WorldWideScience

Sample records for professional drivers protection

  1. Are professional drivers less sleepy than non-professional drivers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anund, Anna; Ahlström, Christer; Fors, Carina; Åkerstedt, Torbjörn

    2018-01-01

    Objective It is generally believed that professional drivers can manage quite severe fatigue before routine driving performance is affected. In addition, there are results indicating that professional drivers can adapt to prolonged night shifts and may be able to learn to drive without decreased performance under high levels of sleepiness. However, very little research has been conducted to compare professionals and non-professionals when controlling for time driven and time of day. Method The aim of this study was to use a driving simulator to investigate whether professional drivers are more resistant to sleep deprivation than non-professional drivers. Differences in the development of sleepiness (self-reported, physiological and behavioral) during driving was investigated in 11 young professional and 15 non-professional drivers. Results Professional drivers self-reported significantly lower sleepiness while driving a simulator than non-professional drivers. In contradiction, they showed longer blink durations and more line crossings, both of which are indicators of sleepiness. They also drove faster. The reason for the discrepancy in the relation between the different sleepiness indicators for the two groups could be due to more experience to sleepiness among the professional drivers or possibly to the faster speed, which might unconsciously have been used by the professionals to try to counteract sleepiness. Conclusion Professional drivers self-reported significantly lower sleepiness while driving a simulator than non-professional drivers. However, they showed longer blink durations and more line crossings, both of which are indicators of sleepiness, and they drove faster.

  2. Driving fatigue in professional drivers: a survey of truck and taxi drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fanxing; Li, Shuling; Cao, Lingzhi; Li, Musen; Peng, Qijia; Wang, Chunhui; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Fatigue among truck drivers has been studied extensively; however, less is known regarding the fatigue experience of taxi drivers in heavily populated metropolitan areas. This study aimed to compare the differences and similarities between truck and taxi driver fatigue to provide implications for the fatigue management and education of professional drivers. A sample of 274 truck drivers and 286 taxi drivers in Beijing was surveyed via a questionnaire, which included items regarding work characteristics, fatigue experience, accident information, attitude toward fatigue, and methods of counteracting fatigue. Driver fatigue was prevalent among professional drivers, and it was even more serious for taxi drivers. Taxi drivers reported more frequent fatigue experiences and were involved in more accidents. Among the contributing factors to fatigue, prolonged driving time was the most important factor identified by both driver groups. Importantly, the reason for the engagement in prolonged driving was neither due to the lack of awareness concerning the serious outcome of fatigue driving nor because of their poor detection of fatigue. The most probable reason was the optimism bias, as a result of which these professional drivers thought that fatigue was more serious for other drivers than for themselves, and they thought that they were effective in counteracting the effect of fatigue on their driving performance. Moreover, truck drivers tended to employ methods that require stopping to counteract fatigue, whereas taxi drivers preferred methods that were simultaneous with driving. Although both driver groups considered taking a nap as one of the most effective means to address fatigue, this method was not commonly used. Interestingly, these drivers were aware that the methods they frequently used were not the most effective means to counteract fatigue. This study provides knowledge on truck and taxi drivers' characteristics in fatigue experience, fatigue attitude, and

  3. Designing Fatigue Warning Systems: The perspective of professional drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fanxing; Li, Shuling; Cao, Lingzhi; Peng, Qijia; Li, Musen; Wang, Chunhui; Zhang, Wei

    2016-03-01

    Professional drivers have been characterized as experiencing heavy fatigue resulting from long driving time in their daily work. This study aimed to explore the potential demand of Fatigue Warning Systems (FWSs) among professional drivers as a means of reducing the danger of fatigue driving and to examine their opinions regarding the design of FWSs. Six focus groups with 35 participants and a questionnaire survey with 600 respondents were conducted among Chinese truck and taxi drivers to collect qualitative and quantitative data concerning the current situation of fatigue driving and opinions regarding the design of FWSs. The results revealed that both truck and taxi drivers had a positive attitude toward FWSs, and they hoped this system could not only monitor and warn them regarding their fatigue but also somewhat relieve their fatigue before they could stop and rest. As for warning signals, participants preferred auditory warnings, as opposed to visual, vibrotactile or electric stimuli. Interestingly, it was proposed that verbal warnings involving the information regarding consequences of fatigue driving or the wishes of drivers' family members would be more effective. Additionally, different warning patterns, including graded, single and continuous warnings, were discussed in the focus group. Finally, the participants proposed many other suggestions, as well as their concerns regarding FWSs, which will provide valuable information for companies who wish to develop FWSs for professional drivers. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Lower back pain and absenteeism among professional public transport drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresal, Friderika; Roblek, Vasja; Jerman, Andrej; Meško, Maja

    2015-01-01

    Drivers in public transport are subjected to lower back pain. The reason for the pain is associated with the characteristics of the physical position imposed on the worker while performing the job. Lower back pain is the main cause of absenteeism among drivers. The present study includes 145 public transport drivers employed as professional drivers for an average of 14.14 years. Analysis of the data obtained in the study includes the basic descriptive statistics, χ(2) test and multiple regression analysis. Analysis of the incidence of lower back pain showed that the majority of our sample population suffered from pain in the lower back. We found that there are no statistically significant differences between the groups formed by the length of service as a professional driver and incidence of lower back pain; we were also interested in whether or not the risk factors of lower back pain affects the absenteeism of city bus drivers. Analysis of the data has shown that the risk factors of pain in the lower part of the spine do affect the absenteeism of city bus drivers.

  5. Drivers of professional mobility in the Northern Territory: dental professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, D J; Garnett, S T; Barnes, T; Stevens, M

    2007-01-01

    Attracting and retaining an efficient allied health workforce is a challenge faced by communities in Australia and overseas. High rates of staff turnover in the professional workforce diverts resources away from core business and results in the loss of valuable skills and knowledge. Understanding what attracts professionals to a particular place, and why they leave, is important for developing effective strategies to manage turnover and maximise workforce productivity. The Northern Territory (NT) faces particular workforce challenges, in part because of its geographic location and unusual demography. Do these factors require the development of a tailored approach to recruitment and retention? This article reports on a study undertaken to examine the motivations for coming to, staying in and leaving the NT for dental professionals, and the implications of results on workforce management practices. In 2006, dentists, dental specialists, dental therapists and dental hygienists who were working or had worked in the NT, Australia, in the recent past were surveyed to collect demographic and workforce data and to establish the relative importance of social and work-related factors influencing their migration decisions. Multivariate logistic regression models were generated to describe the demographic characteristics of dental professionals who stayed in the NT for more than 5 years and to analyse why dental professionals left. The analyses, based on a 42% response rate, explained 60-80% of the variation in responses. Generally dental professionals who had stayed for more than 5 years were older, had invested in the purchase of homes and were more involved in social and cultural activities. Those who moved to the NT as a result of financial incentives or who had strong expectations that working in the NT would be an exciting, novel experience tended to stay for no more than 5 years, often leaving because they found the work environment too stressful. In contrast, those who

  6. [Prevalence and risk factors of attention disorders of professional drivers in Morocco].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laraqui, Siham; Hossini, Omar Laraqui; Tripodi, Dominique; Manar, Nadia; Aoudi, Yasmine El; Caubet, Alain; Verger, Christian; Ghailane, Tarik; Laraqui, Chakib El Houssine

    2011-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the prevalence and risk factors of professional drivers' vigilance disorders in Morocco. This transversal epidemiological multicentric study concerned 5,566 professional drivers of taxis (2,134), buses (1,158) and trucks (2,274). We used an anonymous individual questionnaire of 4 sections: socioprofessional and sanitary characteristics of drivers, working conditions, sleeping habits, symptoms of sleep problems and favouring factors. Drivers were a population at risk: high body mass index (62.2%), toxic habits (smoking: 50.6%; alcohol: 12.9%; cannabis use: 11.7%), pathological antecedents (27%) and consumption of psychotropic drugs (4%). Their working conditions were difficult and sleeping problems were frequent. The mean daily hours of work was 10.6 ± 1.6, and mean sleep duration 6.5 ± 1.3 hr. Insomnia was 40.2%, abnormally high Epworth scores 36.3% and sleepiness when driving 53.4%. Information and education on the dangers of sleepiness while driving is necessary, as is respect for regulations on work duration. The extension of the occupational health system to this type of activity would help improve road security and protect the health of professional drivers and road users.

  7. Locomotor diseases among male long-haul truck drivers and other professional drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anker; Kaerlev, Linda; Tüchsen, Finn

    2007-01-01

    -249) and for other truck drivers (SHR: 130, 95% CI: 108-156) compared to bus drivers (SHR: 110, 95% CI: 79-149). All drivers had high SHR for lesions of the ulnar nerve (SHR: 159, 95% CI: 119-207), especially bus drivers (SHR: 197, 95% CI: 116-311). Long-haul truck drivers had high SHRs for synovitis and bursitis...

  8. Epidemiology of dyslipidaemia in professional drivers: results of RACER-ABPM (Risk of Adverse Cardiovascular Events among professional dRivers in Poland - Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzowski, Bartosz; Płatek, Anna E; Szymański, Filip M; Ryś, Anna; Semczuk-Kaczmarek, Karolina; Adamkiewicz, Karolina; Kotkowski, Marcin; Filipiak, Krzysztof J

    2018-01-01

    Professional drivers are a group exposed to many cardiovascular risk factors. Non-systematic working hours, prolonged stress, low physical activity, along with irregular, and in most cases, unhealthy meals are common aspects of the normal working schedule of most of the professional drivers. These translate into high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of the current analysis was to establish the prevalence of dyslipidaemia in a group of continuous professional drivers. The RACER (Risk of Adverse Cardiovascular Events among professional dRivers in Poland - Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring) study is a prospective study focused on assessing cardiovascular risk factors in professional drivers. Patients included in the study were screened for classical and non-classical cardiovascular risk factors and had an ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) performed. Out of the whole RACER study population, 144 drivers were included into the RACER-ABPM study. Out of this group 135 (95.7%) were male, and the mean age was 50.2 ± 9.3 years, and mean body mass index was 32.3 ± 3.0 kg/m². A family history of CVD was noted in 21.3% of patients, 28.1% were current smokers, and 2.9% had diabetes mellitus. Out of those patients, 72.2% had low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level > 115 mg/dL, 85.5% had LDL-C > 100 mg/dL, and 96.7% had LDL-C > 70 mg/dL. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol 150 mg/dL were found in 28.9% of cases. In conclusion, dyslipidaemia is highly prevalent in professional drivers. Obesity is one of the major contributors to the cardiovascular risk, and dyslipidaemia along with other risk factors highly prevalent in this subgroup accounts for poorer prognosis.

  9. [Professional drivers and psychoactive substances consumption: results from medical surveillance at the workplace in Piedmont region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosso, G L; Feola, M; Rubinetto, Maria Paola; Petti, N; Rubinetto, L

    2011-01-01

    The use of psychoactive substances has been shown to be a risk factor for accidents in professional drivers. According to an approved Italian law, in order to detect dependency at the workplace the occupational health physician is called to assess the use of illicit drugs among professional drivers. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the use of psychoactive substances among professional drivers. From July to December 2008, rapid urine screening test was carried out on 198 professional drivers. All positive results from the screening stage were verified by specialized laboratories. We found 4 workers with a positive rapid urine screening test (7.1%), one of which was positive only for benzodiazepines and another positive test was not confirmed by specialized laboratory. By only considering illegal substances detected, 6.1% of the drivers tested positive. In this study, the high number of consumers among professional drivers ranged from 31 to 35 years old. Cannabis (THC) was the most frequently detected substance (seen in 10 over 12 cases,), after that was methadone (2/12 cases) and cocaine (1/12 case). We only had one case where more than one substance was found in the same subject (THC and cocaine). Five (41.7%) were former drug-addicts and public Pathological Addiction Services (Ser.T.) had previously followed them. Our results highlight the problem of drug consumption among professional drivers in Piedmont region. Health education and medical surveillance in workplace drug-testing may improve worker and third parties safety.

  10. Influence of professional drivers' personality traits on road traffic safety: case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Živković, Snežana; Nikolić, Vesna; Markič, Mirko

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present basic elements of the research directed at identifying and determining the personality traits of professional drivers that affect safe, secure and enjoyable ride on public roads. A quantitative method has been used here, whereas data were acquired from a questionnaire based on a sample of 59 professional drivers. Determining personality traits of professional drivers that are in correlation with a safe and pleasant ride on the roads has been enabled by applying the five-factor model of personality ('Big Five') and the Personality Inventory NEO-PI. From these results it was concluded that safe operation of the vehicle in traffic involves the successful 'conduct' of oneself, which recognises the importance of certain personality traits of professional drivers for traffic safety and the need for appropriate professional selection in the case of employment of professional drivers. Research results implicate development of educational programmes aimed at achieving harmony of psychological, physical and sensory health, that is, programmes for permanent informing, educating and training professional drivers for defensive driving. The research opens the way for new research tasks that should help in creating a specific structure of curricula that can be used in a variety of transportation companies and enterprises to improve general and public safety.

  11. [Reliability and validity of Driving Anger Scale in professional drivers in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z; Yang, Y M; Zhang, C; Li, Y; Hu, J; Gao, L W; Zhou, Y X; Zhang, X J

    2017-11-10

    Objective: To assess the reliability and validity of the Chinese version of Driving Anger Scale (DAS) in professional drivers in China and provide a scientific basis for the application of the scale in drivers in China. Methods: Professional drivers, including taxi drivers, bus drivers, truck drivers and school bus drivers, were selected to complete the questionnaire. Cronbach's α and split-half reliability were calculated to evaluate the reliability of DAS, and content, contract, discriminant and convergent validity were performed to measure the validity of the scale. Results: The overall Cronbach's α of DAS was 0.934 and the split-half reliability was 0.874. The correlation coefficient of each subscale with the total scale was 0.639-0.922. The simplified version of DAS supported a presupposed six-factor structure, explaining 56.371% of the total variance revealed by exploratory factor analysis. The DAS had good convergent and discriminant validity, with the success rate of calibration experiment of 100%. Conclusion: DAS has a good reliability and validity in professional drivers in China, and the use of DAS is worth promoting in divers.

  12. Prevalence of Hypertension in Professional Drivers (from the RACER-ABPM Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platek, Anna E; Szymanski, Filip M; Filipiak, Krzysztof J; Kotkowski, Marcin; Rys, Anna; Semczuk-Kaczmarek, Karolina; Adamkiewicz, Karolina

    2017-11-15

    Professional drivers are a group exposed to many cardiovascular risk factors. Nonsystematic working hours, stress, low physical activity, and unhealthy dietary habits are common among professional drivers. These translate into high risk of cardiovascular disease. The aim of the current analysis was to establish the prevalence of arterial hypertension in a group of continuous professional drivers. The RACER (Risk of Adverse Cardiovascular Events among professional dRivers in Poland) study is a prospective study focused on assessing cardiovascular risk factors in professional drivers. Patients included in the study were screened for the classical and nonclassical cardiovascular risk factors and had an ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) performed. Of the RACER study population, 144 drivers were included into the RACER-ABPM study. Of this group 135 (95.7%) were male at mean age of 50.2 ± 9.3 years, with mean body mass index of 32.3 ± 3.0 kg/m 2 . In 21.3% of patients, family history of cardiovascular disease was noted, 28.1% were current smokers, and 2.9% had diabetes mellitus. Arterial hypertension was previously diagnosed in 39 patients (27.9%). In ABPM, the mean 24-hour blood pressure (BP) values were 130.3 ± 14.3 and 80.9 ± 9.9 for systolic and diastolic BP, respectively, and 46.1% of patients could be categorized as dippers. Based on the ABPM results, arterial hypertension was diagnosed in 104 of patients (73.8%). Patients with hypertension tend to be more often male and have a family history of cardiovascular disease. In conclusion, arterial hypertension is highly prevalent in professional drivers. Also abnormal day-to-night BP value patterns are often seen in this group. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [Drunk driving in professional drivers in the Vía Blanca highway in Cuba].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guanche Garcell, Humberto; Suárez Enríquez, Tomás; Gutiérrez García, Francisco; Martínez Quesada, Carlos; Mendoza Pérez, Ramón

    2006-01-01

    To determine the frequency of drunk driving in professional drivers (Via Blanca, Havana City), we carried out a descriptive study of 832 drivers selected by multistage stratified sampling. A structured interview with each driver was carried out to record the variables under study, and a breath alcohol test was subsequently performed. The frequency of drunk driving was 8.18% (95% CI, 5.94%-10.42%), with a predominance of drivers with alcohol levelsDrunk driving was more frequent in "high risk" hours, in drivers aged between 40 and 49 years old (10.3%), and in those with 15 to 24 years of experience (11.02%). The frequency of drunk driving found in this study highlights the need to design traffic accident prevention strategies.

  14. Professional experience and traffic accidents/near-miss accidents among truck drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girotto, Edmarlon; Andrade, Selma Maffei de; González, Alberto Durán; Mesas, Arthur Eumann

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the relationship between the time working as a truck driver and the report of involvement in traffic accidents or near-miss accidents. A cross-sectional study was performed with truck drivers transporting products from the Brazilian grain harvest to the Port of Paranaguá, Paraná, Brazil. The drivers were interviewed regarding sociodemographic characteristics, working conditions, behavior in traffic and involvement in accidents or near-miss accidents in the previous 12 months. Subsequently, the participants answered a self-applied questionnaire on substance use. The time of professional experience as drivers was categorized in tertiles. Statistical analyses were performed through the construction of models adjusted by multinomial regression to assess the relationship between the length of experience as a truck driver and the involvement in accidents or near-miss accidents. This study included 665 male drivers with an average age of 42.2 (±11.1) years. Among them, 7.2% and 41.7% of the drivers reported involvement in accidents and near-miss accidents, respectively. In fully adjusted analysis, the 3rd tertile of professional experience (>22years) was shown to be inversely associated with involvement in accidents (odds ratio [OR] 0.29; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.16-0.52) and near-miss accidents (OR 0.17; 95% CI 0.05-0.53). The 2nd tertile of professional experience (11-22 years) was inversely associated with involvement in accidents (OR 0.63; 95% CI 0.40-0.98). An evident relationship was observed between longer professional experience and a reduction in reporting involvement in accidents and near-miss accidents, regardless of age, substance use, working conditions and behavior in traffic. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Safety and health of professional drivers who drive on Brazilian highways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Veruska Narciso

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Traffic accidents and resulting injuries and deaths have become a global epidemic. In Brazil, most professional drivers, especially truck drivers, face irregular working hours and can be awake for more than 18 hours/day, which reduces their performance and alertness. In this article, we discuss the laws related to Brazilian professional drivers and their current amendments (No. 12,619/2012 and No. 13,103/2015 in relation to working hours at the wheel and rest breaks, which are vital for the quality of life of drivers and society in general. We note that the new law appears to be less efficient than the previous one as it causes insecurity and concern to the users of the transportation system, drivers, and employers. To restrict and reduce accidents, deaths, and injuries in traffic, appropriate legislation is essential, aiming at the safety of workers and users of highways. The law must also benefit the commercial aspect, strengthening the reduction in production and logistics losses. Additionally, traffic education programs are needed, as well as better supervision in relation to total working hours.

  16. [The use of biological age on mental work capacity model in accelerated aging assessment of professional lorry-drivers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashkireva, A S

    2012-01-01

    The studies of biological age, aging rate, mental work capacity in professional drivers were conducted. The examination revealed peculiarities of system organization of functions determining the mental work capacity levels. Dynamics of the aging process of professional driver's organism in relation with calendar age and driving experience were shown using the biological age model. The results point at the premature decrease of the mental work capacity in professional drivers. It was proved, that premature age-related changes of physiologic and psychophysiologic indices in drivers are just "risk indicators", while long driving experience is a real risk factor, accelerating the aging process. The "risk group" with manifestations of accelerating aging was observed in 40-49-year old drivers with 15-19 years of professional experience. The expediency of using the following methods for the age rate estimation according to biologic age indices and necessity of prophylactic measures for premature and accelerated aging prevention among working population was demonstrated.

  17. The Roles and Performance of Professional Driving Instructors in Novice Driver Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulhaidi M. Jawi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This review article aimed to analyse existing literature regarding the roles and performance of professional driving instructors (PDIs in novice driver education (DE. A systematic classification scheme was adopted to analyse identified articles to determine the study context of PDIs in novice DE, the competency level of PDIs in relation to experienced and learner drivers and the contributions of PDIs to the novice driver learning process. A total of 14 original research articles were identified, with no systematic reviews or meta-analyses available. Overall, all of the articles were found to be inadequate in providing an in-depth understanding of the roles and performance of PDIs in novice DE. There is an urgent need to improve current understanding of the roles of PDIs in novice DE and to work towards an internationally recognised PDI management approach.

  18. Work stress related lipid disorders and arterial hypertension in professional drivers: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đinđić Nataša

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Occupational stress is a term used to define ongoing stress that is related to the workplace. The study was conducted to determine association of occupational stress index (OSI and its aspects with arterial hypertension and lipid disorders using data from a cross-sectional survey of male professional drivers. Methods. The cross-sectional study was performed in 439 professional drivers divided into groups (city- and intercity bus drivers, truck and taxi drivers. The OSI and OSI aspects (high demands, strictness, underload, extrinsic time pressure, noxious exposure, avoidance and conflict were calculated using the standardized questionnaire. Determination of serum lipids, blood pressure (BP and cardiovascular risk factors were done. Results. A significant difference in prevalence of diagnosed hypertension and dyslipidemia was found along with a difference in total OSI and OSI aspects among examined subgroups of drivers. A total OSI was highest in city, high in intercity bus drivers, and the lowest one in truck and taxi drivers (82.79 ± 3.5, 81.28 ± 3.7, 73.75 ± 3.5, 71.61 ± 4.4, respectively; p < 0.01. Similar pattern showed triglycerides (TG, total cholesterol (TC and LDL cholesterol and BP, while HDL-cholesterol showed reverse order (p < 0.01. Logistic regression analyses with multiple OSI aspects adjusted for age and years of exposure showed associations of total OSI with arterial hypertension [OR 5.5; 95% CI (2.24-7.95] and dyslipidemia [OR 1.43 95% CI (1.09-2.80]. Underload was the most important OSI aspect associated with the arterial hypertension [OR 1.18; 95% CI (1.04-2.58] and elevated LDL cholesterol [1.26; 95 CI (1.19-2.1]. A total OSI had a significant association with elevated LDL cholesterol [2.64; 95% CI (1.19- 7.7], triglycerides [OR 3.27; 95% CI (1.20-5.1] and low HDL cholesterol [OR 3.29; 95% CI (1.8-5.8] (p < 0.01. Conclusion. The study provides the evidence for the significant association of total OSI and

  19. Psychosocial Risk Factors for Low Back Pain and Absenteeism among Slovenian Professional Drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresal, Friderika; Suklan, Jana; Roblek, Vasja; Jerman, Andrej; Meško, Maja

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the most common psychosocial risk factors for absenteeism and the extent to which low back pain occurs among Slovenian professional drivers as result of various psychosocial risk factors. The study involved 275 professional drivers, mostly men (mean age 41.6 years). Statistical data analysis was conducted using SPSS package version 21, MS Excel version 2007 and Pajek, version 3. The main method for data processing was regression analysis. The results of the quantitative survey showed that lower back pain is mostly caused by lifting and carrying heavy loads, inadequate working conditions, poor physical fitness, regular nights out, shift work, and stress. Dissatisfaction with work, shift work and unsuitable working conditions significantly affect the incidence of low back pain. Absenteeism is influenced by factors such as dissatisfaction at work, disrespectful attitude of managers, unsuitable working conditions, personal dissatisfaction, lack of understanding of the partner, and enjoying nightlife on a regular basis. The study clarifies the unexplained holistic psychosocial risk factors and treatment effects on health in the population of professional drivers. Such factors can lead to absenteeism. The study also provides initial demonstration research in the Slovenian practice. Furthermore, it provides solutions in a holistic approach to solve the problem of risk factors management. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2017

  20. Comparison of risk factors for tooth loss between professional drivers and white-collar workers: an internet survey

    OpenAIRE

    SUZUKI, Seitaro; YOSHINO, Koichi; TAKAYANAGI, Atsushi; ISHIZUKA, Yoichi; SATOU, Ryouichi; KAMIJO, Hideyuki; SUGIHARA, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was conducted to examine tooth loss and associated factors among professional drivers and white-collar workers. The participants were recruited by applying screening procedures to a pool of Japanese registrants in an online database. The participants were asked to complete a self-reported questionnaire. A total of 592 professional drivers and 328 white-collar workers (male, aged 30 to 69 years) were analyzed. A multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to ...

  1. Protection From Radiation Of Allied Health Professionals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medvedec, M.

    2015-01-01

    According to the Croatian legislators, but not to the International (ISCO-08) and National (NKZ-10) Standard Classification of Occupations, university degree health professionals are limited to those individuals who have health-orientated education gained at the School of Medicine, School of Dental Medicine, Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, and study programs of Speech and Language Pathology. All other clinical scientists are considered as university degree non-health professionals who participate in diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, i.e. as allied health professionals. The objective of this paper is to discuss the status of university degree health associates within the Croatian health care system. The latest Ordinance on job titles/positions and coefficients of job complexity (i.e. basic salary coefficients) in public services provides only one coefficient (1.571) for clinical physicists, psychologists, biologists etc., and just three coefficients (1.445, 1.513, 1.571) for clinical engineers, social workers etc., at the bottom of the coefficients scale of all clinical staff completed different university studies of equal duration in years and/or workloads in European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS) credits. Simultaneously, there are 30 coefficients (1.659-2.361) for health professionals, meticulously taking into account all possible combinations of their employment in state hospital/institute or not, obtained B.Sc., M.Sc. or Ph.D. degrees, titles of primarius, specialist or subspecialist, etc. Since 750 university degree health associates make currently only about 1 percent of the Croatian health workforce, any discrimination among clinical staff is unnecessary. Full regulation and appreciation of all professions, equal opportunities of continuing professional education and training, as well as career advancement (internship, residency, sub-specialization, postgraduate specialist programs, etc.) should be facilitated and provided to all

  2. [Prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome in professional drivers and the relationship with traffic accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Tu, C L; Yao, W F; Yu, Y F; Wang, Z; Hu, J R

    2016-12-27

    Objective: To study the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) and its relationship with traffic accidents in the professional drivers. Methods: Questionnaires of OSAHS were sent to 950 professional drivers who had annual physical examination at the Central Hospital of Jiading District in Shanghai from October 2014 to September 2015. Those with moderate to severe snoring and/or Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS)≥9 performed the home sleep testing. All drivers were divided into OSAHS and non-OSAHS according to the survey and monitoring. The following parameters were compared such as driving ages, neck circumference, body mass index (BMI), average night sleep time, ESS, hypertension, diabetes, hypertrophy of tonsil and the incidence of traffic accidents. The risk factors of traffic accidents were analyzed by multivariate Logistic regression. Results: Totally 826 responses were eligible, including 578 (70.0%) with self-reported snoring. There was measurement failure involving 3 of 233 the home sleep testing due to sensor off, 823 subjects were included in the study. The prevalence of OSAHS was 13.5% (111/823). The mild, moderate and severe OSAHS were 47, 38 and 26 cases respectively. There were 712 drives without OSAHS. The neck circumference[(39.8±3.8) vs (39.0±3.0) cm]and BMI[(26.7±4.2) vs (24.4±3.8) kg/m 2 ]were significantly higher in the drivers suffering from OSAHS (all P 0.05). The overall incidence of traffic accidents was 5.8% (48/823) in a year. The percentage was respectively 17.1% (19/111) in OSAHS and 4.1% (29/712) in non-OSAHS ( P traffic accidents.

  3. Board certification in professional psychology: promoting competency and consumer protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, David R

    2010-04-01

    Board certification in psychology provides an opportunity for increased assessment of and demonstration of competence in the profession. In addition to serving as a means of consumer protection, it can serve the professional psychologist by providing the opportunity for increased income, professional satisfaction, facilitated mobility, and professional development. Jurisdictional and organizational recognition of the importance of board certification is increasing. This article uses the model and experience of the American Board of Professional Psychology, with particular attention to the American Board of Clinical Neuropsychology and the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology, to illustrate these benefits. Recent developments regarding board certification are described, as well as how to become involved in the process.

  4. Radiation protection and certification of health professionals in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luz, C.P.V. Castro; Sá, L.V.; Delgado, J.U.

    2017-01-01

    Radiation protection has three pillars: justification, optimization and dose limitation. The safe use of ionizing radiation is established by the dose limits resulting from exposure of the public and worker, justification and optimization for medical exposures. In Brazil, there are at least 200,000 professionals working in medical facilities involving the use of ionizing radiation. There are standards of radiation protection that establish the obligation of performance of professionals certified in the facilities through criteria pre-established in Specific Norms. Certification in radiation protection assesses the skills, knowledge and skills of professionals. A detailed research, classification and analysis of the requirements required by the regulatory body for professional performance in this area was carried out, as well as the skills and abilities required by the radiation protection standards in force in the country. The results obtained demonstrated that the certification process of these professionals aims at higher quality and optimization of the medical procedures performed. The direct beneficiaries of this process would be practitioners themselves and patients of medical practices involving the use of ionizing radiations. Certifying health care professionals in radiation protection would meet the demand for national standards and that require a performance control of those involved in medical treatments using ionizing radiations

  5. The recognition of radiation protection training as a professional specialty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touzet, R. E.

    2003-01-01

    After Chernobyl accident, the radiation protection training was recognized as a professional specialty. To improve this training we focussed the project in 3 points: - The recognition of radiation protective in the legislation. - Stablishment of minimum programs - Different categories: nuclear facilities, radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals

  6. Is Licensing Public Protection of Professional Protectionism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Daniel B.

    1979-01-01

    Granting of licenses to practice has long been linked to academic credentials, but this system offers more protection to the professions than to the public. There is an immediate need to break the credentials monopoly by opening up alternative routes to obtaining credentials. (Author/MLW)

  7. Perceptions of Heat Risk to Health: A Qualitative Study of Professional Bus Drivers and Their Managers in Jinan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summer extreme heat threatens the health of individuals, especially persons who are involved in outdoor activities. Ensuring the normal function of a city, bus drivers are among those who participate in outdoor physical activities and are exposed to excessive heat in hot summer weather. This qualitative study was performed to explore professional bus drivers’ in-depth views of extreme heat risks to their health, and ultimately develop targeted advice and policy interventions for city bus drivers. An interview-based study was performed among professional bus drivers in Jinan, China, including four focus groups with professional bus drivers (n = 37 and three interviews with their managers (n = 14. Five central themes or categories from the bus driver interviews were found: concerns about summer heat; health effects related to extreme heat; adaptive measures; barriers in implementing these adaptive measures; and suggested interventions. The beneficial role of cooling facilities (particularly air-conditioning during extreme heat are addressed. The barriers not only impede the implementation of behavioral adaptive measures but also enhance the negative attitudes of bus drivers towards their effectiveness. The responsibilities of managers in promoting preventive actions are addressed.

  8. Radiation protection dosimetry - From amateur to professional

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldfinch, E. P.

    2006-01-01

    Radiation Protection Dosimetry was founded in 1981 and there has been a close link between the journal and the solid state dosimetry series of conferences from 1983 to the present day. The background to and the creation and development of the journal is described, having started as one volume of four issues per year in 1981 rising to six volumes in 1994. During the period of development there have been considerable advances in all forms of technology, requiring continued attention to the introduction of this new technology. Some of the changes in the world of publishing over the past 25 y are quite dramatic. Whilst simplistic approaches have been adequate within a small publishing house for a considerable time, further progressive technology changes that are required in the future mean that the necessary resources are only realistically available to large publishers. The journal thus moved to Oxford Univ. Press at the beginning of 2004. It will celebrate its 25. year in 2005. (authors)

  9. Drivers and Socioeconomic Impacts of Tourism Participation in Protected Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Wei; Vogt, Christine A.; Luo, Junyan; He, Guangming; Frank, Kenneth A.; Liu, Jianguo

    2012-01-01

    Nature-based tourism has the potential to enhance global biodiversity conservation by providing alternative livelihood strategies for local people, which may alleviate poverty in and around protected areas. Despite the popularity of the concept of nature-based tourism as an integrated conservation and development tool, empirical research on its actual socioeconomic benefits, on the distributional pattern of these benefits, and on its direct driving factors is lacking, because relevant long-te...

  10. Second Professional Specialization in Radiological Protection in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina-Gironzini, E.

    2004-01-01

    Considering that professionals with studies, training and experience in Radiological Protection as a Second Professional Specialization must be recognized, the Peruvian Institute of Nuclear Energy (IPEN), which is the institution responsible for the promotion and control of ionizing radiations in the country, has sign a specific agreement with the Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, in order to develop these courses. They are based on the content of the Post Graduate Course on Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety of the Universidad de Buenos Aires, in Argentina, where more than 360 people from 27 different countries have been trained in the last 20 years. People who have a professional degree in Sciences or Engineering, and who fulfill the requirements demanded by the University, study this Second Professional Specialization in Radiological Protection. The studies last 2 years and the courses cover the following subjects: Nuclear Physics, Basic Mathematics, Basic Biology, Radiation Sources, Interaction between Radiation and Matter, Radiation Detection and Measurement, Biological effects of ionizing radiations, Radiological protection in the use of radiations in industry and medicine, Regulatory aspects, and nuclear safety - radiological protection interface. IPEN has taken the responsibility to carry out these studies due to its experience in the organization, together with different Universities, of six Masters in Nuclear Energy, four Masters in Medical Physics, one Master in Nuclear Physics, one Master in Nuclear Chemistry, and two Specialization in Nuclear Medicine. For this purpose, IPEN has the Superior Center of Nuclear Studies (CSEN), which has trained more than 2200 people in radiological protection in more than 30 years. CSEN is the first center in the country to train people in the area of nuclear energy and radiological protection. It has the best staff of professors with a both a great education and professional experience, as well as

  11. Second Professional Specialization in Radiological Protection in Peru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina-Gironzini, E.

    2004-07-01

    Considering that professionals with studies, training and experience in Radiological Protection as a Second Professional Specialization must be recognized, the Peruvian Institute of Nuclear Energy (IPEN), which is the institution responsible for the promotion and control of ionizing radiations in the country, has sign a specific agreement with the Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, in order to develop these courses. They are based on the content of the Post Graduate Course on Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety of the Universidad de Buenos Aires, in Argentina, where more than 360 people from 27 different countries have been trained in the last 20 years. People who have a professional degree in Sciences or Engineering, and who fulfill the requirements demanded by the University, study this Second Professional Specialization in Radiological Protection. The studies last 2 years and the courses cover the following subjects: Nuclear Physics, Basic Mathematics, Basic Biology, Radiation Sources, Interaction between Radiation and Matter, Radiation Detection and Measurement, Biological effects of ionizing radiations, Radiological protection in the use of radiations in industry and medicine, Regulatory aspects, and nuclear safety - radiological protection interface. IPEN has taken the responsibility to carry out these studies due to its experience in the organization, together with different Universities, of six Masters in Nuclear Energy, four Masters in Medical Physics, one Master in Nuclear Physics, one Master in Nuclear Chemistry, and two Specialization in Nuclear Medicine. For this purpose, IPEN has the Superior Center of Nuclear Studies (CSEN), which has trained more than 2200 people in radiological protection in more than 30 years. CSEN is the first center in the country to train people in the area of nuclear energy and radiological protection. It has the best staff of professors with a both a great education and professional experience, as well as

  12. Professional regulation, public protection and nurse migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, David C; González-Jurado, Máximo Antonio; Beneit-Montesinos, Juan Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Nurse mobility, developments such as health tourism and the rapid expansion of health systems have increased the need for regulatory bodies to reach beyond their normal stakeholder groups so as to familiarize themselves with the legislation of other jurisdictions. A systematic examination of a cross-section of nursing legislation, to ascertain the degree of consistency in the number of definitions specified as well as their underlying structure, was conducted to identify opportunities to strengthen public protection and reduce barriers to freedom of movement. A purposeful sample of legislation, drawn to maximize differences, was subjected to documentary analysis to identify possible relationships between the variables of interest and the way terms and processes were defined in fourteen nurse practice acts. Potential relationships were identified between factors such as geographic region, legal tradition, administrative approach, regulatory model and economic status and the number and approaches used to specify definitions. A major weakness in the precision of definitions was discovered. Several international organizations have started to develop lexicons but all have weaknesses. By drawing upon these lexicons a more comprehensive and precise dictionary could be formulated to support the development of next-generation nurse practice acts. Current legislation lacks precision and, within the context of increased mobility of nurses, there is an urgent need to develop an authoritative source of definitions that can contribute to increasing public safety as well as reducing delays in the freedom of movement of nurses from one jurisdiction to another.

  13. Drivers and socioeconomic impacts of tourism participation in protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Vogt, Christine A; Luo, Junyan; He, Guangming; Frank, Kenneth A; Liu, Jianguo

    2012-01-01

    Nature-based tourism has the potential to enhance global biodiversity conservation by providing alternative livelihood strategies for local people, which may alleviate poverty in and around protected areas. Despite the popularity of the concept of nature-based tourism as an integrated conservation and development tool, empirical research on its actual socioeconomic benefits, on the distributional pattern of these benefits, and on its direct driving factors is lacking, because relevant long-term data are rarely available. In a multi-year study in Wolong Nature Reserve, China, we followed a representative sample of 220 local households from 1999 to 2007 to investigate the diverse benefits that these households received from recent development of nature-based tourism in the area. Within eight years, the number of households directly participating in tourism activities increased from nine to sixty. In addition, about two-thirds of the other households received indirect financial benefits from tourism. We constructed an empirical household economic model to identify the factors that led to household-level participation in tourism. The results reveal the effects of local households' livelihood assets (i.e., financial, human, natural, physical, and social capitals) on the likelihood to participate directly in tourism. In general, households with greater financial (e.g., income), physical (e.g., access to key tourism sites), human (e.g., education), and social (e.g., kinship with local government officials) capitals and less natural capital (e.g., cropland) were more likely to participate in tourism activities. We found that residents in households participating in tourism tended to perceive more non-financial benefits in addition to more negative environmental impacts of tourism compared with households not participating in tourism. These findings suggest that socioeconomic impact analysis and change monitoring should be included in nature-based tourism management systems

  14. Drivers and Socioeconomic Impacts of Tourism Participation in Protected Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Vogt, Christine A.; Luo, Junyan; He, Guangming; Frank, Kenneth A.; Liu, Jianguo

    2012-01-01

    Nature-based tourism has the potential to enhance global biodiversity conservation by providing alternative livelihood strategies for local people, which may alleviate poverty in and around protected areas. Despite the popularity of the concept of nature-based tourism as an integrated conservation and development tool, empirical research on its actual socioeconomic benefits, on the distributional pattern of these benefits, and on its direct driving factors is lacking, because relevant long-term data are rarely available. In a multi-year study in Wolong Nature Reserve, China, we followed a representative sample of 220 local households from 1999 to 2007 to investigate the diverse benefits that these households received from recent development of nature-based tourism in the area. Within eight years, the number of households directly participating in tourism activities increased from nine to sixty. In addition, about two-thirds of the other households received indirect financial benefits from tourism. We constructed an empirical household economic model to identify the factors that led to household-level participation in tourism. The results reveal the effects of local households' livelihood assets (i.e., financial, human, natural, physical, and social capitals) on the likelihood to participate directly in tourism. In general, households with greater financial (e.g., income), physical (e.g., access to key tourism sites), human (e.g., education), and social (e.g., kinship with local government officials) capitals and less natural capital (e.g., cropland) were more likely to participate in tourism activities. We found that residents in households participating in tourism tended to perceive more non-financial benefits in addition to more negative environmental impacts of tourism compared with households not participating in tourism. These findings suggest that socioeconomic impact analysis and change monitoring should be included in nature-based tourism management systems

  15. Drivers and socioeconomic impacts of tourism participation in protected areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liu

    Full Text Available Nature-based tourism has the potential to enhance global biodiversity conservation by providing alternative livelihood strategies for local people, which may alleviate poverty in and around protected areas. Despite the popularity of the concept of nature-based tourism as an integrated conservation and development tool, empirical research on its actual socioeconomic benefits, on the distributional pattern of these benefits, and on its direct driving factors is lacking, because relevant long-term data are rarely available. In a multi-year study in Wolong Nature Reserve, China, we followed a representative sample of 220 local households from 1999 to 2007 to investigate the diverse benefits that these households received from recent development of nature-based tourism in the area. Within eight years, the number of households directly participating in tourism activities increased from nine to sixty. In addition, about two-thirds of the other households received indirect financial benefits from tourism. We constructed an empirical household economic model to identify the factors that led to household-level participation in tourism. The results reveal the effects of local households' livelihood assets (i.e., financial, human, natural, physical, and social capitals on the likelihood to participate directly in tourism. In general, households with greater financial (e.g., income, physical (e.g., access to key tourism sites, human (e.g., education, and social (e.g., kinship with local government officials capitals and less natural capital (e.g., cropland were more likely to participate in tourism activities. We found that residents in households participating in tourism tended to perceive more non-financial benefits in addition to more negative environmental impacts of tourism compared with households not participating in tourism. These findings suggest that socioeconomic impact analysis and change monitoring should be included in nature-based tourism

  16. Rigidity in Protecting Professional Orientation: Impact on Family Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottsegen, Gloria B.

    There seems to be a preoccupation with "the family" today, and a current competition for the role of Family Saviour within the helping professions. Practitioners are much more conscious about protecting their territory from infringement by competitors in the current funding situation of human services. Overlapping professionals doing variations on…

  17. Safety and health of professional drivers who drive on Brazilian highways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narciso, Fernanda Veruska; Mello, Marco Túlio de

    2017-03-30

    Traffic accidents and resulting injuries and deaths have become a global epidemic. In Brazil, most professional drivers, especially truck drivers, face irregular working hours and can be awake for more than 18 hours/day, which reduces their performance and alertness. In this article, we discuss the laws related to Brazilian professional drivers and their current amendments (No. 12,619/2012 and No. 13,103/2015) in relation to working hours at the wheel and rest breaks, which are vital for the quality of life of drivers and society in general. We note that the new law appears to be less efficient than the previous one as it causes insecurity and concern to the users of the transportation system, drivers, and employers. To restrict and reduce accidents, deaths, and injuries in traffic, appropriate legislation is essential, aiming at the safety of workers and users of highways. The law must also benefit the commercial aspect, strengthening the reduction in production and logistics losses. Additionally, traffic education programs are needed, as well as better supervision in relation to total working hours. RESUMO Acidentes de trânsito com consequentes lesões e mortes têm se tornado uma epidemia em nível mundial. No Brasil, a maioria dos motoristas profissionais, sobretudo motoristas de transporte de cargas, enfrenta jornada de trabalho irregular e permanece acordado por mais de 18 horas/dia, o que reduz seu desempenho e estado de alerta. Neste artigo, discutimos as leis dos motoristas profissionais brasileiros e suas alterações vigentes (nº 12.619/2012 e nº 13.103/2015) em relação às horas de trabalho ao volante e a pausas para descanso, imprescindíveis para a qualidade de vida dos motoristas e para a sociedade em geral. Observamos que a nova legislação se mostra menos eficiente que a anterior por causar insegurança e preocupação aos usuários do sistema de transporte, aos próprios motoristas e aos empregadores. Para restringir e reduzir acidentes

  18. Levels and drivers of fishers' compliance with marine protected areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Arias

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Effective conservation depends largely on people's compliance with regulations. We investigate compliance through the lens of fishers' compliance with marine protected areas (MPAs. MPAs are widely used tools for marine conservation and fisheries management. Studies show that compliance alone is a strong predictor of fish biomass within MPAs. Hence, fishers' compliance is critical for MPA effectiveness. However, there are few empirical studies showing what factors influence fishers' compliance with MPAs. Without such information, conservation planners and managers have limited opportunities to provide effective interventions. By studying 12 MPAs in a developing country (Costa Rica, we demonstrate the role that different variables have on fishers' compliance with MPAs. Particularly, we found that compliance levels perceived by resource users were higher in MPAs (1 with multiple livelihoods, (2 where government efforts against illegal fishing were effective, (3 where fishing was allowed but regulated, (4 where people were more involved in decisions, and (5 that were smaller. We also provide a novel and practical measure of compliance: a compound variable formed by the number illegal fishers and their illegal fishing effort. Our study underlines the centrality of people's behavior in nature conservation and the importance of grounding decision making on the social and institutional realities of each location.

  19. Evaluation of radiation protection educational level of professional exposed workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinkovic, O.; Krstev, S.; Jovanovic, S.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Serbia and Montenegro legislation concerning with radiation protection was upgrading after publication ICRP- 60 and B.S.S., No.115. Present Law on the Protection against Ionizing Radiation is in force from 1996. Among quite new issues in radiation protection regulations there was article relate to obligatory refresher training. Due to adverse political and economic situation through many years radiation protection regulations were not fulfill completely. The aim of this investigation was to get real view to education level of professional exposed workers. In Serbia and Montenegro the most of ionizing radiation sources are in medical use and the most exposed workers are radiographers and radiologists. The test was passed by 200 radiographers and 50 radiologists. Main groups of questions were: Radiation protection and safety; difference between safety and security; legislation: law and regulations; incidents, accidents and operational failures: recording, learning. Usually, knowledge from school pales. New quantities (as ambient and personal dose equivalent) are mostly unknown. It is easier to understand the real difference between safety and security than to understand linguistic differences. Discussing regulations workers are more interesting in syndicate regulations than radiation protection ones. Operational failures and incidents are hidden. Better to say: nobody dare to speak about them. The results imposed conclusion that regulatory body has to pay more attention to upraise safety culture and radiation protection education level of professional exposed workers. (authors)

  20. The combination of short rest and energy drink consumption as fatigue countermeasures during a prolonged drive of professional truck drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronen, Adi; Oron-Gilad, Tal; Gershon, Pnina

    2014-06-01

    One of the major concerns for professional drivers is fatigue. Many studies evaluated specific fatigue countermeasures, in many cases comparing the efficiency of each method separately. The present study evaluated the effectiveness of rest areas combined with consumption of energy drinks on professional truck drivers during a prolonged simulated drive. Fifteen professional truck drivers participated in three experimental sessions: control-drivers were asked to drink 500 ml of a placebo drink prior to the beginning of the drive. Energy drink-drivers were asked to drink 500 ml of an energy drink containing 160 mg of caffeine prior to the beginning of the drive, and an Energy drink+Rest session--where the drivers were asked to drink 500 ml of an energy drink prior to driving, and rest for 10 min at a designated rest area zone 100 min into the drive. For all sessions, driving duration was approximately 150 min and consisted of driving on a monotonous, two-way rural road. In addition to driving performance measures, subjective measures, and heart rate variability were obtained. Results indicated that consumption of an energy drink (in both sessions) facilitated lower lane position deviations and reduced steering wheel deviations during the first 80-100 min of the drive relative to the control sessions. Resting after 100 min of driving, in addition to the energy drink that was consumed before the drive, enabled the drivers to maintain these abilities throughout the remainder of the driving session. Practical applications: Practical applications arising from the results of this research may give indication on the possible added value of combining fatigue counter measures methods during a prolonged drive and the importance of the timing of the use for each method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Structural drivers and social protection: mechanisms of HIV risk and HIV prevention for South African adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cluver, Lucie Dale; Orkin, Frederick Mark; Meinck, Franziska; Boyes, Mark Edward; Sherr, Lorraine

    2016-01-01

    Social protection is high on the HIV-prevention agenda for youth in sub-Saharan Africa. However, questions remain: How do unconditional cash transfers work? What is the effect of augmenting cash provision with social care? And can "cash plus care" social protection reduce risks for adolescents most vulnerable to infection? This study tackles these questions by first identifying mediated pathways to adolescent HIV risks and then examining potential main and moderating effects of social protection in South Africa. This study was a prospective observational study of 3515 10-to-17-year-olds (56.7% female; 96.8% one-year retention). Within randomly selected census areas in four rural and urban districts in two South African provinces, all homes with a resident adolescent were sampled between 2009/2010 and 2011/2012. Measures included 1) potential structural drivers of HIV infection such as poverty and community violence; 2) HIV risk behaviours; 3) hypothesized psychosocial mediating factors; and 4) types of social protection involving cash and care. Using gender-disaggregated analyses, longitudinal mediation models were tested for potential main and moderating effects of social protection. Structural drivers were associated with increased onset of adolescent HIV risk behaviour (psocial protection were associated with reductions in HIV risk behaviour and psychosocial deprivations. In addition, cash social protection moderated risk pathways: for adolescent girls and boys experiencing more acute structural deprivation, social protection had the greatest associations with HIV risk prevention (e.g. moderation effects for girls: B=-0.08, psocial protection has the greatest prevention effects for the most vulnerable. Social protection comprising unconditional cash plus care was associated with reduced risk pathways through moderation and main effects, respectively. Our findings suggest the importance of social protection within a combination package of HIV

  2. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome as an accident risk factor in professional drivers in Yekaterinburg. Dangerous Sleep (DS-1 study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Belkin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available About 20% of all road traffic accidents may be associated with falling asleep while driving. This may be caused by sleep disorders leading to daytime sleepiness, the most common of which is obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS. Objective: to study somatic and mental health, sleep disorders, OSAS in particular, in the population of Russian drivers (Sverdlovsk Region. Patients and methods. The descriptive cohort «Dangerous Sleep» (DS-1 study of 20 professional drivers having more than 5-year driving experience was conducted at the Clinical Institute of the Brain. The mean age of the drivers was 45.8 years. They underwent somatic evaluation for cardiovascular risk factors and a psychological examination involving a risk readiness diagnostic procedure, the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory, and an electroencephalographic examination. A somnological examination assumed testing using the Epworth sleepiness scale, polysomnography, or overnight pulse metry. Results and discussion. 30% of the drivers were found to have marked attention disorders and an inability to adapt to extreme conditions, which create a risk for professional duties. The predisposing factors were noted to be alcohol addiction, overweight, and OSAS, the rate of the latter proved to be higher than that in the general population of able-bodied men. It was shown that a somnological examination should be obligatorily performed while hiring professional drivers, particularly to long hauliers. The drivers having a long length of experience, in whom a periodic examination detects sleep disorders, should be treated for somatic diseases and should also have individual working schedules to rule out their long night-time driving. 

  3. Understanding local-scale drivers of biodiversity outcomes in terrestrial protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Megan D; Craigie, Ian D; Dudley, Nigel; Hockings, Marc

    2017-07-01

    Conservation relies heavily on protected areas (PAs) maintaining their key biodiversity features to meet global biodiversity conservation goals. However, PAs have had variable success, with many failing to fully maintain their biodiversity features. The current literature concerning what drives variability in PA performance is rapidly expanding but unclear, sometimes contradictory, and spread across multiple disciplines. A clear understanding of the drivers of successful biodiversity conservation in PAs is necessary to make them fully effective. Here, we conduct a comprehensive assessment of the current state of knowledge concerning the drivers of biological outcomes within PAs, focusing on those that can be addressed at local scales. We evaluate evidence in support of potential drivers to identify those that enable more successful outcomes and those that impede success and provide a synthetic review. Interactions are discussed where they are known, and we highlight gaps in understanding. We find that elements of PA design, management, and local and national governance challenges, species and system ecology, and sociopolitical context can all influence outcomes. Adjusting PA management to focus on actions and policies that influence the key drivers identified here could improve global biodiversity outcomes. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  4. IAEA regional basic professional training on radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This book contains the manuscripts of lectures of the Basic Professional Training Course on Radiation Protection which was organized and prepared on the basis of the standard syllabus put together in accordance with the recommendations of the International Basic safety standards for radiation protection against ionizing radiation and for safety of radiation sources (BSS). The course was intended to meet the educational and initial training requirements of personnel working in this field. The course is aimed at workers of a graduate level who are called on to take up position in the radiation protection field and who might someday become trainers in their home countries and institutions. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  5. Whole-body vibration and musculoskeletal diseases in professional truck drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Fabiano de Souza Moraes

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Most occupational diseases do not fit the paradigm of medical interpretation of the health-disease process based on linear causality, in which it would be possible to find a single cause for each type of disease. Objectives: to conduct a systematic review in order to investigate the association between whole-body vibration (WBV and musculoskeletal disorders (MSD in professional truck drivers (PTD. Methods: The scientific databases of PubMed, Cochrane, Lilacs and Scielo were used to collect articles published from 2000 until the present time. Two independent reviewers adopted inclusion and quality criteria to evaluate the selected articles. Results: From adopted inclusion and quality criteria, nine articles were chosen to identify the association between MSD and WBV in PTD. The results showed that MSD seems to be closely associated to exposure to WBV in these workers, mainly due to high prevalence and symptoms of low back pain. Two cohort studies showed exposure to WBV as risk for MSD. Only one, with case-control design, did not show WBV as a significant factor. Conclusions: In this study the importance of exposure analysis of WBV in the occurrence of MSD in PTD was elucidated. This study showed the importance of WBV exposure analysis on the occurrence of MSD in PTD. There is adequate information to provide rationale for the reduction of WBV exposure to the lowest possible level, to ensure the health of these workers. Studies with a greater power of investigation, of a prospective, design, should be encouraged, supplanting those only of association.

  6. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Iranian professional drivers: results from a population based study of 12,138 men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj Mohebbi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is evident that professional driving is associated with substantial changes in lifestyle habits. Professional drivers are prone to metabolic syndrome (MetS and its complications because their working environment is characterized by numerous stress factors such as lack of physical activity due to working in a fixed position, disruption in diet, and irregular sleep habits. The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of MetS among long distance drivers residing in West Azerbaijan province in Iran. MATERIALS: To assess the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among professional long distance drivers, 12138 participants were enrolled in this cross sectional study. The MetS was defined using International Diabetes Federation criteria. RESULTS: Among 12138 participants, 3697 subjects found to be MetS. The crude and age-adjusted rates of MetS were 30.5% and 32.4% respectively. Based on Body mass index (BMI, 5027 subjects (41.4% were overweight (BMI ≥ 25.01-30 kg/m2, and 2592 (21.3% were obese (BMI ≥ 30.01 kg/m2. The presence of central obesity was more common than other components. The associations of MetS with BMI, pack-year smoking, age, weekly driving duration and driving experiences were significant in the logistic regression. By increasing BMI, pack-year smoking, age, weekly driving duration and driving experiences, odds ratio of MetS was increased. CONCLUSION: The study suggests that MetS has become a noteworthy health problem among Iranian long distance drivers. This might be due to the following facts: sitting in a fixed position for long hours while working, cigarette smoking, job stress, unhealthy diet and lack of physical activity. Educational programs should be established for promoting healthy lifestyle and also for early detection and appropriate interventions.

  7. Protecting personal information: Implications of the Protection of Personal Information (POPI) Act for healthcare professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buys, M

    2017-10-31

    Careless handling of patient information in daily medical practice can result in Health Professions Council of South Africa sanction, breach of privacy lawsuits and, in extreme cases, serious monetary penalty or even imprisonment. This review will focus on the Protection of Personal Information (POPI) Act (No. 4 of 2013) and the implications thereof for healthcare professionals in daily practice. Recommendations regarding the safeguarding of information are made.

  8. [Investigation of Legionella pneumophila seropositivity in the professional long distance drivers as a risky occupation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Yusuf; Ergin, Cağri; Kaleli, Ilknur; Pinar, Ahmet

    2007-04-01

    Contaminated water sources, reservoirs and systems such as evaporative condensers of air-conditioners are known to be the main transmission routes of Legionella spp. which are ubiquitous aquatic bacteria. By virtue of this point the aim of this study was to investigate the rate of Legionella pneumophila seropositivity in a profession considered as risky due to the direct and prolonged exposure to air-conditioning and air-circulating systems. For this purpose, in the period of February-August 2004 a total of 79 male subjects (63 were bus drivers and 16 were driver assistants) who were continously travelling to two different route (South part as hot climate and Middle/North parts as cold climate of Turkey) from Denizli province coach station (a province located in internal Aegian where accepted as crossroads), were included to the study. The mean age and mean working duration of bus drivers were 43.0 +/- 1.1 years and 20.0 +/- 1.1 years, respectively, while these values were 22.5 +/- 0.9 years and 4.0 +/- 0.6 years, respectively, for the drivers' assistants. The serum samples collected from the subjects were screened by a commercial indirect immunofluorescence method (Euroimmun, Germany) using L. pneumophila serogrup 1-14 antigens for the presence of specific antibodies. Additionally, air-conditioners' moisture exhaust samples of the busses in which seropositive subjects travelling with have been examined by culture and 5S rRNA gene targeted polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods, for the presence of Legionella spp. The overall L. pneumophila seropositivity rate was detected as 15.2% (12/79). This rate was 19% (12/63) for bus drivers while all of the drivers' assistants were found seronegative. The seropositivity rate was found statistically higher in the personnel who were travelling to the hot climates (10/36, 27.8%) than those who travel to cold climates (2/43, 4.6%), (p travel. Our data indicated that long distance bus drivers were chronically exposed to this

  9. The radiological protection in technical-professional level in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vizuet Gonzalez, Jorge; Suarez, Gerardo

    2005-01-01

    This work describes the work done in the implementation of an educational project which aims the formation of technical-professional in radiation protection (RP) with official recognition in Mexico. The constant growth of business activities related to the use of radioactive material in industry, medicine and research has required the development and implementation of standardization by the regulatory authorities of our country. However the advance with regards to training of specialized personnel is reduced in comparison to current needs. in our country there is no technical personnel with studies recognised by the regulatory body in this specialty (RP), however quality assurance programs currently require an educational training that will help to meet the standards in the various activities that develop in the use and handling of sources and ionizing radiation generating equipment, reason why it was developed and implemented this educational project. Additionally induce and promote the need for the peaceful use of nuclear energy and ionizing radiation, at the national level is one more reason to implement the programme at upper secondary level, with the purpose to have knowledge related to the topic. The technical course has a duration of six semesters (three years), and currently there are two generations of graduating. The plan of study consists of the required disciplines for upper secondary level more plus those corresponding to technological training in radiological protection

  10. Stablishment and maintenance of professional recognition in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masse, F.X.

    1994-01-01

    Recognition of qualified experts in radiation protection is an issue IRPA has been concerned with from its inception. It has long been known that the recognition mechanism differs widely throughout the world community and IRPA Associated Societies have each dealt with the needs of their members in this regard in their own way. Some unification of the recognition of qualified radiation protection experts was first through to be important with the organization of the Commission of the European Communities, anticipating the need for such expertise to be able to move freely within the EC states. A number of attempts have been made to determine the feasibility of such standardization by first inter comparing the existing systems internationally. Such intercomparisons have only verified the wide diversity of existing recognition systems, confirming the difficulty that would be associated with any standardization attempt. We are therefore shifting our focus to the issue of professional education and training as a means of gradual standardization in the profession. (Author)

  11. Effectiveness of marine protected areas in managing the drivers of ecosystem change: a case of Mnazi Bay Marine Park, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machumu, Milali Ernest; Yakupitiyage, Amararatne

    2013-04-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are being promoted in Tanzania to mitigate the drivers of ecosystem change such as overfishing and other anthropogenic impacts on marine resources. The effectiveness of MPAs in managing those drivers was assessed in three ecological zones, seafront, mangrove, and riverine of Mnazi Bay Marine Park, using Participatory Community Analysis techniques, questionnaire survey, checklist and fishery resource assessment methods. Eleven major drivers of ecosystem change were identified. Resource dependence had a major effect in all ecological zones of the park. The results indicated that the park's legislations/regulations, management procedures, and conservation efforts are reasonably effective in managing its resources. The positive signs accrued from conservation efforts have been realized by the communities in terms of increased catch/income, awareness and compliance. However, some natural and anthropogenic drivers continued to threaten the park's sustainability. Furthermore, implementation of resource use and benefit sharing mechanisms still remained a considerable challenge to be addressed.

  12. Professional risk of developing diseases of the peripheral nervous system in tractor drivers – machine operators of agricultural production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A. Bezrukova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on the results of the hygienic assessment of working conditions in the domestic agricultural machinery of old and new models when performing the main types of seasonal agricultural work during the annual production cycle and analysis of accumulated occupational diseases’ nosology structure in agricultural workers of the Saratov region over the period from 2004 to 2014, the estimation of professional risk diseases of the peripheral nervous system in tractor drivers – machine operators of agricultural production is given. Professional risk assessment carried out under the procedure set forth in P2.2.1766-03 has shown that the category of a priori risk to their health during an annual production cycle ranged from high to very high (unbearable. It was revealed that the most important factors shaping the harmful working conditions when working on agricultural machinery that can act as a trigger in the formation of vertebral diseases of the peripheral nervous system, are general and local vibration, adverse micro-climatic conditions, long uncomfortable static working posture and physical stress. The risk of diseases in the peripheral uneven system in machine operators of agriculture was attributed to the high risk category with an index of professional diseases (IPD equal to 0,5 %.

  13. Metabolic syndrome among professional bus and truck drivers in Kashan, 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Saberi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The literature data and our own studies show that in drivers of transport vehicles, work-related risk factors for arterial hypertension, ischemic heart disease, and metabolic syndrome are largely intensified. These involve occupational risk factors as well as classic ones, such as obesity, limited physical activity, shift work, or tobacco smoking. However, studies published over the past two decades on the health of bus and truck drivers have received relatively less attention in developing countries. Methods: In a cross-sectional study 429 Kashan City male bus and truck drivers that enter the occupational health service for health examination were enrolled. The study focused on the presence of the metabolic syndrome, as defined by the National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (NCEP ATP III and statistical tests such as t-test, chi-square test and Pearson’s correlation coefficient were used to analyze the data. Results: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome according to ATP-III was 35.9% mostly at age range 30-39 years. The prevalence of overweight was 41% Obesity, 23.1% hypertension, 42.9% Diabetes, 7% hypertriglyceridemia, 53.4% and low HDL cholesterol, 48.7%. In addition, between diabetes and hypertension and between hypertension and smoking meaningful relation was seen (p=0.006. Conclusion: We observed a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome in these groups to be significantly higher than other groups in Iran. So, Occupation must be considered as a risk factor for impaired health status, leading to temporary or permanent disability to work.

  14. Whole-body Vibration Exposure Intervention among Professional Bus and Truck Drivers: A Laboratory Evaluation of Seat-suspension Designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood, Ryan P; Yost, Michael G; Camp, Janice E; Ching, Randal P

    2015-01-01

    Long-term exposure to seated whole-body vibration (WBV) is one of the leading risk factors for the development of low back disorders. Professional bus and truck drivers are regularly exposed to continuous WBV, since they spend the majority of their working hours driving heavy vehicles. This study measured WBV exposures among professional bus and truck drivers and evaluated the effects of seat-suspension designs using simulated field-collected data on a vibration table. WBV exposures were measured and compared across three different seat designs: an air-ride bus seat, an air-ride truck seat, and an electromagnetically active (EM-active) seat. Air-ride seats use a compressed-air bladder to attenuate vibrations, and they have been in operation throughout the transportation industry for many years. The EM-active seat is a relatively new design that incorporates a microprocessor-controlled actuator to dampen vibration. The vibration table simulated seven WBV exposure scenarios: four segments of vertical vibration and three scenarios that used field-collected driving data on different road surfaces-a city street, a freeway, and a section of rough roadway. The field scenarios used tri-axial WBV data that had been collected at the seat pan and at the driver's sternum, in accordance with ISO 2631-1 and 2631-5. This study found that WBV was significantly greater in the vertical direction (z-axis) than in the lateral directions (x-and y-axes) for each of the three road types and each of the three types of seats. Quantitative comparisons of the results showed that the floor-to-seat-pan transmissibility was significantly lower for the EM-active seat than for either the air-ride bus seat or the air-ride truck seat, across all three road types. This study also demonstrated that seat-suspension designs have a significant effect on the vibrations transmitted to vehicle operators, and the study's results may prove useful in designing future seat suspensions.

  15. Leadership drivers of organizational creativity: a path model of creative climate in a professional service firm

    OpenAIRE

    Sandvik Madsen, Alexander; Espedal, Bjarne; Selart, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how and under what conditions two different leadership roles are able to facilitate an organizational climate that supports creativity. The study was conducted in a leading professional service firm. The introduced hypotheses were tested by means of a structural equation model. Findings indicate that the leadership roles are conceptually different and that organizational structure is important for leaders’ ability to create a climate ...

  16. Online virtual patients - A driver for change in medical and healthcare professional education in developing countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewhurst, David; Borgstein, Eric; Grant, Mary E; Begg, Michael

    2009-08-01

    The development of online virtual patients has proved to be an effective vehicle for pedagogical and technological skills transfer and capacity building for medical and healthcare educators in Malawi. A project between the University of Edinburgh and the University of Malawi has delivered more than 20 collaboratively developed, virtual patients, contextualised for in-country medical and healthcare education and, more significantly, a cadre of healthcare professionals skilled in developing digital resources and integrating these into their emerging curricula. The process of engaging with new approaches to teaching and delivering personalised, context sensitive content via a game-informed, technology-supported process has contributed to the ability of healthcare educators in Malawi to drive pedagogical change, meet the substantial challenges of delivering new curricula, cope with increasing student numbers and promote teacher professional development. This initial phase of the project has laid the foundation for a broader second phase that focuses on promoting curriculum change, developing educational infrastructure and in-country capacity to create, and integrate digital resources into education and training across multi-professional groups and across educational levels.

  17. Systematic Approach to Training and Professional Development Specialists of Physical Protection, Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials in Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klos, Nataliia

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: 1. Ukraine has created the State system for professional training, retraining and professional development of specialists in physical protection, accounting and control of nuclear materials. 2. Ukraine has founded profession physical protection, accounting and control of nuclear materials

  18. Counseling Directory and Consumer's Guide: Implementing Professional Disclosure and Consumer Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, John L.

    1979-01-01

    The publication of a "counseling directory" and "consumer's guide" is a new approach that can be used to respond to the current professional issues of professional disclosure and consumer protection. Reviews the purposes, format, and content of both the directory and guide. (Author)

  19. Views from the japanese nuclear industry and radiation protection professionals on the draft ICRP recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonekura, Y.; Choi, H.S.; Muto, S.; Oda, K.; Ishiguchi, T.

    2007-01-01

    The views of the Japanese nuclear industry, radiation protection professionals, and medical professionals on the concepts of the draft recommendations were presented. Specific concerns and suggestions were expressed in each of these fields based on practical considerations and experiences in operational radiation protection. It was noted that there is no need to complicate the current system, in particular without effectively expressed and rational reasoning. However, in general, speakers and participants in these discussions showed an understanding of ICRP publications. (authors)

  20. Days individual equipment of protection and professional risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The personal protection equipment is studied in the legal way (legal liabilities, certification, European texts), technical way (ergonomics, painfulness of ventilated equipment wearing, reliability of a respirable air line, protection gloves against the chemical risk, exposure to nano particulates, working in hot area), human factors (hostile area and emotion management), studies on personal equipment such evaluation, efficiency, conception of new equipment, physiological tolerance, limit of use, and some general safety studies on the working places. (N.C.)

  1. Falling asleep at the wheel among Italian professional drivers (PDs: Results from the HiRis PD study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Luca Rosso

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: A high percentage of professional drivers (PDs often report feeling fatigue during their work, and falling asleep at the wheel (FAW is a major contributing factor to the occurrence of near-miss or actual accidents. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of FAW among Italian PDs and the effect of fatigue on this occurrence (corrected for the main predictive factors already known. Material and Methods: We performed a cross-sectional questionnaire survey. Data from PDs (N = 497 were used for analyses. Logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the association of reported sudden-onset sleep at the wheel with working conditions and general lifestyle factors. Results: Forty-one percent of the interviewees experienced at least 1 episode per month of sudden-onset sleep at the wheel (4.7% per week. Predictive factors of self-reported FAW were: age > 55 years old (odds ratio (OR = 4.91, confidence interval (CI: 1.79–13.50, p 22 (OR = 3.93, 95% CI: 1.90–8.14, p < 0.01. Conclusions: There are different work and human factors underlying FAW among PDs. The Chalder Fatigue Questionnaire might be useful in measuring fatigue in this group and in detecting PDs at high risk of experiencing FAW.

  2. Assessment of the international meeting of radiation protection professionals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikodemova, Denisa; Cabanekova, Helena

    2012-01-01

    The conclusions from and main agenda of the conference are summarized. The conference was divided into 8 sections, dealing with biological effects of ionizing radiation, general aspects of radiation protection, dosimetry and metrology of ionizing radiation, radiation protection problems in nuclear power plants, management of nuclear radiation emergencies, radiation load of patients and staff during medical applications of ionizing radiation (radiodiagnosis, nuclear medicine and radiation oncology), control of exposure to radiation from natural sources in the environment and at workplaces, and education in radiation protection. The programme included round-table discussions devoted to the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident, optimization of the radiation load of children in radiology, and recent advances in the radon risk countermeasures area. (orig.)

  3. Awareness of Consumer Protection Act among dental health professionals in dental schools of Ghaziabad, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Sumanth; Menon, Ipseeta; Dhingra, Chandan; Anand, Richa

    2013-12-01

    The study aimed to assess the awareness of the Consumer Protection Act among dental health professionals in dental schools of Ghaziabad, India. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was carried out on dental health professionals in dental schools of Ghaziabad, India. A total of 348 dental health professionals (170 males and 178 females) were surveyed, out of which 116 were MDS faculty, 45 were BDS faculty and 187 were pursuing post graduation. The questionnaire comprised of 24 questions about the awareness of consumer protection act. Statistical analysis was done using Chi-square test, student's t test and ANOVA. A total of 84.8% (n=295) reported to be aware of consumer protection act. Amongst them, MDS faculty showed more awareness as compared to BDS faculty and those pursuing post-graduation. Considering the present scenario, MDS faculty dental professionals have more awareness of consumer protection act compared to other dental professionals. So, we must upgrade our knowledge on consumer protection act at all levels of our profession and change our attitude by inculcating a practice to spread the message of consumer protection act for delivering quality dental care.

  4. The radiographer's professional role in practical aspects of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrimpton, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    The subjects discussed were qualified radiographer definition, unnecessary x-rays exposure in x-rays examination and it's contribution in radiation protection practices, the improvement in procedures, and reviews of booklet called 'making the best use of a Dept of Clinical Radiology, UK

  5. Crash protection of stock car racing drivers--application of biomechanical analysis of Indy car crash research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, John W; Begeman, Paul C; Faller, Ronald K; Sicking, Dean L; McClellan, Scott B; Maynard, Edwin; Donegan, Michael W; Mallott, Annette M; Gideon, Thomas W

    2006-11-01

    Biomechanical analysis of Indy car crashes using on-board impact recorders (Melvin et al. 1998, Melvin et al. 2001) indicates that Indy car driver protection in high-energy crashes can be achieved in frontal, side, and rear crashes with severities in the range of 100 to 135 G peak deceleration and velocity changes in the range of 50 to 70 mph. These crashes were predominantly single-car impacts with the rigid concrete walls of oval tracks. This impressive level of protection was found to be due to the unique combination of a very supportive and tight-fitting cockpit-seating package, a six-point belt restraint system, and effective head padding with an extremely strong chassis that defines the seat and cockpit of a modern Indy car. In 2000 and 2001, a series of fatal crashes in stock car racing created great concern for improving the crash protection for drivers in those racecars. Unlike the Indy car, the typical racing stock car features a more spacious driver cockpit due to its resemblance to the shape of a passenger car. The typical racing seat used in stock cars did not have the same configuration or support characteristics of the Indy car seat, and five-point belt restraints were used. The tubular steel space frame chassis of a stock car also differs from an Indy car's composite chassis structure in both form and mechanical behavior. This paper describes the application of results of the biomechanical analysis of the Indy car crash studies to the unique requirements of stock car racing driver crash protection. Sled test and full-scale crash test data using both Hybrid III frontal crash anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) and BioSID side crash ATDs for the purpose of evaluating countermeasures involving restraint systems, seats and head/neck restraints has been instrumental in guiding these developments. In addition, the development of deformable walls for oval tracks (the SAFER Barrier) is described as an adjunct to improved occupant restraint through control

  6. Professional skippers' sun-protection knowledge and behavior in the tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Olivier; Bousser, Véronique; N'goala, Brigitte; Doloir, Anatole; Quist, Danièle; Derancourt, Christian

    2013-01-01

    A preliminary inquiry, conducted on Martinique Island, sought to determine professional skippers' sun-protection knowledge and behavior. Fifty-two skippers (mean age: 41 years) completed a questionnaire; 39 (75 %) had a simple sunburn over the last 6 months and 3 (6%) severe sunburn; 54 (64%) declared achieving sun protection by wearing clothes during >90% of the day. Only 17% had used sun protection >90% of the time. © 2013 International Society of Travel Medicine.

  7. A history of accelerator radiation protection - personal and professional memoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, H.W.; Thomas, R.H.

    1994-01-01

    This book is a result of many influences not the least of which was the realisation of their own mortality by the Editors. Over the eighty or so joint years of experiences in accelerator laboratories they found many fine colleagues and friends. Most of their older contemporaries of the World War II Manhattan Project era have retired or will soon do so. Knowing that, collectively, these people have a tale to tell that is well worth telling, full of both scientific and human interest, and believing that it is particularly important to capture the memories of the more senior of these before they become irretrievable, they persuaded 30 or so friends and colleagues from many countries of the world to record their personal and professional memoirs for the education and entertainment of both scientists and scientific historians. (author)

  8. Aspects of practical radiation protection in professional and non-professional exposure in radon spas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steger, F.

    1986-04-01

    The radiation protection legislation is generally based on the assumption of a linear dose-response relationship for stochastic effects, and of a dose-threshold for non stochastic effects, following a recommendation of the ICRP. The linear-dose-response relationship for the low dose range - and therefore for the exposure in Radon spas - is generally accepted. The paper discusses the consequences of this assumption and suggests guidlines for the practical performance of radiation protection in such locations. (Author)

  9. Training the next generation of radiation protection professionals in canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waller, Edward; Waker, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The University of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT) is Canada's newest university, specializing in market-driven programs. The first class of students started in Fall of 2003. The University is located in close proximity to Pickering, Darlington and Bruce Nuclear Power Plants, the fuel manufacturer Cameco, and a number of regional health centres. As such, the initial program focus was to serve the needs of the power utilities and the health sectors. The first programs envisioned and adopted at UOIT were programs in Nuclear Engineering and Radiation Science/Health Physics. These programs are unique in Canada. The four year Bachelor of Science honours degree programs in Radiation Science curriculum includes medical, industrial, agricultural and material science applications, and emphasizes a strong mathematics and science foundation to the discipline. The four year Canadian Engineering Accreditation Board accredited Bachelor of Nuclear Engineering honours program has a strong emphasis on radiation protection, environmental effects of radioactivity, and risk assessment. Both programs have internship options, and both have 'and Management' options, requiring an additional year of study. One key aspect to the pedagogy at UOIT is web-centric learning. Each student is issued a fully equipped internet-ready laptop for use in classes, tutorials and laboratories. The professors endeavor to integrate technology wherever possible to assist the student learning process, for example with on-line testing and course-work submission. Course materials are provided via learning management system software, and instruction is provided for industry standard computational and simulation tools. For courses in radiation protection and environmental effects, there is great emphasis on 'hands on' experience and realistic field exercises. The first graduating class was in spring 2007, and the indication from industry is that the specially trained radiation protection and

  10. Copyright Law Basics for the Nursing Professional: Part 2: Protecting Your Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaVelle, Meghan B; LaVelle, Beth Elchek; Port, Kenneth L; Sherlock, Jacob T

    2016-01-01

    This article is a continuation of the discussion of Copyright Law (found in JNPD 31:5) as it applies to nursing professionals. This part focuses on the definition of "work made for hire" and how nursing professional development specialists can both protect and share their own work. Many nurses assume that they own the works they create, but authorship is not necessarily the same as ownership. Misunderstanding copyrights could put one's job and hard work at risk!

  11. Professional radiation protection societies and the international organizations – exploiting the synergies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metcalf, Phil

    2013-07-01

    Radiation protection covers many disciplines from science through philosophy to law, and interacts with many human activities and endeavors. Professional societies for radiation protection were established and evolved throughout the second half of the twentieth century in many countries, and presently represent more than twenty thousand professionals working in more than fifty countries. During the same period a number of international organizations were established, some devoted to radiation safety, others with a role to play in radiation safety; such organizations being either independent non-governmental organizations or intergovernmental organizations of both regional and international dimensions. The national, regional and international radiation protection societies and associations have become the vehicle to provide this conduit from the profession to the international organizations. This is achieved by IRPA having representation within the relevant committees of the various international bodies, such as the Radiation Safety Standards Committee (RASSC) of the IAEA. At a national level radiation protection professionals can gain access to all international developments in radiation protection through the national societies and their interactions with IRPA and also as individual members of IRPA. The possibility to provide consolidated comment and feedback to the international organizations through national societies provides excellent opportunities for societies to organize national workshops and discussion platforms on all important areas of radiation protection.

  12. Days individual equipment of protection and professional risks; Equipements de protection individuelle et risques professionnelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The personal protection equipment is studied in the legal way (legal liabilities, certification, European texts), technical way (ergonomics, painfulness of ventilated equipment wearing, reliability of a respirable air line, protection gloves against the chemical risk, exposure to nano particulates, working in hot area), human factors (hostile area and emotion management), studies on personal equipment such evaluation, efficiency, conception of new equipment, physiological tolerance, limit of use, and some general safety studies on the working places. (N.C.)

  13. The psychological drivers of bureaucracy: protecting the societal goals of an organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andringa, Tjeerd

    2015-01-01

    This chapter addresses the psychological enablers of bureaucracy and ways to protect bureaucrats and society from its adverse effects. All organizations benefit from formalization, but a bureaucracy is defined by the dominance of coercive formalization. Since bureaucrats are not bureaucratic among

  14. IRPA's contribution to E and T activities for radiation protection professionals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallego, E.; Hefner, A.

    2009-01-01

    The International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA) promotes excellence in the practice of radiation protection through national and regional Associate Societies for radiation protection professionals. IRPA has recently prepared and E and T Plan structured around three main lines: the cooperation with international and regional organizations dealing with E and T in Radiation Protection; the internal stimulation of E and T by organizing discussion forums during IRPA Congresses; and the stimulation and support to the organization of E and T activities either by IRPA or by its Associate Societies. The main innovations are in the possibility of undertaking common activities by two or more Associate Societies; the promotion of E and T networks sharing language or regional proximity; and the emergence of activities to attract young generations to the profession. (authors)

  15. The Charter and the Activities of the Israeli National Professional Advisory Committee on Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlesinger, T.; Gilat, J.; Levanon, I.

    2004-01-01

    The protection of workers and the public from ionising radiation, and the control of the use of radioactive materials in Israel, are founded on basic legislation in the form of orders, acts, decrees and codes of practice. The responsibilities for licensing, inspection and enforcement are shared among several ministries, administrative authorities and professional bodies, including the Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs (MOLSA)*, the Ministry of the Environment (MOE), the Ministry of Health (MOH) and the Israel Atomic Energy Commission (IAEC)

  16. Rethinking Compassion Fatigue Through the Lens of Professional Identity: The Case of Child-Protection Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffrion, Steve; Morselli, Carlo; Guay, Stéphane

    2016-07-01

    Compassion fatigue is currently the dominant model in work-related stress studies that explain the consequences of caring for others on child-protection workers. Based on a deterministic approach, this model excludes the role of cognition a priori and a posteriori in the understanding of the impact of caregiving or providing social support. By integrating the notion of professional identity, this article adds a subjective perspective to the compassion fatigue model allowing for the consideration of positive outcomes and takes into account the influence of stress caused by accountability. Mainly, it is argued that meanings derived from identity and given to situations may protect or accelerate the development of compassion fatigue or compassion satisfaction. To arrive at this proposition, the notions of compassion fatigue and identity theory are first reviewed. These concepts are then articulated around four work-related stressors specific to child-protection work. In light of this exercise, it is argued that professional identity serves as a subjective interpretative framework that guides the understanding of work-related situations. Therefore, compassion fatigue is not only a simple reaction to external stimuli. It is influenced by meanings given to the situation. Furthermore, professional identity modulates the impact of compassion fatigue on psychological well-being. Practice, policy, and research implications in light of these findings are also discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Assessment Of Ethical Behavior Among Professionals At Procurement And After Tendering Process With Its Impacts And Drivers In Nepalese Construction Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Sagar Yadav

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective of this study is to assess ethical behavior among professionals at procurement and after tendering process with its impacts and drivers in Nepalese Construction Industry. Different literatures were reviewed to assess ethical practices along with its cause and effect inside Nepalese Construction Industry. Pilot study was conducted for the validity of the questionnaire. One key informant from each selected organization was interviewed. The questionnaire contains shortcomings of ethical behavior at procurement and after tendering phase impact of shortcomings of ethical practices and factors leading to these ethical practices based on the objectives of the research. Five ranking Likert Scale were used. The collected data were analyzed based on relative importance index RII in three different categories as Investigating Offices 3 numbers Professional Associations 4 numbers and Government Departments 4 numbers with total of 11 organizations. All together 240 respondents were targeted out of which 170 response were collected with response rate of 70.83. The research shows that for commitment of professionals The overall level of unethical conduct in construction industry is placed at first rank with agreement level of 72.7. For Professionals shortcomings of ethical behavior at procurement phase Individuals or organizations undertaking work without adequate qualification experience training is placed at first rank with agreement level of 68.00. For Professionals shortcomings of ethical behavior after awarding the Tender Contractors professional dont dispose waste in suitable and safe ways which is friendly with the environment is placed at first rank with agreement level of 67.50. For factors lead to shortcomings of ethical behavior Personal culture or personal behavior is placed at first rank with agreement level of 78.20. From the research it is clear that shortcomings of ethical behaviors have negative impact firstly on cost as it affects

  18. Regulation and registration as drivers of continuous professional competence for Irish pre-hospital practitioners: a discussion paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, S; Dunne, S S; Hughes, M; Cheeseman, S; Dunne, C P

    2016-05-01

    The regulatory body responsible for the registration of Irish pre-hospital practitioners, the Pre-Hospital Emergency Care Council (PHECC), identified the need to implement a continuing professional competence (CPC) framework. The first cycle of CPC (focused on emergency medical technicians) commenced in November 2013 creating for the first time a formal relationship between continuing competence and registration to practice. To review current literature and to describe benefits and challenges relevant to CPC, regulation, registration and their respective contributions to professionalism of pre-hospital practitioners: advanced paramedics, paramedics and emergency medical technicians. Online search of cumulative index to nursing and allied health literature (CINAHL Plus with Full Text), Allied and Complementary Medicine (AMED) and 'Pubmed' databases using: 'Continuous Professional Development'; 'Continuous Professional Development'; 'emergency medical technician'; 'paramedic'; 'registration'; 'regulation'; and "profession' for relevant articles published since 2004. Additional policy documents, discussion papers, and guidance documents were identified from bibliographies of papers found. Reports, governmental policies for other healthcare professions, and professional developments internationally for allied professions (e.g., nursing, physiotherapy and medicine) link maintenance of competence with requirements for registration to practice. We suggest that evolving professionalisation of Irish paramedics should be affirmed through behaviours and competencies that incorporate adherence to professional codes of conduct, reflective practice, and commitment to continuing professional development. While the need for ambulance practitioner CPD was identified in Ireland almost a decade ago, PHECC now has the opportunity to introduce a model of CPD for paramedics linking competence and professionalism to annual registration.

  19. Tourism as a driver of conflicts and changes in fisheries value chains in Marine Protected Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, P F M; Mendes, L; Fonseca, V; Villasante, S

    2017-09-15

    Although critical tools for protecting ocean habitats, Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) are sometimes challenged for social impacts and conflicts they may generate. Some conflicts have an economic base, which, once understood, can be used to resolve associated socioenvironmental problems. We addressed how the fish trade in an MPA that combines no-take zones and tourist or resident zones creates incentives for increased fisheries. We performed a value chain analysis following the fish supply and trade through interviews that assessed consumer demand and preference. The results showed a simple and closed value chain driven by tourism (70% of the consumption). Both tourists and local consumers preferred high trophic level species (predators), but the former preferred large pelagics (tuna and dolphinfish) and the latter preferred reef species (barracuda and snapper). Pelagic predators are caught with fresh sardines, which are sometimes located only in the no-take zone. Pelagic species are mainly served as fillet, and the leftover fish parts end up as waste, an issue that, if properly addressed, can help reduce fishing pressure. Whereas some of the target species may be sustainable (e.g., dolphinfish), others are more vulnerable (e.g., wahoo) and should not be intensively fished. We advise setting stricter limits to the number of tourists visiting MPAs, according to their own capacity and peculiarities, in order to avoid conflicts with conservations goals through incentives for increased resource use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Perceived barriers to and drivers of community participation in protected-area governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Caroline; Holmes, George; Stringer, Lindsay

    2018-04-01

    Protected areas (PAs) are a frequently used conservation strategy, yet their socioeconomic impacts on local communities remain contentious. A shift toward increased participation by local communities in PA governance seeks to deliver benefits for human well-being and biodiversity. Although participation is considered critical to the success of PAs, few researchers have investigated individuals' decisions to participate and what this means for how local people experience the costs and benefits of conservation. We explored who participates in PA governance associations and why; the perceived benefits and costs to participation; and how costs and benefits are distributed within and between communities. Methods included 3 focus groups, 37 interviews, and 217 questionnaire surveys conducted in 3 communities and other stakeholders (e.g., employees of a nongovernmental organization and government officials) in PA governance in Madagascar. Our study design was grounded in the theory of planned behavior (TPB), the most commonly applied behavior model in social psychology. Participation in PA governance was limited by miscommunication and lack of knowledge about who could get involved and how. Respondents perceived limited benefits and high costs and uneven distribution of these within and between communities. Men, poorer households, and people in remote villages reported the highest costs. Our findings illustrate challenges related to comanagement of PAs: understanding the heterogeneous nature of communities; ensuring all households are represented in governance participation; understanding differences in the meaning of forest protection; and targeting interventions to reach households most in need to avoid elite capture. © 2017 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Conservation Biology.

  1. Knowledge and awareness of the Consumer Protection Act among dental professionals in India: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurminder; Gambhir, Ramandeep Singh; Singh, Simarpreet; Talwar, Puneet Singh; Munjal, Vaibhav

    2014-07-01

    The medical profession has been included in the Consumer Protection Act (CPA), to protect the interests of the patients in case of any unethical treatment rendered by the doctor. The present systematic review was conducted to assess the knowledge and awareness of CPA among dental professionals in India. A systematic review of relevant cross-sectional observational studies was conducted regarding the level of knowledge and awareness of CPA among dental professionals in India. Five studies out of 44 were finally included in the present review, after conducting both an electronic and manual search of scientific databases. The potential biases were reported and appropriate data was extracted by the concerned investigators. More than 90% of the study subjects in one of the studies were aware of the CPA, as compared to other studies. In two studies, when queried about the correct time period during which a patient can sue a doctor, very few subjects (18 and 23.2%) answered correctly. Almost 90% of the subjects were taking some form of consent in one of the studies. Private practitioners had more awareness as compared to academicians and combined practitioners. The results of the present review showed that a majority of the subjects were aware of the existence of CPA, but knowledge about the basic rules and regulations was lacking in a few studies. Therefore, dental professionals need to keep themselves updated on the various rules and latest amendments to save themselves from any litigation.

  2. Strategies for engaging with future radiation protection professionals: a public outreach case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, P; Gornall, B T; Wood, M D; Whitcher, R; Bannon, A; Bloomer, S; Hunak, S; Fear, J; Hale, H; Humphries, J; Jones, C; Matthewman, C; Matthews, A; Slater, S; Stephens, C; Stewart, J

    2015-01-01

    It is evident that there is a nuclear skills shortage within the UK, and logically it can be assumed that the shortfall extends to the radiation protection arena. Plans for nuclear new-build and the decommissioning of existing nuclear sites will require many more people with radiological knowledge and practical competencies. This converts to a nuclear industry requirement in the order of 1000 new recruits per year over at least the next ten years, mainly as new apprentices and graduates. At the same time, the strong demand for persons with radiation protection know-how in the non-nuclear and health care sectors is unlikely to diminish.The task of filling this skills gap is a significant one and it will require a determined effort from many UK stakeholders. The Society for Radiological Protection (SRP) has adopted a strategy in recent years to help address this skills gap. The aim is to engage the interest of secondary school students in the science of radiation and inspire them to follow a career in radiation protection. This paper presents the reasoning behind this strategy and, in an ‘outreach case study’, describes the establishment of the annual SRP Schools Event. This event is becoming an important addition to the national efforts aimed at increasing the numbers of skilled UK radiation protection professionals over the forthcoming decades. (note)

  3. Knowledge in Radiation Protection: a Survey of Professionals in Medical Imaging, Radiation Therapy and Nuclear Medicine Units in Yaounde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ongolo-Zogo, P.; Nguehouo, M.B.; Yomi, J.; Nko'o Amven, S.

    2013-01-01

    Medical use of ionizing radiation is now the most common radiation source of the population at the global level. The knowledge and practices of health professionals working with X-rays determine the level and quality of implementation of internationally and nationally recommended measures for radiation protection of patients and workers. The level of implementation and enforcement of international recommendations in African countries is an issue of concern due to weak laws and regulations and regulatory bodies. We report the results of a cross-sectional survey of health professionals working with ionizing radiation in Yaounde, the capital city of Cameroon. More than 50% of these professionals have a moderate level of knowledge of the norms and principles of radiation protection and more than 80% have never attended a continuing professional development workshop on radiation protection. (authors)

  4. Drivers of redistribution of fishing and non-fishing effort after the implementation of a marine protected area network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Reniel B; Gaines, Steven D; Johnson, Brett A; Bell, Tom W; White, Crow

    2017-03-01

    Marine spatial planning (MSP) is increasingly utilized to sustainably manage ocean uses. Marine protected areas (MPAs), a form of spatial management in which parts of the ocean are regulated to fishing, are now a common tool in MSP for conserving marine biodiversity and managing fisheries. However, the use of MPAs in MSP often neglects, or simplifies, the redistribution of fishing and non-fishing activities inside and outside of MPAs following their implementation. This redistribution of effort can have important implications for effective MSP. Using long-term (14 yr) aerial surveys of boats at the California Channel Islands, we examined the spatial redistribution of fishing and non-fishing activities and their drivers following MPA establishment. Our data represent 6 yr of information before the implementation of an MPA network and 8 yr after implementation. Different types of boats responded in different ways to the closures, ranging from behaviors by commercial dive boats that support the hypothesis of fishing-the-line, to behaviors by urchin, sport fishing, and recreational boats that support the theory of ideal free distribution. Additionally, we found that boats engaged in recreational activities targeted areas that are sheltered from large waves and located near their home ports, while boats engaged in fishing activities also avoided high wave areas but were not constrained by the distance to their home ports. We did not observe the expected pattern of effort concentration near MPA borders for some boat types; this can be explained by the habitat preference of certain activities (for some activities, the desired habitat attributes are not inside the MPAs), species' biology (species such as urchins where the MPA benefit would likely come from larval export rather than adult spillover), or policy-infraction avoidance. The diversity of boat responses reveals variance from the usual simplified assumption that all extractive boats respond similarly to MPA

  5. Accreditation of professionals for radiological protection in medical and dental radiology at Minas Gerais, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Teogenes A. da; Pereira, Elton G.; Alonso, Thessa C.; Guedes, Elton C.; Goncalves, Elaine C.; Nogueira, Maria Angela A.

    2000-01-01

    The role of the CDTN/CNEN as far as the radiological protection services in the medical and dental radiology has changed a lot due to the new Regulatory Directives. The CDTN/CNEN was recognized as the regional reference center for providing not only radiological survey services, but to coordinate an accreditation procedure for professional persons to be accepted by the State Regulatory Authorities to work at Minas Gerais. All the new activities were formalized in a Cooperation Agreement between the CDTN/CNEN and the Regulatory Authority. This paper describes the accreditation procedure for candidates, the adopted requirements, the intercomparison results among measuring instruments and the main achievements during the first year of the Agreement. (author)

  6. Communication strengths and weaknesses of radiation protection professionals in the United States and Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.H.; Petcovic, W.L.; Alexander, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    Effective health risk communication may well determine the future of peaceful applications of nuclear technology and the social acceptance of risks from radiation in medicine, research, and industry. However, radiation protection professionals who know how to quantify risks and provide appropriate safeguards have historically encountered great difficulties in communicating their risk perspectives to the concerned public. In the United States, organisations such as the Health Physics Society and the American Nuclear Society have traditionally attributed communication difficulties to the public's lack of technical understanding. This has led to the belief that if the public could be provided sufficient information or education, they would understand radiation issues and their concerns about radiation risks would be resolved. Consequently, these national organisations have established public information programs and speaker bureaus. These programs primarily focus on presentation of technically accurate data and attempt to foster understanding of radiation by analogies with background radiation or other sources of risks commonly accepted by society. This paper shows that such public information programs can at their best reach only about 25% of the general public. These programs could greatly enhance their effectiveness by learning the different ways that radiation professionals and the general public prefer to gather data and make decisions

  7. Examination of supplemental driver training and online basic driver education courses : traffic tech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    The first six months of unsupervised driving are the most : hazardous in a novice drivers driving experience. Most : States adopted graduated driver licensing (GDL) systems : to give novice drivers experience in a protective environment, : gradual...

  8. Public health professionals' perceptions toward provision of health protection in England: a survey of expectations of Primary Care Trusts and Health Protection Units in the delivery of health protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horsley Stephen S

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective health protection requires systematised responses with clear accountabilities. In England, Primary Care Trusts and the Health Protection Agency both have statutory responsibilities for health protection. A Memorandum of Understanding identifies responsibilities of both parties, but there is a potential lack of clarity about responsibility for specific health protection functions. We aimed to investigate professionals' perceptions of responsibility for different health protection functions, to inform future guidance for, and organisation of, health protection in England. Methods We sent a postal questionnaire to all health protection professionals in England from the following groups: (a Directors of Public Health in Primary Care Trusts; (b Directors of Health Protection Units within the Health Protection Agency; (c Directors of Public Health in Strategic Health Authorities and; (d Regional Directors of the Health Protection Agency Results The response rate exceeded 70%. Variations in perceptions of who should be, and who is, delivering health protection functions were observed within, and between, the professional groups (a-(d. Concordance in views of which organisation should, and which does deliver was high (≥90% for 6 of 18 health protection functions, but much lower (≤80% for 6 other functions, including managing the implications of a case of meningitis out of hours, of landfill environmental contamination, vaccination in response to mumps outbreaks, nursing home infection control, monitoring sexually transmitted infections and immunisation training for primary care staff. The proportion of respondents reporting that they felt confident most or all of the time in the safe delivery of a health protection function was strongly correlated with the concordance (r = 0.65, P = 0.0038. Conclusion Whilst we studied professionals' perceptions, rather than actual responses to incidents, our study suggests that there

  9. Public health professionals' perceptions toward provision of health protection in England: a survey of expectations of Primary Care Trusts and Health Protection Units in the delivery of health protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosford, Paul A; O'Mahony, Mary; Angell, Emma; Bickler, Graham; Crawshaw, Shirley; Glencross, Janet; Horsley, Stephen S; McCloskey, Brian; Puleston, Richard; Seare, Nichola; Tobin, Martin D

    2006-12-07

    Effective health protection requires systematised responses with clear accountabilities. In England, Primary Care Trusts and the Health Protection Agency both have statutory responsibilities for health protection. A Memorandum of Understanding identifies responsibilities of both parties, but there is a potential lack of clarity about responsibility for specific health protection functions. We aimed to investigate professionals' perceptions of responsibility for different health protection functions, to inform future guidance for, and organisation of, health protection in England. We sent a postal questionnaire to all health protection professionals in England from the following groups: (a) Directors of Public Health in Primary Care Trusts; (b) Directors of Health Protection Units within the Health Protection Agency; (c) Directors of Public Health in Strategic Health Authorities and; (d) Regional Directors of the Health Protection Agency The response rate exceeded 70%. Variations in perceptions of who should be, and who is, delivering health protection functions were observed within, and between, the professional groups (a)-(d). Concordance in views of which organisation should, and which does deliver was high (> or =90%) for 6 of 18 health protection functions, but much lower (protection function was strongly correlated with the concordance (r = 0.65, P = 0.0038). Whilst we studied professionals' perceptions, rather than actual responses to incidents, our study suggests that there are important areas of health protection where consistent understanding of responsibility for delivery is lacking. There are opportunities to clarify the responsibility for health protection in England, perhaps learning from the approaches used for those health protection functions where we found consistent perceptions of accountability.

  10. Development of a radiation protection training system and professional skills model in a multinational oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molteni, A.; Cerri, P.; Fresca Fantoni, R.

    2010-01-01

    The oil and gas industry makes extensive use of radioactive sources potentially dangerous to human health and to the environment if not properly controlled, including: industrial radiography, radioactive gauges, well logging activities, use of radiotracers. In addition, the accumulation of natural radionuclides (T.E.N.O.R.M.) may occur in the Oil and Gas extraction and treatment plants. Eni S.p.A. operates in more than 70 countries, with a staff of 79000 employees, in all climates and environments, including the most arduous conditions, and is continuously challenged to achieve high efficiency of operation while maintaining a high standard of safety, including the radiation protection aspects. Thus, in order to maintain the control over occupational exposures to radiation, to protect the public and the environment, and in order to deal with local rules and authorities, it has been developed a Radiation Protection Professional Model including three different roles (Radiation Protection Management, Radiation Protection Coordination and Operational Radiation Protection) that could be associated with the corresponding functions: Radiation Protection Expert, Radiation Protection Advisor, Radiation Protection Specialist. The Professional Model is a global Eni tool devoted to the know-how and the development of the human resources, including health, safety and environmental aspects, through the identification of detailed skills and knowledge. In order to provide the required knowledge to Eni workers all over the world, it has been developed a programme for education and training in radiation safety in collaboration with Eni Corporate University, the Eni company that manages orientation, recruitment, selection, training and Knowledge Management. Different training courses are organized to provide the training both for the Radiation Protection Coordination role (Radiation Protection Advisor course) and for the Operational Radiation Protection role (Radiation Protection

  11. Development of a radiation protection training system and professional skills model in a multinational oil and gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molteni, A.; Cerri, P.; Fresca Fantoni, R. [ENI S.P.A. exploration and production division, Radiation Protection Department, Via Emilia 1, 20097 San Donato Milanese (Italy)

    2010-07-01

    The oil and gas industry makes extensive use of radioactive sources potentially dangerous to human health and to the environment if not properly controlled, including: industrial radiography, radioactive gauges, well logging activities, use of radiotracers. In addition, the accumulation of natural radionuclides (T.E.N.O.R.M.) may occur in the Oil and Gas extraction and treatment plants. Eni S.p.A. operates in more than 70 countries, with a staff of 79000 employees, in all climates and environments, including the most arduous conditions, and is continuously challenged to achieve high efficiency of operation while maintaining a high standard of safety, including the radiation protection aspects. Thus, in order to maintain the control over occupational exposures to radiation, to protect the public and the environment, and in order to deal with local rules and authorities, it has been developed a Radiation Protection Professional Model including three different roles (Radiation Protection Management, Radiation Protection Coordination and Operational Radiation Protection) that could be associated with the corresponding functions: Radiation Protection Expert, Radiation Protection Advisor, Radiation Protection Specialist. The Professional Model is a global Eni tool devoted to the know-how and the development of the human resources, including health, safety and environmental aspects, through the identification of detailed skills and knowledge. In order to provide the required knowledge to Eni workers all over the world, it has been developed a programme for education and training in radiation safety in collaboration with Eni Corporate University, the Eni company that manages orientation, recruitment, selection, training and Knowledge Management. Different training courses are organized to provide the training both for the Radiation Protection Coordination role (Radiation Protection Advisor course) and for the Operational Radiation Protection role (Radiation Protection

  12. The IUGS Task Group on Global Geoscience Professionalism - promoting professional skills professionalism in the teaching, research and application of geoscience for the protection and education of the public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allington, Ruth; Fernandez-Fuentes, Isabel

    2013-04-01

    A new IUGS Task Group entitled the Task Group on Global Geoscience Professionalism was formed in 2012 and launched at a symposium at the 341GC in Brisbane on strengthening communication between fundamental and applied geosciences and between geoscientists and public. The Task Group aims to ensure that the international geoscience community is engaged in a transformation of its profession so as to embed the need for a professional skills base alongside technical and scientific skills and expertise, within a sound ethical framework in all arenas of geoscience practice. This needs to be established during training and education and reinforced as CPD throughout a career in geoscience as part of ensuring public safety and effective communication of geoscience concepts to the public. The specific objective of the Task Group on Global Geoscience Professionalism that is relevant to this poster session is: • To facilitate a more 'joined up' geoscience community fostering better appreciation by academics and teachers of the professional skills that geoscientists need in the workplace, and facilitate better communication between academic and applied communities leading to more effective application of research findings and technology to applied practitioners and development of research programmes that truly address urgent issues. Other Task Group objectives are: • To provide a specific international forum for discussion of matters of common concern and interest among geoscientists and geoscientific organizations involved in professional affairs, at the local, national and international level; • To act as a resource to IUGS on professional affairs in the geosciences as they may influence and impact "Earth Science for the Global Community" in general - both now and in the future; • To offer and provide leadership and knowledge transfer services to countries and geoscientist communities around the world seeking to introduce systems of professional governance and self

  13. National committee on radiation protection, 1928-1960: from professional guidelines to government regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittemore, G.F.

    1986-01-01

    The National Committee on Radiation Protection is a private, self-perpetuating body of radiation experts founded in 1928 which, except during World War II, has established the basic guidelines for radiation safety in the United States. This dissertation examines three themes in its history from 1928 to 1960. On an intellectual level, how do scientists make judgments when called upon to perform a legal function, instead of conduct research? On an institutional level, how does a scientific committee develop when it serves a medical, industrial, and legal constituency larger than the research community of the scientist themselves? On a political level, how has the development of atomic energy influenced both the intellectual content of the radiation safety standards and the institutional form of the NCRP? Institutional and political concerns were found to play a significant role in the NCRP's intellectual work from 1928 to 1960. The time span can be divided into three periods, revealing a growing politicization of radiation safety: professional self-regulation (1928-1941), government advisory committee (1946-1954), and public controversy and increasing legislation (1954-1960). In 1959, political controversy led to the establishment of the Federal Radiation Council, a government agency which was to replace the NCRP

  14. Tests for radiation protection in X-Ray mammography room for professional and non-professional exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naidenov, I.; Skocheva, A.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Control tests for radiation protection of medical diagnostic rooms in our country are based on the guidelines to the use of x-rays in medicine and on the basic safety standards for radiation protection. The mammography room tests are not supported by basic data (such as normal conditions for testing and secondary limits) which to allow the developing of methods as the case is with the conventional x-ray rooms. The material presents and discusses over the situation of the matter with the aim to find solution of the problem. In mammography units the space distribution of the dose field of the object scattering radiation is not symmetrical, the maximum being in a direction opposite to the primary beam. Control tests were made for stray radiation in major (in the plane of beam rotation) test points in five rooms with mammography units of different producers and generation, under angles of scattering from the direction of the beam of 900 (horizontal table - 0 deg projection) and 1630 (tilt table - 730 deg projection). The results on the stray radiation show up to four times higher values in the 730 projection, the remaining conditions being the same. Normalization to the week loading used in the shielding design, like the comparison with secondary limits as published in the available norms do not give unambiguous idea. It is advisable to use this projection in control tests for radiation protection and the values shall be compared with the secondary limits of the corresponding standard loading

  15. DRIVER INATTENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard TAY

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Driver inattention, especially driver distraction, is an extremely influential but generally neglected contributing factor of road crashes. This paper explores some of the common behaviours associated with several common forms of driver inattention, with respect to their perceived crash risks, rates of self-reported behaviours and whether drivers regulate such behaviours depending on the road and traffic environment, and provides some policy recommendations to address issues raised.

  16. An updated radiation protection program prospectus based on 20 years of data describing program drivers and activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Robert J; Gutierrez, Janet M

    2014-08-01

    In 1992, the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHSCH) Radiation Safety Program began assembling data on a monthly basis that described various program drivers and associated activities. At the end of calendar year 2002, a decade of data had been collected, so the information was summarized into a novel program prospectus, displaying various program indicator parameters in a format similar to that used in a commercial enterprise prospectus provided to potential investors. The consistent formatting of the data afforded a succinct and easily digestible snapshot of program activities and trends. Feedback from various program stakeholders, even those unfamiliar with radiation safety matters, was overwhelmingly positive. By the end of 2012, a total of 20 years of data had been collected, so an updated and slightly modified prospectus was created. The summary document has helped to describe the drivers of the program, revealed some interesting trends, and has aided in maintaining program support even in challenging economic times. The data summary has also proved to be useful in making future projections regarding program needs.

  17. Radiation protection for humans and environment. 50 years competence in the professional association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucher, Benno; Wilhelm, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    The conference proceedings of the IRPA (International radiation protection association) annual meeting 2016 contain the contribution of invited referents, other contributions and poster contributions concerning radiation protection in nuclear facilities, radiation protection of the public and environment, radioactive waste management, uranium mining, environmental monitoring, natural radioactivity, and radiation protection laws and regulations.

  18. among Taxi Drivers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Long years of driving [AOR =4.6 (95%CI, 1.6-12.9)], involvement in a similar activity prior to becoming taxi driver .... full time taxi driver; produce a valid driving license; .... Self-employee .... professional car drivers in Dhaka city, Bangladesh.

  19. Negativity Bias in Dangerous Drivers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Chai

    Full Text Available The behavioral and cognitive characteristics of dangerous drivers differ significantly from those of safe drivers. However, differences in emotional information processing have seldom been investigated. Previous studies have revealed that drivers with higher anger/anxiety trait scores are more likely to be involved in crashes and that individuals with higher anger traits exhibit stronger negativity biases when processing emotions compared with control groups. However, researchers have not explored the relationship between emotional information processing and driving behavior. In this study, we examined the emotional information processing differences between dangerous drivers and safe drivers. Thirty-eight non-professional drivers were divided into two groups according to the penalty points that they had accrued for traffic violations: 15 drivers with 6 or more points were included in the dangerous driver group, and 23 drivers with 3 or fewer points were included in the safe driver group. The emotional Stroop task was used to measure negativity biases, and both behavioral and electroencephalograph data were recorded. The behavioral results revealed stronger negativity biases in the dangerous drivers than in the safe drivers. The bias score was correlated with self-reported dangerous driving behavior. Drivers with strong negativity biases reported having been involved in mores crashes compared with the less-biased drivers. The event-related potentials (ERPs revealed that the dangerous drivers exhibited reduced P3 components when responding to negative stimuli, suggesting decreased inhibitory control of information that is task-irrelevant but emotionally salient. The influence of negativity bias provides one possible explanation of the effects of individual differences on dangerous driving behavior and traffic crashes.

  20. Testing cold protection according to EN ISO 20344: is there any professional footwear that does not pass?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuklane, Kalev; Ueno, Satoru; Sawada, Shin-Ichi; Holmér, Ingvar

    2009-01-01

    The present Comité Européen de Normalisation (CEN) and International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standards for safety, protective and occupational footwear EN ISO 20344-20347 classify footwear as cold protective by a pass/fail test where the limits are set for an allowed 10 degrees C temperature drop inside the footwear during 30 min at a temperature gradient of approximately 40 degrees C. It is questionable if a simple pass/fail test of this kind provides approved footwear that really protects the feet from cooling in exposures ranging from temperatures at +18 degrees C to as low as or even lower than -50 degrees C. This study selected for testing some professional footwear that could certainly not be considered as cold protective. Some footwear that could be used in cold was selected with as low insulation as the not cold-intended footwear. Also, a boot intended for cold was selected to be tested according to a modified standard at a temperature gradient of 70 degrees C. The footwear selection was based on insulation measurements with a thermal foot model. All footwear did pass the test. Although it is clear for the user that a sandal, a mesh shoe or a thin textile shoe is not cold protective, it is not as clear that an item of safety footwear, that has as low insulation as those mentioned above, could be classified as cold protective according to the present standards. Because of this, the user might have a deceptive feeling of safety and may be exposed to higher risks. As practically all professional footwear may pass this cold test, then the method/requirements should be radically changed or such a test should be removed from the standards.

  1. Safeguarding children in dentistry: 1. Child protection training, experience and practice of dental professionals with an interest in paediatric dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, J C; Elcock, C; Sidebotham, P D; Welbury, R R

    2009-04-25

    Following several highly publicised inquiries into the deaths of children from abuse and neglect, there has been much recent interest in the role and responsibility of all health professionals to protect children at risk of maltreatment. The findings of a postal questionnaire, sent in March 2005 to 789 dentists and dental care professionals with an interest in paediatric dentistry working in varied settings in the UK, are presented in a two-part report and discussed in the context of current multi-agency good practice in safeguarding and promoting the welfare of children. This first part explores reported child protection training, experience and practice. There was a significant gap between recognising signs of abuse and responding effectively: 67% of respondents had suspected abuse or neglect of a child patient at some time in their career but only 29% had ever made a child protection referral. The dental profession is alerted to the need to ensure necessary appropriate action to safeguard children is always taken when child abuse or neglect are suspected.

  2. The impact of training in solution-focused brief therapy on professional beliefs, practices and burnout of child protection workers in Tenerife island

    OpenAIRE

    Medina Machín, Antonio; Beyebach, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the first results of a large-scale research project on the child protection services in Tenerife, Spain. In Study 1, the professional beliefs and practices of 152 child protection workers, as measured by a Professional Beliefs and Practices Questionnaire (Medina & Beyebach, 2010), were correlated with their scores on the Maslach Burnout Inventory (Maslach, Jackson, & Leiter, 1996). Higher scores in a variety of deficit-based beliefs and practices were associated with highe...

  3. The Development of General Principles for EU Competition Law Enforcement - The protection of legal professional privilege

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frese, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the scope of the EU principle of legal professional privilege ('LPP') and the mechanisms for bottom-up integration. LPP refers to the confidential nature of certain written communications between lawyer and client. Bottom-up integration is the process whereby domestic legal

  4. Acceptability of the Predicting Abusive Head Trauma (PredAHT) clinical prediction tool: A qualitative study with child protection professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Laura E; Maguire, Sabine; Farewell, Daniel M; Quinn-Scoggins, Harriet D; Flynn, Matthew O; Kemp, Alison M

    2018-05-09

    The validated Predicting Abusive Head Trauma (PredAHT) tool estimates the probability of abusive head trauma (AHT) based on combinations of six clinical features: head/neck bruising; apnea; seizures; rib/long-bone fractures; retinal hemorrhages. We aimed to determine the acceptability of PredAHT to child protection professionals. We conducted qualitative semi-structured interviews with 56 participants: clinicians (25), child protection social workers (10), legal practitioners (9, including 4 judges), police officers (8), and pathologists (4), purposively sampled across southwest United Kingdom. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and imported into NVivo for thematic analysis (38% double-coded). We explored participants' evaluations of PredAHT, their opinions about the optimal way to present the calculated probabilities, and their interpretation of probabilities in the context of suspected AHT. Clinicians, child protection social workers and police thought PredAHT would be beneficial as an objective adjunct to their professional judgment, to give them greater confidence in their decisions. Lawyers and pathologists appreciated its value for prompting multidisciplinary investigations, but were uncertain of its usefulness in court. Perceived disadvantages included: possible over-reliance and false reassurance from a low score. Interpretations regarding which percentages equate to 'low', 'medium' or 'high' likelihood of AHT varied; participants preferred a precise % probability over these general terms. Participants would use PredAHT with provisos: if they received multi-agency training to define accepted risk thresholds for consistent interpretation; with knowledge of its development; if it was accepted by colleagues. PredAHT may therefore increase professionals' confidence in their decision-making when investigating suspected AHT, but may be of less value in court. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Kinship care in child protection : Norwegian and Portuguese professional social workers' expressed perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Sæbjørnsen, Siv Elin Nord

    2011-01-01

    Master's thesis in Social work This is a qualitative study and the data is collected through qualitative interviews with Norwegian and Portuguese social workers. The aims of the study is to explore the Norwegian and Portuguese social workers’ expressed perspectives with relevance to kinship care and to look for coherence between policies, professional perspectives and the current performance of the practice. Also this study aims to illuminate some of the most relevant current laws, poli...

  6. The American Association of Occupational Health Nurses' Respiratory Protection Education Program and Resources Webkit for Occupational Health Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompeii, Lisa; Byrd, Annette; Delclos, George L; Conway, Sadie H

    2016-12-01

    Organizations are required to adhere to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) Respiratory Protection Standard (29 CFR 1910.134) if they have workers that wear a respirator on the job. They must also have an employee "suitably trained" to administer their program. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health and its National Personal Protective Technology Laboratory have worked to champion the occupational health nurse in this role by collaborating with the American Association of Occupational Health Nurses to develop free, online respiratory protection training and resources (RPP Webkit). This article describes the development, content, and success of this training. To date, 724 participants have completed the training, 32.6% of whom lead their organization's respiratory protection program, 15.3% who indicated they will lead a program in the near future, and 52% who did not lead a program, but indicated that the training was relevant to their work. The majority "strongly agreed" the training was applicable to their work and it enhanced their professional expertise. © 2016 The Author(s).

  7. Security leader insights for information protection lessons and strategies from leading security professionals

    CERN Document Server

    Fahy, Bob

    2014-01-01

    How do you, as a busy security executive or manager, stay current with evolving issues, familiarize yourself with the successful practices of your peers, and transfer this information to build a knowledgeable, skilled workforce the times now demand? With Security Leader Insights for Information Protection, a collection of timeless leadership best practices featuring insights from some of the nation's most successful security practitioners, you can. This book can be used as a quick and effective resource to bring your security staff up to speed on security's role in information protection. I

  8. Education, training and continuous professional development in the radiological protection of patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, L.K.

    2001-01-01

    Education and training in the radiological protection of patients has to face many challenges. These stem from the interdisciplinary nature of the personnel involved, their varied backgrounds, the difficult to quantify risk and benefit considerations, concern for quality of the end product, changing attitudes as knowledge develops in fast growing areas of technology and the wide complexity of the equipment used. On the one hand there is a need for giving orientation about the medical exigencies and situations in clinical practice to the radiation protection regulators and, on the other, more and more clinicians without any training in radiation protection are getting involved in the use of high levels of radiation through angiographic procedures. It is hence no wonder that the deterministic effects of radiation have been observed in patients undergoing angiographic procedures. A review of the state of the art in education and training and identifying educational challenges is therefore needed. The medical training of physicians and support personnel in the health care use of ionizing or other radiation in patients is particularly challenging for many reasons, most of which are unique to health care. These include those described in the paper. (author)

  9. The Effects of Violence and Aggression From Parents on Child Protection Workers’ Personal, Family, and Professional Lives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Littlechild

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents findings from a survey of the experiences of child protection workers in England when working with parents who exhibit aggression and violence. This work explores the effects on workers in their professional lives, and on themselves and their families in their private lives. The article examines workers’ thoughts and experiences about the effects of parental hostility on workers’ ability to protect children. The article also details workers’ experiences of the nature and effectiveness of training and support in this area. These findings are then examined in the light of the results of an analysis of the literature, including the findings from serious case review (SCR reports in England (official inquiries into the causes of child deaths where the children are known to social and health services. The majority of the 590 respondents in the survey were social workers (n = 402; 68%, reflecting the fact that case management of child protection cases in the United Kingdom is the responsibility of social workers working in statutory agencies. This article addresses, from a consideration of the secondary analysis and the original research findings from the survey, how individual workers, managers, and agencies can best understand and then respond effectively to aggressive parental behaviors.

  10. Basic radiation protection education and training for medical professionals; Georgian experience and future perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todua, F.; Nadareishvili, D.; Ormotsadze, G.; Sanikidze, T.

    2016-01-01

    The level of knowledge provided by the Tbilisi State Medical University (TSMU) standard curriculum modules in 'Medical physics' and 'Radiation risk estimates' was assessed as was the learning outcome of modern standards elective course in 'Radiation protection'. Two groups of medical students were examined: Group 1: 5 y students, participants in elective course 'Radiobiology and radiogenic health risk' and Group 2: 1-2 y students, participants in winter and summer schools. Students were tested before and after training courses with the same tests questionnaire. The results of the tests showed the necessity for improvement of the educational curriculum. The changes needed are the inclusion of a basic radiobiological course in the curricula of the faculty of medicine and expansion of the medical physics course through a more detailed presentation of medical imaging methods. (authors)

  11. Presentation of the first career in Mexico of Technical Professional in Radiological Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vizuet G, J.; Suarez, G.; Corona Montes de Oca, J.; Arias C, M.

    2002-01-01

    The present educational project has the purpose to show the realized work for introducing the first career of Radiological Protection technician in Mexico. There for the developed activities concerning to the integration of the syllabus is described as well as those realized concerning to the participant teaching personnel training in summarized form. The syllabus has been developed with the purpose to fulfil with the training programs established by the Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, as well as those required by the Secretaria de Salud with respect to the fulfilment of the Normas Oficiales Mexicanas set, international recommendations and that suggested by the training guides emitted by the Direccion General de Capacitacion y Produccion of the Secretaria de Trabajo y Prevision Social. (Author)

  12. The radiological protection in technical-professional level in Mexico; La proteccion radiologica a nivel profesional-tecnico en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vizuet Gonzalez, Jorge; Suarez, Gerardo [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ), Mexico (Mexico). Dept. de Proteccion Radiologica; Corona Montes de Oca, Julia [Centro de Bachillerato Tecnologico ' Justo Sierra' , San Mateo Atenco (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    This work describes the work done in the implementation of an educational project which aims the formation of technical-professional in radiation protection (RP) with official recognition in Mexico. The constant growth of business activities related to the use of radioactive material in industry, medicine and research has required the development and implementation of standardization by the regulatory authorities of our country. However the advance with regards to training of specialized personnel is reduced in comparison to current needs. in our country there is no technical personnel with studies recognised by the regulatory body in this specialty (RP), however quality assurance programs currently require an educational training that will help to meet the standards in the various activities that develop in the use and handling of sources and ionizing radiation generating equipment, reason why it was developed and implemented this educational project. Additionally induce and promote the need for the peaceful use of nuclear energy and ionizing radiation, at the national level is one more reason to implement the programme at upper secondary level, with the purpose to have knowledge related to the topic. The technical course has a duration of six semesters (three years), and currently there are two generations of graduating. The plan of study consists of the required disciplines for upper secondary level more plus those corresponding to technological training in radiological protection.

  13. Revisión bibliográfica exploratoria sobre los criterios de aptitud en conductores profesionales con enfermedad psiquiátrica Literature review on the fitness criteria of professional drivers with mental disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Álava Urrburu

    2011-03-01

    accidents and mental disorders will be the main health problems in the first third of the XXI Century. The Spanish Law for drivers (RD 818/2009 Reglamento General de Conductores mentions the necessity of meeting certain psychophysical requirements to obtain a driving license. Psychological tests approved in Spain are: ASDE Driver Test N-845, 100 and Coordinator LNDETER 2000. Objectives: Investigate the driving ability of people with mental disorders and know the legal aspects of professional drivers' fitness assessment. Methods: We conducted a research in different databases, libraries and out of a collection of 909 articles, 17 of them were selected for full revision. Mental disorders were classified according to Spanish regulation for drivers into 11 groups. We selected 8, because we considered them to be the most relevant. Results: RD 818/2009 strictly regulates the fitness for work of patients with mental disorders. Around 80% of patients with mental disorders do not pass the fitness tests, unless they have few symptoms, or those patients who have a favourable psychiatrist or psychologist report. Conclusions: The Spanish Law for drivers mentions that driving limitations must be accredited by a specialized physician. There is not enough evidence of the sensitivity and specificity of psycho-technical tests used in detecting mental disorders. The patient has a moral duty to inform his doctor about his pathology if it implies danger for others, but there is not a legal obligation.

  14. Drivers for Welfare Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Innovation has become a key goal towards which teaching and workplace learning needs to be directed. Now perceived as germane and even necessary in almost all kinds of welfare work, the innovation potential in everyday practices and ways of allowing for employer creativity have become a highly...... on the empirical material, the paper proposes a ‘driver’ model for context sensitive research of innovation in welfare workplaces. The model involves three elements which can be regarded as drivers for innovation: i) craft (i.e. professional skills and knowledge), ii) levers (i.e. experiments and adjustment...

  15. Raising a beautiful swan: a phenomenological-hermeneutic interpretation of health professionals' experiences of participating in a mealtime intervention inspired by Protected Mealtimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Malene; Martinsen, Bente; Birkelund, Regner; Poulsen, Ingrid

    2017-12-01

    The British concept named Protected Mealtimes is known for stopping all non-acute activities and giving health professionals an opportunity to focus on providing patients their meals without being interrupted or disturbed. PM involves a cultural and behavioural change in the clinical setting, since health professionals are asked to adjust their daily routines. This study investigate how health professionals experience participating in a mealtime intervention inspired by the concept of Protected Mealtimes and intend to change mealtime practices. Three focus group interviews was conducted and included a total of 15 interdisciplinary staff members. After transcribing the interviews, the text material was analysed and interpreted in a three-methodological-step process inspired by the French philosopher Paul Ricoeur. In the analysis and interpretation three themes was identified. The themes were: (1) a chance towards a new and better scene; (2) a step towards a more neurologically friendly environment; and (3) a renewed view of the neurological patients. This study concludes that to the health professionals, the intervention was meaningful in several ways because it created structure during mealtimes and emphasized the importance of creating a calm environment for both patients and health professionals. The intervention was described as an eye-opening and well-regarded event in the field of neurological care that facilitated community, and reflections on nursing care and professional identity were expressed.

  16. The role and potentialities of the NRPI in the education of the health professionals and in the public information in the field of radiation protection in medical exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zackova, H.; Horakova, I.

    2008-01-01

    The attention is paid to the role of the National Radiation Protection Institute (NRPI) in the support of the education on the pregraduate and postgraduate level. On pregraduate level the NRPI is engaged in education of the students of the Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering (FNSPE) in the field of radiation protection and radiological physics. On the postgraduate level there is an important role of NRPI in the postgraduate education of the health professionals. This education can take advantage of the more than the thirty years cooperation between NRPI and IPVZ (Institute for postgraduate medical education). In the presentation the important data and experience of the courses of radiation protection organized for health professionals will be ShOWll. In the presentation there are also presented activities of the division of medical exposures of the NRPI, which are pointing to the public information. Some typical questions, which have been addressed to NRPI are brought forward and discussed. (authors)

  17. Impact Driver With Integral Sliding Hammer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Bilby J.

    1987-01-01

    Tool combines impact driver with sliding dead-blow hammer. Used for any purpose for which ordinary impact driver used; tightening fasteners or driving starter holes for drill. Tool protects user from accidental injury and surrounding equipment from damage that might occur from ordinary arm-wielded hammer. Especially useful in underwater work.

  18. An exploration of emotional protection and regulation in nurse-patient interactions: The role of the professional face and the emotional mirror.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecil, Penelope; Glass, Nel

    2015-01-01

    While interpersonal styles of nurse-patient communication have become more relaxed in recent years, nurses remain challenged in emotional engagement with patients and other health professionals. In order to preserve a professional distance in patient care delivery however slight, nurses need to be able to regulate their emotions. This research aimed to investigate nurses' perceptions of emotional protection and regulation in patient care delivery. A qualitative approach was used for the study utilising in-depth semi-structured interviews and researcher reflective journaling. Participants were drawn from rural New South Wales. Following institutional ethics approval 5 nurses were interviewed and reflective journaling commenced. The interviews and the reflective journal were transcribed verbatim. The results revealed that nurses' emotional regulation demonstrated by a 'professional face' was an important strategy to enable delivery of quality care even though it resulted in emotional containment. Such regulation was a protective mechanism employed to look after self and was critical in situations of emotional dissonance. The results also found that nurses experience emotional dissonance in situations where they have unresolved personal emotional issues and the latter was a individual motivator to manage emotions in the workplace. Emotions play a pivotal role within nurse-patient relationships. The professional face can be recognised as contributing to emotional health and therefore maintaining the emotional health of nurses in practice. This study foregrounds the importance of regulating emotions and nurturing nurses' emotional health in contemporary practice.

  19. Professional installation of overvoltage protection devices. The most common installation errors; Fachgerechte Installation von Ueberspannungsschutzgeraeten. Die haeufigsten Installationsfehler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gmelch, L. [Dehn und Soehne GmbH und Co. KG, Neumarkt (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Increasingly sensitive electronic equipment and high demands on plant and system availability necesstate effective protection against lightning and overvoltage. Apart from the measures that must be taken already in the projecting phase in order to minimize the risk of interferences, disturbances and destruction of plants and systems, there are also some basic principles that must be observed when installing overvoltage protection equipment. If these are neglected, the protective function of overvoltage protection systems may be seriously impaired. (orig.)

  20. Drivers for differences in dairy farmers perceptions of farm development strategies in an area with nature and landscape as protected public goods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Methorst, R.; Roep, D.; Verhees, F.; Verstegen, Jos

    2016-01-01

    Nature and landscape are increasingly appreciated as public goods and community assets in need of protection. Policy schemes aiming to protect vulnerable nature and landscape assets affect options for farm development and thus the opportunities for farm income strategies. Farmers as small business

  1. Hipertensão arterial e obesidade em motoristas profissionais de transporte de cargas Hipertensión arterial y obesidad en choferes profesionales de transporte de cargas Hypertension and obesity among professional drivers who work transporting loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Cesira Cavagioni

    2010-01-01

    : Odds ratio, IC: intervalo de confianza de 95% con: aumento del índice de masa corporal (OR=1,183 IC 1,065-1,314; glucemia (OR=1,039 IC 1,004-1,076; y hábito de ingerir medicamentos para inhibir el sueño (OR= 0,322 IC 0,129-0,801. CONCLUSIÓN: Entre los profesionales fue expresiva la presencia de hipertensión arterial, sobrepeso y obesidad.OBJECTIVES: To verify the prevalence of hypertension and obesity among professional freight truck drivers and associate them with studied variables. METHODS: It is a cross-sectional study covering a sample of 258 professional freight truck drivers, traveling on the highway BR-116, on the Regis Bittencourt portion, in Sao Paulo state. RESULTS: Drivers were young adults (37.5±10 years, 19% were smokers, 55% reported drinking alcohol, 74% were sedentary, 57% used sleep-inhibiting drugs; they traveled an average of 800 km/day and drove 10 hours/day. The prevalence of hypertension was 37%, 46% were overweight, 36% were obese and 58% had high waist circumference. The logistic regression analysis indicated that hypertension was associated (OD: Odds ratio, CI: confidence interval 95% with: increased body mass index (OR = 1.183 CI 1.065 to 1.314; blood glucose (OR = 1.039 CI 1.004 to 1.076; and habit of using drugs that inhibit sleep (OR = 0.322 CI 0.129 to 0.801. CONCLUSION: Among professionals was significant the presence of hypertension, overweight and obesity.

  2. Radiation protection practices and related continuing professional education in dental radiography: A survey of practitioners in the North-east of England

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, Ceri; Grange, Stuart; Trevor, Margaret M.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To establish the level of implementation of recommendations from the National Radiological Protection Board, relating to best radiation protection practice in dental radiography within general dental practices in the North-east of England. To survey the opinion of practitioners on the availability of related post-graduate courses in the region. Methods: A postal survey in the form of a self-reported questionnaire was mailed to all practices in the North-east of England in November 2000. The questionnaire, consisting of closed and open-ended questions, was to be completed where possible by the resident radiation protection supervisor. Results: Two hundred and sixteen practices responded to the questionnaire, a response rate of 53%. The survey revealed variation in the standards of application of best radiation protection practice. Some 23% of practitioners had not attended any post-graduate courses on radiation protection since qualifying. Post-graduate education provision on radiation protection in the region was considered insufficient by 51% of respondents. Conclusions: It is concluded that a significant proportion of practices were not making full use of opportunities to reduce dose to their patients. In addition, a small number of practices had untrained staff acting as the Radiation Protection Supervisor. A significant proportion of practitioners had not been updated in radiation protection practices within a 5-year period, and this may account for the failure to implement best radiographic practice. Over half felt that there was insufficient availability of post-graduate courses in radiation protection. The regional provision of continuing professional education in this field may need development

  3. Psychosocial risk and protective factors for the health and well-being of professionals working in emergency and non-emergency medical transport services, identified via questionnaires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro Moya, P; González Carrasco, M; Villar Hoz, E

    2017-09-06

    Medical transport (MT) professionals are subject to considerable emotional demands due to their involvement in life-or-death situations and their exposure to the serious health problems of their clients. An increase in the demand for MT services has, in turn, increased interest in the study of the psychosocial risk factors affecting the health of workers in this sector. However, research thus far has not distinguished between emergency (EMT) and non-emergency (non-EMT) services, nor between the sexes. Furthermore, little emphasis has been placed on the protective factors involved. The main objective of the present study is to identify any existing differential exposure - for reasons of work setting (EMT and non-EMT) or of gender - to the various psychosocial risk and protective factors affecting the health of MT workers. Descriptive and transversal research with responses from 201 professionals. The scores obtained on the various psychosocial scales in our study - as indicators of future health problems - were more unfavourable for non-EMT workers than they were for EMT workers. Work setting, but not gender, was able to account for these differences. The scores obtained for the different psychosocial factors are generally more favourable for the professionals we surveyed than those obtained in previous samples. The significant differences observed between EMT and non-EMT personnel raise important questions regarding the organization of work in companies that carry out both services at the same time in the same territory. The relationships among the set of risk/protective factors suggests a need for further investigation into working conditions as well as a consideration of the workers' sense of coherence and subjective well-being as protective factors against occupational burnout syndrome.

  4. Extending the baseline of tropical dry forest loss in Ghana (1984–2015) reveals drivers of major deforestation inside a protected area

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, T; Ametsisi, G; Collins, M; Adu-Bredu, S; Oliveras-Menor, I; Mitchard, ETA; Veenendaal, EM

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Tropical dry forests experience the highest deforestation rates on Earth, with major implications for the biodiversity of these ecosystems, as well as for its human occupants. Global remote sensing based forest cover data (2000 − 2012) point to the rapid loss of tropical dry forest in South America and Africa, also, if not foremost, inside formally protected areas. Here, we significantly extend the baseline of tropical dry forest loss inside a protected area in Ghana using a generali...

  5. Susceptibility (risk and protective) factors for in-patient violence and self-harm: prospective study of structured professional judgement instruments START and SAPROF, DUNDRUM-3 and DUNDRUM-4 in forensic mental health services.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Abidin, Zareena

    2013-01-01

    The START and SAPROF are newly developed fourth generation structured professional judgement instruments assessing strengths and protective factors. The DUNDRUM-3 and DUNDRUM-4 also measure positive factors, programme completion and recovery in forensic settings.

  6. 29 CFR 541.504 - Drivers who sell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... DELIMITING THE EXEMPTIONS FOR EXECUTIVE, ADMINISTRATIVE, PROFESSIONAL, COMPUTER AND OUTSIDE SALES EMPLOYEES Outside Sales Employees § 541.504 Drivers who sell. (a) Drivers who deliver products and also sell such products may qualify as exempt outside sales employees only if the employee has a primary duty of making...

  7. Examination of Supplemental Driver Training and Online Basic Driver Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    This report describes supplemental driver training programs and online basic driver education. It coves supplemental driver training that : focused on knowledge and skills beyond those normally found in traditional driver education delivered in the U...

  8. Position of the American Dietetic Association: dietetics professionals can implement practices to conserve natural resources and protect the environment. (Previously titled "natural resource conservation and waste management").

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-10-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association to encourage environmentally responsible practices that conserve natural resources, minimize the quantity of waste that is generated, and have the least adverse affect on the health of all living organisms and the environment. All components of the food system, from farmer to consumer, are affected by the availability and cost of energy and the availability and quality of water. Outdoor and indoor air quality significantly impacts the health of all living organisms. Decisions that dietetics professionals make as practitioners and consumers can affect the quantity and type of solid waste generated. The demand for natural resources should be evaluated when selecting the most cost-effective, environmentally sensitive approach to the management of solid waste. Special precautions are needed when using and disposing of hazardous and medical waste to protect the safety of our clients and employees. This position paper provides information and resources for dietetics professionals for addressing the complexity of the environmental issue presented. Conservation strategies are identified that dietetics professionals can use in their worksites and at home. These conservation practices may reduce cost and decrease the environmental impact we have on our communities and the world.

  9. Evaluating Older Drivers' Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Research has demonstrated that older drivers pose a higher risk of involvement in fatal crashes at intersections than : younger drivers. Age-triggered restrictions are problematic as research shows that the majority of older people : have unimpaired ...

  10. Online driver's license renewal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The Kentucky Department of Vehicle Regulation is exploring the possibility of developing and implementing online : drivers license renewal. The objective of this project was to: 1) evaluate online drivers license and REAL ID renewal : programs ...

  11. Radiation protection and certification of health professionals in Brazil; Proteção radiológica e certificação de profissionais da saúde no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luz, C.P.V. Castro; Sá, L.V.; Delgado, J.U., E-mail: camille@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Radiation protection has three pillars: justification, optimization and dose limitation. The safe use of ionizing radiation is established by the dose limits resulting from exposure of the public and worker, justification and optimization for medical exposures. In Brazil, there are at least 200,000 professionals working in medical facilities involving the use of ionizing radiation. There are standards of radiation protection that establish the obligation of performance of professionals certified in the facilities through criteria pre-established in Specific Norms. Certification in radiation protection assesses the skills, knowledge and skills of professionals. A detailed research, classification and analysis of the requirements required by the regulatory body for professional performance in this area was carried out, as well as the skills and abilities required by the radiation protection standards in force in the country. The results obtained demonstrated that the certification process of these professionals aims at higher quality and optimization of the medical procedures performed. The direct beneficiaries of this process would be practitioners themselves and patients of medical practices involving the use of ionizing radiations. Certifying health care professionals in radiation protection would meet the demand for national standards and that require a performance control of those involved in medical treatments using ionizing radiations.

  12. Hygienic assessment of professional risk for worker, involved in application of pesticides and tank mixtures in chemical protection of strawberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinchenko T.I.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available When using tank mixtures and pesticides in chemical crop protection systems there exists danger of simultaneous or sequential action of ingredients. It was established that the combined potential risk of the harmful effects of Torero SC preparation on workers is 0.11-0.30 arb.units, Switch 62.5 WG – 0.054-0,065 arb.units, tank mixture 1 – 0.26-0.51 arb.units, tank mixture 2 – 0.26-0.49 arb.units correspondently and does not exceed the allowable value of risk (<1. The combined risk in sequential application of components of chemical protection system of strawberry exceeds allowable values of risk and is 0.954-2.02 arb.units. Ways of occupational risk decrease were proposed and regulations of safe application of tank mixtures and pesticides in chemical protection of strawberry were substantiated.

  13. Older drivers : a review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hakamies-Blomqvist, L. Sirén, A. & Davidse, R.J.

    2004-01-01

    The proportion of senior citizens (aged 65+) will grow from about 15 per cent in the year 2000 to about 30 per cent in the year 2050. The share of older drivers in the driver population will grow even faster because of increasing licensing rates among the ageing population. Older drivers do not have

  14. Exploring drivers for safe male circumcision: Experiences with health education and understanding of partial HIV protection among newly circumcised men in Wakiso, Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon P S Kibira

    Full Text Available About 2.5 million men have voluntarily been circumcised since Uganda started implementing the WHO recommendation to scale up safe male circumcision to reduce HIV transmission. This study sought to understand what influences men's circumcision decisions, their experiences with health education at health facilities and their knowledge of partial HIV risk reduction in Wakiso district.Data were collected in May and June 2015 at five public health facilities in Wakiso District. Twenty-five in-depth interviews were held with adult safe male circumcision clients. Data were analysed using thematic network analysis.Safe male circumcision decisions were mainly influenced by sexual partners, a perceived need to reduce the risk of HIV/STIs, community pressure and other benefits like hygiene. Sexual partners directly requested men to circumcise or indirectly influenced them in varied ways. Health education at facilities mainly focused on the surgical procedure, circumcision benefits especially HIV risk reduction, wound care and time to resumption of sex, with less focus on post-circumcision sexual behaviour. Five men reported no health education. All men reported that circumcision only reduces and does not eliminate HIV risk, and could mention ways it protects, although some extended the benefit to direct protection for women and prevention of other STIs. Five men thought social marketing messages were 'misleading' and feared risk compensation within the community.Participants reported positive community perception about safe male circumcision campaigns, influencing men to seek services and enabling female partners to impact this decision-making process. However, there seemed to be gaps in safe male circumcision health education, although all participants correctly understood that circumcision offers only partial protection from HIV. Standard health education procedures, if followed at health facilities offering safe male circumcision, would ensure all

  15. Protective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wessam M. Abdel-Wahab

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Many active ingredients extracted from herbal and medicinal plants are extensively studied for their beneficial effects. Antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging properties of thymoquinone (TQ have been reported. The present study evaluated the possible protective effects of TQ against the toxicity and oxidative stress of sodium fluoride (NaF in the liver of rats. Rats were divided into four groups, the first group served as the control group and was administered distilled water whereas the NaF group received NaF orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 4 weeks, TQ group was administered TQ orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 5 weeks, and the NaF-TQ group was first given TQ for 1 week and was secondly administered 10 mg/kg/day NaF in association with 10 mg/kg TQ for 4 weeks. Rats intoxicated with NaF showed a significant increase in lipid peroxidation whereas the level of reduced glutathione (GSH and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione S-transferase (GST and glutathione peroxidase (GPx were reduced in hepatic tissues. The proper functioning of the liver was also disrupted as indicated by alterations in the measured liver function indices and biochemical parameters. TQ supplementation counteracted the NaF-induced hepatotoxicity probably due to its strong antioxidant activity. In conclusion, the results obtained clearly indicated the role of oxidative stress in the induction of NaF toxicity and suggested hepatoprotective effects of TQ against the toxicity of fluoride compounds.

  16. La transmission des savoirs professionnels à la Protection Judiciaire de la Jeunesse On the transmission of professional know-how at the Judicial Protection of Youth. Temporalities in conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Malochet

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available L’analyse de la prise de fonction des directeurs de service de la Protection Judiciaire de la Jeunesse permet de repérer deux instances majeures de transmission, auxquelles correspondent des ordres de légitimité concurrentiels : le groupe professionnel au sens large (légitimité professionnelle et l’institution (légitimité politique. Là où ces modes de transmission étaient encore entremêlés il y a peu, ils coexistent désormais sans se reconnaître. L’enjeu apparaît bien, pour les professionnels de la PJJ – et singulièrement pour les directeurs –, de négocier une posture adéquate aux contraintes de la situation. Cela ne va bien sûr pas sans difficultés. Pour l’essentiel, celles-ci résident dans la pluralité des temporalités auxquelles doivent faire face les directeurs. Vis-à-vis de leurs équipes et de leurs pairs, la situation est celle d’un processus de socialisation professionnelle classique. En revanche, la crise institutionnelle que traverse la PJJ confronte les directeurs à une temporalité politique qui s’impose à eux sans qu’ils aient la moindre prise sur elle (montée des discours sécuritaires et des mesures répressives. Enfin, le renouvellement générationnel au sein des services de la Pjj pèse sur les modalités de transmission des savoirs professionnels. La culture professionnelle autrefois homogène se fissure, le désarroi des nouvelles recrues s’accroît et le référent éducatif perd de sa dimension mobilisatrice. Ces temporalités (professionnelle, institutionnelle, générationnelle ne sont certes pas nouvelles. Ce qui pose question, c’est plutôt leur absence de recouvrementet les conséquences de cette situation sur la prise en charge des mineurs délinquants ou en danger.Analyzing the moment when Directors at the Judicial Protection of Youth (PJJ take up their post allows us to track down two major sources of transmission, to which competing orders of legitimacy correspond

  17. Sleep quality in long haul truck drivers: A study on Iranian national data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khosro Sadeghniiat-Haghighi

    2016-08-01

    Conclusion: Results obtained from the current study showed a high prevalence of poor quality of sleep among professional drivers. It warrants more attention to this significant problem using some measures to improve working conditions in professional drivers, as well as health promotion interventions.

  18. National Driver Register (NDR) -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Information regarding individuals who have had their driver licenses revoked, suspended or otherwise denied for cause, or who have been convicted of certain traffic...

  19. Ten steps or climbing a mountain: a study of Australian health professionals' perceptions of implementing the baby friendly health initiative to protect, promote and support breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmied, Virginia; Gribble, Karleen; Sheehan, Athena; Taylor, Christine; Dykes, Fiona C

    2011-08-31

    The Baby Friendly Hospital (Health) Initiative (BFHI) is a global initiative aimed at protecting, promoting and supporting breastfeeding and is based on the ten steps to successful breastfeeding. Worldwide, over 20,000 health facilities have attained BFHI accreditation but only 77 Australian hospitals (approximately 23%) have received accreditation. Few studies have investigated the factors that facilitate or hinder implementation of BFHI but it is acknowledged this is a major undertaking requiring strategic planning and change management throughout an institution. This paper examines the perceptions of BFHI held by midwives and nurses working in one Area Health Service in NSW, Australia. The study used an interpretive, qualitative approach. A total of 132 health professionals, working across four maternity units, two neonatal intensive care units and related community services, participated in 10 focus groups. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Three main themes were identified: 'Belief and Commitment'; 'Interpreting BFHI' and 'Climbing a Mountain'. Participants considered the BFHI implementation a high priority; an essential set of practices that would have positive benefits for babies and mothers both locally and globally as well as for health professionals. It was considered achievable but would take commitment and hard work to overcome the numerous challenges including a number of organisational constraints. There were, however, differing interpretations of what was required to attain BFHI accreditation with the potential that misinterpretation could hinder implementation. A model described by Greenhalgh and colleagues on adoption of innovation is drawn on to interpret the findings. Despite strong support for BFHI, the principles of this global strategy are interpreted differently by health professionals and further education and accurate information is required. It may be that the current processes used to disseminate and implement BFHI need to be

  20. Ten steps or climbing a mountain: A study of Australian health professionals' perceptions of implementing the baby friendly health initiative to protect, promote and support breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheehan Athena

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Baby Friendly Hospital (Health Initiative (BFHI is a global initiative aimed at protecting, promoting and supporting breastfeeding and is based on the ten steps to successful breastfeeding. Worldwide, over 20,000 health facilities have attained BFHI accreditation but only 77 Australian hospitals (approximately 23% have received accreditation. Few studies have investigated the factors that facilitate or hinder implementation of BFHI but it is acknowledged this is a major undertaking requiring strategic planning and change management throughout an institution. This paper examines the perceptions of BFHI held by midwives and nurses working in one Area Health Service in NSW, Australia. Methods The study used an interpretive, qualitative approach. A total of 132 health professionals, working across four maternity units, two neonatal intensive care units and related community services, participated in 10 focus groups. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Results Three main themes were identified: 'Belief and Commitment'; 'Interpreting BFHI' and 'Climbing a Mountain'. Participants considered the BFHI implementation a high priority; an essential set of practices that would have positive benefits for babies and mothers both locally and globally as well as for health professionals. It was considered achievable but would take commitment and hard work to overcome the numerous challenges including a number of organisational constraints. There were, however, differing interpretations of what was required to attain BFHI accreditation with the potential that misinterpretation could hinder implementation. A model described by Greenhalgh and colleagues on adoption of innovation is drawn on to interpret the findings. Conclusion Despite strong support for BFHI, the principles of this global strategy are interpreted differently by health professionals and further education and accurate information is required. It may be that the

  1. Evaluation of awareness on radiation protection and knowledge about radiological examinations in healthcare professionals who use ionized radiation at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurt, Ayşegül; Cavuşoğlu, Berrin; Günay, Türkan

    2014-06-01

    In this study, we evaluated the knowledge and perception and mitigation of hazards involved in radiological examinations, focusing on healthcare personnel who are not in radiation-related occupations, but who use ionising radiation as a part of their work. A questionnaire was applied to physicians, nurses, technicians and other staff working in different clinics that use radiation in their work, in order to evaluate their knowledge levels about ionizing radiation and their awareness about radiation doses resulting from radiological examinations. The statistical comparisons between the groups were analyzed with the Kruskal Wallis test using the SPSS program. Ninety two participants took part in the study. Their level of knowledge about ionizing radiation and doses in radiological examinations were found to be very weak. The number of correct answers of physicians, nurses, medical technicians and other personnel groups were 15.7±3.7, 13.0±4.0, 10.1±2.9 and 11.8±4.0, respectively. In the statistical comparison between the groups, the level of knowledge of physicians was found to be significantly higher than the level of the other groups (p=0.005). The present study demonstrated that general knowledge in relation to radiation, radiation protection, health risks and doses used for radiological applications are insufficient among health professions using with ionizing radiation in their work.

  2. Young novice drivers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2013-01-01

    In The Netherlands, young novice drivers (18-24 years of age) show a crash rate that is five times higher than that of experienced drivers (30-59 years of age). The rate of young males is even seven times as high. The main reasons are lack of driving experience and hazardous behaviour typical of

  3. Criteria for driver impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brookhuis, K.A.; De Waard, D.; Fairclough, S.H

    2003-01-01

    Most traffic accidents can be attributed to driver impairment, e.g. inattention, fatigue, intoxication, etc. It is now technically feasible to monitor and diagnose driver behaviour with respect to impairment with the aid of a limited number of in-vehicle sensors. However, a valid framework for the

  4. A Simple Wave Driver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temiz, Burak Kagan; Yavuz, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    This study was done to develop a simple and inexpensive wave driver that can be used in experiments on string waves. The wave driver was made using a battery-operated toy car, and the apparatus can be used to produce string waves at a fixed frequency. The working principle of the apparatus is as follows: shortly after the car is turned on, the…

  5. Evaluation of knowledge and practice of professionals in radiology, in patient protection, in X-ray examinations in collective environments and in a improving quality of service through training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Rogerio Ferreira da

    2014-01-01

    When there is exposure to ionizing radiation, the probability of developing a stochastic effect increases, and one of the most feared stochastic effects is cancer. Calculations made from data obtained with the population of Hiroshima, showed that these effects have not dose threshold. So it is impossible predict that a specific dose value, will lead to damages and therefore, doses must always be limited. Medical exposures have contributed to the increase in dose received by the populations of countries like Brazil. This is because there was an increase in interventional procedures using ionizing radiation. What has concerned researchers since, many companies did not fit the standards of radiation protection. The proper use of personal protective equipment reduces the exposure of patients and professionals. Trained and knowledgeable of the rules are able to choose the shielding for each type of procedure. So we evaluated the knowledge and radiology professional practice, in protection of patients, who can not be removed from the environment in sinus X-rays and check if the training improves the quality of this service. It was concluded that there is deficiency in knowledge of the rules and failures in protection of patients, and that training with regard to radiological protection increases the level of theoretical knowledge of the professionals involved, and improve their practices with respect to protection, reducing the doses and minimizing the risks involved in medical exposures

  6. 29 CFR 782.4 - Drivers' helpers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... interstate or foreign commerce, because, in the case of an accident or other emergency and in other respects... accidents occur, they help the driver in obtaining aid and protect the vehicle from oncoming traffic. (c) In... commerce within the meaning of the Motor Carrier Act. (Ispass v. Pyramid Motor Freight Corp., 152 F. (2d...

  7. Chemical composition, traditional and professional use in medicine, application in environmental protection, position in food and cosmetics industries, and biotechnological studies of Nasturtium officinale (watercress) - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimek-Szczykutowicz, Marta; Szopa, Agnieszka; Ekiert, Halina

    2018-05-28

    The herb of Nasturtium officinale is a raw material that has long been used in the traditional medicine of Iran, Azerbaijan, Morocco and Mauritius. Nowadays, this raw material is the object of numerous professional pharmacological studies that have demonstrated its antioxidant, anticancer, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and cardioprotective properties. These therapeutic effects are caused by glucosinolates present in the plant, isothiocyanates, polyphenols (flavonoids, phenolic acids, proanthocyanidins), terpenes (including carotenoids), vitamins (B1, B2, B3, B6, E, C) and bioelements. The article presents the current state of phytochemical research on the generative and vegetative organs of aboveground parts. A special spotlight is put on the main N. officinale secondary metabolites - glucosinolates. Attention is drawn to the important position of N. officinale in the production of healthy foods and in the production of cosmetics. A large part of the article is devoted to the importance of this species in phytoremediation processes used in the protection of soil environments and water reservoirs. The biotechnological research on this species has also been reviewed. Those studies are of particular importance not only due to the attractiveness of this species in phytotherapy and cosmetology, but also due to the deteriorating natural state of this species and the threat of extinction. The aim of this review is to promote N. officinale as a very valuable species, not yet fully discovered by global medicine. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. German taxi drivers' experiences and expressions of driving anger: Are the driving anger scale and the driving anger expression inventory valid measures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandenburg, Stefan; Oehl, Michael; Seigies, Kristin

    2017-11-17

    The objective of this article was 2-fold: firstly, we wanted to examine whether the original Driving Anger Scale (DAS) and the original Driving Anger Expression Inventory (DAX) apply to German professional taxi drivers because these scales have previously been given to professional and particularly to nonprofessional drivers in different countries. Secondly, we wanted to examine possible differences in driving anger experience and expression between professional German taxi drivers and nonprofessional German drivers. We applied German versions of the DAS, the DAX, and the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI) to a sample of 138 professional German taxi drivers. We then compared their ratings to the ratings of a sample of 1,136 nonprofessional German drivers (Oehl and Brandenburg n.d. ). Regarding our first objective, confirmatory factor analysis shows that the model fit of the DAS is better for nonprofessional drivers than for professional drivers. The DAX applies neither to professional nor to nonprofessional German drivers properly. Consequently, we suggest modified shorter versions of both scales for professional drivers. The STAXI applies to both professional and nonprofessional drivers. With respect to our second objective, we show that professional drivers experience significantly less driving anger than nonprofessional drivers, but they express more driving anger. We conclude that the STAXI can be applied to professional German taxi drivers. In contrast, for the DAS and the DAX we found particular shorter versions for professional taxi drivers. Especially for the DAX, most statements were too strong for German drivers to agree to. They do not show behaviors related to driving anger expression as they are described in the DAX. These problems with the original American DAX items are in line with several other studies in different countries. Future investigations should examine whether (professional) drivers from further countries express their anger

  9. Driver behavior in traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    Existing traffic analysis and management tools do not model the ability of drivers to recognize their environment and respond to it with behaviors that vary according to the encountered driving situation. The small body of literature on characterizin...

  10. General oilfield driver improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, G.

    1997-01-01

    The general oilfield driver improvement (GODI) course was discussed. The course is offered to truckers in the oil and gas industry to help reduce accidents and injuries. Oilfield trucking is one of the most accident and injury prone sectors in the Alberta economy. This paper presented Heck's Trucking company's experience in sending its employees on the course. Drivers were taught (1) the National safety code requirements, (2) Commercial Vehicle Safety Alliance requirements, (3) occupational health and safety concerns, (4) vehicle dimension and GVW restrictions, (5) hours of service regulations, (6) log book and pre-trip inspection requirements, (7) workplace hazardous material information, and (8) transportation of dangerous goods. Overall, the course was judged to provide excellent training before sending drivers into the field. The employee, the customer, and the company, all stand to benefit from having rigorous and uniform standards for all drivers in the oil and gas industry

  11. Internet driver education study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    Incorporating technology through online courses, including drivers education (DE), is the wave of the future for : learning. While many states allow online DE as an accepted method of learning, Wisconsin currently only allows it on a : limited bas...

  12. VD-411 branch driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbunov, N.V.; Karev, A.G.; Mal'tsev, Eh.I.; Morozov, B.A.

    1985-01-01

    The VD-411 branch driver for CAMAC moduli control by the SM-4 computer is described. The driver realizes data exchange with moduli disposed in 28 crates grouped in 4 branches. Data exchange can be carried out either in the program regime or in the regime of direct access to the memory. Fulfilment of 11 block regimes and one program regime is provided for. A possibility of individual programming of exchange methods in block regimes is left for users for organisation of quicker and most flexible data removal from the CAMAC moduli. In the regime of direct access the driver provides data transmission at the size up to 64 Kwords placing it in the computer memory of 2 M byte. High rate of data transmission and the developed system of interruptions ensure efficient utilization of the VD-411 branch driver at data removal from facilities in high energy physics experiments

  13. OLDER DRIVERS AND ADAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragnhild J. DAVIDSE

    2006-01-01

    Next, based on the available literature, relevant ADAS are discussed in terms of their availability, their effects on safety and the willingness of older drivers to use and buy them. One of the conclusions is that only very few of the types of support that are thought to be most beneficial to the safety of older drivers are provided by the ADAS that are currently available.

  14. Acoustic Levitation With One Driver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, T. G.; Rudnick, I.; Elleman, D. D.; Stoneburner, J. D.

    1985-01-01

    Report discusses acoustic levitation in rectangular chamber using one driver mounted at corner. Placement of driver at corner enables it to couple effectively to acoustic modes along all three axes. Use of single driver reduces cost, complexity and weight of levitation system below those of three driver system.

  15. Characteristics of Chinese Driver Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, J.

    2014-01-01

    The high growth rate of vehicle ownership and many novel drivers in China determine the special features of Chinese driver behavior. This thesis introduces a comparative study on driver behavior by the analysis of saturation flow at urban intersections, Driver Behavior Questionnaire surveys, focus

  16. Radiation protection for humans and environment. 50 years competence in the professional association; Strahlenschutz fuer Mensch und Umwelt. 50 Jahre Kompetenz im Fachverband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucher, Benno [Eidgenoessisches Nuklearsicherheitsinspektorat, Brugg (Switzerland); Wilhelm, Christoph (ed.) [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technology (KIT), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The conference proceedings of the IRPA (International radiation protection association) annual meeting 2016 contain the contribution of invited referents, other contributions and poster contributions concerning radiation protection in nuclear facilities, radiation protection of the public and environment, radioactive waste management, uranium mining, environmental monitoring, natural radioactivity, and radiation protection laws and regulations.

  17. AORN sales professional course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, R; Thompson, J

    1996-04-01

    The sales professional course "Introduction to the Operating Room" offered by the AORN Center for Nursing Practice, Health Policy, and Research is an introductory program in OR etiquette. Its purpose is to provide sales professionals a working knowledge of OR protocol for them to function appropriately in OR settings. Sales professionals who have completed this course establish mutually beneficial perioperative partnerships with OR personnel. Sales professionals' effectiveness is strengthened as a result of their newly acquired knowledge of OR protocol, and patient safety is protected. An AORN Certificate of Recognition is awarded on completion of the course.

  18. Schoolbus driver performance can be improved with driver training, safety incentivisation, and vehicle roadworthy modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A van Niekerk

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In South Africa (SA, the school transport industry provides millions of children with a means of travelling to and from school. The industry has, however, been reported to be plagued by widespread safety concerns. The consequent road traffic incidents have often been attributed to driver factors, including driving in excess of legal speeds or at inappropriate speeds; driving while under the influence of alcohol, while sleepy or fatigued; or driving without using protective equipment for vehicle occupants. There are currently very few SA interventions that specifically target this important industry role-player. The Safe Travel to School Programme was recently implemented by a national child safety agency, with a focus on driver road safety awareness, defensive driver training, eye- testing, vehicle roadworthy inspections with selected upgrades, incentives for safe performance, and implementation of a vehicle telematics tracking system with regular, individual driving behaviour information updates. This quasi-experimental study offers an evaluation of the initial impact on safety performance of this telematics-based driver and vehicle safety intervention in terms of speeding, acceleration, braking, cornering, and time-of-day driving, and compares the school transport driver performance with that of general motorists. Despite concerns that some school transport vehicles are used for multiple purposes outside of school transport duties, at night, and for longer distances, overall these vehicles recorded lower percentages of speeding, lower harsh braking, and lower average harsh cornering and acceleration than general drivers.

  19. Globalisation, economics and professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chay-Hoon; Macneill, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the effect of globalisation and attendant economic factors on the global practice of medicine, medical education, medical ethics and medical professionalism. The authors discuss the implications of these trends, citing case scenarios in the healthcare insurance, medical tourism, pharmaceutical industries, and the educational systems as well as in clinical practice, to illustrate the impact of globalisation and economics on professionalism. Globalisation, on the one hand, offers benefits for the global practice of medicine and for medical education. On the other, globalisation can have negative effects, particularly when the main driver is to maximise profitability across national boundaries rather than concern for human well-being. Appraising the effect of globalisation on professionalism involves assessing its effects at the intrapersonal, interpersonal, and institutional levels, and its effect on society at large.

  20. How to Train Safe Drivers: Setting Up and Evaluating a Fatigue Training Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamos Giannis

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue is considered as a serious risk driving behavior, causing road accidents, which in many cases involve fatalities and severe injuries. According to CARE database statistics, professional drivers are indicated as a high-risk group to be involved in a fatigue-related accident. Acknowledging these statistics, a training program on driving fatigue was organized, aiming at raising awareness of professional drivers of a leading company in building materials, in Greece. Selected experimental methods were used for collecting data before and after the training program, which allowed monitoring and assessing the potential behavioural changes. A questionnaire survey was conducted before the program implementation to 162 drivers of the company, while two months after the program, the same drivers replied to a second questionnaire. Impact assessment of the program relied on statistical analysis of the responses. Results showed the degree of penetration of the training program in the professional drivers' behavior towards safe driving.

  1. Inertial confinement fusion driver enhancements: Final focusing systems and compact heavy-ion driver designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieri, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    Required elements of an inertial confinement fusion power plant are modeled and discussed. A detailed analysis of two critical elements of candidate drivers is done, and new component designs are proposed to increase the credibility and feasibility of each driver system. An analysis of neutron damage to the final elements of a laser focusing system is presented, and multilayer -- dielectric mirrors are shown to have damage lifetimes which axe too short to be useful in a commercial power plant. A new final-focusing system using grazing incidence metal mirrors to protect sensitive laser optics is designed and shown to be effective in extending the lifetime of the final focusing system. The reflectivities and damage limits of grazing incidence metal mirrors are examined in detail, and the required mirror sizes are shown to be compatible with the beam sizes and illumination geometries currently envisioned for laser drivers. A detailed design and analysis is also done for compact arrays of superconducting magnetic quadrupoles, which are needed in a multi-beam heavy-ion driver. The new array model is developed in more detail than some previous conceptual designs and models arrays which are more compact than arrays scaled from existing single -- quadrupole designs. The improved integrated model for compact arrays is used to compare the effects of various quadrupole array design choices on the size and cost of a heavy-ion driver. Array design choices which significantly affect the cost of a heavy-ion driver include the choice of superconducting material and the thickness of the collar used to support the winding stresses. The effect of these array design choices on driver size and cost is examined and the array model is used to estimate driver cost savings and performance improvements attainable with aggressive quadrupole array designs with high-performance superconductors

  2. Schoolbus driver performance can be improved with driver training ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and compares the school transport driver performance with that of general motorists. Despite concerns that ... To compare Safe Travel to School Programme driver safety perfor- .... The SA government has recognised the challenges faced with.

  3. Selected risk factors of diabetes mellitus among road transport drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinkiewicz, Andrzej; Szosland, Dorota

    2010-01-01

    Road transport drivers are one of the professional groups whose activities have a strong impact on public safety. In view of the nature of their professional activity, the drivers are at a higher risk of obesity and hypertension, and thus, indirectly, of carbohydrate metabolism disorders such as diabetes mellitus. Medical documentation was a source of data for the reported study. It derived from medical examinations of truck and bus drivers applying for the new category II driving licence or for prolongation of the one they already had. Excessive body weight was recorded in 62.6% of the study population; 45.3% had overweight and 17.4% were diagnosed with obesity. Hypertension was noted in the medical records of 36.7% drivers. The prevalence of abnormal BP values was increasing with age. Overweight was found to be a risk factor for hypertension. Hyperglycaemia was found in 47.5% of the drivers and was also increasing with age. In road transport drivers, the high prevalence of excessive body weight and elevated arterial blood pressure as the risk factors for diabetes indicates a need to undertake multidimensional actions targeted on this particular profession and involving various health care sectors. Prophylactic and detailed pre-placement examinations should be considered, depending on the rate and intensity of the disorders diagnosed. This should be coupled with an introduction of primary and secondary prophylactic activities and monitoring of relevant treatment. A close collaboration with the patient's GP is necessary.

  4. SCALE system driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrie, L.M.

    1984-01-01

    The SCALE driver was designed to allow implementation of a modular code system consisting of control modules, which determine the calculation path, and functional modules, which perform the basic calculations. The user can either select a control module and have that module determine the execution path, or the user can select functional modules directly by input

  5. Simulators in driver training.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    In 2010, about 150 driving simulators were being used for the basic driver training in the Netherlands. According to theories about how people learn, simulator training has both advantages and disadvantages. In order to be able to learn something from a simulator, its technical quality must be

  6. Space Age Driver Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Walter W.

    1970-01-01

    Describes experimental Driver and Traffic Safety Education Center--a project involving a five-phase instructional program, a variety of teaching innovations, and a specially-constructed facility which includes a classroom building, multiple car driving range, simulators, communications equipment, and the most recent electronic teaching devices.…

  7. Beginning teenage drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Teen drivers have the highest crash risk of any age group. Per mile traveled, they have the highest involvement rates in all types of crashes, from those involving only property damage to those that are fatal. The problem is worst among 16 year-olds,...

  8. Abiding by codes of ethics and codes of conduct imposed on members of learned and professional geoscience institutions and - a tiresome formality or a win-win for scientific and professional integrity and protection of the public?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allington, Ruth; Fernandez, Isabel

    2015-04-01

    In 2012, the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) formed the Task Group on Global Geoscience Professionalism ("TG-GGP") to bring together the expanding network of organizations around the world whose primary purpose is self-regulation of geoscience practice. An important part of TG-GGP's mission is to foster a shared understanding of aspects of professionalism relevant to individual scientists and applied practitioners working in one or more sectors of the wider geoscience profession (e.g. research, teaching, industry, geoscience communication and government service). These may be summarised as competence, ethical practice, and professional, technical and scientific accountability. Legal regimes for the oversight of registered or licensed professionals differ around the world and in many jurisdictions there is no registration or licensure with the force of law. However, principles of peer-based self-regulation universally apply. This makes professional geoscience organisations ideal settings within which geoscientists can debate and agree what society should expect of us in the range of roles we fulfil. They can provide the structures needed to best determine what expectations, in the public interest, are appropriate for us collectively to impose on each other. They can also provide the structures for the development of associated procedures necessary to identify and discipline those who do not live up to the expected standards of behaviour established by consensus between peers. Codes of Ethics (sometimes referred to as Codes of Conduct), to which all members of all major professional and/or scientific geoscience organizations are bound (whether or not they are registered or hold professional qualifications awarded by those organisations), incorporate such traditional tenets as: safeguarding the health and safety of the public, scientific integrity, and fairness. Codes also increasingly include obligations concerning welfare of the environment and

  9. Obstacles to engaging in young driver licensing: Perspectives of parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naz, Sehana; Scott-Parker, Bridie

    2017-02-01

    Young novice drivers remain at greater risk of injury and death despite a wealth of interventions including graduated driver licensing (GDL) programs. The key to implementing safer practices inherent in GDL appears to lie with optimising the role of parents. This qualitative research explored the parent's perspectives of obstacles to engaging in the driver licensing process within a GDL program. Parents also shared advice on what they found helpful, and where relevant, recommended changes in the process to enable safer practices for young drivers. Twenty-three parents (aged 35-60 years, M=49.52, SD=8.01, 11 males) participated in semi-structured interviews regarding licensing experiences with their young driver children. The young drivers included learner (n=11), provisional (restricted/intermediate) (n=9) and open (unrestricted/full) licence drivers (n=3), ranging from 16 to 24 years (M=18.04, SD=2.21, 13 males). Content analysis revealed that most obstacles were encountered at the learner licensing phase, with the parent-reported difficult temperament of the learner driver the most prominent. Unsurprisingly, advice to other parents to be patient and remain calm featured heavily during the same phase. Anxiety from not having control of the vehicle was another obstacle at the learner phase, translating to anxieties for child safety in the early stages of provisional driving. Recommendations for the current GDL included more rigorous road rule testing, with general support for the program, professional driver training at learner and provisional stages facilitated parental engagement through the licensing phases. The findings overwhelmingly suggest a need for parents to be educated regarding their importance in, and of, the driver licensing process, and the efficacy of their instruction, content and practices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Turning movements, vehicle offsets and ageing drivers driving behaviour at channelized and unchannelized intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jaisung; Tay, Richard; Kim, Sangyoup; Jeong, Seungwon

    2017-11-01

    Ageing drivers experience a higher risk of intersection crashes because of their decrease in driving efficiency, including the decline in cognitive ability, head and neck flexibility, and visual acuity. Although several studies have been conducted to examine the factors associated with ageing driver crashes at intersections, little research has been conducted to examine the differences in the factors related to ageing drivers' turning paths and intersection geometric features. This study aims to improve the safety of ageing drivers at intersections by identifying the maneuvers that are risky for them and tracking their turning movements at selected intersections. We find that ageing drivers experience more crashes at intersections than younger drivers, especially crashes involving turning movements. Furthermore, ageing drivers experience more crashes at unchannelized intersections compared to channelized intersections. In addition, this study finds that ageing drivers exhibit greater and more inconsistent offsets during turning movements compared to those of younger drivers at both channelized and unchannelized intersections. Ageing drivers also tend to make relatively sharper or tighter turns than younger drivers. Hence, transportation engineers and road safety professionals should consider appropriate countermeasures to reduce the risks of crashes involving ageing drivers at intersections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The impact of bus drivers ’ lifestyle on the occurrence of health problems and absenteeism

    OpenAIRE

    Andrej Jerman; Maja Meško

    2016-01-01

    Research Question: Do bus drivers’ lifestyles affect the occurrence of health problems and absenteeism? Purpose: The purpose of the study was to determine whether the lifestyle of professional bus drivers affects the occurrence of health problems and the phenomenon of absenteeism. Method: A quantitative research method was used in the research. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire, on a sample of 230 professional bus drivers from differ...

  12. Effects of fog, driver experience and gender on driving behavior on S-curved road segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaomeng; Yan, Xuedong; Wong, S C

    2015-04-01

    Driving on curved roads has been recognized as a significant safety issue for many years. However, driver behavior and the interactions among variables that affect driver performance on curves is complicated and not well understood. Previous studies have investigated various factors that influence driver performance on right- or left-turn curves, but have paid little attention to the effects of foggy weather, driver experience and gender on driver performance on complex curves. A driving simulator experiment was conducted in this study to evaluate the relationships between driving behavior on a continuous S-curve and foggy weather, driver experience and gender. The process of negotiating a curve was divided into three stages consisting of a straight segment, the transition from the straight segment to the S-curve and the S-curve. The experimental results indicated that drivers tended to drive more cautiously in heavy fog, but the driving risk was still increased, especially in the transition stage from the straight segment to the S-curve. The non-professional (NP) drivers were less sensitive to the impending change in the road geometry, and less skilled in both longitudinal and lateral vehicle control than the professional drivers. The NP female drivers in particular were found to be the most vulnerable group in S-curve driving. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. An examination of the environmental, driver and vehicle factors associated with the serious and fatal crashes of older rural drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, J P; Baldock, M R J; Mathias, J L; Wundersitz, L N

    2013-01-01

    Motor vehicle crashes involving rural drivers aged 75 years and over are more than twice as likely to result in a serious or fatal injury as those involving their urban counterparts. The current study examined some of the reasons for this using a database of police-reported crashes (2004-2008) to identify the environmental (lighting, road and weather conditions, road layout, road surface, speed limit), driver (driver error, crash type), and vehicle (vehicle age) factors that are associated with the crashes of older rural drivers. It also determined whether these same factors are associated with an increased likelihood of serious or fatal injury in younger drivers for whom frailty does not contribute to the resulting injury severity. A number of environmental (i.e., undivided, unsealed, curved and inclined roads, and areas with a speed limit of 100km/h or greater) and driver (i.e., collision with a fixed object and rolling over) factors were more frequent in the crashes of older rural drivers and additionally associated with increased injury severity in younger drivers. Moreover, when these environmental factors were entered into a logistic regression model to predict whether older drivers who were involved in crashes did or did not sustain a serious or fatal injury, it was found that each factor independently increased the likelihood of a serious or fatal injury. Changes, such as the provision of divided and sealed roads, greater protection from fixed roadside objects, and reduced speed limits, appear to be indicated in order to improve the safety of the rural driving environment for drivers of all ages. Additionally, older rural drivers should be encouraged to reduce their exposure to these risky circumstances. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Reflection and Professional Identity Development in Design Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracey, Monica W.; Hutchinson, Alisa

    2018-01-01

    Design thinking positions designers as the drivers of the design space yet academic discourse is largely silent on the topic of professional identity development in design. Professional identity, or the dynamic narratives that individuals construct and maintain to integrate their personal qualities with professional responsibilities, has not been…

  15. Automobile Driver Fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enev Miro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Today’s automobiles leverage powerful sensors and embedded computers to optimize efficiency, safety, and driver engagement. However the complexity of possible inferences using in-car sensor data is not well understood. While we do not know of attempts by automotive manufacturers or makers of after-market components (like insurance dongles to violate privacy, a key question we ask is: could they (or their collection and later accidental leaks of data violate a driver’s privacy? In the present study, we experimentally investigate the potential to identify individuals using sensor data snippets of their natural driving behavior. More specifically we record the in-vehicle sensor data on the controllerarea- network (CAN of a typical modern vehicle (popular 2009 sedan as each of 15 participants (a performed a series of maneuvers in an isolated parking lot, and (b drove the vehicle in traffic along a defined ~ 50 mile loop through the Seattle metropolitan area. We then split the data into training and testing sets, train an ensemble of classifiers, and evaluate identification accuracy of test data queries by looking at the highest voted candidate when considering all possible one-vs-one comparisons. Our results indicate that, at least among small sets, drivers are indeed distinguishable using only incar sensors. In particular, we find that it is possible to differentiate our 15 drivers with 100% accuracy when training with all of the available sensors using 90% of driving data from each person. Furthermore, it is possible to reach high identification rates using less than 8 minutes of training data. When more training data is available it is possible to reach very high identification using only a single sensor (e.g., the brake pedal. As an extension, we also demonstrate the feasibility of performing driver identification across multiple days of data collection

  16. Driver feedback mobile APP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soriguera Marti, F.; Miralles Miquel, E.

    2016-07-01

    This paper faces the human factor in driving and its consequences for road safety. It presents the concepts behind the development of a smartphone app capable of evaluating drivers’ performance. The app provides feedback to the driver in terms of a grade (between 0 and 10) depending on the aggressiveness and risks taken while driving. These are computed from the cumulative probability distribution function of the jerks (i.e. the time derivative of acceleration), which are measured using the smartphones’ accelerometer. Different driving contexts (e.g. urban, freeway, congestion, etc.) are identified applying cluster analysis to the measurements, and treated independently. Using regression analysis, the aggressiveness indicator is related to the drivers' safety records and to the probability of having an accident, through the standard DBQ - Driving Behavior Questionnaire. Results from a very limited pilot test show a strong correlation between the 99th percentile of the jerk measurements and the DBQ results. A linear model is fitted. This allows quantifying the safe driving behavior only from smartphone measurements. Finally, this indicator is translated into a normalized grade and feedback to the driver. This feedback will challenge the driver to train and to improve his performance. The phone will be blocked while driving and will incorporate mechanisms to prevent bad practices, like competition in aggressive driving. The app is intended to contribute to the improvement of road safety, one of the major public health problems, by tackling the human factor which is the trigger of the vast majority of traffic accidents. Making explicit and quantifying risky behaviors is the first step towards a safer driving. (Author)

  17. Education and driver-training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Justinek

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of the driver are manifested in his/her behaviour. For safe driving one must have a driver's knowledge. The contents of educational material are determined by law, and are both theoretical and practical, yet frequently they do not suffice to meet the requirements of safe driving. In this paper, the author suggests that, in the training of drivers, more educational elements should be included, such a would have  an effective influence on the driver's moti ves and attitudes. The driver's motives - which may result in incorrect driving­ are diverse: most often, the default is overspeeding, even though the drivers always over-estimate the potential time gain. In fact, over-fast driving is a way of satisfying other, different needs; and, above all, it is a form of compensation for unsettled life problems, and at the same time an indication of the driver's personal inability to cope with stress.

  18. Sudden illness while driving a vehicle--a retrospective analysis of commercial drivers in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitosugi, Masahito; Gomei, Sayaka; Okubo, Takao; Tokudome, Shogo

    2012-01-01

    We performed a retrospective analysis of commercial drivers to clarify the background of incidents of sudden illness while driving. The analysis used reports submitted by employers to the Japan Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport, and Tourism regarding commercial drivers who had been ordered to stop driving owing to health problems. Of 211 cases with an average work history of 15.2 years, there were 88 bus drivers, 70 taxi drivers, and 53 truck drivers, 36.0% of who had died as a result of their disease. Among taxi and truck drivers, more than 70% of incidents were due to cardiac, aortic, and cerebrovascular disease. More than 80% of these were unable to avoid traffic accidents caused by sudden illness. However, among bus drivers, cardiac, aortic, and cerebrovascular disease accounted for only 23.5% of incidents, and accidents were avoided in more than half of the cases. The duration between starting work and the incident time was significantly shorter among bus drivers [mean 3.3 hours, standard deviation (SD) 3.1] than taxi (7.7 hours, SD 5.8) and truck (7.2 hours, SD 6.3) drivers (Pprevent disabling events while driving. As a precaution, physicians should advise commercial drivers to stop driving as soon as they detect slight discomfort. To prevent accidents, more assertive health promotion aimed at professional drivers is needed.

  19. "Because Uni Is Totally Different than What You Do at TAFE": Protective Strategies and Provisions for Diploma Students Traversing Their First Professional Experience Placement at University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Fay; Andrews, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Students who enrol in a Bachelor of Education (Early Childhood Education) at the Institute of Early Childhood, Macquarie University, with a Diploma in Children's Services attained from a Technical and Further Education (TAFE) institution or a Registered Training Organisation (RTO) often experience challenges in their first professional experience…

  20. Fighting against a shortage of truck drivers in logistics: Measures that employers can take to promote drivers' work ability and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, Ulrike; Lohaus, Daniela; Christmann, Alina; Woitschek, Michèle

    2017-01-01

    For several years, the transportation industry has been concerned about a severe shortage of professional truck drivers. Studies investigating the reasons found that poor working conditions and stresses and strains resulting from physiological and psychological job demands have had a negative impact on drivers' health and ability to work. Nevertheless, until now, most employers have refrained from offering measures to support the work ability and well-being of drivers, mainly due to financial pressures in the industry. The present study was aimed at designing adequate and affordable measures to support drivers' health. With reference to the Work Ability Index and the house of work ability (Ilmarinen & Tuomi, 2004), 56 truck drivers participated in guided interviews about their working conditions and health-related problems as well as their attitudes, experiences, and desires with respect to being offered supportive measures by their employers. The measures derived are specific and realizable and expected to be widely accepted by professional drivers. They are designed to elicit a positive attitude in the drivers toward exercising and to help them overcome related psychological barriers. The implementation of the recommended measures can be expected to support drivers' work ability and help reduce the frictional costs of their employers.

  1. Teen Drivers' Perceptions of Their Peer Passengers: Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsani, Johnathon P; Haynie, Denise L; Luthers, Christina; Perlus, Jessamyn; Gerber, Eli; Ouimet, Marie Claude; Klauer, Sheila G; Simons-Morton, Bruce

    The presence of peer passengers increases teenage drivers' fatal crash risk. Distraction and social influence are the two main factors that have been associated with increased risk. Teen drivers' perceptions of their peer passengers on these factors could inform our understanding of the conditions under which peer passengers increase crash risk or promote safer driving. The purpose of this study was to examine teen drivers' perceptions of their peer passengers on distraction and social influence. A convenience sample of male and female drivers participated in a semi-structured interview that included questions on their perceptions of the effects of peer passengers on driving on distraction and social influence. The analysis of the interviews was guided by a grounded theory approach. Teenage drivers were aware of the risk that peer passengers posed. Some described having passengers in the vehicle as distracting, and recognized that the level of distraction increased with the number of passengers in the vehicle. Drivers that felt responsible for the safety of their peer passengers described strategies they used to control the in-vehicle environment. Drivers described driving with passengers as a performance, and articulated direct and indirect sources of pressure, gender norms, and unspoken expectations of their passengers as influencing their driving behavior. The influence of passengers is situation specific and dependent on whom the passenger(s) may be. Passenger influence may be either protective or harmful, depending on the circumstances. Some passengers exert direct influence, but often their influence appears more indirect and subtle.

  2. Heavy ion driver technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.

    1988-09-01

    Major differences between fusion drivers and traditional accelerators include the following. The final beam current needed (/approximately/20 kA in a short pulse) is very much larger for a driver; such beams are dominated by repulsive space-charge effects since, even at 10 GeV, the ions are non-relativistic (v/c = 0.3). Also, the optical quality of the beams (called emittance by accelerator people) must be extremely good to ensure a suitably small focal spot at the pellet. Two schemes, one with a rf linac and storage rings, the other with a single-pass current-amplifying induction linac, are under study, the latter exclusively in the US. The induction linac approach lends itself to an examination in a sequence of scaled-down laboratory experiments since the most difficulties are expected to occur at the low energy end. Experiments and simulation have centered on a study of the transverse and longitudinal control of space-charge-dominated beams which are best described in terms of a non-neutral plasma rather than the traditional single-particle dynamics picture. An understanding of the high-current instability limits is required for arriving at a safe driver design. The final on-target beam current is so high that it must be carried in 16 separate focusing channels leading into the combustion chamber. While the energy deposition of the ions is expected to be entirely classical, there is a wealth of plasma physics phenomena to be explored (by theory and simulation) in the final propagation of these beams through the low-density gas in the chamber and in the environment of the hot target; it is important that none of these could result in a significant portion of the beam missing the focal spot. 13 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  3. Global drivers, sustainable manufacturing and systems ergonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemieniuch, C E; Sinclair, M A; Henshaw, M J deC

    2015-11-01

    This paper briefly explores the expected impact of the 'Global Drivers' (such as population demographics, food security; energy security; community security and safety), and the role of sustainability engineering in mitigating the potential effects of these Global Drivers. The message of the paper is that sustainability requires a significant input from Ergonomics/Human Factors, but the profession needs some expansion in its thinking in order to make this contribution. Creating a future sustainable world in which people experience an acceptable way of life will not happen without a large input from manufacturing industry into all the Global Drivers, both in delivering products that meet sustainability criteria (such as durability, reliability, minimised material requirement and low energy consumption), and in developing sustainable processes to deliver products for sustainability (such as minimum waste, minimum emissions and low energy consumption). Appropriate changes are already being implemented in manufacturing industry, including new business models, new jobs and new skills. Considerable high-level planning around the world is in progress and is bringing about these changes; for example, there is the US 'Advanced Manufacturing National Program' (AMNP)', the German 'Industrie 4.0' plan, the French plan 'la nouvelle France industrielle' and the UK Foresight publications on the 'Future of Manufacturing'. All of these activities recognise the central part that humans will continue to play in the new manufacturing paradigms; however, they do not discuss many of the issues that systems ergonomics professionals acknowledge. This paper discusses a number of these issues, highlighting the need for some new thinking and knowledge capture by systems ergonomics professionals. Among these are ethical issues, job content and skills issues. Towards the end, there is a summary of knowledge extensions considered necessary in order that systems ergonomists can be fully

  4. Driver Distraction in Public Transport

    OpenAIRE

    YOUNG, K; SALMON, P; REGAN MICHAEL, M

    2007-01-01

    There is converging evidence that driver distraction is a contributing factor in car crashes, in Australia and overseas. Surprisingly, no known previous research has attempted to identify and assess the potentially distracting activities undertaken by the drivers of public passenger vehicles. This paper describes research undertaken on this issue. The research was partitioned into three phases: an analysis of the functions and tasks currently undertaken by public passenger vehicle drivers; th...

  5. [Health reasons for work disability among municipal transport drivers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szubert, Zuzanna; Sobala, Wojciech

    2005-01-01

    municipal transport system is the risk factor responsible for the development of serious diseases such as musculoskeletal disorders and neoplasms. Bearing this in mind, this occupational group (bus and tram drivers) should be covered by specially designed prevention programs to protect them against these pathologies, turning special attention to health promotion at and outside workplace.

  6. Availability of driver's license master lists for use in government-sponsored public health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Matthew C; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Palta, Mari

    2011-06-15

    Although the percentage of US drivers with valid driver's licenses varies from state to state, it has historically been high enough to constitute a useful sampling frame for many public health purposes. Over the past decade, states have had to restrict access to this information to comply with the Driver's Privacy Protection Act (18 U.S.C. 2721-2725). In 2009 and 2010, the authors conducted a survey of all 50 states on the availability of master lists of licensed drivers to be used to contact citizens of each state for research purposes. A hypothetical situation requiring driver's license data was sent to each state's responsible government agency for review. In addition, the authors collected data on opt-out mechanisms available to drivers, costs to researchers, and additional state privacy policies pertaining to driver's license files. A total of 42 states (84%) responded; 16 (32%) states allowed access to data, 4 (8%) states were unable to respond to the hypothetical situation, and 22 (44%) states denied access to data. A total of 74,697,574 records were available from the 16 states providing driver's license data. Although the Driver's Privacy Protection Act has restricted access to data on licensed drivers, these data are still an available resource in many states.

  7. The impact of bus drivers ’ lifestyle on the occurrence of health problems and absenteeism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Jerman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: Do bus drivers’ lifestyles affect the occurrence of health problems and absenteeism? Purpose: The purpose of the study was to determine whether the lifestyle of professional bus drivers affects the occurrence of health problems and the phenomenon of absenteeism. Method: A quantitative research method was used in the research. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire, on a sample of 230 professional bus drivers from different bus transport companies in Slovenia. Selected data were analyzed with chi-square test and multiple regression analysis. Results: We determined that there is a relationship between the state of health of professional bus drivers and participation in sport activity and that there is a statistically significant impact of lifestyle on the absenteeism of professional bus drivers. Organization: The study points to the necessity of management’s awareness to improve the conditions for the health status of employees and, consequently, absenteeism. Managers need to be more vigilant in ensuring conditions and social security that will allow employees a higher quality lifestyle. Society: The poor quality lifestyle of professional bus drivers, which includes different addictions, inadequate physical activity, and poor working conditions, is a significant factor causing absenteeism. All these factors influence the onset of negative consequences, such as the direct cost of compensation payments, costs of replacing the absent person, a reduction in productivity, which in turn affect economic growth and the high cost of health care. Originality: This is the first focus group study of professional bus drivers that targets lifestyle and its connection to absenteeism. Limitations/Future Research: The main limitation of the study is the number of respondents. The reason for this is that professional drivers are less responsive in the survey and that the study was conducted only in Slovenia, country of two

  8. Psychosocial characteristics of drunk drivers assessed by the Addiction Severity Index, prediction of relapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubicka, Beata; Laurell, Hans; Bergman, Hans

    2010-02-01

    To investigate psychosocial characteristics and problems of a representative sample of Swedish drunk drivers with special consideration of the gender of the driver; analyze criminal records of the drivers before and after enrollment in the study; identify psychosocial predictors of relapse to drunk driving. Psychosocial characteristics were assessed by the Addiction Severity Index (ASI). Alcohol problems were additionally assessed by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Criminal records were collected for the five year period before the enrollment, and for the subsequent two years, from Sweden's official crime statistics. About half of the investigated drivers had other psychosocial problems besides the drink driving offence. Female drivers had more alcohol, drug, psychiatric and relational problems, including with parents when growing up, than male drivers, but less previous and subsequent criminality. Heavily drunk drivers (blood alcohol concentration > or = 0.1%) had more problems with alcohol, legal status and employment and support than the other drunk drivers. Problems with legal status, family and social relations and alcohol use increased the risk of relapse in drunk driving, while medical problems seemed to be a protective factor. Different ASI risk factors were identified for relapse in either traffic offences or other crimes. As well as the drunk driving offence, drunk drivers often have other psychosocial problems, female drivers in particular. Already the blood alcohol concentration per se gives some indication of the psychosocial problem profile of a drunk driver and the ASI profile has some prognostic value for relapse in drunk driving.

  9. Valide measurements and quality consulting are the basis for making professional and proper decisions in radiation protection. A task for the NLWKN as a state authority for measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueggemeyer, H.

    2016-01-01

    The NLWKN has as the official measuring point of the country Lower Saxony a long-standing experience in the measuring-technical in radiation protection and in the supply this information for different target groups. Some knowledge derived from this work is introduced here.

  10. Driver training in steps (DTS).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    For some years now, it has been possible in the Netherlands to follow a Driver Training in Steps (DTS) as well as the regular driver training. The DTS is a structured training method with clear training objectives which are categorized in four modules. Although the DTS is considerably better than

  11. Drivers and Interpretations of Doctoral Education Today: National Comparisons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andres, Lesley; Bengtsen, Søren Smedegaard; Castano, Liliana Del Pilar Gallego

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, doctoral education has undergone a sea change with several global trends increasingly apparent. Drivers of change include massification and professionalization of doctoral education and the introduction of quality assurance systems. The impact of these drivers, and the forms...... that they take, however, are dependent on doctoral education within a given national context. This paper is frontline in that it contributes to the literature on doctoral education by examining the ways in which these global trends and drivers are being taken up in policies and practices by various countries. We...... do so by comparing recent changes in each of the following countries: Canada, Colombia, Denmark, Finland, the UK, and the USA. Each country case is based on national education policies, policy reports on doctoral education (e.g., OECD and EU policy texts), and related materials. We use the same...

  12. Petrochemical industry drivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedriks, W.

    1995-01-01

    Extensive analyses of profit-ability and pricing over the years have shown that the trends seen in the petrochemical industry have two dominant drivers, namely, industry experience curves (reflecting continuous process improvement and cost savings) and profitability cycles. Any outlook for the future must examine both of these facets. The author's algorithm for price projections has two primary terms: a cost-related one and a supply/demand-related one. Both are strong functions of experience curves; the latter is also a prime function of cyclicality. At SRI International. To arrive at medium-term quantitative projections, SRI typically creates a consistent base-case scenario that more or less mirrors the past but also incorporates observed directional changes. In this article the author examines in detail how these scenarios are used for projection. He describes experience curves, ethylene/gross domestic product (GDP) penetration levels, industry structure, and cyclicality as they apply to ethylene prices

  13. Drivers of Collaborative Advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weihe, Gudrid

    processes and behavioural dimensions is practically non-existent. This article tries to remedy the current gap in the literature by reviewing research findings on interfirm collaboration (alliances). On that basis a conceptual framework for analyzing partnership processes is developed. Finally......, the antecedents of collaborative advantage are theoretically examined, and the organizational competences contributing to collaborative success are identified. The conclusion is that operational processes and social dynamics are vital drivers of collaborative advantage. Another significant conclusion...... is that public management research can benefit from drawing upon existing alliance research. Alliance scholars have during the past couple of decades accumulated an impressive amount of knowledge on different aspects of inter-firm cooperation, and therefore the learning potential for public management scholars...

  14. Alternate laser fusion drivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pleasance, L.D.

    1979-11-01

    One objective of research on inertial confinement fusion is the development of a power generating system based on this concept. Realization of this goal will depend on the availability of a suitable laser or other system to drive the power plant. The primary laser systems used for laser fusion research, Nd 3+ : Glass and CO 2 , have characteristics which may preclude their use for this application. Glass lasers are presently perceived to be incapable of sufficiently high average power operation and the CO 2 laser may be limited by and issues associated with target coupling. These general perceptions have encouraged a search for alternatives to the present systems. The search for new lasers has been directed generally towards shorter wavelengths; most of the new lasers discovered in the past few years have been in the visible and ultraviolet region of the spectrum. Virtually all of them have been advocated as the most promising candidate for a fusion driver at one time or another

  15. Work fatigue in urban bus drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Makowiec-Dąbrowska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bus drivers are a special group of professional drivers who are at a very high risk of fatigue. The aim of the study was to examine whether the driver’s subjective assessment of fatigue allows for the determination of its level and identification of its causes. Material and Methods: The study group comprised 45 randomly selected bus drivers (mean age – 43.7±7.9 years, period of employment as drivers – 14.7±8.6 years. Examinations were performed in all subjects four times – before and after work on the “easy” route (outside the city center, small traffic intensity and before and after work on the “difficult” route (city center, heavy traffic. The fatigue test questionnaire, based on the list of symptoms of fatigue prepared by the Japan Research Committee of Fatigue, was used in the study. Results: The rating of fatigue after the work was significantly higher than that before the work. The profile of fatigue after work was not influenced by the type of route, but the assessment of most symptoms of fatigue reached a higher level after the “difficult” routes and the differences were statistically significant for 7 symptoms. Only the ratings of leg fatigue, feeling of heaviness, and the necessity to squint eyes and gaze with effort reached the higher levels after driving the “easy” routes. It has been found that the level of fatigue was significantly correlated with the job characteristics (driving time, the length of the route, number of stops, etc. and with the abundance of food ingested and type of beverage (coffee vs. others drunk prior to driving. Conclusions: The questionnaire used in our study to assess the subjective feeling of fatigue has proved to be a sensitive and useful tool for indicating the level and causes of fatigue. The relationship between the symptoms of fatigue and the characteristics of job and lifestyle shows that actions must be taken by both the employers and employees to prevent fatigue

  16. A holistic perspective on corporate sustainability drivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lozano, R.

    2013-01-01

    Since company boards are increasingly discussing 'sustainability', it becomes necessary to examine the nature of sustainability drivers. Most approaches to corporate sustainability drivers have focused either on internal or external drivers. This paper is aimed at providing a more holistic

  17. A holistic perspective on corporate sustainability drivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lozano, Rodrigo|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/36412380X

    2015-01-01

    Since company boards are increasingly discussing 'sustainability', it becomes necessary to examine the nature of sustainability drivers. Most approaches to corporate sustainability drivers have focused either on internal or external drivers. This paper is aimed at providing a more holistic

  18. Professional Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    WaterSense recognizes certification programs for irrigation professionals that meet the specification criteria. Certification programs cover three areas: irrigation system design, installation and maintenance, and system auditing.

  19. Mobility and safety issues in drivers with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, David B; O'Neill, Desmond

    2015-10-01

    Although automobiles remain the mobility method of choice for older adults, late-life cognitive impairment and progressive dementia will eventually impair the ability to meet transport needs of many. There is, however, no commonly utilized method of assessing dementia severity in relation to driving, no consensus on the specific types of assessments that should be applied to older drivers with cognitive impairment, and no gold standard for determining driving fitness or approaching loss of mobility and subsequent counseling. Yet, clinicians are often called upon by patients, their families, health professionals, and driver licensing authorities to assess their patients' fitness-to-drive and to make recommendations about driving privileges. We summarize the literature on dementia and driving, discuss evidenced-based assessments of fitness-to-drive, and outline the important ethical and legal concerns. We address the role of physician assessment, referral to neuropsychology, functional screens, dementia severity tools, driving evaluation clinics, and driver licensing authority referrals that may assist clinicians with an evaluation. Finally, we discuss mobility counseling (e.g. exploration of transportation alternatives) since health professionals need to address this important issue for older adults who lose the ability to drive. The application of a comprehensive, interdisciplinary approach to the older driver with cognitive impairment will have the best opportunity to enhance our patients' social connectedness and quality of life, while meeting their psychological and medical needs and maintaining personal and public safety.

  20. Regional drivers of on-farm energy production in Bavaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaffer, Axel; Düvelmeyer, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Bavaria's energy policy seeks to increase the share of power supply from renewable sources related to on-farm energy production (agricultural biogas, wind- and solar energy) from currently 15% to more than 30% in 2021. It is therefore of particular interest for policy-makers to identify regional drivers of and barriers to this concept. The presented study addresses this issue and applies a spatial regression analysis to Bavaria’s 71 rural counties. The findings indicate significant impacts of technological regional transformation ability, agricultural structure (degree of professionalization and consolidation of organic farming) and neighborhood effects. This is in contrast to most geographical factors, which seem to be of minor relevance. - Highlights: •Energy transition is largely carried by farmers’ adoption of renewable energy (RE). •Adoption of RE generally follows an s-shaped diffusion curve. •Drivers are regions’ transformation ability and professionalization of agriculture. •Adoption of RE conflicts with organic farming.

  1. Decree of the State Office for Nuclear Safety No. 146/1997 of 18 June 1997 specifying activities which have an immediate impact on nuclear safety, and activities which are particularly important with respect to radiation protection, requirements for qualification and professional training, procedures for examining special professional competence and for granting certificates to selected personnel, and the scope and structure of documentation to be approved for permitting the training of selected personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The Decree specifies requirements in the following fields: (a) activities which have an immediate impact on nuclear safety and activities which are particularly important with respect to radiation protection; (b) requirements for the qualification of selected personnel; (c) requirements for professional training of selected personnel of nuclear facilities and selected personnel handling ionizing radiation sources who are to gain special professional competence; (d) examination commission; (e) examination of special professional competence of selected personnel of nuclear facilities and selected personnel handling ionizing radiation sources; (f) granting permission to perform activities of selected personnel; and (g) scope and structure of documentation required to permit professional training of selected personnel of nuclear facilities and selected personnel handling ionizing radiation sources. (P.A.)

  2. 49 CFR 380.503 - Entry-level driver training requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... countermeasures as a means to avoid crashes. (c) Driver wellness. Basic health maintenance including diet and exercise. The importance of avoiding excessive use of alcohol. (d) Whistleblower protection. The right of...

  3. Heavy-ion driver design and scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieri, R.; Monsler, M.; Meier, W.; Stewart, L.

    1992-01-01

    Parametric models for scaling heavy-ion driver designs are described. Scaling of target performance and driver cost is done for driver parameters including driver energy, number of beams, type of superconductor used in focusing magnets, maximum magnetic field allowed at the superconducting windings, linear quadrupole array packing fraction mass, and ion charge state. The cumulative accelerator voltage and beam currents are determined from the Maschke limits on beam current for each choice of driver energy and post-acceleration pulse duration. The heavy-ion driver is optimized over the large available driver parameter space. Parametric studies and the choice of a base driver model are described in a companion paper

  4. Look-ahead driver feedback and powertrain management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Rajeev [Eaton Corporation, Menomonee Falls, WI (United States)

    2014-12-31

    Commercial medium and heavy vehicles, though only a small portion of total vehicle population, play a significant role in energy consumption. In 2012, these vehicles accounted for about 5775.5 trillion btu of energy consumption and 408.8 million tons of CO2 emissions annually, which is a quarter of the total energy burden of highway transportation in the United States [1]. This number is expected to surpass passenger car fuel use within the next few decades. In the meantime, most commercial vehicle fleets are running at a very low profit margin. It is a well known fact that fuel economy can vary significantly between drivers, even when they operate the same vehicle on the same route. According to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Natural Resource Canada (NRCan), there is up to 35% fuel economy difference between drivers within the same commercial fleet [2] [3], [4]. Similar results were obtained from a Field Operation Test conducted by Eaton Corporation [5]. During this test as much as 30% fuel economy difference was observed among pick-up-and-delivery drivers and 11% difference was observed among line-haul drivers. The driver variability can be attributed to the fact that different drivers react differently to driving conditions such as road grade, traffic, speed limits, etc. For instance, analysis of over 600k miles of naturalistic heavy duty truck driving data [5] indicates that an experienced driver anticipates a downhill and eases up on the throttle to save fuel while an inexperienced driver lacks this judgment.

  5. GPS Usage in a Population of Low-Vision Drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucuras, Maria; Chun, Robert; Lee, Patrick; Jay, Walter M; Pusateri, Gregg

    2017-01-01

    We surveyed bioptic and non-bioptic low-vision drivers in Illinois, USA, to determine their usage of global positioning system (GPS) devices. Low-vision patients completed an IRB-approved phone survey regarding driving demographics and usage of GPS while driving. Participants were required to be active drivers with an Illinois driver's license, and met one of the following criteria: best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) less than or equal to 20/40, central or significant peripheral visual field defects, or a combination of both. Of 27 low-vision drivers, 10 (37%) used GPS while driving. The average age for GPS users was 54.3 and for non-users was 77.6. All 10 drivers who used GPS while driving reported increased comfort or safety level. Since non-GPS users were significantly older than GPS users, it is likely that older participants would benefit from GPS technology training from their low-vision eye care professionals.

  6. Schoolbus driver performance can be improved with driver training ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Safe Travel to School Programme was recently implemented by a national child safety agency, with a focus on driver road safety awareness, defensive ... of a vehicle telematics tracking system with regular, individual driving behaviour ...

  7. Understanding the health of lorry drivers in context: A critical discourse analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caddick, Nick; Varela-Mato, Veronica; Nimmo, Myra A; Clemes, Stacey; Yates, Tom; King, James A

    2017-01-01

    This article moves beyond previous attempts to understand health problems in the lives of professional lorry drivers by placing the study of drivers' health in a wider social and cultural context. A combination of methods including focus groups, interviews and observations were used to collect data from a group of 24 lorry drivers working at a large transport company in the United Kingdom. Employing a critical discourse analysis, we identified the dominant discourses and subject positions shaping the formation of drivers' health and lifestyle choices. This analysis was systematically combined with an exploration of the gendered ways in which an almost exclusively male workforce talked about health. Findings revealed that drivers were constituted within a neoliberal economic discourse, which is reflective of the broader social structure, and which partly restricted drivers' opportunities for healthy living. Concurrently, drivers adopted the subject position of 'average man' as a way of defending their personal and masculine status in regards to health and to justify jettisoning approaches to healthy living that were deemed too extreme or irrational in the face of the constraints of their working lives. Suggestions for driver health promotion include refocusing on the social and cultural - rather than individual - underpinnings of driver health issues and a move away from moralistic approaches to health promotion.

  8. SELF-REPORTED DIFFERENCES BETWEEN CRASH-INVOLVED AND NON-CRASH-INVOLVED THREE-WHEELER DRIVERS IN SRI LANKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. SOMASUNDARASWARAN, Dr.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite being an important mode of transportation in the developing world, little research has been conducted to understand the factors contributing to crashes involving three wheel vehicles. This study surveyed a convenient sample of 505 professional three-wheeler drivers in Sri Lanka to explore the similarities and differences in the demographic and work characteristics between three-wheeler drivers who reported experiencing at least one collision in the past twelve months and those who reported that they were not involved in any collisions. Our study revealed some interesting results that were quite different from those obtained in the studies on professional drivers in developed countries. In particular, both drivers with less than one year and more than five years of driving experience in our study were found to be associated with higher probability of crash involvement. Also, the number of trips per day and the average travel distance per trip were found to be insignificant in delineating between crash-involved and non-crash-involved drivers. Moreover, crash-involved drivers, on average, have significantly fewer working days per week and fewer hours per day, suggesting that the conventional approach used in most developed countries to tackle fatigue among professional drivers do not appear to be suitable for solving the road safety problem involving three-wheeler drivers in a developing country. Also, since the age of most drivers falls in a narrow range, this U-shaped relationship is not likely to be a result of youth and ageing but of inexperience in newer drivers and complacency in more experienced drivers. Lastly, since a relatively large proportion of the drivers had driven without a valid driving license, legislation and enforcement interventions are likely to be less effective than education and engineering countermeasures.

  9. [The ability of drivers to give first aid--testing by questionnaire].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goniewicz, M

    1998-01-01

    Road accidents have become a serious social problem. The scale and complexity of this problem shows clearly that there is a necessity to improve citizens' ability to give first aid which is especially essential in the case of drivers. Thus special training how to give first aid at the accident place seems to be of the primary importance. The objective of this paper is to: 1) identify to what extent the drivers of motor vehicles are prepared to provide first aid for casualties of the road accidents, 2) evaluate the training system of teaching motorists how to give first aid before professional help arrives, 3) identify drivers' views on possibilities of decreasing the number of fatal casualties of the road accidents. The questionnaire was given to 560 employees of local government institutions in the city of Lublin either professional or non-professional drivers. The direct method and anonymous questionnaire were used. The results of the questionnaire revealed clearly that very few drivers are well-prepared to give proper first aid at the accident site. No matter what sex, education or driving experience, the drivers have not got enough skills to give first aid and the effect is enhanced by various psychological barriers. The questioned drivers shared the opinion that first aid training is badly run. The drivers stressed bad quality of the training and the fact that it is impossible to acquire practical skills that may be required in the case of emergency. Drivers' views on possibilities of decreasing the number of fatal casualties of the road accidents included, among others, the following propositions: in addition to the driving licence exam first aid exam should be compulsory severe enforcement and execution of the law which regulates the mandatory first aid giving.

  10. What is an ICT Professional anyway?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clive Boughton

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The intention of this paper is to instigate ongoing discussion surrounding the connected topics of ICT professionalism and the ICT profession. Part of that discussion needs to include suggestions of ‘the way forward’ for the development and recognition of an ICT professional body and the way it should govern/support/protect the professionals within.

  11. Musculoskeletal injuries in auto racing: a retrospective study of 137 drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutras, Christos; Buecking, Benjamin; Jaeger, Marcus; Ruchholtz, Steffen; Heep, Hansjoerg

    2014-11-01

    The effect of continuous exposure of a driver's bones and muscles to vibration and G forces to years of automobile racing and the effect on overall health have not yet been examined in detail. The goal of this study was to investigate via questionnaire the musculoskeletal injuries and influencing parameters in 130 amateur and 7 professional race car drivers. A questionnaire, translated in English and German, was used to investigate the parameters that influence the racing performance and the character of resulting injuries. This investigation involved 137 drivers (133 men and 4 women) with a mean age of 42 years (standard deviation = 15). Approximately half of the drivers had race duration was relevant to neck and shoulder discomfort. The high incidence of musculoskeletal injuries in race car driving indicates the need for further improvements. Elimination of driver complaints about pain in the spine and upper extremities can be achieved through technical development, as already accomplished in Formula One racing.

  12. Alcohol and older drivers' crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Researchers have examined the effects of alcohol consumption : on older adults functioning, and some have : addressed alcohols effects on older drivers crash risk. : Generally, the findings have shown that alcohol is less : likely to be a fa...

  13. Research on driver fatigue detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting; Chen, Zhong; Ouyang, Chao

    2018-03-01

    Driver fatigue is one of the main causes of frequent traffic accidents. In this case, driver fatigue detection system has very important significance in avoiding traffic accidents. This paper presents a real-time method based on fusion of multiple facial features, including eye closure, yawn and head movement. The eye state is classified as being open or closed by a linear SVM classifier trained using HOG features of the detected eye. The mouth state is determined according to the width-height ratio of the mouth. The head movement is detected by head pitch angle calculated by facial landmark. The driver's fatigue state can be reasoned by the model trained by above features. According to experimental results, drive fatigue detection obtains an excellent performance. It indicates that the developed method is valuable for the application of avoiding traffic accidents caused by driver's fatigue.

  14. Teen driver cell phone blocker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    This study was a randomized control intervention to measure the effectiveness of a cellular phone control device : that communicates with the vehicles of teen drivers to deny them access to their phone while driving for the : purpose of reducing dist...

  15. Maintaining competence in radiation protection in France with the INSTN expertise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massiot, P.; Bruchet, H.; Jimonet, C.; Hammadi, A.; Da Silva, P.; Videcoq, J.; Perez, S.; Livolsi, P.

    2010-01-01

    are recognized by professionals and operators, are open to students, but also to employees willing to improve their professional qualification in the Radiation Protection field. Moreover, the INSTN gives answer to satisfy needs in RP training both in the requirements from professionals and operators (workers in nuclear industry, RP inspectors, Competent Person in Radiation Protection, Radioactive material drivers..;). The institute is in charge of organising short trainings for professionals (Continuous Professional Development CPD) and it brings training solutions to special needs for national and/or international trainings. (authors)

  16. Presentation of the first career in Mexico of Technical Professional in Radiological Protection; Presentacion de la primera carrera en Mexico de Profesional-Tecnico en Proteccion Radiologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vizuet G, J.; Suarez, G.; Corona Montes de Oca, J.; Arias C, M. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2002-07-01

    The present educational project has the purpose to show the realized work for introducing the first career of Radiological Protection technician in Mexico. There for the developed activities concerning to the integration of the syllabus is described as well as those realized concerning to the participant teaching personnel training in summarized form. The syllabus has been developed with the purpose to fulfil with the training programs established by the Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, as well as those required by the Secretaria de Salud with respect to the fulfilment of the Normas Oficiales Mexicanas set, international recommendations and that suggested by the training guides emitted by the Direccion General de Capacitacion y Produccion of the Secretaria de Trabajo y Prevision Social. (Author)

  17. Population health and medicine: Policy and financial drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavigne, Jill E; Brown, Jack; Matzke, Gary R

    2017-09-15

    The financial and policy levers of population health and potential opportunities for pharmacists are described. Three long-standing problems drive the focus on population health: (1) the United States suffers far worse population health outcomes compared with those of other developed nations that spend significantly less on healthcare, (2) the U.S. healthcare system's focus on "sick care" fails to address upstream prevention and population health improvement, and (3) financial incentives for healthcare delivery are poorly aligned with improvements in population health outcomes. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (ACA) was arguably the first major healthcare legislation since 1965 and had 3 main strategies for improving population health: expand health insurance coverage, control healthcare costs, and improve the healthcare delivery system. Federal and state legislation as well as Medicare and Medicaid financing strategies have designated mechanisms to reward advances in population outcomes since the passage of the ACA. States are responsible for many of the factors that affect population health, and a bipartisan effort that builds upon state and federal collaboration will likely be needed to implement the necessary health policy initiative. Population health issues affect productivity in the United States; conversely, improvements in population health may increase productivity, helping to offset the rising federal debt. Employers are in a position to improve population health and consequently help reduce the federal debt by addressing lifestyle, chronic disease, poverty, and inequality. National pharmacy organizations, regulatory bodies, and journal editors need to collectively agree to a threshold of quality and rigor for publication and endorsement. Knowledge of the policy and financial drivers of population health may both support pharmacists' efforts to improve population outcomes and identify opportunities for professional advancement

  18. Truck drivers, middlemen and commercial sex workers: AIDS and the mediation of sex in south west Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gysels, M; Pool, R; Bwanika, K

    2001-06-01

    Although long distance truck drivers have been implicated in the spread of HIV in Africa, there is a paucity of studies of their sexual cultures. This paper reports on a study of the sexual culture of drivers, mediators and commercial sex workers (CSWs) in a roadside truck stop on the Trans-Africa highway in south west Uganda. Sixty-nine truck drivers, six middlemen and 12 CSWs were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaires. Interviewing truck drivers also entailed participating in the town's nightlife and spending much time in the bars. Truck drivers stop briefly at the truck stop for various reasons: to eat, sleep, have sex and sell goods they are carrying. Middlemen mediate the latter two activities. Middlemen buy goods from the drivers and introduce them to 'suitable' women with whom they can have casual sex. Most drivers have sex when they spend the night at the truck stop, and most make use of the services of the middlemen. The most important reasons why drivers use middlemen are that the latter speak the local languages and, in particular, know the trustworthy and 'safe' (HIV-negative) women. The CSWs use middlemen mainly because they are a guarantee that the driver will pay and they usually ensure that drivers pay well. The mediation system is becoming increasingly professionalized. Most drivers claimed to use condoms during casual sex, and this was confirmed by the CSWs. General use of condoms is encouraging, particularly given the context of a culture generally opposed to condoms. The idea that middlemen can recognize 'safe' women is worrying. However, given their key position, middlemen could form the hub of an opinion leader type intervention focused on drivers and the professional group of sex workers described here, providing condoms, advising about the importance of condom use in all casual sexual encounters, giving information about HIV and STDs, and possibly referring drivers and women to appropriate sources of HIV counselling and testing

  19. Information protection playbook

    CERN Document Server

    Kane, Greg

    2013-01-01

    The primary goal of the Information Protection Playbook is to serve as a comprehensive resource for information protection (IP) professionals who must provide adequate information security at a reasonable cost. It emphasizes a holistic view of IP: one that protects the applications, systems, and networks that deliver business information from failures of confidentiality, integrity, availability, trust and accountability, and privacy. Using the guidelines provided in the Information Protection Playbook, security and information technology (IT) managers will learn how to

  20. Professional development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAndrew-Benavidas, E.

    2007-01-01

    This presentation outlines the functions of the North American Young Generation in Nuclear. Activities of the organization include professional development, recruiting, retention, public outreach, leadership, networking, workforce issues, mentoring and communications

  1. Driver style and driver skills – clustering drivers differing in their potential danger in traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Laila Marianne; Møller, Mette; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    The Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ) and the Driver Skill Inventory (DSI) are two of the most frequently used measures of driving style and driving skill. The motivation behind the present study was to test drivers’ insight into their own driving ability based on a combined use of the DBQ......, annual mileage and accident involvement. 3908 drivers aged 18–84 participated in the survey. The results suggested that the drivers have good insight into their own driving ability, as the driving skill level mirrored the frequency of aberrant driving behaviors. K-means cluster analysis revealed four...... distinct clusters that differed in the frequency of aberrant driving behavior and driving skills, as well as individual characteristics and driving related factors such as annual mileage, accident frequency and number of tickets and fines. Thus, two sub-groups were identified as more unsafe than the two...

  2. Canadian drivers' attitudes regarding preventative responses to driving while impaired by alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanlaar, Ward; Nadeau, Louise; McKiernan, Anna; Hing, Marisela M; Ouimet, Marie Claude; Brown, Thomas G

    2017-09-01

    In many jurisdictions, a risk assessment following a first driving while impaired (DWI) offence is used to guide administrative decision making regarding driver relicensing. Decision error in this process has important consequences for public security on one hand, and the social and economic well being of drivers on the other. Decision theory posits that consideration of the costs and benefits of decision error is needed, and in the public health context, this should include community attitudes. The objective of the present study was to clarify whether Canadians prefer decision error that: i) better protects the public (i.e., false positives); or ii) better protects the offender (i.e., false negatives). A random sample of male and female adult drivers (N=1213) from the five most populated regions of Canada was surveyed on drivers' preference for a protection of the public approach versus a protection of DWI drivers approach in resolving assessment decision error, and the relative value (i.e., value ratio) they imparted to both approaches. The role of region, sex and age on drivers' value ratio were also appraised. Seventy percent of Canadian drivers preferred a protection of the public from DWI approach, with the overall relative ratio given to this preference, compared to the alternative protection of the driver approach, being 3:1. Females expressed a significantly higher value ratio (M=3.4, SD=3.5) than males (M=3.0, SD=3.4), pvalue ratios, R 2 (adj.)=0.014, pAccounting for community attitudes concerning DWI prevention and the individual differences that influence them could contribute to more informed, coherent and effective regional policies and prevention program development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. ISAF'S Afghan Truck Drivers: The Overlooked Counterinsurgency Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myron Varouhakis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A yearlong U.S. Army field study in Afghanistan examined the demographics and threat perceptions of one of the most-at-risk populations, that of Afghan truck drivers working for NATO’s International Security Assistance Force Afghanistan (ISAF. The study collected data from 766 Afghan truck drivers at the U.S.-operated Kandahar Airfield in ISAF’s Regional Command South. The findings show a wide diversity in age of the Afghan drivers as well as in terms of their home province. The findings also show that although all Afghan truck drivers had acute awareness and understanding of the high risks and dangers of the job, they all noted that the attractive salary and scarcity of jobs were dominant reasons for staying on the job. Findings also reveal a strong resentment among the Afghan truck drivers about their treatment by ISAF soldiers, as for the lack of protection for them and their families after the 2014 departure of NATO forces. The findings can provide significant insights and enhance the understanding of scholars, counterinsurgency strategists, policymakers, and military planners about “Host Country Nationals” as an important population of the human terrain.

  4. Automation warning system against driver falling asleep in-traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dymov I. S.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the development of a new automation recognition and warning system against driver falling asleep in-traffic. The issue of the physical condition control of professional drivers on the voyage has been considered both on the part of efficiency and quality of its determination, and in terms of improving overall road safety. The existing and widely used devices for determining the transition to the stage of sleep of drivers being in-traffic have been analyzed. Their advantages and disadvantages have been detected. It has been established that the main negative factor preventing the mass introduction of pre-existing warning systems is the need to wear one or another monitoring device before starting the movement. Carried out project research work has proposed a complex monitoring of the physical and physiological condition of driving person as a new warning method against falling asleep in-traffic. The proposed variations of algorithmic implementations can be used in long-distance trucks and passenger vehicles. Two different versions of the automatic control status of the driver physical condition have been considered. The first approach has proposed the use of sensors of the biometric parameters of body, pulsus, body temperature, and hands on wheel pressure sensors. The second one has proposed using the tracking cameras. Both for the first and second versions of the automation system a toolset of control devices is being installed inside the vehicle and have no physical, so irritating action on the driver. Software approach for the false operation rejection of the devices has been developed. The paper considers the flow diagrams of the automatic systems and logical structure of analysis and decision-making. The set of impacts intended for driver's awakening has been proposed. The conclusion about the engineering perspectives of the proposed approach of projected automation systems has been made.

  5. IFE Power Plant design principles. Drivers. Solid state laser drivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, S.; Andre, M.; Krupke, W.F.; Mak, A.A.; Soures, J.M.; Yamanaka, M.

    1995-01-01

    The present status of solid state laser drivers for an inertial confinement thermonuclear fusion power plant is discussed. In particular, the feasibility of laser diode pumped solid state laser drivers from both the technical and economic points of view is briefly reviewed. Conceptual design studies showed that they can, in principle, satisfy the design requirements. However, development of new solid state materials with long fluorescence lifetimes and good thermal characteristics is a key issue for laser diode pumped solid state lasers. With the advent of laser diode pumping many materials which were abandoned in the past can presently be reconsidered as viable candidates. It is also concluded that it is important to examine the technical requirements for solid state lasers in relation to target performance criteria. The progress of laser diode pumped lasers in industrial applications should also be closely watched to provide additional information on the economic feasibility of this type of driver. 15 refs, 9 figs, 2 tabs

  6. Do Circadian Preferences Influence the Sleep Patterns of Night Shift Drivers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narciso, Fernanda V.; Esteves, Andrea M.; Oliveira e Silva, Luciana; Bittencourt, Lia R.A.; Silva, Rogerio S.; Pires, Maria Laura N.; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco Tulio

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of individual circadian preferences of drivers with fixed night work schedules on sleep patterns. Subjects and Methods A total of 123 professional drivers, 32 indifferent preference drivers and 91 morning preference drivers of an intermunicipality and interstate bus transportation company were evaluated. All drivers underwent polysomnographic recordings after their shifts. Furthermore, they filled out a questionnaire that contained sociodemographic and health questions. The Horne and Östberg questionnaire was used to assess the subjects' morningness-eveningness preference. Results The mean age was 42.54 ± 6.98 years and 82 (66.66%) of the drivers had worked for ≥15 years. A significant effect on rapid eye movement (REM) was observed in the morning preference drivers. They showed an increased sleep latency and an REM sleep percentage of 5% of the total REM time. This reveals a significant effect on sleep architecture associated with work time. Conclusion The drivers reported that morning preference had a significant effect on their sleep pattern indicating less REM sleep and longer REM sleep latency in the morning preference group. Thus, it is important to evaluate interactions between individual aspects of health and other parameters, such as sleep quality and work organizational factors, to promote night shift workers' health and well-being. PMID:23988815

  7. Drivers' social-work relationships as antecedents of unsafe driving: A social network perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arizon Peretz, Renana; Luria, Gil

    2017-09-01

    In order to reduce road accidents rates, studies around the globe have attempted to shed light on the antecedents for unsafe road behaviors. The aim of the current research is to contribute to this literature by offering a new organizational antecedent of driver's unsafe behavior: The driver's relationships with his or her peers, as reflected in three types of social networks: negative relationships network, friendship networks and advice networks (safety consulting). We hypothesized that a driver's position in negative relationship networks, friendship networks, and advice networks will predict unsafe driving. Additionally, we hypothesized the existence of mutual influences among the driver's positions in these various networks, and suggested that the driver's positions interact to predict unsafe driving behaviors. The research included 83 professional drivers from four different organizations. Driving behavior data were gathered via the IVDR (In-Vehicle Data Recorder) system, installed in every truck to measure and record the driver's behavior. The findings indicated that the drivers' position in the team networks predicts safe driving behavior: Centrality in negative relationship networks is positively related to unsafe driving, and centrality in friendship networks is negatively related to unsafe driving, while centrality in advice networks is not related to unsafe driving. Furthermore, we found an interaction effect between negative network centrality and centrality in friendship networks. The relation between negative networks and unsafe behavior is weaker when high levels of friendship network centrality exist. The implications will be presented in the Discussion section. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Do circadian preferences influence the sleep patterns of night shift drivers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narciso, Fernanda V; Esteves, Andrea M; Oliveira e Silva, Luciana; Bittencourt, Lia R A; Silva, Rogerio S; Pires, Maria Laura N; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco Tulio

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of individual circadian preferences of drivers with fixed night work schedules on sleep patterns. A total of 123 professional drivers, 32 indifferent preference drivers and 91 morning preference drivers of an intermunicipality and interstate bus transportation company were evaluated. All drivers underwent polysomnographic recordings after their shifts. Furthermore, they filled out a questionnaire that contained sociodemographic and health questions. The Horne and Östberg questionnaire was used to assess the subjects' morningness-eveningness preference. The mean age was 42.54 ± 6.98 years and 82 (66.66%) of the drivers had worked for ≥15 years. A significant effect on rapid eye movement (REM) was observed in the morning preference drivers. They showed an increased sleep latency and an REM sleep percentage of 5% of the total REM time. This reveals a significant effect on sleep architecture associated with work time. The drivers reported that morning preference had a significant effect on their sleep pattern indicating less REM sleep and longer REM sleep latency in the morning preference group. Thus, it is important to evaluate interactions between individual aspects of health and other parameters, such as sleep quality and work organizational factors, to promote night shift workers' health and well-being. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Driver licensing and reasons for delaying licensure among young adults ages 18-20, United States, 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Tefft, Brian C; Williams, Allan F; Grabowski, Jurek G

    2014-01-01

    Background Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death for teens and young adults in the United States. Graduated driver licensing (GDL) systems were designed to protect young novice drivers by limiting their exposure to specific risks while they gain experience driving. In the United States, most states? GDL systems only apply to new drivers younger than 18. Some experts suggest that GDL might encourage young people to wait until age 18 to obtain a license, to avoid GDL requirements...

  10. Sexual behavior among truck drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajiv Kumar; Joshi, Hari Shankar

    2012-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted on Lucknow highway in Bareilly district of Uttar Pradesh to study the knowledge of truck drivers about HIV transmission and prevention and to study the sexual behaviour of these drivers with reference to HIV/AIDS. Age, marital status, education, income, drinking alcohol, length of stay away from home, knowledge about transmission and prevention of HIV, and HIV-prone behavior of truck drivers were studied. Chi-square, mean, and SD were calculated. In all, 289 (97.6%) drivers had heard about HIV/AIDS. Only 242 (81.8%) were aware of HIV transmission by heterosexual route. Misconceptions such as HIV transmission by mosquito bites, living in same room, shaking hands, and sharing food were found. Out of 174 (58.8%) who visited Commercial Sex Workers (CSW), 146 (83.9%) used a condom. 38 (12.8%) visited more than 5 CSW in the last 3 months. Time away from home on the road, marital status, alcohol use, and income class were associated with visiting CSW. High-risk behavior was established in the study population. Safe sex and use of condoms need to be promoted among the truck drivers and better condom availability needs to be assured on highways.

  11. Professional autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprile, A E

    1998-02-01

    Professional autonomy may represent the first step to implementing measures that will allow CRNAs to attain a level of independent practice consistent with their clinical and educational training. Autonomy is regarded as an essential ingredient of professionalism and confers independent function at the individual practitioner level. The principle of autonomy refers to the individual's capacity to make independent decisions based on the assumption that he or she possesses the cognitive, psychological, and emotional faculties to make rational decisions. Nursing practice meets the first two criteria of professionalism--competence and dedication to an important social good. The third criterion of professionalism, autonomy, has been a focal point for controversy since the late nineteenth century, in which obedience to supervisors and physicians remained a central focus of nursing ethics teaching until the advent of feminism in the 1970s. This article presents a thorough analysis of these concepts with some thoughts on how understanding the fundamental precepts and further research may not only help maintain the current level of CRNA professional autonomy but serve to guide us to become more autonomous in the future.

  12. Protecting Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galster, Kjeld

    2007-01-01

    of a democratic state as defence per se is to its government. Democratic governance rests on the mutual dependence and influence of leadership and led, and the practical function subsumes professional bureaucracies. Thus, defence debate is the exchange of views on matters important to national security amongst...... the democratically elected leadership, the public, and the defence bureaucracy’s professional experts. Defence debate is a decisive contributor to defence policy and it normally includes quantitative issues like the size of military forces and the proportion of the state’s resources devoted to the armed forces......ABSTRACT Galster, Kjeld Hald. Doctoral Student (History). Saxo Institute. May 2007. Protecting Democracy: Danish Defence Debate in Times of Change. Supervisor: Professor, Dr. Gunner Lind. Democratic debate on defence and democratic organisation of the forces are as central to the life...

  13. Sleep quality in long haul truck drivers: A study on Iranian national data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghniiat-Haghighi, Khosro; Yazdi, Zohreh; Kazemifar, Amir-Mohammad

    2016-08-01

    Iran has a high rate of road traffic accidents. Poor quality of sleep brings about loss of attention, which is an important cause of road traffic accidents particularly in monotonous roads. The causes of poor quality of sleep in occupational drivers are multifactorial. The objective of the present study was to assess the prevalence of poor sleep quality among occupational drivers with rotating work schedules and analyze its different risk factors. 2200 professional long-haul truck drivers who had been referred to the Occupational Health Clinic for routine education course were invited. We obtained data from eight provinces from various parts of Iran during 2012-2013. Data were collected using a questionnaire including questions about demographic and job characteristics. Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was used to assess drivers' sleep quality. Mean working (driving) time was (9.3±2.5) hours daily and (55.5 ± 18.29) hours weekly. About 23.5% of the drivers reported history of smoking, 14.5% had low job satisfaction and 60% had irregular work schedule. 16.4% of drivers had an accidents leading to injury during the past five years. The mean PSQI score was 4.2 ± 2.7; 54% had a PSQI>5 (poor quality of sleep). Multivariate logistic regression showed that smoking, job satisfaction, history of accidents, shift work and work hours per day were the most important risk factors for poor sleep quality. Results obtained from the current study showed a high prevalence of poor quality of sleep among professional drivers. It warrants more attention to this significant problem using some measures to improve working conditions in professional drivers, as well as health promotion interventions.

  14. Evaluation of knowledge and practice of professionals in radiology, in patient protection, in X-ray examinations in collective environments and in a improving quality of service through training; Avaliacao do conhecimento e da pratica dos profissionais em radiologia, na protecao do paciente, nos exames de raios-X em ambientes coletivos e a melhoria da qualidade do servico atraves do treinamento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Rogerio Ferreira da, E-mail: reogercosta1@hotmail.com [Universidade Estadual de Goias (UEG), Morrinhos, GO (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    When there is exposure to ionizing radiation, the probability of developing a stochastic effect increases, and one of the most feared stochastic effects is cancer. Calculations made from data obtained with the population of Hiroshima, showed that these effects have not dose threshold. So it is impossible predict that a specific dose value, will lead to damages and therefore, doses must always be limited. Medical exposures have contributed to the increase in dose received by the populations of countries like Brazil. This is because there was an increase in interventional procedures using ionizing radiation. What has concerned researchers since, many companies did not fit the standards of radiation protection. The proper use of personal protective equipment reduces the exposure of patients and professionals. Trained and knowledgeable of the rules are able to choose the shielding for each type of procedure. So we evaluated the knowledge and radiology professional practice, in protection of patients, who can not be removed from the environment in sinus X-rays and check if the training improves the quality of this service. It was concluded that there is deficiency in knowledge of the rules and failures in protection of patients, and that training with regard to radiological protection increases the level of theoretical knowledge of the professionals involved, and improve their practices with respect to protection, reducing the doses and minimizing the risks involved in medical exposures.

  15. Key drivers of airline loyalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolnicar, Sara; Grabler, Klaus; Grün, Bettina; Kulnig, Anna

    2011-10-01

    This study investigates drivers of airline loyalty. It contributes to the body of knowledge in the area by investigating loyalty for a number of a priori market segments identified by airline management and by using a method which accounts for the multi-step nature of the airline choice process. The study is based on responses from 687 passengers. Results indicate that, at aggregate level, frequent flyer membership, price, the status of being a national carrier and the reputation of the airline as perceived by friends are the variables which best discriminate between travellers loyal to the airline and those who are not. Differences in drivers of airline loyalty for a number of segments were identified. For example, loyalty programs play a key role for business travellers whereas airline loyalty of leisure travellers is difficult to trace back to single factors. For none of the calculated models satisfaction emerged as a key driver of airline loyalty.

  16. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: A Neglected Health Concern among Commercial Motor Vehicle Drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HR Saberi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD is an anxiety disorder that may develop following a trauma. Iranian commercial motor vehicle drivers experience many road traffic accidents during their working life; this may increase the probability for developing PTSD, which in turn may lead to increased human errors as well as decreased work efficiency. Objective: To examine the prevalence of PTSD and its associated factors among a group of Iranian commercial motor vehicle drivers. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 424 drivers who referred to participate in an annually training program were selected using a simple random sampling technique. They were requested to complete the Persian version of PCL-C and a data collection sheet about their occupational and demographic features. Results: 385 (90.8% of 424 studied drivers completed the study. 265 (68.8% of the drivers had first-grade driving license. The mean±SD on-the-job daily driving was 10.2±2.8 h. 74 of 385 (19.2%; 95% CI: 15.3%–23.2% met the PTSD criteria. Higher age and job experience as a professional driver, and having past history or past familial history of psychiatric disorders, were independent predictors of developing PTSD. The disease was more prevalent among drivers with first-grade driving license. Conclusion: The prevalence of PTSD among Iranian commercial motor vehicle drivers is higher than the figures reported elsewhere. Measures to diagnose of such drivers and to ensure optimum follow-up of victims before return to professional driving should be considered.

  17. UWB dual burst transmit driver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallum, Gregory E [Livermore, CA; Pratt, Garth C [Discovery Bay, CA; Haugen, Peter C [Livermore, CA; Zumstein, James M [Livermore, CA; Vigars, Mark L [Livermore, CA; Romero, Carlos E [Livermore, CA

    2012-04-17

    A dual burst transmitter for ultra-wideband (UWB) communication systems generates a pair of precisely spaced RF bursts from a single trigger event. An input trigger pulse produces two oscillator trigger pulses, an initial pulse and a delayed pulse, in a dual trigger generator. The two oscillator trigger pulses drive a gated RF burst (power output) oscillator. A bias driver circuit gates the RF output oscillator on and off and sets the RF burst packet width. The bias driver also level shifts the drive signal to the level that is required for the RF output device.

  18. Being Professional

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anne Winther

    professional care helper’ in the school setting but the job being closely related to daily life's routine tasks; the paper points to difficulties for students in identifying the exact content of the term ‘professional’. Furthermore students seem to be uncertain about their ‘professionalism’ in relation...

  19. Poor weight control, alcoholic beverage consumption and sudden sleep onset at the wheel among Italian truck drivers: A preliminary pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Gian Luca Rosso; Cristina Montomoli; Stefano M. Candura

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of obesity, alcoholic beverage consumption, unhealthy alcohol use and sudden sleep onset at the wheel among Italian truck drivers. In addition to prevalence rates, this study also aimed at investigating potential predictors for sudden-onset sleepiness and obesity. Material and Methods: A sample of truck drivers was extracted from the database of the High Risk Professional Driver Study. Data concerning demographics, anthropome...

  20. Occupational accidents among ambulance drivers in the emergency relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Elisabete; do Carmo Cruz Robazzi, Maria Lúcia

    2007-01-01

    We analyzed the occurrence of occupational accidents (OA) among ambulance drivers in Emergency Relief (ER), with a view to disclosing the types of events and their causes. A quantitative-qualitative study was carried out through the interview of 22 workers in a city in São Paulo, Brazil. The subjects were male, between 36 and 40 years old (40.9%), married (81.82%), with uncompleted primary education (40.9%), individual (90.9%) and family (54.55%) income between two and four Brazilian minimum wages, not performing any other paid occupation (45.45%). The majority of the OA were typical, due to an excess of exercises and vigorous and repeated movements (42.11%) and aggression through body strength and other means (26.33%). The OA occurs mainly because drivers carry out tasks that do not suit their professional formation.

  1. Comparison of exposure to stress and analysis of ways of coping with stress among freight transport and public transport drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Urbańska

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fast progress in a lot of economic sectors has greatly contributed to a growing role of road transportation systems, including freight transport and passenger transport. The job of professional drivers is regarded as extremely hard and dangerous, it is associated with high risk of health loss and even life loss. This profession is also associated with mental burden, the main cause of the absence at work and alarming number of road accidents. The aim of study was to compare exposure to stress, check the level of stress and ways to cope with stress in 2 groups of drivers (N = 187. Material and Methods: The study was carried out among public transport drivers and freight transport drivers. The authors’ own questionnaire and 2 psychological tests: Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10 and Posttraumatic Growth Inventory and Inventory to Measure Coping Strategies with Stress (Mini-COPE were used as the study tools. Results: The level of stress is high in both groups, mostly due to a similar type of work. Both groups practice similar ways to cope with stress, but active ways predominate. Conclusions: The work of a professional driver is considered as extremely stressful. The level of stress among professional drivers should be under continuous control. Employers should introduce preventive programs and educate employees about some professional ways to cope with stress. Med Pr 2016;67(4:455–466

  2. Drivers and Limits for Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Buus; Nielsen, Thomas A. Sick; Gudmundsson, Henrik

    This report summarizes key outcomes of the study ’Drivers and Limits’ that was supported for the period 2009-2013 by a research grant from the Danish Strategic Research Council. The project investigated - for the empirical context of Denmark - key driving forces behind transport growth, as well...

  3. Modeling taxi driver anticipatory behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, Zhong; Rasouli, S.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2018-01-01

    As part of a wider behavioral agent-based model that simulates taxi drivers’ dynamic passenger-finding behavior under uncertainty, we present a model of strategic behavior of taxi drivers in anticipation of substantial time varying demand at locations such as airports and major train stations. The

  4. Driver Psychology during Automated Platooning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heikoop, D.D.

    2017-01-01

    With the rapid increase in vehicle automation technology, the call for understanding how humans behave while driving in an automated vehicle becomes more urgent. Vehicles that have automated systems such as Lane Keeping Assist (LKA) or Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) not only support drivers in their

  5. Nonmagnetic driver for piezoelectric actuators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekhtiari, Marzieh

    2014-01-01

    actuator drive is the only form-fit continuous drive solution currently available for the development of high performance nonmagnetic motors. In this research focus will be on the non magnetic compact high efficiency driver for the piezo actuators and on employing energy recovery from the capacitive...

  6. Eficiência de vestimentas hidrorrepelentes novas na proteção do tratorista em pulverizações de agrotóxicos em goiaba com o turbopulverizador Efficiency of new clothes waterrepelent in the protection of the tractor-driver in pesticide spraying in guava orchards with the air-assisted sprayer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Bellini Tácio

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos do trabalho foram: quantificar as exposições dérmicas e respiratórias potenciais proporcionadas ao tratorista em pulverizações de agrotóxicos, na cultura de goiaba, com o turbopulverizador; avaliar a eficiência de duas vestimentas de proteção individual; avaliar a segurança e classificar estas condições de trabalho em seguras ou inseguras para cada agrotóxico considerado. A exposição dérmica potencial proporcionada ao tratorista pela condição de trabalho foi de 3.807,3 mL de calda/7h. A eficiência do conjunto de proteção individual Agro Light foi de 96,7 %, e a do Azeredo, 96,2 %. A exposição dérmica potencial nas regiões do corpo mais expostas do tratorista à pulverização, em ordem decrescente, foram os pés, os braços, as coxas+pernas-frente e o tronco-atrás. A exposição dérmica não-controlada pelos conjuntos de proteção individual foi igualmente distribuída em todas as regiões do corpo do tratorista devido aos controles das exposições dérmicas que proporcionaram às regiões mais expostas do corpo. Foram classificadas como seguras as pulverizações de três dos 17 agrotóxicos considerados e sete com o uso das vestimentas de proteção individual. As demais foram classificadas como inseguras.The objectives were to quantify potential dermal and respiratory exposure of the tractor-driver during spraying in guava orchards with the air-assisted sprayer, to evaluate the efficiency of two types of personal protective equipment (PPE, and to classify these working conditions as safe or unsafe for each pesticide studied. The potential dermal exposure of the tractor driver was 3,807.349 mL of spray/6h. The efficiency in the control of dermal exposure was 96.7% for the Agro Light set and 96.2% for the Azeredo set. The feet, arms, thighs front legs and back trunk were the areas most exposed in the absence of protective measures, while exposure was generalized over the body when the PPE was used. The

  7. Free electron laser as a fusion driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prosnitz, D.; Schlitt, L.

    1981-01-01

    The Free Electron Laser (FEL) is shown to be a potentially attractive solution to the problem of finding a suitable short wavelength fusion driver. The design of a 3 MJ, 250 nm FEL fusion driver is discussed

  8. Anthropogenic Drivers of Ecosystem Change: an Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald C. Nelson

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of what the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA calls "indirect and direct drivers" of change in ecosystem services at a global level. The MA definition of a driver is any natural or human-induced factor that directly or indirectly causes a change in an ecosystem. A direct driver unequivocally influences ecosystem processes. An indirect driver operates more diffusely by altering one or more direct drivers. Global driving forces are categorized as demographic, economic, sociopolitical, cultural and religious, scientific and technological, and physical and biological. Drivers in all categories other than physical and biological are considered indirect. Important direct drivers include changes in climate, plant nutrient use, land conversion, and diseases and invasive species. This paper does not discuss natural drivers such as climate variability, extreme weather events, or volcanic eruptions.

  9. Advancing the integration of spatial data to map human and natural drivers on coral reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gove, Jamison M.; Walecka, Hilary R.; Donovan, Mary K.; Williams, Gareth J.; Jouffray, Jean-Baptiste; Crowder, Larry B.; Erickson, Ashley; Falinski, Kim; Friedlander, Alan M.; Kappel, Carrie V.; Kittinger, John N.; McCoy, Kaylyn; Norström, Albert; Nyström, Magnus; Oleson, Kirsten L. L.; Stamoulis, Kostantinos A.; White, Crow; Selkoe, Kimberly A.

    2018-01-01

    A major challenge for coral reef conservation and management is understanding how a wide range of interacting human and natural drivers cumulatively impact and shape these ecosystems. Despite the importance of understanding these interactions, a methodological framework to synthesize spatially explicit data of such drivers is lacking. To fill this gap, we established a transferable data synthesis methodology to integrate spatial data on environmental and anthropogenic drivers of coral reefs, and applied this methodology to a case study location–the Main Hawaiian Islands (MHI). Environmental drivers were derived from time series (2002–2013) of climatological ranges and anomalies of remotely sensed sea surface temperature, chlorophyll-a, irradiance, and wave power. Anthropogenic drivers were characterized using empirically derived and modeled datasets of spatial fisheries catch, sedimentation, nutrient input, new development, habitat modification, and invasive species. Within our case study system, resulting driver maps showed high spatial heterogeneity across the MHI, with anthropogenic drivers generally greatest and most widespread on O‘ahu, where 70% of the state’s population resides, while sedimentation and nutrients were dominant in less populated islands. Together, the spatial integration of environmental and anthropogenic driver data described here provides a first-ever synthetic approach to visualize how the drivers of coral reef state vary in space and demonstrates a methodological framework for implementation of this approach in other regions of the world. By quantifying and synthesizing spatial drivers of change on coral reefs, we provide an avenue for further research to understand how drivers determine reef diversity and resilience, which can ultimately inform policies to protect coral reefs. PMID:29494613

  10. Educating professionals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne

    2011-01-01

    relates to actual development work, where a social worker education program is restructured and developed, with the aim of creating optimal transfer. The social worker must 'be able to co-operate, organize, coordinate, implement, evaluate and develop social efforts’ in accordance with the curriculum. How...... does that look in practice? Based on interviews with newly-educated social workers, I have analyzed which competences the social worker (hereafter ‘he’) uses in practice, how these competences are developed, and how the student learns to apply the competences acquired in the educational program.......The purpose of the professional bachelor’s degree is to qualify the students to act competently in a subsequent job situation. Anecdotal experience and research have shown that limited transfer between what is learned during the coursework and the subsequent professional practice. This article...

  11. Testing and verification of a novel single-channel IGBT driver circuit

    OpenAIRE

    Lukić, Milan; Ninković, Predrag

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel single-channel IGBT driver circuit together with a procedure for testing and verification. It is based on a specialized integrated circuit with complete range of protective functions. Experiments are performed to test and verify its behaviour. Experimental results are presented in the form of oscilloscope recordings. It is concluded that the new driver circuit is compatible with modern IGBT transistors and power converter demands and that it can be applied in new d...

  12. 49 CFR 396.13 - Driver inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS INSPECTION, REPAIR, AND MAINTENANCE § 396.13 Driver inspection. Before driving a motor vehicle, the driver shall: (a) Be satisfied that the motor vehicle is in safe operating condition; (b) Review the last driver vehicle inspection...

  13. School Bus Accidents and Driver Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMichael, Judith

    The study examines the rates and types of school bus accidents according to the age of the school bus driver. Accident rates in North Carolina for the school year 1971-72 were analyzed using three sources of data: accident reports, driver and mileage data, and questionnaires administered to a sample of school bus drivers. Data were obtained on…

  14. Factors Contributing to Crashes among Young Drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyndel J. Bates

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Young drivers are the group of drivers most likely to crash. There are a number of factors that contribute to the high crash risk experienced by these drivers. While some of these factors are intrinsic to the young driver, such as their age, gender or driving skill, others relate to social factors and when and how often they drive. This article reviews the factors that affect the risk of young drivers crashing to enable a fuller understanding of why this risk is so high in order to assist in developing effective countermeasures.

  15. Visualization drivers for Geant4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beretvas, Andy

    2005-01-01

    This document is on Geant 4 visualization tools (drivers), evaluating pros and cons of each option, including recommendations on which tools to support at Fermilab for different applications. Four visualization drivers are evaluated. They re OpenGL, HepRep, DAWN and VRML. They all have good features, OpenGL provides graphic output with out an intermediate file. HepRep provides menus to assist the user. DAWN provides high quality plots and even for large files produces output quickly. VRML uses the smallest disk space for intermediate files. Large experiments at Fermilab will want to write their own display. They should proceed to make this display graphics independent. Medium experiment will probably want to use HepRep because of it's menu support. Smaller scale experiments will want to use OpenGL in the spirit of having immediate response, good quality output and keeping things simple

  16. Global desertification: Drivers and feedbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Odorico, Paolo; Bhattachan, Abinash; Davis, Kyle F.; Ravi, Sujith; Runyan, Christiane W.

    2013-01-01

    Desertification is a change in soil properties, vegetation or climate, which results in a persistent loss of ecosystem services that are fundamental to sustaining life. Desertification affects large dryland areas around the world and is a major cause of stress in human societies. Here we review recent research on the drivers, feedbacks, and impacts of desertification. A multidisciplinary approach to understanding the drivers and feedbacks of global desertification is motivated by our increasing need to improve global food production and to sustainably manage ecosystems in the context of climate change. Classic desertification theories look at this process as a transition between stable states in bistable ecosystem dynamics. Climate change (i.e., aridification) and land use dynamics are the major drivers of an ecosystem shift to a “desertified” (or “degraded”) state. This shift is typically sustained by positive feedbacks, which stabilize the system in the new state. Desertification feedbacks may involve land degradation processes (e.g., nutrient loss or salinization), changes in rainfall regime resulting from land-atmosphere interactions (e.g., precipitation recycling, dust emissions), or changes in plant community composition (e.g., shrub encroachment, decrease in vegetation cover). We analyze each of these feedback mechanisms and discuss their possible enhancement by interactions with socio-economic drivers. Large scale effects of desertification include the emigration of “environmental refugees” displaced from degraded areas, climatic changes, and the alteration of global biogeochemical cycles resulting from the emission and long-range transport of fine mineral dust. Recent research has identified some possible early warning signs of desertification, which can be used as indicators of resilience loss and imminent shift to desert-like conditions. We conclude with a brief discussion on some desertification control strategies implemented in different

  17. Professional C++

    CERN Document Server

    Gregoire, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Master complex C++ programming with this helpful, in-depth resource From game programming to major commercial software applications, C++ is the language of choice. It is also one of the most difficult programming languages to master. While most competing books are geared toward beginners, Professional C++, Third Edition, shows experienced developers how to master the latest release of C++, explaining little known features with detailed code examples users can plug into their own codes. More advanced language features and programming techniques are presented in this newest edition of the book,

  18. Professional development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jin Hee; Hartline, Beverly Karplus; Milner-Bolotin, Marina

    2013-03-01

    The three sessions of the professional development workshop series were each designed for a different audience. The purpose of the first session was to help mid-career physicists aspire for and achieve leadership roles. The second session brought together students, postdoctoral fellows, and early-career physicists to help them plan their career goals and navigate the steps important to launching a successful career. The final session sought to increase awareness of the results of physics education research, and how to use them to help students-especially women-learn physics better. The presentations and discussions were valuable for both female and male physicists.

  19. Driver competence performance indicators using OTMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan EL Rashidy, R.A.

    2016-07-01

    The current practice for assessing driver competence performance is in-cab riding by driver managers. However, this paper investigates whether real-world driving data extracted from on-train monitoring recorders data (OTMR) can be used to assess the driver performance. A number of indicators were used to evaluate the drivers’ performance. These include: their use of the emergency bypass switch, the driver's reminder appliance as well as the driver’s reaction time. A study case illustrated the applicability of OTMR data to estimate the proposed indicators, which suggests that the indicators can be useful in the driver management system in addition to the current indicators. Furthermore, the proposed indicators could be used to tailor the driver training schemes up to their individual needs and evaluate their effectiveness. They could even be used for improving driver competence performance and reducing crash involvement by revealing potentially detrimental driving performance. (Author)

  20. Hospital-based child protection teams that care for parents who abuse or neglect their children recognize the need for multidisciplinary collaborative practice involving perinatal care and mental health professionals: a questionnaire survey conducted in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okato, Ayumi; Hashimoto, Tasuku; Tanaka, Mami; Tachibana, Masumi; Machizawa, Akira; Okayama, Jun; Endo, Mamiko; Senda, Masayoshi; Saito, Naoki; Iyo, Masaomi

    2018-01-01

    Child abuse and/or neglect is a serious issue, and in many cases, parents are the perpetrators. Hospital-based child protection teams (CPTs) play pivotal roles in the management of not only abused and/or neglected children but also of their parents; this is generally conducted through multidisciplinary practice. The aim of this study is to survey hospital-based CPT members to determine the professions they perceive to be most applicable to participation in CPTs. The participants were members of CPTs affiliated with hospitals that had pediatric emergency departments and which were located in Chiba Prefecture; specifically, 114 CPT members from 23 hospitals responded to this survey. The two main questionnaire items concerned are as follows: 1) each respondent's evaluation of conducting assessments, providing support, and implementing multidisciplinary collaborative practice in the treatment of abusive and negligent parents, and 2) each CPT member's opinion on the professions that are most important for CPT activities. An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was performed to explore the factor structure of the data, and a correlation analysis was performed using the result obtained. The EFA returned two factors: multidisciplinary collaborative practice (α = 0.84) and assessment and support (α = 0.89). A correlational analysis showed that multidisciplinary collaborative practice had a positive correlation for obstetricians ( r = 0.315, p = 0.001), neonatologists ( r = 0.261, p = 0.007), midwives ( r = 0.248, p = 0.011), and psychiatrists ( r = 0.194, p = 0.048); however, assessment and support was only significantly correlated with midwives ( r = 0.208, p = 0.039). This study showed that hospital-based CPT members highly evaluate multidisciplinary collaborative practice for the management of abusive and/or negligent parents, and they believe that, in addition to pediatric physicians and nurses, perinatal care and mental health professionals are the most important

  1. Experimental Research in Boost Driver with EDLCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Hirokazu

    The supply used in servo systems tends to have a high voltage in order to reduce loss and improve the response of motor drives. We propose a new boost motor driver that comprises EDLCs. The proposed driver has a simple structure, wherein the EDLCs are connected in series to the supply, and comprises a charge circuit to charge the EDLCs. The proposed driver has three advantages over conventional boost drivers. The first advantage is that the driver can easily attain the stable boost voltage. The second advantage is that the driver can reduce input power peaks. In a servo system, the input power peaks become greater than the rated power in order to accelerate the motor rapidly. This implies that the equipments that supply power to servo systems must have sufficient power capacity to satisfy the power peaks. The proposed driver can suppress the increase of the power capacity of supply facilities. The third advantage is that the driver can store almost all of the regenerative energy. Conventional drivers have a braking resistor to suppress the increase in the DC link voltage. This causes a considerable reduction in the efficiency. The proposed driver is more efficient than conventional drivers. In this study, the experimental results confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed driver and showed that the drive performance of the proposed driver is the same as that of a conventional driver. Furthermore, it was confirmed that the results of the simulation of a model of the EDLC module, whose capacitance is dependent on the frequency, correspond well with the experimental results.

  2. Informal public transport driver behaviour and regulatory policy linkage: An expose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smart Dumba

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Literature on the negative socio-economic and environmental externalities generated by informal public transport (IPT in developing countries is vast, vibrant and growing fast. These externalities include but are not limited to noise, air and land pollution, accidents and, more importantly, a source of congestion (human and vehicular because of poor driver behaviour. In this article, the research does not seek to reinstate these, but rather, it argues that poor driver behaviour is a dependent variable to some regulatory policy stimuli. Yet, an extensive literature survey has shown that the driver behaviour and urban transport regulation linkage remain little explored. Objective: The purpose of this article was to unpack the relationship between informal public transport driver behaviour and the prevailing regulatory framework. Method: Based on a case study of Harare, Zimbabwe, the researcher adopted a mixed-methods paradigm and interrogated the prevailing urban public transport regulatory regimes and applied professional judgement, oral interviews backed by some quantitative data and relate these to obtaining IPT driver behavioural characteristics. Results: Poor driver behaviour exhibited by IPT were generated, exacerbated and or eased by the prevailing regulatory policy. This is well depicted through an IPT driver behaviour and regulation loop reinforcing diagram. Conclusion: Following this argument, the article cautions policy makers and urban managers alike that direct approaches and interventions when trying to regulate IPT poor driver behaviour and its secondary negative effects will be futile as long as the regulatory policy remains the same. Failure to recognise and connect the dots between IPT driver behaviour and policy partly explains why globally, the IPT sector has proved difficult in prohibiting, restructuring or even formalising it.

  3. Major depressive disorder, panic disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder in Korean subway drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyoung-Ryoul; Yim, Hyeon Woo; Jo, Sun-Jin; Choi, Bongkyoo; Jeong, Seung Hee; Lee, Kang Sook; Park, Jong-Ik; Chang, Sung Man

    2013-05-01

    The purposes of this study are to investigate the prevalence of major depressive disorder, panic disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in Korean subway drivers, and find the association between these disorders and the drivers' person-under-train (PUT) experiences. A total of 826 subway drivers who participated in a cross-sectional work and health survey were included for this study. The Korean version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview 2.1 was applied to assess major depressive disorder, panic disorder, and PTSD. The date of PUT, whether victim died, and how many PUTs the drivers experienced were asked using a structured questionnaire. The standardized prevalence ratios (SPRs) for lifetime prevalence of panic disorder and PTSD in subway drivers were 13.3 (95 % confidence interval [CI] 6.6-22.4) and 2.1 (95 % CI 1.1-3.4), respectively. In lifetime prevalence, after adjusting for age, education, income, and working career, the drivers who experienced PUT had significantly higher risks for panic disorder (odds ratio [OR] = 4.2, 95 % CI 1.2-16.6) and PTSD (OR = 4.4, 95 % CI 1.3-16.4). In 1-year prevalence, the drivers who experienced PUT had a significantly higher risk for PTSD (OR = 11.7, 95 % CI 1.9-225.8). There was no significant value of SPR and OR in major depressive disorder. This study suggests that Korean subway drivers are at higher risk for panic disorder and PTSD compared to the general population, and PUT experience is associated with panic disorder and PTSD. Drivers who have experienced PUT should be treated quickly, sympathetically, and sensitively by a psychological professional and their colleagues, so they can return to work soon.

  4. Professional aspects of nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Design and operation of nuclear facilities in Ontario are performed by professionals who have more at stake in the nuclear scene than the average resident of the province. Their technical expertise is constantly under scrutiny by their employers, the Atomic Energy Control Board, and the dissenting factions in the community. They and their families live close to nuclear facilities. It is highly unlikely that these professionals would assume a less than cautious approach to their work. The professional staff at both AECL-CANDU Operations and at Ontario Hydro have employee associations that date back many years. The presence of these associations has helped professional employees to divorce their labour-related concerns from their technical responsibilities to the advantage of the public. With the backing of their associations, the professional employees have encouraged the employers to sponsor career development programs to help them maintain state-of-the-art expertise. Employers have sponsored attendance and participation at technical seminars, many of them international. These benefits and privileges have contributed to improved standards in design, but most importantly the protection afforded by collective agreements to professional integrity has permitted engineers and other professionals to insist on the highest possible design standards

  5. New infrastructures for training in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marco, M.; Rodriguez, M.; Van der Steen, J.

    2007-01-01

    In this work, an analysis of the new infrastructure used in the radiation protection training and professional education, which is developed nowadays, is carried out. CIEMAT has been making many efforts in the education and training of professionals at all levels, for years. At present CIEMAT is developing educational activities in radiation protection general courses and professionals updating courses. The newest strategies for the radiation protection learning are developing in collaboration with professional societies. These try to encourage the technology transference, the collaboration between the actors involved with the radiation protection and the new information technology implementation. (Author) 11 refs

  6. My heart is racing! Psychophysiological dynamics of skilled racecar drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filho, Edson; Di Fronso, Selenia; Mazzoni, Caterina; Robazza, Claudio; Bortoli, Laura; Bertollo, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Our purpose was to test the multi-action plan model assumptions in which athletes' psychophysiological patterns differ among optimal and suboptimal performance experiences. Nine professional drivers competing in premier race categories (e.g. Formula 3, Porsche GT3 Cup Challenge) completed the study. Data collection involved monitoring the drivers' perceived hedonic tone, accuracy on core components of action, posture, skin temperature, respiration rate and heart rate responses during a 40-lap simulated race. Time marks, gathered at three standardised sectors, served as the performance variable. The A1GP racing simulator (Allinsport, Modena) established a realistic race platform. Specifically, the Barcelona track was chosen because of its inherently difficult nature characterised by intermittent deceleration points. Idiosyncratic analyses showed large individual differences in the drivers' psychophysiological profile, as well as distinct patterns in regards to optimal and suboptimal performance experiences. Limitations and future research avenues are discussed. Action- (e.g. attentional control) and emotion (e.g. biofeedback training)-centred applied sport psychology implications are advanced.

  7. [Analysis of risk factors associated with professional drivers’ work].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerwińska, Maja; Hołowko, Joanna; Stachowska, Ewa

    Professional driver is an occupation associated with high health risk. The factors which increase the risk of developing lifestyle diseases are closely related to working conditions. The aim of this study was to analyse the risk factors which are associated with professional drivers’ lifestyle. The material consisted of 23 articles from PubMed.gov. Risk factors related to drivers’ work have a signiicant impact on their health.

  8. Work-related stress and role of personality in a sample of Italian bus drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergomi, Margherita; Modenese, Alberto; Ferretti, Enrica; Ferrari, Angela; Licitra, Giuseppe; Vivoli, Roberto; Gobba, Fabriziomaria; Aggazzotti, Gabriella

    2017-01-01

    Several studies have shown that professional drivers are at risk of developing work-related stress. Stress may be responsible for a variety of adverse effects and may also be associated with an increased number of accidents. Perform an integrated, objective and subjective evaluation of work-related stress in bus drivers, that also considered the role of personality traits. Salivary α-amylase and cortisol were measured in 42 bus drivers. Subjective stress evaluation was performed with the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) and Driver Stress Inventory (DSI). To evaluate personality traits, we administered the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised (EPQ-R) and the Impulsivity Inventory (IVE). Salivary biomarkers showed no associations with PSS-10 and personality traits. Cortisol levels were positively correlated with fatigue (r = 0.44) at the middle of the work-shift and with aggression (r = 0.51) at the end of a day off. At the end of the work-shift, cortisol levels were negatively correlated with hazard monitoring (r = -0.37) and salivary α-amylase was positively correlated with thrill-seeking (r = 0.36). Neuroticism (β= 0.44) and impulsiveness (β= 0.38) were predictors of perceived stress by multiple regression. An integrated method, considering both objective and subjective indicators, seems adequate to evaluate work-related stress in professional drivers. Personality traits are relevant in determining perception of stress.

  9. Professional socialisation: an influence on professional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Professional socialisation refers to the acquisition of values, attitudes, skills and knowledge pertaining to a profession. This article reviews the definition and conceptualisation of professional socialisation through anticipatory and formal professional socialisation processes. It describes the core elements of professional ...

  10. DFB laser array driver circuit controlled by adjustable signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Weikang; Du, Yinchao; Guo, Yu; Li, Wei; Wang, Hao

    2018-01-01

    In order to achieve the intelligent controlling of DFB laser array, this paper presents the design of an intelligence and high precision numerical controlling electric circuit. The system takes MCU and FPGA as the main control chip, with compact, high-efficiency, no impact, switching protection characteristics. The output of the DFB laser array can be determined by an external adjustable signal. The system transforms the analog control model into a digital control model, which improves the performance of the driver. The system can monitor the temperature and current of DFB laser array in real time. The output precision of the current can reach ± 0.1mA, which ensures the stable and reliable operation of the DFB laser array. Such a driver can benefit the flexible usage of the DFB laser array.

  11. Driver style and driver skill – Clustering sub-groups of drivers differing in their potential danger in traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Laila Marianne; Møller, Mette; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    The Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ) and the Driver Skill Inventory (DSI) are two of the most frequently used measures of self-reported driving style and driving skill. The motivation behind the present study was to test drivers’ consistency or judgment of their own self-reported driving ability...... based on a combined use of the DBQ and the DSI. Moreover, the joint use of the two instruments was applied to identify sub-groups of drivers that differ in their potential danger in traffic (as measured by frequency of aberrant driving behaviors and level of driving skills), as well as to test whether...... the sub-groups of drivers differed in characteristics such as age, gender, annual mileage and accident involvement. 3908 drivers aged 18–84 participated in the survey. The results suggested that the drivers are consistent in their reporting of driving ability, as the self-reported driving skill level...

  12. Cognitive characteristics of older Japanese drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susilowati, Indri H; Yasukouchi, Akira

    2012-02-29

    Some causes of accidents among older drivers are: not paying attention to traffic signals; missing stop lines; and having to deal with and misjudging emergency situations. These causes of accidents reveal problems with attention and cognition. Such incidents are also related to driver perception and stress-coping mechanisms. It is important to examine the relation of stress reactions to attention and cognition as a factor influencing the causes of accidents commonly involving older drivers. Subjects were 10 young drivers (23.3 ± 3.33 years) and 25 older drivers divided into two groups (older1 [60 to 65 years] and older2 [> 65 years]). This study revealed the correlation within driver stress inventory and driver coping questionnaires parameters was observed only in older drivers. They also needed a longer response time for Trail Making Test A and B. The factors affected the attention and cognition of older drivers by age but not driving experience itself, and coping parameters such as emotion focus, reappraisal, and avoidance were not included as stress inventory parameters. Being prone to fatigue was less for younger drivers than older drivers. Because they have shorter distances, shorter drive times, and no need for expressways, older drivers also had a significantly lower risk of thrill-seeking behaviour and more patience. The intervention addressing their attention skills, aggressive feelings, and emotion focus should be considered. The technological improvements in cars will make older drivers feel safer and make driving easier which might lower the attention paid to the road, and regular driving training might be needed to assess and enhance their safety.

  13. Cognitive characteristics of older Japanese drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susilowati Indri H

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some causes of accidents among older drivers are: not paying attention to traffic signals; missing stop lines; and having to deal with and misjudging emergency situations. These causes of accidents reveal problems with attention and cognition. Such incidents are also related to driver perception and stress-coping mechanisms. It is important to examine the relation of stress reactions to attention and cognition as a factor influencing the causes of accidents commonly involving older drivers. Finding Subjects were 10 young drivers (23.3 ± 3.33 years and 25 older drivers divided into two groups (older1 [60 to 65 years] and older2 [> 65 years]. This study revealed the correlation within driver stress inventory and driver coping questionnaires parameters was observed only in older drivers. They also needed a longer response time for Trail Making Test A and B. The factors affected the attention and cognition of older drivers by age but not driving experience itself, and coping parameters such as emotion focus, reappraisal, and avoidance were not included as stress inventory parameters. Being prone to fatigue was less for younger drivers than older drivers. Because they have shorter distances, shorter drive times, and no need for expressways, older drivers also had a significantly lower risk of thrill-seeking behaviour and more patience. Conclusion The intervention addressing their attention skills, aggressive feelings, and emotion focus should be considered. The technological improvements in cars will make older drivers feel safer and make driving easier which might lower the attention paid to the road, and regular driving training might be needed to assess and enhance their safety.

  14. Stakeholder perspectives on managing the occupational health of UK business drivers: a qualitative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Katherine J C; Gyi, Diane E; Haslam, Cheryl O

    2011-03-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders are one of the leading causes of work related ill health and sickness absence. Those who drive as part of their job may be at particular risk, with evidence suggesting that prolonged exposure to driving is associated with increased absence from work due to low back pain. Business drivers often work away from a traditional office environment. Such mobile working may pose greater risks to occupational health due to increased ergonomic risks, for example working from the car, longer working hours and a lack of concern amongst drivers about health and safety. It has been suggested that occupational health practices have not adapted to meet the needs of peripatetic workers. The current study explored how occupational health services are delivered to business drivers. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with a sample of 31 stakeholders in 4 organisations. Respondents included, health and safety professionals, occupational health nurses, fleet managers and high mileage business drivers. The interviews were transcribed and analysed using 'Template Analysis'. The data revealed that, within these organisations, the provision of occupational health services was often fragmented and drivers and other key stakeholders were often unaware of the existing systems within their organisations. The peripatetic nature of business drivers meant that they were difficult for occupational health teams to reach. The paper concludes by presenting recommendations for occupational health professionals and researchers engaged with improving the health of peripatetic workers, namely that occupational health policies should be integrated in company strategy and widely disseminated to drivers and those with responsibility for managing their occupational health provision. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  15. Dominant drivers of business students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Cătălina

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Taibi Kahler wrote in 1974 a theory about five main drivers that could explain people’s motivation and a series of positive and negative behavior patterns: Be Strong, Be Perfect, Hurry Up, Try Hard and Please People. Of course, we consider there is no absolute positive or negative behavior, since (1 everything needs to be analyzed by taking into account the context and (2 any behavior pattern can mean a series of advantages as long as people understand their own values, beliefs, attitudes and behaviors. It would be interesting to link Kahler’s drivers to the educational process, in order to be able to adapt our courses and our teaching styles to students’ requirements and also to the requirements in the labor market. Our paper is built on literature review and a questionnaire applied to a sample of 607 students in Bucharest University of Economic Studies, Romania. Information was processed with Microsoft Excel 2013, in order to look at the main working styles our students have, at the main explanations for the differences between them and in order to test a series of hypotheses. We were interested to look at the main traits of the current generation of students in our university: dominant drivers, roles of managers and specialists, the attractiveness of the entrepreneurial career path, etc. and at a series of patterns (i.e. gender-related differences. We consider results of this study are useful both for teaching and research purposes. In terms of teaching, we plan to adapt our educational methods in order to improve the educational process.

  16. Research data management and libraries: relationships, activities, drivers and influences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Pinfield

    Full Text Available The management of research data is now a major challenge for research organisations. Vast quantities of born-digital data are being produced in a wide variety of forms at a rapid rate in universities. This paper analyses the contribution of academic libraries to research data management (RDM in the wider institutional context. In particular it: examines the roles and relationships involved in RDM, identifies the main components of an RDM programme, evaluates the major drivers for RDM activities, and analyses the key factors influencing the shape of RDM developments. The study is written from the perspective of library professionals, analysing data from 26 semi-structured interviews of library staff from different UK institutions. This is an early qualitative contribution to the topic complementing existing quantitative and case study approaches. Results show that although libraries are playing a significant role in RDM, there is uncertainty and variation in the relationship with other stakeholders such as IT services and research support offices. Current emphases in RDM programmes are on developments of policies and guidelines, with some early work on technology infrastructures and support services. Drivers for developments include storage, security, quality, compliance, preservation, and sharing with libraries associated most closely with the last three. The paper also highlights a 'jurisdictional' driver in which libraries are claiming a role in this space. A wide range of factors, including governance, resourcing and skills, are identified as influencing ongoing developments. From the analysis, a model is constructed designed to capture the main aspects of an institutional RDM programme. This model helps to clarify the different issues involved in RDM, identifying layers of activity, multiple stakeholders and drivers, and a large number of factors influencing the implementation of any initiative. Institutions may usefully benchmark their

  17. Research data management and libraries: relationships, activities, drivers and influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinfield, Stephen; Cox, Andrew M; Smith, Jen

    2014-01-01

    The management of research data is now a major challenge for research organisations. Vast quantities of born-digital data are being produced in a wide variety of forms at a rapid rate in universities. This paper analyses the contribution of academic libraries to research data management (RDM) in the wider institutional context. In particular it: examines the roles and relationships involved in RDM, identifies the main components of an RDM programme, evaluates the major drivers for RDM activities, and analyses the key factors influencing the shape of RDM developments. The study is written from the perspective of library professionals, analysing data from 26 semi-structured interviews of library staff from different UK institutions. This is an early qualitative contribution to the topic complementing existing quantitative and case study approaches. Results show that although libraries are playing a significant role in RDM, there is uncertainty and variation in the relationship with other stakeholders such as IT services and research support offices. Current emphases in RDM programmes are on developments of policies and guidelines, with some early work on technology infrastructures and support services. Drivers for developments include storage, security, quality, compliance, preservation, and sharing with libraries associated most closely with the last three. The paper also highlights a 'jurisdictional' driver in which libraries are claiming a role in this space. A wide range of factors, including governance, resourcing and skills, are identified as influencing ongoing developments. From the analysis, a model is constructed designed to capture the main aspects of an institutional RDM programme. This model helps to clarify the different issues involved in RDM, identifying layers of activity, multiple stakeholders and drivers, and a large number of factors influencing the implementation of any initiative. Institutions may usefully benchmark their activities against the

  18. Use of individual protection equipment and collective in case of accident during the transport of radioactive product - class 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastura, Valeria da F. e S.; Carvalho, Natanael Bruno de

    2013-01-01

    The personal protective equipment (PPE) are devices used by professionals against potential radiological hazards that may threaten the health or safety in the event of an accident or incident during the transport of radioactive material. The collective protection equipment (CPE) devices are used in place of the accident in order to protect people and the environment from risks such as safety signs, among others. This work will be part of the new edition of the NBR 9735 - Set of equipment for emergencies in land transport of dangerous goods - edited by the Brazilian Association of Technical Standards ABNT - National Standardization Forum which CNEN participates in the Study Committee - CB16 namely, dangerous, accounting for Class 7 radioactive materials. The Standard 9735 establishes the minimum set of equipment for emergencies in Inland transport of dangerous goods, consisting of protective equipment to be used by the driver and staff involved (if any) in the transport operations of transport units, equipment for signaling, isolation of the area of occurrence (fault, accident and/or emergency). Thus, we will present a set of individual and collective equipment that must accompany the carriage of Class 7 products to meet the radiological accident situations and also establish a training base for the driver as the use of them. (author)

  19. About Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... some types of elastomeric respirator masks and protective eyewear such as goggles may be reused if the ... State & Local Officials Consumers Health Professionals Science & Research Industry Scroll back to top Popular Content Home Latest ...

  20. Microprocessor-based stepping motor driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halbig, J.K.; Klosterbuer, S.F.

    1979-09-01

    The Pion Generation for Medical Irradiations (PIGMI) program at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory requires a versatile stepping motor driver to do beam diagnostic measurements. A driver controlled by a microprocessor that can move eight stepping motors simultaneously was designed. The driver can monitor and respond to clockwise- and counterclockwise-limit switches, and it can monitor a 0- to 10-V dc position signal. The software controls start and stop ramping and maximum stepping rates. 2 figures, 1 table

  1. Evaluation of curriculum to improve health professionals' ability to manage age-related driving impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Linda L; Rybar, Jill; Styer, Tara

    2013-12-01

    As our elderly population increases in proportion with respect to the rest of society, age-related driving impairments are increasing in importance as a public health concern. In this context, health professionals play an important role in identifying impaired drivers. This situation is complicated for two reasons: discussion of driving cessation is a sensitive topic for both health professionals and the elderly, and physicians have limited familiarity with the current American Medical Association (AMA) screening guidelines or mandated reporting laws. To assess curriculum that trains health professionals to increase their awareness, screening, management, and reporting of age-related driving impairments. Between 2009 and September 2011, 47 trainings were delivered to 1202 health professionals. The majority of trainings were seminars or lectures lasting 1h; all were conducted in southern California. The training curriculum was divided into four sections: introduction and background; screening and interpretation; managing outcomes and reporting; and referrals and resources. Videos addressed broaching the topic with patients and counseling on driving cessation. The curriculum was delivered by physicians with the support of public health-trained program staff. Pre- and post-testing was done with 641 of the participants; the majority were physicians. Post-training, participants' confidence in ability to screen increased to 72% and intent to screen increased to 55%. Fully 92% stated they had developed a better understanding of California's mandated reporting laws. Similarly, 92% said they had developed a better understanding of the medical conditions and medications that may impair older adults' ability to drive safely. Furthermore, 91% said mandated-reporting laws helped protect the safety of patients and others, and 59% said it was easier to discuss and justify driving cessation with patients. In-person training of health professionals on age-related driving

  2. Professional stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojević Dragana Z.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Job stress is a line, for the person at work hired adverse physiological, psychological and behavioral reactions to situations in which job requirements are not in accordance with its capabilities, abilities and needs. Sources of stress at work are numerous. Personal factors: personality types have been most studied so far, environmental changes and demographic characteristics as well. Interpersonal stress inducing factors act and influence to the occurrence of many psychosomatic diseases. Psychosocial climate and relationships which are prevented or encouraged such as: cooperation and competition, trust and suspicion certainly affect to the appearance of professional stress. The way of leadership is very important. Organizational factors are the type of work, work time, noncompliance of the job, the introduction of new ethnologies, the conflict of personal roles, fear of job loss, bad physical conditions of working environment. The consequences of stress at work are numerous: at the cognitive level, the emotional level, the production plan, the health, plan reduces the immune system that cause a variety of psychosomatic illnesses and accidents at work.

  3. Portrait professional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, Tim

    2011-12-01

    Most medical photographers, unless working as dedicated ophthalmic photographers or retinal screeners, will shoot portraits or publicity pictures. Many will spend a proportion of their time producing brochure shots for patient information material or their Trust's Annual Report. High-quality images of staff at work are often required by the strategic planning departments of Trusts to support bids for business from service commissioners. This "non-clinical" work is in reality commercial work - the jobs that high street portrait and general practice photographers would undertake in different settings. Medical photographers use many of the same tools as their commercial cousins. They use the same DSLR cameras and lenses. They use Adobe Photoshop to manipulate images. However, one software tool extensively used by portrait and social photographers, but possibly unfamiliar to many medical photographers, is Portrait Professional. Currently in its 10th version, it is produced by Anthropics Technology ( http://www.anthropics.com ), a London-based company specialising in image manipulation software.

  4. Economic drivers of mineral supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Lorie A.; Sullivan, Daniel E.; Sznopek, John L.

    2003-01-01

    The debate over the adequacy of future supplies of mineral resources continues in light of the growing use of mineral-based materials in the United States. According to the U.S. Geological Survey, the quantity of new materials utilized each year has dramatically increased from 161 million tons2 in 1900 to 3.2 billion tons in 2000. Of all the materials used during the 20th century in the United States, more than half were used in the last 25 years. With the Earth?s endowment of natural resources remaining constant, and increased demand for resources, economic theory states that as depletion approaches, prices rise. This study shows that many economic drivers (conditions that create an economic incentive for producers to act in a particular way) such as the impact of globalization, technological improvements, productivity increases, and efficient materials usage are at work simultaneously to impact minerals markets and supply. As a result of these economic drivers, the historical price trend of mineral prices3 in constant dollars has declined as demand has risen. When price is measured by the cost in human effort, the price trend also has been almost steadily downward. Although the United States economy continues its increasing mineral consumption trend, the supply of minerals has been able to keep pace. This study shows that in general supply has grown faster than demand, causing a declining trend in mineral prices.

  5. Hospital-based child protection teams that care for parents who abuse or neglect their children recognize the need for multidisciplinary collaborative practice involving perinatal care and mental health professionals: a questionnaire survey conducted in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okato A

    2018-02-01

    returned two factors: multidisciplinary collaborative practice (α = 0.84 and assessment and support (α = 0.89. A correlational analysis showed that multidisciplinary collaborative practice had a positive correlation for obstetricians (r = 0.315, p = 0.001, neonatologists (r = 0.261, p = 0.007, midwives (r = 0.248, p = 0.011, and psychiatrists (r = 0.194, p = 0.048; however, assessment and support was only significantly correlated with midwives (r = 0.208, p = 0.039. Conclusion: This study showed that hospital-based CPT members highly evaluate multidisciplinary collaborative practice for the management of abusive and/or negligent parents, and they believe that, in addition to pediatric physicians and nurses, perinatal care and mental health professionals are the most important participants in advanced CPT activities. Keywords: child abuse and neglect, abusive parents, child protection services, multidisciplinary practice, maltreatment of children

  6. Alcohol and drug involvement in motorcycle driver injuries in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil: Analysis of crash culpability and other associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Heraclito Barbosa; Andreuccetti, Gabriel; Rezende, Marcelo Rosa; Bernini, Celso; Silva, Jorge Santos; Leyton, Vilma; D'Andréa Greve, Julia Maria

    2016-05-01

    Earlier studies have already identified that a greater proportion of injured drivers are under the effects of illicit drugs than alcohol in Brazil, but the crash risk attributable to each substance is still unknown. Injured motorcycle drivers who were involved in traffic accidents in the West Zone of the city of Sao Paulo were recruited for a cross-sectional study based on crash culpability analysis. Alcohol and drug positivity among drivers was evaluated according to their responsibility for the crash. Culpability ratios were generated based on the proportion of drivers who were deemed culpable in relation to those considered not culpable according to the use of drugs and alcohol. Of the 273 drivers recruited, 10.6% tested positive for alcohol. Among those who were also tested for drugs (n=232), 20.3% had consumed either alcohol and/or other drugs, 15.5% of whom were positive only for drugs other than alcohol, specifically cannabis and cocaine. Drivers who tested positive for alcohol were significantly less likely to possess a valid driver's license and to report driving professionally, whereas those who had consumed only drugs were more likely to drive professionally. The culpability ratio estimated for alcohol-positive drivers was three times higher than that for alcohol-free drivers, showing a superior ratio than drivers who had consumed only drugs other than alcohol, who presented a 1.7 times higher culpability ratio than drug-free drivers. Substance use was overrepresented among culpable motorcycle drivers, with alcohol showing a greater contribution to crash culpability than other drugs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A Model for Traffic Accidents Prediction Based on Driver Personality Traits Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjana Čubranić-Dobrodolac

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The model proposed in this paper uses four psychological instruments for assessing driver behaviour and personality traits aiming to find a relationship between the considered constructs and the occurrence of traffic accidents. A Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11 was used for the assessment of impulsivity, Aggressive Driving Behaviour Questionnaire (ADBQ for assessing the aggressiveness while driving, Manchester Driver Attitude Questionnaire (DAQ and the Questionnaire for self-assessment of driving ability. Besides these instruments, the participants filled out an extensive demographic survey. Within the statistical analysis, in addition to the descriptive indicators, correlation coefficients were calculated and four hierarchical regression analyses were performed to determine the predictive power of personality traits on the occurrence of traffic accidents. Further, to confirm the results and to obtain additional information about the relationship between the considered variables, the structural equation modelling and binary logistic regression have been implemented. A sample of this research covered 305 drivers, of which there were 100 bus drivers and 102 truck drivers, as well as 103 drivers of privately owned vehicles. The results indicate that BIS-11 and ADBQ questionnaires show the best predictive power which means that impulsivity and aggressiveness as personality traits have the greatest influence on the occurrence of traffic accidents. This research could be useful in many fields, such as the design of selection procedures for professional drivers, development of programs for the prevention of traffic accidents and violations of law, rehabilitation of drivers who have been deprived of the driving license, etc.

  8. Drivers' reactions to sudden lead car braking under varying workload conditions; towards a driver support system.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaap, Nina; van der Horst, A.R.A.; van Arem, Bart; Brookhuis, K.A.

    2008-01-01

    At urban intersections drivers handle multiple tasks simultaneously, making urban driving a complex task. An advanced driver assistance system may support drivers in this specific driving task, but the design details of such a system need to be determined before they can be fully deployed. A driving

  9. Handbook of driver assistance systems basic information, components and systems for active safety and comfort

    CERN Document Server

    Hakuli, Stephan; Lotz, Felix; Singer, Christina

    2016-01-01

    This fundamental work explains in detail systems for active safety and driver assistance, considering both their structure and their function. These include the well-known standard systems such as Anti-lock braking system (ABS), Electronic Stability Control (ESC) or Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC). But it includes also new systems for protecting collisions protection, for changing the lane, or for convenient parking. The book aims at giving a complete picture focusing on the entire system. First, it describes the components which are necessary for assistance systems, such as sensors, actuators, mechatronic subsystems, and control elements. Then, it explains key features for the user-friendly design of human-machine interfaces between driver and assistance system. Finally, important characteristic features of driver assistance systems for particular vehicles are presented: Systems for commercial vehicles and motorcycles.

  10. S-Band POSIX Device Drivers for RTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lux, James P.; Lang, Minh; Peters, Kenneth J.; Taylor, Gregory H.

    2011-01-01

    This is a set of POSIX device driver level abstractions in the RTEMS RTOS (Real-Time Executive for Multiprocessor Systems real-time operating system) to SBand radio hardware devices that have been instantiated in an FPGA (field-programmable gate array). These include A/D (analog-to-digital) sample capture, D/A (digital-to-analog) sample playback, PLL (phase-locked-loop) tuning, and PWM (pulse-width-modulation)-controlled gain. This software interfaces to Sband radio hardware in an attached Xilinx Virtex-2 FPGA. It uses plug-and-play device discovery to map memory to device IDs. Instead of interacting with hardware devices directly, using direct-memory mapped access at the application level, this driver provides an application programming interface (API) offering that easily uses standard POSIX function calls. This simplifies application programming, enables portability, and offers an additional level of protection to the hardware. There are three separate device drivers included in this package: sband_device (ADC capture and DAC playback), pll_device (RF front end PLL tuning), and pwm_device (RF front end AGC control).

  11. Physics at an upgraded Fermilab proton driver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geer, S.; /Fermilab

    2005-07-01

    In 2004 the Fermilab Long Range Planning Committee identified a new high intensity Proton Driver as an attractive option for the future, primarily motivated by the recent exciting developments in neutrino physics. Over the last few months a physics study has developed the physics case for the Fermilab Proton Driver. The potential physics opportunities are discussed.

  12. Functional Bus Driver-Pupil Passenger Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Ernest

    1987-01-01

    Successful school bus drivers bring much more than mechanical know-how to the job. They develop good rapport with students while acting to bring undesirable student behavior under control. Drivers must also show an interest in students' welfare and have a good sense of humor. (MLH)

  13. Cedar Avenue driver assist system evaluation report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    This paper summarizes an evaluation of the Driver Assist System (DAS) used by the Minnesota Valley Transit Authority (MTVA) for bus shoulder operations. The DAS is a GPS-based technology suite that provides lane-position feedback to the driver via a ...

  14. Driver electronic device use in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    The percentage of drivers text-messaging or visibly manipulating : hand-held devices increased from 1.5 percent in : 2012 to 1.7 percent in 2013; however, this was not a statistically : significant increase. Driver hand-held cell phone : use decrease...

  15. Vehicle and driver scheduling for public transit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    The problem of driver scheduling involves the construction of a legal set of shifts, including allowance : of overtime, which cover the blocks in a particular vehicle schedule. A shift is the work scheduled to be performed by : a driver in one day, w...

  16. Traffic Safety through Driver Assistance and Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiner Bubb

    2011-05-01

    BMW, Daimler, Audi, Citroen, Lexus, VW, Opel, Peugeot, Renault, Chevrolet, Saab and Bosch. Both the contributions of research work concerning driving behavior analysis and driver assistance systems have to be aligned with a permanently updated interaction within the system of driver, vehicle and road traffic environment.

  17. Driver citation/carrier data relationship project

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The Driver/Carrier Relationship Project was commissioned to address three issues. The first was to determine if drivers of commercial motor vehicles get tickets at a different rate, depending on the carrier that they are working for. The second issue...

  18. About Assessment Criteria of Driver's Accidental Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobanova, Yuliya I.; Glushko, Kirill V.

    2016-01-01

    The article points at the importance of studying the human factor as a cause of accidents of drivers, especially in loosely structured traffic situations. The description of the experiment on the measurement of driver's accidental abilities is given. Under accidental ability is meant the capability to ensure the security of driving as a behavior…

  19. Optimizing the Universal Robots ROS driver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Timm

    improvement both in terms of faster reaction as well as making it possible to control the robot using either ros_control or ordinary joint speed commands, which is required for many types of sensory based control like visual servoing. The developed driver is compared to the drivers already existing in the ROS...

  20. High speed CAMAC differential branch highway driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMillan, D.E.; Nelson, R.O.; Poore, R.V.; Sunier, J.W.; Ross, J.J.

    1979-01-01

    A new CAMAC branch driver is described that incorporates several unusual features which combine to give reliable, high-speed performance. These include balanced line driver/receivers, stored CAMAC command lists, 8 DMA channels, pseudo LAMS, hardware priority encoding of LAMS, and hardware-implemented Q-controlled block transfers. 3 figures

  1. The work of bus drivers and their contribution to excellence in public transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Marcelo Brunoro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is the result of a survey aimed at analyzing the work of bus drivers for a collective urban transportation company that is considered a benchmark. The research sought to understand how the company could maintain a policy capable of reconciling the quality of public transportation with working conditions that are compatible with the professional development, comfort and health of the workers. The ergonomic work analysis methodology was adopted as a guide. The results show that one of the pillars of excellence achieved by this company is the quality of the work performed by their drivers, which is guided by the organizational values that permeate the organization. The driver plays a role in regulating the system by serving the population and providing mobility. Their activity is controlled by a series of interdependent variables, such as the demands for conducting the vehicle and the relationship with others.

  2. BDC 500 branch driver controller

    CERN Document Server

    Dijksman, A

    1981-01-01

    This processor has been designed for very fast data acquisition and date pre-processing. The dataway and branch highway speeds have been optimized for approximately 1.5 mu sec. The internal processor cycle is approximately 0.8 mu sec. The standard version contains the following functions (slots): crate controller type A1; branch highway driver including terminator; serial I/O port (TTY, VDU); 24 bit ALU and 24 bit program counter; 16 bit memory address counter and 4 word stack; 4k bit memory for program and/or data; battery backup for the memory; CNAFD and crate LAM display; request/grant logic for time- sharing operation of several BDCs. The free slots can be equipped with e.g. extra RAM, computer interfaces, hardware multiplier/dividers, etc. (0 refs).

  3. Competence and Professional Expertise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, A.T.; Heijden, B.I.J.M. van der; Mulder, M.

    2017-01-01

    Theoretical and empirical controversies exist about the understanding and potentials of the concepts of competence and professional expertise. In this chapter, both concepts will be thoroughly conceptualised and discussed. Competence and professional expertise are important as all professionals need

  4. Competence and Professional Expertise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, Arnoud; Van der Heijden, Beatrice

    2018-01-01

    Theoretical and empirical controversies exist about the understanding and potentials of the concepts competence and professional expertise. In this chapter, both concepts will be thoroughly conceptualised and discussed. Competence and professional expertise are important as all professionals need to

  5. Visual behaviour analysis and driver cognitive model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baujon, J.; Basset, M.; Gissinger, G.L. [Mulhouse Univ., (France). MIPS/MIAM Lab.

    2001-07-01

    Recent studies on driver behaviour have shown that perception - mainly visual but also proprioceptive perception - plays a key role in the ''driver-vehicle-road'' system and so considerably affects the driver's decision making. Within the framework of the behaviour analysis and studies low-cost system (BASIL), this paper presents a correlative, qualitative and quantitative study, comparing the information given by visual perception and by the trajectory followed. This information will help to obtain a cognitive model of the Rasmussen type according to different driver classes. Many experiments in real driving situations have been carried out for different driver classes and for a given trajectory profile, using a test vehicle and innovative, specially designed, real-time tools, such as the vision system or the positioning module. (orig.)

  6. SPIDER: A Framework for Understanding Driver Distraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strayer, David L; Fisher, Donald L

    2016-02-01

    The objective was to identify key cognitive processes that are impaired when drivers divert attention from driving. Driver distraction is increasingly recognized as a significant source of injuries and fatalities on the roadway. A "SPIDER" model is developed that identifies key cognitive processes that are impaired when drivers divert attention from driving. SPIDER is an acronym standing for scanning, predicting, identifying, decision making, and executing a response. When drivers engage in secondary activities unrelated to the task of driving, SPIDER-related processes are impaired, situation awareness is degraded, and the ability to safely operate a motor vehicle may be compromised. The pattern of interference helps to illuminate the sources of driver distraction and may help guide the integration of new technology into the automobile. © 2015, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  7. Healthcare professionals' perspectives on environmental sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunphy, Jillian L

    2014-06-01

    Human health is dependent upon environmental sustainability. Many have argued that environmental sustainability advocacy and environmentally responsible healthcare practice are imperative healthcare actions. What are the key obstacles to healthcare professionals supporting environmental sustainability? How may these obstacles be overcome? Data-driven thematic qualitative analysis of semi-structured interviews identified common and pertinent themes, and differences between specific healthcare disciplines. A total of 64 healthcare professionals and academics from all states and territories of Australia, and multiple healthcare disciplines were recruited. Institutional ethics approval was obtained for data collection. Participants gave informed consent. All data were de-identified to protect participant anonymity. Qualitative analysis indicated that Australian healthcare professionals often take more action in their personal than professional lives to protect the environment, particularly those with strong professional identities. The healthcare sector's focus on economic rationalism was a substantial barrier to environmentally responsible behaviour. Professionals also feared conflict and professional ostracism, and often did not feel qualified to take action. This led to healthcare professionals making inconsistent moral judgements, and feeling silenced and powerless. Constraints on non-clinical employees within and beyond the sector exacerbated these difficulties. The findings are consistent with the literature reporting that organisational constraints, and strong social identification, can inhibit actions that align with personal values. This disparity can cause moral distress and residue, leading to feelings of powerlessness, resulting in less ethical behaviour. The data highlight a disparity between personal and professional actions to address environmental sustainability. Given the constraints Australian healthcare professionals encounter, they are unlikely to

  8. 6 CFR 37.17 - Requirements for the surface of the driver's license or identification card.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Driver's license or identification card number. This cannot be the individual's SSN, and must be unique... University Street, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3C 5H7, e-mail: [email protected] You may inspect a copy of the...

  9. Modeling of Driver Steering Operations in Lateral Wind Disturbances toward Driver Assistance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurata, Yoshinori; Wada, Takahiro; Kamiji, Norimasa; Doi, Shun'ichi

    Disturbances decrease vehicle stability and increase driver's mental and physical workload. Especially unexpected disturbances such as lateral winds have severe effect on vehicle stability and driver's workload. This study aims at building a driver model of steering operations in lateral wind toward developing effective driver assistance system. First, the relationship between the driver's lateral motion and its reactive quick steering behavior is investigated using driving simulator with lateral 1dof motion. In the experiments, four different wind patterns are displayed by the simulator. As the results, strong correlation was found between the driver's head lateral jerk by the lateral disturbance and the angular acceleration of the steering wheel. Then, we build a mathematical model of driver's steering model from lateral disturbance input to steering torque of the reactive quick feed-forward steering based on the experimental results. Finally, validity of the proposed model is shown by comparing the steering torque of experimental results and that of simulation results.

  10. Reducing risky driver behaviour through the implementation of a driver risk management system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Luke

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available South Africa has one of the highest incidences of road accidents in the world. Most accidents are avoidable and are caused by driver behaviour and errors. The purpose of this article was to identify the riskiest driver behaviours in commercial fleets in South Africa, to determine the business impact of such behaviour, to establish a framework for the management of risky driver behaviour and to test the framework by applying a leading commercial driver behaviour management system as a case study. The case study comprised three South African commercial fleets. Using data from these fleets, critical incident triangles were used to determine the ratio data of risky driver behaviour to near-collisions and collisions. Based on managing the riskiest driver behaviours as causes of more serious incidents and accidents, the results indicated that through the implementation of an effective driver risk management system, risky incidents were significantly reduced.

  11. Use of illicit drugs by truck drivers arriving at Paranaguá port terminal, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixe, Tiago Severo; de Almeida, Rafael Menck; Girotto, Edmarlon; de Andrade, Selma Maffei; Mesas, Arthur Eumann

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of recent use of illicit drugs among truck drivers who had parked their vehicles at the terminal port in Paranaguá City at Paraná State, southern Brazil. This cross-sectional study was part of a larger research project conducted among drivers at a regional Brazilian port. Data on professional characteristics, involvement in road traffic injuries, sleep, and use of alcohol and illicit drugs were collected using a questionnaire. Urine samples were collected and analyzed for amphetamines, cocaine, and cannabis using gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. Sixty-two drivers were included in the study. Toxicological analyses showed that 8.1 percent (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.7-17.8%) of the urine samples were positive for drugs (4.8% for cocaine, 1.6% for amphetamine, and 1.6% for both); 8.1 percent reported drug use during the preceding 30 days in the questionnaire and only one tested positive for the drug in the urine sample. No sample was positive for cannabinoids. In total, at least 14.5 percent (95% CI, 6.9-25.8%) had used illicit drugs during the preceding 30 days based on self-reports and urine testing. Drivers who reported involvement in traffic injuries the year before more often tested positive for drugs in biological samples (P illicit stimulants was common among professional truck drivers transporting grain loads. Thus, actions are needed to reduce drug use among truck drivers in order to prevent drug-related road traffic injuries.

  12. Networked professional learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloep, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Sloep, P. B. (2013). Networked professional learning. In A. Littlejohn, & A. Margaryan (Eds.), Technology-enhanced Professional Learning: Processes, Practices and Tools (pp. 97–108). London: Routledge.

  13. How driving duration influences drivers' visual behaviors and fatigue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    unhcc

    Eye fixations express the focus of driver's visual attention on driving, ... driver's attention is attracted by fatigue. The second ... was divided into seven refined categories (see Table 1), ...... driver fatigue in terms of line crossing: a pilot study.

  14. a Design of the Driver Airbag Module with Floating Horn Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Chang-Min; Lee, Young-Hoon; Suh, Duck-Young

    The driver airbag system is designed as a supplemental restraint system in addition to the seatbelt, and is designed to protect the driver's head and chest against severe injury by a device that is actuated in case of vehicle's fronted impact. Deployment of an airbag module with floating horn assembly is a highly dynamic process. The concept of driver airbag module with floating horn assembly and aluminum emblem is presented as a useful parameter when the airbag deploys and the energy is evaluated as performance factor in airbag module. Floating horn assembly is also one of the major factors for driver airbag module design to perform its horn function and check the package between driver airbag module and steering wheel. This study on the design of driver airbag module with floating horn assembly proved the feasibility as a new safety device. However, the system level study is needed for decrease of passenger injury. This study can be used for the implementation of a prototype of DABM with floating horn device.

  15. Insights into vehicle trajectories at the handling limits: analysing open data from race car drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegelman, John C.; Harbott, Lene K.; Gerdes, J. Christian

    2017-02-01

    Race car drivers can offer insights into vehicle control during extreme manoeuvres; however, little data from race teams is publicly available for analysis. The Revs Program at Stanford has built a collection of vehicle dynamics data acquired from vintage race cars during live racing events with the intent of making this database publicly available for future analysis. This paper discusses the data acquisition, post-processing, and storage methods used to generate the database. An analysis of available data quantifies the repeatability of professional race car driver performance by examining the statistical dispersion of their driven paths. Certain map features, such as sections with high path curvature, consistently corresponded to local minima in path dispersion, quantifying the qualitative concept that drivers anchor their racing lines at specific locations around the track. A case study explores how two professional drivers employ distinct driving styles to achieve similar lap times, supporting the idea that driving at the limits allows a family of solutions in terms of paths and speed that can be adapted based on specific spatial, temporal, or other constraints and objectives.

  16. Occupational accidents among mototaxi drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Camila Rego; de Araújo, Edna Maria; de Araújo, Tânia Maria; de Oliveira, Nelson Fernandes

    2012-03-01

    The use of motorcycles as a means of work has contributed to the increase in traffic accidents, in particular, mototaxi accidents. The aim of this study was to estimate and characterize the incidence of occupational accidents among the mototaxis registered in Feira de Santana, BA. This is a cross-sectional study with descriptive and census data. Of the 300 professionals registered at the Municipal Transportation Service, 267 professionals were interviewed through a structured questionnaire. Then, a descriptive analysis was conducted and the incidence of accidents was estimated based on the variables studied. Relative risks were calculated and statistical significance was determined using the chi-square test and Fisher's exact test, considering p accidents were observed in 10.5% of mototaxis. There were mainly minor injuries (48.7%), 27% of them requiring leaves of absence from work. There was an association between the days of work per week, fatigue in lower limbs and musculoskeletal complaints, and accidents. Knowledge of the working conditions and accidents involved in this activity can be of great importance for the adoption of traffic education policies, and to help prevent accidents by improving the working conditions and lives of these professionals.

  17. ASSESSMENT OF THE GENERAL PSYCHOLOGICAL AND FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERISTICS CAUSED BY VIBRATIONS AT DRIVERS OF HEAVY MOTOR VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanela Čajlaković Kurtalić

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we presented a research that estimates general psychological and functional characteristics of motor vehicle drivers, with the goal of determining the adverse effects of noise and vibration on the drivers. The study was conducted on a sample of 56 participants, professional drivers of motor vehicles, randomly chosen from companies of various types operating in transport of passengers and goods. For the evaluation of the results,we used descriptive and correlational analysis. The results showed that there were significant negative side effects caused by the nature of work of drivers, especially those under the influence of noise and vibration, which are even more significant in older participants and those with more years of service and those who spend more time driving during the interval of 24 hours , as well as those who drive heavier vehicles.

  18. An epidemiologic survey of road traffic accidents in Iran: analysis of driver-related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moafian, Ghasem; Aghabeigi, Mohammad-Reza; Heydari, Seyed Taghi; Hoseinzadeh, Amin; Lankarani, Kamran Bagheri; Sarikhani, Yaser

    2013-01-01

    Road traffic accident (RTA) and its related injuries contribute to a significant portion of the burden of diseases in Iran. This paper explores the association between driver-related factors and RTA in the country. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Iran and all data regarding RTAs from March 20, 2010 to June 10, 2010 were obtained from the Traffic Police Department. We included 538 588 RTA records, which were classified to control for the main confounders: accident type, final cause of accident, time of accident and driver-related factors. Driver-related factors included sex, educational level, license type, type of injury, duration between accident and getting the driving license and driver's error type. A total of 538 588 drivers (91.83% male, sex ratio of almost 13:1) were involved in the RTAs. Among them 423 932 (78.71%) were uninjured; 224 818 (41.74%) had a diploma degree. Grade 2 driving license represented the highest proportion of all driving licenses (290 811, 54.00%). The greatest number of accidents took place at 12:00-13:59 (75 024, 13.93%). The proportion of drivers involved in RTAs decreased from 15.90% in the first year of getting a driving license to 3.13% after 10 years'of driving experience. Neglect of regulations was the commonest cause of traffic crashes (345 589, 64.17%). Non-observance of priority and inattention to the front were the most frequent final causes of death (138 175, 25.66% and 129 352, 24.02%, respectively). We found significant association between type of accident and sex, education, license type, time of accident, final cause of accident, driver's error as well as duration between accident and getting the driving license (all P less than 0.001). Our results will improve the traffic law enforcement measures, which will change inappropriate behavior of drivers and protect the least experienced road users.

  19. Square pulse linear transformer driver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kim

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The linear transformer driver (LTD technological approach can result in relatively compact devices that can deliver fast, high current, and high-voltage pulses straight out of the LTD cavity without any complicated pulse forming and pulse compression network. Through multistage inductively insulated voltage adders, the output pulse, increased in voltage amplitude, can be applied directly to the load. The usual LTD architecture [A. A. Kim, M. G. Mazarakis, V. A. Sinebryukhov, B. M. Kovalchuk, V. A. Vizir, S. N Volkov, F. Bayol, A. N. Bastrikov, V. G. Durakov, S. V. Frolov, V. M. Alexeenko, D. H. McDaniel, W. E. Fowler, K. LeCheen, C. Olson, W. A. Stygar, K. W. Struve, J. Porter, and R. M. Gilgenbach, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 12, 050402 (2009PRABFM1098-440210.1103/PhysRevSTAB.12.050402; M. G. Mazarakis, W. E. Fowler, A. A. Kim, V. A. Sinebryukhov, S. T. Rogowski, R. A. Sharpe, D. H. McDaniel, C. L. Olson, J. L. Porter, K. W. Struve, W. A. Stygar, and J. R. Woodworth, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 12, 050401 (2009PRABFM1098-440210.1103/PhysRevSTAB.12.050401] provides sine shaped output pulses that may not be well suited for some applications like z-pinch drivers, flash radiography, high power microwaves, etc. A more suitable power pulse would have a flat or trapezoidal (rising or falling top. In this paper, we present the design and first test results of an LTD cavity that generates such a type of output pulse by including within its circular array a number of third harmonic bricks in addition to the main bricks. A voltage adder made out of a square pulse cavity linear array will produce the same shape output pulses provided that the timing of each cavity is synchronized with the propagation of the electromagnetic pulse.

  20. Increased urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine excretion in long-distance bus drivers in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yueh-Ying; Donovan, Maryann; Sung, Fung-Chang

    2010-05-01

    Professional bus drivers are exposed to environments containing air pollution and reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can induce cellular oxidative stress and DNA damage. This study investigated environmental factors associated with oxidative DNA damage in a cohort of long-distance bus drivers. In a comparison study, urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a biomarker of DNA oxidative damage, was examined in 120 male long-distance bus drivers and 58 male office workers in Taiwan. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyze association between urinary 8-OHdG levels and environmental factors. Bus drivers had higher urinary 8-OHdG levels (adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=9.4, 95% confidence interval (CI)=3.5-28.2) compared with office workers. Increased urinary 8-OHdG level was significantly related to cigarette smoking (aOR=18.0, 95% CI=7.1-52.1), consumption of energy drinks (aOR=5.0, 95% CI=2.1-12.6), and regular exercise (aOR=3.8, 95% CI=1.5-10.2). A strong exposure-response relationship was found between urinary 8-OHdG and urinary cotinine (pbus drivers (aOR=3.9, 95% CI=1.0-17.7) had higher urinary 8-OHdG than office workers. Among both bus drivers and office workers, those who drank energy drinks (aOR=3.7, 95% CI=1.2-12.2) had higher 8-OHdG levels than those who did not drink energy drinks. Adjusted for smoking, levels of 8-OHdG were increased in long-distance bus drivers exposed to traffic exhaust and ingested energy drinks. Future studies should explore what aspects of energy drinks may contribute to increased urinary 8-OHdG. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Bovine immunity - a driver for diversity in Theileria parasites?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeever, Declan J

    2009-06-01

    Theileria parva and Theileria annulata are tick-borne parasites of cattle that infect and transform leukocytes, causing severe and often fatal parasitic leukoses. Both species provoke strong immunity against subsequent infection. However, considerable diversity is observed in field populations of each parasite and protection is only assured against homologous challenge. The life cycles of these parasites are complex and involve prolonged exposure to host and vector defence mechanisms. Although the relevant vector mechanisms are poorly defined, protective responses of cattle seem to be tightly focused and variable in their specificity between individuals. This review considers whether bovine immunity acts as a driver for diversity in T. parva and T. annulata and explores other factors that might underlie genetic variation in these parasites.

  2. Education for older drivers in the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esko Keskinen

    2014-07-01

    Five presumptions have to be considered when addressing future education for older drivers: 1. Driving a car will continue to be one element of mobility in the future; 2. Older people want to be able to keep driving; 3. Safety will be an even more important factor in mobility in the future; 4. Ecological values will be more important in the future; and 5. Innovative technological applications will be more important in the future. Hierarchical models of driving are suitable in increasing understanding of older drivers' needs and abilities. The highest levels of the driving hierarchy in the Goals for Driver Education (GDE model are especially important for the safety of both young and elderly drivers. In these highest levels goals for life, skills for living, and social environment affect everyday decision making in general but also driving, which has an impact on driver safety. Giving up driving is very much a social decision and should be taken as such. However, the highest levels of the driving hierarchy are by nature inaccessible to teacher-centered instruction These levels require more coaching-like education methods where the learner takes the central role and the teacher helps the drivers understand their own abilities and limitations in traffic. Testing and selecting older drivers to enhance safety is not, according to research findings, working in a proper way. Older drivers do not so much need more information concerning traffic rules, etc., but rather better understanding of themselves, their health restrictions, their skills, and their abilities to ensure daily mobility. Their closest companions also need tools to help them in discussions of traffic safety issues affecting older drivers.

  3. SUBJECTIVE METHODS FOR ASSESSMENT OF DRIVER DROWSINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Mashko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the issue of fatigue and sleepiness behind the wheel, which for a long time has been of vital importance for the research in the area of driver-car interaction safety. Numerous experiments on car simulators with diverse measurements to observe human behavior have been performed at the laboratories of the faculty of the authors. The paper provides analysis and an overview and assessment of the subjective (self-rating and observer rating methods for observation of driver behavior and the detection of critical behavior in sleep deprived drivers using the developed subjective rating scales.

  4. Will the Driver Seat Ever Be Empty?

    OpenAIRE

    Fraichard , Thierry

    2014-01-01

    Self-driving technologies have matured and improved to the point that, in the past few years, self-driving cars have been able to safely drive an impressive number of kilometers. It should be noted though that, in all cases, the driver seat was never empty: a human driver was behind the wheel, ready to take over whenever the situation dictated it. This is an interesting paradox since the point of a self-driving car is to remove the most unreliable part of the car, namely the human driver. So,...

  5. Tarantula: Killing driver bugs before they hatch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawall, Julia Laetitia; Muller, Gilles; Urunuela, Richard

    2005-01-01

    The Linux operating system is undergoing continual evolution. Evolution in the kernel and generic driver modules often triggers the need for corresponding evolutions in specific device drivers. Such collateral evolutions are tedious, because of the large number of device drivers, and error......-prone, because of the complexity of the code modifications involved. We propose an automatic tool, Tarantula, to aid in this process. In this paper, we examine some recent evolutions in Linux and the collateral evolutions they trigger, and assess the corresponding requirements on Tarantula....

  6. Assessing the relationship between the Driver Behavior Questionnaire and the Driver Skill Inventory: Revealing sub-groups of drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Laila Marianne; Møller, Mette; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    The Driver Behavior Questionnaire and the Driver Skill Inventory are two of the most frequently used measures of self-reported driving style and driving skill. The motivation behind the present study was to identify sub-groups of drivers that potentially act dangerously in traffic (as measured...... self-reported driving skills and whether the reported skill level was reflected in the reported aberrant driving behaviors. 3908 drivers aged 18–84 participated in the survey. K-means cluster analysis revealed four distinct sub-groups that differed in driving skills and frequency of aberrant driving...... by frequency of aberrant driving behaviors and level of driving skills), as well as to test whether the sub-groups differ in characteristics such as age, gender, annual mileage and accident involvement. Furthermore, the joint analysis of the two instruments was used to test drivers’ assessment of their own...

  7. Toxoplasma gondii infection in interstate truck drivers: a case-control seroprevalence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Pacheco-Vega, Sandy Janet; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús; Salcedo-Jáquez, Misael; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Berumen-Segovia, Luis Omar; Rábago-Sánchez, Elizabeth; Liesenfeld, Oliver

    2015-02-05

    Infection with Toxoplasma gondii can be acquired via the ingestion of undercooked or raw meat containing tissue cysts, or via ingestion of water contaminated with oocysts. Professional long distance truck driving may have epidemiological importance for food-borne infections since drivers eat out of home and in places where hygiene and cooking practices are uncertain. We aimed to determine whether interstate truck drivers in Durango, Mexico have an increased risk of infection with T. gondii as indicated by seropositivity; and to determine the socio-demographic, work, clinical, and behavioral characteristics associated with T. gondii seropositivity in interstate truck drivers. Through a case-control study design, 192 truck drivers and 192 controls from the general population of the same region matched by gender and age were examined with enzyme-linked immunoassays for the presence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies. Socio-demographic, work, clinical and behavioral characteristics from the truck drivers were obtained. Anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies were found in 23 (12.0%) of 192 truck drivers and in 13 (6.8%) of 192 controls (OR = 21.0; 95% CI: 1.23-358.38; P = 0.002). Anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies were found in 7 (3.6%) cases and in 7 (3.6%) controls (P = 1.00). The seroprevalence of T. gondii infection was higher in drivers with reflex impairment than in those without this impairment (4/13, 30.8% vs 19/179, 10.6%, respectively; P = 0.05), and in drivers with hearing impairment than in those without this impairment (3/7, 42.9% vs 20/185, 10.8%, respectively; P = 0.03). Multivariate analysis of work and behavioral characteristics of truck drives showed positive associations of T. gondii exposure with trips to the south of Mexico (OR = 3.11; 95% CI: 1.02-9.44; P = 0.04) and consumption of horse meat (OR = 5.18; 95% CI: 1.62-16.55; P = 0.005). Results suggest that interstate truck drivers may have an increased risk for T

  8. Sustainable Construction Industry in Cambodia: Awareness, Drivers and Barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar Durdyev

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Although sustainability is of utmost importance, anecdotal evidence suggests that the concept is not adequately implemented in many developing countries. This paper investigates industry stakeholders’ awareness of the current state of, factors driving, and barriers hindering the adoption of sustainable construction (SC in Cambodia. Using an empirical questionnaire survey targeting local construction professionals, respondents were invited to rate their level of awareness, knowledge and understanding of SC, as well as to rate the level of importance of 31 drivers and 10 barriers identified from the seminal literature. The data set was subjected to the relative importance index method. The results suggest that the industry-wide adoption of SC practices is poor, which is believed to be due to a lack of awareness and knowledge, and reluctance to adopt new sustainable technologies. Furthermore, more efforts must be put into the selection of more durable materials for the extension of buildings’ lives and to minimize material consumption, as well as to develop energy-efficient buildings with minimal environmental impact and a healthy indoor environment, so that the ability of future generations to meet their own needs will not be compromised. The outcomes of this study have enriched knowledge about the current state of, drivers of, and barriers to sustainable construction in a typical developing economy. Although the outcomes of this study were a short scoping exercise, it has formed a significant base for future SC work within Cambodia.

  9. Prevalence of noise-induced hearing loss in drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Cintra Lopes1, , , ,

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Work-related hearing loss is one of the most common occupational illness progresses over the years of noise exposure associated with the work environment, may cause damage to undertake physical activity, the individual's physiological and mental besides causing hearing damage irreversible interfering with communication and quality of life. With high prevalence of male evaluates which is the second leading cause of hearing loss. Since there is no medical treatment for this type of hearing loss, it is evident the importance of preventive and conferences aimed at preserving hearing and health as a whole. Objective: To assess the prevalence of hearing loss in audiometry admission of drivers. Methods: Retrospective study. By 76 charts of professional drivers in leased transport companies. We analyzed data from specific interview and pure tone audiometry. Results: The prevalence of abnormal tests was 22.36% with the lowest thresholds for tritonal average of 3,000, 4,000 and 6,000 Hz. The higher the age, the higher thresholds. Conclusion: This study has highlighted the occurrence of hearing in the absence of complaints. Considering that PAIR is preventable, justifies the importance of coordinated and multidisciplinary involving not only health teams and safety, but also the institutions involved in preserving the health of workers, as the team SESMET, unions or prosecutors.

  10. Radiation protection training in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeiffer, H.J.

    1999-01-01

    An increasing number of radiation protection experts and of professionally exposed workers is temporarily or permanently working in a country other than the one where they received their radiation protection education or training. They all face the problem and the difficulties of recognition of radiation protection training programs by other countries. For this reason the German-Swiss Radiation Protection Association (Fachverband fuer Strahlenschutz; FS) made a proposal to IRPA for an action on the mutual recognition of radiation protection education in Europe. In a first step contacts were made with two other European Associations of France and UK in order to establish a joint working group. (orig.) [de

  11. Testing and verification of a novel single-channel IGBT driver circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukić Milan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel single-channel IGBT driver circuit together with a procedure for testing and verification. It is based on a specialized integrated circuit with complete range of protective functions. Experiments are performed to test and verify its behaviour. Experimental results are presented in the form of oscilloscope recordings. It is concluded that the new driver circuit is compatible with modern IGBT transistors and power converter demands and that it can be applied in new designs. It is a part of new 20kW industrial-grade boost converter.

  12. Viewpoint: learning professionalism: a view from the trenches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainard, Andrew H; Brislen, Heather C

    2007-11-01

    The authors, medical students immersed in learning professionalism, observe that most of the professionalism literature misses the mark. Their views on professionalism education, although not the result of qualitative research, were gained from four years of conversations with students from a dozen medical schools, plus online student discussions, focus groups, and meetings with supervisors from five schools. The authors propose that the chief barrier to medical professionalism education is unprofessional conduct by medical educators, which is protected by an established hierarchy of academic authority. Students feel no such protection, and the current structure of professionalism education and evaluation does more to harm students' virtue, confidence, and ethics than is generally acknowledged. The authors maintain that deficiencies in the learning environment, combined with the subjective nature of professionalism evaluation, can leave students feeling persecuted, unfairly judged, and genuinely and tragically confused. They recommend that administrators, medical educators, residents, and students alike must show a personal commitment to the explicit professionalism curriculum and address the hidden curriculum openly and proactively. Educators must assure transparency in the academic process, treat students respectfully, and demonstrate their own professional and ethical behavior. Students overwhelmingly desire to become professional, proficient, and caring physicians. They seek professional instruction, good role models, and fair evaluation. Students struggle profoundly to understand the disconnect between the explicit professional values they are taught and the implicit values of the hidden curriculum. Evaluation of professionalism, when practiced in an often unprofessional learning environment, invites conflict and compromise by students that would otherwise tend naturally toward avowed professional virtues.

  13. 2010 driver attitudes and awareness survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    A basic of questions were developed that could be used in periodic surveys that track drivers attitudes and awareness concerning impaired driving, seat belt use, and speeding issues. The objective of the survey was to learn the knowledge, views, and ...

  14. Understanding & modeling bus transit driver availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Bus transit agencies are required to hire extraboard (i.e. back-up) operators to account for unexpected absences. Incorrect sizing of extra driver workforce is problematic for a number of reasons. Overestimating the appropriate number of extraboard o...

  15. Chinese Road Safety and Driver Behavior Research

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Junhua

    2015-01-01

    The seminar will begin with a brief overview of the Chinese road safety situation, including current safety problems, and then move on to discuss safety research including driver behavior, freeway operational safety, and infrastructure development.

  16. Drug involvement of fatally injured drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    While data focusing on the danger of driving under the influence : of alcohol is readily available and often cited, less is : known or discussed about drivers under the influence of : other drugs. The Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS), : a ce...

  17. Driver Education for New Multimodal Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-24

    Local and state transportation agencies are redesigning roads to accommodate multimodal travel, including the addition of new configurations, infrastructures, and rules that may be unfamiliar to current drivers and other road users. Education and out...

  18. Deregulation and Macroeconomic Drivers Of Foreign Direct ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Deregulation and Macroeconomic Drivers Of Foreign Direct Investment In Nigerian Agriculture (1970 -2009): An Econometric Analysis. ... The study showed that foreign exchange and the economic deregulation policy of Nigerian government ...

  19. Symbol signing design for older drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-07-01

    This project evaluated the effectiveness of symbol traffic signs for young, middle-aged and elderly drivers. Daytime legibility distance and comprehension of 85 symbols in the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD) were measured. Legibilit...

  20. Teen driver crashes : a report to Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    This report summarizes what is known about the teen driver crash problem and reviews the research on the major contributing factors to the high teen crash rate. Dispositional factors, such as immaturity, inexperience, faulty judgment, and a higher pr...

  1. The importance of sight for drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Pas-Wyroślak

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Sight is the basic sense for drivers. Condition of the eye determines correct, comfortable and safe performance of the work as drivers. This article presents various factors influencing the sight condition. There are two groups of factors, external (environment, the kind and time of work, stress caused by work and internal (systemic and local disorders. All these factors can reduce significantly visual functions, such as visual acuity, field of vision, color vision, strereoscopic vision, twilight vision and glare sensitivity. There are also presented actual requirements for drivers and causes of the car accidents in various age groups. Impairments in vision functions can be dangerous for both the driver and other road users. Med Pr 2013;64(3:419–425

  2. Experimental testing of designated driver cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-07-27

    In theory, the designated-driver concept holds great promise for reducing the incidences of drunk driving. It is simple, inexpensive, almost universally recognized, and generally positively regarded by the U.S. population as a means for avoiding drun...

  3. Heavy-ion driver parametric studies and choice of a base 5 mega-joule driver design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieri, R.; Meier, W.

    1992-01-01

    Parametric studies to optimize heavy-ion driver designs are described and an optimized 5 MJ driver design is described. Parametric studies are done on driver parameters including driver energy, number of beams, type of superconductor used in focusing magnets, maximum magnetic field allowed at the superconducting windings, axial quadrupole field packing fraction, ion mass, and ion charge state. All modeled drivers use the maximum beam currents allowed by the Maschke limits; driver scaling is described in a companion paper. The optimized driver described is conservative and cost effective. The base driver direct costs are only $120/Joule, and the base driver uses no recirculation, beam combination, or beam separation. The low driver cost achieved is due, in part, to the use of compact Nb 3 Sn quadrupole arrays, but results primarily from optimization over the large, multi-dimensional, parameter space available for heavy-ion drivers

  4. Identification of drivers for modular production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunoe, Thomas Ditlev; Bossen, Jacob; Nielsen, Kjeld

    2015-01-01

    Todays competitive environment in industry creates a need for companies to enhance their ability to introduce new products faster. To increase rampup speed reconfigurable manufacturing systems is a promising concept, however to implement this production platforms and modular manufacturing...... is required. This paper presents an analysis whether and which module drivers from general product development can be applied to the development process of a modular manufacturing system. The result is a compiled list of modular drivers for manufacturing and examples of their use....

  5. Important information for drivers in France

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    From 1 July 2012, any driver of a motorised road vehicle, excluding two- or three-wheeled vehicles whose engine capacity does not exceed 50cm3, must be in possession of a breathalyser in full working order. With effect from 1 November 2012*, drivers failing to produce a breathalyser run the risk of being served with an 11 euro fine. A breathalyser is used to measure the alcohol content in the motorist's breath. The permissible level of alcohol for drivers is less than 0.5 g of alcohol per litre of blood, or 0.25 mg of alcohol per litre of air exhaled. The obligation to have a breathalyser on board the vehicle also applies to all drivers on the French part of the CERN site. All vehicles belonging to or leased by the Organization must also carry a breathalyser together with all the requisite documentation (cf. Operational Circular No. 4). Drivers of privately owned vehicles can obtain breathalysers from car accessory dealers, service stations or pharmacies, etc. Drivers of vehicles belonging to or l...

  6. Myocardial infarction in Swedish subway drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigert, Carolina; Klerdal, Kristina; Hammar, Niklas; Gustavsson, Per

    2007-08-01

    Particulate matter in urban air is associated with the risk of myocardial infarction in the general population. Very high levels of airborne particles have been detected in the subway system of Stockholm, as well as in several other large cities. This situation has caused concern for negative health effects among subway staff. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is an increased incidence of myocardial infarction among subway drivers. Data from a population-based case-control study of men aged 40-69 in Stockholm County in 1976-1996 were used. The study included all first events of myocardial infarction in registers of hospital discharges and deaths. The controls were selected randomly from the general population. National censuses were used for information on occupation. Altogether, 22 311 cases and 131 496 controls were included. Among these, 54 cases and 250 controls had worked as subway drivers. The relative risk of myocardial infarction among subway drivers was not increased. It was 0.92 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.68-1.25] when the subway drivers were compared with other manual workers and 1.06 (95% CI 0.78-1.43) when the subway drivers were compared with all other gainfully employed men. Subgroup analyses indicated no influence on the risk of myocardial infarction from the duration of employment, latency time, or time since employment stopped. Subway drivers in Stockholm do not have a higher incidence of myocardial infarction than other employed persons.

  7. Effects of Defensive Vehicle Handling on Novice Driver Safety : Phase 3. Data Analysis and Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    This project evaluates the effectiveness of a multistage driver education program for Montanas young : drivers. A total of 347 teenaged drivers who had completed high school driver education agreed to participate. : These drivers were randomly spl...

  8. Workshop on transport for a common ion driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, C.C.; Lee, E.; Langdon, B.

    1994-01-01

    This report contains research in the following areas related to beam transport for a common ion driver: multi-gap acceleration; neutralization with electrons; gas neutralization; self-pinched transport; HIF and LIF transport, and relevance to common ion driver; LIF and HIF reactor concepts and relevance to common ion driver; atomic physics for common ion driver; code capabilities and needed improvement

  9. Towards professionalism in agricultural extension: The professional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Towards professionalism in agricultural extension: The professional registration of Extensionists in South Africa – A dream or a reality? The role of the ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would ...

  10. Towards professionalism in agricultural extension: The professional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Towards professionalism in agricultural extension: The professional registration of Extensionists in South Africa – A dream or a reality? The role of the South African Society of Extensionists in South Africa – A dream or a reality? The role of the South African Society of Agricultural Extension (SASAE)

  11. Implementing managerial innovations in primary care: can we rank change drivers in complex adaptive organizations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Francesco

    2007-01-01

    There has been much innovation in primary care in the past few decades. Although external and systemic constraints for health care organizations are relevant for their managerial evolution, there is also evidence that organizations operating under the same external pressures reach different levels of maturity. Which of the internal drivers available explain and foster change? Is it possible to rank change drivers by looking at their rate of efficacy in order to define a general change management path in the relationship between managers and physicians? The study is a hypothesis-generating work, designed to discuss a framework, consistent with the complex adaptive systems literature, for more effective internal change management approaches. We employed a qualitative approach to conduct a multiple case study in order to directly observe the evidence and to ask "key change players" for their perceptions. We studied different organizations all subject to the same external constraints in order to focus on the effects of internal change drivers. According to key players' opinions, the main drivers for managerial development are characteristics of the actors involved: their motivation, leadership, and commitment; the quality of relationships among the main actors; and how the resources dedicated to manage change are used. Given these criteria, any organizational strategy and goal seems to be achievable. This is consistent with the suggestions coming from the complex adaptive system literature. MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: Managers have to consider the management of the relationship with professionals as the key success factor for implementing change. Managerial leadership has to be diffused in the organization both in the vertical and horizontal dimensions. Innovations need a medium or long-term perspective to become widely applied, and this requires a strong commitment which is related to managerial stability. Resources for innovation are to be considered a critical driver

  12. Design of laser diode driver with constant current and temperature control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming-cai; Yang, Kai-yong; Wang, Zhi-guo; Fan, Zhen-fang

    2017-10-01

    A laser Diode (LD) driver with constant current and temperature control system is designed according to the LD working characteristics. We deeply researched the protection circuit and temperature control circuit based on thermos-electric cooler(TEC) cooling circuit and PID algorithm. The driver could realize constant current output and achieve stable temperature control of LD. Real-time feedback control method was adopted in the temperature control system to make LD work on its best temperature point. The output power variety and output wavelength shift of LD caused by current and temperature instability were decreased. Furthermore, the driving current and working temperature is adjustable according to specific requirements. The experiment result showed that the developed LD driver meets the characteristics of LD.

  13. Teacher Professional Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nareerat Rakwichitkul

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Teacher professional development are the teachers’ learning process throughout their career stages to ensure that teachers have knowledge, skills and needed competencies for teaching among rapid changes in social, economic and technology which have the impact on learning and teaching. This article deals with the topics of the framework for teaching, teacher career stages and teacher professional development. The research findings related to teacher professional development, teacher professional development activities, suggestions for planning the professional development. Those research findings can be applied and implemented by the school principals, educational supervisors and other professional developers.

  14. Physics for radiation protection

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, James E

    2013-01-01

    A much-needed working resource for health physicists and other radiation protection professionals, this volume presents clear, thorough, up-to-date explanations of the basic physics necessary to address real-world problems in radiation protection. Designed for readers with limited as well as basic science backgrounds, Physics for Radiation Protection emphasizes applied concepts and carefully illustrates all topics through examples as well as practice problems. Physics for Radiation Protection draws substantially on current resource data available for health physics use, providing decay schemes and emission energies for approximately 100 of the most common radionuclides encountered by practitioners. Excerpts of the Chart of the Nuclides, activation cross sections, fission yields, fission-product chains, photon attenuation coefficients, and nuclear masses are also provided.

  15. Radiation protection in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vano, E.; Holmberg, O.; Perez, M. R.; Ortiz, P.

    2016-01-01

    Diagnostic, interventional and therapeutic used of ionizing radiation are beneficial for hundreds of millions of people each year by improving health care and saving lives. In March 2001, the first International Conference on the Radiological Protection of Patients was held in Malaga, Spain, which led to an international action plan for the radiation protection of patients. Ten years after establishing the international action plan, the International Conference on Radiation Protection in Medicine: Setting the Scene for the Next Decade was held in Bonn, Germany, in December 2012. the main outcome of this conference was the so called Bonn Call for Action that identifies then priority actions to enhance radiation protection in medicine for the next decade. The IAEA and WHO are currently working in close cooperation to foster and support the implementation of these ten priority actions in Member States, but their implementation requires collaboration of national governments, international agencies, researchers, educators, institutions and professional associations. (Author)

  16. Radiation protection in medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vano, E.; Holmberg, O.; Perez, M. R.; Ortiz, P.

    2016-08-01

    Diagnostic, interventional and therapeutic used of ionizing radiation are beneficial for hundreds of millions of people each year by improving health care and saving lives. In March 2001, the first International Conference on the Radiological Protection of Patients was held in Malaga, Spain, which led to an international action plan for the radiation protection of patients. Ten years after establishing the international action plan, the International Conference on Radiation Protection in Medicine: Setting the Scene for the Next Decade was held in Bonn, Germany, in December 2012. the main outcome of this conference was the so called Bonn Call for Action that identifies then priority actions to enhance radiation protection in medicine for the next decade. The IAEA and WHO are currently working in close cooperation to foster and support the implementation of these ten priority actions in Member States, but their implementation requires collaboration of national governments, international agencies, researchers, educators, institutions and professional associations. (Author)

  17. Reliability of drivers in urban intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gstalter, Herbert; Fastenmeier, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    The concept of human reliability has been widely used in industrial settings by human factors experts to optimise the person-task fit. Reliability is estimated by the probability that a task will successfully be completed by personnel in a given stage of system operation. Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) is a technique used to calculate human error probabilities as the ratio of errors committed to the number of opportunities for that error. To transfer this notion to the measurement of car driver reliability the following components are necessary: a taxonomy of driving tasks, a definition of correct behaviour in each of these tasks, a list of errors as deviations from the correct actions and an adequate observation method to register errors and opportunities for these errors. Use of the SAFE-task analysis procedure recently made it possible to derive driver errors directly from the normative analysis of behavioural requirements. Driver reliability estimates could be used to compare groups of tasks (e.g. different types of intersections with their respective regulations) as well as groups of drivers' or individual drivers' aptitudes. This approach was tested in a field study with 62 drivers of different age groups. The subjects drove an instrumented car and had to complete an urban test route, the main features of which were 18 intersections representing six different driving tasks. The subjects were accompanied by two trained observers who recorded driver errors using standardized observation sheets. Results indicate that error indices often vary between both the age group of drivers and the type of driving task. The highest error indices occurred in the non-signalised intersection tasks and the roundabout, which exactly equals the corresponding ratings of task complexity from the SAFE analysis. A comparison of age groups clearly shows the disadvantage of older drivers, whose error indices in nearly all tasks are significantly higher than those of the other groups

  18. Assessing drivers' response during automated driver support system failures with non-driving tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Sijun; Neyens, David M

    2017-06-01

    With the increase in automated driver support systems, drivers are shifting from operating their vehicles to supervising their automation. As a result, it is important to understand how drivers interact with these automated systems and evaluate their effect on driver responses to safety critical events. This study aimed to identify how drivers responded when experiencing a safety critical event in automated vehicles while also engaged in non-driving tasks. In total 48 participants were included in this driving simulator study with two levels of automated driving: (a) driving with no automation and (b) driving with adaptive cruise control (ACC) and lane keeping (LK) systems engaged; and also two levels of a non-driving task (a) watching a movie or (b) no non-driving task. In addition to driving performance measures, non-driving task performance and the mean glance duration for the non-driving task were compared between the two levels of automated driving. Drivers using the automated systems responded worse than those manually driving in terms of reaction time, lane departure duration, and maximum steering wheel angle to an induced lane departure event. These results also found that non-driving tasks further impaired driver responses to a safety critical event in the automated system condition. In the automated driving condition, driver responses to the safety critical events were slower, especially when engaged in a non-driving task. Traditional driver performance variables may not necessarily effectively and accurately evaluate driver responses to events when supervising autonomous vehicle systems. Thus, it is important to develop and use appropriate variables to quantify drivers' performance under these conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights reserved.

  19. Whistleblower Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Whistleblower Protection Enhancement Act of 2012 (WPA) and the Whistleblower Protection Act of 1989 Enhanced by the Act of 2012 provides protection rights for Federal employees against retaliation for whistleblowing activities.

  20. On ethical issues in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, L.

    1996-01-01

    From an ethical viewpoint the author surveys existing international radiation protection recommendations and standards. After outlining previous work on the ethics of radiation protection, professional ethics, and the ethics of human radiation experiments, the author discusses ethical thinking on seven key issues related to radiation protection and ethics. (author)

  1. The Challenge of Four-Status Model of eLearning: Principles Toward a New Understanding for Healthcare Professionals

    OpenAIRE

    Turnbull, Niruwan; Wills, Gary; Gobbi, Mary

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the critical reviews of the advantages and disadvantages of eLearning for healthcare professionals. The impact of learning on healthcare professionals is explored; the focus is on healthcare professionals in rural Thailand. Literature suggests that there are four main topics related to the drivers and barriers in eLearning, they are: Infrastructure; Finance; Policies; and Culture (IF-PC). IF-PC model of barriers and drivers of eLearning is being adopted as a template for t...

  2. Radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelzer, W.

    1975-01-01

    Physical and radiological terms, quantities, and units. Basic principles of radiation protection (ICRP, IAEA, EURATOM, FRG). Biological effects of ionizing radiation. Objectives of practical radiation protection. (HP) [de

  3. Anatomy of the Human Ear/Questions to Ask your Hearing Professional

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Human Ear/ Questions to Ask your Hearing Professional Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... on decibel information. ) Questions to Ask Your Hearing Professional What can I do to protect my hearing ...

  4. Professional and Regulatory Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Professional and Regulatory search are designed for people who use EPA web resources to do their job. You will be searching collections where information that is not relevant to Environmental and Regulatory professionals.

  5. Communicating with Professionals

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Communicating with Professionals Updated:Mar 8,2018 After a cardiac event ... shorter and more rushed than you (or your professionals) want. Simple communication skills can help you get ...

  6. Situational Factors of Influencing Drivers to Give Precedence to Jaywalking Pedestrians at Signalized Crosswalk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobei Jiang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A large number of fatalities are caused by the vehicle-pedestrian accidents. Under a potential conflict between the vehicle and jaywalking pedestrian, giving precedence to the pedestrian will be a proper decision taken by the driver to avoid collision. Field traffic data has been collected by video recording and image processing at two signalized crosswalks. Vehicle speed performance in the single vehicle-pedestrian encounter and platoon vehicle-pedestrian encounter were analyzed for understanding the driver behavior in the conflict process. Binary logic model was proposed to estimate the drivers' giving precedence influenced by the situational factors and the model was validated to predict the drivers' choices accurately. The vehicle speed, pedestrian speed, pedestrian lateral distance and the vehicle longitudinal distance to the conflict point were proved to affect the drivers' choices in platoon driving. The research results would hopefully be helpful to the design of intelligent vehicles and pedestrian protection systems by the knowledge-based decision making process.

  7. Novice drivers' individual trajectories of driver behavior over the first three years of driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Gabriela D; Poulter, Damian; Barker, Edward; McKenna, Frank P; Rowe, Richard

    2015-09-01

    Identifying the changes in driving behavior that underlie the decrease in crash risk over the first few months of driving is key to efforts to reduce injury and fatality risk in novice drivers. This study represented a secondary data analysis of 1148 drivers who participated in the UK Cohort II study. The Driver Behavior Questionnaire was completed at 6 months and 1, 2 and 3 years after licensure. Linear latent growth models indicated significant increases across development in all four dimensions of aberrant driving behavior under scrutiny: aggressive violations, ordinary violations, errors and slips. Unconditional and conditional latent growth class analyses showed that the observed heterogeneity in individual trajectories was explained by the presence of multiple homogeneous groups of drivers, each exhibiting specific trajectories of aberrant driver behavior. Initial levels of aberrant driver behavior were important in identifying sub-groups of drivers. All classes showed positive slopes; there was no evidence of a group of drivers whose aberrant behavior decreased over time that might explain the decrease in crash involvement observed over this period. Male gender and younger age predicted membership of trajectories with higher levels of aberrant behavior. These findings highlight the importance of early intervention for improving road safety. We discuss the implications of our findings for understanding the behavioral underpinnings of the decrease in crash involvement observed in the early months of driving. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Assisting Driver Sovereignty : A Fail-Safe Design Approach to Driver Distraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Gijssel, A.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis investigates the potential of a fail-safe approach to driver distraction through novel interface concepts for integrated Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS). Traffic accidents are a negative side effect of the universal and economical desire for mobility. The year 2009 saw the

  9. Special design issues. Ion beam driver-reaction chamber interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.; Peterson, R.R.; Kessler, G.

    1995-01-01

    Design issues of the interface between ion beam drivers and the reaction chamber for heavy ion beam and light ion beam inertial fusion drivers are discussed. The interface must provide for radiation protection of final focusing magnets, pumping of evaporated material and non-condensable gas that enter the beam ports, thermal insulation, heat removal, a.o.. Beam ports and focal magnets must be protected by neutronically thick shielding between the beam path and the magnet conductor. The required thickness of the shielding determines the minimum spacing between individual beams in a cluster of beams. The cone angle of this cluster can affect target performance. The beamlines are subjected to evaporated material, debris, and rapidly moving droplets. The reaction chambers used here are HYLIFE-II for indirect, HIBALL-II for direct drive. The light ion beam interface is based on the LIBRA and LIBRA-LiTE studies. In the case of HYLIFE-II, liquid jets must be demonstrated with a thickness of 0.5 m and with an edge that comes to within 10 mm of the beam edges to protect the ports. Design of compact focal arrays with enough shielding to give magnets an adequate lifetime must be achieved. As shielding is added the size of the beam array will grow and the target will drop. For HIBALL neutron shielding of the focal magnets provides an adequate lifetime. Replaceable special INPORT units will have to be developed in the region of the beam ports. For light ions transport issues have led to structures being placed close enough to the target that they experience a higher neutron damage rate and must be replaced once or twice a year, which would require remote maintenance. Light ion concepts could greatly benefit from a self-pinched transport scheme, though the details are unclear and the effect on availability is uncertain. Light and heavy ions have similar problems in keeping the gas in the drivers at a low density. Both will require active means to preserve this low density, while

  10. Professional performance in school

    OpenAIRE

    Rubio, J. F.

    2012-01-01

    Professional performance in education is now calling the attention of researcher due to its role in the professionalizing process intended to increase international education standards. In this article the term professional performance is examined from the two socio-historic traditional roles involved in training the individuals as a bio-psychic and social entity: teachers and executive. By means of scientific methods, the author gives the theoretical grounds connecting professional performan...

  11. Professional negligence reconsidered

    OpenAIRE

    DeVries, Ubaldus R M Th

    1996-01-01

    This thesis examines the concept of professional negligence. In doing so, it aims to find the distinguishing factors that characterize professional negligence as against other types of negligence. It seeks to emphasize the functions, duties and activities of professional people, rather than any examination of their status. The thesis demonstrates that this concept is based on a "broadspectrum" duty of care with specific obligations, particular to professional conduct. ...

  12. Redesign of Transjakarta Bus Driver's Cabin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardi Safitri, Dian; Azmi, Nora; Singh, Gurbinder; Astuti, Pudji

    2016-02-01

    Ergonomic risk at work stations with type Seated Work Control was one of the problems faced by Transjakarta bus driver. Currently “Trisakti” type bus, one type of bus that is used by Transjakarta in corridor 9, serving route Pinang Ranti - Pluit, gained many complaints from drivers. From the results of Nordic Body Map questionnaires given to 30 drivers, it was known that drivers feel pain in the neck, arms, hips, and buttocks. Allegedly this was due to the seat position and the button/panel bus has a considerable distance range (1 meter) to be achieved by drivers. In addition, preliminary results of the questionnaire using Workstation Checklist identified their complaints about uncomfortable cushion, driver's seat backrest, and the exact position of the AC is above the driver head. To reduce the risk level of ergonomics, then did research to design the cabin by using a generic approach to designing products. The risk analysis driver posture before the design was done by using Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA), Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA), and Quick Exposure Checklist (QEC), while the calculation of the moment the body is done by using software Mannequin Pro V10.2. Furthermore, the design of generic products was done through the stages: need metric-matrix, house of quality, anthropometric data collection, classification tree concept, concept screening, scoring concept, design and manufacture of products in the form of two-dimensional. While the design after design risk analysis driver posture was done by using RULA, REBA, and calculation of moments body as well as the design visualized using software 3DMax. From the results of analysis before the draft design improvements cabin RULA obtained scores of 6, REBA 9, and the result amounted to 57.38% QEC and moment forces on the back is 247.3 LbF.inch and on the right hip is 72.9 LbF.in. While the results of the proposed improvements cabin design RULA obtained scores of 3, REBA 4, and the moment of force on

  13. Professional Development. Issue Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keleher, Julia

    2017-01-01

    In this professional development research brief, the author sets forth the overarching considerations that should be kept in mind when conceptualizing professional development for educators working with neglected or delinquent youth (N or D). The brief begins by defining professional development and demonstrating why it is a critical support for…

  14. Professional Socialization in Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edens, Geraldine E.

    Professional socialization is the process by which individuals acquire the specialized knowledge, skills, attitudes, values, norms, and interests needed to perform their professional roles acceptably. The following interacting domains of potential professional self-growth can be defined as outcomes of the socialization process: self-image, role…

  15. Driver's Behavior Modeling Using Fuzzy Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sehraneh Ghaemi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we propose a hierarchical fuzzy system for human in a driver-vehicle-environment system to model takeover by different drivers. The driver's behavior is affected by the environment. The climate, road and car conditions are included in fuzzy modeling. For obtaining fuzzy rules, experts' opinions are benefited by means of questionnaires on effects of parameters such as climate, road and car conditions on driving capabilities. Also the precision, age and driving individuality are used to model the driver's behavior. Three different positions are considered for driving and decision making. A fuzzy model called Model I is presented for modeling the change of steering angle and speed control by considering time distances with existing cars in these three positions, the information about the speed and direction of car, and the steering angle of car. Also we obtained two other models based on fuzzy rules called Model II and Model III by using Sugeno fuzzy inference. Model II and Model III have less linguistic terms than Model I for the steering angle and direction of car. The results of three models are compared for a driver who drives based on driving laws.

  16. Views of US drivers about driving safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Allan F

    2003-01-01

    To assess how drivers view dangers on the highway, what motivates them to drive safely, how they say they reduce their crash and injury risk, and how they rate their own driving skills. Most drivers rated their skills as better than average. The biggest motivating factor for safe driving was concern for safety of others in their vehicle, followed by negative outcomes such as being in a crash, increased insurance costs, and fines. The greatest threats to their safety were thought to be other drivers' actions that increase crash risk such as alcohol impairment or running red lights. In terms of reducing crashes and injuries, drivers tended to focus on actions they could take such as driving defensively or using seat belts. There was less recognition of the role of vehicles and vehicle features in crash or injury prevention. Knowing how drivers view themselves and others, their concerns, and their motivations and techniques for staying out of trouble on the roads provides insight into the difficulty of changing driving practices.

  17. Railway suicide: the psychological effects on drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, R; Tranah, T; O'Donnell, I; Catalan, J

    1992-05-01

    People have jumped (or fallen) in front of trains on the London Underground system in increasing numbers throughout the twentieth century. During the past decade there have been about 100 such incidents each year, of which around 90 would involve the train driver witnessing his train strike the person on the track. Most are suicides or attempts at suicide. They represent major unexpected and violent events in the lives of the train drivers and it might be expected that some of them would respond by developing a post-traumatic stress reaction of the type identified by Horowitz (1976) or other adverse psychological reactions or both. The research reported in this paper was designed to characterize the range of responses of drivers to the experiences of killing or injuring members of the public during the course of their daily work. It was found that 16.3% of the drivers involved in incidents did develop post-traumatic stress disorder and that other diagnoses, e.g. depression and phobic states, were present in 39.5% of drivers when interviewed one month after the incident.

  18. Of academics and professionals: The difference is in the pay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Călin Vâlsan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available University professors, on the one hand, and professionals, such as doctors and lawyers on the other hand share many things in common, yet they are also different in key aspects. One of the most important differences lies the nature of the incentives and motivation to which they respond. This paper claims that turning academics into regular professionals would have far-reaching consequences from a wider social perspective. Emphasizing monetary rewards at the expense of intrinsic drivers would most likely change the nature and structure of the academic output.

  19. Livestock Grazing as a Driver of Vernal Pool Ecohydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels, J.; McCarten, N. F.

    2017-12-01

    Vernal pools are seasonal wetlands that host rare plant communities of high conservation priority. Plant community composition is largely driven by pool hydroperiod. A previous study found that vernal pools grazed by livestock had longer hydroperiods compared with pools excluded from grazing for 10 years, and suggests that livestock grazing can be used to protect plant diversity. It is important to assess whether observed differences are due to the grazing or due to water balance variables including upland discharge into or out of the pools since no a priori measurements were made of the hydrology prior to grazing. To address this question, in 2016 we compared 15 pools that have been grazed continuously and 15 pools that have been fenced off for over 40 years at a site in Sacramento County. We paired pools based on abiotic characteristics (size, shape, slope, soil type) to minimize natural variation. We sampled vegetation and water depth using Solinst level loggers. We found that plant diversity and average hydroperiod was significantly higher in the grazed pools. We are currently measuring groundwater connectivity and upland inputs in order to compare the relative strength of livestock grazing as a driver of hydroperiod to these other drivers.

  20. Advancing Military Professionalism in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    professional military. It simultaneously undermines a military’s commitment to protect the country and its citizens. Plato noted some 2,400 years ago...stepping down from his post as Senior Advisor to the President on Defence and Security.42 He procured not only spoiled food rations for the Ugandan... Plato , The Republic, tr. G.M.A. Grube (Hacket, 1992), 417b and 434a-b. 17 “Above the State: The Officers’ Republic in Egypt,” Carnegie Middle East Center

  1. Co-location as a Driver for Cross-Sectoral Collaboration with General Practitioners as Coordinators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheele, Christian Elling; Vrangbæk, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    The issue of integrated care and inter-sectoral collaboration is on the health policy agenda in many countries. Yet, there is limited knowledge about the effects of the different policy instruments used to achieve this. This paper studies co-location as a driver for cross-sectoral collaboration...... with general practitioners (GPs) acting as coordinators in a municipal health centre. The purpose of the health centre, which is staffed by health professionals from municipal, regional and private sectors, is to provide primary health services to the citizens of the municipality. Co......-locating these professionals is supposed to benefit e.g., elder citizens and patients with chronic diseases who frequently require services from health professionals across administrative sectors. Methodologically, the analysis is based on qualitative data in the form of semi-structured interviews with the health...

  2. Determinants and Drivers of Infectious Disease Threat Events in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenza, Jan C; Lindgren, Elisabet; Balkanyi, Laszlo; Espinosa, Laura; Almqvist, My S; Penttinen, Pasi; Rocklöv, Joacim

    2016-04-01

    Infectious disease threat events (IDTEs) are increasing in frequency worldwide. We analyzed underlying drivers of 116 IDTEs detected in Europe during 2008-2013 by epidemic intelligence at the European Centre of Disease Prevention and Control. Seventeen drivers were identified and categorized into 3 groups: globalization and environment, sociodemographic, and public health systems. A combination of >2 drivers was responsible for most IDTEs. The driver category globalization and environment contributed to 61% of individual IDTEs, and the top 5 individual drivers of all IDTEs were travel and tourism, food and water quality, natural environment, global trade, and climate. Hierarchical cluster analysis of all drivers identified travel and tourism as a distinctly separate driver. Monitoring and modeling such disease drivers can help anticipate future IDTEs and strengthen control measures. More important, intervening directly on these underlying drivers can diminish the likelihood of the occurrence of an IDTE and reduce the associated human and economic costs.

  3. Truck drivers' traffic accidents in the State of São Paulo: prevalence and predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Lucio Garcia de; Almeida, Carlos Vinícius Dias de; Barroso, Lucia Pereira; Gouvea, Marcela Julio Cesar; Muñoz, Daniel Romero; Leyton, Vilma

    2016-12-01

    Abstract The mortality rate of traffic accidents (TA) is high in Brazil. Trucks are the second category of motor vehicles most often involved in TA. However, few studies have addressed the issue of TA among these professionals. The study aimed to estimate the prevalence of TA and their predictors in a sample of 684 truck drivers recruited in the state of São Paulo during 2012 and 2013. We requested participants to answer a research instrument on their personal and occupational data and their involvement in TA and traffic violations. A logistic regression model was developed to identify TA predictors. Almost 11% of the respondents suffered at least one TA in that timeframe. We identified the following TA predictors: having few years of experience as professional drivers (OR = 1.86; CI 95% = 1.05-3.38; p = 0.036); receiving some traffic tickets (OR = 1.91; CI 95% = 1.04-3.66; p = 0.043) and working more than 12 hours daily (OR = 1.84; CI 95% = 1.04-3.24; p = 0.034). Given those results, we suggest the development of a joint action among all the involved social stakeholders in order to negotiate truck drivers' work organization aiming at reducing behaviors that may lead to traffic accidents.

  4. KEY DRIVERS OF OPTIMAL SPECIAL EDUCATION NEEDS PROVISION: AN ENGLISH STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saneeya QURESHI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this paper is to argue that there are a number of key drivers for Special Educational Needs (SEN provision that have to be met by Special Educational Needs Coordinators (SENCOs and teaching professionals so as to ensure optimal provision and inclusion for children with SEN in mainstream primary schools. Although the research has been carried out in England, there is a significant European Dimension to the issue, as a similar role to that of SENCOs in respect of SEN management already exists in countries such as Finland and Ireland, and is being considered in Italy. Methods: This paper focuses on the data gathered for the purpose of the author’s doctoral research in England, through questionnaires and interviews with SENCOs, head teachers and teachers. Thematic analysis was used to explore key drivers of SEN provision by practitioners who support children with SEN. Results: Data illustrate that the key drivers of SEN provision include time; teacher openness to change; target setting; evidence of tried interventions; empowerment; decision-making and approachability. The implementation of such drivers depend largely on practitioner skills and competencies. Conclusion: The main conclusion within this paper is to develop points of reference for planning and practice, with illustrations of optimal provision by all practitioners who work with children with SEN.

  5. Crash risk and aberrant driving behaviors among bus drivers: the role of personality and attitudes towards traffic safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallia, Luca; Lazuras, Lambros; Violani, Cristiano; Lucidi, Fabio

    2015-06-01

    Several studies have shown that personality traits and attitudes toward traffic safety predict aberrant driving behaviors and crash involvement. However, this process has not been adequately investigated in professional drivers, such as bus drivers. The present study used a personality-attitudes model to assess whether personality traits predicted aberrant self-reported driving behaviors (driving violations, lapses, and errors) both directly and indirectly, through the effects of attitudes towards traffic safety in a large sample of bus drivers. Additionally, the relationship between aberrant self-reported driving behaviors and crash risk was also assessed. Three hundred and one bus drivers (mean age=39.1, SD=10.7 years) completed a structured and anonymous questionnaire measuring personality traits, attitudes toward traffic safety, self-reported aberrant driving behaviors (i.e., errors, lapses, and traffic violations), and accident risk in the last 12 months. Structural equation modeling analysis revealed that personality traits were associated to aberrant driving behaviors both directly and indirectly. In particular altruism, excitement seeking, and normlessness directly predicted bus drivers' attitudes toward traffic safety which, in turn, were negatively associated with the three types of self-reported aberrant driving behaviors. Personality traits relevant to emotionality directly predicted bus drivers' aberrant driving behaviors, without any mediation of attitudes. Finally, only self-reported violations were related to bus drivers' accident risk. The present findings suggest that the hypothesized personality-attitudes model accounts for aberrant driving behaviors in bus drivers, and provide the empirical basis for evidence-based road safety interventions in the context of public transport. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Classifying Drivers' Cognitive Load Using EEG Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barua, Shaibal; Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin; Begum, Shahina

    2017-01-01

    A growing traffic safety issue is the effect of cognitive loading activities on traffic safety and driving performance. To monitor drivers' mental state, understanding cognitive load is important since while driving, performing cognitively loading secondary tasks, for example talking on the phone, can affect the performance in the primary task, i.e. driving. Electroencephalography (EEG) is one of the reliable measures of cognitive load that can detect the changes in instantaneous load and effect of cognitively loading secondary task. In this driving simulator study, 1-back task is carried out while the driver performs three different simulated driving scenarios. This paper presents an EEG based approach to classify a drivers' level of cognitive load using Case-Based Reasoning (CBR). The results show that for each individual scenario as well as using data combined from the different scenarios, CBR based system achieved approximately over 70% of classification accuracy.

  7. Linear transformer driver for pulse generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Alexander A; Mazarakis, Michael G; Sinebryukhov, Vadim A; Volkov, Sergey N; Kondratiev, Sergey S; Alexeenko, Vitaly M; Bayol, Frederic; Demol, Gauthier; Stygar, William A

    2015-04-07

    A linear transformer driver includes at least one ferrite ring positioned to accept a load. The linear transformer driver also includes a first power delivery module that includes a first charge storage devices and a first switch. The first power delivery module sends a first energy in the form of a first pulse to the load. The linear transformer driver also includes a second power delivery module including a second charge storage device and a second switch. The second power delivery module sends a second energy in the form of a second pulse to the load. The second pulse has a frequency that is approximately three times the frequency of the first pulse. The at least one ferrite ring is positioned to force the first pulse and the second pulse to the load by temporarily isolating the first pulse and the second pulse from an electrical ground.

  8. Drivers' perceptions regarding speeding and driving on urban residential streets with a 30 km/h speed limit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do Duy Dinh

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown very little information regarding drivers' opinions, attitudes and behaviours with respect to speeding and driving on urban residential streets with a 30 km/h speed limit. The present research aims to address this issue by conducting a questionnaire study with a sample of 367 Japanese drivers. The results showed that drivers tended to have positive beliefs about complying with the 30 km/h speed limit and understand the negative consequences of speeding; however, a majority of the drivers considered breaking the speed limit as a way to reduce their travel time. While the extent of speeding was found to be very serious, a number of drivers still supported the use of a 30 km/h speed limit on residential streets and favoured protecting the right of vulnerable street users. The logistic regression models developed in this study identified that the drivers who did not support the 30 km/h speed limit were associated with those who had committed traffic-law violations, who had negative beliefs about complying with the speed limit, who did not consider residents' opinions, who believed it is acceptable for them to drive at a high speed, and who felt it difficult to refrain from speeding. With regard to anti-speeding countermeasures, under drivers' point of view, streets should be designed to make the 30 km/h speed limit more credible, although this study also showed evidence supporting the application of public awareness programmes and social campaigns as speeding interventions. In addition, this research investigated drivers' speed choices in various specific driving circumstances, and six underlying factors affecting drivers' speed choices were determined. On the basic of the findings, the implications and suggestions for speeding interventions were also discussed.

  9. Physical protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    Physical protection is defined and its function in relation to other functions of a State System of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Materials is described. The need for a uniform minimum international standard for physical protection as well as the need for international cooperation in physical protection is emphasized. The IAEA's INFCIRC/225/Rev. 1 (Annex 1) is reviewed. The Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (Annex 2) is discussed. Photographs show examples of typical physical protection technology (Annex 3)

  10. Diplomatic Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Režná, Jana

    2006-01-01

    Final thesis Topic: Diplomatic protection Thesis supervisor: JUDr. Vladimír Balaš, CSc. Student: Marek Čermák Thesis on the topic of diplomatic protection deals with the granting of exercise of diplomatic protection by the states and is divided into seven chapters which follow each other. The first chapter describes the diplomatic protection and its historical foundations. The second chapter focuses on the possibility of exercise of diplomatic protection in respect of natural persons and the ...

  11. Professional Commitment and Professional Marginalism in Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalashnikov A.I.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews teachers' attitudes towards the teaching profession which can be expressed both in professional commitment and in professional marginalism. The dominance of professional marginalism could affect destructively the students as well as the teacher’s personality, hence the issues related to the content of personal position of a marginal and the rate of marginalism among teachers. It was suggested that marginalism could be revealed in the study of professional commitment. The study involved 81 teachers of Sverdlovsk secondary schools aged 21—60 years with work experience ranging from 1 month to 39 years. The Professional Commitment Questionnaire was used as the study technique. The results showed that negative emotional attitude towards the profession and reluctance to leave the profession were grouped as a separate factor. The dispersion factor was 12,5%. The factor loadings ranged from 0.42 to 0.84. The study proved that professional marginalism in teachers includes dissatisfaction with work, feelings of resentment against profession and an unwillingness to leave the profession.

  12. Professional performance in school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubio, J. F.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Professional performance in education is now calling the attention of researcher due to its role in the professionalizing process intended to increase international education standards. In this article the term professional performance is examined from the two socio-historic traditional roles involved in training the individuals as a bio-psychic and social entity: teachers and executive. By means of scientific methods, the author gives the theoretical grounds connecting professional performance, learning and individual capacity of using them in solving problem at his labor position. The professional performance is regarded as a human value that stimulates the activity. By predicting educational alternatives, the paper portraits a model of professional performance in education, referring the necessary actions needed for achieving the goals of education. Searching and discussing such alternatives leads to reinterpret professional problems and to find out ways of improving educational standards.

  13. Drivers and moderators of business decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Pretorius

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Reports of business failure elicit various reactions, while research in this domain often appears to be limited by a lack of access to information about failure and by the negativity that surrounds it. Those who have experienced failure do not readily talk about it, or they disappear from the radar screen of researchers. Yet failure is preceded by decline which, when focused on strategically, can reduce eventual failures if early action is taken. The main purpose of this study is to develop a conceptual framework or typology of the drivers and moderators of business decline. Design/methodology/approach: After applying the "grounded theory" approach to the academic literature on decline and failure, a conceptual framework for the variables that drive and moderate business decline is proposed. Findings: The study proposes that decline has three core drivers, three peripheral drivers and four moderators. The core drivers identified are: resource munificence; leadership as origin; and causality (strategic versus operational origin of decline. The three peripheral drivers are: unique preconditions; continuous decisions impact; and extremes dichotomy. The study describes four moderators of the drivers: life cycle stage; stakeholder perspective; quantitative versus qualitative nature of signs and causes; and finally the age and size effects. Research limitations/implications: The proposed conceptual framework is based on literature only, although it has found support during discussions with practitioners. It is proposed to readers of this journal for scrutiny and validation. Practical implications: Strategists need to understand what drives decline in order to act timeously; practitioners who have an insight into the moderators with their impacts could make better decisions in response to decline in organisations and possibly avoid business failure. Originality/Value: Understanding business decline is still a huge theoretical challenge, which

  14. [Occupational stress situation analysis of different types of train drivers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wenhui; Gu, Guizhen; Wu, Hui; Yu, Shanfa

    2014-11-01

    To analyze the status of occupational stress in different types of train drivers. By using cluster sampling method, a cross-sectional study was conducted in 1 339 train drivers (including 289 passenger train drivers, 637 freight trains drivers, 339 passenger shunting train drivers, and 74 high speed rail drivers) from a Railway Bureau depot. The survey included individual factors, occupational stress factors, stress response factors and stress mitigating factors. The occupational stress factors, stress response factors and mitigating factors were measured by the revised effort-reward imbalance (ERI) model questionnaires and occupational stress measurement scale. By using the method of covariance analysized the difference of occupational stress factors of all types train drivers, the method of Stepwise regression was used to analyze the effection (R(2)) of occupational stress factors and stress mitigating factors on stress response factors. Covariance analysis as covariates in age, education level, length of service and marital status showed that the scores of ERI (1.58 ± 0.05), extrinsic effort (19.88 ± 0.44), rewards (23.43 ± 0.43), intrinsic effort (17.86 ± 0.36), physical environment (5.70 ± 0.22), social support (30.51 ± 0.88) and daily tension (10.27 ± 0.38 ) of high speed rail drivers were higher than other drivers (F values were 6.06, 11.32, 7.05, 13.25, 5.20, 9.48 and 6.14 respectively, P occupational stress factors and mitigating factors to depressive symptoms of train drivers was high speed rail drivers (R(2) = 0.64), passenger train drivers (R(2) = 0.44), passenger shunting train drivers (R(2) = 0.39), freight trains drivers (R(2) = 0.38); job satisfaction of train drivers was high speed rail drivers (R(2) = 0.68), passenger train drivers (R(2) = 0.62), freight trains drivers (R(2) = 0.43), passenger shunting train drivers(R(2) = 0.38); to daily tension of train drivers was high speed rail drivers (R(2) = 0.54), passenger train drivers (R(2) = 0

  15. Physics at a New Fermilab Proton Driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geer, Steve

    2005-01-01

    In 2004 the Fermilab Long Range Planning Committee identified a new high intensity Proton Driver as an attractive option for the future, primarily motivated by the recent exciting developments in neutrino physics. The Fermilab Director has requested further development of the physics case for a new Fermilab Proton Driver, exploring both its ability to support a World class neutrino program, and the other physics opportunities it would provide. A physics study has been ongoing for the last 6 months. The emerging physics case will be presented.

  16. Understanding Collateral Evolution in Linux Device Drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padioleau, Yoann; Lawall, Julia Laetitia; Muller, Gilles

    2006-01-01

    no tools to help in this process, collateral evolution is thus time consuming and error prone.In this paper, we present a qualitative and quantitative assessment of collateral evolution in Linux device driver code. We provide a taxonomy of evolutions and collateral evolutions, and use an automated patch......-analysis tool that we have developed to measure the number of evolutions and collateral evolutions that affect device drivers between Linux versions 2.2 and 2.6. In particular, we find that from one version of Linux to the next, collateral evolutions can account for up to 35% of the lines modified in such code....

  17. Kin-Driver: a database of driver mutations in protein kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonetti, Franco L; Tornador, Cristian; Nabau-Moretó, Nuria; Molina-Vila, Miguel A; Marino-Buslje, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Somatic mutations in protein kinases (PKs) are frequent driver events in many human tumors, while germ-line mutations are associated with hereditary diseases. Here we present Kin-driver, the first database that compiles driver mutations in PKs with experimental evidence demonstrating their functional role. Kin-driver is a manual expert-curated database that pays special attention to activating mutations (AMs) and can serve as a validation set to develop new generation tools focused on the prediction of gain-of-function driver mutations. It also offers an easy and intuitive environment to facilitate the visualization and analysis of mutations in PKs. Because all mutations are mapped onto a multiple sequence alignment, analogue positions between kinases can be identified and tentative new mutations can be proposed for studying by transferring annotation. Finally, our database can also be of use to clinical and translational laboratories, helping them to identify uncommon AMs that can correlate with response to new antitumor drugs. The website was developed using PHP and JavaScript, which are supported by all major browsers; the database was built using MySQL server. Kin-driver is available at: http://kin-driver.leloir.org.ar/ © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  18. Perception of radiological technicians on radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viana, E.; Borges, L.M.; Camozzato, T.S.C.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to know the professionals' perception of radiological techniques about radiation protection in the work process in Nuclear Medicine. The research was carried out with nine professionals of the radiological techniques of two private institutions located in the South of Brazil. An interview was applied through recording and transcription. The analysis of the data took place through a thematic analysis. The professionals' perception of radiological techniques regarding the radiological protection in the work process is evidenced when professionals mention the basic rules of radiation protection: time, shielding and distance as attitudes used to minimize the exposure to ionizing radiation. However, it was verified the fragility in the knowledge about the norms and legislation of the radiological protection

  19. An application of the driver behavior questionnaire to Chinese carless young drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Jiang, Zuhua; Zheng, Dongpeng; Wang, Yifan; Man, Dong

    2013-01-01

    Carless young drivers refers to those drivers aged between 18 and 25 years who have a driver's license but seldom have opportunities to practice their driving skills because they do not have their own cars. Due to China's lower private car ownership, many young drivers turn into carless young drivers after licensure, and the safety issue associated with them has become a matter of great concern in China. Because few studies have examined the driving behaviors of these drivers, this study aims to utilize the Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ) to investigate the self-reported driving behaviors of Chinese carless young drivers. A total of 523 Chinese carless young drivers (214 females, 309 males) with an average age of 21.91 years completed a questionnaire including the 27-item DBQ and demographics. The data were first randomized into 2 subsamples for factor analysis and then combined together for the following analyses. Both an exploratory factor analysis (EFA, n = 174) and a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA, n = 349) were performed to investigate the factor structure of the DBQ. Correlation analysis was conducted to examine the relationships between the demographics and the DBQ scales' variables. Multivariate linear regression and logistic regression were performed to investigate the prediction of the DBQ scales and crash involvement in the previous year. The EFA produced a 4-factor structure identified as errors, violations, attention lapses, and memory lapses, and the CFA revealed a good model fit after the removal of one item with a low factor loading and the permission of the error covariance between some items. The Chinese carless young drivers reported a comparatively low level of aberrant driving behaviors. The 3 most frequently reported behaviors were all lapses and the 3 least were all violations. Gender was the only significant predictor of the 2 lapses scales and lifetime mileage was the only significant predictor of the violations scale. Only the

  20. Activities of Moroccan Radiation Protection Association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choukri, A.

    2010-01-01

    Encourage activities and information exchange in the field of radiation protection and related areas; Assist in informing both the public and the professionals on the problems and requirements related to radiation protection for the protection of man and the environment; Promote professional training in radiation protection. The use of nuclear technology in medicine, agriculture and industry is very advanced in Morocco. This technological progress has been accompanied by fairly detailed legislation and significant involvement on the part of Morocco in international conventions and agreements

  1. Authentic Attributes with Fine-Grained Anonymity Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    registrations and ecommerce trans- Preprint - 2 Stuart G. Stubblebine, and Paul F. Syverson. Authentic Attributes with Fine-Grained Anonymity Protection...driver’s license and birth certi cate. When the registration process is complete, certi cates could be on a smart card that the customer is carrying. The...proof. At least initially, it might not be electronic, e.g., possession of a passport, of a driver’s license and birth certi cate, etc. Anonymous

  2. Contributions of ergonomics to the construction of bus drivers health and excellence in public transport and at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunoro, Claudio; Sznelwar, Laerte Idal; Bolis, Ivan; Abrahão, Julia

    2012-01-01

    This article is the product of research that analyzed the work of bus drivers of a public transportation company that is considered a benchmark reference in its field of operations, in which it strives to achieve operating excellence. Within this context, the authors sought to understand how such a company has managed to maintain a policy that is capable of reconciling quality public transport while also providing working conditions compatible with the professional development, comfort and health of its workers. Ergonomic work analysis and activity analysis were the guiding elements used in this study. Initial analyses indicate that the activity of drivers includes serving a population and providing mobility for it, which depends on driving the vehicle itself and on relationships with colleagues, users, pedestrians, drivers and others.

  3. Serial murder by healthcare professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorker, Beatrice Crofts; Kizer, Kenneth W; Lampe, Paula; Forrest, A R W; Lannan, Jacquetta M; Russell, Donna A

    2008-01-01

    The prosecution of Charles Cullen, a nurse who killed at least 40 patients over a 16-year period, highlights the need to better understand the phenomenon of serial murder by healthcare professionals. The authors conducted a LexisNexis search which yielded 90 criminal prosecutions of healthcare providers that met inclusion criteria for serial murder of patients. In addition we reviewed epidemiologic studies, toxicology evidence, and court transcripts, to provide data on healthcare professionals who have been prosecuted between 1970 and 2006. Fifty-four of the 90 have been convicted; 45 for serial murder, four for attempted murder, and five pled guilty to lesser charges. Twenty-four more have been indicted and are either awaiting trial or the outcome has not been published. The other 12 prosecutions had a variety of legal outcomes. Injection was the main method used by healthcare killers followed by suffocation, poisoning, and tampering with equipment. Prosecutions were reported from 20 countries with 40% taking place in the United States. Nursing personnel comprised 86% of the healthcare providers prosecuted; physicians 12%, and 2% were allied health professionals. The number of patient deaths that resulted in a murder conviction is 317 and the number of suspicious patient deaths attributed to the 54 convicted caregivers is 2113. These numbers are disturbing and demand that systemic changes in tracking adverse patient incidents associated with presence of a specific healthcare provider be implemented. Hiring practices must shift away from preventing wrongful discharge or denial of employment lawsuits to protecting patients from employees who kill.

  4. Equal Protection, the ADA, and Driving with Low Vision: A Legal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marta, Mary R.; Geruschat, Duane

    2004-01-01

    This article describes federal and state laws that affect the opportunity of people with low vision to drive and to obtain driver's licenses. Discrimination against individuals with low vision is discussed in the context of equal protection and the Americans with Disabilities Act. A review of relevant case law and implications for drivers with low…

  5. 77 FR 70914 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Side Impact Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-28

    ... protection. * * * * * S12.3.2 * * * (c) Driver arm/hand positioning. Place the dummy's upper arm such that... midsagittal plane of the driver dummy. * * * * * (c) Passenger arm/hand positioning. Place the dummy's upper... S12.3.4(h). * * * * * (l) Passenger arm/hand positioning. Place the rear dummy's upper arm such that...

  6. Competence in radiation protection - acquisition, maintaining, extending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breckow, J.; Geringer, T.; Radiation Protection Academy Seibersdorf; Haug, T.

    2007-01-01

    A survey is given on current initiatives, supranational in the EU and national in Germany and Switzerland, for education and training in radiation protection with the aim of maintaining and enlarging professional competence. Successively, individual studying possibilities and courses as well as some experiences with guidelines for professional knowledge in Germany are described. (orig.)

  7. Levitation With a Single Acoustic Driver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmatz, M. B.; Gaspar, M. S.; Allen, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    Pair of reports describes acoustic-levitation systems in which only one acoustic resonance mode excited, and only one driver needed. Systems employ levitation chambers of rectangular and cylindrical geometries. Reports first describe single mode concept and indicate which modes used to levitate sample without rotation. Reports then describe systems in which controlled rotation of sample introduced.

  8. Advanced Competencies for School Bus Drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield.

    Four units are provided for formal classroom instruction in advanced competencies for school bus drivers in Illinois. Units cover passenger control, accidents and emergencies, detecting hazards, and first aid. Each unit contains some or all of the following components: table of contents; a list of objectives; informative material, including an…

  9. Driver electronic device use in 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    The 2008 hand-held cell phone use rate translates into 812,000 vehicles being driven by someone using a hand-held cell phone at any given daylight moment.1 It also translates into an estimated 11 percent of the vehicles whose drivers were using some ...

  10. Driver Education for Motorcycle Operation. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council, Forrest M.; And Others

    A three-year pilot project was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of implementing a statewide off-road motorcycle training program for beginning drivers in North Carolina. The first year of the program involved approximately 422 students from five locations, the second year involved seven sites across the State. The three basic criteria for the…

  11. Compulsory treatment of 50 alcoholic drunken drivers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1983-02-12

    Feb 12, 1983 ... Fifty alcoholic drunken drivers receivi~g treatment as part of a suspended ... rehabilitation centres (1 patient died too early to allow for adequate .... Prison sentences were imposed on 10 (of whom 1 subsequently re-attended ...

  12. TMACS Test Procedure TP009: Acromag Driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washburn, S.J.

    1994-01-01

    The TMACS Software Project Test Procedures translate the project's acceptance criteria into test steps. Software releases are certified when the affected Test Procedures are successfully performed and the customers authorize installation of these changes. This Test Procedure tests the TMACS Acromag Software Driver (Bridge Code)

  13. Evaluation of Beginner Driver Education in Oregon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Mayhew

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Although driver education (DE is widely accepted as an effective teen driver safety measure and widely available in the United States, Canada and elsewhere, evaluations have generally failed to show that such formal programs actually produce safer drivers. To address the issue of safety effects as part of a larger investigation, two studies were conducted to examine whether the Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT-approved DE program was associated with reductions in collisions and convictions. In the first study, DE status among a relatively small sample of teens who completed an online survey was not found to have a significant effect on collisions and convictions. In the second study, of a much larger population of teen drivers, DE status was associated with a lower incidence of collisions and convictions. On balance, this suggests that the safety effects of DE are either neutral, based on the results of the first Oregon study, or cautiously optimistic based on the results of the second study. The implications of these findings are discussed in terms of making improvements in DE that are evidence-based, and the need for further evaluation to establish that improved and new programs meet their safety objectives.

  14. Driver Performance Model: 1. Conceptual Framework

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Heimerl, Joseph

    2001-01-01

    ...'. At the present time, no such comprehensive model exists. This report discusses a conceptual framework designed to encompass the relationships, conditions, and constraints related to direct, indirect, and remote modes of driving and thus provides a guide or 'road map' for the construction and creation of a comprehensive driver performance model.

  15. A review of lateral driver support systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tideman, Martijn; van der Voort, Mascha C.; van Arem, Bart; Tillema, Frans; Dailey, D.

    2007-01-01

    Lateral driver support systems have the potential to reduce the number of accidents associated with -both intentional and unintentional -lane departures. Additionally, such systems may increase driving comfort and stimulate a more efficient traffic flow, thereby reducing traffic emissions and the

  16. Drivers and barriers for bioenergy trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junginger, Martin; Schouwenberg, Peter Paul; Nikolaisen, Lars; Andrade, Onofre

    2014-01-01

    There are several drivers responsible for the strong increase in biomass trade over the past decade: concerns regarding the effects of climate change remain unchanged, and policy targets for renewable energy for 2020 have so far remained (largely) intact despite the economic crisis. At the same

  17. Line driver with adaptive output impedance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, Bram

    2006-01-01

    Abstract not available for DE69834793D Abstract of corresponding document: US5973490 A line driver comprising a first transistor (M1), a first amplifier (A1) and a reference resistor (10) for converting an input voltage (Vin) to a first current (i1) through the first transistor (M1). A second

  18. Line driver with adaptive output impedance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, Bram

    1998-01-01

    Abstract not available for DE69834793D Abstract of corresponding document: US5973490 A line driver comprising a first transistor (M1), a first amplifier (A1) and a reference resistor (10) for converting an input voltage (Vin) to a first current (i1) through the first transistor (M1). A second

  19. Drivers of Diversification in Individual Life Courses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez-Pacheco, Raisa; Steiner, Ulrich K

    2017-01-01

    Heterogeneity in life courses among individuals of a population influences the speed of adaptive evolutionary processes, but it is less clear how biotic and abiotic environmental fluctuations influence such heterogeneity. We investigate principal drivers of variability in sequence of stages durin...

  20. Truck drivers as stakeholders in cooperative driving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruijn, F.; Terken, J.M.B.; Aarts, E.; de Ruyter, B.; Markopoulos, P.; van Loenen, E.; Wichert, R.; Schouten, B.; Terken, J.M.B.; van Kranenburg, R.; Den Ouden, E.; O'Hare, G.

    2014-01-01

    Cooperative driving for trucks has been claimed to bring substantial benefits for society and fleet owners because of better throughput and reduced fuel consumption, but benefits for truck drivers are questionable. While most work on cooperative driving focuses on the technology, the current paper

  1. ITER driver blanket, European Community design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simbolotti, G.; Zampaglione, V.; Ferrari, M.; Gallina, M.; Mazzone, G.; Nardi, C.; Petrizzi, L.; Rado, V.; Violante, V.; Daenner, W.; Lorenzetto, P.; Gierszewski, P.; Grattarola, M.; Rosatelli, F.; Secolo, F.; Zacchia, F.; Caira, M.; Sorabella, L.

    1993-01-01

    Depending on the final decision on the operation time of ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor), the Driver Blanket might become a basic component of the machine with the main function of producing a significant fraction (close to 0.8) of the tritium required for the ITER operation, the remaining fraction being available from external supplies. The Driver Blanket is not required to provide reactor relevant performance in terms of tritium self-sufficiency. However, reactor relevant reliability and safety are mandatory requirements for this component in order not to significantly afftect the overall plant availability and to allow the ITER experimental program to be safely and successfully carried out. With the framework of the ITER Conceptual Design Activities (CDA, 1988-1990), a conceptual design of the ITER Driver Blanket has been carried out by ENEA Fusion Dept., in collaboration with ANSALDO S.p.A. and SRS S.r.l., and in close consultation with the NET Team and CFFTP (Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project). Such a design has been selected as EC (European Community) reference design for the ITER Driver Blanket. The status of the design at the end of CDA is reported in the present paper. (orig.)

  2. Driver Circuit For High-Power MOSFET's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letzer, Kevin A.

    1991-01-01

    Driver circuit generates rapid-voltage-transition pulses needed to switch high-power metal oxide/semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) modules rapidly between full "on" and full "off". Rapid switching reduces time of overlap between appreciable current through and appreciable voltage across such modules, thereby increasing power efficiency.

  3. Innovation drivers and barriers in food processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fortuin, F.T.J.M.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose - The food processing industry, confronted with increased global competition and more stringent customer demands, is pressurized to improve the pace and quality of its innovation processes. This paper aims to find out what factors constitute the main drivers and barriers to innovation and to

  4. Kernel Korner : The Linux keyboard driver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, A.E.

    1995-01-01

    Our Kernel Korner series continues with an article describing the Linux keyboard driver. This article is not for "Kernel Hackers" only--in fact, it will be most useful to those who wish to use their own keyboard to its fullest potential, and those who want to write programs to take advantage of the

  5. Sexual practices, myths and misconceptions among long distance truck drivers in North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawal, N; Hans, G D R; Verma, G

    2016-07-01

    Long distance truck drivers and helpers constitute a high risk group for human immunodeficiency virus /acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). Despite increasing awareness of HIV/AIDS and safe sex practices, they still have a high incidence of new cases of HIV. This study carried out at an ART (anti-retroviral treatment) centre in North India aimed to evaluate the sexual myths and misconceptions prevalent among long distance drivers and helpers. This was a retrospective study carried out at apex ART centre. Data were collected retrospectively from ART records of 129 long distance Truck drivers and 68 helpers. Details of socio-demographic characteristics, contact with commercial sex workers (CSW'S), pattern of condom usage with CSW'S and factors influencing it were studied. We found that a significant number of drivers and helpers had sexual contact with CSW's and out of these, 30% of drivers and 50% of helpers reported not using condoms and instead resorting to methods like washing genitalia after sex with battery water/urine to avoid getting HIV. There was no significant relationship between pattern of condom usage and educational status, marital status and age. We also found that certain myths like sex with young CSW's was less likely to cause sexually transmitted diseases (STD's) and HIV were also widespread. Owing to continuing prevalence of such sexual myths, long distance truck drivers and helpers do not use condoms while having sex with CSW's as they feel that they can enjoy sex with CSW's and still stay protected against STD's/HIV. It is imperative that this battery water/urine antiseptic myth be specifically targeted for better HIV control in this high risk group. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Association of Physicians. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Older drivers and rapid deceleration events: Salisbury Eye Evaluation Driving Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keay, Lisa; Munoz, Beatriz; Duncan, Donald D; Hahn, Daniel; Baldwin, Kevin; Turano, Kathleen A; Munro, Cynthia A; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; West, Sheila K

    2013-09-01

    Drivers who rapidly change speed while driving may be more at risk for a crash. We sought to determine the relationship of demographic, vision, and cognitive variables with episodes of rapid decelerations during five days of normal driving in a cohort of older drivers. In the Salisbury Eye Evaluation Driving Study, 1425 older drivers aged 67-87 were recruited from the Maryland Motor Vehicle Administration's rolls for licensees in Salisbury, Maryland. Participants had several measures of vision tested: visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, visual fields, and the attentional visual field. Participants were also tested for various domains of cognitive function including executive function, attention, psychomotor speed, and visual search. A custom created driving monitoring system (DMS) was used to capture rapid deceleration events (RDEs), defined as at least 350 milli-g deceleration, during a five day period of monitoring. The rate of RDE per mile driven was modeled using a negative binomial regression model with an offset of the logarithm of the number of miles driven. We found that 30% of older drivers had one or more RDE during a five day period, and of those, about 1/3 had four or more. The rate of RDE per mile driven was highest for those drivers drivingRDE's were more likely to have better scores in cognitive tests of psychomotor speed and visual search, and have faster brake reaction time. Further, greater average speed and maximum speed per driving segment was protective against RDE events. In conclusion, contrary to our hypothesis, older drivers who perform rapid decelerations tend to be more "fit", with better measures of vision and cognition compared to those who do not have events of rapid deceleration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Secondary Behavior of Drivers on Cell Phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Charles M; Klauer, Sheila G; McClafferty, Julie A; Guo, Feng

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether cell phone use by drivers leads to changes in the frequency of other types of potentially distracting behavior. There were 2 main questions of interest: (1) As each driver changes cell phone use, does he or she change the amount of driving time spent on other distracting behavior? (2) As each driver changes cell phone use, does he or she change the amount of driving time spent looking away from the driving task? Day-to-day driving behavior of 105 volunteer subjects was monitored over a period of 1 year. The amount of driving time during each trip spent on tasks secondary to driving (or looking away from the driving task) was correlated to the amount of time on a cell phone, taking into account the relationships among trips taken by the same driver. Drivers spent 42% of the time engaging in at least one secondary activity. Drivers were talking on a cell phone 7% of the time, interacting in some other way with a cell phone 5% of the time, and engaging in some other secondary activity (sometimes in conjunction with cell phone use) 33% of the time. Other than cell phone use, the most common secondary activities were interacting with a passenger (12% of driving time), holding but not otherwise interacting with an object (6%), and talking/singing/dancing to oneself (5%). Drivers were looking straight forward 81% of the time, forward left or right 5% of time, in a mirror 4% of the time, and elsewhere (eyes off driving task) 10% of time. On average, for each 1 percentage point increase in cell phone talking, the other secondary behavior rate decreased by 0.28 percentage points (P cell phone interaction per trip, the other secondary behavior rate decreased by 0.08 percentage points (P =.0558), but the rate of eyes off driving task increased by 0.06 percentage points (P cell phone can be distracting from the driving task, other secondary activities can be equally or more distracting, at least as measured by eye glances

  8. Environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinda, J.; Lieskovska, Z.

    1998-01-01

    In this chapter environmental protection in the Slovak Republic in 1997 are reviewed. The economics of environmental protection, state budget, Slovak state environmental fund, economic instruments, environmental laws, environmental impact assessment, environmental management systems, and environmental education are presented

  9. Evaluation of Candidate Measures for Home-Based Screening of Sleep Disordered Breathing in Taiwanese Bus Drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Ting

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sleepiness-at-the-wheel has been identified as a major cause of highway accidents. The aim of our study is identifying the candidate measures for home-based screening of sleep disordered breathing in Taiwanese bus drivers, instead of polysomnography. Methods: Overnight polysomnography accompanied with simultaneous measurements of alternative screening devices (pulse oximetry, ApneaLink, and Actigraphy, heart rate variability, wake-up systolic blood pressure and questionnaires were completed by 151 eligible participants who were long-haul bus drivers with a duty period of more than 12 h a day and duty shifting. Results: 63.6% of professional bus drivers were diagnosed as having sleep disordered breathing and had a higher body mass index, neck circumference, systolic blood pressure, arousal index and desaturation index than those professional bus drivers without evidence of sleep disordered breathing. Simple home-based candidate measures: (1 Pulse oximetry, oxygen-desaturation indices by ≥3% and 4% (r = 0.87~0.92; (2 Pulse oximetry, pulse-rising indices by ≥7% and 8% from a baseline (r = 0.61~0.89; and (3 ApneaLink airflow detection, apnea-hypopnea indices (r = 0.70~0.70, based on recording-time or Actigraphy-corrected total sleep time were all significantly correlated with, and had high agreement with, corresponding polysomnographic apnea-hypopnea indices [(1 94.5%~96.6%, (2 93.8%~97.2%, (3 91.1%~91.3%, respectively]. Conversely, no validities of SDB screening were found in the multi-variables apnea prediction questionnaire, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, night-sleep heart rate variability, wake-up systolic blood pressure and anthropometric variables. Conclusions: The indices of pulse oximetry and apnea flow detection are eligible criteria for home-based screening of sleep disordered breathing, specifically for professional drivers.

  10. Professionalism in nuclear training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruno, R.

    1983-01-01

    The approach of an individual in the nuclear training environment to his colleagues, trainees, and his own personal growth should be determined by his desire to be a professional. This paper discusses professionalism as an on-going process. That is, professionalism is not an entity that a person can acquire; rather it is a complicated superposition of many facets of an individual's attempt to work for solutions to problems, not problems with solutions

  11. Driver ASICs for Advanced Deformable Mirrors, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall goal of the SBIR program is to develop a new Application Specified Integrated Circuit (ASIC) driver to be used in driver electronics of a deformable...

  12. The Effect of Passengers on Teen Driver Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    A number of studies have shown that passengers substantially increase the risk of crashes for young, novice drivers. This increased risk may result from distractions that young passengers create for drivers. Alternatively, the presence of passengers ...

  13. The effect of passengers on teen driver behavior : traffic tech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    A number of studies have shown that passengers substantially : increase the risk of crashes for young, novice drivers. : This increased risk may result from distractions that young : passengers create for drivers. Alternatively, the presence : of pas...

  14. Driver education practices in selected states : traffic tech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Teen drivers have the highest crash rate per mile driven of any : age group (Williams, Ferguson, & Wells, 2005). Immaturity and : inexperience are two explanations for why novice teen drivers : have such a high crash risk (Arnett, 1992; Mayhew, Simps...

  15. 78 FR 26417 - Qualification of Drivers; Application for Exemptions; Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-06

    ... Cook Mr. Cook holds a driver's license from Virginia. He would like to drive a CMV in interstate.... Thomas Prickett Mr. Prickett holds a driver's license from Minnesota. He would like to drive a CMV in...

  16. 77 FR 70530 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ...-0348] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes... revision must provide for individual assessment of drivers with diabetes mellitus, and be consistent with...

  17. Development of a statistical method for predicting human driver decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    As autonomous vehicles enter the fleet, there will be a long period when these vehicles will have to interact with : human drivers. One of the challenges for autonomous vehicles is that human drivers do not communicate their : decisions well. However...

  18. A UNIX device driver for a Translink II Transputer board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiley, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    A UNIX device driver for a TransLink II Transputer board is described. A complete listing of the code is presented. The device driver allows a transputer array to be used with the A/UX operating system

  19. Improving safety of teenage and young adult drivers in Kansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Statistics show that young drivers have higher motor vehicle crash rates compared to other age groups. This study investigated : characteristics, contributory causes, and factors which increase injury severity of young driver crashes in Kansas by com...

  20. Methodology to evaluate teen driver training programs : [brief].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    In the United States, teenage drivers are more at risk of being involved in crashes than : any other age group. Statistics reveal a clear need for improving teenagers driving : skills, judgment and behavior. Driver education programs are a crucial...

  1. Attitudes of truck drivers and carriers on the use of electronic logging devices and driver harassment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The research contained herein is an examination of managerial harassment experienced by drivers, and whether harassment is associated with the method used to log hours of service (HOS). Similar information was gathered from a sample of carriers. : Tr...

  2. An evidence-based review: distracted driver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llerena, Luis E; Aronow, Kathy V; Macleod, Jana; Bard, Michael; Salzman, Steven; Greene, Wendy; Haider, Adil; Schupper, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Cell phone use and texting are prevalent within society and have thus pervaded the driving population. This technology is a growing concern within the confines of distracted driving, as all diversions from attention to the road have been shown to increase the risk of crashes. Adolescent, inexperienced drivers, who have the greatest prevalence of texting while driving, are at a particularly higher risk of crashes because of distraction. Members of the Injury Control Violence Prevention Committee of the Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma performed a PubMed search of articles related to distracted driving and cell phone use as a distractor of driving between 2000 and 2013. A total of 19 articles were found to merit inclusion as evidence in the evidence-based review. These articles provided evidence regarding the relationship between distracted driving and crashes, cell phone use contributing to automobile accidents, and/or the relationship between driver experience and automobile accidents. (Adjust methods/results sections to the number of articles that correctly corresponds to the number of references, as well as the methodology for reference inclusion.) Based on the evidence reviewed, we can recommend the following. All drivers should minimize all in-vehicle distractions while on the road. All drivers should not text or use any touch messaging system (including the use of social media sites such as Facebook and Twitter) while driving. Younger, inexperienced drivers should especially not use cell phones, texting, or any touch messaging system while driving because they pose an increased risk for death and injury caused by distractions while driving.

  3. Advanced driver assistance systems for teen drivers: Teen and parent impressions, perceived need, and intervention preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Eve; Fisher Thiel, Megan; Sultana, Nahida; Hannan, Chloe; Seacrist, Thomas

    2018-02-28

    From the advent of airbags to electronic stability control, technological advances introduced into automobile design have significantly reduced injury and death from motor vehicle crashes. These advances are especially pertinent among teen drivers, a population whose leading cause of death is motor vehicle crashes. Recently developed advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) have the potential to compensate for skill deficits and reduce overall crash risk. Yet, ADAS is only effective if drivers are willing to use it. Limited research has been conducted on the suitability of ADAS for teen drivers. The goal of this study is to identify teen drivers' perceived need for ADAS, receptiveness to in-vehicle technology, and intervention preferences. The long-term goal is to understand public perceptions and barriers to ADAS use and to help determine how these systems must evolve to meet the needs of the riskiest driving populations. Three focus groups (N = 24) were conducted with licensed teen drivers aged 16-19 years and 2 focus groups with parents of teen drivers (N = 12). Discussion topics included views on how ADAS might influence driving skills and behaviors; trust in technology; and data privacy. Discussions were transcribed; the team used conventional content analysis and open coding methods to identify 12 coding domains and code transcripts with NVivo 10. Interrater reliability testing showed moderate to high kappa scores. Overall, participants recognized potential benefits of ADAS, including improved safety and crash reduction. Teens suggested that ADAS is still developing and therefore has potential to malfunction. Many teens reported a greater trust in their own driving ability over vehicle technology. They expressed that novice drivers should learn to drive on non-ADAS-equipped cars and that ADAS should be considered a supplemental aid. Many teens felt that overreliance on ADAS may increase distracted driving or risky behaviors among teens. Parents also

  4. Professionalism: rise and fall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, M S

    1979-01-01

    Historically, the early professionalization movements in medicine and the law appear as organizational projects which aspire to monopolize income and opportunities in markets of services or labor and to monopolize status and work privileges in occupational hierarchies. Their central task is to standardize training and link it to actual or potential markets of labor or services, a linkage that is structurally effected in the modern university. The second wave of professionalization has different protagonists than the older "market professions": placed in a different structural situation, the bureaucratic professions transform the model of profession (which they adopt as a strategy of collective ascension) into an ideology. The import of the ideology of professionalism is examined in relation to two issues: the relationships between professional occupations and bureaucratic organizations; and the position of professional occupations within the larger structure of inequality. Analysis of the first point requires consideration of the distinctions between professional occupations in the public and private sectors, the use of professional knowledge and the image of profession in bureaucratic organizations, and the specific characteristics of professions that produce their own knowledge. In the discussion of the second point, professional occupations and their ideology are examined in relation to other occupations and to the possibilities of political awareness generated by uncertain professional statuses.

  5. Prevalence, attitudes, and knowledge of in-vehicle technologies and vehicle adaptations among older drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eby, David W; Molnar, Lisa J; Zakrajsek, Jennifer S; Ryan, Lindsay H; Zanier, Nicole; Louis, Renée M St; Stanciu, Sergiu C; LeBlanc, David; Kostyniuk, Lidia P; Smith, Jacqui; Yung, Raymond; Nyquist, Linda; DiGuiseppi, Carolyn; Li, Guohua; Mielenz, Thelma J; Strogatz, David

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to gain a better understanding of the types of in-vehicle technologies being used by older drivers as well as older drivers' use, learning, and perceptions of safety related to these technologies among a large cohort of older drivers at multiple sites in the United States. A secondary purpose was to explore the prevalence of aftermarket vehicle adaptations and how older adults go about making adaptations and how they learn to use them. The study utilized baseline questionnaire data from 2990 participants from the Longitudinal Research on Aging Drivers (LongROAD) study. Fifteen in-vehicle technologies and 12 aftermarket vehicle adaptations were investigated. Overall, 57.2% of participants had at least one advanced technology in their primary vehicle. The number of technologies in a vehicle was significantly related to being male, having a higher income, and having a higher education level. The majority of respondents learned to use these technologies on their own, with "figured-it-out-myself" being reported by 25%-75% of respondents across the technologies. Overall, technologies were always used about 43% of the time, with wide variability among the technologies. Across all technologies, nearly 70% of respondents who had these technologies believed that they made them a safer driver. With regard to vehicle adaptations, less than 9% of respondents had at least one vehicle adaptation present, with the number of adaptations per vehicle ranging from 0 to 4. A large majority did not work with a professional to make or learn about the aftermarket vehicle adaptation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Induction linac drivers for commercial heavy-ion beam fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.

    1987-11-01

    This paper discusses induction linac drivers necessary to accelerate heavy ions at inertial fusion targets. Topics discussed are: driver configurations, the current-amplifying induction linac, high current beam behavior and emittance growth, new considerations for driver design, the heavy ion fusion systems study, and future studies. 13 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  7. Prevalence of Psychoactive Drug Use by Taxi Drivers in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To ascertain the prevalence and nature of psychoactive drug use amongst taxi drivers in Nigeria. Materials and Method: A total of 192 taxi drivers in Enugu, South East Nigeria was studied using a questionnaire. Information obtained from the questionnaire included socio-demographic characteristics of the drivers, ...

  8. Pattern of Eye Diseases among Commercial Intercity Vehicle Drivers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the pattern of eye diseases among commercial intercity vehicle drivers (CIVDs) in Ilorin, Nigeria. Design: A cross-sectional descriptive study. Methodology: Out of the estimated 450 drivers operating in the five major motor parks for CIVDs in Ilorin, 399 consecutive drivers participated in the study.

  9. 18- to 24-year-olds : young drivers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2016-01-01

    The fatality rate (fatalities per distance travelled) of young drivers (18- to 24-year-olds) is more than five times higher than that of drivers between the ages of 30 and 59 years. The fatality rate of young males is even as much as ten times higher. The high risk of young drivers is due to both

  10. Driver's anger state identification by using facial expression in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preventive safety system of vehicle is highlighted to reduce the number of traffic accidents. Driver's state adaptive driving safety system may be one of candidates of the safety system. Identifying driver's psychosomatic states is indispensable to establish those safety systems. Anger of driver state is often seen in traffic ...

  11. High frequency MOSFET gate drivers technologies and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Zhiliang

    2017-01-01

    This book describes high frequency power MOSFET gate driver technologies, including gate drivers for GaN HEMTs, which have great potential in the next generation of switching power converters. Gate drivers serve as a critical role between control and power devices.

  12. 75 FR 32983 - Commercial Driver's License (CDL) Standards: Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-10

    ...-28480] Commercial Driver's License (CDL) Standards: Exemption AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety... commercial driver's license (CDL) as required by current regulations. FMCSA reviewed NAAA's application for... demonstrate alternatives its members would employ to ensure that their commercial motor vehicle (CMV) drivers...

  13. Mandatory Driver Training and Road Safety: The Quebec Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin, Louise; And Others

    1988-01-01

    1983 legislation making driver training courses mandatory for any person in Quebec seeking a first driver's license had no effect on the risk of accident or the mortality/morbidity rate for newly licensed drivers over 18. However, since 1983 more women under 18 are becoming licensed, and their risks may be increased. (Author/BJV)

  14. Do young novice drivers overestimate their driving skills?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Craen, S. de Twisk, D.A.M. Hagenzieker, M.P. Elffers, H. & Brookhuis, K.A.

    2007-01-01

    In this study the authors argue that, in order to sufficiently adapt to task demands in traffic, drivers have to make an assessment of their own driving skills. There are indications that drivers in general, and novice drivers in particular, overestimate their driving skills. The objective of this

  15. Licensing and Other Controls of the Drinking Driver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Patricia F.

    Driver licensing, the only state program with the opportunity for routine personal contact with every driver, has unmatched potential for both general and specific countermeasures to the problem of drunk driving. General countermeasures apply to large groups of drivers prior to the occurrence of any infraction. They may be considered basically…

  16. Radiation Protection Research Needs Workshop: Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewji, Shaheen A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Davis, Jason [Oak Ridge Associated Univ., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hertel, Nolan E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Abelquist, Eric [Oak Ridge Associated Univ., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-09-01

    In order to protect humans and the environment when using ionizing radiation for the advancement and benefit of society, accurately quantifying radiation and its potential effects remains the driver for ensuring the safety and secure use of nuclear and radiological applications of technology. In the realm of radiation protection and its various applications with the nuclear fuel cycle, (nuclear) medicine, emergency response, national defense, and space exploration, the scientific and research needs to support state and federal radiation protection needs in the United States in each of these areas are still deficient.

  17. Protective relay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Mu Ji; Jung, Hae Sang

    1974-10-01

    This book is divided into two chapters, which deals with protective relay. The first chapter deals with the basic knowledge of relay on development of relay, classification of protective relay, rating of protective relay general structure of protective relay, detecting of ground protection, about point of contact, operating relay and trip relaying. The second chapter is about structure and explanation of relay on classification by structure such as motor type and moving-coil type, explanation of other relays over current relay, over voltage relay, short voltage relay, relay for power, relay for direction, test of over voltage relay, test of short voltage relay and test of directional circuit relay.

  18. Protecting knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sofka, Wolfgang; de Faria, Pedro; Shehu, Edlira

    2018-01-01

    Most firms use secrecy to protect their knowledge from potential imitators. However, the theoretical foundations for secrecy have not been well explored. We extend knowledge protection literature and propose theoretical mechanisms explaining how information visibility influences the importance...... of secrecy as a knowledge protection instrument. Building on mechanisms from information economics and signaling theory, we postulate that secrecy is more important for protecting knowledge for firms that have legal requirements to reveal information to shareholders. Furthermore, we argue that this effect...... and a firm's investment in fixed assets. Our findings inform both academics and managers on how firms balance information disclosure requirements with the use of secrecy as a knowledge protection instrument....

  19. Traffic safety issues in North Dakota : phase II : driver knowledge, attitude, behavior and beliefs : focus group : young male drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    Traffic safety is a widespread social concern. Tackling the problem requires understanding the people : who are driving. This includes information about driver behavior, but also about perceptions these drivers : hold regarding their driving. North D...

  20. Tax Professional Internships and Subsequent Professional Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Philip H.; Blackwood, B. J.; Landy, Sharon D.

    2010-01-01

    How do internships influence the socialization and performance of accounting students employed in the tax department of a CPA firm? Previous research on accounting internships primarily focuses on auditing personnel. There is evidence in the literature that indicates audit and tax professionals have different work cultures. This paper examines the…

  1. The question of caution in professional medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godard, O.

    2006-01-01

    Contrived in Europe to tackle the environment protection policies and management of natural resources, the principle of caution has seen since 1990 its interest developed towards the fields of food safety and public health. The importance and the relevance of questions have lead the national institute of research and safety to constitute a working group to explore the problems and the potentialities that could be linked to the explicit introduction of this principle and this in the field of the prevention of professional risks. This work tackles several aspects of the question of caution in professional medium such history, concepts, evolution...as well as cases judged exemplary ones. (N.C.)

  2. Resource utilization and outcomes of intoxicated drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, Robert A; Nichols, Pamela A; Snavely, Theresa M; Camera, Lindsay J; Mauger, David T

    2010-08-05

    The high risk behavior of intoxicated drivers, impaired reaction time, lack of seat belt use, and increased incidence of head injury raises questions of whether pre-hospital use of alcohol leads to a higher injury severity score and worse clinical outcomes. We therefore compared intoxicated and non-intoxicated drivers of motor vehicle crashes with respect to outcome measurements and also describe the resources utilized to achieve those outcomes at our Level 1 trauma center. Retrospective descriptive study (Jan 2002-June 2007) of our trauma registry and financial database comparing intoxicated drivers with blood alcohol levels (BAC) > 80 mg/dl (ETOH > 80) with drivers who had a BAC of 0 mg/dl (ETOH = 0). Drivers without a BAC drawn or who had levels ranging from 1 mg/dL to 80 mg/dL were excluded. Data was collected on demographic information (age, gender, injury severity score or ISS), outcome variables (mortality, complications, ICU and hospital LOS, ventilator days) and resource utilization (ED LOS, insurance, charges, costs, payments). p 80; stratified chi square. Out of 1732 drivers, the combined study group (n = 987) of 623 ETOH = 0 and 364 ETOH > 80 had a mean age of 38.8 +/- 17.9, ISS of 18.0 +/- 12.1, and 69.8%% male. There was no difference in ISS (p = 0.67) or complications (p = 0.38). There was a trend towards decreased mortality (p = 0.06). The ETOH = 0 group had more patients with a prolonged ICU LOS (>/= 5 days), ventilator days (>/= 8 days), and hospital LOS (> 14 days) when compared to the ETOH > 80 group (p 80 group tended to be self pay (4.9% vs. 0.7%, p pay, less likely to have charges > $50K, and less likely to pay >/= 90% of the charges. Further research using multivariable analysis is needed to determine if these apparent outcomes differences are driven by acute intoxication, and the tendency for endotracheal intubation and ICU admission, rather than injury severity.

  3. Promoting teachers' professional development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Runhaar, Pietsje Roelofje

    2008-01-01

    Because teacher quality has a great influence on pupil attainment, teachers’ professional development receives a lot of attention in educational policy. This dissertation contains five studies on how teachers’ professional development, in terms of learning at the workplace, can be explained and

  4. Professional Learning from within

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korthagen, Fred A. J.

    2009-01-01

    In this commentary on the paper by the Bank Street Reading and Literacy Alumnae Group, Korthagen states that, while it provides an excellent example of how fruitful professional development can be when it is grounded in the needs and strengths of the people involved; regretfully, many traditional approaches to professional development are based on…

  5. Whistleblowing & Professional Responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Professional Engineer, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Discussed are the moral dilemmas encountered daily by professionals and how the teaching of ethics may help resolve the conflicts individuals face with respect to whistleblowing. Included are consideration of responsibilities, role of ethics codes, and courses on professional ethics. (CS)

  6. Certifying Enrollment Management Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Christopher W.

    2015-01-01

    Most current professionals who serve in an enrollment management leadership capacity likely were trained "on the job," or at professional development events, primarily because credit-bearing credentials, degrees, and other formal programs were nonexistent (Phair 2014). However, that landscape has since changed, and now there are multiple…

  7. Positioning health professional identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Ole; Krogh Christensen, Mette; Mørcke, Anne Mette

    2017-01-01

    Drawing on positioning theory, the purpose of this paper is to characterize the activities and positions of students and supervisors at workplaces and on-campus skills training sites across the higher health professional educations of medicine, sports science, and nursing. Furthermore, the study ...... explored the impact of work-based learning (WBL) and skills training on students’ personal professional identity development....

  8. Evaluating professional development

    CERN Document Server

    Guskey, Thomas R

    2000-01-01

    This is a practical guide to evaluating professional development programs at five increasing levels of sophistication: participants' reaction to professional development; how much participants learned; evaluating organizational support and change; how participants use their new knowledge and skills; and improvements in student learning.

  9. Determinants of Teacher Professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Y. L. Jack

    1983-01-01

    Reports a study of the effect of variables at the personal, school, and district/division level on these aspects of the attitudinal professionalism of 1,205 Manitoba teachers: use of professional organization as major referent, belief in public service, belief in self-regulation, sense of calling to the field, and autonomy. (SB)

  10. Exploring digital professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellaway, Rachel H; Coral, Janet; Topps, David; Topps, Maureen

    2015-01-01

    The widespread use of digital media (both computing devices and the services they access) has blurred the boundaries between our personal and professional lives. Contemporary students are the last to remember a time before the widespread use of the Internet and they will be the first to practice in a largely e-health environment. This article explores concepts of digital professionalism and their place in contemporary medical education, and proposes a series of principles of digital professionalism to guide teaching, learning and practice in the healthcare professions. Despite the many risks and fears surrounding their use, digital media are not an intrinsic threat to medical professionalism. Professionals should maintain the capacity for deliberate, ethical, and accountable practice when using digital media. The authors describe a digital professionalism framework structured around concepts of proficiency, reputation, and responsibility. Digital professionalism can be integrated into medical education using strategies based on awareness, alignment, assessment, and accountability. These principles of digital professionalism provide a way for medical students and medical practitioners to embrace the positive aspects of digital media use while being mindful and deliberate in its use to avoid or minimize any negative consequences.

  11. Communicating with Professionals

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to your doctor, nurse, pharmacist, dietitian, physical therapist, exercise physiologist or other healthcare professionals. Find a list of questions to ask at your next appointment . Healthcare professionals talk about why good communication is important A patient describes how he prepares for office ...

  12. Purpose and Professional Writers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blyler, Nancy Roundy

    1989-01-01

    Describes a protocol study of 10 professional writers which examined the meaning and influence of purpose on writers in the workplace. Explores the interactions of various purpose considerations derived from situation, reader, and text. Suggests that professional writers have a range of meanings in mind when they think about purpose. (MM)

  13. Partnering for Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis-Duerr, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Literacy specialists are often overlooked when determining the professional development needs within a school, and yet they are arguably the school's best resource to empower teachers with professional growth to meet state mandates. How can literacy specialists be supported to increase their knowledge and skills so that all educators' and…

  14. Standards and Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zengler, Cynthia J.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the professional development that has taken place in conjunction with Ohio adopting the College and Career Readiness (CCR) Standards. The professional development (PD) has changed over time to include not only training on the new standards and lesson plans but training on the concepts defined in the…

  15. Ethical problems in radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrader-Frechette, K.; Persson, Lars

    2001-05-01

    In this report the authors survey existing international radiation-protection recommendations and standards of the ICRP, the IAEA, and the ILO. After outlining previous work on the ethics of radiation protection, professional ethics, and the ethics of human radiation experiments, the authors review ethical thinking on seven key issues related to radiation protection and ethics. They formulate each of these seven issues in terms of alternative ethical stances: (1) equity versus efficiency, (2) health versus economics, (3) individual rights versus societal benefits, (4) due process versus necessary sacrifice, (5) uniform versus double standards, (6) stake holder consent versus management decisions, and (7) environmental stewardship versus anthropocentric standards.

  16. Atoms, Radiation, and Radiation Protection

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, James E

    2007-01-01

    Atoms, Radiation, and Radiation Protection offers professionals and advanced students a comprehensive coverage of the major concepts that underlie the origins and transport of ionizing radiation in matter. Understanding atomic structure and the physical mechanisms of radiation interactions is the foundation on which much of the current practice of radiological health protection is based. The work covers the detection and measurement of radiation and the statistical interpretation of the data. The procedures that are used to protect man and the environment from the potential harmful effects of

  17. Ethical problems in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrader-Frechette, K.; Persson, Lars

    2001-05-01

    In this report the authors survey existing international radiation-protection recommendations and standards of the ICRP, the IAEA, and the ILO. After outlining previous work on the ethics of radiation protection, professional ethics, and the ethics of human radiation experiments, the authors review ethical thinking on seven key issues related to radiation protection and ethics. They formulate each of these seven issues in terms of alternative ethical stances: (1) equity versus efficiency, (2) health versus economics, (3) individual rights versus societal benefits, (4) due process versus necessary sacrifice, (5) uniform versus double standards, (6) stake holder consent versus management decisions, and (7) environmental stewardship versus anthropocentric standards

  18. Tattoo as art, the drivers behind the fascination and the decision to become tattooed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierstein, Liz; Kjelskau, Kari C

    2015-01-01

    For many people, getting a tattoo is like purchasing art, and many professional and famous tattooists are artists who are acknowledged by colleagues and authorities. The history of tattooing goes back for thousands of years, and the reasons for getting tattooed are many. These permanent markings are always personal, they can be plain or elaborate, and they serve as amulets, healing and status symbols, declarations of love, signs of religion, adornments and even forms of punishment. Drivers behind the fascination of acquiring a tattoo may fall into four main groups, namely healing, affiliation, art and fashion. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Addressing the Multiple Drivers of Wetland Ecosystems Degradation in Lagos, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agboola, J.; Ndimele, P. E.; Odunuga, S.; Akanni, A.; Kosemani, B.; Ahove, M.

    2015-12-01

    Several body of knowledge have noted the importance of wetland ecosystems in climate moderation, resource supply and flood risk reduction amongst others. Relevant as it may, rapidly increasing population and uncontrolled urban development poses a challenge in some regions and require understanding of the ecosystem components and drivers of change over a long period of time. Thus, the main thrust of this paper is to analyse multiple drivers of wetland ecosystems degradation in the last 30 years in the Lagos megacity using field study, desktop review, satellite data and laboratory analysis. Key drivers identified includes: conversion of wetlands to settlements and waste sink, land use planning that neglects wetland conservation and restoration, ineffective legal status for wetlands, over exploitation leading to degradation and fragmentation of wetland ecosystems governance. In stemming further loss of this vital ecosystem, this study adopted and proposed respectively, the Drivers, Pressure, State, Impact and Response (DPSIR) and Integrated Planning Approach (IPA) frameworks in analysing policy and governance issues in wetland development. These analyses figured out amongst others, strict conservation and sustainable use of wetland resources, habitat restoration, climate adaptation measures, legal protection and wetland management institution as major responses to current multiple pressures facing wetland ecosystems in Lagos. For these frameworks to be made meaningful, weak coordination among government agencies and institutional capacity in implementation and law enforcement, unsustainable resource extraction by private/business organization and issues on alternative sources of income on the part of the local communities amongst others needs to be addressed.

  20. Drivers' reactions to sudden braking by lead car under varying workload conditions; towards a driver support system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaap, T. W.; van der Horst, A. R. A.; van Arem, B.; Brookhuis, K. A.

    2008-01-01

    At urban intersections drivers handle multiple tasks simultaneously, making urban driving a complex task. An advanced driver assistance system may support drivers in this specific driving task, but the design details of such a system need to be determined before they can be fully deployed. A driving

  1. 78 FR 76757 - Regulatory Guidance on Hours of Service of Drivers Rest Break Requirement; Drivers Who Become...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-19

    ... limitations for unforeseen reasons, is the driver in violation of the Sec. 395.3 rest break provision if more... unforeseen reasons, is not in violation of the Sec. 395.3 rest-break requirements if 8 or more hours have... Regulatory Guidance on Hours of Service of Drivers Rest Break Requirement; Drivers Who Become Ineligible for...

  2. Do young novice drivers overestimate their driving skills more than experienced drivers? : different methods lead to different conclusions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Craen, S. de Twisk, D.A.M. Hagenzieker, M.P. Elffers, H. & Brookhuis, K.A.

    2011-01-01

    In this study the authors argue that drivers have to make an assessment of their own driving skills, in order to sufficiently adapt to their task demands in traffic. There are indications that drivers in general, but novice drivers in particular, overestimate their driving skills. However, study

  3. Scripting Professional Identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bévort, Frans; Suddaby, Roy

    2016-01-01

    on a longitudinal ethnography of professionals in a Big Four accounting firm we analyse the process by which individual professionals make sense of their new roles and integrate the conflicting demands of professional and managerial logics. We find that individuals are active authors of their own identity scripts......This article examines how individual accountants subjectively interpret competing logics of professionalism as they transform from practicing accountants to managerial roles and as their organizations transform from traditional professional partnerships to more corporate organizational forms. Based....... We further observe considerable interpretive variation in how identity scripts are reproduced and enacted. We contribute to the emerging understanding of institutions as ‘inhabited’ by individuals and extend this literature by demonstrating that the institutional work of reinterpreting competing...

  4. Professionalism and nonprofit organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majone, G

    1984-01-01

    Many professionals prefer to work in nonprofit organizations, rather than in either for-profit or bureaucratic organizations. This preference suggests that nonprofits may be successful in reducing the tension between professional principles and institutional requirements. Professionals in for-profit organizations must submit to the control of a manager who is motivated to overrule them whenever their decisions come into conflict with the goal of profit maximization. Bureaucratic organizations stress predictability of results and adherence to rules as the overriding criteria of evaluation and control. This paper argues that nonprofits are on the whole superior from the point of view of professional ideology and practice. Thus, given a commitment to the values of professionalism, the preference for the nonprofit form becomes understandable, even without the usual assumptions about income-maximizing behavior.

  5. Identity and Professional Networking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Medha; Fast, Nathanael J; Fisher, Oliver

    2017-06-01

    Despite evidence that large professional networks afford a host of financial and professional benefits, people vary in how motivated they are to build such networks. To help explain this variance, the present article moves beyond a rational self-interest account to examine the possibility that identity shapes individuals' intentions to network. Study 1 established a positive association between viewing professional networking as identity-congruent and the tendency to prioritize strengthening and expanding one's professional network. Study 2 revealed that manipulating the salience of the self affects networking intentions, but only among those high in networking identity-congruence. Study 3 further established causality by experimentally manipulating identity-congruence to increase networking intentions. Study 4 examined whether identity or self-interest is a better predictor of networking intentions, providing support for the former. These findings indicate that identity influences the networks people develop. Implications for research on the self, identity-based motivation, and professional networking are discussed.

  6. Drivers for human papillomavirus vaccination in Valencia (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Illana, Pedro; Navarro-Illana, Esther; Vila-Candel, Rafael; Díez-Domingo, Javier

    2017-07-12

    To describe the drivers associated with HPV vaccination in adolescent girls and their parent's opinion on the vaccine. We conducted an observational and cross-sectional study on adolescent girls and their parents in Valencia (Spain), between September 2011 and June 2012. A consultation was made at a random sample of schools of the 14-year-old girls that should have received the vaccine in the free vaccination programme. We ran a personal survey on knowledge and attitudes regarding HPV infection and the vaccine. A binary logistic regression model was performed to determine which factors were most associated with vaccination. The survey was run on a binomial of 1,278 girls/mothers in 31 schools, to which 833 girls and their mothers responded (64.0%). The factors associated with vaccination were: country of origin of the families (adjusted OR [aOR]: 0.49; 95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 0.24-0.98), civil status of the parents (aOR: 0.33; 95%CI: 0.13-0.81), knowledge/beliefs about the vaccine when the source of information was the nurse (aOR: 1.83; 95%CI: 1.01-3.35), information source about the vaccine (aOR: 2.32; 95%CI: 1.37-3.92), preventive health centre visits (aOR: 2.1; 95%CI: 1.10-4.07), and nurse advice (aOR: 6.6; 95%CI: 3.19-13.56). The main factor associated with HPV vaccination was the advice of health professionals. Therefore, the most effective interventions to improve vaccination coverage should focus on health professionals. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Family communication patterns and teen drivers' attitudes toward driving safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jingzhen; Campo, Shelly; Ramirez, Marizen; Krapfl, Julia Richards; Cheng, Gang; Peek-Asa, Corinne

    2013-01-01

    Family communication patterns (FCPs) play an important role in reducing the risk-taking behaviors of teens, such as substance use and safer sex. However, little is known about the relationship between family communication and teen driving safety. We analyzed the baseline data from a randomized trial that included 163 parent-teen dyads, with teens who would be receiving their intermediate driver's license within 3 months. FCPs were divided into four types-pluralistic, protective, consensual, and laissez-faire-and were correlated with the frequency of parent-teen discussions and teens' driving safety attitudes. The ratings on four types of FCPs were distributed quite evenly among teens and parents. Parents and teens agreed on their FCP ratings (p = .64). In families with communication patterns that were laissez-faire, protective, and pluralistic, parents talked to their teens less about safe driving than did parents in families with a consensual communication pattern (p < .01). Moreover, the frequency of parent-teen communication about safe driving was positively associated with teen attitudes toward safe driving (adjusted β = 0.35, p = .03). Health care providers need to encourage parents, particularly those with non-consensual FCPs, to increase frequency of parent-teen interactions. Copyright © 2013 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of multiple global change drivers on terrestrial carbon storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yue, Kai; Fornara, Dario A; Yang, Wanqin

    2017-01-01

    The interactive effects of multiple global change drivers on terrestrial carbon (C) storage remain poorly understood. Here, we synthesise data from 633 published studies to show how the interactive effects of multiple drivers are generally additive (i.e. not differing from the sum of their indivi......The interactive effects of multiple global change drivers on terrestrial carbon (C) storage remain poorly understood. Here, we synthesise data from 633 published studies to show how the interactive effects of multiple drivers are generally additive (i.e. not differing from the sum...... additive effects of multiple global change drivers into future assessments of the C storage ability of terrestrial ecosystems....

  9. A COOPERATIVE ASSISTANCE SYSTEM BETWEEN VEHICLES FOR ELDERLY DRIVERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naohisa HASHIMOTO

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new concept of elderly driver assistance systems, which performs the assistance by cooperative driving between two vehicles, and describes some experiments with elderly drivers. The assistance consists of one vehicle driven by an elderly driver called a guest vehicle and the other driven by a assisting driver called a host vehicle, and the host vehicle assists or escorts the guest vehicle through the inter-vehicle communications. The functions of the systems installed on a single-seat electric vehicle are highly evaluated by subjects of elderly drivers in virtual streets on a test track.

  10. The electromagnetic rocket gun impact fusion driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winterberg, F.

    1984-01-01

    A macroparticle accelerator to be used as an impact fusion driver is discussed and which can accelerate a small projectile to --200 km/sec over a distance of a few 100 meters. The driver which we have named electromagnetic rocket gun, accelerates a small rocket-like projectile by a travelling magnetic wave. The rocket propellant not only serves as a sink to absorb the heat produced in the projectile by resistive energy losses, but at the same time is also the source of additional thrust through the heating of the propellant to high temperatures by the travelling magnetic wave. The total thrust on the projectile is the sum of the magnetic and recoil forces. In comparison to a rocket, the efficiency is here much larger, with the momentum transferred to the gun barrel of the gun rather than to a tenuous jet. (author)

  11. Flow processes in electric discharge drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baganoff, D.

    1975-01-01

    The performance of an electric discharge shock tube is discussed from the point of view that the conditions at the sonic station are the primary controlling variables (likewise in comparing designs), and that the analysis of the flow on either side of the sonic station should be done separately. The importance of considering mass-flow rate in matching a given driver design to the downstream flow required for a particular shock-wave speed is stressed. It is shown that a driver based on the principle of liquid injection (of H2) is superior to one based on the Ludwieg tube, because of the greater mass-flow rate and the absence of a massive diaphragm.

  12. Drivers of Changes in Product Development Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, John K.; Varnes, Claus J.

    2015-01-01

    regimes. However, the analysis here indicates that there are different drivers, both internal and external, that cause companies to adopt new rules or modify their existing ones, such as changes in organizational structures, organizational conflicts, and changes in ownership or strategy. In addition......Purpose: - The purpose of this research is to investigate the drivers that induce companies to change their rules for managing product development. Most companies use a form of rule-based management approach, but surprisingly little is known about what makes companies change these rules...... 10 years based on three rounds of interviews with 40 managers. Findings: - Previous research has assumed that the dynamics of product development rules are based on internal learning processes, and that increasingly competent management will stimulate the implementation of newer and more complex rule...

  13. Geopolitical drivers of future tourist flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Webster

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the major political and economic changes in the world and the likely impact that these changes will bring to tourism and hospitality industries. Design/methodology/approach – The paper adopts a geopolitical perspective on the dynamics of tourist flows, stipulating that geopolitics has a major impact on the size, structure, and direction of these flows. Findings – The paper identifies six geopolitical drivers of tourist flows in the future, namely: the fall of the American Empire, the rise of the BRIC and the PINE countries, increased global political instability, increased importance of regional supranational organisations, greater control of the individuals on a global scale, and the greater importance and power of corporations than national governments. Originality/value – The paper critically evaluates the geopolitical drivers of tourist flows, their likely future development and the impact they have on tourism.

  14. Hybrid Professionalism and Beyond : (New) Forms of Professionalism in Changing Organizational and Societal Contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordegraaf, Mirko|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/141945753

    2016-01-01

    It is tempting to stick to traditional, ‘pure’ images of professionalism—as the protected treatment of complex cases—and to resist ‘alien’ intrusions, especially managerial ‘encroachments’. However, it has become rather normal to link professionalism to well-managed organizational surroundings and

  15. Drivers for Malaysian SMEs to Go Green

    OpenAIRE

    M. Krishna Moorthy; Peter a/l Yacob; Mahendra Kumar a/l Chelliah; Lawrence Arokiasamy

    2012-01-01

    Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) around the world have little knowledge about environmental management and do not understand the concept of environmental management. The concept of green is still very new to Malaysian SME owners/managers, although many green conferences, seminars and campaigns have been carried out for quite some time. The concept for green process and products in Malaysia is at the infancy stage. The drivers of environmental behavior in SMEs are relatively under-researche...

  16. Review of advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziebinski, Adam; Cupek, Rafal; Grzechca, Damian; Chruszczyk, Lukas

    2017-11-01

    New cars can be equipped with many advanced safety solutions. Airbags, seatbelts and all of the essential passive safety parts are standard equipment. Now cars are often equipped with new advanced active safety systems that can prevent accidents. The functions of the Advanced Driver Assistance Systems are still growing. A review of the most popular available technologies used in ADAS and descriptions of their application areas are discussed in this paper.

  17. Multiprogrammation fast branch driver for microcomputer MICRAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, Josef; Lacroix, Jean.

    1975-01-01

    This branch driver allows in association with the FIFO memories of the microcomputer Micral, very fast exchanges with the 7 crates of a CAMAC branch. A CAMAC programm (command, test, read, write) is loaded in the 1K FIFO buffer of the Micral before execution time and executed in sequence at a rate of 1,5μs per CAMAC command. After programm execution, data may be transferred directly on a magnetic tape [fr

  18. Naturalistic distraction and driving safety in older drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksan, Nazan; Dawson, Jeffrey D; Emerson, Jamie L; Yu, Lixi; Uc, Ergun Y; Anderson, Steven W; Rizzo, Matthew

    2013-08-01

    In this study, we aimed to quantify and compare performance of middle-aged and older drivers during a naturalistic distraction paradigm (visual search for roadside targets) and to predict older drivers performance given functioning in visual, motor, and cognitive domains. Distracted driving can imperil healthy adults and may disproportionally affect the safety of older drivers with visual, motor, and cognitive decline. A total of 203 drivers, 120 healthy older (61 men and 59 women, ages 65 years and older) and 83 middle-aged drivers (38 men and 45 women, ages 40 to 64 years), participated in an on-road test in an instrumented vehicle. Outcome measures included performance in roadside target identification (traffic signs and restaurants) and concurrent driver safety. Differences in visual, motor, and cognitive functioning served as predictors. Older drivers identified fewer landmarks and drove slower but committed more safety errors than did middle-aged drivers. Greater familiarity with local roads benefited performance of middle-aged but not older drivers.Visual cognition predicted both traffic sign identification and safety errors, and executive function predicted traffic sign identification over and above vision. Older adults are susceptible to driving safety errors while distracted by common secondary visual search tasks that are inherent to driving. The findings underscore that age-related cognitive decline affects older drivers' management of driving tasks at multiple levels and can help inform the design of on-road tests and interventions for older drivers.

  19. Driver steering model for closed-loop steering function analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolia, Pratiksh; Weiskircher, Thomas; Müller, Steffen

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, a two level preview driver steering control model for the use in numerical vehicle dynamics simulation is introduced. The proposed model is composed of cascaded control loops: The outer loop is the path following layer based on potential field framework. The inner loop tries to capture the driver's physical behaviour. The proposed driver model allows easy implementation of different driving situations to simulate a wide range of different driver types, moods and vehicle types. The expediency of the proposed driver model is shown with the help of developed driver steering assist (DSA) function integrated with a conventional series production (Electric Power steering System with rack assist servo unit) system. With the help of the DSA assist function, the driver is prevented from over saturating the front tyre forces and loss of stability and controllability during cornering. The simulation results show different driver reactions caused by the change in the parameters or properties of the proposed driver model if the DSA assist function is activated. Thus, the proposed driver model is useful for the advanced driver steering and vehicle stability assist function evaluation in the early stage of vehicle dynamics handling and stability evaluation.

  20. Older drivers' risks of at-fault motor vehicle collisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Masao; Nakahara, Shinji; Taniguchi, Ayako

    2015-08-01

    In aging societies, increasing numbers of older drivers are involved in motor vehicle collisions (MVCs), and preserving their safety is a growing concern. In this study, we focused on whether older drivers were more likely to cause MVCs and injuries than drivers in other age groups. To do so we compared at-fault MVC incidence and resulting injury risks by drivers' ages, using data from Japan, a country with a rapidly aging population. The at-fault MVC incidence was calculated based on distance traveled made for non-commercial purposes, and the injury risks posed to at-fault drivers and other road users per at-fault MVCs. We used MVC data for 2010 from the National Police Agency of Japan and driving exposure data from the Nationwide Person Trip Survey conducted by a Japanese governmental ministry in 2010. The at-fault MVC incidence showed a U-shaped curve across the drivers' ages, where teenage and the oldest drivers appeared to be the highest risk groups in terms of causing MVCs, and the incidence was higher for female drivers after age 25. The injury risk older drivers posed to other vehicle occupants because of their at-fault MVCs was lower than for drivers in other age groups, while their own injury risk appeared much higher. As the number of older drivers is increasing, efforts to reduce their at-fault MVCs appear justified. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.