Hawkes, Denise; Yerrabati, Sridevi
Alongside the growing numbers of professional doctorate programmes being offered within universities in the past 20 years, there has been a growth in the academic literature associated with various aspects of these research degrees. This systematic literature review draws on the evidence of 193 academic papers to map out the existing academic…
Burnard, Pamela; Dragovic, Tatjana; Ottewell, Karen; Lim, Wai Mun
Although there is increasing interest in how learning to become a researching professional is understood by students undertaking a professional doctorate of education (EdD), the topic remains under-researched and under-theorized. In this article, we provide a set of theorizations, starting with the purpose and distinctiveness of the professional…
Lee, Alison; Brennan, Marie; Green, Bill
Portents of the demise of the Professional Doctorate have emerged in some recent policy and institutional circles in Australia, raising questions about the meaning and relevance of the Professional Doctorate in an era of "league tables" and research assessment in Australia. This article argues that such portents, based largely on narrow…
Southern, Stephen; Cade, Rochelle; Locke, Don W.
Professional doctorates have been established in the allied health professions by clinicians seeking the highest levels of independent practice. Allied health professional doctorates include nursing practice (DNP), occupational therapy (OTD), psychology (PsyD), social work (DSW), and marriage and family therapy (DMFT). Lessons learned from the…
Full Text Available Dear editor Clinical environments encounter is an important part of studying medicine (1. Patient contact as an integral part of medical education occurs in various formats in the clinical settings (2, 3. During clinical training, medical students may experience high levels of stress, and some may not deal with it well. The abruptness of students’ transition to the clinical setting generated positive and negative emotions. Due to being a novice, they did not receive adequate training on how to get emotionally prepared for meeting seriously ill people. In such circumstances, the shortage of training will have predictably crucial consequences. Early clinical contact has been suggested to reduce these stresses and help the students adapt effectively to changes in the hospital climate (2. Patient contact creates an environment where each student appreciates cultural diversity and reinforces the development of clinical professional interpersonal skills through social, emotional and cognitive experiences (4, 5. It encourages validating of the relationship between patients and doctors and allows students to experience a more personal relationship with patients and nurture the ability to empathize with them, providing considerable benefits for trainees and patients. In this way, the social emotions that students experience when empathizing with a patient represent a uniquely human achievement. By internalizing their subjective interpretations of patient’s beliefs and feelings, the student’s body, brain and mind come together to produce cognition and emotion . They construct culturally relevant knowledge and make decisions about how to act and think about the patient’s problems as if they were their own. On the other hand, patient interaction in undergraduate education offers students a valuable early insight into the day-to-day role of a doctor and the patients’ perspective on specific conditions. Early experience provides a greater knowledge
May 30, 2018 ... You must be enrolled at a Canadian university at the doctoral level ... IDRC Doctoral Research Awards are intended to promote the capacity and growth of ... including academic training, local language capacity, professional ... funding opportunity to support Canadian-African research teams studying Ebola.
Bruguera, M; Arrizabalaga, P; Londoño, M C; Padrós, J
The awards for the excellence of the Official College of Physicians of Barcelona (COMB) were instituted in 2004 to recognize the excellence of the professional exercise. The winners are yearly chosen by juries appointed by the board of government, whose members propose for the award doctors who, in their opinion, have an exemplary professional and human behaviour. The number of male and female doctors who have obtained this recognition has been analysed in relation with the sex distribution in the juries. Likewise it has been compared the ratios men-to-women of those who have been rewarded and this ratio among physicians of more than 45 years. Between the awarded physicians the ratio men-to-women was of 2.7/1 (range, from 1.2/1 for awardees in primary care to 6/1 in research). The men-to-women ratio among those who were awarded was in parallel to the man-to-women ratios of the juries. The ratio between men and women among members of the COMB of more than 45 years was 1.4/1, whereas in those who were awarded it was of 2.7/1. The increase in the proportion of women in the juries in the last four years has been followed by an increase in the number of female physicians awarded. This data demonstrates that the predominance of male doctors among those who were awarded does not depend so much on the age factor, but basically on the proportion of male and female doctors in the juries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
Wildy, Helen; Peden, Sanna; Chan, Karyn
Doctoral education is going through a period of transition. This transition is evident in the many varieties of doctoral degrees currently offered in higher education institutions worldwide, from the traditional research-based Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) to the Professional Doctorate and the New Route PhD. This article reports on a study which…
Millar, W.; White, G. L.; Filipović, M. D.; Hons, A.
We discuss the means by which students collect, analyze and use original data to fulfill the research component of the Internet-based, professional ``Doctor of Astronomy'' degree, at the James Cook University Centre for Astronomy. We give an example of such data obtained with the 1.9 meter telescope at the South African Astronomical Observatory. We also discuss the use of such data in an introductory level astronomy class at a community college.
Oliver Kisalay Burmeister
Full Text Available Professional doctorates in Information Technology (IT have been a relatively recent phenomenon, giving IT professionals career management choices not previously available to them. However, successful completion rates are the lowest of all disciplines. Completed doctorates rate in quality equivalent to PhDs, and retention has been identified as a major obstacle to completion. This qualitative study, involving 44 semi-structured interviews with students, supervisors and institutional support personnel, investigated the obstacles. Amongst the strategies discovered to improve completion rates were retention, student engagement with supervisors, feedback on progress, student engagement in the course, and student involvement in institutional communities of practice.
Clandinin, D Jean; Cave, Marie-Therese
Working with doctors to develop their identities as technically skilled as well as caring, compassionate and ethical practitioners is a challenge in medical education. One way of resolving this derives from a narrative reflective practice approach to working with residents. We examine the use of such an approach. This paper draws on a 2006 study carried out with four family medicine residents into the potential of writing, sharing and inquiring into parallel charts in order to help develop doctor identity. Each resident wrote 10 parallel charts over 10 weeks. All residents met bi-weekly as a group with two researchers to narratively inquire into the stories told in their charts. One parallel chart and the ensuing group inquiry about the chart are described. In the narrative reflective practice process, one resident tells of working with a patient and, through writing, sharing and inquiry, integrates her practice and how she learned to be a doctor in one cultural setting into another cultural setting; another resident affirms her relational way of practising medicine, and a third resident begins to see the complexity of attending to patients' experiences. The process shows the importance of creating pedagogical spaces to allow doctors to tell and retell, through narrative inquiry, their stories of their experiences. This pedagogical approach creates spaces for doctors to individually develop their own stories by which to live as doctors through narrative reflection on their interwoven personal, professional and cultural stories as they are shaped by, and enacted within, their professional contexts.
Newman, Margaret A.
The need for family-centered health care could be met by nurses now if they had a professional doctorate and the recognition and authority that go with it. The author distinguishes between an academic doctorate (Preparation for scholars) and a professional doctorate (a practice degree). (Author/BP)
1) Research Proposal. Proposals must be 20-25 pages, double-spaced, in 12 point font (not inclusive of bibliography) and address ALL of the following items, presented in separate headings: • Abstract of research proposal. (max. 250 words). • Literature Review. • Research question(s). • Research objective. • Methodology.
Maxwell, T. W.; Kupczyk-Romanczuk, G.
This paper outlines the potential of the portfolio as a product of doctoral work, especially in the Professional Doctorates. It compares the traditional mode of a single, lengthy but clearly focused doctoral dissertation with the portfolio as a collection of shorter research reports, held together by a linking paper articulating the thesis. We…
Example of the letter required by IDRC: Reference: IDRC Awards competition: John Smith (Please indicate the title of the award.) a) As research supervisor of Mr. John Smith, I confirm that I approve and support the research proposal submitted by the candidate. b) Mr. Smith has successfully completed the following course(s):.
Checklist. Please note: Only online applications are accepted ... Use the link found in the Call for Applications document to access the online application system and ... providing an office, giving you access to the library or to previous research, ...
Literature Review. 2) Letter of Affiliation. Must be signed and on official letterhead from an institution/organization confirming affiliation. The institution/organization must be located in the country where your field research will take place. If more than one country is involved, you must provide one letter per country.
Sari, Merry Indah; Prabandari, Yayi Suryo; Claramita, Mora
Professionalism is the core duty of a doctor to be responsible to the society. Doctors' professionalism depicts an internalization of values and mastery of professionals' standards as an important part in shaping the trust between doctors and patients. Professionalism consists of various attributes in which current literature focused more on the perspective of the health professionals. Doctors' professionalism may influence patients' satisfaction, and therefore, it is important to know from the patients' perspectives what was expected of medical doctors' professionalism. This study was conducted to determine the attributes of physician professionalism from the patient's perspective. This was a qualitative research using a phenomenology study design. In-depth interviews were conducted with 18 patients with hypertension and diabetes who had been treated for at least 1 year in primary care facilities in the city of Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The results of the interview were transcribed, encoded, and then classified into categories. Communication skills were considered as the top priority of medical doctors' attributes of professionalism in the perspectives of the patients. This study revealed that communication skill is the most important aspects of professionalism which greatly affected in the process of health care provided by the primary care doctors. Doctor-patient communication skills should be intensively trained during both basic and postgraduate medical education.
Chan, Mercedes; Pratt, Dan; Poole, Gary; Sidhu, Ravi
Many newly qualified specialists and subspecialists pursue additional training. Although their motivations are many, the pursuit of further training as an alternative to unemployment is an emerging trend. Paradoxically, doctors continue as trainees with a consultant's credentials, and without the guarantee of eventual employment. This study explores seven doctors' experiences, the effects of further training on their professional identity formation (PIF), and how these effects are reconciled on a personal and professional level. This phenomenological study involved interviews with seven qualified Canadian specialists (three were female) who pursued additional training in response to a lack of available positions in their respective specialties. Template analysis generated theoretical constructs of influences on their PIF, and characteristics of their lived experiences. Four themes shaped PIF: setting and context; language and communication; responsibilities and privileges; and participants' visions of their future selves. Professional identity formation (PIF) continued to develop in further training, but was inconsistently affirmed by participants' communities of practice. Four major themes characterised training experiences: prescription; managing multiple masters; limiting access to others and community ties; and constantly questioning the value of extra training. Qualified doctors traverse professional paradoxes as they seek further education with no guarantee of employment and provide consultant-level care as 'trainees'. An identity dissonance emerges that may continue until a clear identity is prescribed for them. Although disruptive to these doctors' PIF and personal and professional lives, the long-term effects of additional training are unknown. Its utility and influence on securing employment and future job satisfaction are areas for further research. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.
Deborah S. Garson
Full Text Available Creating a quality literature review is fundamental to doctoral student professionalization, yet research into how the literature review is taught, learned, or experienced is limited. Responding to this under-addressed but critical key to doctoral education, the focus of this mixed methods study is on students’ perceptions of a year-long course, co-taught by a faculty member and embedded librarian, devoted specifically to addressing the literature review. Analysis of students’ course evaluations and written reflections/feedback over an eight year period revealed four primary themes: 1 Entering students’ technological know-how does not guarantee effective information literacy skill and without the requisite skills one-shot library workshops are insufficient for making learning whole; 2 Rather than conceiving of the literature review as a product, constructing a literature review represents a pivotal process in doctoral students’ research and literacy skill development; 3 Creating a literature review, and the process it entails, signals in students the development of their professional researcher identity, involving movement beyond “how to” to address questions of “why” and “for whom”; 4 The literature review course was experienced as a substantively different course than is typical in the doctoral experience, mirroring the course’s foundational assumption that librarians, instructors, and learners share agency in creating the literature review process. The course curriculum is framed by two simultaneous learning streams: information literacy competencies and student research agenda. The course curriculum aligns information literacy competencies and research methodology with the goal of exploring and purposefully integrating creativity and curiosity in the search and research construction process.
Editorial Editorial Welcome to this special doctoral workshop on Research Methodology which forms part of what is now a well-established support mechanism for researchers in the discipline of the Built Environment and more particularly construction management. The ARCOM doctoral series, around now for some seventeen years, has addressed many of the diverse research areas that PhD researchers in the discipline have chosen to focus on in their doctoral journey. This doctoral workshop has as ...
Cagdas, Volkan; Stubkjær, Erik
of the countries concerned. The cadastre, however, is the core of both systems as it provides for systematic and official descriptions of land parcels or real property units. The research mentioned often has a development perspective, and in this article we will motivate the introduction of the research domain...... of cadastral development. This research is multi-disciplinary and draws on elements of theories and methodologies from the natural, the social, the behavioral, and the formal sciences. During the last decade or so, doctoral dissertations have come to constitute a substantial part of this research effort...... with a call for a shared terminology and a shared set of concepts which may contribute to further theory building within the cadastral domain. Udgivelsesdato: OCT...
Hancock, Sally; Walsh, Elaine
The science, technology, engineering, mathematics (STEM) doctorate is the established entry qualification for a scientific research career. However, contemporary STEM doctoral graduates assume increasingly diverse professional paths, with many forging non-academic careers. Using the UK as an example, the authors suggest that the STEM PhD fails to…
Knight, Bob G.
Mentoring in doctoral programs in professional psychology has its roots in mentoring in science programs of all types. Professional psychology in general may suffer from conflating mentoring with clinical supervision. Using the Pikes Peak Model competencies as a framework, mentoring in attitudes, knowledge, and skills related to professional…
Louis J. Grabowski
Full Text Available The emerging body of research on business professional doctoral programs has focused primarily on the programs’ composition and management, offering limited insight into students’ motivations and the impact the degree has on graduates and their careers. However, understanding these student motivations and career impacts is valuable for several reasons. In addition to helping future candidates assess various programs and the business professional doctoral degree itself, it can help enrolled students maximize their academic experience and help administrators improve these programs so that they better meet students’ personal and professional expectations. To bridge this research gap, this study pursued a mixed-methods approach to glean insights into why people pursue professional doctorates in business, the ultimate personal and professional outcomes of students, and the educational process producing those outcomes. The study revealed that most students entered these programs with a desire for personal or professional transformation, including the possibility of entering academia or a new industry. Moreover, the vast majority of program graduates believed they had experienced such a transformation, often in both professional and personal ways. Further, while important to personal growth, alumni perceived that certain program elements—such as the student networks they created and non-research related coursework—had little to no effect upon their career and viewed their research and the research process as far more important to their professional development. Based upon these findings, the researchers propose a comprehensive process model to explain the personal and professional factors and outcomes for graduates of business professional doctoral programs. They also suggest practical steps that students and administrators can take to improve the business professional doctoral educational experience.
Gorrindo, Tristan; Groves, James E
The AMA's social media guidelines provide physicians with some basic rules for maintaining professional boundaries when engaging in online activities. Left unanswered are questions about how these guidelines are to be implemented by physicians of different generations. By examining the issues of privacy and technological skill through the eyes of digital natives and digital immigrants, the challenges associated with medical e-professionalism become clear.
Full Text Available The lack of a formed professional self-determination among high school students leads to the fact that in the process of medical education and the first years of professional activity, a significant number of students and young specialists leave medicine. Purpose of the study: sociological assessment of professional self-determination of schoolchildren of the upper grades, including those who choose the profession of a doctor, as well as the factors that determine it. Methods. The study was conducted using a sociological survey using a specially developed questionnaire. Results. The level of professional self-determination of schoolchildren of the upper grades is low, one out of every three schoolchildren surveyed has not yet decided on the choice of the future profession, about 8 % of the students have not even chosen an approximate direction of future professional activity. Schoolchildren who have chosen the profession of a doctor, the main motivation is an adherence and a life situation, while prestige and the level of wages are not decisive. As the main base of forming professional self-determination two out of three respondents named the school, meaning the speech made for them by doctors and medical students. For those schoolchildren who have chosen the profession of a doctor on their own, the main motivation factor usually is the visit to the medical university during Doors Open Days. Conclusion. The most important role in the formation of professional self-determination of future doctors belongs to the development and implementation of vocational guidance activities carried out by the forces of the school and medical university.
Johansson, Carol; Yerrabati, Sridevi
At the core of doctoral education is the importance of the quality of the supervisor and student relationship. Research has shown that this relationship is directly linked to completion rates, and impacts the quality of the doctorate and its ultimate success or failure (Gill and Burnard, 2008). One influence on the supervisory relationship is the…
Moran, Eamonn; Misra, Debananda
This article discusses the current challenges faced by the two authors--both participants on a professional doctorate (PD) programme in education at a leading UK university--in gaining legitimacy as higher education (HE) professionals. By: (1) reflecting upon their own professional experiences in HE and as PD students; (2) utilizing…
organization. Conclusion The most prominent varieties of professional approaches were seen in use of knowledge and work-related experience. Senior doctors know how the organization has worked in the past and have acquired techniques with respect to long-term decisions and their consequences. Junior doctors, on the other hand, have developed techniques and expertise for making decisions based on a restricted amount of information, in relation to patients' wellbeing as well as organizational opportunities and constraints. This study contributes to medical education by elucidating the variation in professional approaches among junior and senior doctors, which can be used as a basis for discussion about clinical judgement, in both pre-clinical and clinical education. Further research is required to explain how these professional approaches are expressed and used in clinical education.
Carr, Susan M; Lhussier, Monique; Chandler, Colin
The doctoral research terrain is changing, as new-styles, for example professional doctorates, are being developed (Park, C., 2005. New variant PhDL the changing nature of the doctorate in the UK. Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management 27(2), 189-207). There is a scarcity of literature aimed at supervisors (Gatfield, T., 2005, An investigation into PhD supervisory management styles: development of a dynamic conceptual model and its managerial implications. Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management 27(3), 311-325) and this is particularly so in relation to professional doctorates. In this position paper we argue that the supervisory approach required for a professional doctorate student is different than that required for a PhD. Professional doctorate students, like PhD students, are required to make an explicit contribution to knowledge. Their emphasis, however, needs to be in producing knowledge that is theoretically sound, original, and of relevance to their practice area. This is of increasing importance within healthcare with the growing emphasis on patient driven translational research. As such, the students and their supervisors face unique challenges of balancing academic requirements with praxis. We suggest this requires specific tools to make explicit the dialogical relationship between a particular project and the cultural, social, educational and political aspects of its environment. We expose the potential of soft systems methodology as a means to highlight the emergent aspects of a doctoral practice development project, their respective and evolving supervisory interactions. This focus of this paper is therefore not about guiding supervision in a managerial sense, but rather at offering methodological suggestions that could underpin applied research at doctoral level. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Førde, Reidun; Aasland, Olaf Gjerløw
Previous studies indicate that Norwegian doctors experience distress in their encounter with differing and partly contradictory ideals, such as the obligation to criticise unethical and inappropriate practices. The objective of this study was to investigate the perception of moral distress and professional freedom of speech among Norwegian doctors as of today, as well as identify changes that have occurred since the previous study undertaken in 2004. A total of 1,522 economically active doctors received a questionnaire listing various statements describing the perception of moral distress and professional freedom of speech. The responses were compared to responses to the 2004 study. Altogether 67% of the doctors responded to the questionnaire. The proportion who reported «fairly strong» or «strong» moral distress varied from 24% to 70% among the different statements. On the whole, the «rank and file» hospital doctors reported the highest degree of moral distress. Nevertheless, a decrease in the scores for moral distress could be observed from 2004 to 2010. During the same period, the perception of professional freedom of speech increased slightly. A reduced level of distress associated with ethical conflicts in working life may be due to improved methods for handling distressing situations, or because the consequences of the health services reorganisations are perceived as less threatening now than in 2004, immediately after the introduction of the hospital reform. However, the perceived lower distress level may also be due to professional and ethical resignation. These findings should be followed up by a qualitative study.
Bruce, Christine; Stoodley, Ian; Pham, Binh
As part of their journey of learning to research, doctoral candidates need to become members of their research community. In part, this involves coming to be aware of their field in ways that are shared amongst longer-term members of the research community. One aspect of candidates' experience we need to understand, therefore, involves how they…
The African Population and Health Research Center (APHRC) in partnership with the International Development. Research Centre (IDRC) is pleased to announce the fourth call for applications for the African Doctoral Dissertation. Research Fellowships (ADDRF). The 2011 ADDRF seeks to facilitate more rigorous ...
Swickert, Mary Lee
Reports on interviews of 10 doctoral graduates of counselor education programs to determine how they viewed professional identity. Results focus on uniqueness of counselors, career development issues, dislike of research, grouping for support, dislike of managed care, anger over turf wars, and affinity with holistic and preventive medicine. (RJM)
Locke, Anna Flores
Using a basic qualitative research design, this author interviewed eight Latino doctoral students in counseling programs about their professional identity development experiences. The author analyzed the data from a Latino Critical Race theoretical perspective to explore the ways in which power and privilege played a role in the participants'…
This paper explores the nature and future of social research on patient-professional interactions. It first sketches the historical background to such research and notes that in the UK and US this was characterised by a focus on the doctor-patient relationship. This research embodied a sceptical view of the power of the medical profession in sustaining and promoting social inequalities, and a critique of 'medical dominance' over other health care professionals and patients. The paper then goes on to outline changes occurring in the nature of professional practice that suggest a fundamental shift in the social relations of health care and the role of medicine. These include a putative loss of public confidence in the medical profession and the authority of science, an increased role of the media in informing patients, and a change in the state's relationship with health care professionals. Finally, the paper outlines some items for a future research agenda, including the need to understand better patient preferences about changes in health care delivery, including a willingness to engage in 'partnership', and the possibilities and barriers to change in professional practice.
MacDonald, Joanna; Sohn, Sangsu; Ellis, Pete
This study aimed to examine the nature and extent of use of the social networking service Facebook by young medical graduates, and their utilisation of privacy options. We carried out a cross-sectional survey of the use of Facebook by recent medical graduates, accessing material potentially available to a wider public. Data were then categorised and analysed. Survey subjects were 338 doctors who had graduated from the University of Otago in 2006 and 2007 and were registered with the Medical Council of New Zealand. Main outcome measures were Facebook membership, utilisation of privacy options, and the nature and extent of the material revealed. A total of 220 (65%) graduates had Facebook accounts; 138 (63%) of these had activated their privacy options, restricting their information to 'Friends'. Of the remaining 82 accounts that were more publicly available, 30 (37%) revealed users' sexual orientation, 13 (16%) revealed their religious views, 35 (43%) indicated their relationship status, 38 (46%) showed photographs of the users drinking alcohol, eight (10%) showed images of the users intoxicated and 37 (45%) showed photographs of the users engaged in healthy behaviours. A total of 54 (66%) members had used their accounts within the last week, indicating active use. Young doctors are active members of Facebook. A quarter of the doctors in our survey sample did not use the privacy options, rendering the information they revealed readily available to a wider public. This information, although it included some healthy behaviours, also revealed personal information that might cause distress to patients or alter the professional boundary between patient and practitioner, as well as information that could bring the profession into disrepute (e.g. belonging to groups like 'Perverts united'). Educators and regulators need to consider how best to advise students and doctors on societal changes in the concepts of what is public and what is private.
This award covers field research expenses for advanced doctoral students who intend ... serious security challenges, IDRC may ask you to delay your field research, .... Women candidates applying to IDRC Doctoral Research Awards calls in ...
Mawson, Kate; Abbott, Ian
This article presents a discussion around issues of identity for part-time professional doctoral students. The current supervision arrangements of a professional doctoral programme were considered, using an exploratory study, to explore the idea that supervision for competent confident professionals should, in the early stages, focus on identity…
Eastman, Christine; Maguire, Kate
This paper argues for a pedagogic practice to overcome the challenges that many professional practitioners face in undertaking a professional doctorate. Recent examination feedback on a professional doctoral programme of 300 candidates in the UK highlighted that a number of candidates often struggle to write persuasively, critically and…
Twitter and other social networking sites have much to offer doctoral students, especially given that models for doctoral education are increasingly becoming more diverse with more students studying part-time for traditional PhDs, or on programmes such as professional doctorates. Prior research has highlighted the benefits of Twitter but, as other…
Burgess, James F; Menachemi, Nir; Maciejewski, Matthew L
To present revised core competencies for doctoral programs in health services research (HSR), modalities to deliver these competencies, and suggested methods for assessing mastery of these competencies. Core competencies were originally developed in 2005, updated (but unpublished) in 2008, modestly updated for a 2016 HSR workforce conference, and revised based on feedback from attendees. Additional feedback was obtained from doctoral program directors, employer/workforce experts and attendees of presentation on these competencies at the AcademyHealth's June 2017 Annual Research Meeting. The current version (V2.1) competencies include the ethical conduct of research, conceptual models, development of research questions, study designs, data measurement and collection methods, statistical methods for analyzing data, professional collaboration, and knowledge dissemination. These competencies represent a core that defines what HSR researchers should master in order to address the complexities of microsystem to macro-system research that HSR entails. There are opportunities to conduct formal evaluation of newer delivery modalities (e.g., flipped classrooms) and to integrate new Learning Health System Researcher Core Competencies, developed by AHRQ, into the HSR core competencies. Core competencies in HSR are a continually evolving work in progress because new research questions arise, new methods are developed, and the trans-disciplinary nature of the field leads to new multidisciplinary and team building needs. © Health Research and Educational Trust.
Ewen, Heidi H.; Rowles, Graham D.; Watkins, John F.
This article reports on the Gerontology Doctoral Student Assessment Model (GDSAM), a comprehensive web-based system premised on developing an evaluation mechanism attuned to the special requirements of advanced graduate education at the doctoral level. The system focuses on longitudinal tracking of selected dimensions of intellectual,…
Huisman, Jeroen; Naidoo, Rajani
This paper addresses the debate on the third cycle of European higher education. Currently, much attention is paid to improving the structure and quality of doctorate education in the European context of the Bologna process and the Lisbon objectives. However, alternatives to the traditional doctorate are hardly addressed in the policy documents of…
Roland, M.; Rao, S.R.; Sibbald, B.S.; Hann, M.; Harrison, S.; Walter, A.; Guthrie, B.; Desroches, C.; Ferris, T.G.; Campbell, E.G.
BACKGROUND The authors aimed to determine US and UK doctors' professional values and reported behaviours, and the extent to which these vary with the context of care. METHOD 1891 US and 1078 UK doctors completed the survey (64.4% and 40.3% response rate respectively). Multivariate logistic
Liira, Helena; Koskela, Tuomas; Thulesius, Hans; Pitkälä, Kaisu
Research and PhDs are relatively rare in family medicine and primary care. To promote research, regular one-year research courses for primary care professionals with a focus on clinical epidemiology were started. This study explores the academic outcomes of the first four cohorts of research courses and surveys the participants' perspectives on the research course. An electronic survey was sent to the research course participants. All peer-reviewed scientific papers published by these students were retrieved by literature searches in PubMed. Primary care in Finland. A total of 46 research course participants who had finished the research courses between 2007 and 2012. Of the 46 participants 29 were physicians, eight nurses, three dentists, four physiotherapists, and two nutritionists. By the end of 2014, 28 of the 46 participants (61%) had published 79 papers indexed in PubMed and seven students (15%) had completed a PhD. The participants stated that the course taught them critical thinking, and provided basic research knowledge, inspiration, and fruitful networks for research. A one-year, multi-professional, clinical epidemiology based research course appeared to be successful in encouraging primary care research as measured by research publications and networking. Activating teaching methods, encouraging focus on own research planning, and support from peers and tutors helped the participants to embark on research projects that resulted in PhDs for 15% of the participants. Clinical research and PhDs are rare in primary care in Finland, which has consequences for the development of the discipline and for the availability of clinical lecturers at the universities. A clinical epidemiology oriented, one-year research course increased the activity in primary care research. Focus on own research planning and learning the challenges of research with peers appeared to enhance the success of a doctoral research course. A doctoral research course encouraged networking, and
Lee, Mary W; Clay, Patrick G; Kennedy, W Klugh; Kennedy, Mary Jayne; Sifontis, Nicole M; Simonson, Dana; Sowinski, Kevin M; Taylor, William J; Teply, Robyn M; Vardeny, Orly; Welty, Timothy E
In 2008, the American College of Clinical Pharmacy appointed the Task Force on Research in the Professional Curriculum to review and make recommendations on the essential research curriculum that should be part of doctor of pharmacy (Pharm.D.) degree programs. The essential research curriculum provides all students with critical and analytical thinking and lifelong learning skills, which will apply to current and future practice and stimulate some students to pursue a career in this field. Eight key curricular competencies are as follows: identifying relevant problems and gaps in pharmacotherapeutic knowledge; generating a research hypothesis; designing a study to test the hypothesis; analyzing data results using appropriate statistical tests; interpreting and applying the results of a research study to practice; effectively communicating research and clinical findings to pharmacy, medical, and basic science audiences; interpreting and effectively communicating research and clinical findings to patients and caregivers; and applying regulatory and ethical principles when conducting research or using research results. Faculty are encouraged to use research-related examples across the curriculum in nonresearch courses and to employ interactive teaching methods to promote student engagement. Examples of successful strategies used by Pharm.D. degree programs to integrate research content into the curriculum are provided. Current pharmacy school curricula allow variable amounts of time for instructional content in research, which may or may not include hands-on experiences for students to develop research-related skills. Therefore, an important opportunity exists for schools to incorporate the essential research curriculum. Despite the challenges of implementing these recommendations, the essential research curriculum will position pharmacy school graduates to understand the importance of research and its applications to practice. This perspective is provided as an aid
Luk, Andrew Leung; Yau, Adrian Fai To
Overseas studies suggest that 10-20% of doctors are depressed, 30-45% have burnout, and many report dissatisfaction with work-life balance. A local study on public doctors showed that 31.4% of the respondents satisfied the criteria for high burnout. Young, but moderately experienced doctors who need to work shifts appeared most vulnerable. This study aims to explore the experiences of those public doctors who have managed their work difficulties and maintained professional enthusiasm for references in medical education and continuing professional training. Ten public doctors with reputation were invited respectively from three acute general hospitals for an in-depth interview. Interviews were audio recorded and transcribed. Content analysis was carried out to identify major themes in relation to the research questions. Three themes emerging from difficulties encountered were (1) managing people, mostly are patients, followed by colleagues and then patients' relatives; (2) constraints at work, include time and resources; and (3) managing self with decision-making within a short time. Three themes generating from managing work difficulties included (1) self-adjustment with practicing problem solving and learning good communication appeared more frequently, followed by maintaining a professional attitude and accumulating clinical experiences; (2) seeking help from others; and (3) organizational support is also a theme though it is the least mentioned. Four themes emerging from maintaining work enthusiasm were (1) personal conviction and discipline: believing that they are helping the needy, having the sense of vocation and support from religion; disciplining oneself by continuing education, maintaining harmonious family relationship and volunteer work. (2) Challenging work: different challenging natures of their job. (3) Positive feedback from patients: positive encounters with patients keep a connectedness with their clients. (4) Organization support: working with
Charles, Michael; Farr-Wharton, Ben; von der Heidt, Tania; Sheldon, Neroli
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate examiner reactions to doctorate of business administration (DBA) theses at an Australian university applying Perry's structured approach to thesis presentation, which had its origin in the marketing discipline, but is now widely applied to other business disciplines. Design/methodology/approach:…
Berman, Jeanette; Smyth, Robyn
This paper contributes to consideration of the role of conceptual frameworks in the doctoral research process. Through reflection on the two authors' own conceptual frameworks for their doctoral studies, a pedagogical model has been developed. The model posits the development of a conceptual framework as a core element of the doctoral…
Graham, James M; Kim, Yang-Hyang
In the face of the rising number of doctoral recipients in professional psychology, many have voiced concerns about the quality of nontraditional training programs. Past research suggests that, on a variety of outcomes, graduates from clinical PhD programs outperform graduates from clinical PsyD and, to a lesser extent, counseling PhD programs. We examine an aggregate archival dataset to determine whether student or university characteristics account for the differences in outcomes among programs. The data show meaningful differences in the outcomes of clinical PhD, PsyD, and counseling PhD programs. Furthermore, graduates from research-intensive universities perform better on the psychology licensure exam and are more likely to become American Board of Professional Psychology diplomates. The available data support the notion that the ability to conduct research is an essential component of graduate education. In this light, PsyD programs represent a unique opportunity to train students in the types of evaluation and outcomes assessments used by practicing psychologists. We discuss implications for graduate-level training in professional psychology. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Rao, Sowmya R; Sibbald, Bonnie; Hann, Mark; Harrison, Stephen; Walter, Alex; Guthrie, Bruce; Desroches, Catherine; Ferris, Timothy G; Campbell, Eric G
Background The authors aimed to determine US and UK doctors' professional values and reported behaviours, and the extent to which these vary with the context of care. Method 1891 US and 1078 UK doctors completed the survey (64.4% and 40.3% response rate respectively). Multivariate logistic regression was used to compare responses to identical questions in the two surveys. Results UK doctors were more likely to have developed practice guidelines (82.8% UK vs 49.6% US, pretribution. UK doctors were more likely than US doctors to agree that significant medical errors should always be disclosed to patients. More US doctors reported that they had not disclosed an error to a patient because they were afraid of being sued. Discussion The context of care may influence both how professional values are expressed and the extent to which behaviours are in line with stated values. Doctors have an important responsibility to develop their healthcare systems in ways which will support good professional behaviour. PMID:21383386
Schafer, James A
The American medical profession participated extensively in preparedness and mobilization for the First World War, with more than one in five doctors voluntarily enlisting in various branches of the Army and Navy Medical Corps. Medical officers were widely valorized for suspending their civilian careers and for sacrificing their professional income while in service. Because of the meager commissions that medical officers received by comparison with fees many doctors earned in established private medical practices, scores of county medical societies implemented organizational solutions to this business problem, with the hopes of removing a significant disincentive to enlistment. In these "practice protection plans," a civilian doctor promised to take care of the patients of a military doctor, to forward a portion of the fees collected thereby to the family of the military doctor, and to refer these patients to the military doctor upon his return. Despite initial enthusiasm and promotion, these plans ultimately failed to achieve their objectives, leading some medical officers to accuse civilian doctors of being opportunistic, unpatriotic "slackers." This episode reveals the limits of professional cooperation in American medicine at the time and the need to explain organizational failures in the grand narrative of professionalization during the "Golden Age" of American medicine. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
The encounter between Holocaust doctor survivors and the Israeli society was part of the whole encounter between Holocaust survivors and the Israeli society. The present thesis aimed at evaluating the integration process of Holocaust doctor survivors in the Israeli health care system from 1945 until the end of 1952. Between these years about 1350 doctors arrived in Israel, the vast majority of them Holocaust survivors. Their rapid entrance to work provided the healthcare system with professional manpower, contributing their share during a tough period of the nation's history. The doctors themselves gained the opportunity for rapid professional recovery and social integration, all at the same time. The individual contributions of each of these doctors constitute a significant collective contribution. It is an inspiring story of personal and universal human victory. There are similarities between the absorption of all Holocaust survivals in Israel with regard to the motives of immigration and the feelings towards the absorption places and organizations. But Holocaust doctor survivors didn't stay too long and moved out rather quickly. The beginning was difficult. They were absorbed in each of the healthcare fronts, but especially in new clinics established in immigrant-concentrated areas, in hospitals dedicated to lung diseases and in psychiatric hospitals. They started at low professional levels, but as soon as 1952, they could be found in management positions. This was indicative of their professional advancement and the willingness of the medical establishment to absorb and promote.
Dawn E. Pollon
Full Text Available Research assistantships have long been viewed as an extension of the formal education process, a form of apprenticeship, and a pathway into the professional practice of research in institutional settings. However, there are other contexts in which researchers practice research. This self-study documents the formative role research assistantships played in the authors’ development as professional research consultants. Four professional research consultants who held research assistant positions during their master’s and doctoral studies describe the contributions of their research assistantship experiences to the advancement of their knowledge, skills, and passion for research and subsequently to their career decisions. Professional research consulting is identified as a natural extension of research assistant roles and a potential career path. The article enhances current understandings about the ways research assistantships contribute to the development of researchers, and specifically to the development of professional research consultants. The analysis will be of interest to students contemplating entering into research assistantships, current research assistants, current research assistant supervisors, academic staff looking to improve their research productivity, and department chairs.
Barnacle, Robyn; Dall'Alba, Gloria
There is an increasing trend within higher education and, more specifically, in higher degrees by research, to treat a professional skills set as a desirable graduate outcome. The increasing value that is being placed on a professional skills set in large part reflects growing interest around the world in the role of research degrees in labour…
: academy, doctoral research education, Ghana, graduate writing course, support .... courses draw international students from various departments throughout the .... know how to apply critical thinking to transform and create knowledge as well.
McKimm, Judy; Wilkinson, Tim
As the world becomes "flattened" and travel is easier, doctors and other health professionals move and live around the world in large numbers: some for short periods (such as student electives) others on a longer-term or permanent basis. Similarly, as wider migration patterns play out, all doctors need to learn to work in multi-cultural environments, whether they move countries or work in their "home country". We consider cross-cultural aspects of "professionalism" in terms of medical students' and graduates' assimilation into different cultures and some of the aspects of professional practice that may be problematic where cultural expectations and practices may differ. Specifically we explore professional socialization, identity formation, acculturation and cultural competency as related concepts that help our understanding of challenges for individuals and strategies for curriculum development or support mechanisms.
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Scochi, Carmen Gracinda Silvan; Gelbcke, Francine Lima; Ferreira, Márcia de Assunção; Lima, Maria Alice Dias da Silva; Padilha, Katia Grillo; Padovani, Nátali Artal; Munari, Denize Bouttelet
to analyze the formation of nursing doctorates in Brazil, from theses production, disciplines and other strategies focusing on research offered by courses. a descriptive and analytical study of the performance of 18 doctoral courses in nursing, running from 1982 to 2010, and defended their theses between 2010-2012. 502 theses were defended in this period, most linked to the online research process of health and nursing care. There are gaps in the knowledge of theoretical and philosophical foundations of care, nursing history and ethics. There are also weaknesses in the methodological design of the theses, with a predominance of descriptive and/or exploratory studies. This was consistent with international standards set with regards to the proposition of research of disciplines and complementary strategies in forming the doctorate. despite the efforts and advances in research formation, it is essential to expand to more robust research designs with a greater impact on production knowledge that is incorporated into practice.
The lives of the first women doctors in Britain have been well studied by historians, as have the many debates about the right of women to train and practice as doctors. Yet the relationship between these women and their most obvious comparators and competitors-the newly professionalized hospital nurses-has not been explored. This article makes use of a wide range of sources to explore the ways in which the first lady doctors created "clear water" between themselves and the nurses with whom they worked and trained. In doing so, it reveals an identity that may seem at odds with some of the clichés of Victorian femininity, namely that of the intelligent and ambitious lady doctor.
Parfenov, Iu A
The article presents the actual in modern medicine problem of professional burnout of polyclinic doctors of middle and elderly age. It is shown that the specificity of the polyclinic doctors' activity provokes the formation of professional burnout syndrome, paired with maladaptive neuro-psychic conditions. We studied the prevalence of this syndrome in polyclinic doctors of middle age and older; its specific versions among the middle-aged doctors were defined, where the level of burnout is associated with aggressive tendencies, and the elderly doctors, where professional burnout is associated with the instability of affective response. Pathogenic markers of compensatory redistribution of information saturation of indicators of electroencephalography to the occipital cortex at professional burnout in polyclinic doctors of the elderly age, reflecting the involution processes in prefrontal areas of the cerebral cortex of the brain were identified.
Bengtsen, Søren Smedegaard
heavily from the support from informal and extra-curricular researcher communities and non-formal support systems even beyond the institution in the private and societal lifeworlds. The chapter describes and analyses such forms of organizational and existential darkness within doctoral education...... and professionalization of doctoral education, with Graduate schools increasing in size and organizational complexity. Paradoxically, we see in contemporary research into doctoral students’ learning experiences that the students do not favour the formalized support systems and supervision, but on the contrary draw most......, and discusses how institutions and doctoral programmes could use such sprawling spaces for learning to build doctoral ecologies and to strengthening existentially based pedagogies within doctoral education....
Full Text Available This paper presents quantitative results of a comparative study evaluating the management skills of doctoral candidates working toward a PhD and additional information related to their lifestyles. We conducted a survey among enrolled doctoral candidates at five universities in Israel and three technological universities in Western Europe. 1013 Israeli candidates and 457 Western European candidates replied to our survey. In our analysis, we compared the answers of Israeli Science and Engineering candidates to those of Social Sciences and Humanities candidates; in addition, we compared the answers of Israeli Science and Engineering students to their Western European peers. Our analysis focused on finding significant patterns by comparing these groups of students. In order to identify such patterns, we analyzed each question using the Pearson chi-square test. The current study’s main finding is that the majority of candidates, regardless of their chosen academic field or the region where they study, have no training or expertise in managing a doctoral research project. Based on these findings, we suggest that all doctoral candidates be taught basic research-project management. We believe that such training will provide them with a powerful tool for better managing their research as they advance towards successful completion of their doctorate.
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Andrew Leung Luk
Full Text Available BackgroundOverseas studies suggest that 10–20% of doctors are depressed, 30–45% have burnout, and many report dissatisfaction with work-life balance. A local study on public doctors showed that 31.4% of the respondents satisfied the criteria for high burnout. Young, but moderately experienced doctors who need to work shifts appeared most vulnerable. This study aims to explore the experiences of those public doctors who have managed their work difficulties and maintained professional enthusiasm for references in medical education and continuing professional training.MethodTen public doctors with reputation were invited respectively from three acute general hospitals for an in-depth interview. Interviews were audio recorded and transcribed. Content analysis was carried out to identify major themes in relation to the research questions.ResultsThree themes emerging from difficulties encountered were (1 managing people, mostly are patients, followed by colleagues and then patients’ relatives; (2 constraints at work, include time and resources; and (3 managing self with decision-making within a short time. Three themes generating from managing work difficulties included (1 self-adjustment with practicing problem solving and learning good communication appeared more frequently, followed by maintaining a professional attitude and accumulating clinical experiences; (2 seeking help from others; and (3 organizational support is also a theme though it is the least mentioned. Four themes emerging from maintaining work enthusiasm were (1 personal conviction and discipline: believing that they are helping the needy, having the sense of vocation and support from religion; disciplining oneself by continuing education, maintaining harmonious family relationship and volunteer work. (2 Challenging work: different challenging natures of their job. (3 Positive feedback from patients: positive encounters with patients keep a connectedness with their clients. (4
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Based on four articles, this compilation thesis analyses the demonstrated com-petence defining a medical doctor, to the extent to which he or she acquires a high status and high level of employability in professional practice. Overall, the thesis aimed to describe and analyse professional socialization during doctors' transition from education to work. Questions addressed included how higher education should be understood as preparation for professional practice, how ideals of the future prof...
Morokhovets, Halyna Yu; Lysanets, Yuliia V
The main objectives of higher medical education is the continuous professional improvement of physicians to meet the needs dictated by the modern world both at undergraduate and postgraduate levels. In this respect, the system of higher medical education has undergone certain changes - from determining the range of professional competences to the adoption of new standards of education in medicine. The article aims to analyze the parameters of doctor's professionalism in the context of competence-based approach and to develop practical recommendations for the improvement of instruction techniques. The authors reviewed the psycho-pedagogical materials and summarized the acquired experience of teachers at higher medical institutions as to the development of instruction techniques in the modern educational process. The study is based on the results of testing via the technique developed by T.I. Ilyina. Analytical and biblio-semantic methods were used in the paper. It has been found that the training process at medical educational institution should be focused on the learning outcomes. The authors defined the quality parameters of doctors' training and suggested the model for developing the professional competence of medical students. This model explains the cause-and-effect relationships between the forms of instruction, teaching techniques and specific components of professional competence in future doctors. The paper provides practical recommendations on developing the core competencies which a qualified doctor should master. The analysis of existing interactive media in Ukraine and abroad has been performed. It has been found that teaching the core disciplines with the use of latest technologies and interactive means keeps abreast of the times, while teaching social studies and humanities to medical students still involves certain difficulties.
He, Ping; Li, Yi-kui
At present, Chinese medical field faces with an important problem of how to correctly handle the relationship between medical and scientific research. Academician Li Lianda advocates doctors doing scientific research under the premise of putting the medical work first. He points out that there are many problems in the process of doctors doing scientific research at present such as paying more attention to scientific research than medical care, excessively promoting building scientific research hospital, only paying attention to training scientific talents, research direction be flashy without substance, the medical evaluation system should be improved and so on. Medical, scientific research and teaching are inseparable because improving medical standards depends on scientific research and personnel training. But not all doctors need to take into account of medical treatment, scientific research and teaching in the same degree while not all hospitals need to turn into three-in-one hospital, scientific research hospital or teaching hospital. It must be treated differently according to the actual situation.
Full Text Available Background: The way a death is notified to family members has a long-term effect on their coping with their loss. The words caregivers use and the sentiments they express can stay with their hearers for the rest of theirlife. Aims: To study the views of three caregivers groups—doctors, nurses and social workers—as to their role in breaking a death news in an ED.Methods: One hundred and fifteen health care professionals participated in the research (51 nurses, 38 doctors and 26 social workers. They completed a 72-item questionnaire comprising behaviour descriptions, attitudes and statements. Content validation of the questionnaire was conducted by the help of experts group, and the internal reliability, measures in all its parts was 0.78 on average (α = 0.78.Results: Doctors gave a higher score than the other groups to their responsibility for breaking bad news (p<0.005 and to the content of the information they provide. Social workers scored the mental support given the family significantly higher than doctors and nurses did (p<0.000. Nurses scored the instrumental support given(tissues, water to drink significantly higher than doctors and social workers (p<0.000. Breaking bad news caused social workers more mental distress than it did either doctors or nurses. All three groups gave a high score to the emotional exhaustion, sadness and identification this task caused them. Nurses felt more fear at theprospect of a notifying a death and made more effort to escape the task.Conclusions: The findings of the study will help develop performance guidelines for notifying a death and provide input for simulation and other training workshops.
The practice of medicine is inherently stressful with regular exposure to trauma and the distress of others. There is a culture in medicine that doctors should not be affected by such things, although it is well recognised that doctors have higher rates of depression, anxiety, suicide, and substance abuse than the general public. Reflective professional supervision is a forum where the complexities of the interpersonal interactions that underpin the provision of healthcare can be explored in a supportive and confidential setting. It is argued that this is a process that should continue for the duration of a doctor's career, with potential benefits including enhanced job satisfaction and resilience, better workplace communication and improved interpersonal skills.
This essay argues that the concept of professionalism as it appears in health law is undergoing transformation as the applicable common law doctrines are increasingly being superseded by statutes and regulations. The doctor-patient relationship is being subjected to new rules of conduct intended to affirm the rights not only of patients but also of society at large. The bilateral relationship between doctor and patient has in many respects been transformed into a triadic one in which the concerns of public, as consumer and payor, are increasingly taken into account. In many respects this change has been necessary and inevitable as medicine has become a more commercial enterprise; but the change has also put traditional notions of professionalism at risk. Where professionalism is adversely affected by the process of its codification, it is incumbent upon law and policy makers to be aware of the fact. To this end, this essay first undertakes to define medical professionalism as a legal construct, and then formulates an analytic method with which to determine when professionalism is implicated and whether it is adequately accommodated by the law. The definition of professionalism the author advances is informed by concepts established in the literature of sociology, which identifies four core attributes-functional specificity, trust, disinterestedness and self-regulation. Each of these attributes is examined in turn with reference to case law selected to identify the value in question and to illustrate the nature of the change resulting from its codification.
Full Text Available Background. “Health is wealth” is a time tested adage. Health becomes more relevant when it comes to professionals whose job is to provide people with services that maintain an optimum state of mental, physical and social well-being. Healthcare professionals (HCP differ from general population in regards to the nature of their work, stress, burnout etc. which begs the need to have a robust state of health for the ones who provide it to others. We initiated this study to see if healthcare professionals “practice what they preach others.”Methods. We employed a cross-sectional study design with convenience-sampling technique. Questionnaires were administered directly to the three groups of healthcare professionals (Doctors, Dentists and Nurses across the province Punjab after their consent. 1,319 healthcare professionals took part in the study (response rate of 87.35. Warwick Edinburg Mental Wellbeing Scale (WEMWBS was used to assess mental wellbeing. USDA Dietary Guidelines-2010 were employed to quantify diet. American Heart Association (AHA guidelines were employed for the analysis of exercise.Results. A total of 1,190 healthcare professionals formed the final sample with doctors and nurses forming the major proportion. Out of 1,190 participants only one healthcare professional was found to eat according to USDA Dietary Guidelines; others ate more of protein group and less of fruits, dairy and vegetable groups. 76% did not perform any exercise. 71.5% worked >48 h/week. More than 50% of healthcare professionals were sleeping <7 h/day. WEMWBS score of the entire sample was 47.97 ± 9.53 S.D.Conclusion. Our findings suggest that healthcare professionals do not practice what they preach. Their mental wellbeing, diet and exercise habits are not up to the mark and should be improved to foster the whole healthcare system for individual and community benefits.
Altair Alberto Fávero
Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the trajectories and institutional destinations of graduates of doctoral programs in Education from Brazilian public universities in the last twelve years (2000-2012. The research is characterized as Mixed Methods (CRESWELL and CLARK, 2013 and was developed from data available in the electronic site of the CAPES, referring to graduate programs and Lattes Platform. Of the 3,598 graduates surveyed, a small number represents researchers who went straight to masters and doctorate degrees shortly after undergraduate studies. Almost one-third of respondents obtained doctorate degrees in between 10 and 15 years after graduation. About 15% held a doctorate between 20 and 25 years after graduation. We found that less than 25% of respondents were master's degree students in 2013 and less than 10% have contributed to the training of young doctors. We believe that the development of this research, unprecedented on this scale in the area of education, can contribute to the evaluation of expansion conditions and qualification programs and courses. In addition to taking a look at the activities and the working arrangements of the young doctors in Education in Brazil and prepare analytical frameworks that can contribute to the proposition of strategic funding policies and the setting of teachers in disadvantaged regions. Keywords: Postgraduate studies. Education. Graduate student training. Employability.
Adetokunbo Oluwole Ilesanmi
Full Text Available This paper explored through a literature review, the domains of research in Architecture and the nature of doctoral research, with a view to contributing to the evolving research agenda in the Nigerian context. The research method involved a descriptive and thematic analysis of the titles and abstracts of completed doctoral theses in Architecture in Nigeria, in the last 26 years (1990–2015, complemented by semi-structured interviews with six key informants. The study revealed an emphasis on Housing-related topics (34% relative to other research modules, such as׳ History and Theory׳ (20% and ׳Design and Production׳ (18%. It also reflected the limited coverage and scope of current research, relative to the global terrain, as evidenced in the article titles and contents of 45 Architecture-related Journals. The results of the interviews indicated the strong influence of supervisors׳ areas of interest in the choices of thesis titles. It highlighted reasons for the perceived focus on Housing, which reflect its unique place and multi-disciplinary nature. It concluded that extending the boundaries of architectural research at the doctoral level could be beneficial to the discipline and profession in Nigeria in order to align with global trends, while keeping cognizance of the local contexts.
Ullrich, Lauren; Dumanis, Sonya B; Evans, Tanya M; Jeannotte, Alexis M; Leonard, Carrie; Rozzi, Summer J; Taylor, Caitlin M; Gale, Karen; Kanwal, Jagmeet S; Maguire-Zeiss, Kathleen A; Wolfe, Barry B; Forcelli, Patrick A
A key facet of professional development is the formation of professional identity. At its most basic level, professional identity for a scientist centers on mastery of a discipline and the development of research skills during doctoral training. To develop a broader understanding of professional identity in the context of doctoral training, the Carnegie Initiative on the Doctorate (CID) ran a multi-institutional study from 2001 to 2005. A key outcome of the CID was the development of the concept of 'stewards of the discipline'. The Interdisciplinary Program in Neuroscience (IPN) at Georgetown University participated in CID from 2003 to 2005. Here, we describe the IPN and highlight the programmatic developments resulting from participation in the CID. In particular, we emphasize programmatic activities that are designed to promote professional skills in parallel with scientific development. We describe activities in the domains of leadership, communication, teaching, public outreach, ethics, collaboration, and mentorship. Finally, we provide data that demonstrate that traditional metrics of academic success are not adversely affected by the inclusion of professional development activities in the curricula. By incorporating these seven 'professional development' activities into the required coursework and dissertation research experience, the IPN motivates students to become stewards of the discipline.
Omaira Vergara Luján
Full Text Available This article intends to share the experience of a group of teachers in the Classroom Research Seminar of the Teacher Development Program in English carried out at Universidad del Valle, Cali, from January to June, 2007. The seminar was part of a high-level in-service program for teachers of English of a network of private educational institutions. We would like to share the highlights and difficulties of the experience. We will start with the general framework of the program and the concept of professional development that underlies it. Next we will focus on the classroom research seminar, its objectives, methodology and results. Finally we share the voices of some of the participants, who talk about the influence this seminar had on their professional development and daily work.
Bringedal, Berit; Isaksson Rø, Karin; Magelssen, Morten; Førde, Reidun; Aasland, Olaf Gjerløv
We present and discuss the results of a Norwegian survey of medical doctors' views on potential ethical dilemmas in professional practice. The study was conducted in 2015 as a postal questionnaire to a representative sample of 1612 doctors, among which 1261 responded (78%). We provided a list of 41 potential ethical dilemmas and asked whether each was considered a dilemma, and whether the doctor would perform the task, if in a position to do so. Conceptually, dilemmas arise because of tensions between two or more of four doctor roles: the patient's advocate, a steward of societal interests, a member of a profession and a private individual. 27 of the potential dilemmas were considered dilemmas by at least 50% of the respondents. For more than half of the dilemmas, the anticipated course of action varied substantially within the professional group, with at least 20% choosing a different course than their colleagues, indicating low consensus in the profession. Doctors experience a large range of ethical dilemmas, of which many have been given little attention by academic medical ethics. The less-discussed dilemmas are characterised by a low degree of consensus in the profession about how to handle them. There is a need for medical ethicists, medical education, postgraduate courses and clinical ethics support to address common dilemmas in clinical practice. Viewing dilemmas as role conflicts can be a fruitful approach to these discussions. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Full Text Available Community-based research (CBR is an advanced form of academic service-learning through which university students, faculty, and community organizations collaborate to conduct inquiry projects aimed at producing social change. Despite its potential for advancing learning in graduate studies, little research exists on CBR implementations or outcomes in doctoral programs. This study examined the effectiveness of integrating CBR into an educational leadership doctorate across three consecutive cohorts in which students worked in teams to conduct CBR projects, each in partnership with a community organization pursuing a social justice initiative. A mixed-methods developmental case study design produced quantitative and qualitative data on students’ perceived effectiveness of cooperative/collaborative interaction and team decision making in CBR, experience with and learning from CBR in the education doctorate, and development of CBR competencies. Triangulated results overall revealed students’ (a positive attitudes toward CBR, (b enhanced understanding of and commitment to CBR and how to conduct it, (c expanded understanding and application of technical research skills, (d growth in coopera-tive/collaborative and conflict resolution skills, and (e development of leadership project management skills. These findings may assist faculty in planning innovative, authentic, applied, professional training in the education doctorate capable of advancing students’ graduate inquiry skills while also enhancing competencies for successful leadership in the field.
This paper investigates how the encouragement of entrepreneurship within university research labs relates with research activities, research outputs, and early doctorate careers. Utilizing a panel survey of 6,840 science & engineering doctoral students at 39 R1 research universities, this study shows that entrepreneurship is widely encouraged across university research labs, ranging from 54% in biomedical engineering to 18% in particle physics, while only a small share of labs openly discoura...
Kong, Xiaoqing; Chakraverty, Devasmita; Jeffe, Donna B.; Andriole, Dorothy A.; Wathington, Heather D.; Tai, Robert H.
This exploratory qualitative study investigated how doctoral students reported their personal and professional interaction experiences that they believed might facilitate or impede their academic pursuits in biomedical research. We collected 19 in-depth interviews with doctoral students in biomedical research from eight universities, and we based our qualitative analytic approach on the work of Miles and Huberman. The results indicated that among different sources and types of interaction, academic and emotional interactions from family and teachers in various stages essentially affected students’ persistence in the biomedical science field. In addition, co-mentorship among peers, departmental environment, and volunteer experiences were other essential factors. This study also found related experiences among women and underrepresented minority students that were important to their academic pursuit. PMID:26166928
Kong, Xiaoqing; Chakraverty, Devasmita; Jeffe, Donna B; Andriole, Dorothy A; Wathington, Heather D; Tai, Robert H
This exploratory qualitative study investigated how doctoral students reported their personal and professional interaction experiences that they believed might facilitate or impede their academic pursuits in biomedical research. We collected 19 in-depth interviews with doctoral students in biomedical research from eight universities, and we based our qualitative analytic approach on the work of Miles and Huberman. The results indicated that among different sources and types of interaction, academic and emotional interactions from family and teachers in various stages essentially affected students' persistence in the biomedical science field. In addition, co-mentorship among peers, departmental environment, and volunteer experiences were other essential factors. This study also found related experiences among women and underrepresented minority students that were important to their academic pursuit.
Madan-Swain, Avi; Hankins, Shirley L; Gilliam, Margaux Barnes; Ross, Kelly; Reynolds, Nina; Milby, Jesse; Schwebel, David C
This article considers the development of research competencies in professional psychology and how that movement might be applied to training in pediatric psychology. The field of pediatric psychology has a short but rich history, and experts have identified critical competencies. However, pediatric psychology has not yet detailed a set of research-based competencies. This article initially reviews the competency initiative in professional psychology, including the cube model as it relates to research training. Next, we review and adapt the knowledge-based/foundational and applied/functional research competencies proposed by health psychology into a cube model for pediatric psychology. We focus especially on graduate-level training but allude to its application throughout professional development. We present the cube model as it is currently being applied to the development of a systematic research competency evaluation for graduate training at our medical/clinical psychology doctoral program at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. Based on the review and synthesis of the literature on research competency in professional psychology we propose future initiatives to develop these competencies for the field of pediatric psychology. The cube model can be successfully applied to the development of research training competencies in pediatric psychology. Future research should address the development, implementation, and assessment of the research competencies for training and career development of future pediatric psychologists.
Cuervo Pinna, M Á; Rubio, M; Altisent Trota, R; Rocafort Gil, J; Gómez Sancho, M
The decriminalisation of euthanasia and assisted medical suicide has generated a continuous debate. The terminological confusion is one of the main difficulties in obtaining medical practice consensus. The objective of this study was to determine whether the terms of Euthanasia and physician assisted suicide are used with the same meaning by doctors in Extremadura (Spain). A qualitative study was conducted using two focus groups in which doctors from different specialties who attended a large number of terminal patients participated. No other focus group was required due to saturation. The sessions were tape recorded and transcribed by two experts in qualitative methodology. Atlas.ti software was used for the analysis. We were advised by the "Health Care at the end of life" Group of the Organizacion Médica Colegial of Spain. Terminological confusion was verified in: 1) The mixture of etymological, functional and social concepts, 2) the term Passive Euthanasia, 3) the association between euthanasia and physician assisted suicide, 4) the confusion with the equivalent "wish to hasten death", and 5) the difficulty of differentiating sedation with Euthanasia. There was consensus on some aspects: a) Full voluntariness, b) the condition of terminal illness, and c) the condition of unbearable symptoms. Conceptual variability persists in relation to the concept of Euthanasia, and is particularly noticeable in the persistence of the concept of passive euthanasia. It would be desirable to achieve a common language to assign a precise meaning to these words to help doctors in their professional practice. Copyright © 2015 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Gallagher, Ruth M
Despite their common history, there are many cultural, attitudinal and practical differences between the professions of medicine and pharmacy that ultimately influence patient care and health outcomes. While poor communication between doctors and pharmacists is a major cause of medical errors, it is clear that effective, deliberate doctor-pharmacist collaboration within certain clinical settings significantly improves patient care. This may be particularly true for those patients with chronic illnesses and\\/or requiring regular medication reviews. Moreover, in hospitals, clinical and antibiotic pharmacists are successfully influencing prescribing and infection control policy. Under the new Irish Pharmacy Act (2007), pharmacists are legally obliged to provide pharmaceutical care to their patients, thus fulfilling a more patient-centred role than their traditional \\'dispensing\\' one. However, meeting this obligation relies on the existence of good doctor-pharmacist working relationships, such that inter-disciplinary teamwork in monitoring patients becomes the norm in all healthcare settings. As discussed here, efforts to improve these relationships must focus on the strategic introduction of agreed changes in working practices between the two professions and on educational aspects of pharmaceutical care. For example, standardized education of doctors\\/medical students such that they learn to prescribe in an optimal manner and ongoing inter-professional education of doctors and pharmacists in therapeutics, are likely to be of paramount importance. Here, insights into the types of factors that help or hinder the improvement of these working relationships and the importance of education and agreed working practices in defining the separate but inter-dependent professions of pharmacy and medicine are reviewed and discussed.
Gallagher, Ruth M; Gallagher, Helen C
Despite their common history, there are many cultural, attitudinal and practical differences between the professions of medicine and pharmacy that ultimately influence patient care and health outcomes. While poor communication between doctors and pharmacists is a major cause of medical errors, it is clear that effective, deliberate doctor-pharmacist collaboration within certain clinical settings significantly improves patient care. This may be particularly true for those patients with chronic illnesses and/or requiring regular medication reviews. Moreover, in hospitals, clinical and antibiotic pharmacists are successfully influencing prescribing and infection control policy. Under the new Irish Pharmacy Act (2007), pharmacists are legally obliged to provide pharmaceutical care to their patients, thus fulfilling a more patient-centred role than their traditional 'dispensing' one. However, meeting this obligation relies on the existence of good doctor-pharmacist working relationships, such that inter-disciplinary teamwork in monitoring patients becomes the norm in all healthcare settings. As discussed here, efforts to improve these relationships must focus on the strategic introduction of agreed changes in working practices between the two professions and on educational aspects of pharmaceutical care. For example, standardized education of doctors/medical students such that they learn to prescribe in an optimal manner and ongoing inter-professional education of doctors and pharmacists in therapeutics, are likely to be of paramount importance. Here, insights into the types of factors that help or hinder the improvement of these working relationships and the importance of education and agreed working practices in defining the separate but inter-dependent professions of pharmacy and medicine are reviewed and discussed.
Gerber, Alan S; Patashnik, Eric M; Doherty, David; Dowling, Conor M
The Obama administration has made a major investment in comparative effectiveness research (CER) to learn what treatments work best for which patients. CER has the potential to reduce wasteful medical spending and improve patient outcomes, but the political sustainability of this initiative remains unclear because of concerns that it will threaten the doctor-patient relationship. An unresolved question is whether it is possible to boost public support for the use of CER as a cost-control strategy. We investigate one potential source of public support: Americans' trust in physicians as faithful agents of patient interests. We conducted two national surveys to explore the public's confidence in doctors compared to other groups. We find that doctors are viewed as harder workers, more trustworthy, and more caring than other professionals. Through survey experiments, we demonstrate that the support of doctors' groups for proposals to control costs and use CER have a greater influence on aggregate public opinion than do cues from political actors including congressional Democrats, Republicans, and a bipartisan commission. Our survey results suggest that the medical profession's stance will be an important factor in shaping the political viability of efforts to use CER as a tool for health care cost control.
Youdas, James W.; Krause, David A.; Hellyer, Nathan J.; Rindflesch, Aaron B.; Hollman, John H.
Medical professionals and public consumers expect that new physical therapy graduates possess cognitive, technical, and behavioral skills required to provide safe and high-quality care to patients. The purpose of this study was to determine if a repertoire of ten professional behaviors assessed at the beginning of doctorate of physical therapy…
In this study, professional impact is defined as the academic literature that is cited in the literature that is used by professions in order to pursue skilled activities that are specific to their expertise. Specifically, we are focusing on the clinical guidelines that are used in the many health and medical professions that are issued by government bodies at national and international levels to ensure a certain quality level and to make results comparable at the national level. To date, more than 50.000 references have been identified in about 500 Swedish clinical guidelines issued by the above mentioned governmental bodies in Sweden. Of these, 73 % of the references have been matched to a PubMed id. The goal of this project is to develop a conceptual and theoretical contribution to the development of indicators for measuring the impact of research outside of the specifically academic literature. (Author)
van Ark, Allard E; Wijnen-Meijer, Marjo
The worlds of a physician and a jazz musician seem entirely different. Various studies, however, relating the concepts behind jazz music to medical practice and education, have been published. The aim of this essayistic review is to summarize previously described concepts behind jazz music and its required artistic skills that could be translated to medicine, encouraging doctors, medical students and medical educators to see their professional environment from a different perspective. A systematic search was conducted using PubMed, Embase, and ERIC databases, combining keywords with regard to jazz, medicine and medical education. Background information concerning jazz music and several jazz musicians was retrieved through an additional nonsystematic search using Google Scholar. Lessons with regard to improvisational skills, both in communication with patients and in a technical context, communication skills, leadership, interprofessional teamwork and coping with errors are presented. Doctors and medical students could learn various lessons from jazz music performance and jazz musicians. The potential and the possibilities of implementing jazz into the medical curriculum, in order to contribute to the development of professional skills and attitudes of medical students, could be explored further.
Skurupii, Dmytro A; Kholod, Dmytro A; Sonnik, Evgen G
The professional burnout syndrome (PBS) affects quality of medical care provision for people, which is acquires the special actuality in terms of reforming the health care system. To study ways to improve the efficiency of doctors of surgical specialties based on analyzes of PBS and its consequences. A survey of psychological tests and 62 surgical doctors was carried out. It was found out that the PBS reaches a peak after 11 to 15 years of working experience. Anesthesiologists have high levels of PBS, emotional exhaustion, cynicism, low desire for career growth, frequent misunderstanding with the administration, they prefer 8-hour working day, and relieve stress by sleeping and consuming alcohol. Obstetrician-gynecologists show moderate level of PBS and emotional exhaustion, high degree of cynicism, strong desire for career growth, frequent misunderstandings with patients and their relatives, prefer 8-hour working day, relieve stress by smoking and socializing with family and friends. Traumatic surgeons have moderate level of PBS, emotional exhaustion, high degree of cynicism, strong desire for career growth, frequent misunderstandings with their colleagues of related specialties, prefer the 24-hour working day, and reli eve their stress with alcohol and sports. Surgeons have moderate level of PBS, emotional exhaustion, low degree of cynicism, moderate desire for career growth, frequent misunderstandings with their colleagues of related specialties, prefer the 8-hour working day, and relieve stress by smoking and sleeping. PBS is most expressed in doctors having working experience of 11 to 15 years and in anesthesiologists. They get professional deformations. These features should be considered in course of organization of working process of medical teams.
Full Text Available Objective – At the University of California, Berkeley (UCB, researchers compared how well the library collections supported doctoral research in the three related disciplines of education, psychology, and social welfare. The goal of this project was to gather empirical data to answer questions about materials cited in dissertations, including ownership, age of materials and disciplinary usage. Methods – Researchers analyzed the bibliographies of doctoral dissertations from three academic departments at UCB: education (2009-2010, psychology (2009-2010, and social welfare (2009-2011. The sampling methodology used a systematic sample with a random start. To achieve a 95% (+/-4% confidence interval, the sample included a total of 3,372 citations from 107 dissertations. Researchers consulted with a statistician to determine the statistical significance of the results. The test for the age of citation used a signed ranks test, which is typical for ordinal data or skewed interval data. The test for ownership was a chi-square test, which is typical for nominal data or dichotomous data. Results – Researchers determined that a very high percentage of the cited journals were owned or licensed by the Library. The ownership rate for cited journals was 97% for both education and social welfare, and 99% for psychology. There was a statistically significant difference between the three disciplines, with psychology better supported than either education (p=.02 or social welfare (p=.01. However, since ownership rates for journals in all three disciplines were extremely high, this was not a meaningful difference. For books, the researchers found a significantly smaller percentage of books owned in social welfare compared to either education (p=.00 or psychology (p=.00. We found no significant difference between the percentages of books owned in psychology versus education (p=.27. Psychology students cited the highest percentage of journals while education
Full Text Available Aim/Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explain how Distance Education women EdD students who are mothers balanced and integrated their multiple identities (e.g., mother, student, professional to persist. Background: It is well documented that parenting students experience higher levels of stress and pressure during their degree pursuit than their non-parenting counterparts. It is also well documented that doctoral attrition is a persistent problem across decades and disciplines, and examination of specific populations was necessary to better understand how to foster doctoral persistence. Methodology\t: Data were collected from 17 women via questionnaires, life maps, and interviews and were analyzed in accordance with grounded theory procedures. Contribution: This study generated a novel theoretical model to explain women EdD students’ academic identity progression from students to scholars and its intersection with other salient identities, especially mother, and the core sense of self in alignment with other identity theories. Findings: Academic identity development from student to research scholar is complex and challenging, but follows a unique progression that begins with gaining competence in research, followed by a confidence to conduct research. This positive attitude toward research is often shaped by an influential advisor or mentor, a relationship that enables a student mother to envision herself as a scholar and mother. However, it is a woman’s social conditions (e.g., supportive spouse, friends, or employer that provide her the confidence and space to differentiate, develop, and intersect multiple identities, a process that allows for successful negotiation and integration of identities, and ultimately, persistence and attainment of the doctorate. Recommendations for Practitioners\t: Findings highlight the need for more women faculty role models in higher education. To increase the number of women faculty mentors in
Cleary, Michelle; Hunt, Glenn E; Jackson, Debra
Commonly, the expression 'PhD' evokes a level of trepidation amongst potential candidates from both the clinical and academic spheres. In contemporary settings, a Doctor of Philosophy is highly regarded and increasingly necessary for a successful academic nursing career. The aim of this paper is to explore the options for doctoral education for nurses, and consider the role of the doctorate in career planning for nursing, and in the attainment of career goals. Here we discuss some key issues and practicalities including career planning, selecting a doctoral program, choosing a university, supervision, committees and panels, achieving a work-life balance and dealing with conflict. The PhD process should be an enriching and satisfying experience which may lead to enhanced professional and personal growth; however, there are potential pitfalls that nurses should be aware of before embarking on doctoral training. Future studies are needed to assess the impact of the different doctorates offered to see if, in fact, they are advancing nursing practice and research endeavours.
Full Text Available Since the use of design science research (DSR) gained momentum as a research approach in information systems (IS), the adoption of a DSR approach in postgraduate studies became more acceptable. This paper reflects on a study to investigate how a...
Van Dijck, H
Hospital doctors behave differently from other hospital workers. The general and specific characteristics of the doctors' behavior are described. As professionals, doctors want to make autonomous decisions and more specifically, they negotiate differently. The best description of their negotiation style is one that features multi-actor, multi-issue characteristics. They behave as actors in a network in never-ending rounds of negotiations with variable issues up for discussion: one time you lose, the next you win. A doctor's career starts with a long residency period in which he or she absorbs professional habits. His or her knowledge and way of organizing are implicit. It is hard for him or her to explicitly describe what he or she is doing. This makes it difficult for managers to discuss quality issues with doctors. Dealing with disruptive behavior is not easy either. The difficult tasks of the chief medical officer, who acts as a go-between, are highlighted. Only when managers respect the fundamentals of the professional organization will they be able to create common goals with the professionals. Common goals bring about better care in hospitals.
Waddington, I; Roderick, M; Naik, R
To examine the methods of appointment, experience, and qualifications of club doctors and physiotherapists in professional football. Semistructured tape recorded interviews with 12 club doctors, 10 club physiotherapists, and 27 current and former players. A questionnaire was also sent to 90 club doctors; 58 were returned. In almost all clubs, methods of appointment of doctors are informal and reflect poor employment practice: posts are rarely advertised and many doctors are appointed on the basis of personal contacts and without interview. Few club doctors had prior experience or qualifications in sports medicine and very few have a written job description. The club doctor is often not consulted about the appointment of the physiotherapist; physiotherapists are usually appointed informally, often without interview, and often by the manager without involving anyone who is qualified in medicine or physiotherapy. Half of all clubs do not have a qualified (chartered) physiotherapist; such unqualified physiotherapists are in a weak position to resist threats to their clinical autonomy, particularly those arising from managers' attempts to influence clinical decisions. Almost all aspects of the appointment of club doctors and physiotherapists need careful re-examination.
Leeman, Yvonne; van Koeven, Erna; Schaafsma, Frank
This article describes an example of inter-professional action research conducted by teachers and university-based researchers/teacher educators in a vocational college in the Netherlands. The research was aimed at the professional learning of the teachers on their pedagogical approach to a new curriculum initiative. Despite a difficult context in…
Drisko, James W.; Evans, Kristin
This national survey of PhD faculty assessed the research preparation of entering doctoral social work students on a wide range of research knowledge and related skills. The prior literature shows that PhD programs repeat much BSW and MSW research course content. This study shows that the trend continues and has perhaps widened. PhD research…
Bosshard, G; Broeckaert, B; Clark, D; Materstvedt, L J; Gordijn, B; Müller-Busch, H C
To analyse legislation and medical professional positions concerning the doctor's role in assisted dying in western Europe, and to discuss their implications for doctors. This paper is based on country-specific reports by experts from European countries where assisted dying is legalised (Belgium, The Netherlands), or openly practiced (Switzerland), or where it is illegal (Germany, Norway, UK). Laws on assisted dying in The Netherlands and Belgium are restricted to doctors. In principle, assisted suicide (but not euthanasia) is not illegal in either Germany or Switzerland, but a doctor's participation in Germany would violate the code of professional medical conduct and might contravene of a doctor's legal duty to save life. The Assisted Dying for the Terminally Ill Bill proposed in the UK in 2005 focused on doctors, whereas the Proposal on Assisted Dying of the Norwegian Penal Code Commission minority in 2002 did not. Professional medical organisations in all these countries except The Netherlands maintain the position that medical assistance in dying conflicts with the basic role of doctors. However, in Belgium and Switzerland, and for a time in the UK, these organisations dropped their opposition to new legislation. Today, they regard the issue as primarily a matter for society and politics. This "neutral" stance differs from the official position of the Royal Dutch Medical Association which has played a key role in developing the Dutch practice of euthanasia as a "medical end-of-life decision" since the 1970s. A society moving towards an open approach to assisted dying should carefully identify tasks to assign exclusively to medical doctors, and distinguish those possibly better performed by other professions.
Foster, Kirsty; Roberts, Chris
The successful development and sustaining of professional identity is critical to being a successful doctor. This study explores the enduring impact of significant early role models on the professional identity formation of senior doctors. Personal Interview Narratives were derived from the stories told by twelve senior doctors as they recalled accounts of people and events from the past that shaped their notions of being a doctor. Narrative inquiry methodology was used to explore and analyse video recording and transcript data from interviews. Role models were frequently characterised as heroic, or villainous depending on whether they were perceived as good or bad influences respectively. The degree of sophistication in participants' characterisations appeared to correspond with the stage of life of the participant at the time of the encounter. Heroes were characterised as attractive, altruistic, caring and clever, often in exaggerated terms. Conversely, villains were typically characterised as direct or covert bullies. Everyday events were surprisingly powerful, emotionally charged and persisted in participants' memories much longer than expected. In particular, unresolved emotions dating from encounters where bullying behaviour had been witnessed or experienced were still apparent decades after the event. The characterisation of role models is an important part of the professional identity and socialisation of senior doctors. The enduring impact of what role models say and do means that all doctors, need to consistently reflect on how their own behaviour impacts the development of appropriate professional behaviours in both students and training doctors. This is especially important where problematic behaviours occur as, if not dealt with, they have the potential for long-lasting undesirable effects. The importance of small acts of caring in building a nurturing and supportive learning atmosphere at all stages of medical education cannot be underestimated.
Teaching Psychology in medical curriculum has been the subject of numerous dissertations that focus on the relevance of this knowledge for doctors, at a general level. A non-systematic review of the relevant literature, particularly from the last decade, as well as national and international recommendations addressing the need for integration of behavioural and social sciences in medical training, was performed. The literature supports the existence of preconceptions and negative attitudes towards the role of psychology in medical education, demonstrated by research in various european and american universities. The socio-cultural context, the different methodologies and barriers experienced by teachers in medical education are listed and provide the matrix for a more comprehensive discussion of the development of the doctor's identity. Revisiting the experience of many years of teaching Medical Psychology, it is considered that the process of integration of this curricular area should occur horizontally and vertically throughout the course, stressing the need for the pedagogical training of teachers. Concepts that arise from personal reflection, adjusted to the reality of our education and the basic principles that guide it, are elaborated in order to integrate the teaching of Psychology in Medicine, emphasizing its importance and utility in the competencies and abilities of future doctors.
Full Text Available New qualitative research methods continue to emerge in response to factors such as renewed interest in mixed methods, better understanding of the importance of a researcher’s philosophical stance, as well as the increased use of technology in data collection and analysis, to name a few. As a result, those facilitating research methods courses must revisit content and instructional strategies in order to prepare well-informed researchers. Approaches range from paradigm to pragmatic emphasis. This descriptive case study of a doctoral seminar for novice qualitative researchers describes the intricacies of the syllabus of a pragmatic approach in a constructivist/social constructionist learning environment. The purpose was to document the delivery and faculty/student interactions and reactions. Noteworthy were the contradictions and frustrations in the delivery as well as in student experiences. In the end, student input led to seminal learning experiences. The confirmation of the effectiveness of a constructivist/social constructivist learning environment is applicable to higher education pedagogy in general.
Helmich, Esther; Yeh, Huei-Ming; Kalet, Adina; Al-Eraky, Mohamed
Becoming a doctor is fundamentally about developing a new, professional identity as a physician, which in and of itself may evoke many emotions. Additionally, medical trainees are increasingly moving from one cultural context to another and are challenged with navigating the resulting shifts in their professional identify. In this Article, the authors aim to address medical professional identity formation from a polyvocal, multidisciplinary, cross-cultural perspective. They delineate the cultural approaches to medical professionalism, reflect on professional identity formation in different cultures and on different theories of identity development, and advocate for a context-specific approach to professional identity formation. In doing so, the authors aim to broaden the developing professional identity formation discourse to include non-Western approaches and notions.
This paper reports on the ground-breaking research in the study of languages in doctoral education. It argues for democratizing the production and dissemination of original contributions to knowledge through activating and mobilizing multilingual Higher Degree Researchers' (HDRs) capabilities for theorizing through them using their full linguistic…
This paper examines the relationship between political change and epistemologies and methodologies employed at doctorate level. It does so by analysing the range of topics, questions and methodologies used by doctoral students at the University of Pretoria's Faculty of Education between 1985 and 2005--a time-frame that covers the decade before and…
Comparing two public medical affairs which involved disciplinary proceedings and libel actions, one from Bavaria and one from Prussia, this article analyzes the dynamics behind legal conflicts over doctors' professional ethics in Imperial Germany. In both the case of Dr Maurice Hutzler, who committed suicide after conflicts with senior colleagues at the Gisela Children's Hospital and a sentence of the court of honour of the Munich Medical District Society, and the Berlin "patient trade" affair, in which the medical professors Ernst von Leyden, Hermann Senator, Karl Anton Ewald and Carl Posner were accused of having made payments to middlemen for bringing them lucrative private patients, notions of personal and professional honour played a central role. The Munich case highlighted shortcomings of the Bavarian medical court of honour system, which was less developed than its Prussian counterpart. The analysis of the two cases suggests that the ethics of medical practice in early twentieth-century Germany should be viewed as part of a culture of honour.
Dahan, Aubépine; Mangematin, Vincent
Based on empirical research on the effect of doctoral schools in French university, this paper analyses under which conditions the implementation of a new institution impacts work practices i.e. the ways by which individuals and collective actors perform their activity. It focuses on the micro-practices of actors, in order to shed new light on the micro-level works which put the new institution into action. The paper contributes to existing theory in three different ways. First, it shows that...
Simpson, Colin; Sommer, Daniela
In light of the prominent role of socio-materiality in contemporary social scientific, and particularly educational research, this article uses two practice-based theories to investigate the experiences of German business management professionals on a U.K.-based DBA delivered in Germany. We specifically take concepts from cultural historical…
Owusu-Manu, D.; Edwards, D. J.; Afrane, S. K.; Dontwi, I. K.; Laycock, P.
The constantly evolving paradigm of 21st century educational offerings and the growing demand for "professional practice" research degrees have raised concerns about the relevance of the traditional "theoretical" PhD award. To meet this growing demand, and address these concerns, alternative routes to achieving the doctoral…
Barrie Brennan's thesis entitled "Continuing Professional Education in Australia. A Tale of Missed Opportunities" offers a history of Continuing Professional Development (CPD) in the Australian context. This paper arose from Brennan's research for his thesis and is focused on issues that arose from the introduction of Australia's…
Background Nowadays, digital self-tracking devices offer a plethora of possibilities to both healthy and chronically ill users who want to closely examine their body. This study suggests that self-tracking in a private setting will lead to shifting understandings in professional care. To provide more insight into these shifts, this paper seeks to lay bare the promises and challenges of self-tracking while staying close to the everyday professional experience of the physician. Objective The aim of this study was to (1) offer an analysis of how medical doctors evaluate self-tracking methods in their practice and (2) explore the anticipated shifts that digital self-care will bring about in relation to our findings and those of other studies. Methods A total of 12 in-depth semistructured interviews with general practitioners (GPs) and cardiologists were conducted in Flanders, Belgium, from November 2015 to November 2016. Thematic analysis was applied to examine the transcripts in an iterative process. Results Four major themes arose in our body of data: (1) the patient as health manager, (2) health obsession and medicalization, (3) information management, and (4) shifting roles of the doctors and impact on the health care organization. Our research findings show a nuanced understanding of the potentials and pitfalls of different forms of self-tracking. The necessity of contextualization of self-tracking data and a professionalization of self-care through digital devices come to the fore as important overarching concepts. Conclusions This interview study with Belgian doctors examines the potentials and challenges of self-monitoring while focusing on the everyday professional experience of the physician. The dialogue between our dataset and the existing literature affords a fine-grained image of digital self-care and its current meaning in a medical-professional landscape. PMID:29330140
A Balint-oriented supervision group for physicians is described concentrating on the study of the patient-doctor relationship, the recognition and diagnosis of psychiatric problems, and the planning of psychiatric treatment. The group includes five general practitioners, a gynecologist, a dermatologist, a psychiatrist and a psychologist, who have met once a month for an hour over a period of 12 years. Interaction between the physicians and the mental health professionals is illustrated by two clinical examples. The group helps the physician recognize, tolerate and use his countertransference feelings, and facilitates the examination and treatment of patients suffering from psychiatric problems. In Balint-oriented group work, the focus can be moved from physical symptoms to include observation of the patient's emotional life and significant object relations, to the factors that are crucial for his psychological balance. This kind of holistic observation in the examination and treatment of psychiatric problems is as important as appropriate laboratory investigations in the diagnosis and care of physical diseases.
Schlee, Winfried; Hall, Deborah A; Canlon, Barbara; Cima, Rilana F F; de Kleine, Emile; Hauck, Franz; Huber, Alex; Gallus, Silvano; Kleinjung, Tobias; Kypraios, Theodore; Langguth, Berthold; Lopez-Escamez, José A; Lugo, Alessandra; Meyer, Martin; Mielczarek, Marzena; Norena, Arnaud; Pfiffner, Flurin; Pryss, Rüdiger C; Reichert, Manfred; Requena, Teresa; Schecklmann, Martin; van Dijk, Pim; van de Heyning, Paul; Weisz, Nathan; Cederroth, Christopher R
Tinnitus is a common medical condition which interfaces many different disciplines, yet it is not a priority for any individual discipline. A change in its scientific understanding and clinical management requires a shift toward multidisciplinary cooperation, not only in research but also in training. The European School for Interdisciplinary Tinnitus research (ESIT) brings together a unique multidisciplinary consortium of clinical practitioners, academic researchers, commercial partners, patient organizations, and public health experts to conduct innovative research and train the next generation of tinnitus researchers. ESIT supports fundamental science and clinical research projects in order to: (1) advancing new treatment solutions for tinnitus, (2) improving existing treatment paradigms, (3) developing innovative research methods, (4) performing genetic studies on, (5) collecting epidemiological data to create new knowledge about prevalence and risk factors, (6) establishing a pan-European data resource. All research projects involve inter-sectoral partnerships through practical training, quite unlike anything that can be offered by any single university alone. Likewise, the postgraduate training curriculum fosters a deep knowledge about tinnitus whilst nurturing transferable competencies in personal qualities and approaches needed to be an effective researcher, knowledge of the standards, requirements and professionalism to do research, and skills to work with others and to ensure the wider impact of research. ESIT is the seed for future generations of creative, entrepreneurial, and innovative researchers, trained to master the upcoming challenges in the tinnitus field, to implement sustained changes in prevention and clinical management of tinnitus, and to shape doctoral education in tinnitus for the future.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Chinese Medical Doctors Association (CMDA adopted the Charter of Medical Professionalism in the New Millennium (Charter and published the Chinese Medical Doctor Declaration (Declaration. This is an important step to re-building medical professionalism in China at a time when the commercialization of health care has led to a decline in physician accountability and public trust in the profession. In response, authors have begun to examine and promote medical professionalism in China. This study aims to present the key research themes, identify research gaps and offer recommendations from reviewing the increasing pool of Chinese-language literature on medical professionalism. Methods A scoping review of Chinese language papers was conducted using the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (including China Academic Journals Full-text Database, China Doctoral Dissertations Full-text Database, Masters’ Theses Full-text Database, China Core Newspapers Full-text Database, and China Yearbooks Full-text Database (CNKI database. Results Four major research themes were identified in Chinese discourse: (1 teaching professionalism, (2 practicing professionalism, (3 conceptualizing professionalism and (4 assessing professionalism. Overall, authors were concerned with the cultivation of humanism in physicians and emphasized the importance of communication skills to improve the physician-patient relationship in China. They explored the role of traditional Chinese values, such as Confucian and Taoist values, as well as the Communist Party’s political values, in promoting professional behaviour. Conclusions Authors demonstrate increasing interest in medical professionalism in China. The literature is of variable quality and further empirical studies are required in order to evaluate teaching interventions and guide professionalism assessment. A common professionalism framework is absent and could be developed with consideration to
Full Text Available Dealing with labour activity through perspective of factors that condition it’s efficiency is a problem of great interest in psychosociology. The performances’ evaluation is a manner to appreciate the degree of adequation of the human operator to professional exigences of the labour he does. "The proffesional competence" is the intrinsic potentiality of person and the performance - the achieved potentiality showen in material or spiritual products or servicies and which is, often, influenced not only by factors depending on the person (the specific skills, the motivation, the degree of implication in decisional process, but olso by factors independent of person. Through the present study we have verified the interpretative-thoretical pattern suggessted for profesional competence (mental skills of cognitional kind and socio-emotional skills, the consciousness of profesional competence of a group of subjects that carried on in army. In this study the used method is secondary analysis, analysis and interpretation in a different manner of collected information with different reasons.
Full Text Available Dealing with labour activity through perspective of factors that condition it's efficiency is a problem of great interest in psychosociology. The performances' evaluation is a manner to appreciate the degree of adequation of the human operator to professional exigences of the labour he does. "The proffesional competence" is the intrinsic potentiality of person and the performance - the achieved potentiality showen in material or spiritual products or servicies and which is, often, influenced not only by factors depending on the person (the specific skills, the motivation, the degree of implication in decisional process, but olso by factors independent of person. Through the present study we have verified the interpretative-thoretical pattern suggessted for profesional competence (mental skills of cognitional kind and socio-emotional skills, the consciousness of profesional competence of a group of subjects that carried on in army. In this study the used method is secondary analysis, analysis and interpretation in a different manner of collected information with different reasons.
Full Text Available It is widely acknowledged and statistically demonstrated that, in recent years, there has been an increase in the number of doctors leaving Romania and settling in France, a country which has become the main destination of these specialists. The aim of this research was to investigate the associations between seven personal and professional variables and the migration phenomenon, taking into account the moderation effect of doctors’ gender. The participants were 176 Romanian doctors working in France at the time of our investigation. The results showed that female doctors were more inclined to permanently reside in France with respect to fi ve of the seven variables, unlike men who seemed to be less inclined to choose permanent residence. Based on the results, a larger migration of Romanian doctors correlated with their choice to permanently reside in France is likely to affect the access of Romanians to high-quality medical services and this might further affect life quality in some areas of Romanian society. The article discusses the importance of this phenomenon to Romanian public administration and suggests potential policy/managerial implications.
Serrano, Raquel; Miralpeix, Imma
This paper reviews a selection of doctoral theses on language learning and teaching completed in Spain between 2008 and 2010. A total of 16 theses have been identified as representative--in terms of the topics under investigation and the methodology employed--of the doctoral research undertaken in Spain. Current topics include the development of…
Guerin, Cally; Jayatilaka, Asangi; Ranasinghe, Damith; McCulloch, Alistair; Calder, Paul
A "knowledge society" relies on a workforce with high-level skills in Information and Communication Technology (ICT). Continuing development of ICT will arise partly from research undertaken by doctoral graduates. However, compared to other cognate disciplines, ICT has relatively few students taking up doctoral studies. This article…
Gregory, Kristen H.; Diacopoulos, Mark M.; Branyon, Angela; Butler, Brandon M.
Teacher education doctoral seminars can provide a space for students to collaborate, reflect and support each other as they transition from teacher to teacher educator. These spaces also provide a forum for the learning of new research methodologies. This collaborative self-study chronicles how one group of doctoral students learned self-study…
Herrington, Jan; Montgomerie, C.; McKenney, Susan; Seale, J.; Reeves, Thomas C.; Oliver, Ron
At first glance, design-based research may appear to be such a long-term and intensive approach to educational inquiry that doctoral students, most of whom expect to complete their Ph.D. degree in 4-5 years, should not attempt to adopt this approach for their doctoral dissertations. In this paper,
Włoszczak-Szubzda, Anna; Jarosz, Mirosław J
In the work of a physician, not only knowledge, and professional skills (technical/hard) are important, but also psychosocial skills (relational/soft). The primary goal of the presented research was evaluation of the level (study of the state) of communication competences of physicians and determination of the factors on which this level depends. An additional goal was analysis of the needs and educational possibilities within the existing models of education in the area of interpersonal communication provided in Medical Universities in Poland. Information about educational curricula available on the websites of 12 Medical Universities in Poland were compared. The self-designed questionnaire and adjective check list were subject to standardization from the aspect of reliability and validity. The study groups included 1) occupationally-active physicians (185 respondents) employed in outpatient departments and hospitals, who were covered by a pre-graduate standard educational programme and not trained in interpersonal communication skills as part of their continuing education; 2) medical students covered by a standard educational programme (246 respondents). The conducted analysis of the educational curricula showed a very narrow scope of problems concerning professional medical communication. The results indicating the general state of respondents' communication competences within all aspects (motivation, skills, knowledge) were relatively low. That clearly indicated an inadequate educational model (students), and lack of post-graduate training in the area of professional medical communication (physicians). The education of students of medicine should cover selected classes within the scope of professional communication competences. These classes should be based on the systemically designed training of skills. The patterning by students of the relations attitudes observed in practising physicians is insufficient. It is necessary to apply a methodical evaluation of
Lunenberg, Mieke; Willemse, Martijn
Over the last decade teacher educators have started to systematically study the processes involved in their efforts to improve their teacher education practices. This research by teacher educators (self-study research) has made an enormous contribution to the professional development of the teacher
de Lasson, Lydia; Just, Eva; Stegeager, Nikolaj; Malling, Bente
The transition from student to medical doctor is challenging and stressful to many junior doctors. To practice with confidence and professionalism the junior doctors have to develop a strong professional identity. Various suggestions on how to facilitate formation of professional identity have been offered including the possible positive effect of group-coaching courses. The purpose of this study was to explore how group-coaching might facilitate professional identity formation among junior doctors in the transition period. Group-coaching courses comprising three whole-day sessions and five 2 h sessions during a period of 4 months were offered to junior doctors in the first years after graduation. The purpose was to support the participants' professional development, ability to relate to patients, relatives and staff and career development. The coaches in this study had a background as health professionals combined with coaching educations. Data was obtained through observations, open-ended questionnaires and interviews. A generic thematic analysis was applied. Forty-five doctors participated in six coaching groups. The three main themes emerging in the sessions were: Adoption to medical culture, career planning, and work/life-balance. The junior doctors found the coaching intervention highly useful in order to cope with these challenges. Furthermore, the group was a forum where the junior doctors could share thoughts and feelings with colleagues without being afraid that this would endanger their professional career. Many found new ways to respond to everyday challenges mainly through a new awareness of patterns of thinking and feeling. The participants found that the group-coaching course supported their professional identity formation (thinking, feeling and acting as a doctor), adoption to medical culture, career planning and managing a healthy work/life-balance. Further studies in different contexts are recommended as well as studies using other methods to
Full Text Available This paper reports on the ground-breaking research in the study of languages in doctoral education. It argues for democratizing the production and dissemination of original contributions to knowledge through activating and mobilizing multilingual Higher Degree Researchers’ (HDRs capabilities for theorizing through them using their full linguistic repertoire. This paper contributes to this study’s development of post-monolingual research methodology which provides a theoretic-pedagogical framework for multilingual HDRs (a to use their full linguistic repertoire in their research; (b to develop their capabilities for theorizing and (c to construct potentially valuable theoretical tools using metaphors, images, concepts and modes of critique. This paper is based on a longitudinal program of collaborative research whereby monolingual Anglophone and multilingual HDRs jointly developed their capabilities for theorizing through producing Anglo-Chinese analytical tools, and the associated pedagogies for using their languages in doctoral research. This longitudinal research program has been undertaken in the field of doctoral education to further a defining feature of democracy, namely linguistic diversity. This research has been conducted with the aims of promoting the multilingualism of Australian universities and activating linguistic communities of scholars to use their full linguistic repertoire in their research. The main finding arising from this program of research has been the development of post-monolingual research methodology which (a uses the divergences within and between languages to undertake theorizing and (b in co-existence with the tensions posed by monolingualism, especially the insistence on using extant theories available in only one language. Doctoral pedagogies of intellectual/racial equality provide multilingual HDRs with insights into the debates about the geopolitics governing the use of languages in the production and
Full Text Available Finding solutions to complex health problems, such as obesity, violence, and climate change, will require radical changes in cross-disciplinary education, research, and practice. The fundamental determinants of health include many interrelated factors such as poverty, culture, education, environment, and government policies. However, traditional public health training has tended to focus more narrowly on diseases and risk factors, and has not adequately leveraged the rich contributions of sociology, anthropology, economics, geography, communication, political science, and other disciplines. Further, students are often not sufficiently trained to work across sectors to translate research findings into effective, large-scale sustainable actions.During the past 2 decades, national and international organizations have called for more effective interdisciplinary, transdisciplinary, and translational approaches to graduate education. Although it has been difficult to work across traditional academic boundaries, some promising models draw on pedagogical theory and feature cross-disciplinary training focused on real-world problems, linkage between research, professional practice, community action, and cultivation of leadership skills.We describe the development the Doctor of Public Health program at the University of California, Berkeley, USA and its efforts to improve transdisciplinary and translational research education. We stress the need for international collaboration to improve educational approaches and better evaluate their impact.
This paper investigates how the encouragement of entrepreneurship within university research labs relates with research activities, research outputs, and early doctorate careers. Utilizing a panel survey of 6,840 science & engineering doctoral students at 39 R1 research universities, this study shows that entrepreneurship is widely encouraged across university research labs, ranging from 54% in biomedical engineering to 18% in particle physics, while only a small share of labs openly discourage entrepreneurship, from approximately 3% in engineering to approximately 12% in the life sciences. Within fields, there is no difference between labs that encourage entrepreneurship and those that do not with respect to basic research activity and the number of publications. At the same time, labs that encourage entrepreneurship are significantly more likely to report invention disclosures, particularly in engineering where such labs are 41% more likely to disclose inventions. With respect to career pathways, PhDs students in labs that encourage entrepreneurship do not differ from other PhDs in their interest in academic careers, but they are 87% more likely to be interested in careers in entrepreneurship and 44% more likely to work in a startup after graduation. These results persist even when accounting for individuals’ pre-PhD interest in entrepreneurship and the encouragement of other non-academic industry careers. PMID:28178270
This paper investigates how the encouragement of entrepreneurship within university research labs relates with research activities, research outputs, and early doctorate careers. Utilizing a panel survey of 6,840 science & engineering doctoral students at 39 R1 research universities, this study shows that entrepreneurship is widely encouraged across university research labs, ranging from 54% in biomedical engineering to 18% in particle physics, while only a small share of labs openly discourage entrepreneurship, from approximately 3% in engineering to approximately 12% in the life sciences. Within fields, there is no difference between labs that encourage entrepreneurship and those that do not with respect to basic research activity and the number of publications. At the same time, labs that encourage entrepreneurship are significantly more likely to report invention disclosures, particularly in engineering where such labs are 41% more likely to disclose inventions. With respect to career pathways, PhDs students in labs that encourage entrepreneurship do not differ from other PhDs in their interest in academic careers, but they are 87% more likely to be interested in careers in entrepreneurship and 44% more likely to work in a startup after graduation. These results persist even when accounting for individuals' pre-PhD interest in entrepreneurship and the encouragement of other non-academic industry careers.
Full Text Available This paper investigates how the encouragement of entrepreneurship within university research labs relates with research activities, research outputs, and early doctorate careers. Utilizing a panel survey of 6,840 science & engineering doctoral students at 39 R1 research universities, this study shows that entrepreneurship is widely encouraged across university research labs, ranging from 54% in biomedical engineering to 18% in particle physics, while only a small share of labs openly discourage entrepreneurship, from approximately 3% in engineering to approximately 12% in the life sciences. Within fields, there is no difference between labs that encourage entrepreneurship and those that do not with respect to basic research activity and the number of publications. At the same time, labs that encourage entrepreneurship are significantly more likely to report invention disclosures, particularly in engineering where such labs are 41% more likely to disclose inventions. With respect to career pathways, PhDs students in labs that encourage entrepreneurship do not differ from other PhDs in their interest in academic careers, but they are 87% more likely to be interested in careers in entrepreneurship and 44% more likely to work in a startup after graduation. These results persist even when accounting for individuals' pre-PhD interest in entrepreneurship and the encouragement of other non-academic industry careers.
The Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) introduced the post-doctoral fellows system since fiscal year 1997, to intend to promote talents encouragement by supplying researching environments to young researchers with scholarship of doctor. This system aims not only to independently promote his own research theme certified by JNC by a young researcher with rich initiatives within a period of two or three years to obtain business as a researcher, but also to effectively progress a researching business of JNC. This report contains summaries on 17 items researching results on fiscal year 2001, of which 6 items are finished on this fiscal year. (G.K.)
Koff, Robert H.; Florio, David H.
Research and legal issues that relate to accreditation policy questions for schools, colleges, and departments of education are reviewed, and strategies for integrating empirical information and social/professional values are presented. The discussion divides into three sections: (1) information concerning a variety of contextual issues that…
Smeltzer, Suzanne C; Cantrell, Mary Ann; Sharts-Hopko, Nancy C; Heverly, Mary Ann; Jenkinson, Amanda; Nthenge, Serah
This article reports the findings of a study that examined the research and scholarship productivity of doctorally prepared nursing faculty teaching and mentoring doctoral students and the conflicting demands on them to maintain programs of research and scholarship. The specific aims were to (a) examine the research productivity and scholarship of faculty members teaching in doctoral programs and mentoring doctoral students to examine the perceived effectiveness of existing institutional mechanisms to support scholarship, (b) explore institutional features and personal practices used by doctoral program faculty to develop and maintain research and scholarship productivity, and (c) analyze predictors of scholarship productivity. Data were collected via an on-line researcher-developed survey that examined doctoral faculty roles/responsibilities and their relationship to their scholarly productivity, overall research productivity, and institutional features and personal practices to support research/scholarship activities. Survey respondents reported spending a large amount of time engaged in research-related activities with 58.9% (n = 326) spending anywhere from 6 to 20 hours per week conducting research, writing research-based papers, giving presentations, grant writing, or conducting evidence-based improvement projects. Scholar productivity among the respondents was robust. Personal practices that most strongly supported faculty members' scholarship productivity were the belief that engaging in scholarship made them better teachers and the personal gratification in experiencing doctoral students' successes. A multiple regression analysis conducted to determine predictors of productivity indicated that the strongest predictor was the average number of hours spent on research/scholarship-related activities, followed by time bought out from teaching and other responsibilities of the faculty role for research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Tinnitus is a common medical condition which interfaces many different disciplines, yet it is not a priority for any individual discipline. A change in its scientific understanding and clinical management requires a shift toward multidisciplinary cooperation, not only in research but also in training. The European School for Interdisciplinary Tinnitus research (ESIT brings together a unique multidisciplinary consortium of clinical practitioners, academic researchers, commercial partners, patient organizations, and public health experts to conduct innovative research and train the next generation of tinnitus researchers. ESIT supports fundamental science and clinical research projects in order to: (1 advancing new treatment solutions for tinnitus, (2 improving existing treatment paradigms, (3 developing innovative research methods, (4 performing genetic studies on, (5 collecting epidemiological data to create new knowledge about prevalence and risk factors, (6 establishing a pan-European data resource. All research projects involve inter-sectoral partnerships through practical training, quite unlike anything that can be offered by any single university alone. Likewise, the postgraduate training curriculum fosters a deep knowledge about tinnitus whilst nurturing transferable competencies in personal qualities and approaches needed to be an effective researcher, knowledge of the standards, requirements and professionalism to do research, and skills to work with others and to ensure the wider impact of research. ESIT is the seed for future generations of creative, entrepreneurial, and innovative researchers, trained to master the upcoming challenges in the tinnitus field, to implement sustained changes in prevention and clinical management of tinnitus, and to shape doctoral education in tinnitus for the future.
Phillips, Christine; Dwan, Kathryn; Pearce, Christopher; Hall, Sally; Porritt, Julie; Yates, Rachel; Sibbald, Bonnie
In Australia, more nurses are entering general practice, and nurses' work is being funded in increasingly complex ways through Medicare. Little research has explored the ways doctors and nurses realign their priorities and activities when working together in general practice. We undertook rapid, intensive multimethod studies of 25 general practices to explore the ways in which the labour of nurses and doctors was structured, and the implicit decisions made by both professions about the values placed on different ways of working and on their time. Data collected included photographs, floor-plans, interviews with 37 nurses, 24 doctors and 22 practice managers, and 50 hours of structured observation. Nursing time was constructed by both nurses and doctors as being fluid and non-contingent; they were regarded as being 'available' to patients in a way that doctors were not. Compared to medical time, nursing time could be disposed more flexibly, underpinning a valorized attribute of nursing: deep clinical and personal contact with patients. The location of practice nurses' desks in areas of traffic, such as administrative stations, or in the treatment room, underpinned this valuable unstructured contact with patients. Changes to the practice nurse role through direct fee-for-service items for nurses may lead to greater congruence between the microeconomies of nursing and medicine in general practice. In a time of pressure upon a primary care workforce, this is likely to lead to more independent clinical work by nurses, but may also lead to a decrease in flexible contact with patients.
Yoon, Saun-Joo Lee; Wolfe, Sandra; Yucha, Carolyn B; Tsai, Peishan
Colleges and schools of nursing with doctoral programs focus on developing quality research programs. One effective way of managing and nurturing a research program is through the implementation of a nursing research office or center. The purpose of this study is to describe the resources provided by the colleges/schools of nursing with doctoral programs for research development. A self-report questionnaire, developed by the research team, was mailed to all schools of nursing offering doctoral programs. The response rate was 79 per cent (65/82 schools). Results indicated that 56 schools (86.2 per cent) have designated research support offices. The main goals of nursing research offices are to increase the amount of extramural funding and to promote dissemination of scholarly work via publications and presentations. The majority of research offices provide assistance with grants and the research process and offer educational programs. Most doctoral-granting schools are providing some support for research activities. However, the degree of investment in research support varied widely among the responding schools. This study suggests that it takes both time and institutional commitment to build a successful research environment. Although necessary for research development, support services are not sufficient by themselves. Instead, they need to be considered in the light of individual (e.g., faculty interest and motivation) and group (e.g., culture of scholarship) factors within each school. Copyright 2002 by W.B. Saunders Company
Gallagher, Ruth M.; Gallagher, Helen C.
Despite their common history, there are many cultural, attitudinal and practical differences between the professions of medicine and pharmacy that ultimately influence patient care and health outcomes. While poor communication between doctors and pharmacists is a major cause of medical errors, it is clear that effective, deliberate…
Full Text Available Background: The European Union (EU supports North–South Partnerships and collaborative research projects through its Framework Programmes and Horizon 2020. There is limited research on how such projects can be harnessed to provide a structured platform for doctoral level studies as a way of strengthening health system research capacity in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. Objective: The aim of this study was to explore the challenges of, and facilitating factors for, ‘nesting’ doctoral students in North–South collaborative research projects. The term nesting refers to the embedding of the processes of recruiting, supervising, and coordinating doctoral students in the overall research plan and processes. Design: This cross-sectional qualitative study was undertaken by the EU-funded QUALMAT Project. A questionnaire was implemented with doctoral students, supervisors, and country principal investigators (PIs, and content analysis was undertaken. Results: Completed questionnaires were received from nine doctoral students, six supervisors, and three country PIs (86% responses rate. The doctoral students from SSA described high expectations about the input they would receive (administrative support, equipment, training, supervision. This contrasted with the expectations of the supervisors for proactivity and self-management on the part of the students. The rationale for candidate selection, and understandings of the purpose of the doctoral students in the project were areas of considerable divergence. There were some challenges associated with the use of the country PIs as co-supervisors. Doctoral student progress was at times impeded by delays in the release of funding instalments from the EU. The paper provides a checklist of essential requirements and a set of recommendations for effective nesting of doctoral students in joint North–South projects. Conclusion: There are considerable challenges to the effective nesting of doctoral students within
Arimoto, Azusa; Gregg, Misuzu F; Nagata, Satoko; Miki, Yuko; Murashima, Sachiyo
Evaluation of doctoral programs in nursing is becoming more important with the rapid increase in the programs in Japan. This study aimed to evaluate doctoral nursing programs by faculty members and to analyze the relationship of the evaluation with educational and research activities of faculty members in Japan. Target settings were all 46 doctoral nursing programs. Eighty-five faculty members from 28 programs answered the questionnaire, which included 17 items for program evaluation, 12 items for faculty evaluation, 9 items for resource evaluation, 3 items for overall evaluations, and educational and research activities. A majority gave low evaluations for sources of funding, the number of faculty members and support staff, and administrative systems. Faculty members who financially supported a greater number of students gave a higher evaluation for extramural funding support, publication, provision of diverse learning experiences, time of supervision, and research infrastructure. The more time a faculty member spent on advising doctoral students, the higher were their evaluations on the supportive learning environment, administrative systems, time of supervision, and timely feedback on students' research. The findings of this study indicate a need for improvement in research infrastructure, funding sources, and human resources to achieve quality nursing doctoral education in Japan. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nomura, Kyoko; Yamazaki, Yuka; Gruppen, Larry D; Horie, Saki; Takeuchi, Masumi; Illing, Jan
Objectives To investigate the difficulties Japanese female doctors face in continuing professional practice. Design A qualitative study using the Kawakita Jiro method. Setting A survey conducted in 2011 of 13 private Japanese medical school alumni associations. Participants 359 female doctors. Primary outcome measures Barriers of balancing work and gender role. Results The female doctors reported that professional practice was a struggle with long working hours due to a current shortage of doctors in Japan. There was also a severe shortage of childcare facilities in the workplace. Some women appeared to have low confidence in balancing the physician's job and personal life, resulting in low levels of professional pursuit. There appeared to be two types of stereotypical gender roles, including one expected from society, stating that “child rearing is a woman's job”, and the other perceived by the women themselves, that some women had a very strong desire to raise their own children. Male doctors and some female doctors who were single or older were perceived to be less enthusiastic about supporting women who worked while raising children because these coworkers feared that they would have to perform additional work as a result of the women taking long periods of leave. Conclusions Important factors identified for promoting the continuation of professional practice among female doctors in Japan were the need to improve working conditions, including cutting back on long working hours, a solution to the shortage of nurseries, a need for the introduction of educational interventions to clarify professional responsibilities, and redefinition of the gender division of labour for male and female doctors. In addition, we identified a need to modernise current employment practices by introducing temporary posts to cover maternity leave and introducing flexible working hours during specialist training, thus supporting and encouraging more women to continue their medical
Nomura, Kyoko; Yamazaki, Yuka; Gruppen, Larry D; Horie, Saki; Takeuchi, Masumi; Illing, Jan
To investigate the difficulties Japanese female doctors face in continuing professional practice. A qualitative study using the Kawakita Jiro method. A survey conducted in 2011 of 13 private Japanese medical school alumni associations. 359 female doctors. Barriers of balancing work and gender role. The female doctors reported that professional practice was a struggle with long working hours due to a current shortage of doctors in Japan. There was also a severe shortage of childcare facilities in the workplace. Some women appeared to have low confidence in balancing the physician's job and personal life, resulting in low levels of professional pursuit. There appeared to be two types of stereotypical gender roles, including one expected from society, stating that "child rearing is a woman's job", and the other perceived by the women themselves, that some women had a very strong desire to raise their own children. Male doctors and some female doctors who were single or older were perceived to be less enthusiastic about supporting women who worked while raising children because these coworkers feared that they would have to perform additional work as a result of the women taking long periods of leave. Important factors identified for promoting the continuation of professional practice among female doctors in Japan were the need to improve working conditions, including cutting back on long working hours, a solution to the shortage of nurseries, a need for the introduction of educational interventions to clarify professional responsibilities, and redefinition of the gender division of labour for male and female doctors. In addition, we identified a need to modernise current employment practices by introducing temporary posts to cover maternity leave and introducing flexible working hours during specialist training, thus supporting and encouraging more women to continue their medical careers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not
academic support and is more practice orientated. It is suggested that the move towards doctoral programmes for nurses will present one of the most important evolutionary changes in the practice of nursing. It is suggested that doctoral education for nurses will increase in prevalence and that this process of change is already underway. Doctoral education will provide practitioners with the experience and skills required to conduct research and further develop practice. For individual practitioners, doctoral education will enhance self-confidence in an increasingly technical and complex arena and in a practice discipline that is becoming ever more politically charged. The professional doctorate appears to be particularly suited to senior nurse practitioners. What remains is for us to accept this new challenge and to shape its development for the benefit of the practice of nursing.
Carrillo-García, C; Martínez-Roche, M E; Vivo-Molina, M C; Quiñonero-Méndez, F; Gómez-Sánchez, R; Celdrán-Gil, F
The objective was to analyze the phenomenon of work satisfaction of doctors of the Mobile Emergency Team and the Emergency Coordinator Office 061 of the Region of Murcia. A observational, analytical and cross-sectional study of development carried out with the medical staff of the Casualty and Emergency Operations Department 061 of the Region of Murcia. Data collection was carried out in December 2013 and January 2014. NTP 394 was used. Work satisfaction: general satisfaction scale. nonparametric tests for 2 samples or k samples depending on type of comparison. A participation rate of 88.2% was obtained, in relation to the general job satisfaction, the average of the participants was 69.55 (SD = 14.4). Of the 15 items that make up the questionnaire, « work colleagues » is the factor with which doctors are more satisfied with, indicating that up to an 87%, show a positive assessment on this point. Being the second aspect most respondents valued their « job stability » with a percentage of positive ratings of 76.7%. The main findings clearly demonstrate the importance of inter-professional relations and human potential as the cornerstone in the exercise of the activity of healthcare professionals. Copyright © 2014 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
May 20, 2015 ... Since 1982, IDRC has helped graduate students undertake thesis research in the field of international development. ... proposing field research in the following countries or territories, even if recommended by .... Applicant's capacity to conduct the proposed research, including academic training, local.
Sarauw, Laura Louise; Degn, Lise; Ørberg, Jakob Williams
Research integrity has become a major concern for both higher education institutions and research policy makers in the recent decades, and since 2000 there has been an explosive boom of national and international codes and agreements on ‘responsible conduct of research’ and ’research integrity...... are constructed and negotiated within the courses. The field of research integrity teaching is still emergent and course leaders and teachers are often key actors in framing and promoting certain understandings of research integrity in their discipline. Hence, the four research integrity courses explored...... the following questions: 1) What attitudes, behaviors, and notions of the ‘ideal researcher’ aree constructed and promoted in the local research integrity training for PhD fellows? 2) How do these ideals relate to other concerns and pressures among the course leaders, teachers and PhD fellows? 3) Are other...
Joseph B. A. Afful
Full Text Available A key support service in doctoral research that has increasingly gained attention is academic writing courses. This position paper argues for the institutionalization of graduate writing courses in universities in Ghana in order to acquaint doctoral students with the theoretical, procedural, and practical aspects of the writing of high stakes academic genres. An overview (including evaluation of existing courses on research- related writing in some universities is proffered. The study consequently presents arguments to support a proposal for institutional graduate writing courses in Ghanaian universities, followed by a discussion of other pertinent issues such as the curriculum, staffing, and funding. It is hoped that the institutionalization of such a writing support service will ultimately improve the quality of doctoral research education in Ghana
De Costa, Peter I.; Bernales, Carolina; Merrill, Margaret
Faculty and graduate students in the Doctoral Program in Second Language Acquisition (SLA) at the University of Wisconsin-Madison engage in a broad spectrum of research. From Professor Sally Magnan's research on study abroad and Professor Monika Chavez's work in foreign language policy through Professor Richard Young's examination of…
McAlpine, Lynn; Turner, Gill
Increasingly, research staff positions rather than lectureships are the reality for social sciences PhD graduates wishing academic work. Within this context, our longitudinal study examined how social science doctoral students and research staff in two UK universities imagined their futures in and out of academia. The variation over time in how…
This research generates new knowledge about how 24 educational leaders in the USA and England used their doctoral research to build narrative capital to inform strategies to steer their organizations towards cultural alignment. Cultural alignment prevents forms of segregation rooted in nation-states' wider historiography of education segregation…
Drawing mainly on the power theory of Foucault, this paper examines the power relations existing in research supervision. It explores the importance of mentoring as a key to managing such power relations. Mentoring is an empowering process of nurturing students with sufficient tools for research. The conditions for ...
Golembiewski, Elizabeth H; Holmes, Ann M; Jackson, Joanna R; Brown-Podgorski, Brittany L; Menachemi, Nir
Given the call for more interdisciplinary research in public health, the objectives of this study were to (1) examine the correlates of interdisciplinary dissertation completion and (2) identify secondary fields most common among interdisciplinary public health graduates. We analyzed pooled cross-sectional data from 11 120 doctoral graduates in the Survey of Earned Doctorates, 2003-2015. The primary outcome was interdisciplinary dissertation completion. Covariates included primary public health field, sociodemographic characteristics, and institutional attributes. From 2003 to 2015, a total of 4005 of 11 120 (36.0%) doctoral graduates in public health reported interdisciplinary dissertations, with significant increases observed in recent years. Compared with general public health graduates, graduates of environmental health (odds ratio [OR] = 1.74; P dissertation work, whereas graduates from biostatistics (OR = 0.51; P dissertation was associated with being male, a non-US citizen, a graduate of a private institution, and a graduate of an institution with high but not the highest level of research activity. Many secondary dissertation fields reported by interdisciplinary graduates included other public health fields. Although interdisciplinary dissertation research among doctoral graduates in public health has increased in recent years, such work is bounded in certain fields of public health and certain types of graduates and institutions. Academic administrators and other stakeholders may use these results to inform greater interdisciplinary activity during doctoral training and to evaluate current and future collaborations across departments or schools.
Full Text Available In this article, we explore the learning experiences of doctoral candidates as they use qualitative data analysis software (QDAS. Of particular interest is the process of adopting technology during the development of research methodology. Using an action research approach, data was gathered over five years from advanced doctoral research candidates and supervisors. The technology acceptance model (TAM was then applied as a theoretical analytic lens for better understanding how students interact with new technology. Findings relate to two significant barriers which doctoral students confront: 1. aligning perceptions of ease of use and usefulness is essential in overcoming resistance to technological change; 2. transparency into the research process through technology promotes insights into methodological challenges. Transitioning through both barriers requires a competent foundation in qualitative research. The study acknowledges the importance of higher degree research, curriculum reform and doctoral supervision in post-graduate research training together with their interconnected relationships in support of high-quality inquiry. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1603117
Komić, Dubravka; Marušić, Stjepan Ljudevit; Marušić, Ana
Professional codes of ethics are social contracts among members of a professional group, which aim to instigate, encourage and nurture ethical behaviour and prevent professional misconduct, including research and publication. Despite the existence of codes of ethics, research misconduct remains a serious problem. A survey of codes of ethics from 795 professional organizations from the Illinois Institute of Technology’s Codes of Ethics Collection showed that 182 of them (23%) used research integrity and research ethics terminology in their codes, with differences across disciplines: while the terminology was common in professional organizations in social sciences (82%), mental health (71%), sciences (61%), other organizations had no statements (construction trades, fraternal social organizations, real estate) or a few of them (management, media, engineering). A subsample of 158 professional organizations we judged to be directly involved in research significantly more often had statements on research integrity/ethics terminology than the whole sample: an average of 10.4% of organizations with a statement (95% CI = 10.4-23-5%) on any of the 27 research integrity/ethics terms compared to 3.3% (95% CI = 2.1–4.6%), respectively (Pethics concepts used prescriptive language in describing the standard of practice. Professional organizations should define research integrity and research ethics issues in their ethics codes and collaborate within and across disciplines to adequately address responsible conduct of research and meet contemporary needs of their communities. PMID:26192805
Luo, Jing; Fu, Chang-geng; Xu, Hao
The inheritance of famous old traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) doctors plays an essential role in the fields of TCM research. Qualitative interviews allow for subjectivity and individuality within clinical experience as well as academic ideas of doctors, making it a potential appropriate research method for inheritance of famous old TCM doctors. We summarized current situations of inheritance research on famous old TCM doctors, and then discussed the feasibility of applying qualitative interviews in inheritance of famous old TCM doctors. By combining our experience in research on inheritance of famous old TCM doctors, we gave some advice on study design, interview implementation, data transcription and analyses , and report writing, providing a reference for further relevant research.
Vivekananda-Schmidt, Pirashanthie; Crossley, James; Murdoch-Eaton, Deborah
Professional self-identity [PSI] can be defined as the degree to which an individual identifies with his or her professional group. Several authors have called for a better understanding of the processes by which healthcare students develop their professional identities, and suggested helpful theoretical frameworks borrowed from the social science and psychology literature. However to our knowledge, there has been little empirical work examining these processes in actual healthcare students, and we are aware of no data driven description of PSI development in healthcare students. Here, we report a data driven model of PSI formation in healthcare students. We interviewed 17 student doctors and dentists who had indicated, on a tracking questionnaire, the most substantial changes in their PSI. We analysed their perceptions of the experiences that had influenced their PSI, to develop a descriptive model. Both the primary coder and the secondary coder considered the data without reference to the existing literature; i.e. we used a bottom up approach rather than a top down approach. The results indicate that two overlapping frames of reference affect PSI formation: the students' self-perception and their perception of the professional role. They are 'learning' both; neither is static. Underpinning those two learning processes, the following key mechanisms operated:  When students are allowed to participate in the professional role they learn by trying out their knowledge and skill in the real world and finding out to what extent they work, and by trying to visualise themselves in the role.  When others acknowledge students as quasi-professionals they experience transference and may respond with counter-transference by changing to meet expectations or fulfil a prototype.  Students may also dry-run their professional role (i.e., independent practice of professional activities) in a safe setting when invited. Students' experiences, and their perceptions of those
JNC (Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute) has been promoting the fellowship program for young scientists to encourage their expertise from 1997. The objective of this program is to raise the talented persons for future JNC activities. This report summarized the status on the 17 themes of researches implemented by young research fellows in 1999. The report includes the list of individual titles and the site and supporting staffs of JNC. The individual reports given by 17 authors describe its time schedule, status, achievements and own publications in the prearranged format. Topics include the followings; Those are giant resonance structures of short lifetime nuclei, growth of cavities in structural materials, calculation methods of photonuclear interaction cross-section, stability and radioactivity diffusion of bentonite, plant ecology of radioactivity in uranium mines, numerical simulations on the TRUEX process, advanced nondestructive testing of materials, physical properties of actinides obtained by band theory, de-oxidisation capability in pyrite to decrease oxygen in bentonite, investigation on equilibrium fast reactor recycling, behaviors of underground water in the Tono Mine, effects of radiation induced educts on swelling, simulation on fuel-coolant interaction after severe accidents, and resonance ionization mass spectrometry for the JOYO reactor to detect failed fuel locations. (Tanaka, Y.)
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Smeltzer, Suzanne C; Sharts-Hopko, Nancy C; Cantrell, Mary Ann; Heverly, Mary Ann; Jenkinson, Amanda; Nthenge, Serah
The growing shortage of nursing faculty and the need for faculty to teach doctoral students to address the shortage call for examination of factors that may contribute to the shortage, including those that are potentially modifiable, including work-life balance.This descriptive study examined work-life balance of a national sample of nursing faculty teaching in research-focused and practice-focused doctoral programs. Data were collected through an online survey of 554 doctoral program faculty members to identify their perceptions of work-life balance and predictors of work-life balance. Work-life balance scores indicated better work-life balance than expected. Factors associated with good work-life balance included higher academic rank, having tenure, older age, years in education, current faculty position, and no involvement in clinical practice. Current faculty position was the best predictor of work-life balance. Although work-life balance was viewed positively by study participants, efforts are needed to strengthen factors related to positive work/life in view of the increasing workload of doctoral faculty as the numbers of doctoral students increase and the number of seasoned faculty decrease with anticipated waves of retirements. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
McAlpine, Lynn; Norton, Judith
A serious problem exists in the academic world, namely doctoral education attrition rates that approach 50% in some disciplines. Yet, calls for action have generally been "ad hoc" rather than theory driven. Further, research has not been conceived and implemented with sufficient breadth to integrate factors influencing the outcomes across the…
The author of this paper provides an example of a conceptual framework that supported her doctoral study and written dissertation in the field of educational psychology. The study was carried out prior to the more recent explicit emphasis on conceptual frameworks in postgraduate research texts and academic literature. The instigation for the…
The ethnic, racial, and cultural diversity of the USA is not reflected in its healthcare and biomedical workforce. Undergraduate research programs are used to encourage underrepresented minorities to pursue training for biomedical careers, but there is limited published data on doctoral degree compl...
Walsh, Kenneth; Doherty, Kathleen; Andersen, Loretta; Bingham, Sharon; Crookes, Patrick; Ford, Karen; McSherry, Robert
Effective supervision in doctoral research is critical to successful and timely completion. However, supervision is a complex undertaking with structural as well as relational challenges for both students and supervisors. This instructional paper describes an internationally applicable approach to supervision that we have developed in the health…
O'Toole, Laurence J.; Brewer, Gene A.; Facer II, Rex L.; Douglas, James W.
This article reports the results of a 1995 survey of the fifty-six NASPAA-affiliated doctoral programs of public administration and public affairs. Following on two related streams of research, we assess the degree of intellectual coherence in the field of public administration, and document what
Komić, Dubravka; Marušić, Stjepan Ljudevit; Marušić, Ana
Professional codes of ethics are social contracts among members of a professional group, which aim to instigate, encourage and nurture ethical behaviour and prevent professional misconduct, including research and publication. Despite the existence of codes of ethics, research misconduct remains a serious problem. A survey of codes of ethics from 795 professional organizations from the Illinois Institute of Technology's Codes of Ethics Collection showed that 182 of them (23%) used research integrity and research ethics terminology in their codes, with differences across disciplines: while the terminology was common in professional organizations in social sciences (82%), mental health (71%), sciences (61%), other organizations had no statements (construction trades, fraternal social organizations, real estate) or a few of them (management, media, engineering). A subsample of 158 professional organizations we judged to be directly involved in research significantly more often had statements on research integrity/ethics terminology than the whole sample: an average of 10.4% of organizations with a statement (95% CI = 10.4-23-5%) on any of the 27 research integrity/ethics terms compared to 3.3% (95% CI = 2.1-4.6%), respectively (Porganizations should define research integrity and research ethics issues in their ethics codes and collaborate within and across disciplines to adequately address responsible conduct of research and meet contemporary needs of their communities.
Burton, Christopher R; Duxbury, Joy; French, Beverley; Monks, Rob; Carter, Bernie
In the light of concerns about the wider social and economic value of the PhD training programme, this article discusses the challenges being directed primarily at the traditional doctoral programme of study. While the PhD is primarily concerned with the student making an original contribution to knowledge, the value-added component of the doctoral research degree needs to respond to the needs of a wider market of purchasers, and to meet practice and policy requirements for research leadership. The United Kingdom Research Councils (UK GRAD, 2001. Joint Skills Statement of Skills Training Requirements. Available at http://www.grad.ac.uk/downloads/documents/general/Joint%20Skills%20Statementpdf. (last accessed 1st April 2008.) suggest a range of seven skill domains over and above research design and management that should be offered to students. The seven domains are research skills and techniques, participation in the research environment, research management, personal effectiveness, communication, networking and team working, and career management. This article develops and extends these skill domains for the current healthcare context and considers how these should guide the development and evaluation of the value-added components of doctoral research degree programmes in nursing. The challenges that these issues present to academic departments are also discussed. Our conclusion is that PhD research training needs re-visioning and broadening so that the students' experience includes these value-added components.
Durey, Angela; Hill, Peter; Arkles, Rachelle; Gilles, Marisa; Peterson, Katia; Wearne, Susan; Canuto, Condy; Pulver, Lisa Jackson
To examine how OTDs and staff in rural and remote Indigenous health contexts communicate and negotiate identity and relationships, and consider how this may influence OTDs' transition, integration and retention. Ten case studies were conducted in rural and remote settings across Australia, each of an OTD providing primary care in a substantially Indigenous practice population, his/her partner, co-workers and Indigenous board members associated with the health service. Cases were purposefully sampled to ensure diversity in gender, location and country of origin. Identity as 'fluid' emerged as a key theme in effective communication and building good relationships between OTDs and Indigenous staff. OTDs enter a social space where their own cultural and professional beliefs and practices intersect with the expectations of culturally safe practice shaped by the Australian Indigenous context. These are negotiated through differences in language, role expectation, practice, status and identification with locus with uncertain outcomes. Limited professional and cultural support often impeded this process. The reconstruction of OTDs' identities and mediating beyond predictable barriers to cultural engagement contributes significantly not only to OTDs' integration and, to a lesser extent, their retention, but also to maximising effective communication across cultural domains. Retention of OTDs working in Indigenous health contexts rests on a combination of OTDs' capacity to adapt culturally and professionally to this complex environment, and of effective strategies to support them.
Full Text Available Negotiation as a skill is a key requirement for each and every job profile where dealing with multiple parties is involved. The important focus while negotiating should be on the interest then position. Key to every successful negotiation is advance planning, preparation, and patience as the objective is to create value and establish the terms on which parties with differing and often conflicting aims will co-operate. While preparing one should collect facts, know priorities, principles, identify common ground, decide on walk-away position, and try and identify the next best alternative. Negotiation is a set of skills that can be learned and practiced so that your ability to utilize relationship, knowledge, money, power, time, and personality to negotiate improves with each negotiation. In a successful negotiation, all parties win. Important thing to note is that not every negotiation involves money. Anytime you want something from someone else and anytime someone wants something from you, you are negotiating. Everything is negotiable and every day you negotiate with customers, suppliers, colleagues, your wife, and even your children. Negotiation is a game, and like any game it has its rules and tactics. Clinical Research professionals deal with various parties for different purposes at the same time; hence, they require excellent negotiation skills. Project Mangers and Clinical Research Associates are the two most important roles in clinical research industry who require negotiation skills as they deal with various internal and external customers and vendors.
Hake, Sanjay; Shah, Tapankumar
Negotiation as a skill is a key requirement for each and every job profile where dealing with multiple parties is involved. The important focus while negotiating should be on the interest then position. Key to every successful negotiation is advance planning, preparation, and patience as the objective is to create value and establish the terms on which parties with differing and often conflicting aims will co-operate. While preparing one should collect facts, know priorities, principles, identify common ground, decide on walk-away position, and try and identify the next best alternative. Negotiation is a set of skills that can be learned and practiced so that your ability to utilize relationship, knowledge, money, power, time, and personality to negotiate improves with each negotiation. In a successful negotiation, all parties win. Important thing to note is that not every negotiation involves money. Anytime you want something from someone else and anytime someone wants something from you, you are negotiating. Everything is negotiable and every day you negotiate with customers, suppliers, colleagues, your wife, and even your children. Negotiation is a game, and like any game it has its rules and tactics. Clinical Research professionals deal with various parties for different purposes at the same time; hence, they require excellent negotiation skills. Project Mangers and Clinical Research Associates are the two most important roles in clinical research industry who require negotiation skills as they deal with various internal and external customers and vendors. PMID:21897886
Snaith, B.; Harris, M.A.; Harris, R.
Introduction: Radiography aspires to be a research active profession, but there is limited information regarding the number of individuals with, or studying for, a doctoral award. This study aims to profile UK doctoral radiographers; including their chosen award, approach and employment status. Method: This was a prospective cohort study utilising an electronic survey. No formal database of doctoral radiographers existed therefore a snowball sampling method was adopted. The study sample was radiographers (diagnostic and therapeutic) based in the UK who were registered with the Health and Care Professions Council (HCPC) and who held, or were studying for, a doctoral award. Results: A total of 90 unique responses were received within the timescale. The respondents comprised 58 females (64.4%) and the majority were diagnostic radiographers (n = 71/90; 78.9%). The traditional PhD was the most common award, although increasing numbers were pursuing Education or Professional Doctorates. An overall increase in doctoral studies is observed over time, but was greatest amongst those working in academic institutions, with 63.3% of respondents (n = 57/90) working solely within a university, and a further 10% employed in a clinical–academic role (n = 9/90). Conclusion: This study has demonstrated that radiography is emerging as a research active profession, with increasing numbers of radiographers engaged in study at a doctoral level. This should provide a platform for the future development of academic and clinical research. - Highlights: • 90 radiographers were identified as holding, or studying for, a doctoral award. • The PhD is the most common award. • EdD and professional doctorates are increasing in popularity. • Academic staff were more likely to pursue such research training.
Medicine is a learned profession, but clinical practice is above all a matter of performance, in the best and deepest sense of the word. Because music is, at its core, a pure distillate of real-time performance, musicians are in an excellent position to teach us about better ways to become and remain expert performers in health care and ways for our teachers and mentors to help us do that. Ten features of the professionalization of musicians offer us lessons on how the clinical practice of medicine might be learned, taught, and performed more effectively.
Moriarty, Susan; Brown, Suzanne Robben
This case report describes the impact of the post-professional doctor of physical therapy curriculum on the role of one physical therapist employed as a special education related service provider. Physical therapists working in the public school setting play an important role in promoting success for students with physical disabilities as…
Pollard, Elicia L.
The purposes of this study are to investigate whether the quiz scores of physical therapy students who integrated mind mapping in their learning strategies are significantly different than the quiz scores of students who did not use mind mapping to learn in a lecture-based research course and examine the students' perceptions of mind mapping as a…
Summary Comparing two public medical affairs which involved disciplinary proceedings and libel actions, one from Bavaria and one from Prussia, this article analyzes the dynamics behind legal conflicts over doctors’ professional ethics in Imperial Germany. In both the case of Dr Maurice Hutzler, who committed suicide after conflicts with senior colleagues at the Gisela Children’s Hospital and a sentence of the court of honour of the Munich Medical District Society, and the Berlin ‘patient trade’ affair, in which the medical professors Ernst von Leyden, Hermann Senator, Karl Anton Ewald and Carl Posner were accused of having made payments to middlemen for bringing them lucrative private patients, notions of personal and professional honour played a central role. The Munich case highlighted shortcomings of the Bavarian medical court of honour system, which was less developed than its Prussian counterpart. The analysis of the two cases suggests that the ethics of medical practice in early twentieth-century Germany should be viewed as part of a culture of honour. PMID:22303773
Kayama, Mami; Gregg, Misuzu F; Asahara, Kiyomi; Yamamoto-Mitani, Noriko; Okuma, Keiko; Ohta, Kikuko; Kinoshita, Yasuhito
This study aimed to describe the process of mentoring doctoral students for qualitative research in Japanese graduate programs in nursing. Nine experienced faculty-seven nurse researchers and two sociologists-were interviewed. Participants were asked about their process of mentoring students for qualitative nursing dissertations. Data analysis was conducted using a qualitative descriptive method. Participants' age ranged from 48 to 60 years. The first theme in the mentoring process is about the individualized, one-on-one mentorship process. The second theme occurs in a group process. The third theme is coordinating mentors and establishing a network to support the evaluation system. The mentoring processes identified in this study will be useful for future faculty development. The study elucidated much room for improvement in doctoral education programs for qualitative research methods in nursing science. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.
Mogre, Victor; Scherpbier, Albert J J A; Stevens, Fred; Aryee, Paul; Cherry, Mary Gemma; Dornan, Tim
Objective To determine what, how, for whom, why, and in what circumstances educational interventions improve the delivery of nutrition care by doctors and other healthcare professionals work. Design Realist synthesis following a published protocol and reported following Realist and Meta-narrative Evidence Synthesis: Evolving Standards (RAMESES) guidelines. A multidisciplinary team searched MEDLINE, CINAHL, ERIC, EMBASE, PsyINFO, Sociological Abstracts, Web of Science, Google Scholar and Science Direct for published and unpublished (grey) literature. The team identified studies with varied designs; appraised their ability to answer the review question; identified relationships between contexts, mechanisms and outcomes (CMOs); and entered them into a spreadsheet configured for the purpose. The final synthesis identified commonalities across CMO configurations. Results Over half of the 46 studies from which we extracted data originated from the USA. Interventions that improved the delivery of nutrition care improved skills and attitudes rather than just knowledge; provided opportunities for superiors to model nutrition care; removed barriers to nutrition care in health systems; provided participants with local, practically relevant tools and messages; and incorporated non-traditional, innovative teaching strategies. Operating in contexts where student and qualified healthcare professionals provided nutrition care in developed and developing countries, these interventions yielded health outcomes by triggering a range of mechanisms, which included feeling competent, feeling confident and comfortable, having greater self-efficacy, being less inhibited by barriers in healthcare systems and feeling that nutrition care was accepted and recognised. Conclusions These findings show how important it is to move education for nutrition care beyond the simple acquisition of knowledge. They show how educational interventions embedded within systems of healthcare can improve
Bleicher, Robert E.
The field of professional development is moving towards the notion of professional learning, highlighting the active learning role that teachers play in changing their knowledge bases, beliefs and practice. This article builds on this idea and argues for creating professional learning that is guided by a collaborative action research (CAR)…
Barnard-Brak, Lucy; Saxon, Terrill F.; Johnson, Heather
Research suggests that new doctoral graduates face increased publication pressure to achieve tenure: doctoral programs may have also increased this expectation. We examined whether faculty graduating before and after the year 2000 differed significantly in total publications, peer-reviewed publications, and first-authored publications as of the…
South Korea dispatches Korean nationals to partner developing countries as an Official Development Assistance (ODA) project through the Korea International Cooperation Agency (KOICA). In the health sector, KOICA dispatches international cooperation doctors (ICDs), nurses, physical therapists, radiologic technologists, nutritionists, medical laboratory technologists, occupational therapists, and dental hygienists. A total of 216 ICDs were dispatched over 19 times from 1995 until 2013. There were 19 areas of specialties among the ICDs. The most common specialty was internal medicine (61/216, 28.2%), the second most common specialty was general surgery (43/216, 19.9%), followed by oriental medicine (27/216, 12.5%), pediatrics (17/216, 7.9%), orthopedics (16/216, 7.4%), family medicine (16/216, 7.4%), and odontology (14/216, 6.5%). The ICDs have worked in 21 countries. KOICA dispatched the highest number of ICDs to Asia (97/216, 44.9%), followed by Africa (50/216, 23.1%), Latin America (34/216, 15.7%), the commonwealth of independent states (31/216, 14.4%), and Oceania (4/216, 1.9%). Nobody was dispatched to the Middle East. A total of 134 KOICA health professionals were dispatched to Peru from 1996 until October 1, 2014. Of these, 19.4% (26/134) were ICDs, 44.8% (60/216) were nurses, 20.1% (27/134) were physical therapists, 6.7% (9/134) were radiologic technologists, 2.2% (3/134) were nutritionists, and 6.7% (9/134) were medical laboratory. ICDs' specialties comprised internal medicine (13/26, 50%), family medicine (8/26, 30.8%), pediatrics (2/26, 7.7%), otorhinolaryngology (1/26, 3.8%), orthopedics (1/26, 3.8%), and oriental medicine (1/26, 3.8%). Most of the dispatched health professionals worked at institutions that were supported by KOICA. For this reason, the proportion of health professionals who worked at public health centers (PHCs) was the highest (58.2%, 78/134) when classified by workplace type. Other KOICA health professionals worked at hospitals
Appleby, Yvon; Hillier, Yvonne
This paper discusses the contribution that practice-research networks can make to support critical professional development in the Learning and Skills sector in England. By practice-research networks we mean groups or networks which maintain a connection between research and professional practice. These networks stem from the philosophy of…
This Research Commentary addresses the need for standards for describing mathematics professional development in mathematics education research reports. Considering that mathematics professional development is an emerging research field, it is timely to set expectations for what constitutes high-quality reporting in this field. (Contains 2 tables.)
Christensen, Mette Krogh; Lund, Ole
Scholarly communities are dependent on and often measured by their ability to attract and develop doctoral students. Recent literature suggests that most scholarly communities entail ecological niches in which the doctoral students learn the codes and practices of research. In this article, we...... successful doctoral education because it: 1) fleshes out the professional attitude that is necessary for becoming a successful researcher in the department, 2) shapes and adapts the doctoral students’ desires to grasp and identify with the department’s practices, and 3) provides the doctoral students...... explore the microclimate in an ecological niche of doctoral education. Based on a theoretical definition of microclimate as the emotional atmosphere that ties group members together and affects their actions, we conducted a case study that aimed to describe the key features of the microclimate...
Pain, Tilley; Kingston, Gail; Askern, Janet; Smith, Rebecca; Phillips, Sandra; Bell, Leanne
Inpatient care is dependent upon the effective transfer of clinical information across multiple professions. However, documented patient clinical information generated by different professions is not always successfully transferred between them. One obstacle to successful information transfer may be the reader's perception of the information, which is framed in a particular professional context, rather than the information per se. The aim of this research was to investigate how different health professionals perceive allied health documentation and to investigate how clinicians of all experience levels across medicine, nursing and allied health perceive and use allied health notes to inform their decision-making and treatment of patients. The study used a qualitative approach. A total of 53 speech pathologists, nurses, doctors, occupational therapists, dieticians and social workers (8 males; 43 females) from an Australian regional tertiary hospital participated in eleven single discipline focus groups, conducted over 4 months in 2012. Discussions were recorded and transcribed verbatim and coded into themes by content analysis. Six themes contributing to the efficacy of clinical information transference emerged from the data: day-to-day care, patient function, discharge and discharge planning, impact of busy workloads, format and structure of allied health documentation and a holistic approach to patient care. Other professions read and used allied health notes albeit with differences in focus and need. Readers searched for specific pieces of information to answer their own questions and professional needs, in a process akin to purposive sampling. Staff used allied health notes to explore specific aspects of patient function but did not obtain a holistic picture. Improving both the relationship between the various health professions and interpretation of other professions' documented clinical information may reduce the frequency of communication errors, thereby
Johansen, May-Lill; Holtedahl, Knut Arne; Davidsen, Annette Sofie; Rudebeck, Carl Edvard
An important part of GPs' work consists of attending to the everyday and existential conditions of human being. In these life world aspects, biomedicine is often not the relevant theory to guide the GP; nevertheless they are a part of GPs' professional domain. In cancer care, previous studies have shown that GPs with a biomedical perspective on medicine could feel subordinate to specialists, and that doctors with a curative focus could see disease progression as a personal failure. The aim of this study was to explore in depth the experiences of being a GP for people with advanced cancer. Fourteen Norwegian GPs were interviewed about accompanying patients through a cancer illness. Their stories were analysed using a narrative approach. The GPs expressed a strong commitment to these patients, a loyalty which in some cases could be weakened due to judgements of distant specialists. In view of the GPs' close knowledge of their patients' background and history this subordination was a paradox, mirroring a hierarchy of medical knowledge. The GPs had an ideal of honesty and openness about death, which they sometimes failed. To reach the ideal of honesty, clinicians would have to abandon the biomedical ideal of mastering human nature through interventions and acknowledge the fundamental uncertainty and finiteness of human life. GPs may learn from being with their patients that bodily and existential suffering are connected, and thus learn implicitly to overlook the body-mind dualism. This practical wisdom lacks a theoretical anchoring, which is a problem not only for general practice.
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to showcase the information literacy course for doctoral students called Information Resources and Tools for Research. Turku University Library organises this course in collaboration with the University of Turku Graduate School. The course, which was started in 2012, has been organised four times so far, twice in English and twice in Finnish. The course offers training to all doctoral Programs in all of the seven disciplines present at the University of Turku and doctoral candidates of the University. In our presentation we will describe the structure and contents of the course and share our experiences of the collaboration with the University of Turku Graduate School. In addition, we will describe how the information specialists of the Turku University Library have collaborated during the course. We will also discuss the challenges of the course. Based on the course feedback, it can be stated that in general, participants have found this course very useful for their research in the University of Turku.
Flávia Romariz Ferreira
Full Text Available Background: Some congenital defects can be prevented in the pregestational stage. However, many health professionals are not prepared to provide counselling to couples regarding the same. Objective: This study aimed to assess the performance of doctors and nurses from a primary health-care unit in Florianopolis, Brazil, in preventing birth defects in the preconception period based on the recommendations of the Control Center of Disease Prevention. Materials and Methods: This descriptive cross sectional study was performed at a tertiary referral center. In this study, a semi-structured questionnaire was provided to 160 health professionals comprising doctors and nurses who were actively involved in providing primary health care in family health programs. The non-parametric Chi-square (χ2 test was used to analyse the data obtained through multiple choice questions. Results: Our results showed that although 81.9% of health professionals provided health-care assistance based on protocols, and only 46.2% professionals were aware of the presence of the topic in the protocol. Of the recommendations provided by the Control Center of Disease Prevention, the use of folic acid was the most prescribed. However, this prescription was not statistically different between nurses and doctors (P=0.85. Conclusion: This study identified the fragile nature in these professional’s knowledge about the prevention of birth defects in pre-conception period, as evidenced by the inconsistency in their responses.
with subjects such as sociology, pedagogy knowledge involved in emotion research, the connotation of the professional emotion research vision also present a major change and breakthrough, individual emotion is no longer just a simple physiological and psychological experience, but the individual behavior on the basis of subjective experience and emotional practice. this study through the review and concerns the counselor professional emotional representation and the deep roots, focusing on effective strategies to explore the enhance counselors professional emotion.
Full Text Available The term of professional sport is considered. The models of entrepreneurial activity are described in this sphere. The structure of income of soccer clubs of France, USA and Ukraine is analysed. The tendencies of receipt of profits are rotined on the example of professional soccer clubs of Ukraine. It is marked that in Ukraine actual two models of orientation of conduct of sporting business on condition of high-efficiency management and marketing. For the increase of profits necessary changes are in a current legislation.
Joellen Killion is senior advisor to Learning Forward. In each issue of "The Learning Professional", Killion explores a recent research study to help practitioners understand the impact of particular professional learning practices on student outcomes. In this Issue Mary Kennedy conducts a review and analysis of the research on…
Zufiaurre, Benjamin; de Villarreal, Maider Pérez
Nurses as professionals of health, childhood education teachers, social workers and caregivers, join a group of "feminine professions" which grew through policies of a welfare state in postwar constructive period, or in times of postwar accords (Jones, 1983). These professions are under challenge because of neoliberal policies and…
T. Grandon Gill
Full Text Available The paper presents an over view of a new type of degree program that is rapidly emerging and gaining acceptance in the U.S.: the business doctorate for executives. Roughly a dozen of these programs currently exist at institutions accredited by AACSB International, the nation's premier accrediting agency. Although they are research-focused, like their Ph.D counterparts, they are quite different in a number of ways. Among the most important of these: they target applicants with substantial executive experience, they are part time and assume their participants will continue working while in the program, they are interdisciplinary in focus and their emphasis is generally on applying research methods to practical business problems, as opposed to producing published research articles. As a consequence, they are well-positioned to serve as a bridge that increases partnering between academic research and practice. After summarizing the general nature of these programs, the paper considers the structure and objectives of the new Doctor of Business Administration (DBA program being offered by the Muma College of Business at the University of South Florida.
To assess research methods and analysis of statistical techniques employed by educational researchers, this study surveyed unpublished doctoral dissertation from 2003 to 2007. Frequently used research methods consisted of experimental research; a survey; a correlational study; and a case study. Descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA, factor…
Background Sir William Osler suggested in 1899 that avocations (leisure activities) in doctors are related to an increased sense of vocation (professional engagement) and a decreased level of burnout. This study evaluated those claims in a large group of doctors practicing in the UK while taking into account a wide range of background variables. Methods A follow-up questionnaire was sent to 4,457 UK-qualified doctors who had been included in four previous studies of medical school selection and training, beginning in 1980, 1985, 1990 and 1989/1991. A total of 2,845 (63.8%) doctors returned the questionnaire. Questions particularly asked about work engagement, satisfaction with medicine as a career, and personal achievement (Vocation/engagement), stress, emotional exhaustion, and depersonalization (BurnedOut), and 29 different leisure activities (Avocation/Leisure), as well as questions on personality, empathy, work experience, and demography. Results Doctors reporting more Avocation/Leisure activities tended to be women, to have older children, to be less surface-rational, more extravert, more open to experience, less agreeable, and to fantasize more. Doctors who were more BurnedOut tended to be men, to be more sleep-deprived, to report a greater workload and less choice and independence in their work, to have higher neuroticism, lower extraversion and lower agreeableness scores, and to have lower self-esteem. In contrast, doctors with a greater sense of Vocation/engagement, tended to see more patients, to have greater choice and independence at work, to have a deep approach to work, to have a more supportive-receptive work environment, to be more extravert and more conscientious, and to report greater self-esteem. Avocation/Leisure activities correlated significantly with Vocation/engagement, even after taking into account 25 background variables describing demography, work, and personality, whereas BurnedOut showed no significant correlation with Avocation
Full Text Available Abstract Background Sir William Osler suggested in 1899 that avocations (leisure activities in doctors are related to an increased sense of vocation (professional engagement and a decreased level of burnout. This study evaluated those claims in a large group of doctors practicing in the UK while taking into account a wide range of background variables. Methods A follow-up questionnaire was sent to 4,457 UK-qualified doctors who had been included in four previous studies of medical school selection and training, beginning in 1980, 1985, 1990 and 1989/1991. A total of 2,845 (63.8% doctors returned the questionnaire. Questions particularly asked about work engagement, satisfaction with medicine as a career, and personal achievement (Vocation/engagement, stress, emotional exhaustion, and depersonalization (BurnedOut, and 29 different leisure activities (Avocation/Leisure, as well as questions on personality, empathy, work experience, and demography. Results Doctors reporting more Avocation/Leisure activities tended to be women, to have older children, to be less surface-rational, more extravert, more open to experience, less agreeable, and to fantasize more. Doctors who were more BurnedOut tended to be men, to be more sleep-deprived, to report a greater workload and less choice and independence in their work, to have higher neuroticism, lower extraversion and lower agreeableness scores, and to have lower self-esteem. In contrast, doctors with a greater sense of Vocation/engagement, tended to see more patients, to have greater choice and independence at work, to have a deep approach to work, to have a more supportive-receptive work environment, to be more extravert and more conscientious, and to report greater self-esteem. Avocation/Leisure activities correlated significantly with Vocation/engagement, even after taking into account 25 background variables describing demography, work, and personality, whereas BurnedOut showed no significant
McManus, I C; Jonvik, Hallgeir; Richards, Peter; Paice, Elisabeth
Sir William Osler suggested in 1899 that avocations (leisure activities) in doctors are related to an increased sense of vocation (professional engagement) and a decreased level of burnout. This study evaluated those claims in a large group of doctors practicing in the UK while taking into account a wide range of background variables. A follow-up questionnaire was sent to 4,457 UK-qualified doctors who had been included in four previous studies of medical school selection and training, beginning in 1980, 1985, 1990 and 1989/1991. A total of 2,845 (63.8%) doctors returned the questionnaire. Questions particularly asked about work engagement, satisfaction with medicine as a career, and personal achievement (Vocation/engagement), stress, emotional exhaustion, and depersonalization (BurnedOut), and 29 different leisure activities (Avocation/Leisure), as well as questions on personality, empathy, work experience, and demography. Doctors reporting more Avocation/Leisure activities tended to be women, to have older children, to be less surface-rational, more extravert, more open to experience, less agreeable, and to fantasize more. Doctors who were more BurnedOut tended to be men, to be more sleep-deprived, to report a greater workload and less choice and independence in their work, to have higher neuroticism, lower extraversion and lower agreeableness scores, and to have lower self-esteem. In contrast, doctors with a greater sense of Vocation/engagement, tended to see more patients, to have greater choice and independence at work, to have a deep approach to work, to have a more supportive-receptive work environment, to be more extravert and more conscientious, and to report greater self-esteem.Avocation/Leisure activities correlated significantly with Vocation/engagement, even after taking into account 25 background variables describing demography, work, and personality, whereas BurnedOut showed no significant correlation with Avocation/Leisure activities. Popular
Luft, Julie A.; Kurdziel, Josepha P.; Roehrig, Gillian H.; Turner, Jessica
Graduate teaching assistants (GTAs) in the sciences are a common feature of U.S. universities that have a prominent mission of research. During the past 2 decades, increased attention has been paid to the professional development of GTAs as instructors. As a result, universities have created training programs to assist GTAs in selecting instructional methods, curricular formats, and assessments when they serve as laboratory, lecture, or discussion group instructors. Unfortunately, few studies explore the educational and instructional environment of GTAs in these reformed settings. This study was conducted to address this specific need. As a constructivist inquiry, qualitative methods were used to collect and analyze the data to elucidate the educational and instructional environment of science GTAs at a doctoral/research university in which various training programs existed. We found that GTAs worked autonomously, that traditional practices and curricula existed in laboratories, and that instructors frequently held limited views of undergraduates' abilities and motivation. Findings in this initial study about GTAs suggest that developers of GTA training programs draw on the literature regarding science teacher education, and that reward systems be instituted that recognize faculty and staff for their participation in GTA training programs.
Reflective teachers are always searching for ways to improve their teaching. When this reflection becomes intentional and systematic, they are engaging in teacher research. This type of research, sometimes called "action research", can help bridge the gap between theory and practice by addressing topics that are relevant to practicing teachers.…
How mental illnesses are defined has significant ramifications, given the substantial social and individual repercussions of these conditions. Using actor-network theory, I analyze how mental health professionals use the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) in their work. Drawing on observations of a neuropsychological laboratory and interviews with 27 professionals (i.e., psychiatrists, psychologists), I investigate how the DSM is used in research, clinical, and institutional work. In research, the DSM influences study design and exclusion/inclusion criteria. In the clinic, the DSM influences how disorders are conceptualized and diagnosed. Institutionally, the DSM aligns the patient-professional encounter to insurance and pharmaceutical interests. I conclude that the DSM operates as multiple, context-specific taxonomies that pervasively influence professional practices, such that all possible actions must orient to DSM criteria, with professionals both a source and an object of institutionalized gaze. © American Sociological Association 2016.
Slater, Charles; Brown-Welty, Sharon; Cohn, Kathleen; Rodriguez, Jesus
The purpose of this paper is to examine signature pedagogies for the education doctorate. Three California State University campuses that have started new Ed.D. programs examine practices that distinguish the education doctoral experience from other professions. Embedded field work, the professional seminar, and the research and writing support…
This paper re-examines the widespread belief that doctors have a proneness for suicide greater than the general population. The Standardized Mortality Ratio for male physicians is 335 and for single women doctors 257. Doctors' wives have an even greater risk: their SMR is 458. These rates for doctors are higher than for most other professional groups (except pharmacists) and the rate for doctors' wives far exceeds that for wives of other professionals. The intrinsic causes of the physician's high occupational mortality include his knowledge of toxicology and ready access to lethal drugs, so that impulsive suicide is more often successful. Professional stress and overwork, particularly the unrelenting responsibility for decisions upon which the lives of others may depend, have been inculpated. These stresses interact with the decline in the doctors' self-respect and with a personality that is prestige-oriented and independent. Some physicians turn in their frustration to alcohol/and or drugs, accelerating the process of deterioration. The high suicide rate in doctors' wives appears to be the result of unrequited needs for caring and dependency which the doctors' career demands and personality deny them.
González-de Paz, Luis; Kostov, Belchin; Solans-Julian, Pilar; Navarro-Rubio, M Dolores; Sisó-Almirall, Antoni
The increasing amount of the clinical research conducted in the primary health care has enabled extending research beyond traditional settings, but this transfer has implied some trade-offs. Health care professionals who conduct research with trusted patients require assuming the ethical standards of research and communication skills to enable patients' autonomy and freedom of choice. This study aims to measure the opinions of health professionals and patients on issues of communication in clinical research. A cross-sectional study with health care professionals and patients from primary health care centres in Barcelona (Spain). Each group completed a similar self-administered questionnaire. A Rasch model was fitted to data. After examination of goodness-of-fit, differences between groups were compared using analysis of variance, and patients' measures were calibrated to professionals' measures to compare overall mean measures. Professionals and patients found the ethical attitudes most difficult to endorse related to trust in clinical researchers and conflicts of interest. Patients' perceptions of professional ethical behaviour were significantly lower than professionals'. Different item functioning between nurses and family doctors was found in the item on seeking ethical collaboration when collaborating in clinical research. Effective knowledge of ethical norms was associated with greater perceived ethical values in clinical research and confidence in health care professionals among patients. Differences in the views of the communication process between patients and professionals could alert research boards, health care institutions and researchers to the need for greater transparency, trust and ethical instruction when patients are involved in clinical research. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
There is a broad range qualitative linguistic research (sequential analysis) on doctor-patient interaction that had only a marginal impact on clinical research and practice. At least in parts this is due to the lack of qualitative research synthesis in the field. Available research summaries are not systematic in their methodology. This paper proposes a synthesis methodology for qualitative, sequential analytic research on doctor-patient interaction. The presented methodology is not new but specifies standard methodology of qualitative research synthesis for sequential analytic research. This pilot review synthesizes twelve studies on German-speaking doctor-patient interactions, identifies 45 verbal actions of doctors and structures them in a systematics of eight interaction components. Three interaction components ("Listening", "Asking for information", and "Giving information") seem to be central and cover two thirds of the identified action types. This pilot review demonstrates that sequential analytic research can be synthesized in a consistent and meaningful way, thus providing a more comprehensive and unbiased integration of research. Future synthesis of qualitative research in the area of health communication research is very much needed. Qualitative research synthesis can support the development of quantitative research and of educational materials in medical training and patient training. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Brown, James; Ryan, Christopher; Harris, Anthony
Background Doctors are uncertain of their ethical and legal obligations when communicating with patients online. Professional guidelines for patient-doctor interaction online have been written with limited quantitative data about doctors’ current usage and attitudes toward the medium. Further research into these trends will help to inform more focused policy and guidelines for doctors communicating with patients online. Objective The intent of the study was to provide the first national profi...
Marcia Maria Cappellano dos Santos
Full Text Available The article aims to a global overview on tourism research in Brazil, limited to a short period, from 2005 to 2007 and focusing only in doctoral theses registered at Capes Data Base. Theses were classified after their abstracts and clustered into Jafari´s Platforms (Jafari, 1994. Systemic, phenomenological and “beyond phenomena” approach were also identified. As a result the author confirmed that tourism research is carried out mostly by other disciplines and that most theses belong to the Knowledge-based Platform, with links with Advocacy , Cautionary and Adaptancy Platforms. The beginnings of a new trend were also identified, going beyond tourism facts and understanding tourism as phenomenon which suggests either the development of a new dimension in Knowledge-based Platform or the development of a new Platform, that of Tourism Epistemology.
Scott, Karen; Caldwell, Patrina; Schuwirth, Lambert
The approaches used to educate future clinicians must be continually improved through evidence-based methods. Clinicians interested in conducting education research need to understand the terminology and conventions of health professional education, in the same way that health professional educators from education backgrounds need to be aware of clinical practices and scientific mores and jargon. This article provides clinicians with 10 steps to conducting health professional education research, and encourages collaboration between clinicians interested in education and health professional educators. The basic steps in conducting education research are introduced, beginning with literature searches, using appropriate terminology and writing conventions, and finding research collaborators. We encourage researchers to ask themselves, 'So what?' about their research idea to ensure it is interesting and relevant to a journal's readers. The nuts and bolts of educational research are then presented, including research questions and methodologies, outcome measures, theoretical frameworks and epistemologies. The final two steps aim to foster internationally relevant and well-designed research studies. Conducting and publishing education research is often difficult for clinicians, who struggle with what is required. Yet clinicians who teach are ideally placed to identify the knowledge gaps about how we can more effectively educate future clinicians. These 10 steps provide clinicians with guidance on how to conduct education research so relevant research findings can inform the education of future clinicians. Conducting and publishing education research is often difficult for clinicians. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Smit, Marion; Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl
Narrative research is an appropriate method for studying the constructs and sensemaking of moral courage. Moral courage or speaking up by professionals is needed for maintaining ethical checks and balances in organizations. Personal narratives give the researcher and the researched increased
Brew, Angela; Boud, David; Malfroy, Janne
The development of cultures of support has become important in programmes for the preparation of research students. The paper draws on in-depth interviews with 21 research education coordinators from Australian and United Kingdom institutions to identify the strategies that they use to build research cultures and integrate research students into…
Faghihi, Forooz; Rakow, Ernest A.; Ethington, Corinna
This study examined relationships among doctoral candidates' background characteristics, research preparation, research environment, research involvement, student-advisor relationship, research self-efficacy, and dissertation progress. The study focused on differences in research self-efficacy and dissertation progress among students from the…
... CONTROL REGULATIONS Licenses, Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.564 Professional.... Example 1 to paragraph (d): A musicologist travels to Cuba to do research on Cuban music pursuant to the... simply interested in music but who do not research music as part of their careers may not engage in...
A post-doctoral fellow position is available in the Tissue Morphodynamics Unit headed by Dr. Kandice Tanner at the National Cancer Institute. The Tanner lab combines biophysical and cell biological approaches to understand the interplay between tissue architecture and metastasis. We use a combination of imaging modalities, cell biology and animal models. It is expected that as a member of this lab, one will have an opportunity to be exposed to all these areas. We value a vibrant and collaborative environment where lab members share ideas, reagents and expertise and want to work on fundamental problems in the establishment of metastatic lesions. Our lab is located in the NIH main campus in Bethesda. The research facilities at NIH are outstanding and the lab has state-of-the-art equipment such as multi-photon and confocal microscopes, FACS facilities and animal vivarium.
consideration by the libraries and will be used in negotiations with the university administration to implement compulsory studies of information skills among doctoral students. On a local level, ÅAUL and TUL, as neighbouring libraries, have strengthen the exchange of ideas and experiences during the last years. As ÅAUL started with focus group surveys and abstracts before implementing information literacy courses, TUL started with customized courses for doctoral students last year. There have been fruitful, professional discussions and more elaborative benchmarking sessions between the libraries. Together the both libraries have also hosted the University Library of Gothenburg and arranged a two-day-long benchmarking seminar about research services.
Fisher, Jill A; Kalbaugh, Corey A
Research coordinators have significant responsibilities in clinical trials that often require them to find unique ways to manage their jobs, thus reshaping their professional identities. The purpose of this study was to identify how research coordinators manage role and ethical conflicts within clinical research trials. A qualitative study combining observation and 63 semistructured interviews at 25 research organizations was used. Altruism is a recurring theme in how research coordinators define and view their work. Altruism is adopted by research coordinators to: (1) Teach patient-subjects the appropriate reasons to participate in clinical research, (2) minimize the conflict between research and care, and (3) contest the undervaluation of coordinating. Altruism is a strategy used to handle the various conflicts they experience in a difficult job, and it has become part of the professional identity of clinical research coordinators. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Introduction. Trusting the medical staff, especially the doctor is a fundamental part of the success of the treatment process. Appropriate level of trust in a doctor-patient relationship affects the patient’s compliance with the physician’s recommendations and motivates patient to fight the disease. Over the last few years, numerous studies have been conducted on the level of trust in medical staff, especially doctors.
Full Text Available ... Impact of NIH Research Science, Health, and Public Trust You are here Home » Institutes at NIH » NIH ... Your Doctor Plain Language Science, Health, and Public Trust Talking to Your Doctor Part I: Preparing for ...
Dattatray B Pawar
Full Text Available Context: Every medical practitioner should strive to contribute to the generation of evidence by conducting research. For carrying out research, adequate knowledge, practical skills, and development of the right attitude are crucial. A literature review shows that data regarding knowledge, attitude, and practices toward medical research, among resident doctors in India, is lacking. Aims: This study was conducted to assess research-related knowledge, attitude, and practices among resident doctors. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional survey was conducted using a pretested, structured, and pre-validated questionnaire. Materials and Methods: With approval of the Institutional Ethics Committee and a verbal consent, a cross-sectional survey among 100 resident doctors pursuing their second and third years in the MD and MS courses was conducted using a structured and pre-validated questionnaire. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the results. Results: The concept of research hypothesis was known to 58% of the residents. Ninety-eight percent of the residents were aware of the procedure to obtain informed consent. Seventy-six percent agreed that research training should be mandatory. Although 88% of the residents were interested in conducting research in future, 50% had participated in research other than a dissertation project, 28% had made scientific presentations, and only 4% had publications. Lack of time (74%, lack of research curriculum (42%, and inadequate facilities (38% were stated as major obstacles for pursuing research. Conclusions: Although resident doctors demonstrated a fairly good knowledge and positive attitude toward research, it did not translate into practice for most of them. There is a need to improve the existing medical education system to foster research culture among resident doctors
Kuo, Patty Beyrong; Woo, Hongryun; Bang, Na Mi
The authors examined the relationship between research self-efficacy, motivation, and productivity, as well as advisory relationship as a moderator, among 190 counselor education doctoral students. Research self-efficacy and motivation predicted productivity. Advisory relationship moderated the relationship between intrinsic and failure avoidance…
Maor, Dorit; Ensor, Jason D.; Fraser, Barry J.
Supervision of doctoral students needs to be improved to increase completion rates, reduce attrition rates (estimated to be at 25% or more) and improve quality of research. The current literature review aimed to explore the contribution that technology can make to higher degree research supervision. The articles selected included empirical studies…
Levinson, Julie; Mandel, Richard
The benefits of encouraging undergraduate students to pursue independent research have been well documented (Craney; Guterman; Hathaway et al.; Ishiyama; Kremer and Bringle; Volkwein and Carbone). Introducing students to research processes and protocols is always a challenge, particularly for students enrolled in professionally oriented,…
Floor Basten; Dr. Jan Geurts
In 2001, higher professional education received a research function by law. This new research role is incorporated into so-called lectureships. In these lectureships, which are analogous to university chairs to some degree, experts in specific fields function as intermediaries between higher
Conway, Colleen; Edgar, Scott; Hansen, Erin; Palmer, C. Michael
The purpose of this study was to examine the experiences of seven music educators who conducted teacher research in their classrooms and to document whether the teachers and the local school district considered the project as professional development. Research questions included: (1) How do these music educators describe the experience of planning…
Raval, Harini; McKenney, Susan; Pieters, Julius Marie
Although para-teachers make up a substantial portion of the world’s educational work force, little empirical research has been conducted on their professional development. During the iterative process of analysis, design, evaluation, and revision, design research was conducted to gain insight into
Trindade, Margarida; Agostinho, Marta
Research managers at science-intensive institutions appear as a continuously evolving group of professionals whose identity is somewhat fragmented, even to themselves. In Portugal, specialized research manager roles have rapidly emerged over the last years alongside the development of a small but consolidated scientific system. In order to get an…
Littman, Marissa A; Sonne, James W; Smith, Gerald V
Little information exists on the research productivity of successfully promoted tenure-track Doctor of Physical Therapy (DPT) faculty. To determine the research productivity that typically results in successful promotion. We collected publicly available curriculum vitae (CVs) from faculty currently in accredited DPT programs and who had been successfully promoted from an institution in the southeastern USA from 2000 through 2016. Total publication count, journal impact factor, funding, citations, and other metrics were analysed from 45 subjects of 22 of the 64 CAPTE-accredited DPT programs in the southeast. None of the studied metrics were normally distributed with time to promotion as determined by a Shapiro-Wilk test. These faculty exhibited a median publication count of 4, range 0 to 43; median of average citation count of 12.4, range 0 to 87.25; median of average journal impact factor of 2.866, range 0 to 6.280; median external funding received of $9910, range $0.00 to $19 543 198; and median author h-index of 3, range 0 to 17. The median number of years before promotion was 6, ranging from 3 to 13 years. Linear regression analysis indicates a poor fit with no significant correlation between years before promotion and any of the studied metrics. No correlation between journal impact factor and number of citations was observed (m = -0.22, p = 0.728, R 2 = 0.0003). Prior to promotion 31% (14 of 45) did not receive external funding and 24% (11 of 45) had a 0 h-index. The Carnegie Classification of the institution did not significantly correlate with research productivity metrics in this dataset (p = 0.213). While faculty unsuccessful in promotion were not identifiable using this method, this research can be used by faculty and committees to evaluate research productivity against regional data and promote competitive standards with peer institutions. CAPTE: Commission on Accreditation in Physical Therapist Education; DPT: Doctor of Physical Therapy.
Scheepers, Renée A.
Physician work engagement is considered to benefit physicians' professional performance in clinical teaching practice. Following an occupational health psychology perspective, this PhD report presents research on how physicians' professional performance in both doctor and teacher roles can be
Beran, Roy G
The pharmaceutical industry is seen as seducing doctors by providing expensive gifts, subsidising travel and underwriting practice expenses in return for those doctors prescribing products that otherwise they would not use. This paints doctors in a very negative light; suggests doctors are available to the highest bidder; implies doctors do not adequately act as independent agents; and that doctors are driven more by self-interest than by patient needs. Similar practices, in other industries, are accepted as normal business behaviour but it is automatically assumed to be improper if the pharmaceutical industry supports doctors. Should the pharmaceutical industry withdraw educational grants then there would be: fewer scientific meetings; reduced attendance at conferences; limited post graduate education; and a depreciated level of maintenance of professional standards. To suggest that doctors prescribe inappropriately in return for largesse maligns their integrity but where there is no scientific reason to choose between different treatments then there can be little argument against selecting the product manufactured by a company that has invested in the doctor and the question arises as to whether this represents bad medicine? This paper will examine what constitutes non-professional conduct in response to inducements by the pharmaceutical industry. It will review: conflict of interest; relationships between doctors and pharma and the consequences for patients; and the need for critical appraisal before automatically decrying this relationship while accepting that there remain those who do not practice ethical medicine.
Alves, Mariana Gaio; Azevedo, Nair Rios; Goncalves, Teresa N. R.
This article presents some results arising from the meta-analysis of the educational research that has been developed at Universidade Nova de Lisboa (Portugal). The intention was to understand the status of the educational research produced, the main thematic trends studied, affiliated scientific domains, conceptual frames mobilized, and…
The aim of this study was to examine the methodological tendencies in the doctorate theses which were prepared in the field of Sports Management in Turkish between 2007 and 2016 and which were open to access in the database of the Council of Higher Education (CHE) National Theses Center. In this context, 111 doctorate theses prepared in the last…
Wells, James A; Thrush, Carol R; Martinson, Brian C; May, Terry A; Stickler, Michelle; Callahan, Eileen C; Klomparens, Karen L
The Survey of Organizational Research Climate (SOuRCe) is a new instrument that assesses dimensions of research integrity climate, including ethical leadership, socialization and communication processes, and policies, procedures, structures, and processes to address risks to research integrity. We present a descriptive analysis to characterize differences on the SOuRCe scales across departments, fields of study, and status categories (faculty, postdoctoral scholars, and graduate students) for 11,455 respondents from three research-intensive universities. Among the seven SOuRCe scales, variance explained by status and fields of study ranged from 7.6% (Advisor-Advisee Relations) to 16.2% (Integrity Norms). Department accounted for greater than 50% of the variance explained for each of the SOuRCe scales, ranging from 52.6% (Regulatory Quality) to 80.3% (Integrity Inhibitors). It is feasible to implement this instrument in large university settings across a broad range of fields, department types, and individual roles within academic units. Published baseline results provide initial data for institutions using the SOuRCe who wish to compare their own research integrity climates. © The Author(s) 2014.
Steffen, Julius; Grabbert, Markus; Pander, Tanja; Gradel, Maximilian; Köhler, Lisa-Maria; Fischer, Martin R; von der Borch, Philip; Dimitriadis, Konstantinos
The importance of research, as promoted by the CanMEDS framework, is widely acknowledged. Many medical students in Germany work on a research project as part of their doctoral thesis whilst still going to medical school. However, a significant amount of projects are abandoned unfinished, which leads to substantial wastage of resources. One reason for this is an information deficit concerning undergraduate research projects. To counteract this, we introduced an annual event at LMU Munich called DoktaMed with more than 600 visitors each year. It combines medical convention and research fair including keynote lectures, workshops and poster sessions as well as an exhibition of research groups and institutes. DoktaMed is a peer-to-peer event organized by a team of 40 students. A needs analysis before its implementation underlined the information deficit as a possible cause for the high rate of abandoned projects. In the annual evaluation, visitors of DoktaMed rate the event with an average grade of 2.1 on a six-level Likert scale (n=558, SD=1.06, with "1=very good", "6=poor"). They stated to now feel better informed about the topic and regarded visiting DoktaMed as a worthwhile investment of time. Students are generally satisfied with the event and feel better informed after visiting DoktaMed. However, many students never visit DoktaMed for various reasons. A possible improvement would be to present a greater number of clinical studies in addition to the laboratory work that DoktaMed focuses on now. Evaluation after six years of DoktaMed is very promising. Visitors seem to be better informed. Nevertheless there is space for improvement in order to get more students and more faculty members involved. More studies are needed to assess long-term effects.
Full Text Available Introduction: The importance of research, as promoted by the framework, is widely acknowledged. Many medical students in Germany work on a research project as part of their doctoral thesis whilst still going to medical school. However, a significant amount of projects are abandoned unfinished, which leads to substantial wastage of resources. One reason for this is an information deficit concerning undergraduate research projects.Project description: To counteract this, we introduced an annual event at LMU Munich called with more than 600 visitors each year. It combines medical convention and research fair including keynote lectures, workshops and poster sessions as well as an exhibition of research groups and institutes. is a peer-to-peer event organized by a team of 40 students. Results: A needs analysis before its implementation underlined the information deficit as a possible cause for the high rate of abandoned projects. In the annual evaluation, visitors of rate the event with an average grade of 2.1 on a six-level Likert scale (n=558, SD=1.06, with "1=very good", "6=poor". They stated to now feel better informed about the topic and regarded visiting as a worthwhile investment of time.Discussion: Students are generally satisfied with the event and feel better informed after visiting . However, many students never visit DoktaMed for various reasons. A possible improvement would be to present a greater number of clinical studies in addition to the laboratory work that focuses on now.Conclusion: Evaluation after six years of is very promising. Visitors seem to be better informed. Nevertheless there is space for improvement in order to get more students and more faculty members involved. More studies are needed to assess long-term effects.
Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner
Doctoral education covers the “third cycle” of degrees following the bachelor’s and the master’s degree. The education of researchers is necessary for developing music therapy as a scientific discipline and calls for a certain research culture that not only brings knowledge on research...... with an integration of science and practice. This leads to a description of the principles of problem-based learning as a social constructive approach, problematization, self-directed learning and learning community. The chapter is concluded with an example of a model of doctoral education, the Aalborg model, where...... the coursework, supervision, and curriculum is based on problem-based learning. About the book: 'International Perspectives in Music Therapy Education and Training: Adapting to a Changing World,' the first anthology of its kind, edited by Professor Karen Goodman, brings noted educators from Brazil, Canada...
Corina Anamaria IOAN
Full Text Available More than ever doctors are beginning to recognize that beyond impeccable professionalism shown to the patient, equally imports became part of communication, and in one century of the Internet, the most effective communication process moves online, in the social networks. It is important for doctors to develop a personal brand because a reputation, passed with internet speed can only have a positive effect. In a century in which patients make the decision to see a particular doctor, largely based on recommendations and research the forums online discussions, doctors are beginning realize the importance of a strong presence, constant and reliable environment through online networks social priority.
Rubdy, Rani; Tupas, T. Ruanni F.; Villareal, Corazon D.; David, Maya Khemlani; Dumanig, Francisco Perlas
This review highlights recent doctoral research in English language education and related areas completed between 2007 and 2010 in three countries in Southeast Asia: Singapore, Malaysia and the Philippines. Out of sixty dissertations initially chosen from major universities in these countries, five from the Philippines, four from Malaysia and…
Murakami-Ramalho, Elizabeth; Piert, Joyce; Militello, Matthew
In this article, the authors use their personal narratives and collaborative portraits as methods to shed light on the complexities of developing a research identity while journeying through a doctoral program. Using the metaphors of a wanderer, a chameleon, and a warrior, their narratives represent portraits of experiences faced by doctoral…
Full Text Available Teacher research (i.e. action research has gained acceptance as a tool for teacher professional development. In spite of its increasing popularity in language classrooms, concerns have been raised in the implementation of teacher research, such as issues of quality, sustainability, the development of standards, and accessibility. In the Indonesian context, the unprofessional working conditions and the education background of most teachers have made it difficult for teachers to sustain and access research. Since changing the former appears beyond the aim of this article, it is suggested that teacher education institutions focus on the latter, revisiting the curriculum of teacher education to provide more research components
Kravia, Geori; Owens, Kay
Design-based research is being used to develop and refine the principles used in professional learning workshops with teachers from three different Papua New Guinean ecologies: highlands, coastal, and inland in a coastal province. The appropriateness of the design of principles for Papua New Guinean Elementary Schools is tried over several phases…
Department of Humanities Education, Faculty of Education, University of Pretoria, South ... her mentorship practice, thereby enacting the role of transformative leader ... Keywords: Action research; learning styles; mentoring practice; professional ... in an 'education sink or swim gala' be empowered to help transform society?
McCallen, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
This end of assignment report for a Professional Research and Teaching (PRT) Leave award includes the attached assessment of success by the host organization, University of California Davis (UCD). The following summarizes the accomplishments and attached are a selection of documented items.
Johnsson, Linus; Helgesson, Gert; Hansson, Mats G; Eriksson, Stefan
In Sweden, most patients are recruited into biobank research by non-researcher doctors. Patients' trust in doctors may therefore be important to their willingness to participate. We suggest a model of trust that makes sense of such transitions of trust between domains and distinguishes adequate trust from mistaken trust. The unique position of doctors implies, we argue, a Kantian imperfect duty to compensate for patients' mistaken trust. There are at least three kinds of mistaken trust, each of which requires a different set of countermeasures. First, trust is mistaken when necessary competence is lacking; the competence must be developed or the illusion dispelled. Second, trust is irrational whenever the patient is mistaken about his actual reasons for trusting. Care must therefore be taken to support the patient's reasoning and moral agency. Third, some patients inappropriately trust doctors to recommend only research that will benefit them directly. Such trust should be counteracted by nurturing a culture where patients expect to be asked occasionally to contribute to the common good. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Sambunjak, Dario; Marušić, Matko
Young scientists rarely have extensive international connections that could facilitate their mobility. They often rely on their doctoral supervisors and other senior academics, who use their networks to generate opportunities for young scientists to gain international experience and provide the initial trigger for an outward move. To explore the process of informal recommending of young physicians from a small country for postdoctoral research positions in foreign countries, we conducted in-depth interviews with eight senior academics who acted as recommenders and eight physicians who, based on the recommendations of senior academics, spent at least a year working in a laboratory abroad. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed by using the framework approach. The findings showed that recommending can take four distinct forms: 1) forwarding information, 2) passive recommending, 3) active recommending, and 4) mentor recommending. These forms differ in their level of commitment and mutual trust among actors, and possible control over the success of the process. Two groups of recommendees--'naive' and 'experienced'--can be distinguished based on their previous scientific experience and research collaboration with the recommender. Crucial for the success of the process is an adequate preparation of recommendees' stay abroad, as well as their return and reintegration. The benefits of recommending extend beyond the individual participants to the scientific community and broader society of the sending country. With a sufficient level of commitment by the actors, informal recommending can be a part of or grow into an all-encompassing developmental relationship equal to mentoring. The importance of senior academics' informal contacts and recommendations in promoting junior scientists' mobility should be acknowledged and encouraged by the research institutions and universities, particularly in developing countries.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Young scientists rarely have extensive international connections that could facilitate their mobility. They often rely on their doctoral supervisors and other senior academics, who use their networks to generate opportunities for young scientists to gain international experience and provide the initial trigger for an outward move. Methods To explore the process of informal recommending of young physicians from a small country for postdoctoral research positions in foreign countries, we conducted in-depth interviews with eight senior academics who acted as recommenders and eight physicians who, based on the recommendations of senior academics, spent at least a year working in a laboratory abroad. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed by using the framework approach. Results The findings showed that recommending can take four distinct forms: 1 forwarding information, 2 passive recommending, 3 active recommending, and 4 mentor recommending. These forms differ in their level of commitment and mutual trust among actors, and possible control over the success of the process. Two groups of recommendees - 'naive' and 'experienced' - can be distinguished based on their previous scientific experience and research collaboration with the recommender. Crucial for the success of the process is an adequate preparation of recommendees' stay abroad, as well as their return and reintegration. The benefits of recommending extend beyond the individual participants to the scientific community and broader society of the sending country. Conclusions With a sufficient level of commitment by the actors, informal recommending can be a part of or grow into an all-encompassing developmental relationship equal to mentoring. The importance of senior academics' informal contacts and recommendations in promoting junior scientists' mobility should be acknowledged and encouraged by the research institutions and universities, particularly in developing
This paper argues the need for coherent, holistic frameworks offering insightful understandings as well as viable, connected and synergistic solutions to schools in addressing pressing problems arising from the acknowledged gaps between research, practice and professional development. There is a need to conceptualise a comprehensive conceptual…
Arhar, Joanne; Niesz, Tricia; Brossmann, Jeanette; Koebley, Sarah; O'Brien, Katherine; Loe, David; Black, Felicia
The focus of the Education Works Personalization Project was to facilitate teams of teacher action researchers whose goal was to personalize their teaching with the support of university partners including doctoral students in education. The subsequent apprentice-like research experience within this university-school partnership provided an…
Bracke, N; Moens, L
The Doctoral Schools at Ghent University have a three-fold mission: (1) to provide support to doctoral students during their doctoral research, (2) to foster a quality culture in (doctoral) research, (3) to promote the international and social stature and prestige of the doctorate vis-a-vis potential researchers and the potential labour market. The Doctoral Schools offer top-level specialized courses and transferable skills training to doctoral students as part of their doctoral training programme. They establish mechanisms of quality assurance in doctoral research. The Doctoral Schools initialize and support initiatives of internationalization. They also organize information sessions, promotional events and interaction with the labour market, and as such keep a finger on the pulse of external stakeholders.
In 2004 the Hatfield Marine Science Center (HMSC) at Oregon State University (OSU) established a Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) program to engage undergraduate students in hands-on research training in the marine sciences. The program offers students the opportunity to conduct research focused on biological and ecological topics, chemical and physical oceanography, marine geology, and atmospheric science. In partnership with state and federal government agencies, this ten-week summer program has grown to include 20+ students annually. Participants obtain a background in the academic discipline, professional development training, and research experience to make informed decisions about careers and advanced degrees in marine and earth system sciences. Professional development components of the program are designed to support students in their research experience, explore career goals and develop skills necessary to becoming a successful young marine scientist. These components generally include seminars, discussions, workshops, lab tours, and standards of conduct. These componentscontribute to achieving the following professional development objectives for the overall success of new emerging undergraduate researchers: Forming a fellowship of undergraduate students pursuing marine research Stimulating student interest and understanding of marine research science Learning about research opportunities at Oregon State University "Cross-Training" - broadening the hands-on research experience Exploring and learning about marine science careers and pathways Developing science communication and presentation skills Cultivating a sense of belonging in the sciences Exposure to federal and state agencies in marine and estuarine science Academic and career planning Retention of talented students in the marine science Standards of conduct in science Details of this program's components, objectives and best practices will be discussed.
Fernandez, Jorge Muriel; Cenador, Maria Begoña García; Manuel López Millan, J; Méndez, Juan Antonio Juanes; Ledesma, María José Sánchez
The increasing relevance of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in medical care is indisputable. This evidence makes it necessary to start studies that analyse the scope these new forms of access to information and understanding of medicine have on the professional activity of the physician, on the attitude and on the knowledge of patients or, on the doctor-patient relationship. The purpose of this study is to explore some of these aspects in a group of physicians whose clinical activity is related to one of the greatest social impact health problems which is the treatment of chronic pain. Starting with the completion of a questionnaire, in the study group it is observed that the interaction between social structure, increase of information flows and ICTs generate transformations in social practices and behaviour of the actors of the health system. Internet is confirmed as an information space on the subject, but is shown as an underutilized space of interaction between the doctor and his patient.
Zehetmeier, Stefan; Andreitz, Irina; Erlacher, Willibald; Rauch, Franz
This paper deals with the topic of professional development programmes' impact. Concepts and ideas of action research, constructivism, and systems theory are used as a theoretical framework and are combined to describe and analyse an exemplary professional development programme in Austria. Empirical findings from both quantitative and qualitative…
The paper reviews teacher candidates' use of action research and the Professional Learning Community (PLC) concept to support their work in their pre-student teaching field experience. In this research study, teacher candidates are involved in a professional development school relationship that uses action research and PLCs to support candidate…
Chandrasekaran, Aparna; Thukral, Anu; Deorari, Ashok K
Neonatal mortality can be largely prevented by wide-scale coverage of components of essential newborn care and management of sick neonates in district-level healthcare facilities. A vital step in this direction is imparting the requisite knowledge and skill among healthcare providers. Medical education programs with their static curricula seldom adapt to the changing needs of neonatal healthcare providers in patient-centered, collaborative and remote delivery contexts. E-learning is emerging as the cutting edge tool towards refinement of knowledge, attitude and practices of physicians. Module-based e-learning courses can be blended with a skill learning contact period in partnering institutions thus saving resources and rapidly covering a wide geographical region with uniform standardized education. In this review, the authors discuss their experience with e-learning aimed at introducing and refining the understanding of sick newborn care among pre-service and in-service doctors who manage neonates.
Witter, Sophie; Thi Thu Ha, Bui; Shengalia, Bakhuti; Vujicic, Marko
Motivation and retention of health workers, particularly in rural areas, is a question of considerable interest to policy-makers internationally. Many countries, including Vietnam, are debating the right mix of interventions to motivate doctors in particular to work in remote areas. The objective of this study was to understand the dynamics of the health labour market in Vietnam, and what might encourage doctors to accept posts and remain in-post in rural areas. This study forms part of a labour market survey which was conducted in Vietnam in November 2009 to February 2010. The study had three stages. This article describes the findings of the first stage - the qualitative research and literature review, which fed into the design of a structured survey (second stage) and contingent valuation (third stage). For the qualitative research, three tools were used - key informant interviews at national and provincial level (6 respondents); in-depth interviews of doctors at district and commune levels (11 respondents); and focus group discussions with medical students (15 participants). The study reports on the perception of the problem by national level stakeholders; the motivation for joining the profession by doctors; their views on the different factors affecting their willingness to work in rural areas (including different income streams, working conditions, workload, equipment, support and supervision, relationships with colleagues, career development, training, and living conditions). It presents findings on their overall satisfaction, their ranking of different attributes, and willingness to accept different kinds of work. Finally, it discusses recent and possible policy interventions to address the distribution problem. Four typical 'directions of travel' are identified for Vietnamese doctors - from lower to higher levels of the system, from rural to urban areas, from preventive to curative health and from public to private practice. Substantial differences in
Full Text Available Abstract Background Motivation and retention of health workers, particularly in rural areas, is a question of considerable interest to policy-makers internationally. Many countries, including Vietnam, are debating the right mix of interventions to motivate doctors in particular to work in remote areas. The objective of this study was to understand the dynamics of the health labour market in Vietnam, and what might encourage doctors to accept posts and remain in-post in rural areas. Methods This study forms part of a labour market survey which was conducted in Vietnam in November 2009 to February 2010. The study had three stages. This article describes the findings of the first stage - the qualitative research and literature review, which fed into the design of a structured survey (second stage and contingent valuation (third stage. For the qualitative research, three tools were used - key informant interviews at national and provincial level (6 respondents; in-depth interviews of doctors at district and commune levels (11 respondents; and focus group discussions with medical students (15 participants. Results The study reports on the perception of the problem by national level stakeholders; the motivation for joining the profession by doctors; their views on the different factors affecting their willingness to work in rural areas (including different income streams, working conditions, workload, equipment, support and supervision, relationships with colleagues, career development, training, and living conditions. It presents findings on their overall satisfaction, their ranking of different attributes, and willingness to accept different kinds of work. Finally, it discusses recent and possible policy interventions to address the distribution problem. Conclusions Four typical 'directions of travel' are identified for Vietnamese doctors - from lower to higher levels of the system, from rural to urban areas, from preventive to curative health and
It has become increasingly accepted that important digital data must be retained and shared in order to preserve and promote knowledge, advance research in and across all disciplines of scholarly endeavor, and maximize the return on investment of public funds. To meet this challenge, colleges and universities are adding data services to existing infrastructures by drawing on the expertise of information professionals who are already involved in the acquisition, management and preservation of data in their daily jobs. Data services include planning and implementing good data management practices, thereby increasing researchers’ ability to compete for grant funding and ensuring that data collections with continuing value are preserved for reuse. This volume provides a framework to guide information professionals in academic libraries, presses, and data centers through the process of managing research data from the planning stages through the life of a grant project and beyond. It illustrates principle...
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Valentina V. Barabanshchikova
Full Text Available The paper describes the current state of the procrastination phenomenon in professional work, reviews the basic unexplored aspects in this area, and highlights the promising areas of scientific analysis. The survey of the existing literature periodization shows that the quantity of researches devoted to procrastination is growing exponentially every year. In spite of a pronounced research interest in this construct, in native and foreign psychological science procrastination phenomenon in the professional work is represented insufficiently. Firstly, there is no common and generally accepted definition of procrastination (Corkin, Yu, Lindt, 2011; Steel, 2010; Krause, Freund, 2014, that suggests that there is a deep terminological crisis in this area. Secondly, the characteristic of delaying the implementation of the elements of workload is represented only by the example of a fairly narrow range of professional activities, which makes it relevant to study the specificity of the differentiated functioning of the phenomenon on the material of a wide range of professions. Thirdly, in psychology there are no information about the peculiarities of the so-called “active” procrastination manifestations in professional activity, which is the tendency of conscious assignments delaying to achieve the optimum final result (Chu, Choi, 2005; Choi, Moran, 2009. Fourthly, there is an acute shortage of standardized psychodiagnostic tools to evaluate this phenomenon in work (most of the existing methods have been tested on samples of students and are aimed at identifying academic procrastination. In the fifth place, there are no science-based allocation of methods of coping with destructive manifestations of the psychological strategy of the job functions postponement in a professional work.
Monzon, Jorge E; Monzon-Wyngaard, Alvaro
This paper discusses some guidelines for use with the accepted fundamental canons of ethics for engineers. We present some rules of practice and professional obligations emerging from these canons. Basic recommendations for engineers dissenting on ethical grounds are also presented. Ethical issues relating to Biomedical Engineering research are illustrated. We mention some cases that could be used to further understanding the ethical implications of biomedical engineering practice.
Gill, P.S.; Mäkelä, M.; Vermeulen, K.M.
Collaboration on Effective Professional Practice. This register is kept up to date by searching the following databases for reports of relevant research: DHSS-DATA; EMBASE; MEDLINE; SIGLE; Resource Database in Continuing Medical Education (1975-1994), along with bibliographies of related topics, hand searching......The aim of this overview was to identify interventions that change doctor prescribing behaviour and to derive conclusions for practice and further research. Relevant studies (indicating prescribing as a behaviour change) were located from a database of studies maintained by the Cochrane...... of key journals and personal contact with content area experts. Randomised controlled trials and non-equivalent group designs with pre- and post-intervention measures were included. Outcome measures were those used by the study authors. For each study we determined whether these were positive, negative...
Staff members of the Agency working at the Seibersdorf laboratory are continuing to achieve high academic distinction. Two more - both Austrian - have now been awarded the degree of Doctor of Agriculture. Joachim Kramer, who is 26, graduated from the Hochschule fur Bodenkultur in 1967 with the degree of Diplom-Ingenieur and then started work in the plant breeding and genetics section of the laboratory under the direction of Dr. Knut Mikaelsen. The results of the research work he carried out were accepted as the subject of a thesis for which he has now been granted his doctorate. The doctoral promotion took place on 30 June, at a ceremony attended by Dr. Andre Finkelstein, Deputy Director General for Research and Isotopes. The subject of Dr. Kramer's thesis was a comprehensive study of the mutagenic effects of fast neutrons and gamma rays, and the influence of various modifying factors such as water content, oxygen and metabolic state of seeds at the time of irradiation. This work has contributed significantly to the understanding of the mechanisms by which these two types of ionizing radiation produce mutations in seeds. The knowledge gained will be of great importance in the efficient use of ionizing radiation in practical plant breeding. Paul Wassermann, who is 33 years old, joined the Agency in 1965. He, too, graduated from the Hochschule fur Bodenkultur as Diplom-Ingenieur in agriculture, having graduated with honours previously from the agricultural secondary school at Raumberg, Austria, in 1958. Dr. Wassermann's own words may be used to explain how he came to gain his doctorate. 'In October, 1966, I completed my studies at the Hochschule,' he writes. 'I was employed at the Agency laboratories in Seibersdorf, working in the plant and soils group. Encouraged by the interesting research which was performed there, a thesis entitled 'the Fate of Nitrogen in Submerged Rice Soils' was started, which finally led to the doctor's degree in Agriculture in June this year
Tiffin, Paul A; Paton, Lewis W; Mwandigha, Lazaro M; McLachlan, John C; Illing, Jan
International medical graduates working in the UK are more likely to be censured in relation to fitness to practise compared to home graduates. Performance on the General Medical Council's (GMC's) Professional and Linguistic Assessments Board (PLAB) tests and English fluency have previously been shown to predict later educational performance in this group of doctors. It is unknown whether the PLAB system is also a valid predictor of unprofessional behaviour and malpractice. The findings would have implications for regulatory policy. This was an observational study linking data relating to fitness to practise events (referral or censure), PLAB performance, demographic variables and English language competence, as evaluated via the International English Language Test System (IELTS). Data from 27,330 international medical graduates registered with the GMC were analysed, including 210 doctors who had been sanctioned in relation to at least one fitness to practise issue. The main outcome was risk of eventual censure (including a warning). The significant univariable educational predictors of eventual censure (versus no censures or referrals) were lower PLAB part 1 (hazard ratio [HR], 0.99; 95% confidence interval, 0.98 to 1.00) and part 2 scores (HR, 0.94; 0.91 to 0.97) at first sitting, multiple attempts at both parts of the PLAB, lower IELTS reading (HR, 0.79; 0.65 to 0.94) and listening scores (HR, 0.76; 0.62 to 0.93) and higher IELTS speaking scores (HR, 1.28; 1.04 to 1.57). Multiple resits at either part of the PLAB and higher IELTS speaking score (HR, 1.49; 1.20 to 1.84) were also independent predictors of censure. We estimated that the proposed limit of four attempts at both parts of the PLAB would reduce the risk in this entire group by only approximately two censures per 5 years in this group of doctors. Making the PLAB, or any replacement assessment, more stringent and raising the required standards of English reading and listening may result in fewer fitness
Bakitas, Marie; Ahles, Tim A
... on the Cognitive Effects of Chemotherapy. The scope of the program was to support the trainee's doctoral education with an ultimate career goal of becoming a Clinical Breast Cancer Research Scientist through a mentored research experience. Ms...
Jones, Lyle V., Ed.; And Others
The quality of doctoral-level chemical engineering (N=79), civil engineering (N=74), electrical engineering (N=91), and mechanical engineering (N=82) programs at United States universities was assessed, using 16 measures. These measures focused on variables related to: (1) program size; (2) characteristics of graduates; (3) reputational factors…
... countries in the fields of government, international development, and the professions. Therefore, students... Fellowship Program is to provide grants to colleges and universities to fund individual doctoral students to...), Kirghiz, Korean, Kurdish (Kurmanji), Kurdish (Sorani), Lao, Malay (Bahasa Melayu or Malaysian), Malayalam...
a systematic mapping review methodology, the focus was to map and examine research in these types of games or game environments, and to identify potentials and gaps in the field to inform future research. 89 studies were identified through iterative searching and identification processes applying keywords......Due to the increasing significance of games where lay people are involved in generating knowledge for research or development, the current paper presents a mapping review of status and trends in research of games designed for citizen science, crowdsourcing or community driven research. Using...... they were involved and studies where participants develop knowledge for professional use. The 32 studies were selected for a grounded theory inspired qualitative review and six themes were identified: 1. Motivation; 2. Quality of participant contribution; 3. Learning/education; 4. System/task analysis; 5...
Vinstrup, Anya Bjørn
for research is becoming increasingly competitive and there is significant political influence on the scope and scale of funding programmes. This along with the ever more complicated and varied administrative procedures and demands for compliance both with pre-award and postaward activities has led...... between different researchers and professions and INTEGRATING disciplines throughout the entire value chain. • A profession that is only incipient regarding a formalised TRAINING but where there still are very high demands and expectations to their professional act. • IT is playing an increasing role...
Kilburn, Daniel; Earley, Jonathan
This article presents an adaptation of established qualitative research methods for online focus groups by using the "Disqus" website-based commenting platform as a medium for discussion among doctoral and early-career academic learners. Facilities allowing Internet users to comment on the content of web pages are increasingly popular on…
Katherine P. Dabney; Robert H. Tai
The underrepresentation of women in physics doctorate programs and in tenured academic positions indicates a need to evaluate what may influence their career choice and persistence. This qualitative paper examines eleven females in physics doctoral programs and professional science positions in order to provide a more thorough understanding of why and how women make career choices based on aspects both inside and outside of school and their subsequent interaction. Results indicate that female...
Perry, Emily; Boylan, Mark
Research on teacher professional development is extensive but there are fewer studies about the practitioners who facilitate professional development. Here we report on a pilot programme for professional development facilitators rooted in a cycle of action research. Informed by a categorisation of professional knowledge and skills of facilitators,…
The Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Applied Research is given to a psychologist whose research has led to important discoveries or developments in the field of applied psychology. To be eligible, this research should have led to innovative applications in an area of psychological practice, including but not limited to assessment, consultation, instruction, or intervention (either direct or indirect). The 2014 recipient is Thomas Grisso. Grisso "has made seminal contributions to the field of forensic psychology and psychiatry through his internationally renowned program of research, which has directly impacted juvenile justice reform worldwide." Grisso's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Maria da Conceição de Melo Silva
Full Text Available Este estudo analisa o stress ocupacional em 155 profissionais da área da saúde (exemplo: médicos e enfermeiros a trabalharem em instituições hospitalares e centros de saúde da região norte de Portugal. Foram avaliadas as fontes de stress, o burnout, o coping proactivo, o comprometimento organizacional e a satisfação e realização profissional. Os resultados apontaram 15% de profissionais com experiências significativas de stress e 6% com problemas de exaustão emocional. As análises comparativas (MANOVA e teste t para amostras independentes demonstraram maior tendência para problemas de stress ocupacional nos seguintes grupos: a mulheres (embora os homens evidenciem maior despersonalização; b enfermeiros mais novos e com menor experiência profissional; c solteiros; d classe profissional dos enfermeiros; e profissionais que exercem funções em centros de saúde; f profissionais com situações contratuais mais instáveis; e g profissionais que realizam trabalho por turnos rotativos. No final, são apresentadas algumas indicações para a investigação futura.This work analyzes occupational stress in 155 health professionals (example: doctors and nurses from hospitals and health care centres in the north of Portugal. We evaluated the following variables: stress, burnout, proactive coping, organizational commitment and satisfaction/professional fulfilment. Results revealed significant stress experiences in 15% of the professionals and emotional exhaustion problems in 6%. Comparative analysis (MANOVA and t-test for independent samples suggested a higher tendency to experience occupational stress in the following groups: a females (although males showed more depersonalization problems; b younger and less experienced professionals; c single persons; d nurses practitioners; e professionals that worked in health care centres; f those professionals with short-term working contracts; and g the professionals working on a shift
Full Text Available ... Trials and You Talking to Your Doctor Science Education Resources Community Resources Clear Health A–Z Publications ... Research & Training Medical Research Initiatives Science Highlights Science Education Research in NIH Labs & Clinics Training Opportunities Library ...
Medical thrillers have been a mainstay of popular fiction since the late 1970s and still attract a wide readership today. This article examines this specialized genre and its core conventions within the context of professionally-based fiction, i.e. the class of thrillers written by professionals or former professionals. The author maps this largely unchartered territory and analyzes the fictional representations of doctors and medicine provided in such novels. He argues that medical thrillers, which are not originally aimed at specialized readers and sometimes project a flawed image of medicine, may be used as a pedagogical tool with non-native learners of medical English.
Bloeschl, G.; Carr, G.; Loucks, D. P.
Greater understanding of how interdisciplinary research and education evolves is critical for identifying and implementing appropriate programme management strategies. We propose a program evaluation framework that is based on social learning processes (individual learning, interdisciplinary research practices, and interaction between researchers with different backgrounds); social capital outcomes (ability to interact, interpersonal connectivity, and shared understanding); and knowledge and human capital outcomes (new knowledge that integrates multiple research fields). The framework is tested on established case study doctoral program: the Vienna Doctoral Program on Water Resource Systems. Data are collected via mixed qualitative/quantitative methods that include semi-structured interviews, publication co-author analysis, analysis of research proposals, categorisation of the interdisciplinarity of publications and graduate analysis. Through the evaluation and analysis, several interesting findings about how interdisciplinary research evolves and can be supported are identified. Firstly, different aspects of individual learning seem to contribute to a researcher's ability to interact with researchers from other research fields and work collaboratively. These include learning new material from different research fields, learning how to learn new material and learning how to integrate different material. Secondly, shared interdisciplinary research practices can be identified that may be common to other programs and support interaction and shared understanding between different researchers. They include clarification and questioning, harnessing differences and setting defensible research boundaries. Thirdly, intensive interaction between researchers from different backgrounds support connectivity between the researchers, further enabling cross-disciplinary collaborative work. The case study data suggest that social learning processes and social capital outcomes
To identify the impact of family life on the ways women practice rural medicine and the changes needed to attract women to rural practice. Census of women rural doctors in Victoria in 2000, using a self-completed postal survey. General and specialist practice. Two hundred and seventy-one female general practitioners and 31 female specialists practising in Rural, Remote and Metropolitan Area Classifications 3-7. General practitioners are those doctors with a primary medical degree and without additional specialist qualifications. Interaction of hours and type of work with family responsibilities. Generalist and specialist women rural doctors carry the main responsibility for family care. This is reflected in the number of hours they work in clinical and non-clinical professional practice, availability for on-call and hospital work, and preference for the responsibilities of practice partnership or the flexibility of salaried positions. Most of the doctors had established a satisfactory balance between work and family responsibilities, although a substantial number were overworked in order to provide an income for their families or meet the needs of their communities. Thirty-six percent of female rural general practitioners and 56% of female rural specialists preferred to work fewer hours. Female general practitioners with responsibility for children were more than twice as likely as female general practitioners without children to be in a salaried position and less likely to be a practice partner. The changes needed to attract and retain women in rural practice include a place for everyone in the doctor's family, flexible practice structures, mentoring by women doctors and financial and personal recognition. Women make up less than a quarter of the rural general practice workforce and an even smaller percentage of the specialist rural medical workforce. As a result their experiences are not well articulated in research on rural medical practice and their needs are
Full Text Available Aim/Purpose: This paper considers the role of supervisors’ discipline expertise in doctoral learning from a student perspective. Background:\tDoctoral students need to develop expertise in a particular field of study. In this context, developing expertise requires doctoral students to master disciplinary knowledge, conventions and scholarship under the guidance of supervisors. Methodology\t: The study draws on a mixed-method approach, using an online survey and semi-structured interviews conducted with doctoral students. Contribution: The paper brings to the fore the role of supervisors’ discipline expertise on doctoral students’ research progress. Findings: The survey data suggest that doctoral students nominate their supervisors on the basis of their discipline expertise. They also view supervisors’ expertise as key to the development of ‘insider’ knowledge of their doctoral research. Recommendations for Practitioners: Supervisors play a pivotal role in helping doctoral students overcome intellectual barriers by imparting their discipline knowledge as well as balancing satisfactory doctoral completion rate and high quality student experience. Impact on Society\t: Doctoral supervision equips doctoral students with the right arsenal to be able to competently operate within their field and prepares them for their future research or professional career that demands a high level of discipline expertise. Future Research:\tThe scope of the findings leaves open a discussion about the experiences of doctoral students matched with non-discipline expert supervisory teams; for example, the extent of the mismatch and its ramifications.
Mr. Wen-chuan Li of China has become the first student to obtain a doctor's degree as a result of research work carried out in the Agency. Mr. Li, who is 33, graduated as a Bachelor of Agriculture at Taiwan Provincial Chung-hsing University in 1960 and in 1966 was granted a fellowship to study mutations in plant breeding at the Agency's Seibersdorf Laboratory near Vienna, under the direction of Dr. Knut Mikaelsen, a professor of the University of Bergen. The Hochschule fur Bodenkultur of Vienna accepted the research as being suitable for a thesis and have now granted the degree of Doctor of Agriculture. The subject of the thesis was modifying factors influencing the mutagenic effects of alkylating agents as compared with ionizing radiations in barley. Alkylating agents are involved in the use of chemicals as a means of changing the characteristics of seeds to bring about changes aimed at improving the quality of crops. Mr. Li's work is regarded as a significant contribution to the understanding of the mechanics by which mutations are induced, to the efficient use of chemicals and ionizing radiations in practical applications, and to the efforts of the Agency in collaboration with the Food and Agriculture Organization to benefit food supplies. Mr. Li has now completed his fellowship with the Agency and has been appointed an Assistant Professor in Plant Breeding at Taiwan Provincial Chung-hsing University. The photograph, taken in the plastic hot house at Seibersdorf, shows him studying rice plants grown from seeds subjected to irradiation. Another noteworthy achievement is that of Mr. Karl-Franz Lacina, a security guard at the Agency's headquarters. At the age of 50 he has been accorded the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at Vienna University, the result of six years' work in his leisure time. The major subject was Arabic, with French and philosophy as supporting subject. (author)
Mr. Wen-chuan Li of China has become the first student to obtain a doctor's degree as a result of research work carried out in the Agency. Mr. Li, who is 33, graduated as a Bachelor of Agriculture at Taiwan Provincial Chung-hsing University in 1960 and in 1966 was granted a fellowship to study mutations in plant breeding at the Agency's Seibersdorf Laboratory near Vienna, under the direction of Dr. Knut Mikaelsen, a professor of the University of Bergen. The Hochschule fur Bodenkultur of Vienna accepted the research as being suitable for a thesis and have now granted the degree of Doctor of Agriculture. The subject of the thesis was modifying factors influencing the mutagenic effects of alkylating agents as compared with ionizing radiations in barley. Alkylating agents are involved in the use of chemicals as a means of changing the characteristics of seeds to bring about changes aimed at improving the quality of crops. Mr. Li's work is regarded as a significant contribution to the understanding of the mechanics by which mutations are induced, to the efficient use of chemicals and ionizing radiations in practical applications, and to the efforts of the Agency in collaboration with the Food and Agriculture Organization to benefit food supplies. Mr. Li has now completed his fellowship with the Agency and has been appointed an Assistant Professor in Plant Breeding at Taiwan Provincial Chung-hsing University. The photograph, taken in the plastic hot house at Seibersdorf, shows him studying rice plants grown from seeds subjected to irradiation. Another noteworthy achievement is that of Mr. Karl-Franz Lacina, a security guard at the Agency's headquarters. At the age of 50 he has been accorded the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at Vienna University, the result of six years' work in his leisure time. The major subject was Arabic, with French and philosophy as supporting subject. (author)
Monrouxe, Lynn V; Bullock, Alison; Tseng, Hsu-Min; Wells, Stephanie E
To examine how burnout across medical student to junior doctor transition relates to: measures of professional identity, team understanding, anxiety, gender, age and workplace learning (assistantship) alignment to first post. A longitudinal 1-year cohort design. Two groups of final-year medical students: (1) those undertaking end-of-year assistantships aligned in location and specialty with their first post and (2) those undertaking assistantships non-aligned. An online questionnaire included: Professional Identity Scale, Team Understanding Scale, modified Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale and modified Copenhagen Burnout Inventory. Data were collected on four occasions: (T1) prior to graduation; (T2) 1 month post-transition; (T3) 6 months post-transition and (T4) 10 months post-transition. Questionnaires were analysed individually and using linear mixed-effect models. Medical schools and postgraduate training in one UK country. All aligned assistantship (n=182) and non-aligned assistantship students (n=319) were contacted; n=281 (56%) responded: 68% (n=183) females, 73% (n=206) 22-30 years, 46% aligned (n=129). Completion rates: aligned 72% (93/129) and non-aligned 64% (98/152). Analyses of individual scales revealed that self-reported anxiety, professional identity and patient-related burnout were stable, while team understanding, personal and work-related burnout increased, all irrespective of alignment. Three linear mixed-effect models (personal, patient-related and work-related burnout as outcome measures; age and gender as confounding variables) found that males self-reported significantly lower personal, but higher patient-related burnout, than females. Age and team understanding had no effect. Anxiety was significantly positively related and professional identity was significantly negatively related to burnout. Participants experiencing non-aligned assistantships reported higher personal and work-related burnout over time. Implications for practice
Bullock, Alison; Tseng, Hsu-Min; Wells, Stephanie E
Objectives To examine how burnout across medical student to junior doctor transition relates to: measures of professional identity, team understanding, anxiety, gender, age and workplace learning (assistantship) alignment to first post. Design A longitudinal 1-year cohort design. Two groups of final-year medical students: (1) those undertaking end-of-year assistantships aligned in location and specialty with their first post and (2) those undertaking assistantships non-aligned. An online questionnaire included: Professional Identity Scale, Team Understanding Scale, modified Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale and modified Copenhagen Burnout Inventory. Data were collected on four occasions: (T1) prior to graduation; (T2) 1 month post-transition; (T3) 6 months post-transition and (T4) 10 months post-transition. Questionnaires were analysed individually and using linear mixed-effect models. Setting Medical schools and postgraduate training in one UK country. Participants All aligned assistantship (n=182) and non-aligned assistantship students (n=319) were contacted; n=281 (56%) responded: 68% (n=183) females, 73% (n=206) 22–30 years, 46% aligned (n=129). Completion rates: aligned 72% (93/129) and non-aligned 64% (98/152). Results Analyses of individual scales revealed that self-reported anxiety, professional identity and patient-related burnout were stable, while team understanding, personal and work-related burnout increased, all irrespective of alignment. Three linear mixed-effect models (personal, patient-related and work-related burnout as outcome measures; age and gender as confounding variables) found that males self-reported significantly lower personal, but higher patient-related burnout, than females. Age and team understanding had no effect. Anxiety was significantly positively related and professional identity was significantly negatively related to burnout. Participants experiencing non-aligned assistantships reported higher personal and work
Sharp, Richard R; Taylor, Holly A; Brinich, Margaret A; Boyle, Mary M; Cho, Mildred; Coors, Marilyn; Danis, Marion; Havard, Molly; Magnus, David; Wilfond, Benjamin
The complexity of biomedical research has increased considerably in the last decade, as has the pace of translational research. This complexity has generated a number of novel ethical issues for clinical investigators, institutional review boards (IRBs), and other oversight committees. In response, many academic medical centers have created formal research ethics consultation (REC) services to help clinical investigators and IRBs navigate ethical issues in biomedical research. Key functions of a REC service include assisting with research design and implementation, providing a forum for deliberative exploration of ethical issues, and supplementing regulatory oversight. As increasing numbers of academic research institutions establish REC services, there is a pressing need for consensus about the primary aims and policies that should guide these activities. Establishing clear expectations about the aims and policies of REC services is important if REC programs are to achieve their full potential. Drawing on the experiences of a Clinical and Translational Science Award Research Ethics Consultation Working Group, this article describes three major ethical and professional practice challenges associated with the provision of REC: (1) managing multiple institutional roles and responsibilities, (2) managing sensitive information, and (3) communicating with consultation requestors about how these issues are managed. The paper also presents several practical strategies for addressing these challenges and enhancing the quality of REC services.
Sharp, Richard R.; Taylor, Holly A.; Brinich, Margaret A.; Boyle, Mary M.; Cho, Mildred; Coors, Marilyn; Danis, Marion; Havard, Molly; Magnus, David; Wilfond, Benjamin
The complexity of biomedical research has increased considerably in the last decade, as has the pace of translational research. This complexity has generated a number of novel ethical issues for clinical investigators, institutional review boards (IRBs), and other oversight committees. In response, many academic medical centers have created formal research ethics consultation (REC) services to help clinical investigators and IRBs navigate ethical issues in biomedical research. Key functions of a REC service include: assisting with research design and implementation, providing a forum for deliberative exploration of ethical issues, and supplementing regulatory oversight. As increasing numbers of academic research institutions establish REC services, there is a pressing need for consensus about the primary aims and policies that should guide these activities. Establishing clear expectations about the aims and policies of REC services is important if REC programs are to achieve their full potential. Drawing on the experiences of a Clinical Translational Science Award (CTSA) Research Ethics Consultation Working Group, this article describes three major ethical and professional practice challenges associated with the provision of REC: 1) managing multiple institutional roles and responsibilities, 2) managing sensitive information, and 3) communicating with consultation requestors about how these issues are managed. The paper also presents several practical strategies for addressing these challenges and enhancing the quality of REC services. PMID:25607942
Szteinberg, Gabriela; Balicki, Scott; Banks, Gregory; Clinchot, Michael; Cullipher, Steven; Huie, Robert; Lambertz, Jennifer; Lewis, Rebecca; Ngai, Courtney; Weinrich, Melissa; Talanquer, Vicente; Sevian, Hannah
Professional development that bridges gaps between educational research and practice is needed. However, bridging gaps can be difficult because teachers and educational researchers often belong to different Communities of Practice, as their activities, goals, and means of achieving those goals often differ. Meaningful collaboration among teachers…
Dahl, Kari Kragh Blume
’s academic achievements, among other (OECD, 2004). This poses ethical questions about researching what ‘good teacher professionalism’ is, since focusing on personal rather than academical or professional skills means shift in focus from subjects, knowledge, pedagogy, motivation and ideologies, which has been......Research findings suggest that teachers’ relational competencies are critical for pupils’ academical engagement and progression, welfare, social behavior and participation in the school’s processes, among other (Nielsen, 2015). Relational competence can be defined as having an eye for children...... thus possibly develop academically and become persons in various ways) according to which teacher, whom s/he is relating with (Nielsen, 2015). Yet findings suggest that there is a link between a teacher’s psychological and social skills, that is, aspects related to the person, and school children...
How does one conduct, measure and record a ‘good’ ethical review of biomedical research? To what extent do ethics committees invoke professionalism in researchers and in themselves, and to what extent do they see competence as adherence to a set of standard operating procedures for ethical review......? Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork with the Forum of Ethics Review Committees of Asia and the Pacific (FERCAP), a capacity-building NGO that runs ethics committee trainings and reviews in the Asia Pacific region, I develop an analysis of ethical review and its effects. I focus on a ‘second-order audit’ run...... readings of ‘ethics’. I begin and end with a reflection on the ethical effects of a measurement practice that takes ethics itself as its object....
Using a naturalistic inquiry approach and thematic analysis, this paper outlines the findings of a research study that examined 12 Manitoba principals' conceptions of professional learning communities. The study found that these principals consider the development of professional learning communities to be a normative imperative within the…
Smeltzer, Suzanne C; Sharts-Hopko, Nancy C; Cantrell, Mary Ann; Heverly, Mary Ann; Wise, Nancy; Jenkinson, Amanda
Support for research strongly predicts doctoral program faculty members' research productivity. Although academic administrators affect such support, their views of faculty members' use of support are unknown. We examined academic administrators' perceptions of institutional support and their perceptions of the effects of teaching doctoral students on faculty members' scholarship productivity and work-life balance. An online survey was completed by a random sample of 180 deans/directors of schools of nursing and doctoral programs directors. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, chi-square analysis, and analysis of variance. Deans and doctoral program directors viewed the level of productivity of program faculty as high to moderately high and unchanged since faculty started teaching doctoral students. Deans perceived better administrative research supports, productivity, and work-life balance of doctoral program faculty than did program directors. Findings indicate the need for greater administrative support for scholarship and mentoring given the changes in the composition of doctoral program faculty. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available ... Discovery Into Health ® Impact of NIH Research Science, Health, and Public Trust You are here Home » Institutes at NIH » ... Access Talking to Your Doctor Plain Language Science, Health, and Public Trust Talking to Your Doctor Part I: Preparing ...
Bengtsen, Søren Smedegaard; Robinson, Gill; Wisker, Gina
This paper presents our cross-national research into what we term the ‘doctoral learning penumbra’, which covers the diverse, unnoticed, and often unrecognised forms of help and support that doctoral students draw from during their PhD, and which are vital for completion. Our aim is to better...
Bengtsen, Søren Smedegaard
of future researchers, mainly through doctoral education, has become of heightened interest. In this process several global trends and related drivers of such changes can be identified, e.g. professionalization and quality assurance of doctoral education, and researcher mobility. With the European...... for students during the PhD – when at the same time political fractions state that “[o]verregulation of doctoral programs should be avoided” as doctoral education is seen as “a source for human capital for research but is also an extremely important part of the research itself” (Gudmundsson, 2008, p. 77). Also...... the PhD to not only international disciplinary arenas, but also to a world beyond the campus made manifest through a culturally diverse and existentially enhanced PhD process and learning environment. I argue that we should acknowledge that globalisation does not only make possible ‘standardisation...
Within the context of doing basic research, this paper seeks to answer four major questions: (1) What is the authority structure of science. (2) What is peer review. (3) Where is the interface between basic physics research and standard engineering. and (4) Given the conclusions to the first three questions, what is the role of the QA professional in a basic research environment like Fermilab. 23 refs.
Hamidah Abdul Rahman
Full Text Available There have been many studies conducted to determine variables that affect professional contentment. Some of these studies hav e looked at factors such as organizational involvement and commitment to organi zations. Several of these studies found that a larger percentage of unemploye d and employed personnel expressed dissatisfaction with their work commitmen t. The implications of those studies suggested that unemployed could reflect und erlying adjustment disorders which have an impact on someone’s potential for suc cessful employment. However, for those who are contented with their per formance, in the long run these workers would have a higher gratification. Th ey would give more attention on the quality of their work, more committed to the organization, have a higher retention rates, and would be more productive. Refl ecting on these findings and how severe this issue may render, this study is con ducted to identify the level of professional satisfaction of the academic staffs in a research university in the southern part of Malaysia. This paper will present the findings of the study which aimed to determine the level of satisfaction based on factors such as pay, promotion, supervision, fringe benefit, contingent eward, operating condition, coworkers, nature of work and communication
Hellweg, C. E.; Gerzer, R.; Reitz, G.
In the field of space life sciences, the demand of an interdisciplinary and specific training of young researchers is high due to the complex interaction of medical, biological, physical, technical and other questions. The Helmholtz Space Life Sciences Research School (SpaceLife) offers an excellent interdisciplinary training for doctoral students from different fields (biology, biochemistry, biotechnology, physics, psychology, nutrition or sports sciences and related fields) and any country. SpaceLife is coordinated by the Institute of Aerospace Medicine at the German Aerospace Center (DLR) in Cologne. The German Universities in Kiel, Bonn, Aachen, Regensburg, Magdeburg and Berlin, and the German Sports University (DSHS) in Cologne are members of SpaceLife. The Universities of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Frankfurt, Hohenheim, and the Beihang University in Beijing are associated partners. In each generation, up to 25 students can participate in the three-year program. Students learn to develop integrated concepts to solve health issues in human spaceflight and in related disease patterns on Earth, and to further explore the requirements for life in extreme environments, enabling a better understanding of the ecosystem Earth and the search for life on other planets in unmanned and manned missions. The doctoral candidates are coached by two specialist supervisors from DLR and the partner university, and a mentor. All students attend lectures in different subfields of space life sciences to attain an overview of the field: radiation and gravitational biology, astrobiology and space physiology, including psychological aspects of short and long term space missions. Seminars, advanced lectures, laboratory courses and stays at labs at the partner institutions or abroad are offered as elective course and will provide in-depth knowledge of the chosen subfield or allow to appropriate innovative methods. In Journal Clubs of the participating working groups, doctoral students learn
Mustafa Ay; Selahattin Avşaroğlu
This research has been done to determine whether accounting officers’ levels of professional burn out differentiate in terms of some variables. The Maslach Burnout Inventory (Maslach and Jackson, 1981) was used as the data gathering tool in order to determine accounting officers’ levels of professional burn out. Accounting officers in Turkey formed the universe of the research and randomly chosen 1494 people from the universe made up the sample group. In line with the goal of the ...
Centra, John A; Kuykendall, Nancy M.
This study describes the current status and professional development of a sample of women doctorates and compares them to a sample of men who have attained the same educational status. Chapters cover the sample and procedures used; employment patterns; doctorates in academe; publications, income, and job satisfaction; marriage and family life;…
Coster, Samantha; Watkins, Mary; Norman, Ian J
provided by nurses and doctors; and task shifting to invasive procedures. There is evidence that adequate numbers of well-educated nurses working in acute care areas can reduce the risk of patient mortality, although the evidence for this is confined to studies in high income countries and the evidence is not sufficiently robust to draw up definitive nurse: patient ratios. There is also moderate evidence that well trained nurses can produce health outcomes that are equivalent to those of doctors for patients with a range of chronic health problems, particularly for those patients managed in primary care, and that nurse-led care may be more effective than medical care in promoting patient adherence to treatment and patient satisfaction. There is low to moderate evidence for the benefits of parenting support programmes delivered by nurses on a range of health outcomes; and for the impact of home visiting on improving function and other health service outcomes for older people. The wider societal benefits of home visiting by nurses and the impact of this on long term outcomes and related cost-effectiveness of home visiting has not been established. There is limited available information regarding the wider global impact of increasing the numbers of nurses and their contribution to healthcare through improved education. Moreover there is very little evidence for the cost-effectiveness of changing care providers from doctors to nurses and as the majority of cost data available has tended to come from studies based in higher income countries, their external validity in terms of applicability to settings in low and middle income countries is questionable. In addition to effectiveness, cost and safety, future research needs to address how implementing expanded nursing roles and task shifting impacts on the morale, retention, and professional development of nurses and the other workforces, and the longer term implications of these developments both locally and internationally
ABSTRACT The Centennial Vision of the American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA) projects that by 2017 all occupational therapy (OT) practice areas will be supported by evidence. Achieving this goal requires preparing clinicians with the skills to assimilate, analyze, and apply research to their areas of practice and communicate the value of OT services to consumers and payers. These skills are at the heart of evidence-based practice (EBP). Educators must be prepared to teach EBP skills in both entry-level and postprofessional programs. This article outlines how EBP can be taught to postprofessional occupational therapy clinical doctoral students using a distance education format. Key features of a successful EBP course include having access to full-text electronic articles, opportunities for students to explore the literature in their own areas of interest, consistent and timely feedback on written work and discussion topics, and opportunities to collaborate with peers.
Bleicher, R. E.; Lambert, J.; Getty, S. R.
This proposal outlines a research plan designed to measure gains in student learning resulting from their teachers participating in professional development. Project Description Misconceptions about global climate change (GCC) are prevalent in the general public (Kellstedt, Zahran, & Vedlitz, 2008; Washington & Cook, 2011). One solution is to provide high school students with a better grounding in the basic science and data that underlie GCC. The overarching goal of a NASA-funded project, Promoting Educational Leadership in Climate Change Literacy (PEL), is to increase GCC literacy in high school students. Research Design The research design is interpretative (Erickson, 2006), framed within a multi-method design, synthesizing both quantitative and qualitative data sources (Morse, 2003). Overall, the data will provide rich information about the PEL's impact on curriculum development, teacher pedagogical knowledge, and student learning. The expectancy-value theory of achievement motivation (E-V-C) (Fan, 2011; Wigfield & Eccles, 1994) provides a theoretical foundation for the research. Expectancy is the degree to which a teacher or student has reason to expect that they will be successful in school. Value indicates whether they think that performance at school will be worthwhile to them. Cost is the perceived sacrifices that must be undertaken, or factors that can inhibit, a successful performance at school. For students, data from an embedded E-V-C investigation will help articulate how E-V-C factors relate to student interest in science, continuing to study science, or embarking on STEM related careers. For teachers, the E-V-C measures will give insight into a key mediating variable on student achievement in science. The evaluation will seek to address research questions at the student and teacher levels. Table 1 presents a sample of research questions and data sources. This is a sample of a much larger set of questions that will be addressed in the project. Data
'The nice thing about doctors is that you can sometimes get a day off school': an action research study to bring lived experiences from children, parents and hospice staff into medical students' preparation for practice.
Spalding, Jessica; Yardley, Sarah
Patient and public involvement in healthcare is important to ensure services meet their needs and priorities. Increasingly, patient experiences are being used to educate healthcare professionals. The potential contribution to medical education of children and parents using hospice services has not yet been fully explored. (1) To explore perceptions of what medical students must learn to become 'good doctors' among children, parents and staff in a hospice. (2) To collaborate with children/parents and staff to develop educational materials based on their lived experiences for medical students. (3) To assess feasibility of student-led action research in a children's hospice to develop research skills. Prospective ethical approval received. Volunteer children (n=7), parents (n=5) and staff (n=6) were recruited from a children's hospice. Data were generated in audio-recorded semistructured focus groups, individual interviews and/or activity workshops. Participants discussed what newly qualified doctors' needed to care for children with life-limiting conditions. Audio data were transcribed and combined with visual data for thematic analysis. Findings were refined by participant feedback. This paper presents thematic findings and educational material created from the project. Thematic analysis identified six learning themes: (1) treat children as individuals; (2) act as a person before being a doctor; (3) interpersonal communication; (4) appreciate the clinical environment; (5) learn from children, parents and other staff; (6) how to be a doctor as part of a team. The student researcher successfully developed qualitative research skills, coproducing materials with participants for sharing learning derived from lived experiences. All participants were willing and able to make valuable contributions, and believed that this was a worthwhile use of time and effort. Further work is required to understand how best to integrate the experiences of children in hospices into
Shana R. Ponelis
Full Text Available The use of the case study method has gained mainstream acceptance in both entrepreneurship and information systems research to develop conceptual and theoretical models that are novel, yet grounded in the literature. In spite of many texts on the case study method and the growing acceptance and use of thereof, there are relatively few examples that discuss how to apply the case study method. The purpose of this paper is to provide such an example by drawing upon the author’s research for her doctoral dissertation in the discipline of information systems and entrepreneurship research. First, the use of qualitative case studies as research method is motivated, then the importance of the research paradigm is discussed and the interpretivist research paradigm justified followed by a detailed discussion of the research design. The paper concludes with a discussion of lessons learned and recommendations based on the author’s experience with using the case study method. The practical yet theoretically founded approach of this paper may be useful to doctoral students who are considering or using the case study method. Equally, supervisors and others involved in research training may find this paper useful as an illustrative example of the case study method for their students.
Olmedo, C; Plá, R; Bellón, J M; Bardinet, T; Buño, I; Bañares, R
A Health Research Institute is a powerful strategic commitment to promote biomedical research in hospitals. To assess user satisfaction is an essential quality requirement. The aim of this study is to evaluate the professional satisfaction in a Health Research Institute, a hospital biomedical research centre par excellence. Observational study was conducted using a satisfaction questionnaire on Health Research Institute researchers. The explored dimensions were derived from the services offered by the Institute to researchers, and are structured around 4 axes of a five-year Strategic Plan. A descriptive and analytical study was performed depending on adjustment variables. Internal consistency was also calculated. The questionnaire was completed by 108 researchers (15% response). The most valued strategic aspect was the structuring Areas and Research Groups and political communication and dissemination. The overall rating was 7.25 out of 10. Suggestions for improvement refer to the need for help in recruitment, and research infrastructures. High internal consistency was found in the questionnaire (Cronbach alpha of 0.9). So far research policies in health and biomedical environment have not been sufficiently evaluated by professionals in our field. Systematic evaluations of satisfaction and expectations of key stakeholders is an essential tool for analysis, participation in continuous improvement and advancing excellence in health research. Copyright © 2015 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: Much of the contentious debate surrounding the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (“Obamacare” concerned its financing and its attempt to guarantee (near universal access to healthcare through the private insurance market. Aside from sensationalist stories of “death panels,” much less attention went to implications of the bill for the actual provision of healthcare. Methodology: This paper examines the "patient-centered medical home" (PCMH model which has been widely promoted as a means of reviving and improving primary care (i.e. general internal medicine, family medicine, and pediatrics. Argument: The PCMH and many of its components (e.g pay-for-performance, electronic medical records were interventions that were implemented on a massive basis without any evidence of benefit. Recent research has not generally supported clinical benefits with the PCMH model. Instead it seems to designed to de-professionalize (make proletarians of health care workers and enforce corporate models of health. The core values of professional work are undermined while the PCMH does nothing to address the structural marginalization of primary care within US health care. Conclusions: The development of alternative models will require political changes. Both doctors and teachers are in a position of advocate for more progressive systems of care and education.
Rudman, Nicholas Paul Charles
Homework in the primary school is a subject much debated by teachers, parents and pupils. This paper offers a brief critique of key issues in the current homework debate with particular reference to research literature, theoretical perspectives, educational policy and other professional publications. Consequently, a discourse between homework in…
Full Text Available ... Research Trials and You Talking to Your Doctor Science Education Resources Community Resources Clear Health A–Z Publications List More » Search Health Topics Quick Links MedlinePlus Health Info NIH ...
Micheli, Amelia C.
The purpose of this study was to explore variables impacting dispositional empathy in doctoral psychology students. While there is a great deal of research regarding empathy in practicing psychologists and mental health professionals, little is known about empathy in psychology trainees. This is especially surprising given the importance of…
Scott P. Kerlin
Full Text Available This article probes the implications of neo-conservative public education policies for the future of the academic profession through a detailed examination of critical issues shaping contemporary doctoral education in U.S. and Canadian universities. Institutional and social factors such as financial retrenchment, declining support for affirmative action, downward economic mobility, a weak academic labor market for tenure-track faculty, professional ethics in graduate education, and backlash against women's progress form the backdrop for analysis of the author's survey of current doctoral students' opinions about funding, support, the job market, and quality of learning experiences.
Nylenna, Magne; Aasland, Olaf Gjerløw
Doctors' job satisfaction has been discussed internationally in recent years based on reports of increasing professional dissatisfaction. We have studied Norwegian doctors' job satisfaction and their general satisfaction with life. A survey was conducted among a representative sample of practicing Norwegian doctors in 2008. The validated 10-item Job Satisfaction Scale was used to assess job satisfaction. 1,072 (65 %) doctors responded. They reported a mean job satisfaction of 5.3 on a scale from 1 (very dissatisfied) to 7 (very satisfied). Job satisfaction increased with increasing age. Private practice specialists reported the highest level of job satisfaction (5.8), and general practitioners reported higher job satisfaction (5.5) than hospital doctors (5.1). Among specialty groups, community doctors scored highest (5.6) and doctors in surgical disciplines lowest (5.0). While long working hours was negatively correlated with job satisfaction, the perception of being professionally updated and having part-time affiliation(s) in addition to a regular job were positively correlated with job satisfaction. 52.9 % of doctors reported a very high general satisfaction. Norwegian doctors have a high level of job satisfaction. Satisfaction with life in general is also high and at least in line with that in the Norwegian population.
Michelini, Marisa; Santi, Lorenzo
The first PhD Italian course in Physics Education Research in Udine aims to qualify young researchers and teachers coming from all the Italian groups of research in the field. It becomes a context for developing research projects carried out following parallel research lines on: Teaching/Learning paths for didactic innovation, cognitive research, ICT for strategies to overcome conceptual knots in physics; E-learning for personalization; d) Computer on-line experiments and modelling; e) Teacher formation and training; f) Informal learning in science.
Guthrie, James W.
Educational research and professional practice, though assuredly capable of providing reciprocal benefits one to the other, have, nevertheless, evolved into decidedly different activities. Increasingly, each has a separate and defensible technical basis. Doctoral programs in education should honor and reflect, not conflate, the differences. The…
Sales, Auxiliadora; Traver, Joan A.; Garcia, Rafaela
Teacher professional development is a key factor for transforming professional and school culture. This article describes a case study undertaken in a Spanish school during the 2007-2008 academic year. Our aim is to explain how action research methodology was applied to encourage professional and school culture towards an intercultural and…
South African Journal of Education, Volume 35, Number 3, August 2015. 1. Art. # 1090, 13 ... international impact of research done in South Africa; the state of educational research in South Africa; problems .... has been, since the 1960s, a school of thought in ...... ing something new, in being creative and in getting research ...
Full Text Available In the online environment, the users have more control regarding what they want to see and this affects the advertising they are exposed to (due to the profiles created by the websites they have visited. Organizations can personalize the advertising campaigns designed at a higher level, to better meet the needs of the consumers. This paper offers an in-depth view about online advertising from 12 Romanian experts, who represent companies or digital advertising agencies and who employ this tool in order to promote themselves or to develop campaigns for their clients. The empirical research undertaken has a qualitative nature, semi-structured detailed interviews with the professionals have taken place in February-March 2015, in Bucharest. Online advertising was mostly defined by the specialists as being dynamic; and some of the attributes that characterizes this domain are measurability and personalization. Clear objectives settled, correct targeting of users, a well-established strategy and planning are the key elements that would lead to a successful online advertising campaign. The Romanian agencies offer integrated online advertising services, from research and market analysis to implementation and results’ assessment of the campaigns. The formats they have been using are: search, display, video, social media advertising, affiliated marketing and sponsorship. Most of the representatives interviewed suggest that their companies’ offers might / will change due to the dynamics of the medium. Online advertising helps the other online marketing tools perform better and develop the online presence of the companies. All the respondents have confirmed that following the introduction and great use of smartphones, their companies have adjusted the online advertising campaigns to better target the potential customers that use mobile devices. Most of the companies that invest in online advertising campaigns come from sectors such as: retail, telecom
This qualitative research synthesis concludes and displays pictures of professionalism in second/foreign language education. Adopting Weed's processes as the methodological framework for doing qualitative research synthesis, the researcher employed seven steps, from retrieving to selecting studies directly associated with professionalism. The…
Fajen, Ava Lee
Scholars predict that the current institutional, state, and federal push for the commercialization of research, as well as increases in industry funding, will challenge, and perhaps even alter, the culture and ethical standards of academe. A focal point for these trends at many institutions is the current emphasis on life sciences research. This study builds on what is known about doctoral students and their ethical training in the life sciences by examining the individual experiences of doctoral students within the context of changing research expectations and funding patterns at one research university. The project was conducted using a case study approach within the naturalistic tradition. Twenty-four advanced doctoral student in the life sciences were interviewed. They were asked about their perceptions and experiences related to three broad topics: the normative and ethical aspects of academic research behavior; the impact of changing funding sources and changing expectations for research outcomes; and the aspects of their graduate education and training related to research norms and ethics. A systematic qualitative data analysis process allowed the richness and complexity of the students' views and concerns to be revealed. The results of this study highlight their individual and shared understandings and experiences, provide a conceptual framework for understanding their perceptions, and offer related recommendations for improving doctoral education within the current, ethically complex research context.
In view of the enterprise ecological apple manor a variety of problems of existence, put forward to the enterprise management transformation, achieve enterprise, collective, individual integrated operation management and the use of regression mathematical model on apple professional cooperation organization analysis. Through the example, Apple professional economic cooperation organization innovation model of the input output ratio than the rural economic cooperation organization is much high...
Wu, Tailai; Deng, Zhaohua; Zhang, Donglan; Buchanan, Paula R; Zha, Dongqing; Wang, Ruoxi
The aim of this study is to investigate how doctor-consumer interaction in social media influences consumers' health information seeking and usage intention. Based on professional-client interaction theory and expectation confirmation theory, we propose that doctor-consumer interaction can be divided into instrumental interaction and affective interaction. These two types of interaction influence consumers' health information seeking and usage intention through consumer satisfaction and trust towards doctors. To validate our proposed research model, we employed the survey method. The measurement instruments for all constructs were developed based on previous literatures, and 352 valid answers were collected by using these instruments. Our results reveal that consumers' intention to seek health information significantly predicts their intention to use health information from social media. Meanwhile, both consumer satisfaction and trust towards doctors influences consumers' health information seeking and usage intention significantly. With regards to the impact of the interaction between doctors and consumers, the results show that both types of doctor-consumer interaction significantly affect consumer satisfaction and trust towards doctors. The mediation analysis confirms the mediation role of consumer satisfaction and trust towards doctors. Compared with many intentional intervention programs, doctor-consumer interaction can be treated as an effective intervention with low cost to promote consumers' health information seeking and usage. Meanwhile, both instrumental and affective interaction should be highlighted for the best interaction results. At last, consumer satisfaction and trust towards doctors could be considered as the important working mechanisms for the effect of doctor-consumer interaction. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Shankar, P R
In Nepal, a number of private sector medical schools have opened recently; although sufficient numbers of doctors are graduating there continues to be a doctor shortage in rural areas. This article analysed the rural doctor shortage in Nepal and reviewed the international literature for strategies that may be suitable for use in Nepal. Original research articles, reviews, magazine articles and project reports dealing with Nepal and other developing countries during the period 1995 to 2010 were sourced via Google, Google Scholar and Pubmed. Full text access was obtained via WHO's HINARI database. The health workforce in Nepal is unevenly distributed resulting in doctor shortages in rural areas. The recent introduction of mandatory rural service for scholarship students was aimed to reduce the loss of medical graduates to developed nations. High tuition fees in private medical schools and low Government wages prevent recent graduates from taking up rural positions, and those who do face many challenges. Potential corrective strategies include community-based medical education, selecting rural-background medical students, and providing a partial or complete tuition fee waiver for medical students who commit to rural service. Traditional healers and paramedical staff can also be trained for and authorized to provide rural health care. A range of strategies developed elsewhere could be used in Nepal, especially community-oriented medical education that involves rural doctors in training medical students. The reimbursement of tuition fees, assistance with relocation, and provision of opportunities for academic and professional advancement for rural doctors should also be considered. Government investment in improving working conditions in rural Nepal would assist rural communities to attract and retain doctors.
Doctors’ relationship with patients and their role in society is changing. Until the 1960s doctors concentrated on the welfare of patients with less emphasis placed on patients’ rights1. Over recent decades there has been increasing empowerment of the individual across all facets of society including health care. Doctors continue to be perceived as having expertise and authority over medical science. Patients, however, now hold sway over questions of values or preferences. We all must be aware of this change in the doctor- patient interaction. We need to be more aware of the outcomes that patients view as important. The concept of shared decision-making with the patient is now widely appreciated. The process involves a change in mind set particularly for doctors who trained in an earlier era.
1 ABSTRACT The aim of this text is to provide an analysis of the phenomenon of spin doctoring in the Euro-Atlantic area. Spin doctors are educated people in the fields of semiotics, cultural studies, public relations, political communication and especially familiar with the infrastructure and the functioning of the media industry. Critical reflection of manipulative communication techniques puts spin phenomenon in historical perspective and traces its practical use in today's social communica...
Zozus, Meredith N; Lazarov, Angel; Smith, Leigh R; Breen, Tim E; Krikorian, Susan L; Zbyszewski, Patrick S; Knoll, Shelly K; Jendrasek, Debra A; Perrin, Derek C; Zambas, Demetris N; Williams, Tremaine B; Pieper, Carl F
To assess and refine competencies for the clinical research data management profession. Based on prior work developing and maintaining a practice standard and professional certification exam, a survey was administered to a captive group of clinical research data managers to assess professional competencies, types of data managed, types of studies supported, and necessary foundational knowledge. Respondents confirmed a set of 91 professional competencies. As expected, differences were seen in job tasks between early- to mid-career and mid- to late-career practitioners. Respondents indicated growing variability in types of studies for which they managed data and types of data managed. Respondents adapted favorably to the separate articulation of professional competencies vs foundational knowledge. The increases in the types of data managed and variety of research settings in which data are managed indicate a need for formal education in principles and methods that can be applied to different research contexts (ie, formal degree programs supporting the profession), and stronger links with the informatics scientific discipline, clinical research informatics in particular. The results document the scope of the profession and will serve as a foundation for the next revision of the Certified Clinical Data Manager TM exam. A clear articulation of professional competencies and necessary foundational knowledge could inform the content of graduate degree programs or tracks in areas such as clinical research informatics that will develop the current and future clinical research data management workforce. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Research on the integration of migrant professionals into high-skilled labor markets either focuses on differences between nation states which may be exacerbated by national closure or it celebrates the global versatility of professional knowledge, especially in the natural and health sciences. Building on a pragmatist approach to professional knowledge, the article argues that professional knowledge should not be seen as either universal or local, but both the institutionalized and the incorporated aspects of cultural capital are characterized by 'local universality'. Professionals recreate professional knowledge in specific 'local' situations by relating to universal standards and to internalized 'libraries' of situated expert experience. While the more common notion of knowledge as a socially contested resource continues to be relevant for research on skilled migration, professional knowledge should also be seen as emerging in situations in response to socio-material problems. These problems can be structured by the nation-state, but they can also be transnational in nature.
Brigham, Tara J
In an increasingly digital world, online profiles can help health care and library professionals showcase their research and scholarly work. By sharing information about their investigations, studies, and projects, health care and library researchers can elevate their personal brand and connect with like-minded individuals. This column explores different types of online professional profiles and addresses some of the concerns that come with using them. A list of online professional profile and platform examples is also provided.
Peeters Grietens, Koen; Ribera, Joan Muela; Erhart, Annette; Hoibak, Sarah; Ravinetto, Raffaella M.; Gryseels, Charlotte; Dierickx, Susan; O'Neill, Sarah; Muela, Susanna Hausmann; D'Alessandro, Umberto
Collecting blood samples from individuals recruited into clinical research projects in sub-Saharan Africa can be challenging. Strikingly, one of the reasons for participant reticence is the occurrence of local rumors surrounding “blood stealing” or “blood selling.” Such fears can potentially have dire effects on the success of research projects—for example, high dropout rates that would invalidate the trial's results—and have ethical implications related to cultural sensitivity and informed consent. Though commonly considered as a manifestation of the local population's ignorance, these rumors represent a social diagnosis and a logical attempt to make sense of sickness and health. Born from historical antecedents, they reflect implicit contemporary structural inequalities and the social distance between communities and public health institutions. We aim at illustrating the underlying logic governing patients' fear and argue that the management of these beliefs should become an intrinsic component of clinical research. PMID:24821846
van der Haert, Margaux; Arias Ortiz, Elena; Emplit, Philippe; Halloin, Véronique; Dehon, Catherine
In this article, the determinants of "time to dropout" from doctoral studies and "time to PhD completion" are studied using a discrete-time competing risks survival analysis for a sample of 3092 doctoral candidates from the Université libre de Bruxelles. Not surprisingly, results show that students supported with research…
Covi, Lisa M.
Provides empirical evidence of how doctoral students and their faculty advisors use electronic communication technologies. Examines work patterns of doctoral students and data on recent introduction of new electronic communication practices, offering an alternative explanation to the Nintendo Generation Myth that claims electronic communication…
Lenz Taguchi, Hillevi
In the context of Swedish reforms of postgraduate and doctoral education in a global knowledge economy, this article aims to theorise on the documented processes of doing collaborative analysis during elective graduate course-work on deconstructive methodologies in the social sciences, with 10 doctoral students over a period of seven months. I…
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the perception of administrative problems of professional accountants and to bring some solutions to their problems. The study was attended by 304 members of the accounting profession (N=304. The sample of this study was generated from the professional accountants registered to the Chamber of Gaziantep Public Accountants and Financial Advisers in Gaziantep region. Literature sources related to this problem was overviewed and some broad information about the sample and study was presented. We employed factor analysis to analyze the data. The perception of administrative problems of the accounting professionals are discussed by three factors which can be classified as follow; occupational problems, health problems, and training – communication problems. The hypotheses of this study was divided to groups and was tested by Mann - Whitney U test which is a non-parametric method alternative to t-test. According to findings of this study the most important problems of the professional accountants is classified as follow; the costumer, customer (taxpayers relationship problems, unethical request of the customers, stressful working conditions and it also found that the professional accountants with in this sample does not meet all demands of the customers
Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the use health smart card on the aspects quality of healthcare services in doctor martyr beheshti medical research center in qom . With regard to the measures taken in the context of the establishment of this card in Qom and the lack of previous experience in this province, one of the concerns of the authorities to investigate the performance and capabilities of the card and its effects on the quality of health services is affecting the present study is to respond to this concerns. This research method is descriptive and applied to the target population of physicians, nurses and medical record experts employed at the Medical Center have formed a martyr Beheshti Qom due to more awareness cognitive advantages associated with its use of smart cards have given. The population is equal to the number of 444 and 124 questionnaire for data analysis is used. The sampling method used in this research was stratified random sampling conducted in the respective classes. Spss software for data analysis & exploratory factor analysis & confirmed, Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test, Wilcoxon Test & matrix of factors were used. The analysis results showed that Health Smart Cards for quality of health care services positive and significant effects on Dimension quality of the reliability & Tangibles . Analysis of demographic variables that influence opinions about the quality of health care Health Smart Cards significantly related to gender and education level, and also no experience discussed the variables significantly associated with age.
Sim, Kwong Nui; Stein, Sarah
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has become a necessary element of academic practice in higher education today. Under normal circumstances, PhD students from all disciplines have to use ICT in some form throughout the process of their research, including the preparation, fieldwork, analysis and writing phases of their studies.…
This is a research report report on the work developed at the National Institute for Fusion Science - Japan, involving study of Beam Emission Spectroscopy. It describes the use of a fast neutral lithium beam (8 KeV) to measure the density profile in a Compact Helical Device. (A.C.A.S.)
Taylor, Barrett J.; Cantwell, Brendan
The heightened mobility of resources, ideas, and cultural practices across national borders--commonly known as "globalization"--entails changes in the contexts in which US research universities operate. We draw on recent developments in neo-institutional theory to understand these changes and their implications for the ways in which US…
Funding is an important mechanism for exercising influence over ever more parts of academic systems. In order to do so, funding agencies attempt to export their functional and normative prerequisites for financing to new fields. One essential requirement for fundees is then to construct research processes in the form of a project beforehand, one…
Amanda Caroline Howe
Full Text Available Modern medical training emphasizes the value of understanding the patient’s ideas, concerns and expectations, and the use of their personal perspective to assist communication, diagnosis, and uptake of all appropriate health and treatment options. This requires doctors to be ‘culturally sensitive’, which “… involves an awareness and acceptance of cultural differences, self-awareness, knowledge of a patient’s culture, and adaptation of skills”. Yet most of us work in one country, and often one community, for much of our professional careers. Those who enter into academic pursuits will similarly be constrained by our own backgrounds and experiences, even though universities and medical schools often attract a multicultural membership. We therefore rely on our professional training and networks to extend our scope and understanding of how cultural issues impact upon our research and its relevance to our discipline and curricula. This article uses a reflexive narrative approach to examine the role and value of international networks through the lens of one individual and one organisation. It explores the extent to which such networks assist cross cultural sensitivity, using examples from its networks, and how these can (and have impacted on greater cross-culturalism in our teaching and research outputs.
Implementation of participatory action research during pedagogical practice facilitates sustainable education because its objective is to understand professional practice, enrich the capacity of involved participants and an opportunity to make inquiries for the improvement of quality. In the research of professional practice, subjects explore…
Roberts, Sherron Killingsworth; Crawford, Patricia A.; Hickmann, Rosemary
This article explores the role of teacher research as part of a robust program of professional development. Teacher research offers teachers at every stage of development a recursive and reflective means of bridging the gap between current practice and potential professional growth. The purpose of this dual level inquiry was to probe the concept…
Ismail, Maimunah; Ramly, Efizah Sofiah
Purpose: This paper seeks to compare the influence of self-efficacy, organizational socialization and continuous improvement (CI) practices on the career aspirations of research and development (R&D) professionals in government research institutes (GRIs) and multinational corporations (MNCs) in Malaysia. R&D professionals in this study…
Research and development (R&D) projects can increasingly be observed in secondary schools in the Netherlands. In such projects, cross-professional collaboration of school leaders and teachers with researchers, advisers, and supervisors is encouraged. These professionals have the purpose to stimulate
Ana Maria de Oliveira
Full Text Available O conflito entre profissionais da medicina e da enfermagem, historicamente as duas principais categorias profissionais responsáveis pelo cuidado do paciente, é originado a partir da associação de diversos fatores que vão desde a constituição da equipe multiprofissional até as questões salariais. O presente estudo pretende verificar se, na visão dos médicos, existe conflito na relação entre médicos e enfermeiros no Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Goiás (HC/UFG e quais são os fatores associados. Para tanto, 30 médicos responderam a um questionário com dados demográficos e perguntas em escala Lickert, sobre as variáveis que interferem na relação interprofissional. Dentre os resultados, a média de idade é de 42,7 anos, 50% dos participantes é do sexo feminino e 93,3 dos entrevistados trabalha em outro lugar. A média de anos de trabalho no HC é de 16,3. Quanto às categorias de conflitos se destacam quatro fatores preventivos de conflitos (Pc com Ranking Médio (RM maior que 3,0 e dois geradores de conflito (2Gc, quais sejam: Comunicação interprofissional (RM =3,03; Autonomia na equipe (RM=3,63; Relação interprofissional (RM=3,36; Condições de trabalho (RM=2,26; Influência do hospital escola (RM=2,83 e Reflexo no paciente (RM=3,93. Conclui-se que na realidade analisada o conflito é inexistente, por haver uma relação favorável de fatores protetores (4Pc:2Gc, porém o mesmo é iminente, devido à permanência de fatores que podem desencadeá-lo ("Condições de trabalho" e "Influência do hospital-escola". Além disso, há disputa de poder com a enfermagem, o que pode desequilibrar a situação e gerar problemas éticos.The conflict between physicians and nurses, historically the two main groups of professionals responsible for patient care, is originated from the combination of several factors ranging from the establishment of the multidisciplinary team to salary issues. This study aims to
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Niemczyk, Ewalina Kinga
Graduate students' development as researchers is a key objective in higher education internationally. Research assistantships (RAships) nurture graduate students as novice researchers as they develop theoretical and methodological knowledge. However, few studies have investigated the ways institutional regulations, informal practices, and…
van Rooij, Shahron Williams
Graduate students enrolled in professional education degree programs are increasingly challenged by the need to acquire the complex skills/competencies of their respective professions on the one hand, while retaining empathy for the individuals they will be serving on the other hand. This paper suggests a technique which uses the Persona, a…
Petronela Iuliana GEANGU
Full Text Available The relation between provider and customer in the services area, mainly medical, represents a fundamental desideratum. This type of relation derives from a two-way involvement of both parts at the entire marketing mix level. The base of new marketing strategies that imply effective relation models can only be built by setting out an ample time related investigation process of the mechanisms pertaining to the customer’s perception of the quality and the coordinates of the relationship with the provider. The article aims to investigate the mechanism leading to customer retention in the case of dental offices, both from the perspective of customers and providers. The authors conducted an in-depth interview-type qualitative research, which identified and pointed out the extent to which the marketing activity, as seen from the perspective of specific principles and scientific methodology, is implemented in the dental offices in Bucharest. The research was also focused on the perception of specialists, dental office/clinics managers or owners regarding the concept of customer retention, elements which could lead to keeping customers, and the image of the ideal office from the perspective of services adjusted to consumers.
Wehrlen, Leslie; Krumlauf, Mike; Ness, Elizabeth; Maloof, Damiana; Bevans, Margaret
Understanding the human experience is no longer an outcome explored strictly by social and behavioral researchers. Increasingly, biomedical researchers are also including patient reported outcomes (PROs) in their clinical research studies not only due to calls for increased patient engagement in research but also healthcare. Collecting PROs in clinical research studies offers a lens into the patient's unique perspective providing important information to industry sponsors and the FDA. Approximately 30% of trials include PROs as primary or secondary endpoints and a quarter of FDA new drug, device and biologic applications include PRO data to support labeling claims. In this paper PRO, represents any information obtained directly from the patient or their proxy, without interpretation by another individual to ascertain their health, evaluate symptoms or conditions and extends the reference of PRO, as defined by the FDA, to include other sources such as patient diaries. Consumers and clinicians consistently report that PRO data are valued, and can aide when deciding between treatment options; therefore an integral part of clinical research. However, little guidance exists for clinical research professionals (CRPs) responsible for collecting PRO data on the best practices to ensure quality data collection so that an accurate assessment of the patient's view is collected. Therefore the purpose of this work was to develop and validate a checklist to guide quality collection of PRO data. The checklist synthesizes best practices from published literature and expert opinions addressing practical and methodological challenges CRPs often encounter when collecting PRO data in research settings. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Online Programs and Geographic Proximity are Key Determinants of Information Professionals’ Interest in Pursuing Post-Master’s Education at the Doctoral Level. A Review of: Powell, Ronald R. and Susan E. Boling. “Post-Master’s Educational Needs of Information Professionals.” Journal of Access Services 3.4 (2005: 29-43.
Martha Ingrid Preddie
Full Text Available Objective – To investigate post-master’s educational needs and interests of information professionals.Design – Survey research using print and electronic questionnaires.Setting – The geographic area surrounding Wayne State University in Michigan, United States of America.Subjects – Members of the library associations of Michigan, Ohio, Indiana, and Southwestern Ontario, Canada.Methods – Systematic random samples were derived from the membership lists of the library associations in Ohio, Indiana, and Southwestern Ontario. Paper questionnaires were mailed to those selected. Michigan Library Association’s official policy barred the release of its membership list to researchers. Consequently, announcements of the survey were placed in three successive issues of the Association’s electronic newsletter. Interested members were directed to a website to complete an electronic version of the questionnaire. This option was also extended to members of the other three library associations. The overall research question was investigated through specific questions that sought to ascertain the overall level of interest in professional library and information studies (LIS education, levels of interest in specific types of programs, factors that favoured or deterred enrolment in doctoral programs, as well as the fields of study that were preferred for combination with LIS in doctoral programs. With the exception of demographic type questions (e.g., place of residence and educational qualifications and two questions that required open ended responses, the questionnaire design encompassed questions with Likert scale type responses. Analysis of the responses included descriptive statistics, the use of Pearson chi square to determine statistically significant relationships, and, to a lesser extent, content analysis.Main Results – A total of 270 questionnaires(33% were returned from three populations: Ohio, Indiana, and Ontario. A self
Wattiaux, M A; Moore, J A; Rastani, R R; Crump, P M
In this study, animal or dairy sciences faculty from doctoral/research universities were surveyed to clarify teaching performance expectations for the purpose of promotion and tenure of assistant professors. A survey tool including 15 evaluation criteria was available online and at the registration desk of the 2005 Joint Annual Meeting of the American Dairy Science Association and the American Society of Animal Science. The analyzed data set included 47 faculty (41 tenured and 6 tenure-track) with a substantial teaching responsibility from 27 different departments in 25 states. Four criteria were perceived as currently overemphasized: student evaluation of the instructor, student evaluation of the course, authoring peer-reviewed publications, and authoring an undergraduate textbook or book chapter. Nevertheless, more than 50% of respondents reported that these criteria should be used. One criterion emerged as being currently underemphasized: documentation of personal assessment of one's own teaching by preparing a portfolio. The lack of consensus for the remaining 10 items may have reflected substantial differences in institutional practices. The significance of overemphasis or underemphasis of certain criteria varied substantially depending on the respondent's perceived institutional mission. When asked about recognition within their department, 68% of respondents indicated that efforts in teaching improvement were properly rewarded. Respondents doubted the meaningfulness and appropriateness of student ratings tools as currently used. Results also suggested that animal and dairy science faculty placed a higher value on criteria recognizing excellence in teaching based on intradepartmental recognition (e.g., interactions with close-up peers and students) rather than recognition within a broader community of scholars as evidenced by authorship or success in generating funding for teaching. Proposed improvements in the evaluation of teaching for promotion and tenure
Sarauw, Laura Louise
as points of reference for an overall discussion of the implied ideas about the ideal researcher in a comparative cross-faculty perspective: 1) Translations between international/national/institutional and local/faculty ideas about what problems the integrity training is expected to solve, 2) Translations......The presented material is a part of a wider, comparative ethnography in which we study the emerging integrity training for PhD fellows provided by four different faculties: Science, Humanities, Social Science and Business, and Health. The comparison comprises the following themes that will serve...... between standardisations of curriculum and content, local development and ideas about what problems integrity training is expected to solve. 3) Translations between ideas about adequate pedagogies and ideas about what problems integrity training is expected to solve...
Purpose: To initiate a discussion on the current and evolving role of Medical Physicists based on author’s professional and research experience in patient safety and quality control. Methods: Several professionals of the departments of Medical Physics and Radiation Oncology, chiefly devoted to clinical tasks, began a research program on patient safety and quality control in a framework provided by the implementation of intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT). We performed studies on virtual simulation for IORT, in vivo dosimetry, failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA), statistical process control (SPC), and receiver operating characteristics of dosimetric equipment. This was done with the support of our research foundation and different grants while continuing with our departmental clinical routine involving about 1600 annual treatments with two linacs and different brachytherapy techniques. Results: We published 5 papers in international journals in the last two years. This author conducted a doctoral research which resulted in a dissertation in 2015. The extra time spent after treatments was essential to succeed. Funding and support achieved via our foundation played a crucial role; but this would have not been possible without punctual external mentoring and partnership. FMEA conclusions were able to be implemented only with staff commitment; however, conclusions concerning equipment cannot be easily communicated to manufacturers. These tasks required extra training in the appropriated methods. Conclusion: Research needed the support of a dedicated foundation, which would have been very difficult to obtain with the sole participation of our departments. FMEA and SPC results may need engagement of staff and manufacturers, respectively, hard to achieve without strong recommendations or even a regulatory framework. All these fields need evolution of Medical Physicists’ roles and additional training. Devotion to both clinical tasks and research could be unfeasible
Lopez-Tarjuelo, J [Consorcio Hospitalario Provincial de Castello, Castello de la Plana (Spain)
Purpose: To initiate a discussion on the current and evolving role of Medical Physicists based on author’s professional and research experience in patient safety and quality control. Methods: Several professionals of the departments of Medical Physics and Radiation Oncology, chiefly devoted to clinical tasks, began a research program on patient safety and quality control in a framework provided by the implementation of intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT). We performed studies on virtual simulation for IORT, in vivo dosimetry, failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA), statistical process control (SPC), and receiver operating characteristics of dosimetric equipment. This was done with the support of our research foundation and different grants while continuing with our departmental clinical routine involving about 1600 annual treatments with two linacs and different brachytherapy techniques. Results: We published 5 papers in international journals in the last two years. This author conducted a doctoral research which resulted in a dissertation in 2015. The extra time spent after treatments was essential to succeed. Funding and support achieved via our foundation played a crucial role; but this would have not been possible without punctual external mentoring and partnership. FMEA conclusions were able to be implemented only with staff commitment; however, conclusions concerning equipment cannot be easily communicated to manufacturers. These tasks required extra training in the appropriated methods. Conclusion: Research needed the support of a dedicated foundation, which would have been very difficult to obtain with the sole participation of our departments. FMEA and SPC results may need engagement of staff and manufacturers, respectively, hard to achieve without strong recommendations or even a regulatory framework. All these fields need evolution of Medical Physicists’ roles and additional training. Devotion to both clinical tasks and research could be unfeasible
Ian D Sanders
Full Text Available This paper studies the output of South African universities in terms of computing-related doctorates in order to determine trends in numbers of doctorates awarded and to identify strong doctoral study research areas. Data collected from a variety of sources relating to Computing doctorates conferred since the late 1970s was used to compare the situation in Computing with that of all doctorates. The number of Computing doctorates awarded has increased considerably over the period of study. Nearly three times as many doctorates were awarded in the period 2010–2014 as in 2000–2004. The universities producing the most Computing doctorates were either previously “traditional” universities or comprehensive universities formed by amalgamating a traditional research university with a technikon. Universities of technology have not yet produced many doctorates as they do not have a strong research tradition. The analysis of topic keywords using ACM Computing classifications is preliminary but shows that professional issues are dominant in Information Systems, models are often built in Computer Science and several topics, including computing in education, are evident in both IS and CS. The relevant data is in the public domain but access is difficult as record keeping was generally inconsistent and incomplete. In addition, electronic databases at universities are not easily searchable and access to HEMIS data is limited. The database built for this paper is more inclusive in terms of discipline-related data than others.
Oki, Kazuya; Sawaragi, Tetsuo; Hasebe, Shinji; Morisawa, Shinsuke
New education program to train graduate students and postdoctoral researchers who can be good leaders in a variety of social fields by cooperation of graduate school of engineering and pharmaceutical sciences is conducted as an advanced activity in Kyoto University. This program consists of four sub-programs and the educational effect by the collaboration of industry-government-academic and the interaction between dissimilar research fields is described in this paper. Trainees in this program acquire the ability to understand objectively one’ s research from comprehensive point of view and to debate with researchers in different fields. This program supports them to become ‘Global Leaders’ who play an important role internationally in advanced technology.
Olaf Gjerløw Aasland
Full Text Available Doctors are among the healthiest segments of the population in western countries. Nevertheless, they complain strongly of stress and burnout. Their own explanation is deprofessionalisation: The honourable art of doctoring has been replaced by standardised interventions and production lines; professional autonomy has withered. This view is shared by many medical sociologists who have identified a “golden age of medicine,” or “golden age of doctoring,” starting after World War II and declining around 1970. This article looks at some of the central sociological literature on deprofessionalisation, particularly in a perspective of countervailing powers. It also looks into another rise-and-fall model, proposed by the medical profession itself, where the fall in professional power was generated by the notion that there are no more white spots to explore on the map of medicine. Contemporary doctoring is a case of cognitive dissonance, where the traditional doctor role seems incompatible with modern health care.Keywords: deprofessionalisation, professional autonomy, cognitive dissonance, golden age of doctoring
The IUGS Task Group on Global Geoscience Professionalism - promoting professional skills professionalism in the teaching, research and application of geoscience for the protection and education of the public
Allington, Ruth; Fernandez-Fuentes, Isabel
A new IUGS Task Group entitled the Task Group on Global Geoscience Professionalism was formed in 2012 and launched at a symposium at the 341GC in Brisbane on strengthening communication between fundamental and applied geosciences and between geoscientists and public. The Task Group aims to ensure that the international geoscience community is engaged in a transformation of its profession so as to embed the need for a professional skills base alongside technical and scientific skills and expertise, within a sound ethical framework in all arenas of geoscience practice. This needs to be established during training and education and reinforced as CPD throughout a career in geoscience as part of ensuring public safety and effective communication of geoscience concepts to the public. The specific objective of the Task Group on Global Geoscience Professionalism that is relevant to this poster session is: • To facilitate a more 'joined up' geoscience community fostering better appreciation by academics and teachers of the professional skills that geoscientists need in the workplace, and facilitate better communication between academic and applied communities leading to more effective application of research findings and technology to applied practitioners and development of research programmes that truly address urgent issues. Other Task Group objectives are: • To provide a specific international forum for discussion of matters of common concern and interest among geoscientists and geoscientific organizations involved in professional affairs, at the local, national and international level; • To act as a resource to IUGS on professional affairs in the geosciences as they may influence and impact "Earth Science for the Global Community" in general - both now and in the future; • To offer and provide leadership and knowledge transfer services to countries and geoscientist communities around the world seeking to introduce systems of professional governance and self
Smith, Deborah M
Early postgraduate, or junior doctors, are still required to practise in rural and remote communities, and they continue to face numerous issues and difficulties. Within the hospital setting, exposure to rural practice appears to be very limited during internship, and also to some extent, during the second postgraduate year and beyond. This is a major issue for those required to undertake country relieving, rural terms or who will be bonded to rural and remote practice for several years after internship. This research investigated the current issues and difficulties faced by junior doctors, required to undertake rural and remote practice in Queensland, Australia. An exploratory study was undertaken. Primary data were collected through semi-structured interviews held with key stakeholders. Stakeholders included: directors of clinical training; medical educators; junior doctors; rural practitioners; academic rural practitioners; and medical administrators. Of the 23 people approached, a total of 19 agreed to be interviewed. The response rate was 82.6%. Similar to the issues identified in the literature, there are currently a number of barriers influencing the ability of junior doctors to practise competently and confidently when undertaking practice in rural and remote communities. Minimal clinical experience, lack of supervision and on-site support, inadequate orientation and uninformed expectations, limited access to relevant education, and the influence of isolation, results in an overall lack of preparation both professionally and personally. When asked, respondents supported the identification of core skills and knowledge, and integration of these and other issues affecting rural practice, into their hospital-based programs. Current hospital-based education and training programs were not adequately preparing junior doctors for rural and remote practice. It was commented that orientation and education, with a rural emphasis, could assist junior doctors in their
@@ "To become a doctor is like becoming a bomb expert:It takes a long time to learn this skill; you must use care and intuition; and you must understand that your work has grave consequences for those around you,"said Amgalan Gamazhapov,an advanced medical student who studies traditional Chinese and Mongolian medicine at the Inner Mongolia Medical University.
Full Text Available The article presents the biographical data of John Langdon Down, his invaluable contribution to the development of rehabilitation programs for children with Down syndrome. The basis of these programs was the socialization of people with intellectual disabilities. In doctor Down’s rehabilitation center there were used methods, including health care, education, physical education, the formation of correct behavior.
Grandes, Gonzalo; Arce, Verónica; Arietaleanizbeaskoa, María Soledad
To provide information about the process and results of the Primary Health Care Research Program 2010-2011 organised by the Primary Care Research Unit of Bizkaia. Descriptive study. Osakidetza primary care. The 107 health professionals who applied for the program from a total of 4,338 general practitioners, nurses and administrative staff who were informed about it. Application level, research topics classification, program evaluation by participants, projects funding and program costs. Percentage who applied, 2.47%; 95% CI 2.41-2.88%. Of the 28 who were selected and 19 completed. The research topics were mostly related to the more common chronic diseases (32%), and prevention and health promotion (18%). Over 90% of participants assessed the quality of the program as good or excellent, and half of them considered it as difficult or very difficult. Of the18 new projects generated, 12 received funding, with 16 grants, 10 from the Health Department of the Basque Government, 4 from the Carlos III Institute of Health of the Ministry of Health of Spain, and 2 from Kronikgune. A total of €500,000 was obtained for these projects. This program cost €198,327. This experience can be used by others interested in the promotion of research in primary care, as the program achieved its objectives, and was useful and productive. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
Beijaard, D.; Meijer, P.C.; Verloop, N.; Craig, C.J.; Meijer, P.C.; Broeckmans, J.
The studies considered in this review of research on teachers’ professional identity until 2004 can be divided into three categories: (a) studies in which the focus was on teachers’ professional identity formation; (b) studies in which the focus was on the identification of characteristics of
Beckford-Young, Paulette Vivienne
The purpose of this action research study was to conduct a professional development activity to provide content-area teachers with academic vocabulary strategies to be implemented during instruction on a daily basis. Professional development is essential for teachers to gain new knowledge and skills in order to hone their craft to improve student…
This article describes and critically reflects on an action research project used for professional development purposes in a Middle Eastern Gulf State. The aim of the project was to improve professional development experiences for a group of in-service teacher educators, who were English as Second Language advisers. The initial discussion…
Montoya, Isaac D; Kimball, Olive M
Over the past decade, clinical doctorate programs in health disciplines have proliferated amid both support and controversy among educators, professional organizations, practitioners, administrators, and third-party payers. Supporters argue that the explosion of new knowledge and increasing sophistication of technology have created a need for advanced practice models to enhance patient care and safety and to reduce costs. Critics argue that necessary technological advances can be incorporated into existing programs and believe that clinical doctorates will increase health care costs, not reduce them. Despite the controversy, many health disciplines have advanced the clinical doctorate (the most recent is the doctor of nursing practice in 2004), with some professions mandating the doctorate as the entry-level degree (i.e., psychology, pharmacy, audiology, and so on). One aspect of the introduction of clinical doctoral degrees has been largely overlooked, and that is the marketing aspect. Because of marketing considerations, some clinical doctorates have been more successfully implemented and accepted than others. Marketing is composed of variables commonly known as "the four P's of marketing": product, price, promotion, and place. This report explores these four P's within the context of clinical doctorates in the health disciplines.
Internship following graduation is an essential period for junior doctors to develop their ... The Health Professionals Council of SA (HPCSA) is the regulatory body ..... prescribing medication, communication and mental-state examinations were.
The doctor who attended the mother of Adolf Hitler in her terminal illness has been blamed as a cause of the Holocaust. The medical details recorded of this professional relationship are presented and discussed. Dr Bloch's medical care of Mrs Hitler was consistent with the prevailing medical practice of the management of fungating breast carcinoma. Indeed, the general practitioner's care and attention of the family appear to have been astute and supportive. There is nothing to suggest that Dr Bloch's medical care was other than competent. Doctors who have the (mis)fortune to professionally attend major figures of history may be unfairly viewed, despite their appropriate and adequate care.
This paper attempts to provide an insight into what research is, why it is important for radiographers (Medical Imaging Technologists), the process of carrying out research in imaging technology, the potential areas for evidence - based research activities in the profession and how research can broaden the radiography spectrum in a bid to scale the professional heights
Brown, James; Ryan, Christopher; Harris, Anthony
Doctors are uncertain of their ethical and legal obligations when communicating with patients online. Professional guidelines for patient-doctor interaction online have been written with limited quantitative data about doctors' current usage and attitudes toward the medium. Further research into these trends will help to inform more focused policy and guidelines for doctors communicating with patients online. The intent of the study was to provide the first national profile of Australian doctors' attitudes toward and use of online social media. The study involved a quantitative, cross-sectional online survey of Australian doctors using a random sample from a large representative database. Of the 1500 doctors approached, 187 participated (12.47%). Most participants used social media privately, with only one-quarter not using any social media websites at all (48/187, 25.7%). One in five participants (30/155, 19.4%) had received a "friend request" from a patient. There was limited use of online communication in clinical practice: only 30.5% (57/187) had communicated with a patient through email and fewer than half (89/185, 48.1%) could offer their patients electronic forms of information if that were the patients' preference. Three in five participants (110/181, 60.8%) reported not being uncomfortable about interacting with patients who had accessed personal information about them online, prior to the consultation. Most of the participants (119/181, 65.8%) were hesitant to immerse themselves more fully in social media and online communication due to worries about public access and legal concerns. Doctors have different practices and views regarding whether or how to communicate appropriately with patients on the Internet, despite online and social media becoming an increasingly common feature of clinical practice. Additional training would assist doctors in protecting their personal information online, integrating online communication in patient care, and guidance on
McKenney, Susan; Raval, Harini; Pieters, Jules
McKenney, S., Raval, H., & Pieters, J. (2011, 8-12 April). Understanding the design research process: The evolution of a professional development program in Indian slums. Presentation at AERA annual meeting, New Orleans.
McKenney, Susan; Raval, Harini; Pieters, Jules
McKenney, S., Raval, H., & Pieters, J. (2011, 8-12 April). Understanding the design research process: The evolution of a professional development program in Indian slums. Paper presentation at AERA annual meeting, New Orleans.
McKenney, Susan; Raval, Harini; Pieters, Jules
McKenney, S., Raval, H., & Pieters, J. (2011, 8-12 April). Understanding the design research process: The evolution of a professional development program in Indian slums. Paper presentation at AERA annual meeting, New Orleans.
Diffin, Janet; Spence, Michael; Spencer, Rebecca; Mellor, Peter; Grande, Gunn
It is important to ensure regional variances are considered when setting future end-of-life research priorities, given the differing demographics and service provision. This project sought to identify end-of-life research priorities within Greater Manchester (United Kingdom). Following an initial scoping exercise, six topics within the 10 national priorities outlined by The Palliative and end-of-life care Priority Setting Partnership were selected for exploration. A workshop involving 32 healthcare professionals and a consultation process with 26 family carers was conducted. Healthcare professionals and carers selected and discussed the topics important to them. The topics selected most frequently by both healthcare professionals and carers were 'Access to 24 hour care', 'Planning end-of-life care in advance' and 'Staff and carer education'. Healthcare professionals also developed research questions for their topics of choice which were refined to incorporate carers' views. These questions are an important starting point for future end-of-life research within Greater Manchester.
A brief description is given of the changing politico-social structure today involving medicine and especially the cosy personal doctor-patient relationship of the past which has now become triangular involving Managed Health Care Organisations in many cases. The Medical Practitioners' and Dentists' Board (the Board) appointed the Ethics Conference Committee largely composed of non-Board members to collect and collate information of what doctors, paramedics and the lay public expected from their doctors today. It is planned that the Committee's Report summarising this information would form the basis of the new guidelines to modern ethics to be published by the Board later. In this paper the mechanics, funding and production of the report are described but not the contents of the report which is still being considered by the new Board.
George-Reid, Kimberly A.
The purpose of this study was to identify intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors for professional doctoral degree attainment among educators. The researcher examined the following intrinsic motivating factors: personal attainment, skill and ability enhancement, and goals. The researcher also included the following extrinsic factors:…
Research is such an important subject for information professionals that there will always be a need for effective guides to it. Research skills are a prerequisite for those who want to work successfully in information environments, an essential set of tools which enable information workers to become information professionals. This book focuses on producing critical consumers of research. It also goes some way towards producing researchers in the fields of information management and systems.The first edition of this book was enthusiastically received by researchers, students and information pr
Zuniga, Sabrina Faust
Student participation in applied research as a form of experiential learning in community colleges is relatively new. Ontario Colleges today participate at different levels with different numbers of projects and faculty involved. A few colleges in Ontario are more established in doing applied research including having basic infrastructure for…
Yamazaki, Yuka; Uka, Takanori; Marui, Eiji
In Japan, the field of Basic Sciences encompasses clinical, academic, and translational research, as well as the teaching of medical sciences, with both an MD and PhD typically required. In this study, it was hypothesized that the characteristics of a Basic Sciences career path could offer the professional advancement and personal fulfillment that many female medical doctors would find advantageous. Moreover, encouraging interest in Basic Sciences could help stem shortages that Japan is experiencing in medical fields, as noted in the three principal contributing factors: premature resignation of female clinicians, an imbalance of female physicians engaged in research, and a shortage of medical doctors in the Basic Sciences. This study examines the professional and personal fulfillment expressed by Japanese female medical doctors who hold positions in Basic Sciences. Topics include career advancement, interest in medical research, and greater flexibility for parenting. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was distributed at all 80 medical schools in Japan, directed to 228 female medical doctors whose academic rank was assistant professor or higher in departments of Basic Sciences in 2012. Chi-square tests and the binary logistic regression model were used to investigate the impact of parenthood on career satisfaction, academic rank, salary, etc. The survey response rate of female physicians in Basic Sciences was 54.0%. Regardless of parental status, one in three respondents cited research interest as their rationale for entering Basic Sciences, well over twice other motivations. A majority had clinical experience, with clinical duties maintained part-time by about half of respondents and particularly parents. Only one third expressed afterthoughts about relinquishing full-time clinical practice, with physicians who were parents expressing stronger regrets. Parental status had little effect on academic rank and income within the Basic Sciences, CONCLUSION
Intolerance and grouse against doctors is a global phenomenon but India seems to lead the world in violence against doctors. According to World Health Organization, about 8-38% healthcare workers suffer physical violence at some point in their careers. Many more are verbally abused or threatened. Public is almost behaving like health sector terrorists. The spate of increasing attacks on doctors by damaging their property and causing physical injury is not acceptable by any civilized society. The public is becoming increasingly intolerant to a large number of social issues because of poor governance and vote bank politics. There is a need to arrest the development of further distrust between doctors and their patients/relatives, otherwise it will compromise all achievements of medical science and adversely affect healing capabilities of doctors. Rude and aggressive behavior of the patients or their family members, and arrogant and lackadaisical approach of the doctor, adversely affects the doctor-patient relationship and the outcome of the patient. The doctors, hospital administration and government must exercise "zero tolerance" with respect to acts of violence against healthcare professionals. It is possible to reduce the incidence of intolerance against doctors but difficult to eliminate it completely. The healthcare providers should demonstrate greater compassion and empathy with improved communication skills. The hospitals must have adequate infrastructure, facilities and staff to handle emergencies without delay and with due confidence and skills. The security of healthcare providers, especially in sensitive areas, should be improved by having adequate number of security guards, frisking facilities, extensive CCTV network and availability of "Quick response team" to handle unruly mob. In case of any grievances for alleged mismanagement, the public should handle the situation in a civilized manner and seek redressal through Medical Protection Act and legal
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Chemical and Engineering News, 1982
The University of Texas (Dallas) has initiated a new Ph.D. program specifically to train chemists for doctoral level work in industry (Doctor of Chemistry). Participants will complete three research practica (at an industrial site and in two laboratory settings) instead of the traditional dissertation, emphasizing breadth and flexibility in…
.... This effort was intended to address possible causes of this problem by establishing the importance of nine research topic areas, six data collection methods/sources, and three data analysis methods...
Schenke, W.; van Driel, J.H.; Geijsel, F.P.; Sligte, H.W.; Volman, M.L.L.
Collaboration between practitioners and researchers can increasingly be observed in research and development (R&D) projects in secondary schools. This article presents an analysis of cross-professional collaboration between teachers, school leaders and educational researchers and/or advisers as part
Schenke, Wouter; van Driel, Jan H.; Geijsel, Femke P.; Sligte, Henk W.; Volman, Monique L. L.
Collaboration between practitioners and researchers can increasingly be observed in research and development (R&D) projects in secondary schools. This article presents an analysis of cross-professional collaboration between teachers, school leaders and educational researchers and/or advisers as part of R&D projects in terms of three…
McDougall, Dennis; Smith, Douglas
This article illustrates an innovative small-N research design that researchers and practitioners can use to investigate questions of interest in "professional school counseling." The distributed criterion (DC) design integrates elements of three classic small-N research designs--the changing criterion, reversal, and multiple baseline. The DC…
American Psychologist, 2009
Luciano L'Abate, recipient of the Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Applied Research, contributed to applied research through the introduction of the laboratory method in clinical psychology assessment and intervention, leading to the development of the first automated playroom, linking play therapy with research in child…
Eylon, Bat-Sheva; Bagno, Esther
How can one increase the awareness of teachers to the existence and importance of knowledge gained through physics education research (PER) and provide them with capabilities to use it? How can one enrich teachers’ physics knowledge and the related pedagogical content knowledge of topics singled out by PER? In this paper we describe a professional development model that attempts to respond to these needs. We report on a study of the model’s implementation in a program for 22 high-school experienced physics teachers. In this program teachers (in teams of 5-6) developed during a year and a half (about 330h ), several lessons (minimodules) dealing with a topic identified as problematic by PER. The teachers employed a systematic research-based approach and used PER findings. The program consisted of three stages, each culminating with a miniconference: 1. Defining teaching and/or learning goals based on content analysis and diagnosis of students’ prior knowledge. 2. Designing the lessons using PER-based instructional strategies. 3. Performing a small-scale research study that accompanies the development process and publishing the results. We describe a case study of one of the groups and bring evidence that demonstrates how the workshop advanced: (a) Teachers’ awareness of deficiencies in their own knowledge of physics and pedagogy, and their perceptions about their students’ knowledge; (b) teachers’ knowledge of physics and physics pedagogy; (c) a systematic research-based approach to the design of lessons; (d) the formation of a community of practice; and (e) acquaintance with central findings of PER. There was a clear effect on teachers’ practice in the context of the study as indicated by the materials brought to the workshop. The teachers also reported that they continued to use the insights gained, mainly in the topics that were investigated by themselves and by their peers.
Full Text Available How can one increase the awareness of teachers to the existence and importance of knowledge gained through physics education research (PER and provide them with capabilities to use it? How can one enrich teachers’ physics knowledge and the related pedagogical content knowledge of topics singled out by PER? In this paper we describe a professional development model that attempts to respond to these needs. We report on a study of the model’s implementation in a program for 22 high-school experienced physics teachers. In this program teachers (in teams of 5-6 developed during a year and a half (about 330 h , several lessons (minimodules dealing with a topic identified as problematic by PER. The teachers employed a systematic research-based approach and used PER findings. The program consisted of three stages, each culminating with a miniconference: 1. Defining teaching and/or learning goals based on content analysis and diagnosis of students’ prior knowledge. 2. Designing the lessons using PER-based instructional strategies. 3. Performing a small-scale research study that accompanies the development process and publishing the results. We describe a case study of one of the groups and bring evidence that demonstrates how the workshop advanced: (a Teachers’ awareness of deficiencies in their own knowledge of physics and pedagogy, and their perceptions about their students’ knowledge; (b teachers’ knowledge of physics and physics pedagogy; (c a systematic research-based approach to the design of lessons; (d the formation of a community of practice; and (e acquaintance with central findings of PER. There was a clear effect on teachers’ practice in the context of the study as indicated by the materials brought to the workshop. The teachers also reported that they continued to use the insights gained, mainly in the topics that were investigated by themselves and by their peers.
Full Text Available How can one increase the awareness of teachers to the existence and importance of knowledge gained through physics education research (PER and provide them with capabilities to use it? How can one enrich teachers’ physics knowledge and the related pedagogical content knowledge of topics singled out by PER? In this paper we describe a professional development model that attempts to respond to these needs. We report on a study of the model’s implementation in a program for 22 high-school experienced physics teachers. In this program teachers (in teams of 5-6 developed during a year and a half (about 330h, several lessons (minimodules dealing with a topic identified as problematic by PER. The teachers employed a systematic research-based approach and used PER findings. The program consisted of three stages, each culminating with a miniconference: 1. Defining teaching and/or learning goals based on content analysis and diagnosis of students’ prior knowledge. 2. Designing the lessons using PER-based instructional strategies. 3. Performing a small-scale research study that accompanies the development process and publishing the results. We describe a case study of one of the groups and bring evidence that demonstrates how the workshop advanced: (a Teachers’ awareness of deficiencies in their own knowledge of physics and pedagogy, and their perceptions about their students’ knowledge; (b teachers’ knowledge of physics and physics pedagogy; (c a systematic research-based approach to the design of lessons; (d the formation of a community of practice; and (e acquaintance with central findings of PER. There was a clear effect on teachers’ practice in the context of the study as indicated by the materials brought to the workshop. The teachers also reported that they continued to use the insights gained, mainly in the topics that were investigated by themselves and by their peers.
Wuttiprom, Sura; Wuttisela, Karntarat; Phonchaiya, Sonthi; Athiwaspong, Wanwalai; Chitaree, Ratchapak; Sharma, Manjula Devi
Teachers need to design their courses to be as similar to real-life situations as possible as genuine learning emerges in real life as opposed to studying in class. Research-based learning is an innovative approach exploring many critical strategies for success in the twenty-first century. In it, students drive their own learning through inquiry,…
Four Japanese university professors were interviewed on their strategies for writing a research paper in English as a Foreign Language (EFL). Results indicate that these writers use strategies similar to those used by skilled native English writers and proficient writers of English as a Second Language. (35 references) (Author/CK)
Gorman, G E
This text serves an integrated manual on how to conduct qualitative research. Its extensive coverage includes all aspects of work in this field from conception to completion and all types of study in a variety of settings from multi-site studies to data organization.
The paper discusses an ongoing process of merging two university-based teaching traditions. The two traditions are alike in that both share a basic commitment to PBL-related values. Differences refer (as stated in the paper’s title) to one tradition being relatively more research oriented, whereas...
Conn, K.; Iyengar, E.
This presentation reports on a new teacher workshop design that encourages teachers to initiate and support long-term student-directed research projects in the classroom setting. Teachers were recruited and engaged in an intensive marine ecology learning experience at Shoals Marine Laboratory, Appledore Island, Maine. Part of the weeklong summer workshop was spent in field work, part in laboratory work, and part in learning experimental design and basic statistical analysis of experimental results. Teachers were presented with strategies to adapt their workshop learnings to formulate plans for initiating and managing authentic student research projects in their classrooms. The authors will report on the different considerations and constraints facing the teachers in their home school settings and teachers' progress in implementing their plans. Suggestions for replicating the workshop will be offered.
Pyrak-Nolte, Laura J. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)
Carbonate reservoirs pose a scientific and engineering challenge to geophysical prediction and monitoring of fluid flow in the subsurface. Difficulties in interpreting hydrological, reservoir and other exploration data arise because carbonates are composed of a hierarchy of geological structures, constituents and processes that span a wide spectrum of length and time scales. What makes this problem particularly challenging is that length scales associated with physical structure and processes are often not discrete, but overlap, preventing the definition of discrete elements at one scale to become the building blocks of the next scale. This is particularly true for carbonates where complicated depositional environments, subsequent post-deposition diagenesis and geochemical interactions result in pores that vary in scale from submicron to centimeters to fractures, variation in fabric composition with fossils, minerals and cement, as well as variations in structural features (e.g., oriented inter- and intra layered - interlaced bedding and/or discontinuous rock units). In addition, this complexity is altered by natural and anthropogenic processes such as changes in stress, fluid content, reactive fluid flow, etc. Thus an accurate geophysical assessment of the flow behavior of carbonate reservoirs requires a fundamental understanding of the interplay of textural and structural features subjected to physical processes that affect and occur on various length and time scales. To address this complexity related to carbonates, a Hedberg conference on “Fundamental Controls on Flow in Carbonates” was held July 8 to 13, 2012, to bring together industry and academic scientists to stimulate innovative ideas that can accelerate research advances related to flow prediction and recovery in carbonate reservoirs. Participants included scientist and engineers from multiple disciplines (such as hydrology, structural geology, geochemistry, reservoir engineering, geophysics
Piliouras, Panagiotis; Lathouris, Dimitris; Plakitsi, Katerina; Stylianou, Liana
The paper refers to the theoretical establishment and brief presentation of collaborative action research with the characteristics of "developmental work research" as an effective methodological approach so that science teachers develop themselves professionally. A specific case study is presented, in which we aimed to transform the…
Navarro, Zita Elaine
Full Text Available The potentials and shortcomings of independent work in the teachers of polytechnic school training process are an indication of the need of devising a methodology based on a research and professional approach linked to professional performance. The integrative character of academic and non-academic tasks in the process is examined from its planning stage from the perspective of a diversity of professional performance contexts. The findings were appraised by means of expertise valuation and by means of a controlled experiment. Palabras clave: Trabajo independiente, enfoque profesional, enseñanza técnica y profesional.
Hellweg, C. E.; Spitta, L. F.; Kopp, K.; Schmitz, C.; Reitz, G.; Gerzer, R.
Training young researchers in the field of space life sciences is essential to vitalize the future of spaceflight. In 2009, the DLR Institute of Aerospace Medicine established the Helmholtz Space Life Sciences Research School (SpaceLife) in cooperation with several universities, starting with 22 doctoral candidates. SpaceLife offered an intensive three-year training program for early-stage researchers from different fields (biology, biomedicine, biomedical engineering, physics, sports, nutrition, plant and space sciences). The candidates passed a multistep selection procedure with a written application, a self-presentation to a selection committee, and an interview with the prospective supervisors. The selected candidates from Germany as well as from abroad attended a curriculum taught in English. An overview of space life sciences was given in a workshop with introductory lectures on space radiation biology and dosimetry, space physiology, gravitational biology and astrobiology. The yearly Doctoral Students' Workshops were also interdisciplinary. During the first Doctoral Students' Workshop, every candidate presented his/her research topic including hypothesis and methods to be applied. The progress report was due after ∼1.5 years and a final report after ∼3 years. The candidates specialized in their subfield in advanced lectures, Journal Clubs, practical trainings, lab exchanges and elective courses. The students attended at least one transferable skills course per year, starting with a Research Skills Development course in the first year, a presentation and writing skills course in the second year, and a career and leadership course in the third year. The whole program encompassed 303 h and was complemented by active conference participation. In this paper, the six years' experience with this program is summarized in order to guide other institutions in establishment of structured Ph.D. programs in this field. The curriculum including elective courses is
Aglair Alencar Setubal
Full Text Available The reflections contained in this essay seek to the call attention of professionals, professors and students of Social Work to the importance of research in the various contexts of activity in this field, despite the challenges and difficulties presented in its realization. It offers possibilities for conducting research from a critical professional intervention, in keeping with the concrete reality - the context of professional practice. It also highlights the importance for the preparation of a history of Social Work based on theoretical-methodological postures that consider the wealth, complexity and essence of reality, breaking with the 'pseudoconcreticity', with the utilitarian, manipulative praxis that is constructed in the dimension of a 'common consciousness'. Despite the importance attributed to research, it sought to avoid separating it from human-social reality, given that it is in this context that research acquires meaning, becomes accepted and considers the needs of Social Work as a historic profession.
Currie, Graeme; El Enany, Nellie; Lockett, Andy
In contrast to previous studies, which focus upon the professional dynamics of translational health research between clinician scientists and social scientists (inter-professional contestation), we focus upon contestation within social science (intra-professional contestation). Drawing on the empirical context of Collaborations for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care (CLAHRCs) in England, we highlight that although social scientists accept subordination to clinician scientists, health services researchers attempt to enhance their position in translational health research vis-à-vis organisation scientists, whom they perceive as relative newcomers to the research domain. Health services researchers do so through privileging the practical impact of their research, compared to organisation scientists' orientation towards development of theory, which health services researchers argue is decoupled from any concern with healthcare improvement. The concern of health services researchers lies with maintaining existing patterns of resource allocation to support their research endeavours, working alongside clinician scientists, in translational health research. The response of organisation scientists is one that might be considered ambivalent, since, unlike health services researchers, they do not rely upon a close relationship with clinician scientists to carry out research, or more generally, garner resource. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Michelini, Marisa; Stefanel, Alberto
The aim of this research is to understand how teachers take ownership of content given them in formative intervention modules and transform it into suggestions and materials for teaching. To this end a module on optics was designed for a group of kindergarten, primary and lower secondary school teachers which sought to integrate meta-cultural, experiential and situated approaches with various context specific factors. The study investigated how teachers deal with conceptual difficulties in the module and how they adapt it to their school situations with data being gathered through a variety of tools. It emerged that the most difficult concepts teachers encountered at the formative stage were those they most often incorporated into their materials. The steps taken in this process of appropriation were then reviewed via a collaborative discussion among the teachers themselves on the materials they had produced.
Philip J. Kroth
Full Text Available The Evidence-Based Scholarly Communication Conference (EBSCC was held March 11-12, 2010 in Albuquerque, NM. The conference addressed the perceived gap in knowledge and training for scholarly communication principles in the National Institutes of Health (NIH Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA Program. The EBSCC brought together librarians and information specialists to share evidence based strategies for developing effective local scholarly communication support and training and, it is hoped, to form new coalitions to address this topic at the local and national levels. This brief communication summarizes the need for theconference, highlights the general sessions in order of presentation, and introduces the EBSCC research papers appearing in this issue of Evidence Based Library and Information Practice (EBLIP. It also includes a description of a unique peer-review process methodology pioneered at EBSCC.
Ana Paula Batista da Silva; Ernani Ott
The aim of this study was to analyze the interaction between scientific research and professional accounting practice. In this exploratory study, as it examines a theme that has been little explored in Brazil, a quantitative approach was adopted and a survey was used as the data collection technique, supported by a research instrument with questions on aspects like: interest in and use of research; study and development of themes; means to disseminate the research; and causes of the gap betwe...
Wanjiku, Julliet; Mairura, Franklin; Place, Frank
The following survey was undertaken in 2005 to assess the effectiveness of professional training activities in international agricultural research organizations that were undertaken between 1999 and 2002 at ICRAF (International Centre for Research in Agroforestry), now World Agroforestry Centre, Nairobi. Trainees were randomly selected from…
American Psychologist, 2012
Presents a short biography of the 2012 winner of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Applied Research. Leslie S. Greenberg is an exemplary scientist-practitioner whose pioneering work has significantly altered the landscape of the field of psychotherapy research and practice. His seminal…
Waterhouse, P. J.
A combination of narrative, autobiographical, and arts-based research methods was used to explore experiential learning and professional practice in diverse teaching/learning and adult education settings. The research methodology drew upon concepts developed by the following individuals: Jerome Bruner and his constructivist approach that values…
Lewin, Heather S.; Passonneau, Sarah M.
This research provides the first review of publicly available assessment information found on Association of Research Libraries (ARL) members' websites. After providing an overarching review of benchmarking assessment data, and of professionally recommended assessment models, this paper examines if libraries contextualized their assessment…
Griffioen, Didi M. E.; de Jong, Uulkje
Higher professional education in Europe has changed from teaching-only institutes to hybrids of teaching and research. The purpose of this study was to examine factors that influence the judgements of lecturers about new organisational goals and perceptions of their new research-related competencies. Lecturers' judgements of new organisational…
Full Text Available There has been a seismic shift in the lives of people because of technology. People are far better informed than they were in the 1980s and 1990s. Much of this information is available through the media but even more is available and archived on the internet. The forces pushing the internet into health and health care are strong and unstoppable, ensuring that the internet and the choices it offers must be part of the design of our future health care system. We are no longer content to wait in queues as we live at a faster pace than earlier generations — we don’t not have time to wait for appointments months, weeks or even days in advance. The internet offers the prospect of online consultations in the comfort of your own home. The physical examination will change as new devices are developed to allow the necessary sounds and signals emitted by our malfunctioning bodies to be recorded, interpreted and captured at a remote location. Meanwhile, for those who prefer to see a health care practitioner in person the options to consult practitioners other than doctors who can advise on our health is expanding. The reality is we can’t afford to train or pay for all the doctors we need under the current “doctor-knows-best” system of health care. Patients no longer believe the rhetoric and are already voting with their feet. Pharmacists, nurses and other allied health professionals are beginning to play a much greater role in offering relief from symptoms and monitoring of chronic diseases. Of course, the doctor of the future will still need to offer face-to-face consultations to some people most of the time or most people some of the time. The social role doctors play will continue to be important as humans will always need other humans to personally respond to their distress. As doctors reinvent themselves, the internet and the value of time with patients will be the driving forces that move us into a more sustainable future in health care.
Kunhunny, Swapna; Salmon, Debra
To examine the perspectives of CRNs in the UK on their professional role identity, in order to inform the professional practice of Clinical Research Nursing. Clinical research nurses (CRN) make a significant contribution to healthcare research within the UK and internationally. However, lack of clarity about their role, and scope of practice renders their contribution within the profession and in the minds of the wider public invisible. This has implications in terms of promoting the role nurses play not only in terms of recruitment, retention, and care of research participants but also as research leaders of the future. Exploratory qualitative design using thematic analysis conducted within a realist paradigm. Participants viewed the positive aspects of their identity 'as agents of change' who were fundamental to the clinical research process. Resourcefulness and the ability to guide members of the research team were valued as key to job satisfaction. Successful navigation through the complexity of advice, support, management and leadership tasks related to their role in caring for research patients were role affirming and generated a sense of pride. However, lack of recognition, clarity of the role and career development opportunities within an identified structure undermined the CRN identity and optimism about progression in the future. Participants reported feeling invisible to colleagues within the clinical community, isolated and excluded from wider nursing groups. The study describes UK CRN practice, highlighting the positive benefits and challenges associated with the role, including the need to support professional and career development to maximise their research contribution. This study provides nurses, health care and research organisations and academic nursing educators with a broadened understanding of the professional role, identity and context of clinical research nursing practice in the United Kingdom, with recommendations to improve its
Gabriels, K.; Moerenhout, T.
Background: Nowadays, digital self-tracking devices offer a plethora of possibilities to both healthy and chronically ill users who want to closely examine their body. This study suggests that self-tracking in a private setting will lead to shifting understandings in professional care. In order to
Ekpo, Ernest U; Snaith, Beverly; Harris, Martine A; McEntee, Mark F
Research is critical to evidence-based practice, and the rapid developments in technology provide opportunities to innovate and improve practice. Little is known about the research profile of the medical radiation science (MRS) profession in Australia and New Zealand (NZ). This study provides a baseline of their doctoral activity. A cross-sectional survey of MRS professionals in Australia and NZ holding a doctorate or undertaking doctoral studies, was performed using an online tool (Bristol Online Survey ® , Bristol, UK). A chain-referral sampling technique was adopted for data collection. An email invitation with a link to the survey was generated and distributed through email and social media. The survey contained questions related to participant demographics, doctoral status, qualification route, funding and employment. There were 63 responses to the survey comprising 50.8% diagnostic radiographers (DRs; n = 32), 23.8% radiation therapists (RTs; n = 15), with the remaining 25.4% (n = 16) equally split between sonographers and nuclear medicine technologists (NMTs). A total of 40 (63.5%) of respondents had completed their doctoral qualification. In NZ, only DRs held a doctoral award constituting 0.3% of DRs and 0.2% of the total registered MRS population. In Australia, there was a greater proportion of doctoral NMTs (n = 8/1098; 0.7%) than RTs (n = 15/2394; 0.6%) and DRs (n = 27/12,001; 0.2%). Similar to other countries, findings show a very small percentage of doctoral MRS professionals in Australia and NZ. Strategies to engage and support individuals in research, up to and beyond doctoral study, need to be embedded in practice. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Medical Radiation Sciences published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Australian Society of Medical Imaging and Radiation Therapy and New Zealand Institute of Medical Radiation Technology.
King, Darren; Eisl-Culkin, Judy; Desjardins, Louise
"Doctorate Education in Canada: Findings from the Survey of Earned Doctorates, 2005/2006" is the third paper in a series of reports written by the Learning Policy Directorate of Human Resources and Social Development Canada (HRSDC) and the Centre for Education Statistics of Statistics Canada. Each report presents an overview of doctoral…
This article attends to the affective-political dimensions of doctoral aspiration. It considers why doctoral students continue to hope for an 'academic good life' in spite of the depressed and precarious features of the academic present. The article emerges from 2013 research with ten doctoral students in the Arts and Social Sciences, at a…
Rummer, Jodie; Darling, Emily
This was a presentation given to PhD/doctoral candidates at James Cook University introducing them to developing an online presence/identity and strategically using social media to communicate their research and network within their professional communities.
On 10 May, over 130 PhD students and their supervisors, from both CERN and partner universities, gathered for the 4th Doctoral Student Assembly in the Council Chamber. The assembly was followed by a poster session, at which eighteen doctoral students presented the outcome of their scientific work. The CERN Doctoral Student Programme currently hosts just over 200 students in applied physics, engineering, computing and science communication/education. The programme has been in place since 1985. It enables students to do their research at CERN for a maximum of three years and to work on a PhD thesis, which they defend at their University. The programme is steered by the TSC committee, which holds two selection committees per year, in June and December. The Doctoral Student Assembly was opened by the Director-General, Fabiola Gianotti, who stressed the importance of the programme in the scientific environment at CERN, emphasising that there is no more rewarding activity than lear...
Roberts, John W.
Since its establishment in 2005 the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) has a remit to maintain the skills-base for safe, secure and cost effective decommissioning of the existing UK civil nuclear power plants and associated facilities. With an aging workforce and a competitive tender process for each project a number of new companies are realising the potential of the UK decommissioning market. The Nuclear Engineering Doctorate and NTEC Masters Programmes have been designed to provide the nuclear workforce of the future. The doctorate is a partnership between industry, a university partner and the research engineer with the benefit to industry that the research engineer is based with the industrial partner. Technical and management modules are studied at the university whilst the research project is carried out in the industrial environment. The Masters programme draws on the expertise of 11 Higher Education Institutes and offers over 20 modules that are delivered in a short-fat format either as standalone CPD courses or, by taking further modules, a certificate, diploma or on completion of a research project an M.Sc. Modules are available that cover the technical aspects of decommissioning as well as management of the decommissioning process. The availability of modules in a Distance Learning format now enables students based around the world to benefit from this programme. This paper will describe the two programmes in detail and provide examples of current projects that are delivering the research and workforce required for a successful decommissioning programme. (author)
Full Text Available All types of companies providing financial professional services use, formally or informally, marketing principles and tools for the development of their business, in order to straighten their sustainability. By the end of 2009, in Romania, the financial professional services market has had a relatively constant and predictable development, the mandatory nature of these services being their most important promoter. This article presents the results of a survey aimed to highlight the impact of different marketing principles, techniques and tools on the sustainability of financial professional services in accounting and audit nowadays. The research is based on a questionnaire circulated to professionals with the relevant expertise in the financial-accounting domain. The number of responses obtained was considered meaningful, allowing the research results to be extrapolated to the entire studied population. The respondents, whose anonymity was respected, had multiple choice answers for most of the questions and also having the option of opened answers. The main findings of our research are a starting point in providing solutions to improve the sustainability of financial professional services through a coherent, innovative and effective marketing strategy.
Briscoe, Carol; Wells, Elaine
Calls for reform have suggested that classroom practice can best be changed by teachers who engage in their own research. This interpretive study examines the process of action research and how it contributes to the professional development of a first-grade teacher. The purpose of the study was to explore the research process experienced by the teacher as she examined whether portfolios could be used as an effective means for facilitating and assessing young children's development of science process skills. Data sources included a journal kept by the teacher, documents produced by the teacher and students as part of the portfolio implementation process, hand-written records of teacher's informal interviews with students, and anecdotal records from research team meetings during the study. Data analysis was designed to explore how the teacher's classroom practices and thinking evolved as she engaged in action research and attempted to solve the problems associated with deciding what to assess and how to implement portfolio assessment. We also examined the factors that supported the teacher's learning and change as she progressed through the research process. Data are presented in the form of four assertions that clarify how the action research process was influenced by various personal and contextual factors. Implications address factors that facilitated the teacher as researcher, and how this research project, initiated by the teacher, affected her professional development and professional life.
Wisker, Gina; Robinson, Gill; Bengtsen, Søren Smedegaard
Much international doctoral learning research focuses on personal, institutional and learning support provided by supervisors, managed relationships,‘nudging’ robust, conceptual, critical, creative work. Other work focuses on stresses experienced in supervisor-student relationships and doctoral...... journeys. Some considers formal and informal learning communities supporting students on research journeys, and roles played by families, friends and others, sometimes o ering encouragement and sometimes added stress. However, little has been explored concerning often uno cial, largely unrecognised...... sanctioned (‘lightside’), and less well recognised often unsanctioned (‘darkside’) on doctoral research and writing learning journey, instigating questions about doctoral student needs, and the range of support provided, both legitimate, well known, less legitimate. This work concentrates on the ‘darkside’....
Cristiane Trivisiol da Silva
Full Text Available This research aims to identify the perception of professional members of a multi-professional residency program on Permanent Health Education. It is a case study research using a qualitative approach, with sixteen members of a multi-professional residency program. The data were collected from January to May 2012, through semi-structured interviews, document analysis and systematic observation, and analyzed according to Thematic Content Analysis. Two categories were identified: Permanent Health Education establishing collective spaces of reflection of practices and Permanent Health Education that promotes integration between disciplines. The members of the multiprofessional residency team were found to be aware that permanent education permeates their training and enables reflection on their clinical practices and multidisciplinary action as producers of health actions.
In FY 1986, Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU) initiated two programs for the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fusion Energy (OFE): the Fusion Energy Postdoctoral Research Program and the Fusion Energy Professional Development Program. These programs provide opportunities to conduct collaborative research in magnetic fusion energy research and development programs at DOE laboratories and contractor sites. Participants become trained in advanced fusion energy research, interact with outstanding professionals, and become familiar with energy-related national issues while making personal contributions to the search for solutions to scientific problems. Both programs enhance the national fusion energy research and development effort by providing channels for the exchange of scientists and engineers, the diffusion of ideas and knowledge, and the transfer of relevant technologies. These programs, along with the Magnetic Fusion Energy Science and Technology Fellowship Programs, compose the fusion energy manpower development programs administered by ORAU for DOE/OFE
Research conducted by the British Council concerning modern continuous professional development of teachers has been analyzed. The issue concerning foreign language teachers' professional development has been considered. Productive approach to this process that gives a teacher the opportunities to define aspects of their professional activities…
Latinas are underrepresented within the professorate and within doctoral programs, particularly within Research Intensive Institutions. This dissertation explores how the doctoral socialization process impacts the pipeline from the Ph.D. to scholarly careers for Latinas in Research universities. Given the low numbers of representation and production at the doctoral level for Latinas, what happens when they do enter Ph.D. programs? Their doctoral experience must be marked in one way or anot...
Валерія Геннадіївна Кот
The results of research of actualization of employees of advertising sector are presented in the article. The method of averages and factor analysis of data are used. The gender specific of self-actualization is educed among the employees of advertising sector. It is found a professionally-oriented modification of advertisers’ personalities
Валерія Геннадіївна Кот
Full Text Available The results of research of actualization of employees of advertising sector are presented in the article. The method of averages and factor analysis of data are used. The gender specific of self-actualization is educed among the employees of advertising sector. It is found a professionally-oriented modification of advertisers’ personalities
Fazio, Xavier; Gallagher, Tiffany L.
We offer insights for using design-based research (DBR) as a model for constructing professional development that supports curriculum and instructional knowledge regarding science and literacy integration. We spotlight experiences in the DBR process from data collected from a sample of four elementary teachers. Findings from interviews, focus…
Fischer, Edward H.; Farina, Amerigo
Tested a new, shortened scale for measuring willingness to seek help from mental health professionals. Scores correlated with the 29-item scale developed by Fischer and Turner (1970); the new scale's brevity (10 items) should make it easier and less obtrusive for use in research. Discusses the need for further studies on attitudes toward…
Yigit, Celal; Bagceci, Birsen
The aim of the study is to investigate the contribution of action research to teachers' professional development. In line with this goal, a group of teachers were asked their opinions. The working group of the study is comprised of six teachers working at a state primary and middle school. The study is an example of "Case Study," one of…
Hathorn, Conley; Dillon, Anna Marie
This paper is concerned with exploring the microsystem of teachers' experiences with education reform within the action research (AR) model for professional development (PD). Within the macrosystem of current major education reform in the UAE, it is timely to explore teachers' experiences of AR as PD to improve pedagogy. The process of engaging in…
Joseph Banks Rhine (1895-1980) is usually considered the founder of modern professional parapsychology. Through his work at Duke University in the 1930s, he established a working research program (in the Lakatosian sense) for the controversial discipline, setting down various methodological
Tag, Sylvia G.
This article describes the formation and content of a required library and information research course for graduate and professional students enrolled in the Communication Sciences and Disorders Master of Arts degree program at Western Washington University. The course was created as a result of library assessment, student feedback, and faculty…
Valentina A. Polyanskaya
Full Text Available The article considers the results of psychological-educational research, implemented in teaching process of law students’, studying at bachelor level. Special attention is attached to self-determination of future lawyers in professional specialization during introduction training
Swift, Louise; Miles, Susan; Price, Gill M; Shepstone, Lee; Leinster, Sam J
There is little published evidence on what doctors do in their work that requires probability and statistics, yet the General Medical Council (GMC) requires new doctors to have these skills. This study investigated doctors' use of and attitudes to probability and statistics with a view to informing undergraduate teaching.An email questionnaire was sent to 473 clinicians with an affiliation to the University of East Anglia's Medical School.Of 130 respondents approximately 90 per cent of doctors who performed each of the following activities found probability and statistics useful for that activity: accessing clinical guidelines and evidence summaries, explaining levels of risk to patients, assessing medical marketing and advertising material, interpreting the results of a screening test, reading research publications for general professional interest, and using research publications to explore non-standard treatment and management options.Seventy-nine per cent (103/130, 95 per cent CI 71 per cent, 86 per cent) of participants considered probability and statistics important in their work. Sixty-three per cent (78/124, 95 per cent CI 54 per cent, 71 per cent) said that there were activities that they could do better or start doing if they had an improved understanding of these areas and 74 of these participants elaborated on this. Themes highlighted by participants included: being better able to critically evaluate other people's research; becoming more research-active, having a better understanding of risk; and being better able to explain things to, or teach, other people.Our results can be used to inform how probability and statistics should be taught to medical undergraduates and should encourage today's medical students of the subjects' relevance to their future careers. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Manduca, Cathryn A.
Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) higher education is in need of improved teaching methods to increase learning for all students. Faculty professional development programs are a widespread strategy for fostering this improvement. Studies of faculty development programs have focused on program design and the impact of…
Ynalvez, Ruby; Garza-Gongora, Claudia; Ynalvez, Marcus Antonius; Hara, Noriko
Although doctoral mentors recognize the benefits of providing quality advisement and close guidance, those of sharing project management responsibilities with mentees are still not well recognized. We observed that mentees, who have the opportunity to co-manage projects, generate more written output. Here we examine the link between research…
Suter, Esther; Lait, Jana; Macdonald, Laura; Wener, Pamela; Law, Rebecca; Khalili, Hossein; McCarthy, Patricia L
The purpose of this paper is to describe the process used to initiate research capacity building in a community of practice (CoP) focused on the research and evaluation of inter-professional education and collaboration. This CoP, composed of members from across Canada, is a committee of the Canadian Interprofessional Health Collaborative (CIHC), a national collaborative that aims to advance inter-professional education and collaboration in healthcare. The committee mapped recommendations that emerged from a number of CIHC reports onto a research capacity building framework. The expertise of the diverse members in conjunction with this unique mapping process allowed the committee to identify its long-term research and evaluation objectives and strategies. This resulted in the formation of three working groups, each tasked with activities that contribute to the committee's overall goal of building research capacity in inter-professional education and collaboration. A framework provides a structured approach to identifying research and evaluation priorities and objectives. Furthermore, the process of applying the framework engages the committee members in determining the course of action. The process can be easily transferred to other areas in need of research capacity building.
Bengtsen, Søren Smedegaard
pedagogies: To what extent does the personal and social relation between doctoral supervisors and students influence the learning outcome of the PhD, and how do doctoral supervisors reflect this pedagogical element? During my research stay at the Oxford Learning Institute, University of Oxford, in the spring...... the personal (private) and professional sides of the supervisor-student relationship. This group of supervisors find an emotional bond between supervisors and students to be potentially dangerous and threatening the sober and Socratic academic relation in the supervision process. The second category contains...... of trust and honesty in the supervision process, which hightens the quality of the research and the probability for timely completion. The variety of supervisor perspectives show that even within a small sample of a relatively homogenous educational context the pedagogical implications for the research...
The Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Applied Research is given to a psychologist whose research has led to important discoveries or developments in the field of applied psychology. The 2017 recipient is Cameron J. Camp, whose innovative programs have informed psychologists in working with dementia patients to improve their living skills and enhance their independence. Camp's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Domenech Rodriguez, Melanie M.; Erickson Cornish, Jennifer A; Thomas, Janet T; Forrest, Linda; Anderson, Austin; Bow, James N
Professional psychologists are expected to know ethical standards and engage in proactive analysis of ethical considerations across professional roles (e.g., practice, research, teaching). Yet, little is known about the current state of doctoral ethics education in professional psychology, including the content covered and pedagogical strategies used to ensure developing this core component of professional competency (de las Fuentes, Willmuth, & Yarrow, 2005). A survey of ethics educators fro...
This talk considers the role of graduate training from a broad perspective --- that of making professional physicists. Following Shulman's definition and characterization of 'professionals' , it may be observed that graduate student preparation in research follows a traditional and effective track of creating professionals. However, at the same time, other forms professional activity of physicists, notably teaching and educational practice, remain largely absent. This talk presents a model of the contextual nature of student learning that sheds light on why and how this division occurs. Given such attention to context, this talk then examines a graduate student program in physics that is designed to augment the traditional training of graduate students in order to more fully inform and prepare students for their future roles. Data are presented from a study of a local four-year implementation of the national Preparing Future Physics Faculty Program to document the structure, key features, and outcomes of the program. Results include a framework and general heuristics for successful implementation, and the impact of emphasizing education and physics education research. Among the findings, this graduate training program demonstrates one mechanism for infusing physics education research and its findings into the broader physics community.  Shulman. L.S., Professing the Liberal Arts, In Education and Democracy: Re-imagining Liberal Learning in America, edited by Robert Orrill. New York: College Board Publications, 1997
Jerzy Marian Brzeziński
Full Text Available In this article I present a model of associations between two social domains: the scientific research domain (here psychology and the professional practice domain. In the former case, its quality is determined by social and individual methodological awareness (MA. I introduce my own definition of MA. What determines the validity and usefulness of practical actions undertaken by professionals (e.g., assessment, therapy in the practice domain is the accurately constructed empirical theory high in descriptive power, explanatory power and predictive power. I propose a model (my own conceptualization in which I analyze information flow between the domains of scientific research (psychology as a science and professional practice (psychology as a profession. In the subsequent and final part I discuss my own model which links theory and practice: Scientific Research and Professional Practice in Psychology (SRPPP. The article ends with a presentation of three contexts in which the interrelationship between theory and practice is immersed: the ethical, psychological and cultural contexts.
Holm, Søren; Hofmann, Bjørn
A precondition for reducing scientific misconduct is evidence about scientists' attitudes. We need reliable survey instruments, and this study investigates the reliability of Kalichman's "Survey 2: research misconduct" questionnaire. The study is a post hoc analysis of data from three surveys among biomedical doctoral students in Scandinavia (2010-2015). We perform reliability analysis, and exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis using a split-sample design as a partial validation. The results indicate that a reliable 13-item scale can be formed (Cronbach's α = .705), and factor analysis indicates that there are four reliable subscales each tapping a different construct: (a) general attitude to misconduct (α = .768), (b) attitude to personal misconduct (α = .784), (c) attitude to whistleblowing (α = .841), and (d) attitude to blameworthiness/punishment (α = .877). A full validation of the questionnaire requires further research. We, nevertheless, hope that the results will facilitate the increased use of the questionnaire in research.
Katherine P. Dabney
Full Text Available The underrepresentation of women in physics doctorate programs and in tenured academic positions indicates a need to evaluate what may influence their career choice and persistence. This qualitative paper examines eleven females in physics doctoral programs and professional science positions in order to provide a more thorough understanding of why and how women make career choices based on aspects both inside and outside of school and their subsequent interaction. Results indicate that female physicists experience conflict in achieving balance within their graduate school experiences and personal lives and that this then influences their view of their future careers and possible career choices. Female physicists report both early and long-term support outside of school by family, and later departmental support, as being essential to their persistence within the field. A greater focus on informal and out-of-school science activities for females, especially those that involve family members, early in life may help influence their entrance into a physics career later in life. Departmental support, through advisers, mentors, peers, and women’s support groups, with a focus on work-life balance can help females to complete graduate school and persist into an academic career.
Dabney, Katherine P.; Tai, Robert H.
The underrepresentation of women in physics doctorate programs and in tenured academic positions indicates a need to evaluate what may influence their career choice and persistence. This qualitative paper examines eleven females in physics doctoral programs and professional science positions in order to provide a more thorough understanding of why and how women make career choices based on aspects both inside and outside of school and their subsequent interaction. Results indicate that female physicists experience conflict in achieving balance within their graduate school experiences and personal lives and that this then influences their view of their future careers and possible career choices. Female physicists report both early and long-term support outside of school by family, and later departmental support, as being essential to their persistence within the field. A greater focus on informal and out-of-school science activities for females, especially those that involve family members, early in life may help influence their entrance into a physics career later in life. Departmental support, through advisers, mentors, peers, and women’s support groups, with a focus on work-life balance can help females to complete graduate school and persist into an academic career.
Cadwallader, Jean-Sébastien; Lebeau, Jean-Pierre; Lasserre, Evelyne; Letrilliart, Laurent
Since the 1990s, professional institutions worldwide have emphasised the need to develop research in general practice to improve the health of the population. The recent creation of professorships in general practice in French Universities should foster research in this field. Our aim was to explore the views of patients and relevant professionals on research in general practice. Qualitative study, using the grounded theory approach according to Strauss and Corbin, conducted in 2010 in three French regions. Nine focus groups were run to data saturation, and included 57 participants in four different categories: patients, non-academic GPs, academic GPs, academics in other disciplines. Most of the participants in the four categories described research in general practice as specific to the population managed and relevant for health care. They considered that its grounding in day-to-day practice enabled pragmatic approaches. The influence of the pharmaceutical industry, rivalries between university disciplines and a possible gap between research and practice were considered as pitfalls. The barriers identified were representations of the medical researcher as a "laboratory worker", the lack of awareness of any research in the discipline, and lack of time and training. While the views of patients and non-academic GPs are mostly focused on professional issues and the views of academics other than GPs on technical issues, academic GPs are in a position to play a role of interface between the universities and general practices. Although the role of GPs in research is perceived differently by the various protagonists, research in general practice has an undisputed legitimacy in France. Solutions for overcoming the identified barriers include research networks with appropriate resources and training and scientifically sound collaborative research projects, as already implemented in leading countries.
Battistella, Giuseppe; Berto, Giuliana; Bazzo, Stefania
To explore perceptions and unconscious psychological processes underlying handwashing behaviours of intensive care nurses, to implement organisational innovations for improving hand hygiene in clinical practice. An action-research intervention was performed in 2012 and 2013 in the intensive care unit of a public hospital in Italy, consisting of: structured interviews, semantic analysis, development and validation of a questionnaire, team discussion, project design and implementation. Five general workers, 16 staff nurses and 53 nurse students participated in the various stages. Social handwashing emerged as a structured and efficient habit, which follows automatically the pattern "cue/behaviour/gratification" when hands are perceived as "dirty". The perception of "dirt" starts unconsciously the process of social washing also in professional settings. Professional handwashing is perceived as goal-directed. The main concern identified is the fact that washing hands requires too much time to be performed in a setting of urgency. These findings addressed participants to develop a professional "habit-directed" hand hygiene procedure, to be implemented at beginning of workshifts. Handwashing is a ritualistic behaviour driven by deep and unconscious patterns, and social habits affect professional practice. Creating professional habits of hand hygiene could be a key solution to improve compliance in intensive care settings. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
van der Graaf, Peter; Forrest, Lynne F; Adams, Jean; Shucksmith, Janet; White, Martin
With increasing financial pressures on public health in England, the need for evidence of high relevance to policy is now stronger than ever. However, the ways in which public health professionals (PHPs) and researchers relate to one another are not necessarily conducive to effective knowledge translation. This study explores the perspectives of PHPs and researchers when interacting, with a view to identifying barriers to and opportunities for developing practice that is effectively informed by research. This research focused on examples from two responsive research schemes, which provide university-based support for research-related enquiries from PHPs: the NIHR SPHR Public Health Practitioner Evaluation Scheme 1 and the responsive research service AskFuse 2 . We examined enquiries that were submitted to both between 2013 and 2015, and purposively selected eight enquiries for further investigation by interviewing the PHPs and researchers involved in these requests. We also identified individuals who were eligible to make requests to the schemes but chose not to do so. In-depth interviews were conducted with six people in relation to the PHPES scheme, and 12 in relation to AskFuse. The interviews were transcribed and analysed using thematic framework analysis. Verification and extension of the findings were sought in a stakeholder workshop. PHPs recognised the importance of research findings for informing their practice. However, they identified three main barriers when trying to engage with researchers: 1) differences in timescales; 2) limited budgets; and 3) difficulties in identifying appropriate researchers. The two responsive schemes addressed some of these barriers, particularly finding the right researchers to work with and securing funding for local evaluations. The schemes also supported the development of new types of evidence. However, other barriers remained, such as differences in timescales and the resources needed to scale-up research. An increased
Doctoral Students in New Zealand Have Low Awareness of Institutional Repository Existence, but Positive Attitudes Toward Open Access Publication of Their Work. A Review of: Stanton, K. V., & Liew, C. L. (2012. Open access theses in institutional repositories: An exploratory study of the perceptions of doctoral students. Information Research, 17(1, paper 507. Available from http://InformationR.net/ir/17-1/paper507.html
Theresa S. Arndt
benefits of IR participation were removal of cost for readers, ease of sharing research, increased exposure and citing of one's work, and professional networking. The greatest perceived risks were plagiarism, loss of ability to publish elsewhere, and less prestige relative to traditional publication. The reason most given for selecting a specific publication outlet was recommendation of a doctoral supervisor. Disciplinary differences in responses were not sizable.For additional interpretation, the authors applied Rogers’s diffusion of innovations theory to determine the extent to which IRs are effective innovations. The authors posit that repositories will become a more widely adopted innovations as awareness of IRs in general increases, and through increased awareness that IR content is discoverable through major search engines such as Google Scholar, thus improving usability and increasing dissemination of research. Using the social exchange theory framework, the authors found that respondents’ expressed willingness to deposit their work in IRs demonstrated altruistic motives for sharing their research freely with others, appreciation for the reciprocity of gaining access to others’ research, and awareness of the potential direct reward of having their work cited more often.Conclusion – Authors identified that lack of awareness, rather than resistance to deposit, as the main barrier to IR depository participation. Major benefits perceived for participating included the public good of knowledge sharing and increased exposure for one’s work. Concerns included copyright and plagiarism issues. These findings have implications for communication and marketing campaigns to promote doctoral students' deposit of their work in institutional repositories. While respondents reported low direct use of IRs for conducting research, the vast majority reported using Google Scholar, and so may have unknowingly accessed open access repository content. This finding suggests that
Gurenlian, JoAnn R; Rogo, Ellen J; Spolarich, Ann Eshenaur
Doctoral dental hygiene education would prepare scholars and leaders to improve population health through changes in oral health policy and delivery. Discussions about doctoral education in dental hygiene have centered on the need to create a cadre of dental hygiene researchers and scholars who will expand the body of knowledge for the profession. It has been proposed that scholars are needed to lead the development of theory and disseminate knowledge unique to the discipline of dental hygiene. Transformation to doctoral education is not a new trend as many other health care disciplines have already implemented curricular models, establishing the doctoral degree for entry level into practice. The Institute of Medicine has called for the exploration of new models for care delivery. Dental hygienists need to be prepared with leadership skills enabling them to participate and lead interprofessional teams and develop policies designed to improve the delivery of oral health care services to enhance population health. Current educational models do not adequately prepare dental hygienists to serve in this capacity. The purpose of this article is to present 2 models of doctoral education for dental hygiene that will illustrate how dental hygienists can be better prepared as scholars and leaders for the profession. These proposed models of doctoral education in dental hygiene present a paradigm shift in dental hygiene education. As with other disciplines that have evolved, both academically and professionally, dental hygiene will be positioned to achieve the hallmark of professional status with this terminal degree. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This paper provides a report of a case study on the professional agency of an experienced early years teacher, Sarah, who successfully embedded a chemical science program of teaching-learning for her students aged between 6 and 8. Interactive ethnography informs the research design, and discursive psychology provides the tools for the analysis of Sarah's speech acts for her positioning as a responsible agent. Reframing the problem of primary teacher reluctance to teach science in terms of primary teachers' professional agency using discursive psychology, this ontological study provides new insight into issues related to the provision of science education in primary schools and asks: How do primary teachers position themselves and others in relation to science curriculum and education? The research calls for research methodologies and reform efforts in primary science that are better grounded in the local moral orders of primary schools.
Full Text Available Introduction: The 2004 Children Act in the UK saw the introduction of integrated working in children's services. A raft of change followed with processes designed to make joint working easier, and models and theories to support the development of integrated work. This paper explores the links between key concepts and practice. Methods: A practitioner action research approach is taken using an autoethnographic account kept over six months. The research question was, to what extent is this group collaborating? Results: When the architecture of practice was revealed, differences between espoused and real practice could be seen. Whilst understanding and displaying the outward signs of an effective multi professional group, the individuals did not trust one another. This was exhibited by covert interprofessional issues. As a result, collaborative inertia was achieved. This realisation prompted them to participate in further developmental and participative action research. Conclusion: The paper concludes that trust and relational agency are central to effective leadership of multi professional teams.
Cullen, Theresa A.; Akerson, Valarie L.; Hanson, Deborah L.
Teachers are required to work with data on a daily basis to assess the effectiveness of their teaching strategies, but may not approach it as research. This paper presents a reflective discussion of how and when a professional development team used an action research project to help 12 K-6 teachers explore the effectiveness of reform based Nature of Science (NOS) teaching strategies in their classrooms. The team encouraged community development and provided “just in time” supports to scaffold the steps of the action research process for teachers. The discussion includes concerns they addressed and issues related to management and support of the professional development model. Evaluation results are shared to suggest how this approach can be improved in the future.
The 2004 Children Act in the UK saw the introduction of integrated working in children's services. A raft of change followed with processes designed to make joint working easier, and models and theories to support the development of integrated work. This paper explores the links between key concepts and practice. A practitioner action research approach is taken using an autoethnographic account kept over six months. The research question was, to what extent is this group collaborating? When the architecture of practice was revealed, differences between espoused and real practice could be seen. Whilst understanding and displaying the outward signs of an effective multi professional group, the individuals did not trust one another. This was exhibited by covert interprofessional issues. As a result, collaborative inertia was achieved. This realisation prompted them to participate in further developmental and participative action research. The paper concludes that trust and relational agency are central to effective leadership of multi professional teams.
Lila Adriana Castañeda Mosquera
Full Text Available This paper aims at exploring diverse stages in the research on the educator, passing through three specific moments: in the first one, the research focuses on the teacher’s skills; in the second, on the education philosophy, and finally, the knowledge of the educator is analyzed in the third one. The professional knowledge of teaching diverges from the exercise of a specific discipline; thus, for example, to be a teacher of music is not the same thing as being a musician. From this perspective, two different research approaches on the professional knowledge of the teacher are herein presented: the first one is that of the Research and School Renewal Group (IRES from the University of Seville, while the other comes from the research group Through the Classrooms of Colombia (INVAUCOL, from the Universidad Pedagógica Nacional of Colombia. After analyzing the panorama about the teacher’s professional knowledge, the article closes by asking some questions and advancing some proposals on the formation of music educators.
Full Text Available Background: University based research is an integral part of many prestigious medical schools worldwide. The benefits of student-conducted research have long been highlighted in the literature. This article aims to identify the insights of medical students concerning research training, including perceived hurdles in the way of conducting research, and the utility of a research thesis in acquiring a Doctor of Medicine degree.Methods: A total of 808 medical students at Jordan University of Science and Technology were selected by random sampling with a confidence level of 95%. A survey was constructed by a group of students through literature review and group discussions. The survey utilized polar and Likert scale questions to collect data from the students. Statistical inferences were then obtained through analysis of means and one sample t-test of the hypothesis.Results: A total of 687 students filled out the survey (85%. Analysis shows that respondents have a strong and positive attitude towards research. The respondents with past research experience constituted 14.3% of those surveyed. Those respondents identified the barriers faced by them during their experience. The students showed high degree of agreement that a research thesis should be a prerequisite for graduation with statistical significance of p-value ≤0.05.Conclusion: Modifying the curriculum to include research methodology is recommended, and developing it to incorporate a thesis as a requirement for graduation may be advised upon further review.
While studies have examined a myriad of issues in doctoral study, much of this research has not employed the tools of major social and cultural thinkers to the dynamics of doctoral education. This paper explores the use of Bourdieu's notion of field to render visible the practices and contexts of doctoral education that produce inequalities across…
Marta Regina Brostolin
Full Text Available This article presents part of a broader research developed between July 2010 and October 2013 and proposes an analysis of the professional development of four children’s education teachers participating in a training-research group. The resource used to give support to the reflections was the production of (auto biographical narratives stimulated by mnemonic resources such as photos, films, objects, etc. The analysis reflects their formative journeys and professional development. The fragments analyzed showed the progress of the teachers, from getting to know the school as a space for learning and professional development, remembering moments of initial training, teaching initiation and, later, investing in their career by means of new courses, lato and strictu sensu. The narratives also show that the teachers are aware of their obligation and of the complexity involved in educating a child universally, and of their vulnerability, as well as of the need for constructing their specific professional life that integrates knowledge on childhood in the 21st century.
Helen M. Seeley
Full Text Available Objective ‐ This paper examines the role of a health information professional in a large multidisciplinary project to improve services for head injury.Methods ‐ An action research approach was taken, with the information professional acting as co‐ordinator. Change management processes were guided by theory and evidence. The health information professional was responsible for an ongoing literature review on knowledge management (clinical and political issues, data collection and analysis (from patient records, collating and comparing data (to help develop standards, and devising appropriate dissemination strategies.Results ‐ Important elements of the health information management role proved to be 1 co‐ordination; 2 setting up mechanisms for collaborative learning through information sharing; and 3 using the theoretical frameworks (identified from the literature review to help guide implementation. The role that emerged here has some similarities to the informationist role that stresses domain knowledge, continuous learning and working in context (embedding. This project also emphasised the importance of co‐ordination, and the ability to work across traditional library information analysis (research literature discovery and appraisal and information analysis of patient data sets (the information management role.Conclusion ‐ Experience with this project indicates that health information professionals will need to be prepared to work with patient record data and synthesis of that data, design systems to co‐ordinate patient data collection, as well as critically appraise external evidence.
Green, J K; Huntington, A D
Professional development opportunities for nurses are increasingly being offered in the online environment and therefore it is imperative that learning designers, nurse educators and healthcare organisations consider how best to support staff to enable Registered Nurses to capitalise on the resources available. Research participants explored educational strategies to support digitally differentiated nurses' engagement with professional development activities in an online environment through a participatory action research project that collected data over a 16 month period through six focus groups before being analysed thematically. The reality of work-based, e-learning while managing clinical workloads can be problematic however specific measures, such as having a quiet space and computer away from the clinical floor, access to professional development resources from anywhere and at any time, can be effective. A 'one-size-fits-all' approach to resources offered will not meet the needs of diverse staffing groups whereas heutagogical learning offers tangible benefits to Registered Nurses seeking professional development opportunities in this context. Apparent proficiency with technological skills may not reflect a Registered Nurse's actual ability in this environment and face-to-face support offered regularly, rather than remedially, can be beneficial for some staff. Implementing specific strategies can result in successful transition to the online environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Willcuts, Meredith H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
The overall purpose of this action research study was to explore the experiences of ten middle school science teachers involved in a three-year partnership program between scientists and teachers at a Department of Energy national laboratory, including the impact of the program on their professional development, and to improve the partnership program by developing a set of recommendations based on the study’s findings. This action research study relied on qualitative data including field notes recorded at the summer academies and data from two focus groups with teachers and scientists. Additionally, the participating teachers submitted written reflections in science notebooks, participated in open-ended telephone interviews that were transcribed verbatim, and wrote journal summaries to the Department of Energy at the end of the summer academy. The analysis of the data, collaboratively examined by the teachers, the scientists, and the science education specialist acting as co-researchers on the project, revealed five elements critical to the success of the professional development of science teachers. First, scientist-teacher partnerships are a unique contribution to the professional development of teachers of science that is not replicated in other forms of teacher training. Second, the role of the science education specialist as a bridge between the scientists and teachers is a unique and vital one, impacting all aspects of the professional development. Third, there is a paradox for classroom teachers as they view the professional development experience from two different lenses – that of learner and that of teacher. Fourth, learning for science teachers must be designed to be constructivist in nature. Fifth, the principles of the nature of science must be explicitly showcased to be seen and understood by the classroom teacher.
Brodin, Eva M.
Critical and creative thinking constitute important learning outcomes at doctoral level across the world. While the literature on doctoral education illuminates this matter through the lens of experienced senior researchers, the doctoral students' own perspective is missing. Based upon interviews with 14 doctoral students from four disciplines at…
Nitschke, I.A.; Brennan, T.; Wadach, J.B.; O'Neil, R.
The term house doctor may be generalized to include persons skilled in the use of instruments and procedures necessary to identify, diagnose, and correct indoor air quality problems as well as energy, infiltration, and structural problems in houses. A radon house doctor would then be a specialist in radon house problems. Valuable experience in the skills necessary to be developed by radon house doctors has recently been gained in an extensive radon monitoring and mitigation program in upstate New York sponsored by Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation and the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority. These skills, to be described in detail in this paper, include: (i) the use of appropriate instruments, (ii) the evaluation of the symptoms of a radon-sick house, (iii) the diagnostic procedures required to characterize radon sources in houses, (iv) the prescription procedures needed to specify treatment of the problem, (v) the supervision of the implementation of the treatment program, (vi) the check-up procedures required to insure the house cured of radon problems. 31 references, 3 tables
Lee, Jihong; Lee, Sun Haeng; Lee, Boram; Yang, In Jun; Chang, Gyu Tae
The aim of this study was to investigate autism spectrum disorder (ASD) clinical practice patterns of Korean medicine doctors (KMDs) through questionnaire survey. Questionnaires on Korean medicine (KM) treatment for ASD were distributed to 255 KMDs on December 5, 2016. The KMDs were psychiatrists, pediatricians, or general practitioners, who treated patients with ASD. The questionnaire covered items on treatment methods, aims of treatment, KM syndrome differentiation, diagnostic tools, and sociodemographic characteristics. Frequency analysis was conducted to describe the participants and their practices. A total 22.4% KMDs (n = 57/255) completed the questionnaires and 54 KMDs (21.2%) matched the inclusion criteria. The KMDs utilized herbal medicine (27.3%), body acupuncture (17.6%), scalp acupuncture (10.7%), moxibustion (6.4%), and Korean medical psychotherapy (5.9%) to treat ASD. The most commonly prescribed herbal medicine was Yukmijihwang-tang. Forty-eight (88.9%) KMDs responded that they used KM syndrome differentiation. 'Organ system, Qi, Blood, Yin, Yang, Fluid and Humor diagnosis' was most frequently used for syndrome differentiation. ASD was mainly diagnosed based on the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) and DSM-5. The present study demonstrated the current status of KMDs' diagnosis and treatment of ASD. In future clinical trials and clinical practice guidelines, these findings will provide meaningful information on the actual practice patterns of KMDs.
Ana Paula Batista da Silva
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the interaction between scientific research and professional accounting practice. In this exploratory study, as it examines a theme that has been little explored in Brazil, a quantitative approach was adopted and a survey was used as the data collection technique, supported by a research instrument with questions on aspects like: interest in and use of research; study and development of themes; means to disseminate the research; and causes of the gap between research and practice. Considering the objectives, it is classified as descriptive, since it was described how this interaction occurs. Data were analyze through factor analysis in R, resuming them in factors for further analysis, validated through the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO test and Bartlett’s sphericity yet. In conclusion, due to their different characteristics, it is natural that some distancing exists between research and accounting practice. This can be minimized though, among other factors, through professionals’ great interest in knowing and applying the research results in practice, and also by confirming that the most researched themes in accountancy are the themes of greatest interest in accounting professionals’ opinion. These results suggest that greater attention is due to the interaction and communication between the academy and accounting professionals, with a view to greater efficacy.
Gibbon, Bernard; Crane, Julie
Missed care is a recently described concept that is subject to an increasing amount of international nursing research. The impact of missed care is associated with poorer patient outcomes (mortality and morbidity) and poorer levels of patient satisfaction with the services provided by the hospital. Missed care has also been linked to decreased staff satisfaction and increased intention to leave. Overall disaffection amongst registered nurses has also been reported. Professional socialisation refers to the acquisition of behaviours within cultural norms, and it has been suggested that students enter a period of professional socialisation during their programme. Whilst it has been proposed that students may absorb the characteristics of those around them, to date, no empirical studies have reported the impact of missed care on student nurses. The aim of this project is to explore the impact of missed care on the professional socialisation of student nurses. A qualitative study was undertaken in one higher education institute in UK with final year pre-registration nursing degree (adult field) students. Focus group interviews, utilizing a broad topic guide, were used to collect data which was analysed using thematic analysis. Student nurses were aware that some planned care is missed and these findings resonated with those identified in the literature. In addition to illuminating aspects of professional socialisation, analysis yielded five themes with regards to missed care: awareness, rationale, impact, strategies to avoid and influence of missed care on career aspiration. Student nurses exposed to missed care appear to accept this as part of their professional socialisation. With regards to professional socialisation, student nurses developed a pragmatic acceptance that care would be missed and that this could happen in any environment. As such they did not see missed care as influencing their career aspirations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract In the growing body of research on the practice of training and development, several studies suggest that use of research-based findings in practice is low. The present study was designed to better understand the research-practice gap by exploring these questions: (1 Which published sources in the field are practicing professionals reading? How frequently do they read these materials? (2 Which conferences and meetings do practicing professionals attend? How frequently do they attend these events? (3 In what formats are research content most usable to practicing professionals? (4 What are practicing professionals’ general perceptions of research publications and presentations? Key findings point to publications having a wider reach among practicing professionals than conferences and, of those publications, professional magazines have a wider reach than peer-reviewed journals. In terms of the manner in which the content is presented, practicing professionals prefer case studies from the workplace over other types of content. Résumé : Dans le corpus croissant de recherches portant sur la pratique de la formation et du perfectionnement, plusieurs études suggèrent une faible utilisation des résultats de recherche dans la pratique. La présente étude a été conçue afin de mieux comprendre l’écart entre la recherche et la pratique par l’examen des questions suivantes : (1 Quelles sources de publications du domaine les professionnels pratiquants lisent-ils? À quelle fréquence lisent-ils ces publications? (2 À quelles conférences et réunions les professionnels pratiquants assistent-ils? À quelle fréquence assistent-ils à ces événements? (3 Dans quels formats les contenus de recherche sont-ils le plus facilement utilisables par les professionnels pratiquants? (4 Quelles sont les perceptions générales des professionnels pratiquants envers les publications et présentations de recherche? Les résultats principaux
Morténius, Helena; Twetman, Svante
BACKGROUND: Despite the availability of contemporary research advances, only a limited fraction is implemented into dental practice. One possible way to facilitate this process is to stimulate the research and development (R&D) awareness and interest with aid of strategic communication. METHODS......: The aim of the study was to analyse the role of a strategic communication in R&D awareness and interest among dental care professionals (DCP) over a 12-year period. A second aim was to compare the findings with those from primary care professionals (PCP). The project had a prospective design...... and the intervention was conducted through established oral, written and digital channels. The outcome was captured by two validated questionnaires submitted after 7 and 12 years, respectively. An additional Questionnaire file shows the details [see Additional file 1]. The material consisted of 599 health care...
Doctoral education is a major priority for European universities. In the context of the Bologna Process the importance of doctoral education as the third cycle of higher education and the first stage of a young researchers career, and thus in linking the European Higher Education and Research Areas, was first highlighted in the 2003 Berlin Report. The core component of doctoral training is the advancement of knowledge through original research. considering the need for structured doctoral programs and the need for transparent supervision and assessment, we note that the normal workload of the third cycle in most countries would correspond 3-4 years full time. This is spirit of the new Spanish Doctoral Law. Then, universities should ensure that their doctoral programmes promote interdisciplinary training and the development of transferable skills, thus meeting the needs of the wider employment market. We need to achieve and overall increase in the numbers of doctoral candidates taking up research careers as early stage researchers and also increase the employability as a normal way as it is the case of other advance countries. In Spain, universities with doctoral nuclear programmes and the CIEMAT, with the sponsorship of the nuclear sector, a doctoral school in nuclear science and engineering should be created to enhance the research careers of Young students for the future of nuclear activities in Spain. (Author)
Blanca M Seijo Echevarría
Full Text Available Con el propósito de diagnosticar la interiorización de los valores éticos profesionales a los alumnos de medicina seleccionados, se realiza esta investigación descriptiva causal. Para ello se determina el Sistema de Valores Éticos de la profesión médica en Camagüey, luego de un estudio profundo de los Códigos de Ética Médica Internacionales y Nacionales y la utilización de diferentes métodos y procedimientos propios de las investigaciones psicológicas y pedagógicas, éstos últimos apoyaron también la realización del diagnóstico de la situación actual de los estudiantes, donde se evidencia una diferencia notoria entre la auto evaluación y la co-evaluación siendo necesario acercar estos criterios. Valores como responsabilidad, profesionalidad, ser culto, internacionalismo y honestidad tienen dificultades en su asimilación. Queda demostrado que la metodología empleada es factible de ser utilizada para el diagnóstico al responder los resultados con las expectativasWith the purpose of diagnostic the ins and outs of the ethical professional values to the selected medicine students this descriptive investigation was carried out. With that purpose the System of Ethical Values of the medical profession in Camaguey was set after a deep study of the International and National Codes of medical Ethics and the use of different methods and procedures of psychological and pedagogic investigations, these also supported the doing of the diagnosis of the current situation of the students, where a notorius difference is evidenced between the self evaluation and the coevaluation being necessary to bring near these approaches. Values as responsability, internacionalism and honesty have difficulties to be cultivated. It is demostrated that the used methodology is feasible of being used for the diagnosis when responding the resultswith expectations
M.P. Chaban; Z.I. Shevtsova; V.V. Gaponov
The life and professional activity of Vasyl Tymofiiovych Skrylnikov — a famous doctor-hygienist, scientist, and public figure have been represented. V.T. Skrylnikov contributed to the development of sanitary-prophylaxis direction in zemstvo medicine in Katerynoslav province in the second half of the 19th century; he was the first district sanitary doctor in Katerynoslav. The scientist actively studied medical features of natural agents, namely Tymofiivska clay. He successfully worked at Slovi...
Siemensma, Gemma; Ritchie, Ann; Lewis, Suzanne
This article is the first in a new series in this regular feature. The intention of the series is to look at important global developments in health science libraries. Librarians will be invited to share with HILJ readers key initiatives in their country or region. These articles should serve as a road map, describing the key changes in the field and exploring factors driving these changes. We initiate this series with an article by three Australian librarians who use research findings to depict the evolving professional landscape in their country. The starting point of their analysis is a report completed in 2011 which looked into likely future workforce and education requirements for health library professionals. The authors trace the achievements since then, most notably in the areas of research, advocacy and education. Clearly, a great deal has been achieved leading to a greater return on investment. The authors maintain that the key to shaping the profession and enhancing the status of librarians is ongoing professional development. To this end, Australia is promoting a systematic, competency based health specialist certification. Finally, they identify trends impacting on health librarianship, such as the growing importance of research data management and consumer health literacy. JM. © 2017 Health Libraries Group.
Daniel L. Moody
Full Text Available In most professional (applied disciplines, research findings take a long time to filter into practice, if they ever do at all. The result of this is under-utilisation of research results and sub-optimal practices. There are a number of reasons for the lack of knowledge transfer. On the "demand side", people working in professional practice have little time available to keep up with the latest research in their field. In addition, the volume of research published each year means that the average practitioner would not have time to read all the research articles in their area of interest even if they devoted all their time to it. From the "supply side", academic research is primarily focused on the production rather than distribution of knowledge. While they have highly developed mechanisms for transferring knowledge among themselves, there is little investment in the distribution of research results be-yond research communities. The World Wide Web provides a potential solution to this problem, as it provides a global information infrastructure for connecting those who produce knowledge (researchers and those who need to apply this knowledge (practitioners. This paper describes two projects which use the World Wide Web to make research results directly available to support decision making in the workplace. The first is a successful knowledge management project in a health department which provides medical staff with on-line access to the latest medical research at the point of care. The second is a project currently in progress to implement a similar system to support decision making in IS practice. Finally, we draw some general lessons about how to improve transfers of knowledge from research and practice, which could be applied in any discipline.
Koffi-Tessio, Annick Viwalé; Oniankitan, Owonayo; Mijiyawa, Moustafa
A study has been carried out by Togolese medical doctors in order to determine the perceived and the real life of their profession. The study, which was transversal, has taken in account a sample of 52 medical doctors made on the basis of a cautious choice. Most of these medical doctors (15 general practitioners, 23 specialists and 14 hospitalo-universitaires) work in the medical cares centres of Lomé. A sheet of survey has permitted the collection of demographic data and data relating to the medical studies and career. The 52 medical doctors included in the study (7 women, 45 men) were between 25 and 59 years old; their age of getting their A-level was between 16 and 23 years old, and that of getting the doctorate diploma between 24 and 37. The length of professional experience stands between 8 months and 27 years. The marital status was specified by 47 of the 52 medical doctors: 13 single, one divorced, and 33 married; 5 of the 7 women who took part in the survey were single and without any child. The love of the profession (65%), the social status it confers (37%) and the honour tied to the profession (27%) were the main motives of choosing the profession. The decision of doing medical studies was taken during secondary studies by 45 of the 52 persons. The faculty of medicine of Lomé has been the study frame to general medicine studies of 35 persons (67%). The low payment (83%), the poverty of the patients (83%), the narrowness of the technical platform (79%), the insufficiency of cares structures in paramedical personnel (67%), the insufficiency of continuing education (60%), and the lack or insufficiency of drugs (58%) were the main problems encountered during their professional experience by the people questioned. 22 medical doctors (43%) have estimated that their profession has given them a particular social status. Only 8 medical doctors have found that the real things they have gone trough in the profession matches with the idea they had, while 32 (62
Brown, Nancy C; McGee, Summer Johnson
One of the challenges of modern healthcare ethics practice is the navigation of boundaries. Practicing healthcare ethicists in the performance of their role must navigate meanings, choices, decisions and actions embedded in complex cultural and social relationships amongst diverse individuals. In light of the evolving state of modern healthcare ethics practice and the recent move toward professionalization via certification, understanding boundary navigation in healthcare ethics practice is critical. Because healthcare ethics is endowed with many boundaries which often delineate concerns about professional expertise and authority, epistemological reflection on the relationship between theory and practice points toward the social context as relevant to the conceptualization of boundaries. The skills of social scientists may prove helpful to provide data and insights into the conceptualization and navigation of clinical ethics qua profession. Empirical ethics research, which combines empirical description (usually social scientific) with normative-ethical analysis and reflection, is a way forward as we engage and reflect upon issues which have implications for practice standards and professionalization of the role. This requires cooperative engagement of the descriptive and normative disciplines to explore our understandings of boundaries in healthcare ethics practice. This will contribute to the ongoing reflection not only as we envision the professional role but to ensure that it is enacted in practice.
The extensive clinical experience of senior nurses is a valuable resource to assist new nurses to prepare for their professional future in the clinical environment. This study employed the professional life narratives of psychiatric nurses in Taiwan to establish professional meaning and create a development image for Taiwan psychiatric nurses. This study used a narrative approach to interview a psychiatric nurse with nearly thirty years of clinical experience. Researchers analyzed findings and constructed a new meaningful vision in light of social and cultural changes. Results identified three periods, namely Enlightenment, Shaping, and Spiritual Care. Enlightenment focuses on the nurse as a helper; Shaping focuses on the fundamental need for nurses; and Transmitting focuses on spiritual care. These periods outline a development image for psychiatric care in which effectiveness of care shifts from "individual" to "professional". The significance of caring for psychiatric patients should be perceived through shaping, which is generated by social interaction. This case study may be applied to enhance psychiatric nursing education.
Full Text Available To help students navigate the digital environment, teachers not only need access to the right technology tools but they must also engage in pedagogically sound, high-quality professional development. For teachers, quality professional development can mean the difference between merely using technology tools and creating transformative change in the classroom. For students — especially those with learning disabilities (SWLDs — having well-prepared teachers can mean the difference between passive listening and active learning. This report discusses implementation and impact of a face-to-face professional development model designed to enhance teachers’ implementation of a web-based curriculum (the SOAR Student Toolkit for teaching online research strategies to all students (both general education students and SWLDs in the middle school classroom. Fifteen teachers and 446 students participated in this study. Data were gathered from three school-based implementations across two academic years. Results indicate that teachers found that the face-to-face professional development was of high quality (100%, the pace and format was appropriate (93%, and sufficient practice and feedback were provided (100%. All teachers said the professional development supported their professional growth in providing differentiated instruction for all students and integrating technology into their instruction. About half of the students agreed or strongly agreed that they were very happy with the use of the SOAR Student Toolkit, found it easy to use, believed it helped them learn online research strategies, and thought it was a good way to teach. Most students said they would use the SOAR Student Toolkit for future research projects at least sometimes. Students who learned the SOAR Student Toolkit from trained teachers improved scores an average of 29.2 percentage points on performance-based assessments, from 31.3% (SD = 22.1 at pretest to 60.5% (SD = 23.0 at
Full Text Available ... you talk to your doctor, nurse, pharmacist, dietitian, physical therapist, exercise physiologist or other healthcare professionals. Find ... Can I Expect? Introduction Getting Physically Active - Introduction - Physical Activity & Health - What Type of Activity is Best? - ...
Full Text Available ... to your doctor, nurse, pharmacist, dietitian, physical therapist, exercise physiologist or other healthcare professionals. Find a list ... Plan - Be Safe While Being Active - Stretching & Flexibility Exercises - Strength & Balance Exercises - Problems & Solutions for Being Active - ...
Raffai, Gellért; Bugán, Antal
In this study the stereotypes about psychotherapists and medical doctors were examined. 172 personality traits were selected and dimensions were created, that was grouped by three professions (engineers, physicians, psychotherapists). The research questionnaire contained 45 contrary personality dimensions, which was rated to the previous three professions. After the screening criteria, 101 persons were included in the statistical analysis. Analyses of the variance filtered out 20 of the 45 dimensions in which the professions did not differ and 25 profession-specific dimensions remained in the study. In these dimension, the doctors and the psychotherapists (with the exception of introversion-extroversion) were significantly different. Dimensional factor analysis was carried out by the dimensions of doctors and psychotherapists and it listed the dimensions to 3-3 factors. The first profile of the medical doctor released a picture of a doctor who has magical expectations of the patients, the second profile is distant, technocratic doctors, and the third is a pleasant human characteristics of medical images. The first factor of the psychotherapist is the humanistic therapist, the second profile is the cold, analytic therapist's image and the third is the image of a professional scientist. 2-2 factors are correlated, and the third ones in the trust / distrust towards the helpers are also connected. A hypothesis testing was carried out that people with own psychotherapy experiences and without own psychotherapeutic experience significantly differed: people with own psychotherapy experiences evaluated the psychotherapists significantly more imaginative, but in the other dimension there were no difference. Finally, we compared the assessments of the psychotherapists by men and women: women found them significantly more respectful, more scientific and more accurate workers, than the men did.
The Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Applied Research is given to a psychologist whose research has led to important discoveries or developments in the field of applied psychology. To be eligible, this research should have led to innovative applications in an area of psychological practice, including but not limited to assessment, consultation, instruction, or intervention (either direct or indirect). The 2015 recipient is Leonard A. Jason. Jason "is among the most prolific community psychology researchers whose work has had measurable and significant real-world impact. His work is characterized by a continuing desire to apply knowledge to major social problems. His research is methodologically sound and creative, collaborative, and participatory, thereby increasing stakeholders' support for proposed changes." Jason's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
If doctors take the costs of treatment into account when prescribing medication, their objectives differ from their patients' objectives because the patients are insured. This misalignment of interests hampers communication between patient and doctor. Giving cost incentives to doctors increases...... welfare if (i) the doctor's examination technology is sufficiently good or (ii) (marginal) costs of treatment are high enough. If the planner can costlessly choose the extent to which doctors take costs into account, he will opt for less than 100%. Optimal health care systems should implement different...... degrees of cost incentives depending on type of disease and/or doctor....
Rosendahl, D. H.; Bamzai, A.; Mcpherson, R. A.
There are many challenges to conducting inter- or multi-disciplinary research because basic research, applied research, management processes, disciplines, and even sub-disciplines have been "siloed" for so long that many research and management professionals find it difficult to communicate common interests and research needs. It is clear that the next generation of researchers must overcome these disciplinary biases and engage in more open dialogue with other disciplines and the management community in order to be better positioned to collaborate, speak a common language, and understand each other's needs. The U.S. Department of the Interior's South Central Climate Science Center recently conducted a professional development workshop for 28 early-career researchers involved in climate-related research across the South-Central U.S. The participants consisted of graduate students, postdocs, and junior faculty representing 17 different natural and social science disciplines and seven Universities/Institutions. The workshop provided the participants with guidance and instruction on how to overcome the identified challenges in conducting "actionable" research and how to better navigate multi-institutional and multi- or inter-disciplinary research. The workshop was comprised of: (1) a series of instructional presentations organized into themed sessions; (2) two keynote addresses to provide a broader perspective; (3) a real-world case study activity; (4) individual and group projects/presentations; and (5) field trips. In addition, we purposely created informal opportunities for participants to network, which met the goal of facilitating interdisciplinary interactions. An overview of the workshop experience will be provided, including a focus on those aspects leading to its ultimate success and recommendations for how to develop and implement a similar early-career workshop for your own purposes.
Aitchison, Claire; Mowbray, Susan
This paper explores the experiences of women doctoral students and the role of emotion during doctoral candidature. The paper draws on the concept of emotional labour to examine the two sites of emotional investment students experienced and managed during their studies: writing and family relationships. Emotion is perceived by many dominant…
In the Maine Physical Sciences Partnership (MainePSP), researchers at the University of Maine have joined together with the state's Department of Education, non-profits, and teachers in multiple school districts to create a dynamic and growing community dedicated to improving K12 education of the physical sciences. Through ongoing efforts to introduce and adapt instructional materials, guided by education research and research-guided professional development, we have built a community responsive to student and teacher needs. This work has fed back into the university setting, where teachers are playing a role in graduate courses taken by our Master of Science in Teaching students. In this talk, I will focus on the role of education research in the partnership, showing how we use research in professional development, the development of assessments, and the analysis of the resulting data. I will describe two projects, one to understand how teachers' content knowledge affects the development of items assessing knowledge of acceleration, the other to see how teachers use their content knowledge of systems and energy to make pedagogical choices based on students' incorrect ideas about conservation of energy. Sponsored in part by NSF Grants MSP-0962805, DRL-1222580, and DUE-1340033.
Mickelson, Grace; Suter, Esther; Deutschlander, Siegrid; Bainbridge, Lesley; Harrison, Liz; Grymonpre, Ruby; Hepp, Shelanne
The current gap in research on inter-professional collaboration and health human resources outcomes is explored by the Western Canadian Interprofessional Health Collaborative (WCIHC). In a recent research planning workshop with the four western provinces, 82 stakeholders from various sectors including health, provincial governments, research and education engaged with WCIHC to consider aligning their respective research agendas relevant to inter-professional collaboration and health human resources. Key research recommendations from a recent knowledge synthesis on inter-professional collaboration and health human resources as well as current provincial health priorities framed the discussions at the workshop. This knowledge exchange has helped to consolidate a shared current understanding of inter-professional education and practice and health workforce planning and management among the participating stakeholders. Ultimately, through a focused research program, a well-aligned approach between sectors to finding health human resources solutions will result in sustainable health systems reform. Copyright © 2013 Longwoods Publishing.
In this paper, I review a theoretical paradigm (attachment theory) which facilitates an understanding of how human care-giving and care-eliciting behaviours develop and are maintained over the lifespan. I argue that this paradigm has particular utility in: (i) the training of doctors; (ii) understanding why some doctors and medical students experience high levels of stress, and (iii) developing interventions to help those who struggle to manage high levels of work-related stress. I carried out a review of key texts and previously published studies of attachment styles in caregivers. Large-scale epidemiological studies, using valid and reliable measures, show that insecure attachment styles are found in a proportion of normal populations of both males and females. Insecure attachment is associated with impaired stress management and subtle deficits in care-giving sensitivity. It is reasonable to assume that a proportion of students entering medical training and doctors with performance problems may have insecure attachment styles which influence how they approach their training experience and how they manage occupational stress. Attachment theory is a useful paradigm for thinking about training as a professional caregiver. Insecure early attachment experiences may be a risk factor for poor stress management in some medical students and doctors who are exposed to increasing demands as carers. These findings lead to suggestions for possible research and support interventions.
Perumal, Kala Premarani
The profession of a doctor is considered to be one of the noblest professions. Doctors in general work around the clock in their deed of saving human lives and relieving them of physical ailments. However, on their personal front, most of them do not find them to fulfil their personal obligations. A work-life balance, which is nothing but the art of balancing personal and professional lives, is important for any individual to have fulfilment and satisfaction in life. This research intended to...
Ashok Kumar Bhardwaj
Full Text Available Research is a cornerstone for knowledge generation, which in turns requires capacity building for its tools and techniques. Despite having a vast infrastructure in India the research in medical science has been carried out in limited and focused institutions. In order to build the capacity in carrying out research activities a five-day planning workshop was conducted at state run medical college. Total 22 medical faculty members participated in the workshop with average public health experience of 12 years (range: 5–25 years. The knowledge was assessed objectively by multiple-choice questionnaire. The mean score increased from 6.7 to 7.9 from pre- to posttest. About seventy-percent participants showed improvement, whereas 21.0% showed deterioration in the knowledge and the rest showed the same score. Apart from knowledge skills also showed improvement as total 12 research projects were generated and eight were approved for funding by the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR, New Delhi. It can be concluded that a supportive environment for research can be built with the technical assistance.
Bruno, B. C.
The C-MORE Scholars Program provides hands-on, closely mentored research experiences to University of Hawaii (UH) undergraduates during the academic year. Students majoring in the geosciences, especially underrepresented students, from all campuses are encouraged to apply. The academic-year research is complemented by outreach, professional development and summer internships. Combined, these experiences help students develop the skills, confidence and passion that are essential to success in a geoscience career. Research. All students enter the program as trainees, where they learn lab and field research methods, computer skills and science principles. After one year, they are encouraged to reapply as interns, where they work on their own research project. Students who have successfully completed their intern year can reapply as fellows, where they conduct an independent research project such as an honors thesis. Students present their research at a Symposium through posters (trainees) or talks (interns and fellows). Interns and fellows help organize program activities and serve as peer mentors to trainees.Multi-tiered programs that build a pathway toward graduation have been shown to increase student retention and graduation success. Outreach. Undergraduate researchers rarely feel like experts when working with graduate students and faculty. For students to develop their identity as scientists, it is essential that they be given the opportunity to assume the role as expert. Engaging students in outreach is a win-win situation. Students gain valuable skills and confidence in sharing their research with their local community, and the public gets to learn about exciting research happening at UH. Professional Development. Each month, the Scholars meet to develop their professional skills on a particular topic, such as outreach, scientific presentations, interviewing, networking, and preparing application materials for jobs, scholarships and summer REUs. Students are
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Full Text Available ... for the doctor’s contact information and their preferred method of communication. Remember that nurses and pharmacists are also good sources of information. How to Talk to your Doctor Talking With Your Doctor , NIH ...
Davis, Kierrynn; Brownie, Sonya; Doran, Frances; Evans, Sue; Hutchinson, Marie; Mozolic-Staunton, Beth; Provost, Stephen; van Aken, Rosalie
The worldwide academic workforce is ageing. At the same time, health and human services workforces are expanding. The preparation of educators to fill gaps in expertise and to position the health sciences for future growth is an urgent need. The findings from a recent action learning project that aimed to enhance the professional growth and development of higher degree researcher student supervisors in a School of Health and Human Sciences are presented. Seven early career researchers and the facilitator met for two hours every two to three weeks over 4 months between April and July 2010, in a rural and regional university in New South Wales, Australia. The processes initiated were a combination of experiential knowledge, referral to relevant published reports, use of an effective supervision checklist, and critical conversations. Learning outcomes centered on higher degree management and supervision pedagogy, communities of practice, knowledge translation, and the establishment of a research culture. The contextual barriers and implications of the methodology and learning outcomes for the professional development of health and human science practitioners, researchers and educators is also discussed. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Ali, Farhad; Shet, Arun; Yan, Weirong; Al-Maniri, Abdullah; Atkins, Salla; Lucas, Henry
Research capacity is scarce in low- and middle-income country (LMIC) settings. Social determinants of health research (SDH) is an area in which research capacity is lacking, particularly in Asian countries. SDH research can support health decision-makers, inform policy and thereby improve the overall health and wellbeing of the population. In order to continue building this capacity, we need to know to what extent training exists and how challenges could be addressed from the perspective of students and staff. This paper aims to describe the challenges involved in training scholars to undertake research on the SDH in four Asian countries - China, India, Oman and Vietnam. In-depth interviews were conducted with research scholars, research supervisors and principal investigators (n = 13) at ARCADE partner institutions, which included eight universities and research institutes. In addition, structured questionnaires (n = 70) were used to collect quantitative data relating to the courses available, teaching and supervisory capacity, and related issues for students being trained in research on SDH. Simple descriptive statistics were calculated from the quantitative data and thematic analysis applied to the qualitative data. We identified a general lack of training courses focusing on SDH. Added to this, PhD students studying related areas reported inadequate supervision, with limited time allocated to meetings and poor interpersonal communication. Supervisors cited interpersonal communication problems and student lack of skills to perform high quality research as challenges to research training. Further challenges reported included a lack of research funding to include SDH-related topics. Finally, it was suggested that there was a need for institutions to define clear and appropriate standards regarding admission and supervision of students to higher education programs awarding doctoral degrees. There are gaps in training for research on the SDH at the surveyed
To address the need to better prepare teachers to enact science education reforms, the National Science Foundation has supported a Research Experience for Teachers (RET's) format for teacher professional development. In these experiences, teachers work closely with practicing scientists to engage in authentic scientific inquiry. Although…
Full Text Available ... to Your Doctor , National Eye Institute (NEI) Español Aging Planning Your Doctor Visit , NIHSeniorHealth.gov Videos: Talking ... A Guide for Older People , National Institute on Aging (NIA) Talking With Your Doctor Presentation Toolkit , National ...
Osburn, Kathryn Ann
Despite decades of research and reform efforts designed to bolster female retention in scientific disciplines, the conundrum of women's departure from doctoral programs in the sciences remains. This qualitative case study investigated the aspects of the graduate school experience that female doctoral students described as facilitating or impeding their successful degree completion in chemistry. I analyzed the graduate school narratives of twelve female participants who represented both successful and unsuccessful doctoral recipients from four advisors at one university. Participants identified four types of experiences that facilitated their retention in the doctoral program: feeling successful and confident in meeting the program requirements, having positive research experiences, receiving support from social networks, and being dedicated to career goals. Participants cited four kinds of experiences that impeded their continued participation in the doctoral program: having negative research experiences, feeling a lack of success and confidence in meeting the program requirements, changing career goals, and receiving no support from social networks. The graduate school experiences of participants who did and did not successfully attain their degree objectives differed in terms of four dimensions: pre-program experiences, academic experiences, advisory experiences, and social experiences. Based on these findings, I have proposed a model of attrition and retention that emphasizes the role that these unique program experiences play in shaping participants' sense of professional fit within the community of doctoral chemists, consequently contributing to their differential program outcomes. This study not only offers a new perspective on the phenomenon of female doctoral attrition in the sciences but also informs the development of more gender-inclusive graduate science practices and policies that will support the retention of female doctoral students.
Voyer, Benjamin G; Reader, Tom
To compare the self-construal of nurses and doctors and establish whether their roles affect perceptions of independence and interdependence. Previous research has identified that errors in patient care occur when health professionals do not work cohesively as a team and have divergent beliefs about collaboration. Thus, it is important to understand factors shaping these beliefs. Although these are usually explained by aspects of group norms, the concept of self-construal may serve as an underlying explanation. A quasi-experimental design was used. One hundred and two nurses and doctors working in three nursing homes in Belgium took part in this study in 2009. Nurses' and doctors' self-construal was measured at their workplace, using Singelis' self-construal scale. Statistical differences between nurses and doctors were investigated using analysis of covariance. Results showed statistically significant differences between doctors' and nurses' self-construal. Doctors reported higher and dominant levels of 'independent self-construal' compared with nurses. There were no differences between nurses and doctors for interdependence. However, gender differences emerged with male doctors reporting lower levels of interdependent self-construal than male nurses. Conversely, female doctors reported higher levels of interdependent self-construal than female nurses. Differences in the roles and training of nurses and doctors and in knowledge of their interdependencies may explain differences in self-construal. This might be useful for understanding why nurses and doctors develop divergent attitudes towards teamwork. Training that focuses on sharing knowledge on team interdependencies may positively influence teamwork attitudes and behaviour. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Guidelines for cognitive behavioral training within doctoral psychology programs in the United States: report of the Inter-organizational Task Force on Cognitive and Behavioral Psychology Doctoral Education.
Klepac, Robert K; Ronan, George F; Andrasik, Frank; Arnold, Kevin D; Belar, Cynthia D; Berry, Sharon L; Christofff, Karen A; Craighead, Linda W; Dougher, Michael J; Dowd, E Thomas; Herbert, James D; McFarr, Lynn M; Rizvi, Shireen L; Sauer, Eric M; Strauman, Timothy J
The Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies initiated an interorganizational task force to develop guidelines for integrated education and training in cognitive and behavioral psychology at the doctoral level in the United States. Fifteen task force members representing 16 professional associations participated in a year-long series of conferences, and developed a consensus on optimal doctoral education and training in cognitive and behavioral psychology. The recommendations assume solid foundational training that is typical within applied psychology areas such as clinical and counseling psychology programs located in the United States. This article details the background, assumptions, and resulting recommendations specific to doctoral education and training in cognitive and behavioral psychology, including competencies expected in the areas of ethics, research, and practice. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Geerdink, Gerda; Boei, Fer; Willemse, Martijn; Kools, Quinta; Van Vlokhoven, Haske
Most teacher educators who work at institutes for higher vocational education have faced a new role since the European Community aimed to upgrade the general quality of education. Research tasks have been added as a new important core business for institutes that used to be mainly focused on education. Teacher educators therefore have to become…
drs Maurice Schols
Over the last two decades, institutions for higher education such as universities and colleges have rapidly expanded and as a result have experienced profound changes in processes of research and organization. However, the rapid expansion and change has fuelled concerns about issues such as
Eylon, Bat-Sheva; Bagno, Esther
How can one increase the awareness of teachers to the existence and importance of knowledge gained through physics education research (PER) and provide them with capabilities to use it? How can one enrich teachers' physics knowledge and the related pedagogical content knowledge of topics singled out by PER? In this paper we describe a professional…
Rhondali, Wadih; Nguyen, Linh My Thi; Peck, Michelle; Vallet, Fabienne; Daneault, Serge; Filbet, Marilene
Despite the rapidly growing availability of palliative care services, there is still much to be done in order to better support clinicians who are starting research programs. Among the barriers identified in the literature, methodological issues and lack of research training programs are often reported. Our aim was to describe an educational research method for healthcare professionals working in palliative care and to report the result of a survey conducted among a three-year sample of students. The course was provided for a multidisciplinary group and was open to all healthcare professionals involved in palliative care. It took place over a single session during a full day. We used a 20-question e-survey to assess student outcomes (e.g., satisfaction, current status of their project). We received answers from 83 of the 119 students (70%) who took the course. The majority were physicians (n = 62, 75%), followed by nurses (n = 17, 21%). During the class, students assessed the role of the teacher as an information provider (n = 51, 61%), role model (n = 36, 43%), and facilitator (n = 33, 40%), and considered all of these roles as suitable, with a score of 3.9-4.7 out of 5. Participants reported a high level of support from the teacher, with a mean score of 8.2 (SD, 1.7) out of 10, and good overall satisfaction with a mean score of 7.6 (1.8). Finally, 51 participants (77%) were able to start their research project after the class, 27 (41%) to complete it, and 8 (12%) to submit their research to a journal or conference. Our results suggest that newer teaching methods such as roleplay, group work, and target acquisition are feasible and effective in a palliative research curriculum. Additional studies are needed to confirm the objective outputs of educational interventions, including research outputs.
Charles D. Kamilos
Full Text Available At some seminaries the question of who is more effective teaching library research is an open question. There are two camps of thought: (1 that the program faculty member is more effective in providing library research instruction as he or she is intimately engaged in the subject of the course(s, or (2 that the theological librarian is more effective in providing library research instruction as he or she is more familiar with the scope of resources that are available, as well as how to obtain “hard to get” resources. What began as a librarian’s interest in determining the extent to which Doctor of Ministry (DMin students begin their research using Google, resulted in the development of a survey. Given the interesting results returned from the first survey in fall of 2008, the survey was conducted again in the fall of 2011. The results of the comparative data led to the discovery of some useful data that will be used to adjust future instruction sessions for DMin students. The results of the surveys indicated that the instruction provided by the theological librarian was more effective as students were more prepared to obtain and use resources most likely to provide the best information for course projects. Additionally, following the instruction of library research skills by the librarian (2011 survey, DMin students were more likely to begin the search process for information resources using university provided catalogs and databases than what was reported in the 2008 survey. The responses to the two surveys piqued interest regarding both eBook use during the research process and the reduction of research frustration to be addressed in a follow-up survey to be given in 2014, results of which we hope to report in a future article.