.
Full Text Available In July 2009, a group of over 80 FSL teachers from British Columbia (BC participated in a two-week sojourn at the Centre d’Approches vivantes des Langues et des Médias (CAVILAM in Vichy, France, as part of an initiative to address the critical shortage of qualified French language teachers in the province. After almost four decades of study abroad (SA research, the literature offers little insight into teachers’ professional development abroad. The following article attempts to situate the recent sojourn of the BC teachers within the field by presenting an overview of some of the major research trends of SA research as well as summarizing how teachers have been acknowledged in the literature to date. A description of the program at CAVILAM and the current research study is presented to highlight some of the emerging opportunities for future research on teacher education within a SA context.
van der Fluit, M.E.
Professionals and ‘the sweet spot of conflict’. An ethnographic study of pilots. Conflict is a common phenomenon in professional organizations and often results in a power struggle. The objective of this study is to explore how professionals reach the ‘sweet spot of conflict’. When present,
Chan, I Y S; Leung, M Y; Liu, A M M
Due to its direct impact on the safety and function of organizations, occupational health has been a concern of the construction industry for many years. The inherent complexity of occupational health management presents challenges that make a systems approach essential. From a systems perspective, health is conceptualized as an emergent property of a system in which processes operating at the individual and organizational level are inextricably connected. Based on the fundamental behavior-to-performance-to-outcome (B-P-O) theory of industrial/organizational psychology, this study presents the development of an I-CB-HP-O (Input-Coping Behaviors-Health Performance-Outcomes) health management systems model spanning individual and organizational boundaries. The model is based on a survey of Hong Kong expatriate construction professionals working in Mainland China. Such professionals tend to be under considerable stress due not only to an adverse work environment with dynamic tasks, but also the need to confront the cross-cultural issues arising from expatriation. A questionnaire was designed based on 6 focus groups involving 44 participants, and followed by a pilot study. Of the 500 questionnaires distributed in the main study, 137 valid returns were received, giving a response rate of 27.4%. The data were analyzed using statistical techniques such as factor analysis, reliability testing, Pearson correlation analysis, multiple regression modeling, and structural equation modeling. Theories of coping behaviors and health performance tend to focus on the isolated causal effects of single factors and/or posits the model at single, individual level; while industrial practices on health management tend to focus on organizational policy and training. By developing the I-CB-HP-O health management system, incorporating individual, interpersonal, and organizational perspectives, this study bridges the gap between theory and practice while providing empirical support for a
Brian V Nahed
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Concern over rising healthcare expenditures has led to increased scrutiny of medical practices. As medical liability and malpractice risk rise to crisis levels, the medical-legal environment has contributed to the practice of defensive medicine as practitioners attempt to mitigate liability risk. High-risk specialties, such as neurosurgery, are particularly affected and neurosurgeons have altered their practices to lessen medical-legal risk. We present the first national survey of American neurosurgeons' perceptions of malpractice liability and defensive medicine practices. METHODS: A validated, 51-question online-survey was sent to 3344 practicing U.S. neurosurgeon members of the American Association of Neurological Surgeons, which represents 76% of neurosurgeons in academic and private practices. RESULTS: A total of 1028 surveys were completed (31% response rate by neurosurgeons representing diverse sub-specialty practices. Respondents engaged in defensive medicine practices by ordering additional imaging studies (72%, laboratory tests (67%, referring patients to consultants (66%, or prescribing medications (40%. Malpractice premiums were considered a "major or extreme" burden by 64% of respondents which resulted in 45% of respondents eliminating high-risk procedures from their practice due to liability concerns. CONCLUSIONS: Concerns and perceptions about medical liability lead practitioners to practice defensive medicine. As a result, diagnostic testing, consultations and imaging studies are ordered to satisfy a perceived legal risk, resulting in higher healthcare expenditures. To minimize malpractice risk, some neurosurgeons have eliminated high-risk procedures. Left unchecked, concerns over medical liability will further defensive medicine practices, limit patient access to care, and increase the cost of healthcare delivery in the United States.
Nahed, Brian V; Babu, Maya A; Smith, Timothy R; Heary, Robert F
Concern over rising healthcare expenditures has led to increased scrutiny of medical practices. As medical liability and malpractice risk rise to crisis levels, the medical-legal environment has contributed to the practice of defensive medicine as practitioners attempt to mitigate liability risk. High-risk specialties, such as neurosurgery, are particularly affected and neurosurgeons have altered their practices to lessen medical-legal risk. We present the first national survey of American neurosurgeons' perceptions of malpractice liability and defensive medicine practices. A validated, 51-question online-survey was sent to 3344 practicing U.S. neurosurgeon members of the American Association of Neurological Surgeons, which represents 76% of neurosurgeons in academic and private practices. A total of 1028 surveys were completed (31% response rate) by neurosurgeons representing diverse sub-specialty practices. Respondents engaged in defensive medicine practices by ordering additional imaging studies (72%), laboratory tests (67%), referring patients to consultants (66%), or prescribing medications (40%). Malpractice premiums were considered a "major or extreme" burden by 64% of respondents which resulted in 45% of respondents eliminating high-risk procedures from their practice due to liability concerns. Concerns and perceptions about medical liability lead practitioners to practice defensive medicine. As a result, diagnostic testing, consultations and imaging studies are ordered to satisfy a perceived legal risk, resulting in higher healthcare expenditures. To minimize malpractice risk, some neurosurgeons have eliminated high-risk procedures. Left unchecked, concerns over medical liability will further defensive medicine practices, limit patient access to care, and increase the cost of healthcare delivery in the United States.
Several U.S. states have attempted to use of legal liability imposed on greenhouse gas emitters as a public policy instrument for climate change. This brief comment considers the desirability of this approach, focusing on three possible roles for climate change liability: as a source of compensation, as a direct influence on greenhouse gas concentrations, and as a means to facilitate the adoption of ex ante public policies to control greenhouse gases. The strongest argument for liability may ...
García Parra, Mercedes; Simó Guzmán, Pep; Sallán Leyes, José María; Mundet Hiern, Joan
Purpose – Most models of intellectual capital measurment equal intellectual capital with intellectual assets. Nevertheless, companies sometimes must incur liabilities to make intellectual assets truly actionable. This fact suggests the existence of intangible liabilities. The aim of this paper is to refine the methods of assessment of intellectual capital by refining and extending the concept of intangible liabilities. Design/methodology/approach – The paper consists of a literature revi...
This report focuses on international law related to cybercrime, international information security standards, and software liability issues as they relate to information security for critical infrastructure applications...
This article discusses the questioning of a fundamental principle of the special nuclear third party liability regime by certain NEA countries: the limitation of the nuclear operator's liability. This regime, set up since the late fifties at European then at worldwide level, had until now been widely adopted in the national legislation of most of the countries with a nuclear power programme. The author analyses the different arguments in favour of restoring unlimited liability for the nuclear operator and attempts to define its implications for the future of the nuclear third party liability regime in NEA countries. (NEA) [fr
This paper describes the system governing liability for nuclear incidents in Poland. The Atomic Energy Act of 10 April 1986, which entered into force on 1 July 1986, covers all aspects of nuclear activities, including third party liability. Such liability is channelled onto the nuclear operator who must take out insurance to cover his liability up to an amount fixed in the contract. The Act provides that questions not settled by its provisions are governed by the Civil Code; therefore, if personal injuries exceed that amount victims may claim the difference from the State under that Code (NEA) [fr
This Research Commentary addresses the need for standards for describing mathematics professional development in mathematics education research reports. Considering that mathematics professional development is an emerging research field, it is timely to set expectations for what constitutes high-quality reporting in this field. (Contains 2 tables.)
Kilimnik, Zelia Miranda; de Oliveira, Luiz Claudio Vieira; Sant'anna, Anderson De Souza; Barros, Delba Teixeira Rodrigues
This article analyses career anchors changes associated to images and professionals trajectories. Its main question: Do anchors careers change through time? We conducted twelve interviews involving professionals from the Administration Area, applying Schein's Career Anchors Inventory (1993). We did the same two years later. In both of them, the…
Noble, Anna; McQuillan, Patrick; Littenberg-Tobias, Josh
Growing numbers of educators are using social media platforms to connect with other educators to form professional learning networks. These networks serve as alternative sources of professional development for teachers who seek to enrich their professional growth beyond school-based programs. This study aims to add to the small but growing body of…
Regan, Julie-Anne; Dollard, Emma; Banks, Nicci
This study examined the perceptions of professional staff on their contribution to student outcomes. An online Delphi survey method was used to collect data from two expert panels: professional staff based in faculties and professional staff based in central university departments. The aim of this method is for the panels to reach consensus. The…
Faure, M.; Govaerts, P.; Malbrain, C.; Veuchelen, L.; Spriet, B.
Results of a cooperative research project on the juridical aspects of nuclear risk (criminal, civil and administrative aspects), according to the Belgian and Dutch laws, are presented. In this multi-disciplinary project also attention is paid to the economic impacts and positive-scientific aspects of the nuclear risk regarding radioactive waste problems and nuclear accidents. The liability for and the decision-making regarding the site selection of nuclear power plants is dealt with as well. 9 figs., 23 tabs., 198 refs
Tostes, Marcelo Mallat
This thesis aims the establishment of conceptual bases for the development of Environmental Liability Management System - instruments designed to provide financial and managerial coverage to financial liabilities arising from activities that impact the environment. The document analyses the theories that link the evolution of economic thought and environment, as a means of establish the necessary framework for the development of up-to-date environmental policy instruments. From these concepts and from the analysis of environmental liability system being implemented in several countries, the bases for environmental liability systems development are drawn. Finally, a study is carried out on the application of these bases for the development of an environmental liability management system for a radioactive waste repository. (author)
Full Text Available This paper studies the optimal time consistent investment strategies in multiperiod asset-liability management problems under mean-variance criterion. By applying time consistent model of Chen et al. (2013 and employing dynamic programming technique, we derive two-time consistent policies for asset-liability management problems in a market with and without a riskless asset, respectively. We show that the presence of liability does affect the optimal strategy. More specifically, liability leads a parallel shift of optimal time-consistent investment policy. Moreover, for an arbitrarily risk averse investor (under the variance criterion with liability, the time-diversification effects could be ignored in a market with a riskless asset; however, it should be considered in a market without any riskless asset.
The problem of the liability in border-crossing damage caused by a nuclear-reactor accident is divided into two different areas: the liability according to international law of the state, and liability according to civil right of the licensee of a nuclear power plant. In this study attention is paid to the question of the liability according to civil right: is it possible that an aggrieved obtains compensation for damage? This is investigated on the basis of three standard questions of international private law: which judge is qualified, which law is to be applied, and is acknowledgement and execution of foreign sentences possible? First a historical survey is given of international agreements and national legislations regarding third-party liability. (author). 112 refs
Full Text Available The purpose of the present investigation was to analyse interviews of highly regarded Finnish magicians. Social network analysis (N=120 was used to identify Finland’s most highly regarded magicians (N=16. The selected participants’ careers in professional magic and various aspects of their professional conduct were examined by relying on semi-structured interviews. The results revealed that cultivation of professional level competence in magic usually requires an extensive period of time compared with other domains of expertise. Magic is a unique performing art and it differs from other professions focusing on deceiving the audience. A distinctive feature of magical expertise is that the process takes place entirely through informal training supported by communities of magical practitioners. Three interrelated aspects of magical activity were distinguished: magic tricks, performance, and audience. Although magic tricks constitute a central aspect of magic activity, the participants did not talk about their tricks extensively; this is in accordance with the secretive nature of magic culture.The interviews revealed that a core aspect of the magicians’ activity is performance in front of an audience that repeatedly validates competence cultivated through years of practice. The interviewees reported investing a great deal of effort in planning, orchestrating, and reflecting on their performances. Close interaction with the audience plays an important role in most interviewees’ activity. Many participants put a great deal of effort in developing novel magic tricks. It is common to borrow magic effects from fellow magicians and develop novel methods of implementation. Because magic tricks or programs are not copyrighted, many interviewees considered stealing an unacceptable and unethical aspect of magical activity. The interviewees highlighted the importance of personality and charisma in the successful pursuit of magic activity.
Eaton Kenneth A
Full Text Available Abstract Background New graduates in the UK presently spend one year in training as Vocational Dental Practitioners (VDPs in preparation for primary dental care. There is a growing recognition that the emerging workforce has very different professional expectations to those of earlier generations, with implications for the profession, patients and the performance of health systems. The objectives of this study were to investigate why VDPs' in England and Wales perceive they chose dentistry as a professional career; how they perceive their vision has changed and the implications for their professional career plans, both short- and longterm. Methods Purposive sampling of schemes was undertaken to include urban, rural and metropolitan schemes, schemes in areas with and without dental schools and geographic coverage across England and Wales. All VDPs in these schemes were initiated to participate in this qualitative study using focus groups. A topic guide was utilised to standardise data collection. Informants' views were recorded on tape and in field notes. Data were transcribed and analysed using Framework Methodology. Results A total of 99 VDPs participated in the 10 focus groups. Their choice of dentistry as a professional career was motivated by multiple categories of influence: 'academic', 'healthcare', 'lifestyle', the influence of 'family', 'friends', 'careers advice' and 'work experience'. Consideration of the features of the 'professional job' appears to have been key to their choice of dentistry and the 'active rejection of medicine' as an alternative career. Entry into the profession was proving a challenging process for some but not all VDPs. Informants perceived that their vision had been moderated as a result of 'personal student debt', 'national workforce initiatives', 'limitations on clinical practice' and the 'cost of additional training'. Short term goals focused around 'recovery from the past' and 'preparation for the future
Roberto Carvalho Veloso
Full Text Available Obstetric violence is characterized by the imposition of interventions harmful to the physical and psychological integrity of pregnant women, perpetrated by health professionals and institutions (public and private in which such women are assisted. This paper aims to discuss the civil and criminal liability in cases of obstetric violence, from the judgments of the Supreme Court (STF, Superior Court of Justice (STJ and the Courts of Justice (TJs of the Rio Grande do Sul State and Minas Gerais, in order to identify the nature of the punishment and characterization of obstetric violence.
Full Text Available International Financial Reporting Standards together with Public Sector Accounting Standards are based on professional reasoning by appealing to principles that can lead to several solutions for a certain problem. In this respect Romanian economic mechanisms have a high level of rigidity in the implementation of accounting concepts and principles so that it is important to highlight the aspects that generate added value in the current economic climate. Even since 2005 the harmonization of Romanian accounting with the directives of International Accounting Standards, which came to support the harmonization of rules and principles concerning the development of annual financial statements of public institutions, is the most important and essential challenge for administrative environment. Assets and contingent liabilities are elements which in terms of the law cannot be included in the assets of a public institution that is why accounting of these elements must be performed using special off-balance sheet accounts. The purpose of this work emphasizes the opportunity and the recognition of economic events whose elements should be reflected in balance sheet, but also the appropriate and necessary moment of making entries over special accounts off the balance sheet in accordance with IPSAS 19.
The signature on 12 February 2004 of the Protocols amending respectively the 1960 Paris Convention and the 1963 Brussels Supplementary Convention was the second step of the process of modernisation of the international nuclear liability regime after the adoption in September 1997 of a Protocol revising the 1963 Vienna Convention and of a new Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage. The common objective of the new instruments is to provide more funds to compensate a larger number of potential victims in respect of a broader range of damage. Another goal of the revision exercise was to maintain the compatibility between the Paris and Vienna based systems, a commitment enshrined in the 1988 Joint Protocol, as well as to ascertain that Paris/Brussels countries could also become a Party to the Convention on Supplementary Compensation. However, while generally consistent vis a vis the Joint Protocol, the provisions of the Paris and Vienna Conventions, as revised, differ on some significant aspects. Another remaining issue is whether the improved international nuclear liability regime will succeed in attracting in the future a larger number of countries, particularly outside Europe, and will so become truly universal. Therefore, the need for international co-operation to address these issues, to facilitate the adoption of new implementing legislation and to ensure that this special regime keeps abreast of economic and technological developments, is in no way diminished after the revision of the Conventions.(author)
By the declared will of the legislative bodies to give effect to the polluter pays principle on all levels those have to pay the costs of removing impairments of environmental media that are responsible for its occurence. Thus environmental pollution becomes a considerable financial risk for the polluter. Against this risk they try to protect themselves by the corresponding precautionary measures, e.g. by insurance. The insurance industry is consequently requested to meet this new demand. The legal bases are followed by the description of the insurance relationship under the aspect of the theory of risks, which follows, based on the basic model of decision theory, the objective of a quantitative representation of the situation of the decision. In the last chapter the author deals with the financial security for the risks of a third party liability insurance of environmental pollution as it is offered today in the Federal Republic of Germany. The elaboration of the existing financial security is then compared with the legal conditions of liability. In doing this the author describes cases not covered by financial security and its definition by comparison with findings of risk theory. As a result it becomes obvious that numerous exclusions of risks could quite good be included in the financial security and that the argument of the impossibility to insure often put forward by the insurers to justify the exclusion of risks can neither theoretically nor practically be uphold. (orig./HSCH) [de
In this paper, attention is first concentrated on the substantive issue of nuclear safety-a matter on which, Friends of the Earth claimed, the Secretary of State had misdirected himself in law. The Court of Appeal's interpretation of a central element of the Nuclear Installations Act 1965 implies certain inherent problems associated with the law relating to compensation for radiation-induced injury. These problems-on the nature of causation and strict liability-are such that they cannot be solved by simple reform of current law and, it is further argued, extra-legal means of compensating those affected by radiation (and other environmental agents) are required. Before attempting to justify this assertion, it is necessary to examine the substance of the judgement in more detail. First the nature of acceptable risk is considered from absolutist and probabalistic viewpoints. The permitted discharges are reviewed followed by a discussion of the accidental discharges of radioactivity into the environment. Incidents at BNFL's Sellafield site are listed. Genetic risks are also considered. The notion of strict liability is discussed for radiation-induced injury, and an alternative approach of increased social security payments financed in part by those organisations discharging radioactivity into the environment is considered. (author)
Miller, C.E. (Salford Univ. (UK). Environmental Health and Housing Div.)
In this paper, attention is first concentrated on the substantive issue of nuclear safety-a matter on which, Friends of the Earth claimed, the Secretary of State had misdirected himself in law. The Court of Appeal's interpretation of a central element of the Nuclear Installations Act 1965 implies certain inherent problems associated with the law relating to compensation for radiation-induced injury. These problems-on the nature of causation and strict liability-are such that they cannot be solved by simple reform of current law and, it is further argued, extra-legal means of compensating those affected by radiation (and other environmental agents) are required. Before attempting to justify this assertion, it is necessary to examine the substance of the judgement in more detail. First the nature of acceptable risk is considered from absolutist and probabalistic viewpoints. The permitted discharges are reviewed followed by a discussion of the accidental discharges of radioactivity into the environment. Incidents at BNFL's Sellafield site are listed. Genetic risks are also considered. The notion of strict liability is discussed for radiation-induced injury, and an alternative approach of increased social security payments financed in part by those organisations discharging radioactivity into the environment is considered. (author).
This paper sets out the necessity of a special system of international conventions in the scope of nuclear civil liability. Then the main principles of the conventions in Paris and Vienna are described. Recently, works have been carried out in order to improve and modernize the civil liability system. (TEC). 4 tabs
The basic principles are outlined of the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy, the Brussels Convention Supplementary to the Paris Convention, the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage, and the Joint Protocol Relating to the Application of the Paris Convention and the Vienna Convention. (P.A.)
Full Text Available Our goal is to differentiate between the legal regime of the limited partnership and that of the unlimited company, by drawing a comparison between civil and special settlement in terms of the following criteria: definition, contributions, capital divisions, the Articles of Association, registration, management control, withdrawal/exclusion of a partner, dissolution/ liquidation. The opinions expressed in the chapter devoted to conclusions are relevant to Romanian and French Law as well.
Spengler, John O; Connaughton, Daniel P; Maddock, Jason E
In underserved communities, schools can provide the physical structure and facilities for informal and formal recreation as well as after-school, weekend, and summer programming. The importance of community access to schools is acknowledged by authoritative groups; however, fear of liability is believed to be a key barrier to community access. The purpose of this study was to investigate perceptions of liability risk and associated issues among school administrators in underserved communities. A national survey of school administrators in underserved communities (n=360, response rate of 21%) was conducted in 2009 and analyzed in 2010. Liability perceptions in the context of community access were assessed through descriptive statistics. The majority of respondents (82.2%) indicated concern for liability should someone be injured on school property after hours while participating in a recreational activity. Among those that did not allow community access, 91% were somewhat to very concerned about liability and 86% believed that stronger legislation was needed to better protect schools from liability for after-hours recreational use. Among those who claimed familiarity with a state law that offered them limited liability protection, nearly three fourths were nevertheless concerned about liability. Liability concerns are prevalent among this group of school administrators, particularly if they had been involved in prior litigation, and even if they indicated they were aware of laws that provide liability protection where use occurs after hours. Reducing these concerns will be important if schools are to become locations for recreational programs that promote physical activity outside of regular school hours. Copyright © 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Al-Doais, Salwa; Kessel, Daivd
The first convention was the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy (the Paris Convention) had been adopted on 29 July 1960 under the auspices of the OECD, and entered into force on 1 April 1968. In 1963,the Brussels Convention - supplementary to the Paris Convention- was adopted in to provide additional funds to compensate damage as a result of a nuclear incident where Paris Convention funds proved to be insufficient. The IAEA's first convention was the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage (the Vienna Convention) which adopted on 21 May 1963,and entered into force in 1977. Both the Paris Convention and the Vienna Convention laid down very similar nuclear liability rules based on the same general principles. The broad principles in these conventions can be summarized as follows: 1- The no-fault liability principle (strict liability) 2- Liability is channeled exclusively to the operator of the nuclear installation (legal channeling) 3- Only courts of the state in which the nuclear accident occurs would have jurisdiction (exclusive jurisdiction) 4- Limitation of the amount of liability and the time frame for claiming damages (limited liability) 5- The operator is required to have adequate insurance or financial guarantees to the extent of its liability amount (liability must be financially secured). 6- Liability is limited in time. Compensation rights are extinguished after specific time. 7- Non-discrimination of victims on the grounds of nationality, domicile or residence. Nuclear liability conventions objective is to provide adequate compensation payments to victims of a nuclear accident. Procedures for receiving these compensation are controlled by some rules such as exclusive jurisdiction, that rule need a further amendment to ensure the effectiveness of the exiting nuclear liability regime . Membership of the Conventions is a critical issue, because the existence of the conventions without being party to
Al-Doais, Salwa; Kessel, Daivd [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
The first convention was the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy (the Paris Convention) had been adopted on 29 July 1960 under the auspices of the OECD, and entered into force on 1 April 1968. In 1963,the Brussels Convention - supplementary to the Paris Convention- was adopted in to provide additional funds to compensate damage as a result of a nuclear incident where Paris Convention funds proved to be insufficient. The IAEA's first convention was the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage (the Vienna Convention) which adopted on 21 May 1963,and entered into force in 1977. Both the Paris Convention and the Vienna Convention laid down very similar nuclear liability rules based on the same general principles. The broad principles in these conventions can be summarized as follows: 1- The no-fault liability principle (strict liability) 2- Liability is channeled exclusively to the operator of the nuclear installation (legal channeling) 3- Only courts of the state in which the nuclear accident occurs would have jurisdiction (exclusive jurisdiction) 4- Limitation of the amount of liability and the time frame for claiming damages (limited liability) 5- The operator is required to have adequate insurance or financial guarantees to the extent of its liability amount (liability must be financially secured). 6- Liability is limited in time. Compensation rights are extinguished after specific time. 7- Non-discrimination of victims on the grounds of nationality, domicile or residence. Nuclear liability conventions objective is to provide adequate compensation payments to victims of a nuclear accident. Procedures for receiving these compensation are controlled by some rules such as exclusive jurisdiction, that rule need a further amendment to ensure the effectiveness of the exiting nuclear liability regime . Membership of the Conventions is a critical issue, because the existence of the conventions without being party to
This paper analyzes and compares liability and liability insurance in the fields of aviation and spaceflight in order to propose solutions for a liability regime and insurance options for suborbital flights. Suborbital flights can be said to take place in the grey zone between air and space, between air law and space law, as well as between aviation insurance and space insurance. In terms of liability, the paper discusses air law and space law provisions in the fields of second and third party liability for damage to passengers and 'innocent bystanders' respectively, touching upon international treaties, national law and EU law, and on insurance to cover those risks. Although the insurance market is currently not ready to provide tailor-made products for operators of suborbital flights, it is expected to adapt rapidly once such flights will become reality. A hybrid approach will provide the best solution in the medium term.
Ingvarsdotter, K; Persson, K; Hjärthag, F; Östman, M
Severe mental illness causes suffering for the patient as well as the patient's immediate family. The Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare has recommended the implementation of multifamily psychoeducation in order to assist patient and family in the recovery process. The aim of this study was to determine how introducing multifamily psychoeducation in Sweden has been viewed by professionals. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 service providers, who were involved in evaluating multifamily psychoeducation. Our main findings fell under the headings of defensive culture and unsuitable model. Resistance to introducing the new intervention was found on multiple levels. The model proposed was considered too rigid for both the target group and the organizations because it could not be adjusted to the needs of patients, families, or facilitators. Despite good evidence for the effectiveness of the intervention, there were difficulties introducing the multifamily psychoeducation model in clinical practice. The feasibility of an intervention needs to be evaluated before adopting it as a national guideline.
Finn, Gabrielle; Garner, Jayne; Sawdon, Marina
This study describes how medical students perceive professionalism and the context in which it is relevant to them. An understanding of how Phase 1 students perceive professionalism will help us to teach this subject more effectively. Phase 1 medical students are those in the first 2 years of a 5-year medical degree. Seventy-two undergraduate students from two UK medical schools participated in 13 semi-structured focus groups. Focus groups, carried out until thematic saturation occurred, were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed and coded using NVivo 8, using a grounded theory approach with constant comparison. From the analysis, seven themes regarding professionalism emerged: the context of professionalism; role-modelling; scrutiny of behaviour; professional identity; 'switching on' professionalism; leniency (for students with regard to professional standards), and sacrifice (of freedom as an individual). Students regarded professionalism as being relevant in three contexts: the clinical, the university and the virtual. Students called for leniency during their undergraduate course, opposing the guidance from Good Medical Practice. Unique findings were the impact of clothing and the online social networking site Facebook on professional behaviour and identity. Changing clothing was described as a mechanism by which students 'switch on' their professional identity. Students perceived society to be struggling with the distinction between doctors as individuals and professionals. This extended to the students' online identities on Facebook. Institutions' expectations of high standards of professionalism were associated with a feeling of sacrifice by students caused by the perception of constantly 'being watched'; this perception was coupled with resentment of this intrusion. Students described the significant impact that role-modelling had on their professional attitudes. This research offers valuable insight into how Phase 1 medical students
Nickless, Edmund; Bilham, Nic
Learned and professional scientific bodies can play a vital role in promoting ethical behaviours, giving practical substance to theoretical consideration of geoethical principles and complementing the efforts of individual scientists and practitioners to behave in a professional and ethical manner. Institutions may do this through mandatory professional codes of conduct, by developing guidelines and initiatives to codify and stimulate the uptake of best practice, and through wider initiatives to engender a culture conducive to such behaviours. This presentation will outline three current institutional initiatives which directly or indirectly address scientific ethics: i. The UK Science Council's Declaration on Diversity, Equality and Inclusion. ii. Development and promulgation of the American Geosciences Institute's (AGI) Guidelines for Ethical Professional Conduct. iii. The American Geophysical Union's (AGU) Scientific Code of Conduct and Professional Ethics. The focus of the Science Council and its member bodies (including the Geological Society of London) on diversity is of central importance when considering ethical behaviours in science. First, improving equality and diversity in the science workforce is at the heart of ethical practice, as well as being essential to meeting current and future skills needs. Second, in addition to demographic diversity (whether in terms of gender, race, economic status, sexuality or gender identity, etc), an important dimension of diversity in science is to allow space for a plurality of scientific views, and to nurture dissenting voices - essential both to the development of scientific knowledge and to its effective communication to non-technical audiences.
Cociuba Mihail Ioan
Full Text Available In this paper we analyzed the correlation between asset and liabilities using the canonical correlation method, in the case of correlation we analyze the interdependence between two variables, by using canonical correlation analyses we study the interdependence between two groups of variables, X consisting of p variables and Y with q variables from which the best linear combination can be constructed to maximize the correlation between X and Y. While on the financial markets the relation between variables may be linear or non-linear and although canonical correlation analyses only the linear combination of variables it is a more efficient tool than then simple correlation.The asset group which we analyze is composed of different types of loans, derivatives and other earning assets, while in the group of liabilities we have deposits (short and long term, interest bearing liabilities and trading liabilities. We find that the assets and liabilities in the banking sector are directly linked. In the context of the global financial crisis (2007-2008 and the afterwards financial recession this direct correlation between assets and liabilities created a vicious cycle in which the losses from assets had a direct impact on the liabilities which also influenced the levels of assets.The behavior of different variables is important, especially in the financial markets, mainly due to the structure of financial markets. The banking sector and the systemic risk associated with it can affect the financial system and even the whole economy so the study of the correlation of assets and liabilities may give us insights on the causes of the financial crises. We use a panel of fifty-nine European banks for the 2004-2011 period and we analyses the correlation between assets and liabilities. We find that there exists a direct and strong connection between different classes of assets held by banks and the structure of liabilities. The impact of the economic crisis on
Coffey, Nicola; Lawless, Martin; Kelly, Seamus; Buggy, Conor
This paper examines the occupational risk of concussion amongst professional and semi-professional footballers in Ireland during the 2014 League of Ireland season. As part of a broader nationally representative study examining occupational safety and health (OSH) awareness amongst professional footballers, this empirical quantitative study, utilising a convenience sample is the first and largest investigation of the frequency of, and attitudes towards, concussion and concussion reporting amongst Irish senior professional and semi-professional footballers. A census survey using an anonymous questionnaire was provided to available League of Ireland clubs between March and May 2015. Permission to access players was provided by the Professional Footballers Association of Ireland. This convenience sample was determined by club availability in relation to match fixtures. Participation by the footballers was voluntary. At the time, there were 250 professional and semi-professional players within the League available to participate. A total of 149 footballers participated in the study. Sixty percent of the participants were employed on a semi-professional basis and the majority of all participants were aged between 18 and 30. 15.7% of the participants reported having received a concussion in the 2014 season with semi-professional players having a noticeably higher (though not significant) reporting rate. Analysis indicated that there was a significant association between playing position and concussion reporting with defenders having the greater odds of reporting a concussion than other playing positions. Professional and semi-professional footballers have a relatively equal risk of receiving a concussion. This research is the first major investigation of the self-reported frequency of, and attitudes towards, concussion amongst Irish senior professional and semi-professional footballers. The results have important implications for coaches, clinicians, parents, players and
The legal situation in the case of cross border damage being caused by reactor accidents or transportation of nuclear material through more than one country is analysed. Two questions have to be asked - which country's courts have jurisdiction over the claims for damage? and which law is applicable? In considering the jurisdiction problem, the Paris and Vienna Conventions are discussed and also other rules of jurisdiction. The way the law is applicable is discussed in the second section. When the action for liability is based on the Paris or Vienna Convention the issue of reciprocity may arise and this is discussed. After a nuclear incident a potential plaintiff may have a choice amongst various jurisdictions and various available laws. Success may depend on the right choice of the forum chosen. This is illustrated by two examples. (U.K.)
In almost every country where nuclear insurance pools operate, except for the United States, national nuclear legislation is either based on the principles of the Paris and Vienna nuclear third party liability conventions or is strongly influenced by them. The most important feature of this legislation is the absolute liabilityy of the operator, which simplifies the insurance process by avoiding duplication of cover and minimising the possibility of complex legal questions arising in case of an incident. The paper describes the arrangements for provision of financial security, the prescription period, insurance requirements, legal costs etc. Also, problems connected with the insurance of two or more installations on the same site are analysed. (NEA) [fr
Chouard, C H
Left-handed professional musicians percentage is not significantly different from normal population, excepted for piano, organ and harpsichord players. For these instruments the melody is always written for the right hand, probably because of the location of the frequencies which are the most easily perceived by the human ear on the right part of the keyboard. Thus for a lefthanded musician to play piano is comparable to write with his right hand, and as a consequence leads him to play an other instrument for his professional activity.
Fork, William E.; Peterson, Charles H.
For over 60 years, fusion energy has been recognised as a promising technology for safe, secure and environmentally-sustainable commercial electrical power generation. Over the past decade, research and development programmes across the globe have shown progress in developing critical underlying technologies. Approaches ranging from high-temperature plasma magnetic confinement fusion to inertial confinement fusion are increasingly better understood. As scientific research progresses in its aim to achieve fusion 'ignition', where nuclear fusion becomes self-sustaining, the international legal community should consider how fusion power technologies fit within the current nuclear liability legal framework. An understanding of the history of the civil nuclear liability regimes, along with the different risks associated with fusion power, will enable nations to consider the proper legal conditions needed to deploy and commercialise fusion technologies for civil power generation. This note is divided into three substantive parts. It first provides background regarding fusion power and describes the relatively limited risks of fusion technologies when compared with traditional nuclear fission technologies. It then describes the international nuclear liability regime and analyses how fusion power fits within the text of the three leading conventions. Finally, it examines how fusion power may fall within the international nuclear liability framework in the future, a discussion that includes possible amendments to the relevant international liability conventions. It concludes that the unique nature of the current civil nuclear liability regime points towards the development of a more tailored liability solution because of the reduced risks associated with fusion power. (authors)
Kim, S. W.; Oh, B. J.; Yoo, S. O.; Kang, S. C.; Lee, J. I.
A special regime for nuclear third party liability is necessary since the ordinary common law is not well suited to deal with the particular problems in the field of nuclear industry. The basic principles of this regime is i) strict liability (other than traditional fault liability), ii) channelling and the exclusive liability of operator, iii) compulsory financial security, iv) limits on liability in amount and in time v) intervention by the state, etc. In Korea, a revision was made to the Nuclear Damage Compensation Act on 16th January, 2001. The revision aimed at the reflection of the spirit of the new Vienna Convention on Nuclear Liability (1997) such as i) limit of liability to an amount of 300mil SDR, ii) increase of the level of financial protection (in the presidential decree, the 'Phasing-In' system would be introduced), iii) Extension of the definition 'nuclear damage', iv) extension of the scope of application to EEZ, v) deletion of 'natural calamity' from the causes of immunity, vi) extension of prescription period for personal injury to a length of 30 year
'Full text:' Very little attention has been paid to potential legal liability for failing to adapt infrastructure to climate change-related risk. Amendments to laws, building codes and standards to take into account the potential impact of climate change on infrastructure assets are still at least some time away. Notwithstanding that amendments are still some time away, there is a real risk to infrastructure stakeholders for failing to adapt. The legal framework in Canada currently permits a court, in the right circumstances, to find certain infrastructure stakeholders legally liable for personal injury and property damage suffered by third parties as a result of climate change effects. This presentation will focus on legal liability of owners (governmental and private sector), engineers, architects and contractors for failing to adapt infrastructure assets to climate change risk. It will answer commonly asked questions such as: Can I avoid liability by complying with existing laws, codes and standards? Do engineers and architects have a duty to warn owners that existing laws, codes and standards do not, in certain circumstances, adequately take into account the impact of climate change-related risks on an infrastructure asset? And do professional liability insurance policies commonly maintained by architects, engineers and other design professionals provide coverage for a design professional's failure to take into account climate change-related risks?. (author)
Aral, Neriman; Gursoy, Figen; Ceylan, Remziye; Bicakci, Mudriye Yildiz
This study aims to determine the professional self-esteem levels of teacher candidates studying at the Faculty of Education, Ahi Evran University, Kirsehir, Turkey, to examine whether certain variables create any differences in their professional self-esteem levels and to propose suggestions in accordance with the results. The study was conducted…
Koybasi, Fatma; Ugurlu, Celal Teyyar
The aim of this study is to identify the factors that influence the interaction between bureaucracy and professionalism in schools and to develop a model of bureaucracy-professionalism interaction. This is a qualitative study carried out in grounded theory model. The study group consisted of 10 male and 10 female teachers who were working in Sivas…
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is an investigation into the experiences of professional development of human resource (HR) practitioners in the North of Scotland, and the use of non-formal learning in that development. Design/methodology/approach: In-depth semi-structured interviews from a purposively selected sample of HR practitioners were…
In this paper we research the perceptions of professionals towards the acceptability of online degree programs in their work profession. Although online education is prolific, its acceptability has been slow and has often been attributed to be a poor quality alternative to traditional brick and mortar education. In this paper we attempt to…
Diana Lucia de Almeida
Full Text Available The Brazilian preference shares, in general, except when they present specific features, such as mandatory redemption and cumulative dividends, meet the accounting definition of equity instruments. However, the scientific literature believes that those shares that do not have discretion to avoid the delivery of cash must be classified as financial liabilities. In a context in which remain differences of understanding of their proper accounting treatment, the following question arises: preferred shares of Brazilian companies are being recognized in the financial statements in accordance with the theoretical and normative precepts? Thus, the aim of this study is to verify if the preference shares of Brazilian companies have been recognized in the financial statements for according to the scientific literature and accounting standards. Through content analysis, we analyzed the information of 157 companies listed on BM&FBOVESPA. The results show that 155 companies classify its preference shares as equity instruments and two as financial liabilities. These two companies, as well as 149 of those which qualify as equity instruments, are treating them properly in its accounting. The other six companies should present its preference shares as liabilities, given the absence of discretion to avoid cash delivery, feature present in financial liabilities, unlike equity instruments. It is noticed that, unlike what happens, for instance, in the US market, it is not possible to classify all Brazilian preference shares as a financial liability, since, in Brazil , they are used in different legal format of those widely found in that market. Moreover, almost all of the analyzed shares have essential features for classification as equity instruments. Hence, the importance of analysis of the economic essence of each instrument, thus, enabling the appropriate accounting treatment in the financial statements.
Parandavar, Nehleh; Rahmanian, Afifeh; Jahromi, Zohreh Badiyepeymaie
Background: Commitment to ethics usually results in nurses’ better professional performance and advancement. Professional self-concept of nurses refers to their information and beliefs about their roles, values, and behaviors. The objective of this study is to analyze the relationship between nurses’ professional self-concept and professional ethics in hospitals affiliated to Jahrom University of Medical Sciences. Methods: This cross sectional-analytical study was conducted in 2014. The 270 participants were practicing nurses and head-nurses at the teaching hospitals of Peimanieh and Motahari in Jahrom University of Medical Science. Sampling was based on sencus method. Data was collected using Cowin's Nurses’ self-concept questionnaire (NSCQ) and the researcher-made questionnaire of professional ethics. Results: The average of the sample's professional self-concept score was 6.48±0.03 out of 8. The average of the sample's commitment to professional ethics score was 4.08±0.08 out of 5. Based on Pearson's correlation test, there is a significant relationship between professional ethics and professional self-concept (P=0.01, r=0.16). Conclusion: In view of the correlation between professional self-concept and professional ethics, it is recommended that nurses’ self-concept, which can boost their commitment to ethics, be given more consideration. PMID:26573035
Parandavar, Nehleh; Rahmanian, Afifeh; Badiyepeymaie Jahromi, Zohreh
Commitment to ethics usually results in nurses' better professional performance and advancement. Professional self-concept of nurses refers to their information and beliefs about their roles, values, and behaviors. The objective of this study is to analyze the relationship between nurses' professional self-concept and professional ethics in hospitals affiliated to Jahrom University of Medical Sciences. This cross sectional-analytical study was conducted in 2014. The 270 participants were practicing nurses and head-nurses at the teaching hospitals of Peimanieh and Motahari in Jahrom University of Medical Science. Sampling was based on sencus method. Data was collected using Cowin's Nurses' self-concept questionnaire (NSCQ) and the researcher-made questionnaire of professional ethics. The average of the sample's professional self-concept score was 6.48±0.03 out of 8. The average of the sample's commitment to professional ethics score was 4.08±0.08 out of 5. Based on Pearson's correlation test, there is a significant relationship between professional ethics and professional self-concept (P=0.01, r=0.16). In view of the correlation between professional self-concept and professional ethics, it is recommended that nurses' self-concept, which can boost their commitment to ethics, be given more consideration.
Gangopadhyay, S; Ghatak, M; Lensink, R
We show that the joint liability lending contracts derived in Ghatak (2000) violate an ex post incentive-compatibility constraint which says that the amount of joint liability cannot exceed the amount of individual liability. We derive and characterise optimal separating joint liability contracts
On January 1, 1978 the provisions of the Act Amending the Rules of Liability Damages have entered into force. Formally this means that the provisions of the Reich Liability Act (Reichshaftpflichtgesetz, RHG) and those of the Act on Liability with Respect to Property Damage of Railways and Tramways (SHG) are now combined under the new term of Liability Act (Haftpflichtgesetz). In material terms it means that the district heat industry with its supply pipelines is subject to absolute liability. This creates a liability situation for this industry which has been existing for the electricity and gas industries since 1943 as a result of an amendment of the Reich Liability Act.
Neishabouri, M; Ahmadi, F; Kazemnejad, A
To explore Iranian nursing students' transition to professional identity. Professional identity is an important outcome of nursing education that has not been fully explored in the Iranian nursing education system. Professional identity is a significant factor influencing the development of nursing education and practice. The transition of nursing students to professional identity is the main concern of nursing education and fundamental prerequisite for policymaking and planning in the field of nursing education. This was a qualitative content analysis study. In-depth unstructured interviews were held with 35 Iranian bachelor's degree nursing students recruited through purposive sampling. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using content analysis. The data analysis led to the development of four themes and 15 categories: 'satisfaction with professional practice (attending clinical settings and communicating with patients, the feeling of being beneficial)'; 'personal development (growing interest in nursing, feeling competent in helping others, changing character and attitude shift towards patients)'; 'professional development (realizing the importance of nursing knowledge, appreciating professional roles, a changing their understanding of nursing and the meaning it)'; and 'attaining professional commitment (a tendency to present oneself as a nurse, attempting to change oneself, other students and the public image of nursing)'. Development of professional identity is a continual process of transition. The greatest transition occurred in the last year of the programme. Nursing students experienced transition to PI through gaining satisfaction with professional practice, undergoing personal and professional development and developing a professional commitment. Educational policymakers can use our findings for developing strategies that facilitate and support nursing students' transition to professional identity. © 2016 International Council of
Brown, Hubert W.; Barnes, Beth E.
Students studying Broadcast Journalism or Advertising and professionals working in those fields were surveyed on their attitudes regarding advertising influence on broadcast news content. This study compares the attitudes of the students and practitioners in the respective professions. While students and professionals agreed on a majority of…
Arani, Mohammad Reza Sarkar; Keisuke, Fukaya; Lassegard, James P.
This research examines "lesson study" as a traditional model of creating professional knowledge in schools. "Lesson study," typically defined as teachers' classroom based collaborative research, has a long history in Japan as a shared professional culture with potential for enhancing learning, enriching classroom activities and…
Nagarajah, Bertram A.
This study investigated the influence of professional training and personal factors on five categories of technostress: techno-overload, techno-invasion, techno-complexity, techno-insecurity, and techno-uncertainty. The goal of the study was to determine whether experience and knowledge gained during professional training influenced the level of…
The purpose of this research was to study Distress, Wellness and Organisational role stress of MBA professionals in the area of various companies and industries of Haryana. The effect of sex and age on the above variables were examined. Total 101 professionals (60 men and 41 women) were administered for the study. General Health Questionnaire-28…
Solomon, K.A.; Whipple, C.; Okrent, D.
The purpose of this study is to take an overview of large technological systems in society to ascertain the prevalence, if any, of situations that can lead to catastrophic effects where the resultant liabilities far exceed the insurances or assets subject to suit in court, thereby imposing de facto limits on liability recoveries. In part, interest in this topic is spurred by the continuing discussion and controversy over the Price-Anderson Act which requires operators of nuclear plants to waive certain defenses and which limits the combined liability of the operator and the government to an amount less than the maximum potential public cost of a major nuclear reactor accident. A variety of technological events could result in assignable liabilities up to $25 billion, or more, depending on the value of life. These postulated events include: (1) the crash of a large aircraft into a crowded sports facility (an estimated $20.3 billion liability); (2) an explosion and subsequent dispersion of a chemical (such as chlorine or LNG) into a population center from a large manufacturing, storage, or transport facility (estimated $25.5 billion liability); (3) a massive nuclear power plant accident and the subsequent dispersal of large quantities of radioactive material to a large downwind population center ($25 billion liability); (4) the collision of two ships, such as a large LNG tanker and a large passenger liner, resulting in the deaths of all passengers on board ($5.5 billion liability); and (5) collapse of a large building in an earthquake, known by the owners to be seismically deficient and no steps having been taken to warn occupants or to remedy the situation (major deficiencies). All these events are found to involve potential liability far exceeding the available resources, whether they be insurance, corporation assets, or government revenues
Malaisé , Adrien; Nertomb , Sophie; Charpillet , François; Ivaldi , Serena
International audience; In this paper, we address the question of which potential use of a robot in a health-care environment is imagined by people that are not experts in robotics, and how these people imagine to teach new movements to a robot. We report on the preliminary results of our investigation , in which we conducted 40 interviews with non-experts in robotics and a focus group with professional caregivers.
During its April 2014 meeting, the Steering Committee for Nuclear Energy held a policy debate on 'Progress towards a Global Nuclear Liability Regime'. The Steering Committee heard presentations from several experts on nuclear liability issues. To prepare the delegates to the Steering Committee for the policy debate, the NEA Secretariat prepared a background note on the status of the nuclear liability regimes, as well as on current issues and challenges in implementing the regimes. This article is based on the background note and is intended to provide basic information on the relevant international conventions and an overview of recent developments to enhance the understanding of the legal framework in which policy-makers and practitioners are engaging to respond to the call for broader adherence to the international liability instruments. (authors)
Lee, Yu L; Kilic, Gokhan; Phelps, John Y
Surgical robotics instructors provide an essential service in improving the competency of novice gynecologic surgeons learning robotic surgery and advancing surgical skills on behalf of patients. However, despite best intentions, robotics instructors and the gynecologists who use their services expose themselves to liability. The fear of litigation in the event of a surgical complication may reduce the availability and utility of robotics instructors. A better understanding of the principles of duty of care and the physician-patient relationship, and their potential applicability in a court of law likely will help to dismantle some concerns and uncertainties about liability. This commentary is not meant to discourage current and future surgical instructors but to raise awareness of liability issues among robotics instructors and their students and to recommend certain preventive measures to curb potential liability risks. Published by Elsevier Inc.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data represents geographic terms used within the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). CERCLA, commonly known as...
Buchanan, E. T.
Reviews laws and court cases relating to alcohol and possible civil and criminal liability. Suggests a number of risk management principles, including knowledge of the law, policies forbidding hazing, fostering alcohol awareness, and discipline. (JAC)
Arguing in favor of unlimited liability in the event of a nuclear accident, the author cites a mathematical probability of a core meltdown in the US as 45% during the next 20 years. The liability insurance carried by the nuclear industry is less than for large hotels and industrial parks, and is only a small fraction of the potential costs of damage and compensation. If nuclear technology is safe, limits are not needed. If liability is limited, it removes the incentive to improve safety and sends inaccurate price signals to utilities choosing among competing technologies. There is also the ethical aspect of shifting liability costs from ratepayers and stockholders to accident victims and general taxpayers. There are other ways to finance nuclear risks, such as a sinking fund, the removal of the nuclear exclusion in property insurance policies, and annual retrospective assessments per reactors
This workbook provide government employees background information related to tort liability and risk management. Past experience with lawsuits against government entities are summarized. The reasons for the lawsuits and results are analyzed. The obje...
The prevailing liability theory applied to those persons who have caused, through their action or inaction, the release of a hazardous substance is that CERCLA provides a statutory basis for direct personal liability This direct avenue to liability is in conflict with well-settled principles of corporate limited liability. This paper discusses the impact CERCLA has had on the common law concepts of liability for corporations and their members
This thesis introduces the tax system of the Czech Republic. The corporate income tax in particular is specified in bigger detail. Its basic structural elements are described with the focus on the transformation of the accountable profit to the tax base. The practical part is divided into chapters, each of which deals with the optimization of the amount of the real tax liability. The content, instruments mentioned and methods for decreasing company tax liability applied suggest this work more...
Pirbhai, M; Mitra, G; Kyriakis, T
This chapter sets out to explain an important financial planning model called asset liability management (ALM); in particular, it discusses why in practice, optimum planning models are used. The ability to build an integrated approach that combines liability models with that of asset allocation decisions has proved to be desirable and more efficient in that it can lead to better ALM decisions. The role of uncertainty and quantification of risk in these planning models is con...
This dissertation applies the methods of economic analysis to nuclear liability and Price-Anderson. First the legislative history is reviewed; in that history the economic role of liability in affecting safety and allocating risk was virtually ignored. Succeeding chapters reformulate issues from the policy debate and subject them to economic analysis. A persistent issue is whether nuclear utilities respond to their limited liability by allowing a higher probability of serious accident. Comparative-static analysis shows that limited liability does lead to a higher chance of accidents, though the effect may be small. The analysis also shows that safety is achieved in a more capital-intensive manner than is cost-minimizing and that limited liability causes reactor owners to favor more heavily populated sites for plants. Therefore, the siting decision makes potential loss greater even if there is no change in the probability of an accident. Citizens' preferences on nuclear liability are examined next, starting with the nature of coverage that would be just in the sense of contraction theories such as John Rawls' Theory of Justice. Citizens behind Rawls' veil of ignorance, forced to be fair because of their ignorance of whether they will be harmed, unanimously choose a high level of coverage. The just level of coverage is greater than the existing $560 million. Second, the nature of economically efficient liability coverage is determined and contrasted with coverage that would emerge from a democratic system of public choice. Population and expected damage profiles indicate that majorities could easily be formed among groups of citizens expecting to suffer little of the damage of a nuclear accident. Thus, majority voting on liability arrangements is likely to produce an inefficiently low level of coverage
The book deals with some of the complex issues of liability and compensation for nuclear damage which have been considered in the course of the work of the IAEA concerning the revision of the Vienna Convention on nuclear liability. It presents, in an orderly way, personal reflections of its author based on this experience gathered in years 1989-1992 when participating in this work. Necessarily it contains in some of its parts references to documents of the IAEA Standing Committee on Nuclear Liability; these documents because of their length could not be reproduced. Consequently these parts may be fully intelligible for those who have not participated in or closely followed in Committee's work. The IAEA work on liability for nuclear damage was initiated in the wake of the impact made on the world's public opinion by the Chernobyl incident and its transboundary effects; issues of international state liability and full compensation have been raised. But humanitarian ideas have quickly been confronted with cold calculations of the cost of financial protection for victims and an open unwillingness of some nuclear states the engage their liability; conflict of interests between nuclear and non-nuclear states has been manifested. After three years of discussion no wide consensus could be reached on some basic issues, such as: relationship between international state and civil liability regimes, structures of international legislation, concept of nuclear damage, limits of compensation, role of public funds or jurisdiction. The author presents his approach to these controversial issues, trying to provide at the same time a theoretical outline for the future international legislation on nuclear liability. (author)
Getz, H.; Steinkemper, M.H.
This paper analyses recent developments in nuclear liability legislation in Europe. The first part deals with the planned revision of the Paris Convention and the Brussels Supplementary Convention; the second part focuses on the reforms envisaged in the field in Switzerland and in the Federal Republic of Germany, in particular concerning unlimited liability. Finally, the author concludes that national reform plans and work at international level are not opposed, but supplementary activities. (NEA) [fr
The objective of this paper is to describe BNFL's policy and strategy for decommissioning and also to summarize the overall scope of nuclear liabilities in the wider field of waste retrieval and storage, as well as the dismantling and demolition aspects of decommissioning. BNFL's recently established organisational arrangements for discharging all types of these liabilities are explained, together with a review of practical progress in dealing with them. Organisational changes in recent years have amalgamated decommissioning work with operations covering waste storage and retrieval operations. A strategy of minimising residual activity in shutdown plants is pursued, followed by dismantling and demolition on appropriate time scales to minimise risk and cost. Since April 1995, a new BNFL subsidiary, Nuclear Liabilities Management Company Limited has taken responsibility for discharge of BNFL's Waste Retrieval and Decommissioning liabilities on all BNFL sites. NLM has the objectives of optimal and lowest cost management of liabilities and much clearer segregation of physical operations from project specification and planning. The Ministry of Defense (MoD) policy, strategy, work programmes and progress for the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) are also outlined. MoD/AEA has established an equivalent strategy for dealing with its liabilities. (J.S.). 5 refs., 2 figs., 4 appends
Kwaczek, A.S.; Mooney, S.; Kerr, W.A.
Chernobyl dumped significant quantities of radioactive fallout as far as 1,300 miles away, causing severe economic loss in nations stretching from Sweden to Greece. It cost innocent sheep growers in Wales, fishermen in Switzerland, reindeer-dependent Laplanders in Norway, dairymen in Sweden and Austria, and cheese makers in Greece. European nations have calculated costs from deposition of nuclear materials in the hundreds of millions report the authors. The accident at chernobyl and the European experience with the consequences can offer several insights relevant to the US commercial nuclear industry, the authors note: (1) the aggregate effect of such an accident is extremely large and unpredictable; (2) adequate disaster planning can significantly reduce costs and ease the disruption; and (3) the experience raises questions about the adequacy of the nation's nuclear insurance and liability programs. given the number of commissioned nuclear reactors today, the present scheme would provide financial compensation of approximately $7 billion per incident. Depending on the circumstances, the authors say this may not be sufficient
Ponce, Brent A; Determann, Jason R; Boohaker, Hikel A; Sheppard, Evan; McGwin, Gerald; Theiss, Steven
To determine the frequency of social networking, the degree of information publicly disclosed, and whether unprofessional content was identified in applicants from the 2010 Residency Match. Medical professionalism is an essential competency for physicians to learn, and information found on social networking sites may be hazardous to the doctor-patient relationship and an institution's public perception. No study has analyzed the social network content of applicants applying for residency. Online review of social networking Facebook profiles of graduating medical students applying for a residency in orthopedic surgery. Evidence of unprofessional content was based upon Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education guidelines. Additional recorded applicant data included as follows: age, United States Medical Licensing Examination part I score, and residency composite score. Relationship between professionalism score and recorded data points was evaluated using an analysis of variance. Nearly half of all applicants, 46% (200/431), had a Facebook profile. The majority of profiles (85%) did not restrict online access to their profile. Unprofessional content was identified in 16% of resident applicant profiles. Variables associated with lower professionalism scores included unmarried relationship status and lower residency composite scores. It is critical for healthcare professionals to recognize both the benefits and risks present with electronic communication and to vigorously protect the content of material allowed to be publically accessed through the Internet. Copyright © 2013 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Juuti, Sini; Littleton, Karen
The classical music academy is a site dominated by traditional meanings of creative practice and an image of the professional creative career as solo performer that is fully available to only a very few students after graduating. The purpose of the study reported in this paper is to explore career-young professional pianists' talk about the…
Akhmejanova, Gulnara; Olzhabayev, Bulat; Grigoryeva, Roza; Karibaeva, Zhanara; Avilkhan, Akmamyk; Sakenov, Janat
This article examines the scientific problem of the formation of professional competence of legal specialty students in the elective courses studying. The analysis has been conducted and the content of professional competence of legal specialty students has been substantiated. This work substantiates the role of elective courses in the formation…
This dissertation study seeks to determine whether feedback in the online Technical and Professional Communication classroom impacts student performance. This dissertation proposes that online Technical and Professional Communication instructors consider adopt such a feedback methodology in order to engage students with writing practices that…
Shin, Jihae; Seog, Moonjoo
Professional development for in-service teachers is necessary to meet the changing needs of students and society. This teacher collaboration study examined the experiences of mid-career elementary teachers in Korea in their music professional development. Research questions included: (1) What were the contents of discussion? (2) What was the level…
Beckford-Young, Paulette Vivienne
The purpose of this action research study was to conduct a professional development activity to provide content-area teachers with academic vocabulary strategies to be implemented during instruction on a daily basis. Professional development is essential for teachers to gain new knowledge and skills in order to hone their craft to improve student…
Deel, Gary Lee
This study concerns a qualitative investigation of the views toward higher education and its importance to hospitality career success among hotel professionals in the Las Vegas, Nevada area. Existing literature supported the premise that education may be important to professional career success in several different ways, and that values concerning…
Meyers, Peter V.
Many researchers believe that professional development derives from power struggles. This case study shows that the professionalization of nineteenth-century secular French primary school teachers was generated by the interplay between teachers and other participants--particularly the Catholic church, families, and the state--in the funding and…
Roberts, Ellen Adams
The professional experiences and practices of school counselors and the interventions they employ while working with adolescent students who self-harm is an underrepresented area within current research. This generic qualitative study provides a rich description and a deeper understanding of the professional experiences and practices of school…
Van der Klink, Marcel; Kools, Quinta; Avissar, Gilada; White, Simone; Sakata, Tetsuhito
The attention being devoted to teacher educators as professionals and their professional development is unquestionably increasing. Whilst much of that attention is being directed at teacher educators in different countries, international comparisons have been quite rare to date. The research question addressed in this study was: "Do…
Bair, Mary Antony
While there are numerous calls to enhance the professionalism of teachers, there is little empirical research in the United States that examines educators' understanding of the concept. This comparative case study compared the conceptualisation of professionalism by faculty and students in a college of education vis-à-vis the conceptualisation of…
Thomas-Brown, Karen; Shaffer, LaShorage; Werner, Sharon
This study examined the impact of a yearlong ambient professional development (PD) program-The Wayne Schools Global Geography Project (WSGG-project)-that focused on improving teacher quality through PD and classroom observations for in-service social studies teachers. The project targeted middle and high school social studies teachers and used…
Full Text Available One of the significant changes witnessed in the labour markets in India has been the entry of women IT professionals in the rapidly growing software services sector. As the women take on the role of working professional in addition to their traditional role of the homemaker, they are under great pressure to balance their work and personal lives. This study attempts to understand how work and family related factors influence the work–family balance of Indian women IT professionals. The study is based on an exploratory qualitative study of 13 women IT professionals in the software sector in Bangalore, India. The narratives reveal six major themes: familial influences on life choices; multi-role responsibilities and attempts to negotiate them; self and professional identity; work–life challenges and coping strategies; organisational policies and practices; and social support.
Gomes, Antonio Marcos Tosoli; Oliveira, Denize Cristina de
The object of this study is the professional image constructed by public health nurses and the objective is to describe and analyze the professional images present in the representations of nurses who deliver direct care to this clientele. The theoretical-methodological reference framework adopted was Social Representations Theory. A qualitative study was developed in Petrópolis-Rio de Janeiro/Brazil, through in-depth interviews with 30 nurses. Alceste 4.5 software was used for the lexical analysis. The results reveal the existence of a professional self-image with three groups of meanings: being a reference for the team, the non-specific image and the image of plaster; and a professional hetero-image with four groups of meanings: administrator, invisible, positive image and superposition. The study of the professional image reflects the construction of the nurse's identity in itself and emphasizes Social Representations Theory as a useful tool for nursing research development.
Full Text Available The objective of this research is to briefly examine the stipulations of article 1373 of the Civil Code, referring to regulating the tort liability of the principal for the illicit act of the agent. From a comparative point of view with the old provisions, and also in a critical formulation, the study contributes in supporting the recognition of principle nature of the subject under review. Using content analysis, through descriptive documentary research and case-law analysis, this study aims at identifying the content of the obligation for the liability of the principal, presenting a view on the legal status of such type of legal liability. The paper continues further research in this area which has been published in various publications. The concrete results of the research focuse on the examination and interpretation of the new provisions relating to subsistence of the general and special conditions of this type of liability
Our study discusses the regulations regarding the liabilities of skippers, innkeepers and stable keepers in Roman Law. It is clear from the resources that "actio de damno aut furto adversus nautas, caupones, stabularios and receptum, nautae, cauponis, stabularii" responsibilities used to be regulated in addition to custodia liability arising from the hire of work between the parties, particularly because personnels of skippers, innkeepers and stable keepers were unreliable. These practices, w...
Bambang Yudi Cahyono
Full Text Available One of the ways to develop English teachers' professional competence is by sending them to study in a graduate program in English language education. Sending English teachers to pursue their higher level of education is one of the policies taken by the Government of East Java to improve English teachers' professional competence. In response to the Government of East Java's policy, teachers were selected to study in a graduate program with a sandwich study. The sandwich takes the format of "in-house training" held at State University of Malang and overseas study in Angeles University Foundation, Philippine. This article explores the English teachers' feelings, expectations, and perspectives on professional development with regard to the opportunity in studying overseas. The results of the study show that studying overseas contributed to professional development of the English teachers participating in the sandwich study program during their graduate education.
This paper describes State guarantee and nuclear liability insurance which has been established, in Switzerland, after the vote of the law of 18 march 1983: Civil liability of nuclear operator has no limitations for nuclear damages compensations. The coverage is given by private insurance and State guarantee. 1 tab
On 7 March 2014, Trial Chamber II of the International Criminal Court (ICC) convicted Germain Katanga for war crimes and crimes against humanity. Katanga's conviction is based on the concept of common purpose liability as regulated in Article 25(3)(d) of the Rome Statute. This liability theory
Petrucci, Cristina; La Cerra, Carmen; Aloisio, Federica; Montanari, Paola; Lancia, Loreto
It has been shown that empathy strengthens the relationship between patients and health professionals and also improves patient and health professional satisfaction, which helps promote the best clinical outcomes. Empathy is considered an essential prerequisite for a nurse to effectively care for a patient and for a holistic understanding of a patient's perspective in a student population. The main aim was to compare empathy levels between health professional students attending different university courses. A comparative study with a cross-sectional approach was conducted in two successive academic year cohorts of 1st year health professional students at a public Italian university. A sample of 1st year health professional students at a public Italian university was investigated using the Jefferson Scale of Empathy Health Professional Students version (JSE-HPS). Overall, 502 health professional students were included in the study. The students in nursing showed significantly higher empathy levels than the students in other health professions. Furthermore, the female students were found to exhibit significantly more overall empathy than the male students were. The undergraduate nursing students showed a significantly higher mean score of empathy measured by the Jefferson Scale of Empathy Health Professional Students version (JSE-HPS) than the students attending other health undergraduate courses. This could mean that a particular aptitude in establishing a help-relationship with other people exists among the students that choose to become a nurse. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Guo, Yu-Jie; Yang, Lei; Ji, Hai-Xia; Zhao, Qiao
Caring is recognized as the essence of nursing and the core of nursing practice while a positive professional identity can lead to personal, social and professional fulfillment. Analyzing caring characters and professional identity yields important indications for the improvement of teaching methods. This study aims to explore the graduate nursing students' professional identity and caring characters in China, and analyze their correlation. A descriptive cross-sectional study was used to collect data from 216 graduate nursing students between January and February 2017 in China. Graduate nursing students perceived they possessed positive caring characters while their professional identity was at a low level. A significant positive correlation was found between the Nursing Caring Characters Assessment Tool and Professional Identity Scale for Nursing Students. Graduate nursing students' professional identity was not satisfactory and one strategy to improve this is to internalize caring into the education process. Nursing educators should focus more on the formation of the students' professional identity and caring as a contributing factor to it. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
H. Alix Gallagher
Full Text Available This article addresses the question of how much is spent on teachers' professional development. A review of the literature finds two problems that have frequently led to inaccurate estimates of professional development spending: 1 the accounting codes that are used in many studies provide little description of spending, and 2 studies generally focus on district or state expenditures for professional development, but do not collect data on school-level spending. These problems are compounded by the fact that studies define professional development spending differently, and thus it is difficult to compare findings across studies. In an effort to begin to address this problem, this study utilizes a detailed cost structure to analyze both district and school site expenditures on professional development across cost categories. The study found that school-level expenditures were a significant source of professional development for teachers. This has implications for the methodologies used to estimate current professional development expenditures and what level of expenditures would be necessary to generate dramatic improvements in student achievement.
Full Text Available As well as other liberal professions in Romania, also the profession as an architect is regulated by special norms, the Law No 184/2001, whose provisions are amended by the Rules governing the functioning and organization of the Romanian Order of Architects and the Code of Ethics of Architects. The specificity of the disciplinary liability of the architects towards the common law is given by specific sanctions, by the authorities competent in performing the disciplinary investigation of the disciplinary offences, as well as by the specific procedural rules. The present study aims to offer a brief analysis of these aspects which differentiate the disciplinary liability of architects towards that of the employees performing their activities under an employment contract.
Full Text Available Background. It is undeniable that coaches play a major role in the development of athletes. Coaches and athletes have a close relationship and share various experiences that lead to a strong bond between them, and this is of great responsibility for the coach. Therefore, the coach should maintain this bond with mutual respect and trust. Various responsibilities are progressively placed on coaches by law to prevent or minimize injuries to athletes. In other words, since a coach is placed in a position of power and trust, the duty of care will always be placed on him. If certain requirements are not met, the coach may be held financially, or even criminally, liable. In this study, the author explains and discusses coaches’ legal duties, legal liabilities, and the elements required for liability of coaches toward athletes.
Grigalunas, T.A.; Opaluch, J.J.; Diamantides, J.; Mazzotta, M.
Liability is an important incentive-based instrument for preventing oil spills and provides a sustainable approach for restoring coastal resources injured by spills. However, the use of liability for environmental damages raises many challenges, including quantification of money measures of damages. In this article, case studies are used to illustrate the issues, methods, and challenges associated with assessing a range of damages, from those that can be measured relatively easily using market information to more 'esoteric', and much more difficult, cases involving non-market-valued losses. Also discussed are issues raised by the new national and international regulatory focus on restoration and by the simplified, compensatory formula used by some states. (author)
Taylor, Julie; Bradbury-Jones, Caroline; Kroll, Thilo; Duncan, Fiona
Domestic abuse is increasingly recognised as a serious, worldwide public health concern. There is a significant body of literature regarding domestic abuse, but little is known about health professionals' beliefs about domestic abuse disclosure. In addition, the intersection between health professionals' beliefs and abused women's views remains uninvestigated. We report on a two-phase, qualitative study using Critical Incident Technique (CIT) that aimed to explore community health professionals' beliefs about domestic abuse and the issue of disclosure. We investigated this from the perspectives of both health professionals and abused women. The study took place in Scotland during 2011. The study was informed theoretically by the Common Sense Model of Self-Regulation of Health and Illness (CSM). This model is typically used in disease-orientated research. In our innovative use, however, CSM was used to study the social phenomenon, domestic abuse. The study involved semi-structured, individual CIT interviews with health professionals and focus groups with women who had experienced domestic abuse. Twenty-nine health professionals (Midwives, Health Visitors and General Practitioners) participated in the first phase of the study. In the second phase, three focus groups were conducted with a total of 14 women. Data were analysed using a combination of an inductive classification and framework analysis. Findings highlight the points of convergence and divergence between abused women's and health professionals' beliefs about abuse. Although there was some agreement, they do not always share the same views. For example, women want to be asked about abuse, but many health professionals do not feel confident or comfortable discussing the issue. Overall, the study shows the dynamic interaction between women's and health professionals' beliefs about domestic abuse and readiness to discuss and respond to it. Understanding these complex dynamics assists in the employment of
Sawatsky, Adam P; Nordhues, Hannah C; Merry, Stephen P; Bashir, M Usmaan; Hafferty, Frederic W
International health electives (IHEs) are widely available during residency and provide unique experiences for trainees. Theoretical models of professional identity formation and transformative learning may provide insight into residents' experiences during IHEs. The purpose of this study was to explore transformative learning and professional identity formation during resident IHEs and characterize the relationship between transformative learning and professional identity formation. The authors used a constructivist grounded theory approach, with the sensitizing concepts of transformative learning and professional identity formation to analyze narrative reflective reports of residents' IHEs. The Mayo International Health Program supports residents from all specialties across three Mayo Clinic sites. In 2015, the authors collected narrative reflective reports from 377 IHE participants dating from 2001-2014. Reflections were coded and themes were organized into a model for transformative learning during IHEs, focusing on professional identity. Five components of transformative learning were identified during IHEs: a disorienting experience; an emotional response; critical reflection; perspective change; and a commitment to future action. Within the component of critical reflection three domains relating to professional identity were identified: making a difference; the doctor-patient relationship; and medicine in its "purest form." Transformation was demonstrated through perspective change and a commitment to future action, including continued service, education, and development. IHEs provide rich experiences for transformative learning and professional identity formation. Understanding the components of transformative learning may provide insight into the interaction between learner, experiences, and the influence of mentors in the process of professional identity formation.
Mota Vargas, Rafael; Mahtani-Chugani, Vinita; Solano Pallero, María; Rivero Jiménez, Borja; Cabo Domínguez, Raquel; Robles Alonso, Vicente
Palliative care professionals are exposed daily to high levels of suffering. This makes them particularly vulnerable to suffering from stress, which can lead to burnout and/or compassion fatigue. To analyse the professional trajectory of palliative care workers over time and the factors which influence this trajectory. A qualitative study was designed based on the Grounded Theory approach, using semi-structured individual interviews. Interviews were recorded audio-visually and transcribed verbatim for subsequent analysis using the procedure described by Miles and Huberman. This process was supported using ATLAS.ti 6 software. A total of 10 palliative care professionals from Extremadura (Spain) took part in the study. The analysis revealed a common trajectory followed by participants in their working lives: pre-palliative care/honeymoon/frustration/maturation. In addition, factors which influence this trajectory were identified. Details of the self-care strategies that these professionals have developed are described. The result of this process, which we have metaphorically termed 'metamorphosis', is the formation of a professional who can work satisfactorily within a palliative care context. During their professional activity, palliative care professionals go through a series of phases, depending on the relationship between the cost of caring and the satisfaction of caring, which can influence both the care provided to patients and families and their own personal circumstances. Being aware of this risk, and implementing self-care strategies, can protect professionals and enable them to conduct their work in an optimal manner. Reflecting on the experiences of these professionals could be useful for other health professionals. © The Author(s) 2015.
Reitsma, S. M. S.
The financial security to be provided to victims of an incident at a nuclear installation is the main objective of international nuclear liability conventions. As from the introduction of the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy in 1960 and the Vienna Convention on Liability for Nuclear Damage in 1963 insurers have been prepared to provide the financial capacity needed to cover the liability under both conventions. They did so in close co-operation with the competent national and international authorities, which has resulted in the insurability of as much of the nuclear liability under the conventions as possible. This tradition of co-operation between authorities and insurers was extended to include the revision negotiations regarding the above conventions, which were concluded in 1997 and 2004 respectively. This has resulted in the insurability of by far the largest part of the convention based liability. However, some heads of damage have been introduced about which insurers had expressed concerns as to their likelihood to attract insurance support. In view of the explicit choice by Convention States to include the uninsurable heads of damage into the revised conventions one would expect that liability for them would fall upon national Governments. This would reflect practice in a number of States, which already assume liability for uninsurable mandatory liabilities for a long time. Nonetheless some other States now seem reluctant to do so, the resulting deadlock having a tendency to manifest itself in a negative perception of the insurance industry. Insurers are therefore appreciative of the forum provided by the CNS to once again explain the areas where problems as regards insurability have arisen and why this is the case. This presentation will show that those areas are few in number and notably relate to a limited number of environmental damages as well as the extension of prescription periods. Furthermore, thoughts will
Japan is not a contracting party of any international convention in the field of nuclear civil liability, and neither are other east Asian countries who have or will soon have nuclear plants. Therefore, the ordinary rules on private international law will play an important role in dealing with transfrontier nuclear civil liability. Above all, the problems on judicial jurisdiction and governing law are crucial points. With regard to the relations between the above countries and the countries whose legal systems are within the framework of Paris or Vienna Conventions, geographical scopes of these conventions are to be considered. There are two different parts in the international civil liability conventions: uniform civil liability law and mutual funds. As to the first, it is important that, even without the conventions, the basic structure of the nuclear civil liability laws in non-member countries are almost the same with those of members. In any event, considering that the establishment of a single international regime to cover all countries will be hardly possible, legal consequences under the private international law will be explored. (author)
The 'global commons' discussed in this paper are the areas beyond the limits of national jurisdiction. Responsibility to prevent environmental damage to these areas is clearly recognized in customary international law. On the other hand, although liability for such damage undoubtedly has a useful role to play in protecting these areas, the precise nature of liability for such damage is unclear. Some issues, such as whether liability for such damage is strict or tied to breaching a standard of care and the definition of environmental damage, equally arise in relation to damage to the environment of States. Others, such as who could take action to enforce the liability and the nature of the remedy, raise special problems in the case of damage to the global commons. The work under way in the IAEA Standing Committee on Liability for Nuclear Damage provides an opportunity for clarifying these issues in relation to nuclear damage to the global commons. Treaties dealing with particular types of damage which have recently been adopted or are currently being developed in other fields provide a starting point in dealing with this matter. More work, however, needs to be done
Full Text Available Public sector accounting has emerged as an area of concern within the sphere of professional accounting education. The International Federation of Accountants (IFAC allows its member bodies to apply discretion in the application of public sector accounting education requirements. This study explored the nature and extent to which public sector accounting features in the education syllabi of the leading chartered accountant professional bodies that form part of the IFAC contingent. By following an explorative approach, the study identified international trends within the ambit of public sector accounting education and provides guidance for other professional bodies in assessing the nature and extent of their public sector accounting education requirements
Full Text Available Purpose: This study aims to assess the level of job satisfaction among the practicing Library and Information Science (LIS professionals in India. Some of the key variables studied include salary, work environment, professional position, working hours, location, employee participation in administrative matters, recognition, and advancement. Scope: The study is limited to LIS professionals in India; however, the results of the study show some degree of commonality among LIS professionals across the world. Methodology/Approach: The study has been purely undertaken by analyzing the primary data collected from practicing library and information professionals across India by circulating an online questionnaire, using Google services and by posting the link on various social groups and other social networking sites such as Groups, Facebook, LinkedIn, discussion forums, and e-mails. Findings: Responses were generated across 20 states and union territories of the country, representing 88.15% territory of India. Of the total responses generated, 72.88% are males and 27.12% females. From the data analysis it emerged that every third library professional in India enters in to LIS profession by chance and not by choice, as 35.59% respondents expressed that they landed in the LIS profession by chance and 60.45% by choice. More than 77% respondents have expressed their willingness to change their present employer, if given better opportunity. More than 80% professionals either fully or partly agree that most of the LIS professionals across India are dissatisfied with their employers. All these and many more areas have been explored, which reflect the aspects of job satisfaction and dissatisfaction among LIS professionals in India.
Sepasi, Rana Rezai; Borhani, Fariba; Abbaszadeh, Abbas
Power in nursing is a broad concept that has a determining effect on the achievement of professional goals. Gaining power is essential for promoting the roles of nurses, improving their professional image and the consistent improvement of healthcare systems. This study was conducted to identify and clarify strategies for gaining power in the nursing profession through the experiences of Iranian nurses. The present qualitative grounded theory study was conducted on fifteen participants selected through purposive sampling. Data were collected through individual, in-depth, semi-structured interviews. The data obtained were analyzed using the guidelines provided by Corbin and Strauss, (2008 edition). This study was carried out in Qazvin city of Iran and lasted fourteen months (2015-2016). The analysis of the data were classified under the main theme of gaining human-professional power based on individual and organizational capacities, divided into four main categories, including respecting human values and ethical principles (with two subcategories, keeping the human symbols of power and commitment to moral obligations of power), promoting professional interactions (with two subcategories, paying attention to intraprofessional communication and paying attention to interprofessional communication), attempting professional endurance (with two subcategories, raising self-confidence and having professional commitment), and valuing potential capacities (with two subcategories, regard for individual capacities and regard for organizational capacities). The findings obtained suggest that success in gaining power in nursing, requires a cumulative focus on human, ethical, professional, individual and organizational capacities.
Full Text Available By studying of present situation of universities in Iran, through research regarding students' lives, this article seeks to consider the features of students' professional identity. The professional identity is a social one, made, in relation with other individuals, through practical learning and instruction and professional experiments. For the students, the formally start of a social involvement, coincides with the start of their studies, and the formation of their professional identities will be intensified and reinforced through practical instructions concerning their fields. The method used in this study is qualitative research in the way of grounded theory method. To create the sample, the theoretical method is used and continued to reach saturation stage. The findings, hence, are collected applying the prevalence interview technique for 19 students and group interview for 15 students of University ofMazandaran. The research findings suggest that, the professional identities of the students have two features of scientific and personal identities. The students' scientific identity is formed by the students' tendencies and attitudes, and also their scientific actions and efforts. The personal identity is a perception that student builds up of himself as a scientific actor present at university environment. The development of a professional identity, in addition, is associated with the position of the individual within the community. Hence, the gender, socio-economic status, supports by family and friends, individual's social environment and networks influence on the formation of his professional identity.
Wright, C.; Reeves, P.
Purpose: Universities need to deliver educational programmes that create radiography graduates who are ready and able to participate in abnormality detection schemes, ultimately delivering safe and reliable performance because junior doctors are exposed to the risk of misdiagnosis if unsupported by other healthcare professionals. Radiographers are ideally suited to this role having the responsibility for conducting the actual X-ray examination. Method: The image interpretation performance of one cohort of student radiographers was measured upon enrolment from UCAS in the first week of university education and then again prior to graduation using RadBench (n = 23). Results: The results identified that novices have a range of natural image interpretation skills; accuracy 35–85%, sensitivity 45–100%, specificity 15–85%, mean ROC 0.691. Graduates presented a narrower range; accuracy 60–90%, sensitivity 40–100%, specificity 60–90%, mean ROC 0.841. The positive shift in graduate mean accuracy (+16%) was driven by increases in specificity (+27%) rather than sensitivity (+5%). No statistically significant differences (ANOVA) could be found between age group, gender and previous education however trends were identified. 56.5% of the population (n = 13) met a benchmark accurate standard of 80%, including one graduate who met 90%. Conclusion: Image interpretation testing at the point of UCAS entry is a useful indicator of future performance and is a recommended factor for consideration as part of the selection process. Whilst image interpretation now forms an integral part of undergraduate radiography programmes, new graduates may not necessary possess the reliability in decision making to justify participation in abnormality detection schemes, highlighting the need for continuous professional development. - Highlights: • Some novices appear to have inherent skills in fracture identification. • RadBench testing as part of the UCAS selection process
Drs Jos Pieterse
This doctoral thesis describes three case studies of service engineers participating in organizational change, interacting with managers and consultants. The study investigates the role of differences in professional discourse and culture when these three professional groups interact in
Full Text Available The Paper examines the insurance and liability issues resulting from the use of armed guards on board vessels. The study begins with an overview of the available data on key economic fi gures representing the projected overall annual costs of modern piracy. The focus is then shifted to the issue of public versus private security, where possible dangers of private-based security options are discussed in general. After explaining why the Somalia region deserves a closer attention when compared to other pirate-infested waters, a brief summary of the international effort to combat piracy threat is presented, followed by a structured overview of the use of private maritime security options in the maritime sector in general. One security option is the use of armed guards on board vessels. This option is explored both from the political (the acceptance by stakeholders and legal standpoint (legal issues arising from the use of armed guards. An important remedy for the shipping companies/ operators threatened by the piracy hazard is the existence of affordable and effective (specialized marine insurance. A study of available piracy insurance policies is presented, followed by an analysis of case law and other legal issues arising from piracy attacks, which could prove important when considering the legal implications of armed guards employment. Finally, a simplifi ed economic analysis of available security options is presented, followed by the final assessment of benefi ts derived from the use of armed guards.
Kirschner, P.A.; Vilsteren, P. van
Proposes a framework for the design of a learning environment which encourages the acquisition of academic and professional competence. Definition of knowledge, cognitive skill and competence; Acquisition of competence; Designing an environment for competence acquisition; Implementation of study
Goldstein, Jennifer N; Zhang, Zugui; Schwartz, J Sanford; Hicks, LeRoi S
Medicare beneficiaries hospitalized under observation status are subject to cost-sharing with no spending limit under Medicare Part B. Because low-income status is associated with increased hospital use, there is concern that such beneficiaries may be at increased risk for high use and out-of-pocket costs related to observation care. Our objective was to determine whether low-income Medicare beneficiaries are at risk for high use and high financial liability for observation care compared with higher-income beneficiaries. We performed a retrospective, observational analysis of Medicare Part B claims and US Census Bureau data from 2013. Medicare beneficiaries with Part A and B coverage for the full calendar year, with 1 or more observation stay(s), were included in the study. Beneficiaries were divided into quartiles representing poverty level. The associations between poverty quartile and high use of observation care and between poverty quartile and high financial liability for observation care were evaluated. After multivariate adjustment, the risk of high use was higher for beneficiaries in the poor (Quartile 3) and poorest (Quartile 4) quartiles compared with those in the wealthiest quartile (Quartile 1) (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13-1.31; AOR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.16-1.33). The risk of high financial liability was higher in every poverty quartile compared with the wealthiest and peaked in Quartile 3, which represented the poor but not the poorest beneficiaries (AOR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.10-1.24). Poverty predicts high use of observation care. The poor or near poor may be at highest risk for high liability. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This report highlights the urgent need for global palm oil consumers and investors to support Unilever's call for an immediate moratorium on deforestation and peatland clearance in Indonesia. This report focuses on Unilever, which shares major institutional investors with other leading corporations including Nestle, Procter and Gamble and Kraft. Not only do these corporations share investors, they also share growing carbon liability within their raw material supply chains through the expansion in the palm oil sector in Indonesia. Unilever has recognised the global problems associated with palm oil expansion and the need for drastic reform to this sector. Unilever has taken a bold move in calling for an immediate moratorium on deforestation and peatland clearance. While Unilever's position is strengthened by its status as the largest palm oil consumer in the world, this report shows how, unless companies like Nestle, Procter and Gamble and Kraft support its call for a halt to deforestation, the palm oil industry will continue to present a massive carbon liability over the coming years. This report uses Unilever's palm oil supply chains as a case study to help quantify the carbon liability and collateral risks associated with the Indonesian palm oil sector. It shows how, by buying palm oil from suppliers who account for more than one-third of Indonesia's palm oil production, Unilever and its competitors are increasing their potential carbon liability and thus leaving investors exposed to potentially significant levels of hidden risk, compromising long-term financial and brand stability.
Full Text Available In order to provide for successful, safe and high quality medical services, health care institutions need to be equipped with adequate medical devices. For this reason, every medical institution is legally obliged to have relevant medical devices. In case a patient has been deprived of some medical service for the lack of necessary medical devices (which the institution has been obliged to provide, the medical institution is responsible for the damage and harm sustained by the patient. The responsibility implies non-contractual liability (in tort law or pre-contractual liability (in contract law. In both cases, the liability is based on the presumed culpability. In order to be excluded from liability, the medical institution has to prove that the patient has been deprived of medical service (or that the institution has refused to enter into a medical service provider agreement on justifiable grounds, i.e. due to the lack of necessary medical devices. On the other hand, in case the medial institutions fail to provide needed care or violate their obligation to use medical devices when necessary, it is regarded as medical negligence (professional error. In most cases, it implies the liability of medical institutions for damage, injury or harm caused to the patient by medical services provided without applying a relevant medical device, whose use has been medically indicated. The liability is even more substantial in cases where the medical device has been available but the medical institutions has not applied it in medial treatment (even though its use has been medically indicated; such conduct is qualified as gross negligence.
Johanson, C E
In order to place appropriate restrictions upon the availability of certain therapeutic agents to limit their abuse, it is important to assess abuse liability, an important aspect of drug safety evaluation. However, the negative consequences of restriction must also be considered. Drugs most likely to be tested are psychoactive compounds with therapeutic indications similar to known drugs of abuse. Methods include assays of pharmacological profile, drug discrimination procedures, self-administration procedures, and measures of drug-induced toxicity including evaluations of tolerance and physical dependence. Furthermore, the evaluation of toxicity using behavioural end-points is an important component of the assessment, and it is generally believed that the most valid procedure in this evaluation is the measurement of drug self-administration. However, even this method rarely predicts the extent of abuse of a specific drug. Although methods are available which appear to measure relative abuse liability, these procedures are not validated for all drug classes. Thus, additional strategies, including abuse liability studies in humans, modelled after those used with animals, must be used in order to make a more informed prediction. Although there is pressure to place restrictions on new drugs at the time of marketing, in light of the difficulty of predicting relative abuse potential, a better strategy might be to market a drug without restrictions, but require postmarketing surveillance in order to obtain more accurate information on which to base a final decision.
Vimala, Balasubramanian; Vimala,Balasubramanian; Madhavi,C.
Balasubramanian Vimala, Chokalingam MadhaviDepartment of Business Administration, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar, IndiaAbstract: Our study explores the influence of age and experience on stress and depression and the relationship between stress and depression among women information technology (IT) professionals in Chennai, India. The present study aimed (1) to find out the level of stress and depression experienced by women IT professionals, (2) to understand the impact of age and exp...
Full Text Available The main research problems and tasks of a new scientific field in Russia—the psychology of professional health — are formulated. A definition of professional health as the abilities of a person successfully to cope with the demands and requirements in a professional environment is offered. A psychological vision for professional health with four basic provisions is proposed. The aim of the research was to study the extent of the influence on the professional health of managers of such psychological factors as systems of values, stress in professional activity, individual and psychological features, strategies for overcoming stressful situations. Data are provided from research conducted in 2002-2012 on managers in Russian companies. Taking part in the research were 651 managers of various organizations in St. Petersburg, Moscow, Yekaterinburg, Veliky Novgorod, and Kharkov. For collecting empirical material on methods of supervision, I used polls, tests, interviews, content analysis, self-reports of participants in training programs, and a method for forming the experiment. In addition I employed psychodiagnostic techniques intended for studying the cognitive, behavioral, and emotional components of health, a technique for revealing the personal potentials (regulatory, communicative, intellectual of the managers, and also my own techniques. The study positively correlated health with such values as having interesting work, having a happy family life, being financially secure, having an active life, and giving and receiving love. Connections between the behavioral manifestations of type A behavior and the managers’ values were revealed. The greatest negative impact on the managers was made by such factors of professional activity as an excessive workload, emotional pressure at work, difficulty in carrying out activity, and insufficient time. Health is important in the structure of the professional activity of managers; it acts as a strategic
Brunner, G.; Schmidt, C.
The authors investigate whether Federal German citizens would have any success in claiming compensation for damage as a result of the Chernobyl reactor accident in a Soviet court, and the answer is positive in terms of substantive law. Actions would have to be filed against the AES at Chernobyl to the Chernobyl county court, which would examine the claims according to Soviet (Ukrainian) civil law, and taking into account two aspects of liability, namely strict liability, and liability in tort. However, it would indeed be more realistic to expect that any such action would be dismissed by the court upon the directive of political authorities, as the Soviet Government certainly would have no interest at all to give any foreign citizen the chance to win a case in such a politically significant matter. (orig./HSCH) [de
Kaiser, Ulrich; Sofka, Wolfgang
companies. Such liabilities of foreignness are persistent in nature. We investigate the causes behind these detrimental effects. We identify two major factors conceptually: a lack of legitimacy in the host country on the demand side and a lack of responsiveness on the side of the multinational corporation......Globalization has provided many companies with new opportunities for growth and efficiency. This requires them to operate successfully across cultural and social borders. These can be stumbling blocks to internationalization and have been found to cause frequent errors and delays for multinational...... that legitimacy is the dominant factor behind the effects of liability of foreignness. As customer experience increases, liability of foreignness caused by a lack of responsiveness becomes more of an issue....
The first part contains a description of national liability standards for maritime transport in the French, English, US-American and West German legislation. This is followed up by a detailed review of the existing international agreements. The book is rounded off by a critical evaluation of the presently held discussion and suggested solutions on the problems of liability in the maritime transport of dangerous goods other than mineral oil. The author takes a close look at the 'Entwurf eines Internationalen Uebereinkommens ueber die Haftung und den Schadenersatz bei der Befoerderung schaedlicher und gefaehrlicher Stoffe auf See' ('draft of an international agreement on liability and compensation for damage in maritime transport of noxious and dangerous goods') in the version of May 23, 1983, which was discussed on an international diplomat's conference in London without however, yielding any concrete results. (orig./HP) [de
This Memorandum issued by the Swedish Ministry of Justice contains proposed amendments to the 1968 Nuclear Liability Act which can be divided into two categories. Those in the first category are required to enable Sweden to ratify the draft Protocols to amend the Paris Convention and the Brussels Supplementary Convention. The second category of amendments propose that the nuclear operator's liability be raised from the present sum of 50 million Kroner to 500 million Kroner, to be covered by insurance; it is also proposed that a State liability be introduced over and above the compensation available, the aggregate amount being limited to 300 million Kroner. State indemnification would apply to the Nordic countries. The Annexes to the Memorandum contain the English and French texts of the draft Protocols to amend both above-mentioned Conventions (NEA) [fr
The use of liability law to improve incentives for safety is supported by certain recent theoretical results. The main ideas and the key argumants are summarized. Basic weaknesses of the theory are discussed, namely: (1) the simple model of Calabresi does not generalize; (2) the more complex systems of J.P. Brown, P. Diamond, and J. Green require that courts possess a great deal of information and use it to set appropriate standards of due care; (3) in practice safety incentives also depend upon fear of criminal penalties and the sense of social responsibility. The questions whether and when liability rules can significantly affect incentives are addressed. It is concluded that the theory in its present state can hardly serve as a basis for altering liability rules
Dehghani, Ali; Mosalanejad, Leili; Dehghan-Nayeri, Nahid
Professional ethics refers to the use of logical and consistent communication, knowledge, clinical skills, emotions and values in nursing practice. This study aimed to explore and describe factors that affect professional ethics in nursing practice in Iran. This qualitative study was conducted using conventional content analysis approach. Thirty nurses with at least 5 years of experience participated in the study; they were selected using purposive sampling. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews and analyzed using thematic analysis. After encoding and classifying the data, five major categories were identified: individual character and responsibility, communication challenges, organizational preconditions, support systems, educational and cultural development. Awareness of professional ethics and its contributing factors could help nurses and healthcare professionals provide better services for patients. At the same time, such understanding would be valuable for educational administrators for effective planning and management.
Full Text Available The statutory audit of business entities is represented by the audit of annual financial accounts or consolidated financial accounts, according to the Community legislation transposed in national regulations. Negligence or imprudence in performing the activities related to this type of audit entail special consequences. It is to some of the elements derived from this context that we refer in this paper, especially as there is often the underlying risk for the auditor to be held liable. It is worth noting that one cannot claim several compensations for the same action. Then, the auditor is not jointly liable with the other authors of the illicit actions which have caused damages. On the other hand, limited liability does not apply to the situations when it has been proven that the auditor has breached his professional duties with direct intent.
Full Text Available Our research is topical in the context in which accounting takes an increasingly important role in the social life of each individual and implicitly of the society it belongs to and aims to present the alternative accounting concepts and practices of creative accounting on equity and liabilities to tourism entities. In determining the arguments to justify the real need for knowledge in this area we must delineate the research field Creative Accounting. In this sense, the research envisaged a systematization and reconsideration as well a synthesis and antithesis of the concepts presented on this topic in the specialized literature, in the regulations of various professional bodies and authorities. The knowledge of the patrimonial system, of its capacity to generate profits at a time is insured with both accounting and an accurate and effective control.
Bernick, Charles; Zetterberg, Henrik; Shan, Guogen; Banks, Sarah; Blennow, Kaj
The objective of this study is to evaluate longitudinal change in plasma neurofilament light (NF-L) and tau levels in relationship to clinical and radiological measures in professional fighters. Participants (active and retired professional fighters and control group) underwent annual blood sampling, 3 Tesla MRI brain imaging, computerized cognitive testing, and assessment of exposure to head trauma. Plasma tau and NF-L concentrations were measured using Simoa assays. Multiple linear regression models were used to compare the difference across groups in regard to baseline measurements, while mixed linear models was used for the longitudinal data with multiple measurements for each participant. Plasma samples were available on 471 participants. Baseline NF-L measures differed across groups (F_3,393=6.99, p=0.0001), with the active boxers having the highest levels. Higher NF-L levels at baseline were correlated with lower baseline MRI regional volumes and lower cognitive scores. The number of sparring rounds completed by the active fighters was correlated with NF-L (95% CI 0.0116-0.4053, p=0.0381), but not tau, levels. Among 126 subjects having multiple yearly samples, there was a significant difference in average yearly percentage change in tau across groups (F_3,83=3.87, p=0.0121).). We conclude that plasma NF-L and tau behave differently in a group of active and retired fighters; NF-L better reflects acute exposure whereas the role of plasma tau levels in signifying chronic change in brain structure over time requires further study.
Fuller, Colin W; Brooks, John H M; Kemp, Simon P T
To determine the incidence, severity, nature, and causes of cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine injuries sustained during competition and training in professional rugby union. A 2 season prospective cohort design. Twelve English Premiership rugby union clubs. Five hundred and forty-six male rugby union players of whom 296 were involved in both seasons. Location, diagnosis, severity (number of days unavailable for training and matches), and cause of injury: incidence of match and training injuries (injuries/1000 player-hours). Player age, body mass, stature, playing position, use of headgear, and activity and period of season. The incidences of spinal injuries were 10.90 (9.43 to 12.60) per 1000 player match-hours and 0.37 (0.29 to 0.47) per 1000 player training-hours. No player sustained a catastrophic spinal injury, but 3 players sustained career-ending injuries. Overall, players were more likely to sustain a cervical injury during matches and a lumbar injury during training. Forwards were significantly more likely to sustain a spinal injury than backs during both matches (P accounting for 926 days (23%) and cervical nerve root injuries sustained during matches for 621 days (15%). During matches, more injuries were caused by tackles (37%), and during training more injuries were caused by weight-training (33%). The results showed that rugby union players were exposed to a high risk of noncatastrophic spinal injury during tackling, scrummaging, and weight-training activities; injury prevention strategies, therefore, should be focused on these activities.
Graham, Carroll; Regan, Julie-Anne
This paper reports on the second stage of a comparative study between two higher education institutions: one in Australia and the other in the United Kingdom, which explored the contributions of professional staff to student outcomes. The first stage acted as a scoping exercise to ascertain how the contributions of professional staff to student…
Chandratilake, Madawa; McAleer, Sean; Gibson, John
Over the last two decades, many medical educators have sought to define professionalism. Initial attempts to do so were focused on defining professionalism in a manner that allowed for universal agreement. This quest was later transformed into an effort to 'understand professionalism' as many researchers realised that professionalism is a social construct and is culture-sensitive. The determination of cultural differences in the understanding of professionalism, however, has been subject to very little research, possibly because of the practical difficulties of doing so. In this multi-region study, we illustrate the universal and culture-specific aspects of medical professionalism as it is perceived by medical practitioners. Forty-six professional attributes were identified by reviewing the literature. A total of 584 medical practitioners, representing the UK, Europe, North America and Asia, participated in a survey in which they indicated the importance of each of these attributes. We determined the 'essentialness' of each attribute in different geographic regions using the content validity index, supplemented with kappa statistics. With acceptable levels of consensus, all regional groups identified 29 attributes as 'essential', thereby indicating the universality of these professional attributes, and six attributes as non-essential. The essentialness of the rest varied by regional group. This study has helped to identify regional similarities and dissimilarities in understandings of professionalism, most of which can be explained by cultural differences in line with the theories of cultural dimensions and cultural value. However, certain dissonances among regions may well be attributable to socio-economic factors. Some of the responses appear to be counter-cultural and demonstrate practitioners' keenness to overcome cultural barriers in order to provide better patient care. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2012.
Wernicke, Georg; Mehlsen, Kristian
In this paper, we combine the concepts of location, liability of foreignness (LoF), and their relation to factors that drive multinational enterprises (MNEs) towards, or away from, global cities. We argue that three interrelated characteristics of global cities - cosmopolitanism, availability...... indicate that MNEs have a stronger propensity to locate in global cities than in metropolitan or peripheral areas, and that these locational choices are affected by institutional distance and industrial characteristics. The results provide empirical support for our argument that locating in a global city...... can reduce the liability of foreignness suffered by MNEs, and that global cities play a central role in the process of globalisation....
Fitzgerald, B.; O'Brien, D.; Fitzgerald, A.
The chapter provides a broad overview to the topic of search engine liability for copyright infringement. In doing so, the chapter examines some of the key copyright law principles and their application to search engines. The chapter also provides a discussion of some of the most important cases to be decided within the courts of the United States, Australia, China and Europe regarding the liability of search engines for copyright infringement. Finally, the chapter will conclude with some thoughts for reform, including how copyright law can be amended in order to accommodate and realise the great informative power which search engines have to offer society.
Full Text Available Work discipline is essential for the proper conduct of business within an organization with implications for productivity and efficiency. Disciplinary liability arises as a direct result of breach of service obligations and rules of behaviour. At EU level, disciplinary responsibility of community public servant is governed by the provisions of the Statute of the European Community published in the Official Journal of the European Community no. L 56 March 4, 1968 and amended on numerous occasions. This paper proposes an analysis of concrete conditions which require disciplinary liability of the European public servant, disciplinary sanctions and procedures for implementing them.
Stark, Joan S.; Lowther, Malcolm A.
The integration of undergraduate liberal and professional education is discussed in the following chapters: (1) "A Call to Action"; (2) "Binding Values, Changing Times and Curricular Balance"; (3) "Seizing Opportunities for Excellence"; (4) "Defining the Educated Professional"; (5) "Extending a Constructive Debate"; and (6) "A New Spirit of…
Moussa Abba Aïssata
Full Text Available Abstract Background The practice of exclusive breastfeeding depends on various factors related to both mothers and their environment, including the services delivered by health professionals. It is known that support and counseling by health professionals can improve rates, early initiation and total duration of breastfeeding, particularly exclusive breastfeeding. Mothers' decisions are influenced by health professionals' advice. However, in Niger the practice of exclusive breastfeeding is almost non-existent. The purpose of this exploratory study, of which some results are presented here, was to document health professionals' attitudes and practices with regard to exclusive breastfeeding promotion in hospital settings in the urban community of Niamey, Niger. Methods Fieldwork was conducted in Niamey, Niger. A qualitative approach was employed. Health professionals' practices were observed in a sample of frontline public healthcare facilities. Results The field observation results presented here indicate that exclusive breastfeeding is not promoted in healthcare facilities because the health professionals do not encourage it and their practices are inappropriate. Some still have limited knowledge or are misinformed about this practice or do not believe in it. They do not systematically discuss exclusive breastfeeding with mothers, or they mention it only briefly and without giving any explanation. Worse still, some encourage the use of breast milk substitutes, which are frequently promoted in healthcare facilities. Thus mothers often receive contradictory messages. Conclusion The results suggest the need to train or retrain health professionals with regard to exclusive breastfeeding, and regularly supervise their activities.
Taylor, Sally; Allsop, Matthew J; Bekker, Hilary L; Bennett, Michael I; Bewick, Bridgette M
Poor pain assessment is a barrier to effective pain control. There is growing interest internationally in the development and implementation of remote monitoring technologies to enhance assessment in cancer and chronic disease contexts. Findings describe the development and testing of pain monitoring systems, but research identifying the needs of health professionals to implement routine monitoring systems within clinical practice is limited. To inform the development and implementation strategy of an electronic pain monitoring system, PainCheck, by understanding palliative care professionals' needs when integrating PainCheck into routine clinical practice. Qualitative study using face-to-face interviews. Data were analysed using framework analysis Setting/participants: Purposive sample of health professionals managing the palliative care of patients living in the community Results: A total of 15 interviews with health professionals took place. Three meta-themes emerged from the data: (1) uncertainties about integration of PainCheck and changes to current practice, (2) appraisal of current practice and (3) pain management is everybody's responsibility Conclusion: Even the most sceptical of health professionals could see the potential benefits of implementing an electronic patient-reported pain monitoring system. Health professionals have reservations about how PainCheck would work in practice. For optimal use, PainCheck needs embedding within existing electronic health records. Electronic pain monitoring systems have the potential to enable professionals to support patients' pain management more effectively but only when barriers to implementation are appropriately identified and addressed.
..., Derivative instrument liabilities. This account must include the change in the fair value of all derivative instrument liabilities not designated as cash flow or fair value hedges. Account 426.5, Other deductions... the fair value of the derivative instrument. ...
of defining the scope of application of the Ethiopian law on liability for damages ... Federal Supreme Court in a recent case has rendered a decision that allows. ♧ .... 3.1 Whether Third Party Practice Exonerates Joint and Several. Liability.
Di Jin; Kite-Powell, H.L.
Recent changes in the US liability regime for oil pollution damage have intensified a policy debate about environmental liability limits. Economic theory suggests that some type of limit may be needed under certain conditions, and that such a limit should be set so that the marginal social benefit and cost are equal. However, it is unclear how a liability limit may be determined specifically for tanker shipping in US waters. We first examine conditions under which corner solutions (no liability or unlimited liability) are desirable. We then formulate a model to determine a socially optimal liability limit for oil pollution damage in US waters when a non-zero, finite liability limit is desirable. The model captures the tradeoff between less expensive energy supply and more stringent protection of the marine environment. Numerical simulations illustrate the properties of the model and major factors affecting the public policy decision regarding a liability limit. (author)
Alkhatatbeh, M J; Alefan, Q; Alzghool, M
This was a questionnaire-based cross-sectional study of 400 healthcare professionals recruited from primary healthcare centres in northern Jordan between April and October 2015. The questionnaire included questions about smoking behaviour, risks, opinions and providing anti-smoking counselling. More than 80% of participants reported that smoking-free policies were not enforced at primary healthcare centres. Compared to hospitals and the general population, smoking was less prevalent among primary healthcare professionals and more prevalent in men. More than 90% of participants believed that smoking was dangerous and associated with cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Around 92% believed that they should set a good example to patients by not smoking and advise them about smoking cessation. Only 15.3% of participants felt well prepared when counselling patients about smoking and 92.8% believed that they needed training. This study suggests that primary healthcare professionals should act as anti-smoking role models after receiving professional training.
Aleksander Andreevich Tsyganov
Full Text Available The article studies the ways and level of the protection of the rights of shared construction participants in Russia, and the utilization of builders liability insurance for the purpose to identify the problem regions and the prospects of the development of mechanisms ensuring the liability of developers. The basis for the article was the study of real estate developers in 15 cities with the population over 1 million people. The article presents the data of the types of fund raising for building housing in the cities with the population over 1 million people, the regional differentiation in this parameter is highlighted. The article has explored the implementation of mechanisms ensuring the liability of developers for transfering premises to the shareholders. The main factors considered in the article are the form of registration of the relationship between a developer and an individual — an investor, as well as the mechanisms ensuring the liability of developers. It is shown that in some regions, the level of protection of the participants of shared construction is low. The mechanisms ensuring the liability of developers including the legal requirements for liability insurance and guarantee of credit institution are systematized. In the article, the key term of the liability insurance of builders for default on obligations or improperly performing the obligations on the delivery of residential properties, and also the condition of the guarantee of credit institution on the delivery of residential properties are considered. The regional features of how people participate in the construction of housing are described in the context of mechanisms ensuring the liability of developers. The use of various ensuring mechanisms, the differences in insurance by the commercial organizations and by joining the mutual society are shown. The results of the study can be used at the correction of the state and regional policy in the field of housing
Abstract Background Health professionals working in primary care and public health have opportunities to address body weight status issues with their patients through face-to-face contact. The objectives of this all-Ireland project are: 1. to assess the attitudes, current practices\\/behaviours and knowledge of key health professional groups on body weight status; 2. to assess the health professional groups\\' ability to identify body weight status in both adults and children. The health professional groups are: (a) community related public health nurses; (b) school public health nurses; (c) GPs and practice nurses (primary care); and (d) occupational health nurses (workplace) from both Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. Methods\\/Design This all-Ireland multi-disciplinary project follows a mixed methods approach using both quantitative and qualitative methodologies, and consists of four components: 1. Literature review - to explore the role of health professionals in managing obesity through spontaneous intervention in a variety of health promotion settings. 2. Telephone interviews and focus groups - to gain an in-depth insight into the views of health professionals in assessing body weight status. 3. Survey (primarily online but also paper-based) - to determine the attitudes, current practices\\/behaviours and knowledge of health professionals in assessing body weight status. 4. Online evaluation study - an online interactive programme will be developed to assess health professionals\\' ability to identify the body weight status of adults and children. Discussion This project will assess and report the attitudes, current practices\\/behaviours and knowledge of key health professional groups within Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland on body weight status, and their ability to identify body weight status in both adults and children. The results of this project will generate recommendations for clinical practice in managing obesity, which may
Leung, Danny C; Hsu, Enoch K; Hui, Edwin C
OBJECTIVE. Medical professionalism has been widely discussed in western scholarly literature. However, since Hong Kong has a mixed Chinese-western culture, it remains uncertain whether Hong Kong health care professionals, medical students, and patients see medical professionalism in exactly the same way as westerners. The objective of the present study was to explore perceptions of medical professionalism in Hong Kong. DESIGN. Individual semi-structured interviews. SETTING. Medical faculty preceptors, residents, interns, nurses, and students from the Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine of the University of Hong Kong. Subjects were recruited at an out-patient clinic of Queen Mary Hospital. PARTICIPANTS. We interviewed 39 subjects, including six medical faculty preceptors, six hospital residents, four medical interns, eight nurses, eight out-patients, and seven medical students. The interviews were transcribed and coded. Grounded theory was employed for framing and analysing the interviews. RESULTS. A total of 30 primary themes were identified and grouped under three secondary themes, ie 'Expectations of a professional doctor', 'Work values', and 'Patient care'. In general, the primary themes were consistent with recognised professional attributes in western bioethics, such as knowledge and skills, holistic care, and communication skills. A closer analysis suggested that traditional Chinese thought also played an important role in shaping the medical professionalism of Hong Kong. Challenges to be faced by Hong Kong doctors due to recent social changes were also identified. CONCLUSIONS. Medical professionalism in Hong Kong is shaped by both western medical ethics and traditional Chinese thought. The values treasured by Hong Kong health care professionals as well as technological advance, and the city's proximity to Mainland China makes Hong Kong health care unique. It is important to maintain the present work attitudes and at the same time adapt to new social changes.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Health professionals working in primary care and public health have opportunities to address body weight status issues with their patients through face-to-face contact. The objectives of this all-Ireland project are: 1. to assess the attitudes, current practices/behaviours and knowledge of key health professional groups on body weight status; 2. to assess the health professional groups' ability to identify body weight status in both adults and children. The health professional groups are: (a community related public health nurses; (b school public health nurses; (c GPs and practice nurses (primary care; and (d occupational health nurses (workplace from both Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. Methods/Design This all-Ireland multi-disciplinary project follows a mixed methods approach using both quantitative and qualitative methodologies, and consists of four components: 1. Literature review - to explore the role of health professionals in managing obesity through spontaneous intervention in a variety of health promotion settings. 2. Telephone interviews and focus groups - to gain an in-depth insight into the views of health professionals in assessing body weight status. 3. Survey (primarily online but also paper-based - to determine the attitudes, current practices/behaviours and knowledge of health professionals in assessing body weight status. 4. Online evaluation study - an online interactive programme will be developed to assess health professionals' ability to identify the body weight status of adults and children. Discussion This project will assess and report the attitudes, current practices/behaviours and knowledge of key health professional groups within Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland on body weight status, and their ability to identify body weight status in both adults and children. The results of this project will generate recommendations for clinical practice in managing obesity, which may
A recent seminar in Moscow has addressed the issue of nuclear liability and insurance in the Russian nuclear industry since the breakup of the Soviet Union. The potential benefits of joining the international liability regime and adopting comprehensive nuclear liability legislation were discussed. The need to establish appropriate nuclear insurance structures and provide indemnity to cover the liability were also debated. Whether these changes can be put into action or not is less certain than the need for them. (UK)
Clark, J. Spencer
This qualitative study investigated preservice social studies teachers' thinking about personal agency. This study used a case study design and was conducted in a semester long undergraduate social studies methods course. The findings drew upon data from eight participants. The participants were selected based on their stated purpose for teaching…
Cristina-Ionela FĂDUR; Marilena MIRONIUC
The purpose of the research is to obtain an overall image on the accounting professionals' opinions concerning intangible assets and capital. Out of the 111 accounting professionals who participated in the study, 55.86% consider that the traditional financial statements cannot capture the value of intangible assets, which leads to an increase in the information asymmetry, the solution being to focus, in the annual reports, on non-financial information. Over 80% of the respondents consider tha...
Yurtseven, Nihal; Bademcioglu, Mehtap
The purpose of this study is to carry out a content analysis about the studies on teachers' professional development and to determine the tendencies in these studies. Within this scope, 60 studies that were registered to Turkish National Thesis Centre and ProQuest database between the years 2005-2015 were examined. Of the 60 studies, 37 of them…
... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Liability for the tax. 50.5 Section 50.5... TAXES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS RELATING TO THE TAX IMPOSED WITH RESPECT TO CERTAIN HYDRAULIC MINING § 50.5 Liability for the tax. Liability for tax attaches to any person engaged at any time during the...
... LIABILITY FUND § 29.7 Imposition of strict liability. (a) Notwithstanding the provisions of any other law... prove that the damages were caused by an act of war or by the negligence of the United States or other... negligence of such damaged party. (c)(1) Strict liability for all claims arising out of any one incident...
... INVESTIGATION REGULATIONS-PERSONNEL ACTION Statement of Policy and Interpretation § 5.69 Evidence of criminal liability. Evidence of criminal liability discovered during an investigation or hearing conducted pursuant... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evidence of criminal liability. 5.69 Section 5.69...
Decamps, M.; de Schepper, A.; Goovaerts, M.
This paper concerns optimal asset-liability management when the assets and the liabilities are modeled by means of correlated geometric Brownian motions as suggested in Gerber and Shiu [2003. Geometric Brownian motion models for assets and liabilities: from pension funding to optimal dividends.
Following a description of the Paris Convention and Brussels Supplementary Convention system for nuclear third party liability and that prevailing until now in Switzerland, the paper reviews the new Swiss nuclear third party liability Bill prepared after a popular consultation. The new provisions are analysed and in particular, that providing for unlimited liability. (NEA) [fr
Jacobs, Craig L; Cassidy, J David; Côté, Pierre; Boyle, Eleanor; Ramel, Eva; Ammendolia, Carlo; Hartvigsen, Jan; Schwartz, Isabella
The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with injury in professional ballet and modern dancers, and assess if dancers are reporting their injuries and explore reasons for not reporting injuries. Cross-sectional study. Participants were recruited from nine professional ballet and modern dance companies in Canada, Denmark, Israel, and Sweden. Professional ballet and modern dancers. Sociodemographic variables included age, sex, height, weight, and before-tax yearly or monthly income. Dance specific characteristics included number of years in present dance company, number of years dancing professionally, number of years dancing total, and rank in the company. Self-reported injury and Self-Estimated Functional Inability because of Pain. A total of 260 dancers participated in the study with an overall response rate of 81%. The point prevalence of self-reported injury in professional ballet and modern dancers was 54.8% (95% CI, 47.7-62.1) and 46.3% (95% CI, 35.5-57.1), respectively. Number of years dancing professionally (OR = 4.4, 95% CI, 1.6-12.3) and rank (OR = 2.4, 95% CI, 1.2-4.8) were associated with injury in ballet dancers. More than 15% of all injured dancers had not reported their injury and their reasons for not reporting injury varied. The prevalence of injury is high in professional dancers with a significant percentage not reporting their injuries for a variety of reasons. Number of years dancing and rank are associated with injury in professional ballet dancers.
Fredheim, Terje; Danbolt, Lars J; Haavet, Ole R; Kjønsberg, Kari; Lien, Lars
Collaboration between general practice and mental health care has been recognised as necessary to provide good quality healthcare services to people with mental health problems. Several studies indicate that collaboration often is poor, with the result that patient' needs for coordinated services are not sufficiently met, and that resources are inefficiently used. An increasing number of mental health care workers should improve mental health services, but may complicate collaboration and coordination between mental health workers and other professionals in the treatment chain. The aim of this qualitative study is to investigate strengths and weaknesses in today's collaboration, and to suggest improvements in the interaction between General Practitioners (GPs) and specialised mental health service. This paper presents a qualitative focus group study with data drawn from six groups and eight group sessions with 28 health professionals (10 GPs, 12 nurses, and 6 physicians doing post-doctoral training in psychiatry), all working in the same region and assumed to make professional contact with each other. GPs and mental health professionals shared each others expressions of strengths, weaknesses and suggestions for improvement in today's collaboration. Strengths in today's collaboration were related to common consultations between GPs and mental health professionals, and when GPs were able to receive advice about diagnostic treatment dilemmas. Weaknesses were related to the GPs' possibility to meet mental health professionals, and lack of mutual knowledge in mental health services. The results describe experiences and importance of interpersonal knowledge, mutual accessibility and familiarity with existing systems and resources. There is an agreement between GPs and mental health professionals that services will improve with shared knowledge about patients through systematic collaborative services, direct cell-phone lines to mental health professionals and allocated
Haavet Ole R
Full Text Available Abstract Background Collaboration between general practice and mental health care has been recognised as necessary to provide good quality healthcare services to people with mental health problems. Several studies indicate that collaboration often is poor, with the result that patient' needs for coordinated services are not sufficiently met, and that resources are inefficiently used. An increasing number of mental health care workers should improve mental health services, but may complicate collaboration and coordination between mental health workers and other professionals in the treatment chain. The aim of this qualitative study is to investigate strengths and weaknesses in today's collaboration, and to suggest improvements in the interaction between General Practitioners (GPs and specialised mental health service. Methods This paper presents a qualitative focus group study with data drawn from six groups and eight group sessions with 28 health professionals (10 GPs, 12 nurses, and 6 physicians doing post-doctoral training in psychiatry, all working in the same region and assumed to make professional contact with each other. Results GPs and mental health professionals shared each others expressions of strengths, weaknesses and suggestions for improvement in today's collaboration. Strengths in today's collaboration were related to common consultations between GPs and mental health professionals, and when GPs were able to receive advice about diagnostic treatment dilemmas. Weaknesses were related to the GPs' possibility to meet mental health professionals, and lack of mutual knowledge in mental health services. The results describe experiences and importance of interpersonal knowledge, mutual accessibility and familiarity with existing systems and resources. There is an agreement between GPs and mental health professionals that services will improve with shared knowledge about patients through systematic collaborative services, direct cell
Janjhua, Yasmin; Chandrakanta
The present paper has examined the sources of stress among the healthcare professionals and the difference between responses of personality type A and type B healthcare professionals toward stressful situations. Further, the difference in the performance of both the personality types has been studied. The relationship between stress and performance among the healthcare professionals in general and with respect to personality type A and type B healthcare professionals in particular has also been investigated. A total of 160 healthcare professionals of Post Graduate Institute (PGI), Chandigarh, were subjects of this study. Identification with patients, deterioration and complication in the patient condition, and job criticism emerged to be the sources of stress. Significant difference between personality type A and personality type B professionals' response pertaining to identification with the patients only has been reported. However, type A individuals showed slightly higher inclination as compared to type B individuals on majority of stressful situations. It was further noted that type A individuals had scored higher on almost all the performance indicators as compared to personality type B individuals. The mean difference between the personality types was found to be significant for two performance dimensions, i.e., relationship with colleagues, and teaching and training. The stressful situation relationship with patients was found to have significantly negative impact on the performance factors such as good clinical care and rapport with patients. Daily work was also found to be negatively related to good medical practice.
The theme of this article is adult students' learning in part-time studies at university level in Denmark. One issue discussed is the interplay of research and teaching in this kind of study programme. Examples are presented from the Master of Learning Processes study programme at Aalborg...
Clarke, Roy G.; Goyette, R.; Mathers, C.W.; Germani, T.R.
The Nuclear Liability Act, enacted in June 1970 and proclaimed effective October 11, 1976, is a federal law governing civil liability for nuclear damage in Canada incorporating many of the basic principles of the international conventions. Exceptions to operator liability for breach of duty imposed by the Act and duty of the operator as well as right of recourse, time limit on bringing actions, special measures for compensation and extent of territory over which the operator is liable are of particular interest. An operator must maintain $75,000,000. of insurance for each nuclear installation for which he is the operator. The Nuclear Insurance Association of Canada (NIAC) administers two ΣPoolsΣ or groups of insurance companies where each member participates for the percentage of the total limit on a net basis, one pool being for Physical Damage Insurance and the other for Liability Insurance. The Atomic Energy Control Board recommends to the Treasury Board the amount of insurance (basic) for each installation. Basic insurance required depends on the exposure and can range from $4 million for a fuel fabricator to $75 million for a power reactor. Coverage under the Operator's Policy provides for bodily injury, property damage and various other claims such as damage from certain transportation incidents as well as nuclear excursions. Workmen's Compensation will continue to be handled by the usual channels. (L.L.)
... protected against personal liability for corporate obligations. Both forms of business entity may opt for treatment as an association, and consequently for corporate tax treatment, without regard to State law...''). LLPs are created under State law and share certain characteristics with both partnerships and...
The Japanese legislation relating to nuclear liability is based on two laws which date back to 1961, i.e. the law concerning compensation for nuclear damage and the law concerning financial damage compensation indemnification. In Japan, the legal channelling of liability is in force, a contractual recourse is not possible unless there is intent. The financial security act in Japan consists of a (third-party) liability insurance contract concluded with a private insurer and the cover contract concluded with the state. According to the agreement on financial security concluded between government and operator, the operator has to pay the state a certain sum per year. Basically, the amount covered is DM 50 million per site. This sum will be increased to DM 90 million. The operator is fully liable. The state is not bound by law to fully cover damages but will be - de facto - prepared to do so anyway. For potential damage to personnel, the social insurance law is applicable as it is in the Federal Republic of Germany. However, this damage is intended to be subject to nuclear liability, to be effected by an amendmend. (orig./HP) [de
... affect a paying bank's liability to its customer under the U.C.C. or other law. (b) Paying bank's failure... provision, but not both. (c) Comparative negligence. If a person, including a bank, fails to exercise... person under § 229.38(a) shall be diminished in proportion to the amount of negligence or bad faith...
Too much emotion is involved in the topic of nuclear energy. This is often due to the fact that the persons involved lack of essential basic knowledge. This article and the following ones represent an attempt to offer a technically oriented introduction into the physical preconditions of the problems and the questions concerning matters of liability and insurance. (orig.) [de
Richmond, Douglas R.
Examines higher education institutional liability in the following areas: (1) in tort, based on negligence, for physical harm to students; (2) in tort, for defamation flowing from student media; and (3) in contract, arising out of student organizations' business relationships with third parties. (222 references) (MLF)
... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Personal liability. 1209.74 Section 1209.74 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING..., AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order...
P. C. Leyens (Patrick); M.G. Faure (Michael)
markdownabstractThis paper will be published as a chapter of the forthcoming volume ‘Directors & Officers Liability’ edited by Simon F. Deakin, Helmut Koziol, and Olaf Riss. It explores D&O liability from a law and economics perspective with a view to identify trade-offs of different legal settings.
... covered items or services furnished to a Medicare beneficiary by a provider or supplier if the billing... Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Billing Privileges § 424.555 Payment liability. (a) No payment may be made for otherwise Medicare covered...
Pelsser, Antoon; Salahnejhad, Ahmad; van den Akker, Ramon
Pension funds and life insurance companies have liabilities on their books with extremely long-dated maturities that are exposed to non-hedgeable actuarial risks and also to market risks. In this paper, we show that it is computationally feasible to price pensions contracts in an incomplete market
Oakleaf, Linda; Grube, Angela Johnson
Employers are responsible for sexual harassment perpetrated by a supervisor. Camps may be responsible for sexual harassment between campers. Steps to reduce liability include providing multiple channels for reporting sexual harassment; having written policies prohibiting sexual harassment and procedures for reporting it; posting these policies and…
For some ten years now, nuclear third-party liability has been changing at an ever-faster pace, further accelerated by the Chernobyl catastrophe. Some of these changes are discussed in this article. A joint protocol drawn up by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) mutually extends the benefit of the special third-party liability system regarding nuclear damage instituted by virtue of previous Conventions and settles the conflicts of law likely to result from the simultaneous application of the two international instruments. Within the framework of the IAEA, a review procedure of the Convention of Vienna has been underway since 1989, in which the NEA has taken an integral part. At the outcome of the process underway, not only will the Convention of Vienna be revised, but so, indirectly but very rapidly, will the Conventions of Paris and Brussels. Ultimately, the entire field of nuclear third-party liability will be recast for decades to come. The texts under discussion are as yet nowhere near their final stage but two areas of consideration have already emerged, which will be discussed. Substantial modifications are made in nuclear third-party liability law. Secondly, the indemnification process for nuclear damage will be vastly modified, due to the subsidiary nature of government intervention and new obligations on operators to become members of a Nuclear Operator Pool. (author)
... consideration of the guarantee. If the guarantor is a firm with a “substantial business relationship” with the... PERMIT Financial Requirements § 267.147 Liability requirements. (a) Coverage for sudden accidental... facilities, must demonstrate financial responsibility for bodily injury and property damage to third parties...
... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false RDFI liability. 210.10 Section 210.10 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SERVICE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT PARTICIPATION IN THE AUTOMATED...
... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limited liability. 210.11 Section 210.11 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SERVICE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT PARTICIPATION IN THE AUTOMATED...
Based on the system of liability for defective products as organized by the European Directive of 25 July 1985, responsibility for blood products does not therefore constitute a genuine specific regime. However, European law leaves States a margin of discretion in the implementation of the Directive with regard to health products. This is the case in particular with the exemption for development risk.
Schuring, Nannet; Kerkhoffs, Gino; Gray, Janine; Gouttebarge, Vincent
Scientific knowledge about symptoms of common mental disorders in professional cricket is non-existent. Consequently, the aims of the study were to determine the prevalence and the 6 months incidence of symptoms of common mental disorders (CMD: distress, anxiety/depression, sleep disturbance, adverse alcohol use) among current and former professional cricketers and to explore the association of potential stressors (significant injury, surgery, adverse life events, career dissatisfaction) and CMD. An observational prospective cohort study with a follow-up period of 6 months was conducted among current and former professional cricketers from South Africa. Using validated questionnaires to assess symptoms of common mental disorders as well as several stressors, an electronic questionnaire was set up and distributed by the South African Cricketers Association (SACA). A total of 116 participants enrolled at baseline (overall response rate of 33%) and 76 of those participants completed the 6 month follow-up (follow up rate of 66%). The prevalence of symptoms of CMD in current professional cricketers was 38% for distress, 38% for sleep disturbance, 37% for anxiety/depression and 26% for adverse alcohol use. Among former professional cricketers, baseline prevalence as was 26% for distress, 24% for anxiety/depression, 21% for sleep disturbance and 22% for adverse alcohol use. Career dissatisfaction led to an increased risk of distress, anxiety/depression and sleep disturbance in current professional cricketers. Surgeries and adverse life events led to an increase in reported symptoms of distress and anxiety/depression in current professional cricketers. It was concluded that symptoms of CMD are prevalent in both current and former professional cricketers and the association with surgery, adverse life events and cricket career dissatisfaction may provide some insight into possible mechanisms.
Kantek, Filiz; Kaya, Ayla; Gezer, Nurdan
It is considered to be extremely important to ensure that nurses adopt professional values during their education in order to improve nursing practices and develop a professional identity. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of nursing education on development of professional values. This study was designed as a longitudinal study. The study was conducted in a nursing department at a nursing school in the western Turkey. The population of the study consisted of nursing students who were enrolled in the nursing department in academic year of 2011-2012. The data of the study were collected from 59 first-year students in 2011 and 83 fourth-year students in 2015. The data of the study were collected using Personal Information Form and Nursing Professional Values Scale-NPVS. The participants responded to the same questionnaire in their first and fourth years in the department. The scale mean score of the students in their first year was 3.44±0.635. The highest scores were obtained from the subscales of responsibility, security, and autonomy. Their scale mean score in their fourth year was 3.93±0.727. The highest scores were obtained from the subscales of dignity and autonomy. The difference between the mean scores was statistically significant (p=0.001). It was concluded that nursing education had a significant effect on development of professional values. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The German system of nuclear third party liability has always been, and arguably still is, the object of considerable interest in the international nuclear law community. This may seem surprising since Germany adheres to the Paris Convention and is therefore a party to a community of 15 states all following the same principles enshrined in this Convention. In fact, when implementing the PC, Germany chose the approach ensuring the most literal adherence to the PC's principles: it adopted the PC in its entirety, thus directly transposing the PC text into binding German law, instead of enacting a national law derived from, but not literally translating, the PC. At the same time, perhaps no other nation has made use of the options, choices and margins offered or abandoned by the PC to the national legislators, or kept in store by way of a reservation at signature of the Convention, in such an extended manner, testing - and as has even been contended in the past: stressing - the boundaries of the PC system. Unlimited liability introduced in 1985, the highest financial security of any PC state (EUR 2.5 billion), unlimited territorial scope combined with the principle of reciprocity and liability of German operators even in the force majeure cases of Article 9 of the PC are probably the most interesting decisions made by Germany in this context, established in the Atomic Energy Act (Atomgesetz). These choices betray a certain tendency of the German government to give the greatest possible benefit to victims, and in parallel to achieve a 'normalisation' of the nuclear liability regime, without stifling the industry. Within the compromise underlying the international nuclear liability regime - enabling the nuclear industry to create and sustain an energy sector highly relevant for national electricity production on the one hand and protecting potential victims on the other - Germany has more and more shifted the balance, as far as practically possible, to the
Demir, Selçuk Besir; Dogan, Soner; Atasoy, Turgay
The purpose of this study is to determine the efficiency of the seminar periods intended for contributing to the professional development of social studies teachers based on their own perspectives. This study adopts a qualitative approach and is carried out in the form of a case study. Among the purposeful sampling methods, the criteria sample…
Kabakci Yurdakul, Isil
The purpose of this study is to evaluate preservice Information Technology (IT) teachers' professional competency in the teaching process. The study was designed on the basis of evaluative case study. The participants of the study consisted of seven preservice IT teachers attending the department of Computer Education and Instructional…
Sabancıogullari, Selma; Dogan, Selma
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the Professional Identity Development Program on the professional identity, job satisfaction and burnout levels of registered nurses. This study was conducted as a quasi-experimental one with 63 nurses working in a university hospital. Data were gathered using the Personal Information Questionnaire, the Professional Self Concept Inventory, Minnesota Job Satisfaction Inventory and the Maslach Burnout Inventory. The Professional Identity Development Program which consists of ten sessions was implemented to the study group once a week. The Program significantly improved the professional identity of the nurses in the study group compared to that of the control group. During the research period, burnout levels significantly decreased in the study group while those of the control group increased. The programme did not create any significant differences in the job satisfaction levels of the nurses. The programme had a positive impact on the professional identity of the nurses. It is recommended that the programme should be implemented in different hospitals with different samples of nurses, and that its effectiveness should be evaluated. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Tungpunkom, Patraporn; Maybery, Darryl; Reupert, Andrea; Kowalenko, Nick; Foster, Kim
Many people with a mental illness are parents caring for dependent children. These children are at greater risk of developing their own mental health concerns compared to other children. Mental health services are opportune places for healthcare professionals to identify clients' parenting status and address the needs of their children. There is a knowledge gap regarding Thai mental health professionals' family-focused knowledge and practices when working with parents with mental illness and their children and families. This cross -sectional survey study examined the attitudes, knowledge and practices of a sample (n = 349) of the Thai mental health professional workforce (nurses, social workers, psychologists, psychiatrists) using a translated version of the Family-Focused Mental Health Practice Questionnaire (FFMHPQ). The majority of clinicians reported no training in family (76.8%) or child-focused practice (79.7%). Compared to other professional groups, psychiatric nurses reported lower scores on almost all aspects of family-focused practice except supporting clients in their parenting role within the context of their mental illness. Social workers scored highest overall including having more workplace support for family-focused practice as well as a higher awareness of family-focused policy and procedures than psychiatrists; social workers also scored higher than psychologists on providing support to families and parents. All mental health care professional groups reported a need for training and inter-professional practice when working with families. The findings indicate an important opportunity for the prevention of intergenerational mental illness in whose parents have mental illness by strengthening the professional development of nurses and other health professionals in child and family-focused knowledge and practice.
Rojas Loría, Kattia; Gutiérrez Rosado, Teresa; Alvarado, Ricardo; Fernández Sánchez, Anna
Describe the relationship between the attitude towards violence against women (VAW) of professionals of the health of primary care with variables such professional satisfaction, workload, orientation of professional practice, knowledge, training and use of network in Catalonia and Costa Rica. Cross-exploratory and comparative study. Primary care in Barcelona and nearby counties and the Greater Metropolitan Area (GAM) of Costa Rica. 235 primary health professionals of Medicine, Nursing, Psychology and Social Work. Questionnaire with eight sections about attitudes, professional satisfaction, and orientation of professional practice, workload, knowledge, training and use of network. Three types of analysis were carried out: a descriptive one by country; a bivariate analysis; and a multivariable linear regression model. Primary Health Professionals attitudes towards VAW health were similar in both contexts (Catalonia: 3.90 IC 95% 3.84-3.96; Costa Rica: 4.03 IC 95% 3.94-4.13). The variables associated with attitudes towards VAW were: Use of network resources (B=0.20, 95% CI -0.14-0.25, P=<.001), Training (B=0.10, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.17, P=<0.001), and country, Costa Rica (B=0.16, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.25, P=<0.001). There was no interaction between the country and the other variables, suggesting that the association between the variables and the attitude is similar in both countries. The results suggest that increased use of network resources and training are related to a positive attitude towards VWA in primary health professionals, both in Catalonia and Costa Rica. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Lelorain, Sophie; Bachelet, Adeline; Bertin, Nicole; Bourgoin, Maryline
Therapeutic patient education is effective for various patient outcomes; however, healthcare professionals sometimes lack the motivation to carry out patient education. Surprisingly, this issue has rarely been addressed in research. Therefore, this study explores healthcare professionals' perceived barriers to and motivation for therapeutic patient education. Healthcare professionals, mainly nurses, working in different French hospitals were interviewed. Thematic content analysis was performed. Findings included a lack of skills, knowledge, and disillusionment of the effectiveness of therapeutic patient education were features of a demotivated attitude. In contrast, a positive attitude was observed when therapeutic patient education met a need to work differently and more effectively. A key factor motivating professionals was the integration of therapeutic patient education in routine care within a multidisciplinary team. To keep healthcare professionals motivated, managers should ensure that therapeutic patient education is implemented in accordance with its core principles: a patient-centered approach within a trained multidisciplinary team. In the latter case, therapeutic patient education is viewed as an efficient and rewarding way to work with patients, which significantly motivates healthcare professionals. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Courtenay, Molly; Castro-Sánchez, Enrique; Deslandes, Rhian; Hodson, Karen; Lim, Rosemary; Morris, Gary; Reeves, Scott; Weiss, Marjorie
Multi-drug resistant infections have been identified as one of the greatest threats to human health. Healthcare professionals are involved in an array of patient care activities for which an understanding of antimicrobial stewardship is important. Although antimicrobial prescribing and stewardship competencies have been developed for healthcare professionals who adopt the role of a prescriber, competencies do not exist for other medicine-related stewardship activities. Undergraduate education provides an ideal opportunity to prepare healthcare professionals for these roles and activities. This report presents a protocol for a study designed to provide national consensus on antimicrobial stewardship competencies appropriate for undergraduate healthcare professional education. A modified Delphi process will be used in which a panel of Experts, comprising members from across the United Kingdom, with expertise in prescribing and medicines management with regard to the education and practice of healthcare professionals, and antimicrobial prescribing and stewardship, will be invited to take part in two survey rounds. The competencies developed will be applicable to all undergraduate healthcare professional education programmes. They will help to standardise curricula content and enhance the impact of antimicrobial stewardship education.
Sun, Li; Gao, Ying; Yang, Juan; Zang, Xiao-Ying; Wang, Yao-Gang
As newcomers to the clinical workplace, nursing students will encounter a high degree of role stress, which is an important predictor of burnout and engagement. Professional identity is theorised to be a key factor in providing high-quality care to improve patient outcomes and is thought to mediate the negative effects of a high-stress workplace and improve clinical performance and job retention. To investigate the level of nursing students' professional identity and role stress at the end of the first sub-internship, and to explore the impact of the nursing students' professional identity and other characteristics on role stress. A cross-sectional study. Three nursing schools in China. Nursing students after a 6-month sub-internship in a general hospital (n=474). The Role Stress Scale (score range: 12-60) and the Professional Identity Questionnaire for Nursing students (score range: 17-85) were used to investigate the levels of nursing students' role stress and professional identity. Higher scores indicated higher levels of role stress and professional identity. Basic demographic information about the nursing students was collected. The Pearson correlation, point-biserial correlation and multiple linear regression analysis were used to analyse the data. The mean total scores of the Role Stress Scale and Professional Identity Questionnaire for Nursing Students were 34.04 (SD=6.57) and 57.63 (SD=9.63), respectively. In the bivariate analyses, the following independent variables were found to be significantly associated with the total score of the Role Stress Scale: the total score of the Professional Identity Questionnaire for Nursing Students (r=-0.295, pNursing Students (standardised coefficient Beta: -0.260, pStress Scale. The multiple linear regression model explained 18.2% (adjusted R 2 scores 16.5%) of the Role Stress Scale scores variance. The nursing students' level of role stress at the end of the first sub-internship was high. The students with higher
Burrow, Simon; Mairs, Hilary; Pusey, Helen; Bradshaw, Timothy; Keady, John
To understand the motivations and experiences of health and social care professionals undertaking part-time, accredited, continuing professional education in higher education. A review following systematic principles. Systematic searches for literature published between January 2000 and December 2015 using the databases: SCOPUS, Web of Science, Medline, PsychINFO, Social Policy and Practice and CINAHL. Studies were included if they were published in the English language and were qualitative in design, focussing on the motivations and experiences of staff engaged in part-time, accredited, higher education study. Three reviewers appraised the quality of the selected studies. Thirteen qualitative studies were identified for the review. Motivating factors for staff to engage in part-time, accredited, continuing professional development study included: personal and professional drivers, influence of workplace/management and funding and availability. Key themes in relation to how staff experienced study included: the demands of adjusting to the academic requirements of higher education study; the experience of juggling competing demands of study, work and family; and the presence or absence of support for part-time study in the personal and professional arenas. Health and social care professionals experience a number of challenges when engaging in part-time, continuing professional education in higher education institutions. A significant challenge is the juggling of competing demands of study, work and family, and this may have a negative impact on learning. Research is needed to inform how higher education can address the specific learning needs of this population and develop pedagogic approaches that are both responsive to need and support of effective learning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
ing of secondary school learners using lesson study for teacher development. ... Villegas-Reimers (2003) reviewed international literature on teacher pro- fessional ... change in practice when the teachers returned to their classrooms.
Di Martino, Vittorio.
The introductory chapters of this book analyse the concept of fault as a basis for third party liability and the evolution of jurisprudence and doctrine towards the concept of absolute liability. The following part covers the Italian system of liability for hazardous activities. The nuclear third party liability system is then analysed according to existing international conventions and nuclear legislation in several countries. The Appendix contains various legislative and regulatory texts on nuclear third party liability in Italy and in other countries which provide for special legislation in this field. (NEA) [fr
O'Horo, Neal O.
The purpose of this quantitative survey study was to test the Leontief input/output theory relating the input of IT certification to the output of the English-speaking U.S. human resource professional perceived IT professional job performance. Participants (N = 104) rated their perceptions of IT certified vs. non-IT certified professionals' job…
implementation of the measures will cover a period of 15 to 20 years depending on the site. The necessary expenses are carried by the Federal Government and estimated to amount to about EUR 6.5 billion. In addition the Federal Republic of Germany inherited 6 operating NPPs of soviet design from the former GDR. Comprehensive safety analyses after the German reunification arrived at the conclusion that they did not correspond to Western German safety standards. They had to be shut down in 1990. As the power industry was not prepared to carry the financial risks of backfitting and re-licensing the reactors, the Federal Republic of Germany took over the liabilities. The aim is to finish the decommissioning activities around the year 2012. The total costs for dismantling the plants and storing the resulting waste are estimated to amount to about EUR 3.1 billion
Doronin Andrii V.
Full Text Available The preconditions and problems of developing the concept of the study and transformation of collective professional mobility of management personnel are generalized. The necessity of specifying the content and structure of the scientific and methodological concept of «paradigm» is justified. The possibility of using philosophy and economic theory to determine the initial ideas on the development of technique for studying collective professional mobility of management personnel are analyzed; contradictions, which resolution would create a constructive theoretical basis of such a study are revealed. The need to focus on the interdisciplinary approach in the development of the conceptual preconditions of studying collective professional mobility is substantiated. The versions of the world view allowing to ensure productive discussions of representatives of various scientific disciplines at the phenomenological stage of building a new paradigm are developed.
This qualitative case study focused on the multifaceted issue of exploring science teacher leaders understanding and addressing of issues of diversity and equity with peers through professional development. The purpose of the study was to highlight the opportunities and barriers to the addressing of issues of diversity and equity through the work of a community of teachers leaders in science professional development. To frame this study, the researcher drew from the interdisciplinary field of multicultural education, transformative learning, and teacher leadership. In drawing out the connections from these vast bodies of literature, the study speaks to the need of both, creating teacher leaders in science education who are capable of meeting the twin demands of excellence and equity, and also attending to the challenges in the professional learning continuums of teachers leaders and their peers towards addressing issues of diversity and equity in science education.
Full Text Available Objective: To verify if licensed practical nurses and Nursing technicians working at an Oncology department present burnout syndrome. Methods: Data of 21 licensed practical nurses and Nursing technicians who had worked for, at least, one year at the Oncology department of a large hospital in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, were collected. The burnout inventory developed by Maslach and Jackson was used. Rresults: The studied population presented burnout based on scores in each of its three dimensions: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and lack of personal accomplishment. As to burnout symptoms, this study showed that 28.6% of the sample presented high scores in “emotional exhaustion”; 28.6% had high scores in “depersonalization” and 19.1% in lack of “personal accomplishment”. Cconclusions: When compared to other studies with nurses, this sample presented greater burnout.
Vereb, Anita; Carlisle, Joanne F.; Mihocko-Bowling, Emily
This study explores teachers' response to a professional development program called Case Studies of Reading Lessons (CSRL) that uses case studies of reading instruction to provide opportunities for elementary teachers to learn to analyze features that affect the quality of reading lessons. One important question is whether analyzing others'…
Tondeur, Jo; Krug, Don; Bill, Mike; Smulders, Maaike; Zhu, Chang
This study explores the introduction of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Kenyan secondary schools. Specifically, it is a case study of four schools with no previous access to ICT. The professional development programme from which data for this study were drawn was designed to support teachers learning to integrate ICT in the…
Choi, Yoonjung; Shin, Eui-Kyung
This study explores the experiences of 34 US social studies teachers who participated in a cross-cultural professional development in South Korea, and the impact of the programme on the participant teachers' perceptions and practices of global education. Drawing upon a postcolonial lens, this mixed-method study takes a critical look at (a) how…
Hahn, Carole L.
Social studies educators must marshal all creative resources to meet the global, national, and personal challenges that face them as members of the major social studies professional organization, the National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS). Based on a continuation of current policies and lifestyles, dramatic global changes such as…
Houston, Biaze L.
This research study examined how teachers self-report their levels of engagement, which factors they believe contribute most to their engagement, and which assumptions of andragogy most heavily influence teacher engagement in site-based professional development. This study employed a convergent parallel mixed methods design to study veteran…
Pang, Ming Fai; Ling, Lo Mun
The lesson study approach is a systematic process for producing professional knowledge about teaching by teachers, and has spread rapidly and extensively in the United States. The learning study approach is essentially a kind of lesson study with an explicit learning theory--the variation theory of learning. In this paper, we argue that having an…
Bray, Lucy; O'Brien, Mary R; Kirton, Jennifer; Zubairu, Kate; Christiansen, Angela
Compassionate practice is a public expectation and a core health professional value. However, in the face of growing public and professional unease about a perceived absence of compassion in health care it is essential that the role of education in developing compassionate practitioners is fully understood. The aim of this study was to explore qualified health professionals' and pre-registration students' understanding of compassion and the role of health professional education in promoting compassionate care. A sequential explanatory mixed methods study collected data using surveys and qualitative semi-structured interviews from qualified health professionals (n=155) and pre-registration students (n=197). Participants were from a range of health and social care disciplines and registered at a UK university. The findings indicate a high level of consensus in relation to participants' understanding of compassion in health care. Acting with warmth and empathy, providing individualised patient care and acting in a way you would like others to act towards you, were seen as the most common features of compassionate care. However, ambiguities and contradictions were evident when considering the role of health professional education in promoting compassionate practice. This study adds to the debate and current understanding of the role of education in fostering compassionate health care practice. © 2013.
Bohlken, Marc M; Brouwer, Rachel M; Mandl, René C W; Kahn, René S; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E
Alterations in intellectual ability and brain structure are important genetic markers for schizophrenia liability. How variations in these phenotypes interact with variance in schizophrenia liability due to genetic or environmental factors is an area of active investigation. Studying these genetic markers using a multivariate twin modeling approach can provide novel leads for (genetic) pathways of schizophrenia development. In a sample of 70 twins discordant for schizophrenia and 130 healthy control twins, structural equation modeling was applied to quantify unique contributions of genetic and environmental factors on human brain structure (cortical thickness, cortical surface and global white matter fractional anisotropy [FA]), intellectual ability and schizophrenia liability. In total, up to 28.1% of the genetic variance (22.8% of total variance) in schizophrenia liability was shared with intelligence quotient (IQ), global-FA, cortical thickness, and cortical surface. The strongest contributor was IQ, sharing on average 16.4% of the genetic variance in schizophrenia liability, followed by cortical thickness (6.3%), global-FA (4.7%) and cortical surface (0.5%). Furthermore, we found that up to 57.4% of the variation due to environmental factors (4.6% of total variance) in schizophrenia was shared with IQ (34.2%) and cortical surface (13.4%). Intellectual ability, FA and cortical thickness show significant and independent shared genetic variance with schizophrenia liability. This suggests that measuring brain-imaging phenotypes helps explain genetic variance in schizophrenia liability that is not captured by variation in IQ. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Robinson, George D.
The aim of this study is to evaluate industrial approaches to management development programs to ascertain the applicability of using similar schooling techniques in Air Force managerial development. The primary emphasis is on where the Air Force might benefit from industry's experience in the middle manager area. An additional objective is the…
COLOMBOTOS, JOHN L.
AN INVESTIGATION WAS CONDUCTED OF THE DISTINCTIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF HIGH SCHOOL TEACHERS AS CONTRASTED WITH THEIR PEERS IN A BUSINESS ORGANIZATION. THE EFFECT OF THIS DISTINCTIVENESS ON THE PERSONAL NATURE OF TENSIONS AND CONFLICTS ASSOCIATED WITH JOB PERFORMANCE, CAREER GOALS, AND CAREER PATTERNS WAS ALSO STUDIED. ITS GENERAL OBJECTIVE WAS TO…
Research on current discourses on educational change in general and teacher education in particular have identified reasons why some teacher education courses fail to connect with trainees. This study sought to investigate factors that underlie pre-service teachers\\' resistance to an innovative religious and moral ...
The ideal study guide for candidates seeking the leading virtualization certification The VMware Certified Professional on vSphere 5 (VCP-510) is the most desired certification for virtualization professionals, and this study guide covers all the requirements. Skill in virtualization is a top priority for companies when hiring IT staff, and VMware skills are in high demand. Part of the highly acclaimed Sybex Study Guide series, this comprehensive book guides you through planning, installing, and upgrading ESXi; configuring networking, storage, and vCenter Server; deploying and managing virtual
Den Broeder, Lea; Uiters, Ellen; Hofland, Aafke; Wagemakers, Annemarie; Schuit, Albertine Jantine
Asset-based approaches have become popular in public health. As yet it is not known to what extent health and welfare professionals are able to identify and mobilise individual and community health assets. Therefore, the aim of this study was to understand professional's perceptions of health and health assets. In a low-SES neighbourhood, 21 health and welfare professionals were interviewed about their definition of health and their perceptions of the residents' health status, assets available in the neighbourhood's environment, and the way residents use these assets. A Nominal Group Technique (NGT) session was conducted for member check. Verbatim transcripts of the semi-structured interviews were coded and analysed using Atlas.ti. The professionals used a broad health concept, emphasizing the social dimension of health as most important. They discussed the poor health of residents, mentioning multiple health problems and unmet health needs. They provided many examples of behaviour that they considered unhealthy, in particular unhealthy diet and lack of exercise. Professionals considered the green physical environment, as well as health and social services, including their own services, as important health enhancing factors, whereas social and economic factors were considered as major barriers for good health. Poor housing and litter in public space were considered as barriers as well. According to the professionals, residents underutilized neighbourhood health assets. They emphasised the impact of poverty on the residents and their health. Moreover, they felt that residents were lacking individual capabilities to lead a healthy life. Although committed to the wellbeing of the residents, some professionals seemed almost discouraged by the (perceived) situation. They looked for practical solutions by developing group-based approaches and supporting residents' self-organisation. Our study shows, firstly, that professionals in the priority district Slotermeer rated
Evans, Sarah E; Hoffman, Allison C
To review the available evidence evaluating the abuse liability, topography, subjective effects, craving and withdrawal suppression associated with e-cigarette use in order to identify information gaps and provide recommendations for future research. Literature searches were conducted between October 2012 and January 2014 using five electronic databases. Studies were included in this review if they were peer-reviewed scientific journal articles evaluating clinical laboratory studies, national surveys or content analyses. A total of 15 peer-reviewed articles regarding behavioural use and effects of e-cigarettes published between 2010 and 2014 were included in this review. Abuse liability studies are limited in their generalisability. Topography (consumption behaviour) studies found that, compared with traditional cigarettes, e-cigarette average puff duration was significantly longer, and e-cigarette use required stronger suction. Data on e-cigarette subjective effects (such as anxiety, restlessness, concentration, alertness and satisfaction) and withdrawal suppression are limited and inconsistent. In general, study data should be interpreted with caution, given limitations associated with comparisons of novel and usual products, as well as the possible effects associated with subjects' previous experience/inexperience with e-cigarettes. Currently, very limited information is available on abuse liability, topography and subjective effects of e-cigarettes. Opportunities to examine extended e-cigarette use in a variety of settings with experienced e-cigarette users would help to more fully assess topography as well as behavioural and subjective outcomes. In addition, assessment of 'real-world' use, including amount and timing of use and responses to use, would clarify behavioural profiles and potential adverse health effects.
Balevre, Park S; Cassells, Julie; Buzaianu, Elena
This expanded (n = 648) replication study examines job-related burnout in practicing nurses in relation to five maladaptive thinking patterns at eight northeast Florida hospitals. Data supported the hypothesis that maladaptive thinking patterns may be related to nurses' burnout thoughts and behaviors. The focus of this research spotlights the individual nurse's thoughts, emotions, and actions and suggests that these burnout tendencies can be mitigated if not changed.
Holst, Klaus K.; Scheike, Thomas; Hjelmborg, Jacob B.
the disease thus still being at risk. Ignoring this right-censoring can lead to severely biased estimates. The classical liability threshold model can be extended with inverse probability of censoring weighting of complete observations. This leads to a flexible way of modelling twin concordance and obtaining...... studies of diseases, as a way of quantifying such genetic contribution. The endpoint in these studies are typically defined as occurrence of a disease versus death without the disease. However, a large fraction of the subjects may still be alive at the time of follow-up without having experienced...
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION[|]Although the concept of professionalism is widely used in all over the world, there is no clear definition that describes exactly what it is. This is thought to result from different meanings which are attributed to the concept of profession. The number of researches and publications on medical professionalism has increased rapidly in recent years. In this sources some definitions reveal a detailed list of keywords. Compared with medicine, veterinary medicine has still got limited studies on this subject. This research was carried out to determine how veterinarians conceptualize professionalism in the field of veterinary medicine.[¤]METHODS[|]This qualitative study was designed as an Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA. The sample was consisted of veterinarians who have carried out their duties at the Veterinary School of Ankara University. The sampling strategy was purposive sampling. Data were collected via semi-structured interviews then content analysis was applied. During this process, internal and external consistencies were checked with an expert's help. As a result of the analysis the meaning units were created and classified. Results were shown in the tables, interpreted and then discussed.[¤]RESULTS[|]In this study it is found that veterinary and human medicines have many common terms for conceptualization of professionalism. Veterinary professionalism were conceptualized with similar approaches by experienced and inexperienced veterinarians. Ethics and moral values were expressed primarily and together in participant's approaches to this concept. The definition of good veterinarians is generally consistent with the definition of veterinary professionalism.[¤]DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION[|]Compared with medicine, veterinary medicine has still got limited studies about professionalizm. This research shows that veterinarians conceptialize professionalism by using some terms and explanations related to some values
Bahnsen, Iben Bøgh; Braad, Mette; Lisby, Hanne
the stay at ICSU in their final clinical placement. Moreover, students spent a considerable amount of time an basic nursing tasks during their stay at the ICSU; skills already acquired earlier in their education programme. Conclusion: Staying in an ICSU improved inter-professional collaboration skills......Background: Length of hospitalization is reduced demanding effective and timely interventions from all health professions. In an Inter-professional Clinical Study Unit (ICSU) students have the opportunity to develop inter-professional competencies. Nevertheless some nursing students have commented...... that staying in an ICSU is an interruption in their final clinical placement with limited learning possibilities. Aim: The aim of the study was to explore nursing students´perceptions of taking part in an ICSU Methods: The study was qualitative with explorative, decriptive and interpretative aspects. Data were...
Sethy, Satya Sundar
'Professional Ethics' has been offered as a compulsory course to undergraduate engineering students in a premier engineering institution of India. It was noticed that students' perceptions and attitudes were frivolous and ornamental towards this course. Course instructors and institution authorities were motivated to find out the factors contributing to this awkwardness. For this purpose, a questionnaire was prepared and administrated to 336 students registered for the July-November 2014 semester. The study found two factors contributing to students' indifference towards the Professional Ethics course. First, most of the students did not have self-interest to join the engineering programme, and while pursuing their study, they decided to switch to a different field upon completion of their engineering study. Second, students who desired to be engineers in their future believed that engineering code of ethics is not really referred to in most of the engineering jobs, and therefore Professional Ethics course is only meant for classroom discussions.
Sari, A.; Suryadi, D.; Syaodih, E.
The purpose of this study is to provide an alternative model of professional learning community for primary school teachers in improving the knowledge and professional skills. This study is a qualitative research with case study method with data collection is an interview, observation and document and triangulation technique for validation data that focuses on thirteen people 5th grade elementary school teacher. The results showed that by joining a professional learning community, teachers can share both experience and knowledge to other colleagues so that they can be able to continue to improve and enhance the quality of their learning. This happens because of the reflection done together before, during and after the learning activities. It was also revealed that by learning in a professional learning community, teachers can learn in their own way, according to need, and can collaborate with their colleagues in improving the effectiveness of learning. Based on the implementation of professional learning community primary school teachers can be concluded that teachers can develop the curriculum, the students understand the development, overcome learning difficulties faced by students and can make learning design more effective and efficient.
Kumar, Ramesh; Ahmed, Jamil; Shaikh, Babar Tasneem; Hafeez, Rehan; Hafeez, Assad
Job satisfaction largely determines the productivity and efficiency of human resource for health. It literally depicts the extent to which professionals like or dislike their jobs. Job satisfaction is said to be linked with the employee's work environment, job responsibilities and powers and time pressure; the determinants which affect employee's organizational commitment and consequently the quality of services. The objective of the study was to determine the level of and factors influencing job satisfaction among public health professionals in the public sector. This was a cross sectional study conducted in Islamabad, Pakistan. Sample size was universal including 73 public health professionals, with postgraduate qualifications and working in government departments of Islamabad. A validated structured questionnaire was used to collect data from April to October 2011. Overall satisfaction rate was 41% only, while 45% were somewhat satisfied and 14% of professionals highly dissatisfied with their jobs. For those who were not satisfied, working environment, job description and time pressure were the major causes. Other factors influencing the level of satisfaction were low salaries, lack of training opportunities, improper supervision and inadequate financial rewards. Our study documented a relatively low level of overall satisfaction among workers in public sector health care organizations. Considering the factors responsible for this state of affairs, urgent and concrete strategies must be developed to address the concerns of public health professionals as they represent a highly sensitive domain of health system of Pakistan. Improving the overall work environment, review of job descriptions and better remuneration might bring about a positive change.
Valente, Paula Mercedes Becker
This research studies the process of identity formation/transformation in a group of workers at a Research Institute, which deals with nuclear energy for peaceful uses. It had as a referential the work developed by Antonio da Costa Ciampa (1995). This approach conceives identity as metamorphosis and it is empirically expressed by characters. The research was candied out at the IPEN-CNEN/SP with the oldest reactor operators at work, with open interviews mainly. At the end of the analysis, it was observed that the team, in spite of its grievance and complaints, is still united and operates the reactor with great responsibility. This fact can be proved since no accidents have happened in the last forty years. Nevertheless, the group misses the community recognition for the importance of its work. This was interpreted as the search for an emancipatory feeling towards the development of a collective identity. The lack of this feeling tends to produce an identity with a mere instrumental rationality, suggesting that the organization identity policy must be reviewed. (author)
Stiles, Mitchell F; Campbell, Leanne R; Graff, Donald W; Jones, Bobbette A; Fant, Reginald V; Henningfield, Jack E
Electronic cigarettes (ECs) are becoming popular alternatives for smokers, but there has been limited study of their abuse liability. The objective of this study was to evaluate the abuse liability of three Vuse Solo ECs, ranging from 14 to 36 mg in nicotine content, relative to high- and low-abuse liability comparator products (usual brand combustible cigarettes and nicotine gum, respectively) in a group of 45 EC-naïve smokers. Enrolled subjects' ratings of subjective effects and nicotine uptake over 6 h were used to measure abuse liability and pharmacokinetics following in-clinic use of each EC. Use of Vuse Solo resulted in subjective measures and nicotine uptake that were between those of combustible cigarettes and nicotine gum, although generally closer to nicotine gum. Compared to combustible cigarettes, use of Vuse Solo resulted in significantly lower scores in measures of product liking, positive effects, and intent to use again. These pharmacodynamic findings were consistent with the pharmacokinetic data, showing that cigarettes produced substantially faster and higher levels of nicotine uptake as compared to Vuse Solo and nicotine gum. Vuse Solo resulted in more rapid initial uptake of nicotine compared to nicotine gum, but peak concentration and long-term extent of uptake were not different or were lower with Vuse. Collectively, these findings suggest that Vuse Solo likely has an abuse liability that is somewhat greater than nicotine gum but lower than cigarettes. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02269514.
Hartz, Sarah M; Horton, Amy C; Oehlert, Mary; Carey, Caitlin E; Agrawal, Arpana; Bogdan, Ryan; Chen, Li-Shiun; Hancock, Dana B; Johnson, Eric O; Pato, Carlos N; Pato, Michele T; Rice, John P; Bierut, Laura J
There are high levels of comorbidity between schizophrenia and substance use disorder, but little is known about the genetic etiology of this comorbidity. We tested the hypothesis that shared genetic liability contributes to the high rates of comorbidity between schizophrenia and substance use disorder. To do this, polygenic risk scores for schizophrenia derived from a large meta-analysis by the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium were computed in three substance use disorder datasets: the Collaborative Genetic Study of Nicotine Dependence (ascertained for tobacco use disorder; n = 918 cases; 988 control subjects), the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (ascertained for alcohol use disorder; n = 643 cases; 384 control subjects), and the Family Study of Cocaine Dependence (ascertained for cocaine use disorder; n = 210 cases; 317 control subjects). Phenotypes were harmonized across the three datasets and standardized analyses were performed. Genome-wide genotypes were imputed to the 1000 Genomes reference panel. In each individual dataset and in the mega-analysis, strong associations were observed between any substance use disorder diagnosis and the polygenic risk score for schizophrenia (mega-analysis pseudo-R 2 range 0.8-3.7%; minimum p = 4 × 10 -23 ). These results suggest that comorbidity between schizophrenia and substance use disorder is partially attributable to shared polygenic liability. This shared liability is most consistent with a general risk for substance use disorder rather than specific risks for individual substance use disorders and adds to increasing evidence of a blurred boundary between schizophrenia and substance use disorder. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Westcott, David A; Miller, Ben; Mackenzie, Peter
The official study guide for the Certified Wireless Analysis Professional certification from CWNPFour leading wireless experts thoroughly prepare you for the vendor-neutral CWAP exam administered by CWNP, the industry leader for enterprise Wi-Fi training and certification. This official study guide not only covers all exam objectives for the CWAP exam, it also prepares you to administer and troubleshoot complex enterprise WLAN environments.Covers all exam objectives for the Certified Wireless Analysis Professional (CWAP) examCovers 802.11 physical (PHY) and 802.11 MAC layer frame formats and
Weber-Mayrer, Melissa M.
Research that describes how adults acquire and use new information, collectively called adult learning theory, has potentially important implications for facilitating such adult learning experiences as educator professional development. The purpose of this study was to examine whether integrating adult teaching practices derived from adult learning theories into early childhood educators professional development would result in better gains in educator engagement in professional development, phonological awareness abilities, phonological awareness knowledge, and language and literacy beliefs. The impact on educator engagement and educator proximal knowledge was analyzed using one way ANOVA. The impact on educator phonological awareness abilities, phonological awareness general knowledge, and beliefs was analyzed using a 3 X (2 X S) mixed analyses of variance to examine the pretest to posttest change between educators participating the three conditions. Results revealed significant findings for increased engagement in professional learning and gains in educators general knowledge. This study is a first step in understanding effective adult teaching practices that may or may not contribute to better educator outcomes and promoting more effective professional learning experiences for early childhood educators.
Full Text Available Background: The present paper has examined the sources of stress among the healthcare professionals and the difference between responses of personality type A and type B healthcare professionals toward stressful situations. Further, the difference in the performance of both the personality types has been studied. The relationship between stress and performance among the healthcare professionals in general and with respect to personality type A and type B healthcare professionals in particular has also been investigated. Methods: A total of 160 healthcare professionals of Post Graduate Institute (PGI, Chandigarh, were subjects of this study. Results: Identification with patients, deterioration and complication in the patient condition, and job criticism emerged to be the sources of stress. Significant difference between personality type A and personality type B professionals′ response pertaining to identification with the patients only has been reported. However, type A individuals showed slightly higher inclination as compared to type B individuals on majority of stressful situations. It was further noted that type A individuals had scored higher on almost all the performance indicators as compared to personality type B individuals. The mean difference between the personality types was found to be significant for two performance dimensions, i.e., relationship with colleagues, and teaching and training. Conclusions: The stressful situation relationship with patients was found to have significantly negative impact on the performance factors such as good clinical care and rapport with patients. Daily work was also found to be negatively related to good medical practice.
Elwell, Laura; Powell, Jane; Wordsworth, Sharon; Cummins, Carole
Research exists examining the challenges of delivering lifestyle behaviour change initiatives in practice. However, at present much of this research has been conducted with primary care health professionals, or in acute adult hospital settings. The purpose of this study was to identify barriers and facilitators associated with implementing routine lifestyle behaviour change brief advice into practice in an acute children's hospital. Thirty-three health professionals (nurses, junior doctors, allied health professionals and clinical support staff) from inpatient and outpatient departments at a UK children's hospital were interviewed about their attitudes and beliefs towards supporting lifestyle behaviour change in hospital patients and their families. Responses were analysed using thematic framework analysis. Health professionals identified a range of barriers and facilitators to supporting lifestyle behaviour change in a children's hospital. These included (1) personal experience of effectiveness, (2) constraints associated with the hospital environment, (3) appropriateness of advice delivery given the patient's condition and care pathway and (4) job role priorities, and (5) perceived benefits of the advice given. Delivery of lifestyle behaviour change advice was often seen as an educational activity, rather than a behaviour change activity. Factors underpinning the successful delivery of routine lifestyle behaviour change support must be understood if this is to be implemented effectively in paediatric acute settings. This study reveals key areas where paediatric health professionals may need further support and training to achieve successful implementation.
ŢOGOE GRETI DANIELA
Full Text Available This paper aims to conduct a comparative study on national, European and international accounting rules in the field of accounting profession’s organization and exertion. The first step of this scientific approach is positioning the general area of research chosen within the scientific theory in accounting regulations. Our scientific approach seeks to explain through a thorough and detailed approach the different aspects (conceptual and practical of accounting regulations while seeking solutions regarding the evolution of their regulatory frame and practices in the field. Throughout the paper are to be found various concepts, regulations and practices in the field, in an interpretative manner, the point of view adopted by us being neutral, but also critical, since we get involved in the research from a private and personal perspective. In terms of methodology and research perspective, the whole scientific approach has combined the qualitative research with the quantitative one and the theoretical (descriptive-conceptual perspective with the practical one by analyzing the most important contributions of various Romanian and foreign authors to scientific knowledge in the field, respecting the coordinates based on which the accounting rules are addressed internationally and nationally. Throughout the paper we used a wide range of research methods among which we highlight: document analysis, comparative method and typological method, non-participatory and participatory observation. Transversal researches aim the comparative analysis of different viewpoints, the theoretical and technical aspects regarding accounting regulations, while longitudinal researches take into account while analyzing the evolution of scientific knowledge in the field of global, European and national relevant accounting regulations.
This study examines the evidence for the effectiveness of professional development using a sample of ten elementary school teachers. These teachers were part of a larger intervention study that investigated the impact of a teaching model, Dynamic Pedagogy on student mathematics achievement. Positive results were obtained from the analysis of three…
McMahon, Cynthia J. Moore
The purpose of this research is to determine if the use of soft skills requirements in job posting advertisements for information technology professional positions has increased since the dissertation study by G. K. Tannnahill in 2007, titled "Study of Soft Skills for IT Workers in Recruitment Advertising," to support prior research…
Paul, A. K.; Anantharaman, R. N.
Although organizational commitment has been discussed frequently in organizational psychology for almost four decades, few studies have involved software professionals. A study in India reveals that HRM practices such as employee-friendly work environment, career development, development oriented appraisal, and comprehensive training show a…
Mulvaney, Michael A.; Hurd, Amy R.
The "Official Study Guide for the CPRP Examination" provides up-to-date information in this new edition to assist the park and recreation professional in preparing for the CPRP examination. The study guide serves as an excellent source of information for any individual who works directly or indirectly in the field of park and recreation services.
This qualitative case study focused on the multifaceted issue of exploring science teacher leaders understanding and addressing of issues of diversity and equity with peers through professional development. The purpose of the study was to highlight the opportunities and barriers to the addressing of issues of diversity and equity through the work…
Gouttebarge, Vincent; Hopley, Phil; Kerkhoffs, Gino; Verhagen, Evert; Viljoen, Wayne; Wylleman, Paul; Lambert, Mike I.
The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders among professional rugby players across countries. A cross-sectional analysis of the baseline questionnaires from an ongoing prospective cohort study was conducted. Nine national players' associations and
Professional staff total approximately 23% of staff in universities in the UK, which in 2014/15 was the equivalent of 95,870 individuals (hesa.ac.uk). With their increasing span of responsibility, it is surprising that there has been little research into the careers of these staff. This study, part of a larger careers study, highlights some key…
Wopereis, Iwan; Derix, Egbert
This study explored the information seeking behavior of a professional jazz musician during creative work. It aimed at revealing information seeking activities necessary to execute present-day musical projects. A single case was studied in depth. First, a narrative interview was conducted to reveal
Schipper, Tijmen; Goei, Sui Lin; de Vries, Siebrich; van Veen, Klaas
Since classrooms have become more diverse, professional development on adaptive teaching seems critically important, yet turns out to be complex. Lesson Study may address this issue due to its explicit focus on student learning. In total, 22 Lesson Study participants from" different school contexts
Tijmen Schipper; Sui Lin Goei; Klaas Veen; Siebrich Vries
Since classrooms have become more diverse, professional development on adaptive teaching seems critically important, yet turns out to be complex. Lesson Study may address this issue due to its explicit focus on student learning. In total, 22 Lesson Study participants from different school contexts
Full Text Available This study was designed as a qualitative descriptive study to map out the challenges and suggestions in regard to the problems of professionalization of midwifery in Turkey and it was presented as a master thesis in June 2012. The study was conducted in seven universities in Turkey which provided master programs in midwifery. The study participants included twenty faculty members in midwifery departments in these universities who consented to participate. An interview guide consisting of 10 semistructured open-ended questions was used as an instrument of data collection and interviews were recorded. The process of data collections was conducted as face-to-face interviews by a researcher between 28th June 2011-7th December 2011. The recordings were transformed into text. Written audio recording outputs were analyzed by the content analysis which is one of the qualitative data analysis method. Major problems of professionalization of midwifery in Turkey were found as incompetent legislative regulations in midwifery, insufficient professional organizations, problems of autonomy, and insufficient scientific researches in the field. The participants suggested updating the legislative regulations, opening doctoral programs in midwifery departments, strenghtening professional organizations, supporting clinical midwifes to conduct scientific researches. In light of the results, it was concluded that professionalization of midwifery has still certain structural problems. It is maintained that regulations to be made in line with the suggestions in this study will certainly enhance professionalization of midwifery. It was pointed out that it is required to support graduate programs in midwifery, to open new doctoral programs, to support midwifery departments in terms of equipment and human resources, to clarify job definitions, to decrease the number of students in these faculties and to enact legislative regulations in regard to midwifery profession.
Platek, Anna E; Szymanski, Filip M; Filipiak, Krzysztof J; Kotkowski, Marcin; Rys, Anna; Semczuk-Kaczmarek, Karolina; Adamkiewicz, Karolina
Professional drivers are a group exposed to many cardiovascular risk factors. Nonsystematic working hours, stress, low physical activity, and unhealthy dietary habits are common among professional drivers. These translate into high risk of cardiovascular disease. The aim of the current analysis was to establish the prevalence of arterial hypertension in a group of continuous professional drivers. The RACER (Risk of Adverse Cardiovascular Events among professional dRivers in Poland) study is a prospective study focused on assessing cardiovascular risk factors in professional drivers. Patients included in the study were screened for the classical and nonclassical cardiovascular risk factors and had an ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) performed. Of the RACER study population, 144 drivers were included into the RACER-ABPM study. Of this group 135 (95.7%) were male at mean age of 50.2 ± 9.3 years, with mean body mass index of 32.3 ± 3.0 kg/m 2 . In 21.3% of patients, family history of cardiovascular disease was noted, 28.1% were current smokers, and 2.9% had diabetes mellitus. Arterial hypertension was previously diagnosed in 39 patients (27.9%). In ABPM, the mean 24-hour blood pressure (BP) values were 130.3 ± 14.3 and 80.9 ± 9.9 for systolic and diastolic BP, respectively, and 46.1% of patients could be categorized as dippers. Based on the ABPM results, arterial hypertension was diagnosed in 104 of patients (73.8%). Patients with hypertension tend to be more often male and have a family history of cardiovascular disease. In conclusion, arterial hypertension is highly prevalent in professional drivers. Also abnormal day-to-night BP value patterns are often seen in this group. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The paper was read at the international symposium on nuclear liability held in Munich in September 1984 by OECD/NEA and IAEA. It outlines the basic principles of the Paris liability convention and the international development. The author pleads in favour of unlimited liability for hazards on grounds of history, legal policy, legal dogmatics and practice. Moreover he thinks it useful and appropriate because it also improves the protection of the citizens. The same as the federal government the author holds that unlimited liability for hazards is compatible with the maximum damages and the congruity regulations of the Paris and Brussels liability convention. An amendment to the liability convention, though not necessary, would be desirable to make clear that both options - limited and unlimited liability - are open. (HSCH) [de
Say, Rebecca; Thomson, Richard; Robson, Stephen; Exley, Catherine
Women who have a breech presentation at term have to decide whether to attempt external cephalic version (ECV) and how they want to give birth if the baby remains breech, either by planned caesarean section (CS) or vaginal breech birth. The aim of this study was to explore the attitudes of women with a breech presentation and health professionals who manage breech presentation to ECV. We carried out semi-structured interviews with pregnant women with a breech presentation (n=11) and health professionals who manage breech presentation (n=11) recruited from two hospitals in North East England. We used purposive sampling to include women who chose ECV and women who chose planned CS. We analysed data using thematic analysis, comparing between individuals and seeking out disconfirming cases. Four main themes emerged from the data collected during interviews with pregnant women with a breech presentation: ECV as a means of enabling natural birth; concerns about ECV; lay and professional accounts of ECV; and breech presentation as a means of choosing planned CS. Some women's attitudes to ECV were affected by their preferences for how to give birth. Other women chose CS because ECV was not acceptable to them. Two main themes emerged from the interview data about health professionals' attitudes towards ECV: directive counselling and attitudes towards lay beliefs about ECV and breech presentation. Women had a range of attitudes to ECV informed by their preferences for how to give birth; the acceptability of ECV to them; and lay accounts of ECV, which were frequently negative. Most professionals described having a preference for ECV and reported directively counselling women to choose it. Some professionals were dismissive of lay beliefs about ECV. Some key challenges for shared decision making about breech presentation were identified: health professionals counselling women directively about ECV and the differences between evidence-based information about ECV and lay beliefs
Lotz, Julia D; Jox, Ralf J; Borasio, Gian Domenico; Führer, Monika
Pediatric advance care planning differs from the adult setting in several aspects, including patients' diagnoses, minor age, and questionable capacity to consent. So far, research has largely neglected the professionals' perspective. We aimed to investigate the attitudes and needs of health care professionals with regard to pediatric advance care planning. This is a qualitative interview study with experts in pediatric end-of-life care. A qualitative content analysis was performed. We conducted 17 semi-structured interviews with health care professionals caring for severely ill children/adolescents, from different professions, care settings, and institutions. Perceived problems with pediatric advance care planning relate to professionals' discomfort and uncertainty regarding end-of-life decisions and advance directives. Conflicts may arise between physicians and non-medical care providers because both avoid taking responsibility for treatment limitations according to a minor's advance directive. Nevertheless, pediatric advance care planning is perceived as helpful by providing an action plan for everyone and ensuring that patient/parent wishes are respected. Important requirements for pediatric advance care planning were identified as follows: repeated discussions and shared decision-making with the family, a qualified facilitator who ensures continuity throughout the whole process, multi-professional conferences, as well as professional education on advance care planning. Despite a perceived need for pediatric advance care planning, several barriers to its implementation were identified. The results remain to be verified in a larger cohort of health care professionals. Future research should focus on developing and testing strategies for overcoming the existing barriers. © The Author(s) 2014.
Full Text Available Abstract Background As socioeconomic health inequalities persist and widen, the health effects of adversity are a constant presence in the daily work of physicians. Gruen and colleagues suggest that, in responding to important population health issues such as this, defining those areas of professional obligation in contrast to professional aspiration should be on the basis of evidence and feasibility. Drawing this line between obligation and aspiration is a part of the work of professional medical colleges and associations, and in doing so they must respond to members as well as a range of other interest groups. Our aim was to explore the usefulness of Gruen's model of physician responsibility in defining how professional medical colleges and associations should lead the profession in responding to socioeconomic health inequalities. Methods We report a case study of how the Royal Australian College of General Practitioners is responding to the issue of health inequalities through its work. We undertook a consultation (80 interviews with stakeholders internal and external to the College and two focus groups with general practitioners and program and policy review of core programs of College interest and responsibility: general practitioner training and setting of practice standards, as well as its work in public advocacy. Results Some strategies within each of these College program areas were seen as legitimate professional obligations in responding to socioeconomic health inequality. However, other strategies, while potentially professional obligations within Gruen's model, were nevertheless contested. The key difference between these lay in different moral orientations. Actions where agreement existed were based on an ethos of care and compassion. Actions that were contested were based on an ethos of justice and human rights. Conclusion Colleges and professional medical associations have a role in explicitly leading a debate about values
Felstead, Ian S; Springett, Kate
Patients' expectations of being cared for by a nurse who is caring, competent, and professional are particularly pertinent in current health and social care practice. The current drive for NHS values-based recruitment serves to strengthen this. How nursing students' development of professionalism is shaped is not fully known, though it is acknowledged that their practice experience strongly shapes behaviour. This study (in 2013-14) explored twelve adult nursing students' lived experiences of role modelling through an interpretive phenomenological analysis approach, aiming to understand the impact on their development as professional practitioners. Clinical nurses influenced student development consistently. Some students reported that their experiences allowed them to learn how not to behave in practice; a productive learning experience despite content. Students also felt senior staff influence on their development to be strong, citing 'leading by example.' The impact of patients on student professional development was also a key finding. Through analysing information gained, identifying and educating practice-based mentors who are ready, willing, and able to role model professional attributes appear crucial to developing professionalism in nursing students. Those involved in nurse education, whether service providers or universities, may wish to acknowledge the influence of clinical nurse behaviour observed by students both independent of and in direct relation to care delivery and the impact on student nurse professional development. A corollary relates to how students should be guided and briefed/debriefed to work with a staff to ensure their exposure to a variety of practice behaviours. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This study mainly investigated which mental state of designers, self-confidence or sense of inferiority, has positive effects on professional design achievement. This study attempted to find if there is correlation between designers’ self-confidence or sense of inferiority and their professional achievement. With regard to the tendency of designers’ psychological state, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale was used to measure designers’ selfconfidence, and statistical computations were made based on gathered data. This study used correlation analysis to find if confidence level of 46 seniors of Design Department is relevant to their professional achievement. The results of the study showed that confidence level of designers has a slight correlation to professional achievement. Factors leading to the study’s findings may be the small amount of sample analyzed or may be the reason that the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale only detected the current level of self-confidence and could not give a proper feedback on designers’ self-confidence during the entire semester. In the future, the results of this study can be considered as a pre-test experiment for a more complete study, and it is expected that results of the study can be for design educators’ reference.
Parliman, G C; Edwards, E L
Increasing numbers of employers are implementing employee assistance programs (EAPs) designed to assist employees with personal issues that affect their work performance. Studies show that EAPs can dramatically increase employee productivity, but the benefits from EAPs have been accompanied by a less welcome development: lawsuits filed against employers by employees who allege that they suffered harm in the course of obtaining services through their employers' EAPs. Although the potential for liability will always exist, the employer that adheres to certain guidelines will be able to minimize its risk and make its EAP well worth the investment.
Yuguero, Oriol; Forné, Carles; Esquerda, Montserrat; Pifarré, Josep; Abadías, María José; Viñas, Joan
The objective of this study is to assess the association between levels of empathy and burnout of emergency professionals in all the assistance levels.A cross-sectional observational study was conducted in the health region of Lleida and the Pyrenees with 100 professionals from the field of Urgency. Participation reached 40.8%. Empathy and burnout were measured using the Spanish versions of the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy (JSPE) and Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) respectively. The total MBI score and its 3 dimensions (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment) were analyzed. The JSPE and MBI scores were categorized into tertiles that were identified as "low," "moderate," and "high" levels.The median (interquartile range) was 112 (102-123) and 37 (27-53.5) for the JSPE and MBI scores respectively. Professionals with high burnout (MBI≥47) showed the lowest levels of empathy, that is, JSPE score of 105 (98-114); those with moderate burnout (31≤MBI empathy were associated with the lowest levels of burnout, especially in depersonalization, and to a lesser extent in personal accomplishment. There were no differences in empathy and burnout for any of the other study variables.Our findings suggest that the empathy of emergency professionals is associated with burnout. Hence, reducing professional burnout could help keep emergency professionals' empathy levels high, which in turn would ensure a better quality of care. Nevertheless, it would be necessary to carry out prospective studies to describe the profiles of burnout and empathy as well as their association and evolution.
Moreland, Amy Laphelia
The purpose of this concurrent, mixed-methods study was to examine the professional empowerment qualities of mid-career (years 4-8), science teachers. I used the construct of professional empowerment as the theoretical frame to explore K-12 mid-career science teachers' career trajectories and consider how they can be supported professionally and ideally retained over time. In investigating the qualities of these teachers, I also constructed a new teaching trajectory model and tested the differences between mid-career and veteran science teachers. I analyzed seventy-eight surveys of mid-career science teachers across Texas, including six in-depth, interview-based case studies. The qualitative piece used behavior-over-time graphing combined with the interviews and the quantitative component used survey data from the Teacher Empowerment Survey (TES). Results indicated that science content knowledge gain through professional development opportunities was an especially important factor in supporting mid-career teachers' sense of empowerment. This increased content knowledge connected positively with the dimensions of decision-making, status, and impact. In a between-group analysis using a larger subset of TES data, I analyzed 254 surveys by conducting a nonparametric statistical test. A statistically significant difference was found between the two groups, in that mid-career science teachers had a lower sense of "status" than their more experienced counterparts (p empowerment. The study was situated within a broader scope of exploring how educational leaders and professional development providers can understand and support science teachers of varying experience levels. A well-designed and possibly differentiated professional development program could successfully connect with these kind of empowered and receptive mid-career science teachers, and thus increase the probability of implementing quality science education programs, content, and pedagogy into schools. The
Wang, Kuei-Ying; Chou, Chuan-Chiang; Huang, Jui-Lan
The high rate of turnover in nursing positions is a global problem. There have been few studies done addressing the relationship between work values and nurse turnover intention. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between work values, professional commitment and turnover intention among clinical nurses. A cross-sectional survey was conducted between February 1st to March 10th, 2008 on a convenience sample of nurses, all of whom had at least a half year of work experience at one of four teaching hospitals in Taiwan. A total of 289 valid responses were received, with a response rate of 96.3%. Major findings included: (1) Nurses who were older, had more years of school, had worked more years, held specific job duties, earned a higher salary, held Buddhist beliefs, or were married with two or more children presented higher work values and professional commitment and lower turnover intention; (2) As a group, total work values and professional commitment scores corresponded negatively with turnover intention scores; (3) Significant factors affecting turnover intent in clinical nurses included professional commitment, institution characteristics, Buddhist beliefs and salary. These four variables accounted for 52.2% of the variation in turnover intention. This study indicated that nurses with higher work values and professional commitment tend to exhibit less turnover intention. It is highly recommended to develop strategies to bolster the teaching of altruistic values and professional commitment in nursing education in order to reduce turnover intent. Also, further studies on the influence of religious beliefs and organizational attributes on nurse turnover intentions are also suggested.
The opposing view to the proposition that limits on nuclear liability under the Price-Anderson Act should be removed cites the historical recognition of the need to protect the public as it was defined in 1957. The limit on liability today is $630 million per nuclear incident, with total protection continuing to increase as new plants come on line and additional purchased insurance becomes available. The limit gives the industry an incentive to commit capital and technical resources to develop new technology. Removing the limit would increase costs, but not benefits, for electric consumers, and would require a new way to protect the public other than through purchased insurance or the utility's resources. The industry will support raising the limit, however
Rothouse, M; Stauffer, M
When a health plan denies payment for a procedure on grounds that it is not medically necessary or when it refuses a physician-ordered referral to a specialist, has it crossed the line from making an insurance judgment to practicing medicine? If the patient suffers harm as a result of the decision, is the plan liable for medical malpractice? Those were questions 35 states considered in 1999, and at least 32 states are grappling with this year as they seek to respond to physician and patient pressure to curb the power of the managed care industry. Traditionally, health insurers have been protected by state laws banning "the corporate practice of medicine," which means the patient's only recourse is to sue under a "vicarious liability" theory. Now, however, lawmakers are debating legislation to extend the scope of malpractice liability beyond individual practitioners to insurance carriers and plans themselves.
There has always been concern that nuclear materials have the potential to cause injury and property damage. For this reason, nuclear operators have always been required by national regulatory authorities to exercise special precautions in the operation of their facilities. Federal legislation was drafted in Canada as the Nuclear Liability Act in 1970. The Act ensures that funds are available from all operators of nuclear facilities to provide financial compensation to third parties for injuries or damages suffered as a result of a nuclear incident; at the same time the Act provides protection to the operators by limiting their related liability. The Act also protects persons other than operators. The review of the Act has progressed in stages. The first stage was conducted by the staff of the Atomic Energy Control Board and catalogued previously identified difficulties with the Act. The second stage was a preliminary examination of the Act by an Interdepartmental Working Group. 2 figs
Segal, S J
The history of liability claims in the US against contraceptive products is among the issues that discourage manufacturers from investing in discovery and development in this field. Other factors are the high cost of new drug development, elevated insurance rates for contraceptives, and the desire to avoid controversy that can disturb corporate tranquility. General features of the American legal system influence the large number and cost of product liability claims in the US compared to Europe. These differences pertain to issues such as the role of judges, how lawyers receive their compensation, and the use of expert scientific testimony. The history of litigation in the US against pharmaceutical products and devices pertaining to women's health suggests that interventions that involve the reproductive system are held to different standards or elicit different emotional responses than other pharmaceutical products or devices.
The Ordinance exempts from the application of the 1983 Act on Nuclear Third Party Liability some substances with low radiation effects. It determines the amount of private insurance cover and defines the risks that insurers may exclude from cover. It establishes a special fund for nuclear damage made up of contributions from the nuclear operators. Specifications are given on the amount of the contributions and their conditions, as well as on administration of the fund. The Ordinance repeals the Ordinance of 13 June 1960 on funds for delayed atomic damage, the Order of 19 December 1960 on contributions to the fund for delayed atomic damage and the Ordinance of 30 November 1981 on cover for third party liability resulting from nuclear power plant operation [fr
The exception made in the 1960 Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy to the otherwise absolute channelling of liability in order to avoid conflicts with the then existing international agreements in the field of transport is briefly described. The dual liability created by this provision is studied, as well as the question whether and when the victim might prefer to base his claim on a transport agreement instead of the Paris Convention. The so-called nuclear clauses in the new agreements in the transport field are analysed. The problems caused by the absence of a nuclear clause in the Guatemala City and Montreal Protocols, amending the Warsaw Convention relating to international air carriage are noted. Finally the relationship between nuclear liability legislation and transport legislation in Finland, as well as the cases where a dual liability existed at the time of the ratification of the Paris Convention and the changes which have taken place since then are described. (NEA) [fr
Lydia Mikhailovna Semenova
Full Text Available The article is devoted to the organization of research work on forming professional image of the future public relations specialist. The purposes of the work were to study components of students’ image, to test the concept of a professional image of the specialist, and also to process and evaluate the results. The author has presented three phases of experimental research: statement, formative and evaluative. As a result, a positive trend of forming a professional image was found. The conceptual model of forming a professional image of the future experts tested in the course of experiment has shown to be highly effective, while new methods of training (training, workshops, panel discussions, action games, etc. have substantially improved the level of development of a professional image. The results can be used in the training and retraining of specialists of higher education and people whose profession related to communications.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-7-48
Bahreini, Masoud; Moattari, Marzieh; Shahamat, Shohreh; Dobaradaran, Sina; Ravanipour, Mariam
The aim of the study was to determine the effect of a portfolio-based professional development program on nurses' competence in a university hospital in Iran. A pre-test/post-test, controlled, quasi-experimental design was used. From the university hospital's 18 general wards, four wards were randomly selected. Two wards were randomly allocated as the experimental group (35 subjects) and two wards as the control group (38 subjects). Nurses in the experimental group participated in a 12-month portfolio-based professional development program and nurses in the control group participated in the routine professional development programs of their wards. The data were collected by the Nurse Competence Scale and were analyzed using descriptive statistics and independent and paired t-tests. After intervention, the average nurses' competence in the experimental group increased significantly (P professional portfolio is an effective tool for improving nurses' competence. The professional portfolios help nurses update their knowledge, skills, and competence towards their full role as nurses. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Zazryn, T; Cameron, P; McCrory, P
There is concern over the potential for a high incidence of injury in boxing. This is despite a lack of prospective data evaluating the risk for modern day participants. Updated, reliable data with a focus on potential exposure to injury for both amateur and, especially, professional boxers is required. To determine the epidemiology of injury and exposure of amateur and professional boxers in Victoria, Australia. A prospective cohort study with one year follow up was carried out over 2004-2005. Thirty three amateur and 14 active professional boxers registered with either Boxing Victoria Inc (amateurs) or the Professional Boxing and Combat Sports Board of Victoria (professionals) volunteered. Exposure at training and competition was measured, and any injuries sustained during this participation were recorded. Twenty one injuries were sustained by the cohort during the follow up period. Most were to the head region (71%; 95% confidence interval -3.7 to 89.4), with concussion being the most common (33%). An overall injury rate of 2.0 injuries per 1000 hours of boxing was calculated. The high exposure experienced by the boxers (as a result of considerable training time) indicated that boxing has acute injury rates comparable to, and often lower than, those found in other contact and non-contact sports. Further, acute injuries during training appear to be less common and severe than those sustained in bouts.
Uquidity is of critical importance to companies in the banking services sector. Most failures of financialintermediaries have occured in large part due to insufficient liquidity resulting from adverse circumstances.Goldman Sachs has in piace a comprehensive set of liquidity and funding policies that are intended tomaintain significant flexibility to address specific and broader industry or market liquidity events.In asset liabilities mal1agement or liquidity management, liquidity risk is mana...
Gregg, Robert E
Rumors and gossip are inevitable ingredients of work life. Within limits, they may have some beneficial functions. Still, practitioners and managers must be aware of the dangers inherent in defamation of character and harassment. This article defines workplace comments and activities that should be avoided and the employer's legal liability when situations get out of hand. It also outlines the manager's responsibilities and lists privacy rights that are codified by state and federal laws.
Brown, O.F.; Horbach, N.
Many elements can bear on liability for nuclear damage during transport. For example, liability may depend upon a number of facts that may be categorized as follows: shipment, origin or destination of the shipment, deviation from the planed route, temporary storage incidental to carriage; content of shipment, type of nuclear material involved, whether its origin is civilian or defence-related; sites of accident, number and type of territories damaged (i.e. potential conventions involved), applicable territorial limits, exclusive economic zone, high seas, etc.; nature of damages, personal injury, property damage, damage to the means of carriage, indirect damage, preventive measures, environmental cleanup or retrieval at seas, res communis, transboundary damages etc.; victims involved, nationality and domiciles of victims; jurisdiction, flag (for ships) or national registration (for aircraft) of the transporting vessel, courts of one or more states may have (or assert) jurisdiction to hear claims, and may have to determine what law to apply to a particular accident; applicable law, the applicability laws and/or international nuclear liability conventions; the extent to which any applicable convention has been implemented or modified by domestic legislation, conflicts with the 1982 Law of the Sea Convention or other applicable international agreements, and finally, also written agreements between installation operators and carriers can define applicable law as well as responsibilities. Harmonizing nuclear liability protection and applying it to additional international shipments would be facilitated by more countries being in treaty relations with each other as soon as possible. Adherence to an international convention by more countries (including China, Russia, the United States, etc.) would promote the open flow of services and advanced technology, and better facilitate international transport. The conventions protect the public, harmonize legislation in the
Rui Miguel Prista Patrício Cascão
Full Text Available Liability of healthcare providers can be framed under the theory of contract in the law of Portugal and Macao, to obtain compensation for injury suffered by aggrieved patients, as a result of medical adverse events. However, shortcomings in the law, court practice and literature lead to some uncertainty in adjudication. This article aims at reducing said uncertainty, setting forward a clear-cut adjudication paradigm, while recommending legal reform.
Ifflaender, G.; Kantner, G.
A short overview is given of the most important international conventions relating to civil liability for damage to, or loss of, life of persons or property, caused by nuclear incidents during the operation of stationary and non-stationary nuclear installations or transport of nuclear material. In accord with the international provisions, in the German Democratic Republic too, nuclear operators are exclusively liable for such damage unless it has been caused intentionally by the injury party. (author)
This paper examines Regulatory Regime in Turkey has no general Nuclear Energy Act and apart from legislation to the Turkish Atomic Energy Authority, the applicable law mainly covers protection and the licensing against of nuclear installation. In Addition this paper also contains briefly the major points which have to be taken into consideration and advance in the legal liability insurance of the nuclear power plants
In the event of transfrontier radioactive pollution or oil pollution, compensation for damage may be sought under two different liability systems: there is the framework of international law of liability of international persons, and there is the liability regime established by international conventions. The latter system has adopted a very friendly attitude towards the claims of a private victim claiming compensation from the private polluter. The book first sets out the basic principles and practice of the two liability systems, also considering the latest developments and current discussions advocating the acknowledgement of the principle of strict and absolute liability in international law. The relationship of the two systems is the major issue of the book, and the Chernobyl reactor accident has made it a particularly topical issue at that. The problems arising in the wake of this accident have shown the need for clarification in this field. The author suggests as a practical approach a strict separation of the two bases of claims, so that parallel or successive procedure on the level of international law or civil law is possible. Finally the problem of avoiding duplication in the payment of compensation is discussed. (orig./HP) [de
Full Text Available IS professionals are primarily concerned with the development of a project to meet the goals of a client. Unfortunately, IS professional do not always pay close attention to the contract or to its management and are often unaware of the legal implications of the contracts to which they are assenting. Legal advice can be sought during pre-contractual processes to help ensure that the contract meets the expectations of all the parties. If the project does not meet stakeholder’s expectations, thus causing a contract to come into dispute, lawyers may be called in to review the contract and to seek a settlement. This paper reports an exploratory study of the differences in perceptions of IS development contracts that exist between IS professionals and legal practitioners.
Cristiane Trivisiol da Silva
Full Text Available This research aims to identify the perception of professional members of a multi-professional residency program on Permanent Health Education. It is a case study research using a qualitative approach, with sixteen members of a multi-professional residency program. The data were collected from January to May 2012, through semi-structured interviews, document analysis and systematic observation, and analyzed according to Thematic Content Analysis. Two categories were identified: Permanent Health Education establishing collective spaces of reflection of practices and Permanent Health Education that promotes integration between disciplines. The members of the multiprofessional residency team were found to be aware that permanent education permeates their training and enables reflection on their clinical practices and multidisciplinary action as producers of health actions.
Boerner, Katelynn E; Coulombe, J Aimée; Corkum, Penny
The need to train non-sleep-specialist health professionals in evidence-based pediatric behavioral sleep care is well established. The objective of the present study was to develop a list of core competencies for training health professionals in assisting families of 1- to 10-year old children with behavioral insomnia of childhood. A modified Delphi methodology was employed, involving iterative rounds of surveys that were administered to 46 experts to obtain consensus on a core competency list. The final list captured areas relevant to the identification and treatment of pediatric behavioral sleep problems. This work has the potential to contribute to the development of training materials to prepare non-sleep-specialist health professionals to identify and treat pediatric behavioral sleep problems, ideally within stepped-care frameworks.
Canter, L.W.; Lahlou, M.; Pendurthi, R.P.
Potential liabilities associated with hazardous waste disposal are related to waste properties, disposal practices and the potential threat to people and the environment in case of a pollutant release. Based on various regulations, these liabilities are enforceable and longstanding. A methodology which can help hazardous waste generators select a commercial disposal facility with a relatively low risk of potential liability is described in this paper. The methodology has two parts. The first part has 8 categories encompassing 30 factors common to all facilities, and the second part includes one category dealing with 5 factors on specific wastes and treatment/disposal technologies. This two-part evaluation feature enables the user to adapt the methodology to any type of waste disposal. In determining the scores for the factors used in the evaluation. an unranked paired comparison technique with slight modifications was used to weight the relative importance of the individual factors. In the methodology it is possible for the user to redefine the factors and change the scoring system. To make the methodology more efficient, a user-friendly computer program has been developed; the computer program is written so that desired changes in the methodology can be readily implemented
Reitsma, S. M. S.
Over fifty years ago states started to introduce legislation protecting the public against the potential magnitude and peculiarity of risks arising from the nuclear energy production. They did so trough a specific liability and compensation regime. Whether legislation was based on national initiatives or, as more frequently, related to international nuclear liability conventions, it was based on a number of principles being applied universally. Furthermore, it at the same time strived for not preventing the development of the nuclear industry because of an unbearable liability. This paper aims at explaining the broad outline of the above legislation, its development since its early years, the state of the art as regards its modernisation as well as the (alleged) problems underlying the delay in its introduction in a number of countries. When dealing with those problems it will be inevitable to touch upon a number of insurance related matters, which, as an insurer I am happy to tell, will lead me to familiar territory.(author).
The provisions of the Environmental Protection and Enhancement Act (EPEA) regarding the relationship between a company and an independent contractor were reviewed. The EPEA was introduced in September 1993 and significantly altered the environmental laws in the province of Alberta. The provisions of the EPEA that apply to the petroleum industry are conservation and reclamation as well as provisions concerning release of substances, contaminated sites and penalties. Companies that pollute may be held liable for reclamation, even if the work was carried out by an independent contractor and despite the fact that the independent contractor is not an employee of the company. Under the current EPEA laws, companies may not be able to effectively shift responsibility for environmental liabilities to independent contractors even where the contractor was negligent. This paper presented suggestions regarding contractor agreements and due diligence to help minimize the risk of liability to companies. The paper also discussed the following two types of liabilities under the EPEA's harmful substances section: (1) the obligation to clean up an affected area, and (2) fines and penalties that may be imposed when an offence is committed
Full Text Available The purpose of the research is to obtain an overall image on the accounting professionals' opinions concerning intangible assets and capital. Out of the 111 accounting professionals who participated in the study, 55.86% consider that the traditional financial statements cannot capture the value of intangible assets, which leads to an increase in the information asymmetry, the solution being to focus, in the annual reports, on non-financial information. Over 80% of the respondents consider that, internally, the evaluation of intangible capital plays a very important role in strategy development and in creating innovation.
Pu, Chengyi; Addai, Bismark; Pan, Xiaojun; Bo, Pangtuo
The environmental catastrophic accidents in China over the last three decades have triggered implementation of myriad policies by the government to help abate environmental pollution in the country. Consequently, research into environmental pollution liability insurance and how that can stimulate economic growth and the development of financial market in China is worthwhile. This study attempts to design a financial derivative for China's environmental pollution liability insurance to offer strong financial support for significant compensation towards potential catastrophic environmental loss exposures, especially losses from the chemical industry. Assuming the risk-free interest rate is 4%, the market portfolio expected return is 12%; the financial asset beta coefficient is 0.5, by using the capital asset pricing model (CAPM) and cash flow analysis; the principal risk bond yields 9.4%, single-period and two-period prices are 103.85 and 111.58, respectively; the principal partial-risk bond yields 10.09%, single-period and two-period prices are 103.85 and 111.58, respectively; and the principal risk-free bond yields 8.94%, single-period and two-period prices are 107.99 and 115.83, respectively. This loss exposure transfer framework transfers the catastrophic risks of environmental pollution from the traditional insurance and reinsurance markets to the capital market. This strengthens the underwriting capacity of environmental pollution liability insurance companies, mitigates the compensation risks of insurers and reinsurers, and provides a new channel to transfer the risks of environmental pollution.
Moreira, H; Magalhães, T; Dinis-Oliveira, Rj; Taveira-Gomes, A
Although medical liability (disciplinary, civil and criminal) is increasingly becoming an issue, few studies exist, particularly from the perspective of forensic science, which demonstrate the extent to which medical malpractice occurs, or when it does, the reasons for it. Our aims were to evaluate the current situation concerning medical liability in general surgery (GS) in Portugal, the reasons for claims, and the forensic evaluations and conclusions, as well as the association between these issues and the judicial outcomes. We analysed the Medico-Legal Council (CML) reports of the National Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences of Portugal related to GS during 2001-2010. The judicial outcomes of each case were requested from the Public Prosecutor Office (PPO) and the court. Alleged cases of medical liability in GS represented 11.2% of the total cases analysed by the CML. We estimated that in Portugal, 4:100,000 surgeries are subject to litigation. The majority of complaints were due to the patient's death (75.4%), with laparoscopic cholecystectomy surgeries representing 55.2% of cases. In 76.1% of the cases, the CML believed that there was no violation of legesartis and in 55.2% of cases, no causal nexus was found between the medical practice and the alleged harm. The PPO prosecuted physicians in 6.4% of the cases and resulted in one conviction. Finally, the importance of the CML reports as a relevant technical-scientific tool for judicial decision was evident because these reports significantly (p < 0.05) influenced the prosecutor's decision, whether to prosecute or not. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.
Gibbon, Bernard; Crane, Julie
Missed care is a recently described concept that is subject to an increasing amount of international nursing research. The impact of missed care is associated with poorer patient outcomes (mortality and morbidity) and poorer levels of patient satisfaction with the services provided by the hospital. Missed care has also been linked to decreased staff satisfaction and increased intention to leave. Overall disaffection amongst registered nurses has also been reported. Professional socialisation refers to the acquisition of behaviours within cultural norms, and it has been suggested that students enter a period of professional socialisation during their programme. Whilst it has been proposed that students may absorb the characteristics of those around them, to date, no empirical studies have reported the impact of missed care on student nurses. The aim of this project is to explore the impact of missed care on the professional socialisation of student nurses. A qualitative study was undertaken in one higher education institute in UK with final year pre-registration nursing degree (adult field) students. Focus group interviews, utilizing a broad topic guide, were used to collect data which was analysed using thematic analysis. Student nurses were aware that some planned care is missed and these findings resonated with those identified in the literature. In addition to illuminating aspects of professional socialisation, analysis yielded five themes with regards to missed care: awareness, rationale, impact, strategies to avoid and influence of missed care on career aspiration. Student nurses exposed to missed care appear to accept this as part of their professional socialisation. With regards to professional socialisation, student nurses developed a pragmatic acceptance that care would be missed and that this could happen in any environment. As such they did not see missed care as influencing their career aspirations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lee, Yee Ming; Kwon, Junehee; Sauer, Kevin
Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore child nutrition professionals' (CNPs) attitudes about food allergies, current practices of food allergy training, and operational issues related to food allergy training in school foodservice operations. Methods: Three focus groups were conducted with 21 CNPs with managerial…
The development of students' professional skills is an important issue in higher education in China. This research reports a 3-month study investigating engineering students' communication strategies (CSs) while they were interacting to do a 12-week mobile-assisted learning project, i.e., "Organizing and Attending a Model International…
Kayne Chaplock, Sharon
Professional credentials earned through certification programs are becoming an important way to demonstrate competency within a given discipline. With the globalization of business enterprises and associations, these credentials are eagerly sought by people located throughout the world. Candidates for these credentials often study together using…
Kroezen, Marieke; Dussault, Gilles; Craveiro, Isabel; Dieleman, Marjolein; Jansen, Christel; Buchan, James; Barriball, Louise; Rafferty, Anne Marie; Bremner, Jeni; Sermeus, Walter
Many European countries are faced with health workforce shortages and the need to develop effective recruitment and retention (R&R) strategies. Yet comparative studies on R&R in Europe are scarce. This paper provides an overview of the measures in place to improve the R&R of health professionals
Hernández, María J.; Martínez, María A.
This study seeks to broaden the existing knowledge about education and professional development in educational leadership by analysing the characteristics of "good" training programmes according to international theoretical frameworks and to educational leaders' views. To do so, 100 headteachers of infant, primary and secondary schools…
Kieser, Jules A.; Dall'Alba, Gloria; Livingstone, Vicki
This longitudinal study examines changes in understanding of dental practice among a cohort of students in the early years of a dentistry programme. In their first two professional years, we identified five distinct understandings of dental practice that we have ordered from least to most comprehensive: "relieving pain or generally caring for…
Andrews, Deborah C.
Business and professional communicators increasingly rely on visual thinking and design strategies to create effective messages. The workplace need for such thinking, however, is not readily accommodated in current pedagogy. A long-running study abroad short course for American students taught in London provides a model for meeting this need.…
Thielking, Monica; Moore, Susan; Jimerson, Shane R.
This study examined the supervision arrangements and job satisfaction among school psychologists in Victoria, Australia. Participation in professional supervision was explored in relation to the type of employment and job satisfaction. The results revealed that the frequency of participation in supervision activities was less than optimal, with…
Curran, Tara M.; Prottas, David J.
The study used data provided by 349 professional staff employees from 17 different US higher education institutions to assess aspects of their working conditions that could influence their own work engagement and the work-related behaviours of their colleagues. Relationships among three role stressors (role ambiguity, role conflict and role…
Scartezini, Raquel Antunes; Monereo, Carles
This study investigated whether changes can occur on indicators of teachers' professional identity (TPI) when teachers and students share representations about what happens in class during an academic term. TPI is a process of constant negotiation between the different I-positions of teachers at the personal, social and cultural levels. The main…
Learner motivation is considered a vital factor in second language instruction. An analysis of motivation types and degrees can reveal learners' expectations and learning objectives. The present study analyzes the motivational patterns of a group of English for academic and professional purposes (EAPP) learners while focusing on types and degrees…
Trothen, Tracy J.
This article proposes that religious studies instructors can gain pedagogical insights regarding the value and teaching of empathy from pre-professional health care and counseling fields. I present research findings from these fields to support claims that empathic skills are teachable. I then show that empathy has been established within the…
Grizzle, Pamela Lavon
In order for educators to prepare students for technology-enhanced learning educators must first be prepared. The digital divide and technology professional development are two factors impacting the depth at which technology is integrated into the classroom. The local problem addressed in this study was that the impact of technology professional…
Ashraf, Hamid; Kafi, Zahra; Saeedan, Azaam
The present study has aimed at delving the code of ethics in testing in English language institutions to see how far adhering to these ethical codes will result in EFL teachers' professional behavior. Therefore, 300 EFL instructors teaching at English language schools in Khorasan Razavi Province, Zabansara Language School, as well as Khorasan…
Balbag, M. Zafer; Yenilmez, Kürsat; Turgut, Melih
This study aimed at adapting the personal professional development efforts scale developed for science and technology teachers to be applied for middle school mathematics teachers. For this purpose, first of all, the items of the original scale were adjusted for the middle school mathematics teachers by a team of experts. Data obtained by the new…
Brekelmans, G.B.; Poell, R.F.; van Wijk, K.
Purpose The aim of this paper is to present an inventory of expert opinions on the factors that influence the participation of registered nurses in continuing professional development (CPD) activities. Design/methodology/approach A Delphi study was conducted among 38 Dutch experts (nursing
Walser, Tamara M.; Trevisan, Michael S.
Evaluability assessment (EA) has potential as a design option for thesis and dissertation studies, serving as a practical training experience for both technical and nontechnical evaluation skills. Based on a content review of a sample of EA theses and dissertations from graduate professional degree programs, the authors of this article found that…
Tremblay, Marie-Claude; Richard, Lucie; Brousselle, Astrid; Chiocchio, François; Beaudet, Nicole
The health promotion laboratory (HPL-Canada) is a public health professional development program building on a collaborative learning approach in order to support long-term practice change in local health services teams. This study aims to analyse the collaborative learning processes of two teams involved in the program during the first year of…
Akopoff, Tanya M.
A current trend in education is that small teacher groups, called professional learning communities (PLC), are being advocated as a tool to help teachers reach struggling students. Educators planning to use PLC as an intervention strategy can benefit from research-based information about PLC best practices. This multiple case study addressed the…
Çimen, Latife Kabakli
This study aims to investigate the prediction of the attitudes regarding teaching profession by the communication skills and professional motivation of pedagogical formation students. 261 pre-service teachers receiving pedagogical formation training Istanbul at a private university in the 2014-2015 academic year were included in the research as…
Herdeiro, Rosalinda; Costa e Silva, Ana Maria
This paper is part of a research study undertaken with Portuguese teachers. The main objective is to understand the impact of recent educational legislation on the quality of teaching and the professional development of teachers. In this context the following research questions were formulated: "Do the education policies of the government…
Thinking like a nurse (TLN) has been identified as a core competency of professional nursing practice. The term embraces the full context of the daily metacognitive process nurses use to provide competent nursing care and was theorized in this study to have four attributes: critical thinking, clinical judgment, moral reasoning, and professional…
Ashraf, Hamid; Hosseinnia, Mansooreh; Domsky, Javad GH.
Emotional intelligence is the capability to realize, to create, to comprehend emotions and sentimental knowledge, and to reflectively control emotions and to improve emotional and mental growth. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between EFL teachers' commitment to professional ethics and their emotional intelligence. To…
Warnock, James N.; Mohammadi-Aragh, M. Jean
Problem-based learning (PBL) is a pedagogy that has attracted attention for many biomedical engineering curricula. The aim of the current study was to address the research question, "Does PBL enable students to develop desirable professional engineering skills?" The desirable skills identified were communication, teamwork, problem…
Ashmeade, Lisa Ann
This record of study examines the relationship between certified staff personnel perception of digital citizenship and the impact upon professional development. Quantitative and qualitative data was used to examine responses to teacher familiarity with the concept of digital citizenship and status of teaching digital citizenship culminating with…
Gouttebarge, Vincent; Hopley, Phil; Kerkhoffs, Gino; Verhagen, Evert; Viljoen, Wayne; Wylleman, Paul; Lambert, Mike I
The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders among professional rugby players across countries. A cross-sectional analysis of the baseline questionnaires from an ongoing prospective cohort study was conducted. Nine national players' associations and three rugby unions distributed questionnaires based on validated scales for assessing symptoms of common mental disorders. Among the whole study sample (N=990; overall response rate of 28%), prevalence (4-week) of symptoms of common mental disorders ranged from 15% for adverse alcohol use to 30% for anxiety/depression. These findings support the prevalence rates of symptoms of common mental disorders found in previous studies among professional (i. e., elite) athletes across other sports, and suggestions can be made that the prevalence of symptoms of anxiety/depression seems slightly higher in professional rugby than in other general/occupational populations. Awareness of the prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders should be improved in international rugby, and an interdisciplinary approach including psychological attention should be fostered in the medical care of professional rugby players. Adequate supportive measures to enhance awareness and psychological resilience would lead not only to improved health and quality of life among rugby players but arguably to enhanced performance in rugby. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Beach, Dennis; Bagley, Carl
Modern definitions of professions connect professional knowledge to scientific studies and higher education. In the present article we examine the changing nature of this relationship in initial teacher education in two European countries: Sweden and England. The article is based on policy analyses from recent decades of teacher education reforms.…
Professionalism is a focus for student learning in many disciplines. It is known, furthermore, that interpersonal interactions between staff and students constitute an informal curriculum that has a significant influence on students. But the origins of this informal curriculum are not fully apparent. This article offers a multiple case study that…
Satink, T.J.; Cup, E.H.; Swart, B.J.M. de; Sanden, M.W. van der
PURPOSE: Self-management has become an important concept in stroke rehabilitation. This study explored allied healthcare professionals' (AHPs) perceptions and beliefs regarding the self-management of stroke survivors and their knowledge and skills regarding stroke self-management interventions.
Bush, Gail; Jones, Jami L.
This article reports the findings of an exploratory study to identify professional dispositions of school librarians. The authors employed the Delphi method, a qualitative research method that emphasizes expert knowledge and consensus within a particular field. The Delphi panel consisted of members of the editorial boards of nationally recognized…
O'Callaghan, Dana M.; Chandler, Cynthia K.
This study implemented an exploratory analysis to examine how a sample of mental health professionals incorporates specific animal-assisted techniques into the therapeutic process. An extensive review of literature related to animal-assisted therapy (AAT) resulted in the identification of 18 techniques and 10 intentions for the practice of AAT in…
Valentina A. Polyanskaya
Full Text Available The article considers the results of psychological-educational research, implemented in teaching process of law students’, studying at bachelor level. Special attention is attached to self-determination of future lawyers in professional specialization during introduction training
Michael N. Kane
Full Text Available Few studies in the discipline of social work have identified correlates of preparedness to manage risk and personal liability among practitioners or students. This study investigated predictors of MSW students’ perceptions of managing personal risk and liability (N=116. Four correlates were identified from the standard regression model that accounts for 43% of the adjusted variance. These predictor variables included: (a concern and worry about lawsuits (Beta=-.458, p=.00, (b understanding the fit between client advocacy and managed care (Beta=.328,p=.00, (c understanding agency documentation requirements (Beta=-.164, p=.05, and (d perceptions of field preparation for documentation (Beta=.162, p=.05. Implications are discussed.
Bhattacharya, Indrajit; Ramachandran, Anandhi
Healthcare information technology (HIT) applications are being ubiquitously adopted globally and have been indicated to have effects on certain dimensions of recruitment and retention of healthcare professionals. Retention of healthcare professionals is affected by their job satisfaction (JS), commitment to the organization and intention to stay (ITS) that are interlinked with each other and influenced by many factors related to job, personal, organization, etc. The objectives of the current study were to determine if HIT was one among the factors and, if so, propose a probable retention model that incorporates implementation and use of HIT as a strategy. This was a cross-sectional survey study covering 20 hospitals from urban areas of India. The sample (n = 586) consisted of doctors, nurses, paramedics and hospital administrators. Data was collected through a structured questionnaire. Factors affecting job satisfaction were determined. Technology acceptance by the healthcare professionals was also determined. Interactions between the factors were predicted using a path analysis model. The overall satisfaction rate of the respondents was 51 %. Based on factor analysis method, 10 factors were identified for JS and 9 factors for ITS. Availability and use of information technology was one factor that affected JS. The need for implementing technology influenced ITS through work environment and career growth. Also, the study indicated that nearly 70 % of the respondents had awareness of HIT, but only 40 % used them. The importance of providing training for HIT applications was stressed by many respondents. The results are in agreement with literature studies exploring job satisfaction and retention among healthcare professionals. Our study documented a relatively medium level of job satisfaction among the healthcare professionals in the urban area. Information technology was found to be one among the factors that can plausibly influence their job satisfaction and
Krzowski, Bartosz; Płatek, Anna E; Szymański, Filip M; Ryś, Anna; Semczuk-Kaczmarek, Karolina; Adamkiewicz, Karolina; Kotkowski, Marcin; Filipiak, Krzysztof J
Professional drivers are a group exposed to many cardiovascular risk factors. Non-systematic working hours, prolonged stress, low physical activity, along with irregular, and in most cases, unhealthy meals are common aspects of the normal working schedule of most of the professional drivers. These translate into high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of the current analysis was to establish the prevalence of dyslipidaemia in a group of continuous professional drivers. The RACER (Risk of Adverse Cardiovascular Events among professional dRivers in Poland - Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring) study is a prospective study focused on assessing cardiovascular risk factors in professional drivers. Patients included in the study were screened for classical and non-classical cardiovascular risk factors and had an ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) performed. Out of the whole RACER study population, 144 drivers were included into the RACER-ABPM study. Out of this group 135 (95.7%) were male, and the mean age was 50.2 ± 9.3 years, and mean body mass index was 32.3 ± 3.0 kg/m². A family history of CVD was noted in 21.3% of patients, 28.1% were current smokers, and 2.9% had diabetes mellitus. Out of those patients, 72.2% had low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level > 115 mg/dL, 85.5% had LDL-C > 100 mg/dL, and 96.7% had LDL-C > 70 mg/dL. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol 150 mg/dL were found in 28.9% of cases. In conclusion, dyslipidaemia is highly prevalent in professional drivers. Obesity is one of the major contributors to the cardiovascular risk, and dyslipidaemia along with other risk factors highly prevalent in this subgroup accounts for poorer prognosis.
Full Text Available Introduction: Nurse–physician inter-professional relationship is an important issue in health care system that can affect job satisfaction and patient care quality. The present study explores the major issues of nurse–physician inter-professional relationships in Iran. Materials and Methods: In this in-depth qualitative content analysis study conducted in 2014, 12 participants (5 physicians and 7 nurses were recruited from two educational hospitals. The data were collected from deep, open, and unstructured interviews, and analyzed based on content analysis. Results: The participants in this study included 12 individuals, 6 females and 6 males, with the age ranging 27–48 years and tenure ranging 4–17 years. Four themes were identified, namely, divergent attitudes, uneven distribution of power, mutual trust destructors, and prudence imposed on nurses. Conclusions: The results revealed some major inter-professional issues and challenges in nurse–physician relationships, some of which are context-specific whereas others should be regarded as universal. It is through a deep knowledge of these issues that nurses and physicians can establish better collaborative inter-professional relationships.
S. K. Rao
Full Text Available The study assessed the prevalence of diurnal bruxism among information technology (IT professionals and explored plausible predictors associated with the parafunctional habit. A cross-sectional study was designed and IT professionals were invited to participate. The inclusion criteria composed of participants in service for at least one year, having natural dentition, no history of cervical or facial injury and not undergoing orthodontic therapy. The participants (N=147 were interviewed by a trained interviewer to record information. A pre-tested questionnaire that included questions related to work, stress symptoms and diurnal bruxism was completed by each participant. The prevalence of self-reported diurnal bruxism was 59%. Bivariate analyses revealed that work (<0.05 and work experience (<0.05 were significantly associated with self-reported diurnal bruxism. In the binary logistic regression analysis stress (Odds Ratio [OR] =5.9, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 2.6–13.3 was identified to be a strong predictor of diurnal bruxism. Professionals with 11 or more years of experience were less likely to report diurnal bruxism (OR=0.04, 95% CI 0.00–0.43 than those with 1 to 5 years of work experience. The study revealed that stress and less work experience were associated with diurnal bruxism among IT professionals in Bangalore city.
Leonardo Mendes de Souza
Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2016v18n2p233 In the past few years, increased popularity of resistance training (RT and a significant increase in the number of professionals and undergraduate in Physical Education students have been observed. A variety of names has been usually adopted for the same resistance exercise in fields. The aim of the study was to compare the resistance exercise nomenclature adopted by physical education professionals and students, and also to identify the frequencies of names adopted for these resistance exercises. The study included 191 graduate students and active physical education professionals of RT centers and gyms in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Ten exercises traditionally performed on RT programs were selected. The results indicated that there was no association between the nomenclature of exercises and academic degree for all exercises included in the survey. However, there was significant difference (p <0.001 among response frequencies for each exercise, for the whole sample. In this sense, this study enabled identifying significant differences in the nomenclature of resistance exercises. Therefore, nomenclature standardization is essential to establish a direction and clearness in communication among professionals.
Phelps, Geoffrey; Kelcey, Benjamin; Jones, Nathan; Liu, Shuangshuang
Mathematics professional development is widely offered, typically with the goal of improving teachers' content knowledge, the quality of teaching, and ultimately students' achievement. Recently, new assessments focused on mathematical knowledge for teaching (MKT) have been developed to assist in the evaluation and improvement of mathematics professional development. This study presents empirical estimates of average program change in MKT and its variation with the goal of supporting the design of experimental trials that are adequately powered to detect a specified program effect. The study drew on a large database representing five different assessments of MKT and collectively 326 professional development programs and 9,365 teachers. Results from cross-classified hierarchical growth models found that standardized average change estimates across the five assessments ranged from a low of 0.16 standard deviations (SDs) to a high of 0.26 SDs. Power analyses using the estimated pre- and posttest change estimates indicated that hundreds of teachers are needed to detect changes in knowledge at the lower end of the distribution. Even studies powered to detect effects at the higher end of the distribution will require substantial resources to conduct rigorous experimental trials. Empirical benchmarks that describe average program change and its variation provide a useful preliminary resource for interpreting the relative magnitude of effect sizes associated with professional development programs and for designing adequately powered trials. © The Author(s) 2016.
Pollard-Smith, Tobias; Thomson, Oliver P
Professional dancers suffer significant musculoskeletal injuries during the course of their careers. Treatment-seeking behaviour is important in all patient populations, yet is rarely investigated amongst professional dancers. This qualitative study aimed to form a better understanding of how dancers decide to seek treatment, and in particular to explore their experiences of receiving osteopathic care for their injuries. A qualitative study design using grounded theory was used as a methodological framework for data collection and analysis. Semi-structured interviews were used to explore professional dancers' experience of injury and decision-making to seek professional healthcare. Five themes were constructed that explain and describe dancers' experience of injuries and their views and perspectives of treatment, these were; the growing dancer, the fear factor, learning to cope, effective treatment, and returning autonomy. The personal development of each dancer consisted of an amalgam of internal and external pressures. These pressures combine with experiences of pain and injury to influence a dancer's decision-making behaviour when injured and deciding to seek treatment. The study also provide factors relevant in the effective treatment of dancers, and outlined participants' preference for a global physical approach to assessment and treatment of their musculoskeletal pain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Roberts, Megan Rae
This study focuses on an analysis of a professional development program known as lesson study via data obtained during an in-service professional development program for secondary school science teachers. The purpose of this study was to examine the self-efficacy beliefs of one group of science teachers related to their experiences in a lesson study. Another purpose for this research, aligned with the first, included a theoretical analysis of the lesson study construct to see if its design promoted positive self-efficacy beliefs of its participants. The research is framed within the context of social constructivism and self-efficacy and is qualitative in nature and utilized descriptive analysis as a means of research. Case studies were conducted detailing two of the six participants. Data sources included researcher field notes and transcriptions of all planning and debriefing sessions; individual interviews with each participant and the schools' principal; a participant questionnaire, and the Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument. Themes that emerged included the positive perceptions of lesson study as a collaborative and teacher-centered experience; the understanding that lesson study can instill a sense of professionalism to those who participate in the process; the sense that discussing student learning using objective observations from classroom is a powerful way to assess learning and uncover personal teacher beliefs; and the insight that the time commitment that lesson study requires can inhibit teachers and schools from sustaining it as a form of on-going professional development. Although these themes are consistent with the research on lesson study in Japan and elsewhere in the United States, they also extend the research on self-efficacy and science teacher professional development. In the end, this study supported some of the conclusions of the self-efficacy research as it relates to professional development while also adding that interpersonal
Hira, Meenakshi; Yadav, Sudesh; Morthekai, P; Linda, Anurag; Kumar, Sushil; Sharma, Anupam
The prolonged use of old fashioned gadgets, especially mobile phones, is declining readily with the advancement in technology which ultimately lead to generation of e-waste. The present study investigates the concentrations of nine metals (Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Sn, and Zn) in various components of the mobile phones using Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP), Waste Extraction Test (WET) and Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure (SPLP). The results were compared with the threshold limits for hazardous waste defined by the California Department of Toxic Substances Control (CDTSC) and United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). The average concentrations of metals were found high in PWBs. WET was found relatively aggressive as compared to TCLP and SPLP. Redundancy analysis (RDA) suggests that part of mobile, extraction test, manufacturer, mobile model and year of manufacturing explain 34.66% of the variance. According to the present study, waste mobile phones must be considered as hazardous due to the potential adverse impact of toxic metals on human health and environment. However, mobile phones can be an asset as systematic extraction and recycling could reduce the demand of primary metals mining and conserve the natural resources. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ana Paula Batista da Silva; Ernani Ott
The aim of this study was to analyze the interaction between scientific research and professional accounting practice. In this exploratory study, as it examines a theme that has been little explored in Brazil, a quantitative approach was adopted and a survey was used as the data collection technique, supported by a research instrument with questions on aspects like: interest in and use of research; study and development of themes; means to disseminate the research; and causes of the gap betwe...
Fábio de Carvalho Mastroianni
Full Text Available The Brazilian legislation that regularizes stable union and the marriage between homosexuals is recent and matters related to this theme still generate discussions. The aim of this paper was to explore the understanding of psychologists and social workers that act in adoption processes about this new possibility. A qualitative research was developed with these professionals, by means of a semi-structured interview, and the answers were analyzed using the content analysis technique. The sample was formed by 7 (seven individuals, all of the feminine sex, with professional education in their respective areas. The participants, even reporting no direct experience with adoption by homosexual pairs, described situations which they came across with this type of relationship in processes of another nature, different from joint adoption, allowing them to explore their comprehension about the subject. It was verified that adoption itself already involves myths and prejudices, but the professionals feel ready and satisfied in acting in these procedures. The same, however, isn't observed in the adoption by homosexual couples, having recognized their necessity of a greater prepare and reflection to act in these processes. It is an exploratory study which is limited to a small group of individuals of the universe of professionals who act in these procedures. Although this study doesn't allow us to offer more comprehensive considerations about this subject, it intends to present subsidies for an initial discussion.
Christensen, Mads; Burau, Viola; Ledderer, Loni
Intersectoral health promotion (IHP) has pushed health professions to engage in new tasks and interprofessional ways of working. We studied how care assistants from a nursing home and school teachers implemented a cookery project targeted at children ("Cool Beans") as an example of an IHP project in Denmark. Our aim was to examine the impact of the IHP project on the practices of the professions involved. We used a qualitative case study to investigate joint care and teaching situations with the two professions and their users. Our data consisted of documents, participatory observations, and informal interviews (17 hours) as well as semistructured interviews with professionals (n = 4). We used a sociological institutional framework to analyze the professional practices emerging in joint care and teaching situations and identified three themes of new professional activities: (1) "interplay" related to making different generations collaborate on the tasks involved in the cookery session; (2) "care" concerned with caregiving activities; and (3) "learning" focused on schooling on healthy food and cooking. We conclude that changes in professional practices occurred informally and were induced by the concrete activities in the cookery project. The specific, practical tasks of the IHP project thus offered an important leverage for future interprofessional collaborations.
Rumsey, Michele; Thiessen, Jodi; Buchan, James; Daly, John
To discuss the perceptions about the International English Language Testing System (IELTS) and its impact on migration and practice of migrant health professionals in Australia. Thematic analysis of interviews with 14 health industry participants and 35 migrated health professionals in Australia. Language testing is a barrier to health professional registration for migrant health workers in Australia. While two English language tests are recognised by the registration authorities in Australia, it is the International English Language Testing System that is most commonly used. This paper reports that study participants had underlying negative perceptions of the International English Language Testing System which they report, affect their move to Australia. These negative perceptions are caused by: frustration due to changes to processes for migration and registration; challenges regarding the structure of IELTS including timing of when test results expire, scoring requirements, cost, and suitability; and the resulting feelings of inadequacy caused by the test itself. This study has shown that some respondents have experienced difficulties in relation to the International English Language Testing System as part of their migration process. It was found that there is very little research into the effectiveness of the IELTS as it is currently administered for overseas health care professionals. Several recommendations are provided including areas for further research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Crigger, Nancy; Fox, Maria; Rosell, Tarris; Rojjanasrirat, Wilaiporn
Ethics consultation is the traditional way of resolving challenging ethical questions raised about patient care in the United States. Little research has been published on the resolution process used during ethics consultations and on how this experience affects healthcare professionals who participate in them. The purpose of this qualitative research was to uncover the basic process that occurs in consultation services through study of the perceptions of healthcare professionals. The researchers in this study used a constructivist grounded theory approach that represents how one group of professionals experienced ethics consultations in their hospital in the United States. The results were sufficient to develop an initial theory that has been named after the core concept: Moving It Along. Three process stages emerged from data interpretation: moral questioning, seeing the big picture, and coming together. It is hoped that this initial work stimulates additional research in describing and understanding the complex social process that occurs for healthcare professionals as they address the difficult moral issues that arise in clinical practice.