Introduction: Along with leading to growth in the numbers of people doing information work, the increasing role of information in our contemporary society has led to an explosion of new information professions as well. The labels for these fields can be confusing and overlapping, and what does and does not constitute an information profession has…
Henkin, Alan B.; And Others
Describes perceptions of conflict as a utility (functional conflict) among 1,953 department executives in programs of social work, education, and nursing (the emergent professions); and analyzes perceptual data in terms of organizational conflict climate and demographics. Variations in terms of perceived operational utility of organizational…
This presentation provides industry examples of successful marketing practices by companies facing deregulation and competition. The common thread through the examples is that long term survival of today's utility structure is dependent on the strategic role of knowledge. As opposed to regulated monopolies which usually own huge physical assets and have very little intelligence about their customers, unregulated enterprises tend to be knowledge-based, characterized by higher market value than book value. A knowledge-based enterprise gathers data, creates information and develops knowledge by leveraging it as a competitive weapon. It institutionalizes human knowledge as a corporate asset for use over and over again by the use of databases, computer networks, patents, billing, collection and customer services (BCCS), branded interfaces and management capabilities. Activities to become knowledge-based such as replacing inventory/fixed assets with information about material usage to reduce expenditure and achieve more efficient operations, and by focusing on integration and value-adding delivery capabilities, were reviewed
Butina, Michelle; Brooks, Donna; Dominguez, Paul J; Mahon, Gwendolyn M
Multiple technology based tools have been used to enhance skill development in allied health education, which now includes virtual learning environments. The purpose of this study was to explore whether, and how, this latest instructional technology is being adapted in allied health education. An online survey was circulated to all Association of Schools of Allied Health Professions (ASAHP) member institutions and focused on three broad areas of virtual learning environments: the uses of, the perceived pros and cons of, and the outcomes of utilizing them. Results show 40% (17 of 42) of the respondent use some form of the technology. The use of virtual learning technology in other healthcare professions (e.g., medicine) demonstrates the potential benefits to allied health education.
Sefton, Joellen M; Shea, Michael; Hines, Chip
The diverse field of massage therapy has lacked a formal body of knowledge to serve as a practice and educational foundation and to guide future development. This deficit has hampered the growth of the profession and its acceptance and recognition by the medical and allied health care community. To provide massage therapists, bodyworkers, physicians, educators, and associated allied health care professionals in the United States with a description of the purpose and development of the massage therapy body of knowledge (MTBOK) and recommendations for its future development and utilization. Professional groups in the massage therapy community came together and established a task force to develop a body of knowledge for the profession. Five groups became the stewards for this effort. A nationwide search produced a task force of eight volunteers from diverse areas of the profession charged with the responsibility of researching and developing the MTBOK document. Review of documents, curricula, state laws and regulations, certification exam content, interviews, and public comment resulted in the development of the MTBOK. During development multiple opportunities for comment and discussion by stakeholders (public) were provided in an effort to create a professional consensus. The resulting MTBOK document establishes professional descriptions of the field; scope of practice; knowledge, skills, and abilities for entry-level massage therapists; and definitions for terminology to insure standardization, in order to provide a foundation for future discussion and growth. The MTBOK fulfills the goal for which it was developed, to serve as a foundation for the growth and development of the massage therapy profession as a whole. A living document, it should continue to evolve and grow with the profession. Maintenance and continued stewardship of this document by the massage therapy community is vital for continued professional progress.
Price, Heather E.; Weatherby, Kristen
To better understand the status of the teaching profession, we present a conceptual framework outlining the 4 domains of knowledge-worker professionals: professional benchmarks, professional discretion, room for promotion, and workplace conditions and use the TALIS 2013 survey data to show that these domains exist globally and vary within…
Thingstrup, Signe Hvid
This paper discusses the demand for knowledge-based practice and two different answers to this demand, namely evidence-based thinking and critical-political thinking. The paper discusses the implications these have for views on knowledge and professional development. The paper presents and discus...
Moore, Rebekah A; Matthews, Anne L; Cohen, Leslie
Social media is a common method of communication in people's personal lives and professional settings. Gallagher et al. (2016) recommended, "it is time for genetic counselors to embrace social media as a means of communicating with patients or other healthcare professionals." Full members of the National Society of Genetic Counselors (NSGC) in the USA and Canada and genetics patients in Cleveland, OH, were surveyed to determine interest in using social media for patient-provider interactions. Both cohorts indicated that patient privacy and confidentiality would be a concern; however, survey results indicated patients would be interested in using social media to receive general information about genetic counseling and to learn about genetics services. Genetic counselors indicated privacy issues were not concerning if social media were to be used in this capacity. The majority of genetic counselor participants (88.7%) indicated they would welcome national guidelines for patient-provider social media use. Data from this study demonstrated that sharing what to expect at a genetic counseling appointment, defining genetic counseling, and announcing community outreach events are possible ways genetic counselors could utilize social media to communicate with and educate patients.
Żmudzińska Urszula Ż
Full Text Available Introduction: A contemporary model of occupational therapy differs from the previous model which was common in Poland in previous years. Therefore, the opinions of the society concerning the profession of an occupational therapist are constantly changing. Material and methods: The research included 244 inhabitants of Lesser Poland aged between 25 and 65 employed in various professions. A questionnaire regarding occupational therapy and the profession and competences of occupational therapists was applied in the study. Results: The presented results show that the job of an occupational therapist is perceived as a needed profession both by individuals who underwent such therapy and those who did not use such services. Responses regarding competences and activities in the profession of an occupational therapist revealed differences in the opinions of the study participants. Conclusions: Taking into account only competences and activities of an occupational therapist, associations of the study participants reflected the knowledge of the model of therapy that existed before and was mainly devoted to occupational therapy workshops. The respondents would trust an occupational therapist both in adapting the house to their needs and in performing exercises connected with activities of daily living.
The Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common behaviour problems in school age with an estimated prevalence between three to seven percent. Although the disorder is in particular a problem at the school setting, only few studies included the professions involved such as class teachers, special education teachers, school psychologists or school medics. Therefore, it was the aim of this study to assess the knowledge and resources of these professions and to analyse their way of communication and cooperation. A total of 124 persons were questioned using a 19-item self-developed questionnaire. The knowledge of the professions concerned seems to be satisfying. However, school psychologists and special education teachers are able to use their resources and their possibilities for cooperation better than school medics or class teachers do. The results also indicate that the major problem is at the interface between the professions. The development of a network with special focus on ADHD to overcome the barriers is proposed.
Oct 26, 2017 ... knowledge and utilization of ECG among family medicine residents in Nigeria. Materials and ... doctors regarding their ECG requests, preferred source of interpretation, most common ECG ..... There are no conflicts of interest.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge translation (KT aims to close the gap between knowledge and practice in order to realize the benefits of research through (a improved health outcomes, (b more effective health services and products, and (c strengthened healthcare systems. While there is some understanding of strategies to put research findings into practice within nursing and medicine, we have limited knowledge of KT strategies in allied health professions. Given the interprofessional nature of healthcare, a lack of guidance for supporting KT strategies in the allied health professions is concerning. Our objective in this study is to systematically review published research on KT strategies in five allied health disciplines. Methods A medical research librarian will develop and implement search strategies designed to identify evidence that is relevant to each question of the review. Two reviewers will perform study selection and quality assessment using standard forms. For study selection, data will be extracted by two reviewers. For quality assessment, data will be extracted by one reviewer and verified by a second. Disagreements will be resolved through discussion or third party adjudication. Within each profession, data will be grouped and analyzed by research design and KT strategies using the Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Review Group classification scheme. An overall synthesis across professions will be conducted. Significance A uniprofessional approach to KT does not represent the interprofessional context it targets. Our findings will provide the first systematic overview of KT strategies used in allied health professionals' clinical practice, as well as a foundation to inform future KT interventions in allied healthcare settings.
Keywords: Knowledge, Utilization, family planning, rural women ... on public health issues and human rights calling for a strong focus on sexual and reproductive health .... information on pills from churches, mosques, and market places. ... condoms and safe period (35%) and (50%) of the respondents got their sources of ...
Improving Knowledge Management and Utilization of Research Results in Ecohealth Projects. This study brings together lead investigators from 11 past and ongoing Ecohealth projects across Latin America who are interested in achieving better development outcomes guided by research results. Their collective ...
Castillo, Jean-Marie; Park, Yoon Soo; Harris, Ilene; Cheung, Jeffrey J H; Sood, Lonika; Clark, Maureen D; Kulasegaram, Kulamakan; Brydges, Ryan; Norman, Geoffrey; Woods, Nicole
'Transfer' is the application of a previously learned concept to solve a new problem in another context. Transfer is essential for basic science education because, to be valuable, basic science knowledge must be transferred to clinical problem solving. Therefore, better understanding of interventions that enhance the transfer of basic science knowledge to clinical reasoning is essential. This review systematically identifies interventions described in the health professions education (HPE) literature that document the transfer of basic science knowledge to clinical reasoning, and considers teaching and assessment strategies. A systematic search of the literature was conducted. Articles related to basic science teaching at the undergraduate level in HPE were analysed using a 'transfer out'/'transfer in' conceptual framework. 'Transfer out' refers to the application of knowledge developed in one learning situation to the solving of a new problem. 'Transfer in' refers to the use of previously acquired knowledge to learn from new problems or learning situations. Of 9803 articles initially identified, 627 studies were retrieved for full text evaluation; 15 were included in the literature review. A total of 93% explored 'transfer out' to clinical reasoning and 7% (one article) explored 'transfer in'. Measures of 'transfer out' fostered by basic science knowledge included diagnostic accuracy over time and in new clinical cases. Basic science knowledge supported learning - 'transfer in' - of new related content and ultimately the 'transfer out' to diagnostic reasoning. Successful teaching strategies included the making of connections between basic and clinical sciences, the use of commonsense analogies, and the study of multiple clinical problems in multiple contexts. Performance on recall tests did not reflect the transfer of basic science knowledge to clinical reasoning. Transfer of basic science knowledge to clinical reasoning is an essential component of HPE that
Germano, Raimunda Medeiros
Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem-REBEn (Brazilian Journal of Nursing) is now 70 years old. It was created in 1932, and was initially called Anais de Enfermagem. Its main purpose was to be a communication link among Brazilian professionals of nursing. REBEn, which is directly linked to ABEn (Brazilian Association of Nursing), also has as its objective the publicizing of scientific production in different fields of knowledge which can be of interest for the nursing profession. The journal went through many difficulties before achieving the current status of most important publishing in the field of nursing in Brazil. The periodical was developed along many generations and has now achieved intellectual maturity which guaranteed its inclusion in the international indexation of scientific periodicals.
Afdal, Hilde W.
This article questions what kind of actors become involved and analyzes what forms of knowledge are activated, when discourses such as "research-based" and "profession-oriented" become basic preconditions in national curriculum change processes in Norway. A "mapping" is conducted, comprised of actors and ideas, played…
Full Text Available Introduction: Physiotherapy process enables the recovery of lost functions and return to maximum mobility. The range of physiotherapy includes procedures in situations where mobility and functioning are threatened by aging, injuries, diseases, a variety of disorders and conditions or environmental factors. Aim: The aim of the study was to determine the state of knowledge about the profession of physiotherapist among science students and people over 60 years of age. Material and methods: The study included 200 adult men and women in range of age: 21-75 years. The study was conducted on the basis of the author's questionnaire containing 10 questions refers to: others possible physiotherapist work places, physiotherapist duties, action for which physiotherapist is entitled, relationship of physiotherapist profession with medicine and physical education, as well as, use of physiotherapy treatment in various fields of medicine. Results: Among the elderly, only 27% of respondents correctly distinguishes between the terms "physiotherapist" and "physical therapist." The vast majority of respondents see the need for rehabilitation on the orthopedic and neurological wards. The low level of knowledge refers to less popular specializations (gynecology, pulmunologia. The vast majority of respondents considered physiotherapy as a profession closer related to medical sciences than physical education. Conslusions: The results of the study indicate to the inadequate level of knowledge about profession of physiotherapist, especially among people over 60 years old.
Scott, Shannon D; Albrecht, Lauren; O'Leary, Kathy; Ball, Geoff D C; Hartling, Lisa; Hofmeyer, Anne; Jones, C Allyson; Klassen, Terry P; Kovacs Burns, Katharina; Newton, Amanda S; Thompson, David; Dryden, Donna M
Knowledge translation (KT) aims to close the research-practice gap in order to realize and maximize the benefits of research within the practice setting. Previous studies have investigated KT strategies in nursing and medicine; however, the present study is the first systematic review of the effectiveness of a variety of KT interventions in five allied health disciplines: dietetics, occupational therapy, pharmacy, physiotherapy, and speech-language pathology. A health research librarian developed and implemented search strategies in eight electronic databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, ERIC, PASCAL, EMBASE, IPA, Scopus, CENTRAL) using language (English) and date restrictions (1985 to March 2010). Other relevant sources were manually searched. Two reviewers independently screened the titles and abstracts, reviewed full-text articles, performed data extraction, and performed quality assessment. Within each profession, evidence tables were created, grouping and analyzing data by research design, KT strategy, targeted behaviour, and primary outcome. The published descriptions of the KT interventions were compared to the Workgroup for Intervention Development and Evaluation Research (WIDER) Recommendations to Improve the Reporting of the Content of Behaviour Change Interventions. A total of 2,638 articles were located and the titles and abstracts were screened. Of those, 1,172 full-text articles were reviewed and subsequently 32 studies were included in the systematic review. A variety of single (n = 15) and multiple (n = 17) KT interventions were identified, with educational meetings being the predominant KT strategy (n = 11). The majority of primary outcomes were identified as professional/process outcomes (n = 25); however, patient outcomes (n = 4), economic outcomes (n = 2), and multiple primary outcomes (n = 1) were also represented. Generally, the studies were of low methodological quality. Outcome reporting bias was common and precluded clear determination of intervention
Scott Shannon D
Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge translation (KT aims to close the research-practice gap in order to realize and maximize the benefits of research within the practice setting. Previous studies have investigated KT strategies in nursing and medicine; however, the present study is the first systematic review of the effectiveness of a variety of KT interventions in five allied health disciplines: dietetics, occupational therapy, pharmacy, physiotherapy, and speech-language pathology. Methods A health research librarian developed and implemented search strategies in eight electronic databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, ERIC, PASCAL, EMBASE, IPA, Scopus, CENTRAL using language (English and date restrictions (1985 to March 2010. Other relevant sources were manually searched. Two reviewers independently screened the titles and abstracts, reviewed full-text articles, performed data extraction, and performed quality assessment. Within each profession, evidence tables were created, grouping and analyzing data by research design, KT strategy, targeted behaviour, and primary outcome. The published descriptions of the KT interventions were compared to the Workgroup for Intervention Development and Evaluation Research (WIDER Recommendations to Improve the Reporting of the Content of Behaviour Change Interventions. Results A total of 2,638 articles were located and the titles and abstracts were screened. Of those, 1,172 full-text articles were reviewed and subsequently 32 studies were included in the systematic review. A variety of single (n = 15 and multiple (n = 17 KT interventions were identified, with educational meetings being the predominant KT strategy (n = 11. The majority of primary outcomes were identified as professional/process outcomes (n = 25; however, patient outcomes (n = 4, economic outcomes (n = 2, and multiple primary outcomes (n = 1 were also represented. Generally, the studies were of low methodological quality. Outcome
Knowledge management implementation and the tools utilized in healthcare for ... a knowledge driven process and thus knowledge management and the tools to ... health record systems, communities of practice and advanced care planning.
Pei Se Wong
Full Text Available Inter-professional education (IPE contributes to the development of an ‘inter-professional, collaborative and practice-ready’ healthcare workforce that is well prepared to respond to local healthcare needs. Little is known about the extent, to which health professional students who are nearing graduation understand the competencies of diverse health professions. The aim of this study was to investigate the perception of final-year undergraduate students’ towards interprofessional team working and their knowledge of the competencies of 6 health professions. This study evaluated the final-year health professional students’ from six (6 health professions programmes namely medical, dental, nursing, pharmacy, dietetics and biomedical sciences programmes. Attitudes towards Health Care Team Scale (ATHCTS was used to measure students’ attitudes towards teamwork while a checklist was used measure students’ knowledge of 6 health professionals competencies. Construct validity was ascertain and findings from ATHCTS showed mean scores ranges from 48.57 to 54.23 indicating positive attitudes toward working within interprofessional health care teams. While the ACTHS findings were positive, the competencies checklist showed mixed findings in that students correctly identified some competencies and had misconceptions for others. For example, the majority of students regarded physicians as competent in ‘assessment and evaluation’ and ‘medication management’ while less than 50% of participants recognised the importance of assessment of patient’s health-illness as a competency for dieticians. Gaps identified in final year students’ knowledge of the roles and competencies of health professions has an impact on future interprofessional collaborative practice suggesting a need to further improve curriculum design and delivery of IPE.
Olivares-Urueta, Mayra; Williamson, Jon W
Pre-admission factors tend to serve as indicators of student success in health professions educational programs, but less is known about the effects that academic assistance programs have on student success. This study sought to determine whether specific pre-admission factors could help to identify students who may require academic support during their health professions education. This retrospective analysis aimed to identify differences in pre-admission variables between those students requiring tutoring and a matched sample of students who did not require tutoring. One-way ANOVA was used to assess differences for dependent variables-age, cumulative GPA (cGPA), science GPA (sGPA), verbal graduate record examination (GRE) score, quantitative GRE score, analytical GRE score and combined GRE score, community college hours, average credit hours per semester, and highest semester credit hour load-across three groups of students who received no tutoring (NT 0 hrs), some tutoring (ST tutoring (MT >8 hrs). Total GRE and average semester hours differentiated NT from ST from MT (ptutoring: quantitative GRE, sGPA, cGPA and average semester hours taken. The combination of lower GRE scores and lighter average semester course load were most predictive of the need for academic assistance as defined by hours of tutoring. While the value of the GRE in admissions processes is generally accepted, the average semester hour load in college can also provide important information regarding academic preparation and the need for tutoring services.
Marsh, Jeanne C.; Reed, Martena
Objective: This article advances understanding of social work science by examining the content and methods of highly utilized or cited journal articles in social work. Methods: A data base of the 100 most frequently cited articles from 79 social work journals was coded and categorized into three primary domains: content, research versus…
Full Text Available Teacher is a key figure in the implementation of reforms in higher education. Pedagogical research of the professional identity (PI of teacher, her/his priority values, self-evaluation of performances and professional knowledge and the way how she/he conceptualises the profession at an individual level can lead to the most appropriate strategies to manage the educational reforms successfully. This article presents some results of the Latvian-Russian project ‘Professional Identity of Contemporary Pedagogue’ implemented in 2014-2016 by researchers of Riga (Latvia and Smolensk (Russia. In the realisation of project, a hypothetical model of the content of Higher Education Institution (HEI teacher’s PI was created, and HEI teachers’ survey was carried out. In total, 198 teachers were surveyed in Riga and Smolensk. The aim of this article is to examine the relevance of the proposed model and analyse the indicators of the first two components of the model: Philosophy of the Profession and Professional Knowledge. The results show that, on the whole, the answers of the Russian and Latvian teachers in the questionnaire are fairly well agreed; however, some differences and peculiarities in the data of Riga and Smolensk were observed. The relevance of the proposed model has been confirmed, and some problems of PI of HEI teachers have been identified. To improve the educational process, executives of the reform and teachers should pay due attention to these problems.
Mareda, John F.; Marek, Edward L., Jr.; Smith, Steven A.
The amount and variety of data on the Web continues to grow exponentially, greatly complicating the process of finding relevant information, and making it increasingly difficult to understand information in the context of related material. Advanced visualization techniques, as long as they are compatible and effective ion the context of the widely distributed nature of data on the Web, can provide some measure of order to this chaos. Despite the proliferation of automated tools which attempt to deal with this sea of data, there is still a pressing need for human involvement in the organization and representation of information. People 'living' on the Web tend to form little 'knowledge spaces', revolving around those subjects that they are interested in. We describe several research efforts currently underway which address the problem of organizing and finding information in Cyberspace. We conclude with 'CiteMaps', a technology we are developing which combines Web-relevant visualization techniques with concepts and tools, to allow 'real people' to develop shareable clusters of related information.
This paper reports part of a graduate thesis which investigated students' ICT knowledge, skills, and utilization at. Oguaa School for ... It was recommended that the school extended ICT application to ... They also include radio, television, mobile.
The partograph is utilized mainly in tertiary health facilities; knowledge about the partograph is poor. Though affordable ... management is a mandatory component of care ..... World Health Organization. World ... UNICEF/World Bank Statement.
Tofteng, Ditte Maria Børglum; Bladt, Mette; Husted, Mia
to work on tendencies to privilege some types of knowledge above others when it comes to knowledge production and research processes. The participatory worldview mandates action researchers to consider participants as a collaborative resource and agents of cyclical transformation who bring to the table...... practical knowledge and experience about situations while the recurring pattern of reflection, analysis and action contributes to the constant evolution and redefinition of the original goal. Methodology, Methods, Research Instruments or Sources Used This paper is a theoretical reflection on actions...... will be an reflection on action research and participatory research processes as an asvwer to developing a vocational research practice that goes beyond quantitative an qualitative methodologies and into to research as an research and development process. References Bladt, M. (2012): Frirum og værksteder I Duus m...
Scott, Shannon D; Albrecht, Lauren; O?Leary, Kathy; Ball, Geoff DC; Hartling, Lisa; Hofmeyer, Anne; Jones, C Allyson; Klassen, Terry P; Burns, Katharina Kovacs; Newton, Amanda S; Thompson, David; Dryden, Donna M
Abstract Background Knowledge translation (KT) aims to close the research-practice gap in order to realize and maximize the benefits of research within the practice setting. Previous studies have investigated KT strategies in nursing and medicine; however, the present study is the first systematic review of the effectiveness of a variety of KT interventions in five allied health disciplines: dietetics, occupational therapy, pharmacy, physiotherapy, and speech-language pathology. Methods A hea...
This cross-sectional study assessed knowledge and utilization of the partograph among health care workers in southwestern Nigeria. Respondents were selected by multi-stage sampling method from primary, secondary and tertiary levels of care. 719 respondents comprising of CHEWS - 110 (15.3%), Auxiliary Nurses - 148 ...
The study investigated the influence of computer anxiety and knowledge on computer utilization among senior secondary school students in Ogun state, Nigeria. A sample of four hundred students randomly selected from twenty secondary schools participated in the study. Ex-post facto research design method was adopted ...
Nishizawa, Y.; Asami, K.
A method to represent and utilize plant constitution knowledge is described. A plant system is divided into many subsystems and hierarchically represented using frames. The frames include the slots of an upper-system, lower-systems and components' connections. Connections are divided into subsystems external connections and internal connections. This knowledge representation allows top-down analysis of the plant constitution and components' connectivities. The data are edited by drawing plant diagrams on a CRT and converting them into frames. The frame data area verified by checking upper-lower relationships and components' connectivities. As an example of knowledge utilization a method to find a components' connection route is described. This method prevents the combinatorial explosion of components' connections by finding rough routes in advance of detailed route analysis
Bozeman, B.; Youtie, J.; Bretschneider, S.
As a part of discussion on knowledge utilization on science and technology, the mixed of papers presented in the panel discussion is designed to illustrate the patterns of collaboration, mobility, and diffusion of knowledge as well as those of labor force. In particular, the first two papers presented in the panel explore the potential of STEM career success through cosmopolitan collaboration and international community collaboration (focused on the relationships between China and Russia) in nanotechnology, which would provide implications on national and international benchmarking of innovation. For policy implications on graduate education and innovation, mobility pattern of non-U.S. Ph.D. degree holders is examined, and impact of a policy report on the target academic communities is investigated through development of credibility map. This panel is designed to highlight a recent effort of understanding geographical, cognitive or social spaces that are present in the scientific and technological activity as well as in doctoral education. The papers presented in this panel, therefore, will provide a rich set of significant and relevant insights drawn from examining STI knowledge utilization patterns to the STI-ENID community. The anticipated length of the event may be 90 minutes and there is no preferred number of attendees in particular although it is expected to be in between 35 and 60 at the minimum. (Author)
Full Text Available It has been asserted that mathematical tasks play a critical role in the teaching and learning of mathematics. Modification of tasks included in intended curriculum materials, such as textbooks, can be an effective activity for prospective teachers to understand the role of mathematical tasks in the teaching and learning of mathematics; designing of new tasks requires more knowledge and experience. This study aims to identify the patterns that Korean prospective mathematics teachers seem to follow when they modify the mathematical tasks in textbooks. Knowledge utilized by prospective teachers while they modify textbook tasks is identified and characterized in order to understand the possible factors that have an impact on Korean prospective mathematics teachers' modification of tasks.
Drawing upon Practice-based theorizing in general and Actor Network Theory and theories of Communities of Practices in particular the paper develops an analytical strategy for understanding “life” in projects. The analytical strategy is applied on empirical material from an 18-month ethnographic...... study of a construction project. The project is interpreted as constellation of networked practices, which always is in the making. Participation in this project is a learning process where existing practices are reproduced and developed. This understanding of “life” in the project, frames a concluding...... analysis and discussion of the utilization of knowledge in the project....
Bussières, André E; Al Zoubi, Fadi; Stuber, Kent; French, Simon D; Boruff, Jill; Corrigan, John; Thomas, Aliki
Evidence-based practice (EBP) gaps are widespread across health disciplines. Understanding factors supporting the uptake of evidence can inform the design of strategies to narrow these EBP gaps. Although research utilization (RU) and the factors associated with EBP have been reported in several health disciplines, to date this area has not been reviewed comprehensively in the chiropractic profession. The purpose of this review was to report on the current state of knowledge on EBP, RU, and knowledge translation (KT) in chiropractic. A scoping review using the Arksey and O'Malley framework was used to systematically select and summarize existing literature. Searches were conducted using a combination of keywords and MeSH terms from the earliest date available in each database to May 2015. Quantitative and thematic analyses of the selected literature were conducted. Nearly 85 % (56/67) of the included studies were conducted in Canada, USA, UK or Australia. Thematic analysis for the three categories (EBP, RU, KT) revealed two themes related to EBP (attitudes and beliefs of chiropractors; implementation of EBP), three related to RU (guideline adherence; frequency and sources of information accessed; and perceived value of websites and search engines), and three related to KT (knowledge practice gaps; barriers and facilitators to knowledge use; and selection, tailoring, and implementation of interventions). EBP gaps were noted in the areas of assessment of activity limitation, determination of psychosocial factors influencing pain, general health indicators, establishing a prognosis, and exercise prescription. While most practitioners believed EBP and research to be important and a few studies suggested that traditional and online educational strategies could improve patient care, use of EBP and guideline adherence varied widely. Findings suggest that the majority of chiropractors hold favourable attitudes and beliefs toward EBP. However, much remains to be done for
Tractenberg, Rochelle E; Gordon, Morris
Phenomenon: The purpose of "systematic" reviews/reviewers of medical and health professions educational research is to identify best practices. This qualitative article explores the question of whether systematic reviews can support "evidence informed" teaching and contrasts traditional systematic reviewing with a knowledge translation (KT) approach to this objective. Degrees of freedom analysis (DOFA) is used to examine the alignment of systematic review methods with educational research and the pedagogical strategies and approaches that might be considered with a decision-making framework developed to support valid assessment. This method is also used to explore how KT can be used to inform teaching and learning. The nature of educational research is not compatible with most (11/14) methods for systematic review. The inconsistency of systematic reviewing with the nature of educational research impedes both the identification and implementation of "best-evidence" pedagogy and teaching. This is primarily because research questions that do support the purposes of review do not support educational decision making. By contrast to systematic reviews of the literature, both a DOFA and KT are fully compatible with informing teaching using evidence. A DOFA supports the translation of theory to a specific teaching or learning case, so could be considered a type of KT. The DOFA results in a test of alignment of decision options with relevant educational theory, and KT leads to interventions in teaching or learning that can be evaluated. Examples of how to structure evaluable interventions are derived from a KT approach that are simply not available from a systematic review. Insights: Systematic reviewing of current empirical educational research is not suitable for deriving or supporting best practices in education. However, both "evidence-informed" and scholarly approaches to teaching can be supported as KT projects, which are inherently evaluable and can generate
Funder, John W
Over half a century ago, a Canadian judge defined a profession in a way that resonates still today, not only for lawyers and doctors, but for the current wide variety of professions and professionals. This article is a reflection on this definition. It briefly considers the historical context within which the knowledge base that characterises a profession evolved and what the various component parts of the judge's definition entail. A final consideration goes beyond the terms of the definition proposed--that of our ethical responsibility as professionals to stand up and be counted and, in the context of the disorder around us, to speak out.
Trudel-Ferrari, C.C. [Kinectrics Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada)
This paper discussed the development of effective training and knowledge management systems for recently hired personnel in electric utilities. Case studies of best practices from electric utilities in Ontario, consultants, and universities were used to develop an overview of current training practices. Methods of identifying, attracting, and recruiting personnel were presented and knowledge management and mentoring programs were discussed. The use of training programs in developing knowledge databases was also evaluated. Knowledge management formats included qualification training; simulation training; knowledge transfer; and curriculum development. Human resources, revenue, and management issues currently challenging electric utilities were discussed along with various new training practices. 2 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs.
Research at the intersection of creative enterprise, knowledge intensive entrepreneurship, public policy, and economic development is limited, although individually, each of these areas has been researched extensively. Reflective practitioners in industry, Government, and Technology Transfer can
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyze how “New Deal” regulatory initiatives, primarily the Securities Acts and the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), changed US auditors’ professional knowledge conception, culminating in the 1938 expansion of the Committee on Accounting Procedure
DR. BASHIR BELLO
majority of the physiotherapists 44 (88%) had knowledge of red flags but only 14 (28%) ... documented, while medical history of cancer, HIV status, as well as history of fever were .... The main objective of this study was to determine the level.
Santangelo, Omar Enzo; Provenzano, Sandro; Firenze, Alberto
The aim of the study was to evaluate the knowledge and behavioral risks associated with sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among the students of health professions at the University of Palermo divided into two age groups (18-22 years and 23-27 years). A self-administered questionnaire was distributed. The questionnaire is structured in three parts in addition to an introduction to socio-demographic information. The first part investigates the quality of information provided by public institutions on the subject, the second part the knowledge of contraceptive methods used to reduce the risk of contagion and the third part the knowledge of STIs and HPV vaccination. A multivariable logistic regression model was used and adjusted Odds Ratios (aOR) are presented. The sample was represented by 1022 respondents (70.8% females, 61.5% aged 18-22 years). In multivariate analyses males have a greater risk of not knowing HPV vaccine (aOR 3.52, 95% CI 2.26-5.49). The 18-22 age group has a higher risk than the 23-27 age group to think of being not sufficiently informed to avoid contagion (aOR 3.92, 95% CI 2.18-7.06), never having STIs specific tests (aOR 2.90, 95% CI 2.21-3.80), not knowing HPV vaccine (aOR 1.86, 95% CI 1.13-3.07) and not knowing that it can be administered to males (aOR 2.63, 95% CI 1.96-3.53). Based on our findings, it is necessary to implement sexual education programs for the improvement of knowledge in terms of STIs and the promotion of health. Future studies are needed to assess the effectiveness and cost of education programs that should also be addressed to young adults who do not attend university.
Dennis C. Chen
Full Text Available Lean Sigma programs produce localized gains within corporations. The knowledge generated by these local successes should be manipulated by the organization, so that the gains can be replicated, and savings multiplied across the organization. However, why does knowledge often fail to be successfully manipulated within an organization? This paper discusses a case study analysis in knowledge manipulation activities of a multi- national consumer products company through the lens of the Knowledge Management (KM Ontology. We then identify and document common obstacles, and offer potential solutions.
and skills in the basic disciplines of the professions also termed as disciplinary and procedural knowledge '. Thus the main research question for this paper is: What consequences do recent reform actions in Danish welfare education concerning generic competence have on developing professional knowledge...
Tan, Sin Yee; Hatah, Ernieda
Background Research utilization is part of evidence-based practice referring to the process of reviewing and critiquing scientific research and applying the findings to one's own clinical practice. Many studies on research utilization have been conducted with doctors and nurses, but to our knowledge, none have been investigated amongst pharmacists. Objective To assess research utilization and its barriers among pharmacists and identify potential influencing factors. Setting Malaysia. Methods This cross-sectional survey was administered online and by mail to a convenient sample of pharmacists working in hospitals, health clinics, and retail pharmacies in rural and urban areas. Main outcome measure Pharmacists' research utilization knowledge, attitudes, and practices. Results Six hundred surveys were mailed to potential respondents, and 466 were returned (77.7% response rate). Twenty-eight respondents completed the survey online. The respondents' research utilization knowledge, attitudes, and practices were found to be moderate. Research utilization was associated with respondents' knowledge and attitude scores (P < 0.001). When factors related to research utilization were modelled, higher educational level was associated with higher level of research utilization (P < 0.001) while less involvement in journal clubs, more years of service (3-7 years and more than 7 years) were associated with low and moderate research utilization, respectively. The main reported barrier to research utilization was lack of sufficient authority to change patient care procedures. Conclusion Pharmacists' research utilization knowledge, attitudes, and practices can be improved by encouraging pharmacists to pursue higher degrees, promoting active participation in institutions' journal clubs, and introducing senior clinical pharmacist specialization.
Shehabat, Issa; Mahdi, Saad A.; Khoualdi, Kamel
This paper addresses human resources utilization at the university environment. We address the design issues of e-learning courses that can capture the teacher knowledge. The underlying objective is that e-learning is a key knowledge and major resources for many universities. Therefore, the design of e-learning should be an important part of the…
Sabri, Bushra; Huerta, Julia; Alexander, Kamila A; St Vil, Noelle M; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Callwood, Gloria B
This study examined knowledge, access, utilization, and barriers to use of resources among Black women exposed to multiple types of intimate partner violence in Baltimore, Maryland and the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI). We analyzed quantitative survey data collected by 163 women recruited from primary care, prenatal or family planning clinics in Baltimore and the USVI. In addition we analyzed qualitative data from in-depth interviews with 11 women. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and qualitative data were analyzed using thematic analysis. A substantial proportion of Black women with multiple types of violence experiences lacked knowledge of, did not have access to, and did not use resources. Barriers to resource use were identified at the individual, relationship, and community levels. There is need for programs to develop awareness, promote access and utilization of resources, and eliminate barriers to resource use among abused Black women.
Full Text Available This paper addresses human resources utilization at the university environment. We address the design issues of e-learning courses that can capture the teacher knowledge. The underlying objective is that e-learning is a key knowledge and major resources for many universities. Therefore, the design of e-learning should be an important part of the university knowledge management process. Teachers' knowledge in any important topic or field should be managed in a way that the university can benefit from it in case of teacher leaving or retired. Hence, intellectual personal knowledge management will be explored through the development of e-learning systems. Some concepts from the Artificial Intelligence field can be used in developing such systems. The potential for utilizing human knowledge in the university environment will optimize the resources and can be of cost effective and quality assurance factors and provide the university with a sustainable competitive advantage. Assuring the proper knowledge management within the university environment is a more complex issue. This is due to the diverse of topics in one hand and the behavior of the student and the lecturers on the other hand. Effective implementation and success requires a lot of efforts that will guarantee the utilization of the intellectual capital within the university environment.
Full Text Available This paper addresses human resources utilization at the university environment. We address the design issues of e-learning courses that can capture the teacher knowledge. The underlying objective is that e-learning is a key knowledge and major resources for many universities. Therefore, the design of e-learning should be an important part of the university knowledge management process. Teachers' knowledge in any important topic or field should be managed in a way that the university can benefit from it in case of teacher leaving or retired. Hence, intellectual personal knowledge management will be explored through the development of e-learning systems. Some concepts from the Artificial Intelligence field can be used in developing such systems.The potential for utilizing human knowledge in the university environment will optimize the resources and can be of cost effective and quality assurance factors and provide the university with a sustainable competitive advantage.Assuring the proper knowledge management within the university environment is a more complex issue. This is due to the diverse of topics in one hand and the behavior of the student and the lecturers on the other hand. Effective implementation and success requires a lot of efforts that will guarantee the utilization of the intellectual capital within the university environment.
Perjanik, Nicholas Steven
As a consequence of an aging workforce, electric utilities are at risk of losing their most experienced and knowledgeable electrical engineers. In this research, the problem was a lack of understanding of what electric utilities were doing to capture the tacit knowledge or know-how of these engineers. The purpose of this qualitative research study was to explore the tacit knowledge capture strategies currently used in the industry by conducting a case study of 7 U.S. electrical utilities that have demonstrated an industry commitment to improving operational standards. The research question addressed the implemented strategies to capture the tacit knowledge of retiring electrical engineers and technical personnel. The research methodology involved a qualitative embedded case study. The theories used in this study included knowledge creation theory, resource-based theory, and organizational learning theory. Data were collected through one time interviews of a senior electrical engineer or technician within each utility and a workforce planning or training professional within 2 of the 7 utilities. The analysis included the use of triangulation and content analysis strategies. Ten tacit knowledge capture strategies were identified: (a) formal and informal on-boarding mentorship and apprenticeship programs, (b) formal and informal off-boarding mentorship programs, (c) formal and informal training programs, (d) using lessons learned during training sessions, (e) communities of practice, (f) technology enabled tools, (g) storytelling, (h) exit interviews, (i) rehiring of retirees as consultants, and (j) knowledge risk assessments. This research contributes to social change by offering strategies to capture the know-how needed to ensure operational continuity in the delivery of safe, reliable, and sustainable power.
Onasoga, Olayinka A.; Afolayan, Joel Adeleke; Asamabiriowei, Tariebi Florence; Jibril, Umar Nda; Imam, Abubakar Ayinla
Background and Objective: Risky sexual activity among adolescents is on the increase and contraceptive prevalence rate is low which is evidenced by high rate of teenage pregnancy in Bayelsa state, Nigeria. This study assesses the adolescents’ knowledge, attitude and utilization of emergency contraceptive pills (ECP) in Amassoma Community, Bayelsa State, in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Methods: The study was a descriptive cross-sectional research design. A purposive sampling technique was used to select a sample of 220 respondents from the target population. Data were collected using a self-structured questionnaire. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data generated. Results: Majority of the respondents had high level of knowledge and positive attitude towards emergency contraceptive pills but had low level of utilization. Concerns about what others may say, parental attitude, contraceptive availability, contraceptive accessibility, and peer influences were the major factors that influenced the utilization of contraceptive pills. There was no significant relationship between knowledge and utilization of emergency contraceptive pills, as well as level of knowledge and their utilization of emergency contraceptive pills. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: Adolescents in the study were more likely to use emergency contraceptive pills, if parents and others reaction to adolescents’ contraceptive use were positive about those. Health care professionals, especially nurses, should organize enlightenment programs to educate adolescents, parents and the public on the benefits of adolescents’ contraceptives use, especially ECP. PMID:28058193
Onasoga, Olayinka A; Afolayan, Joel Adeleke; Asamabiriowei, Tariebi Florence; Jibril, Umar Nda; Imam, Abubakar Ayinla
Risky sexual activity among adolescents is on the increase and contraceptive prevalence rate is low which is evidenced by high rate of teenage pregnancy in Bayelsa state, Nigeria. This study assesses the adolescents' knowledge, attitude and utilization of emergency contraceptive pills (ECP) in Amassoma Community, Bayelsa State, in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. The study was a descriptive cross-sectional research design. A purposive sampling technique was used to select a sample of 220 respondents from the target population. Data were collected using a self-structured questionnaire. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data generated. Majority of the respondents had high level of knowledge and positive attitude towards emergency contraceptive pills but had low level of utilization. Concerns about what others may say, parental attitude, contraceptive availability, contraceptive accessibility, and peer influences were the major factors that influenced the utilization of contraceptive pills. There was no significant relationship between knowledge and utilization of emergency contraceptive pills, as well as level of knowledge and their utilization of emergency contraceptive pills. Adolescents in the study were more likely to use emergency contraceptive pills, if parents and others reaction to adolescents' contraceptive use were positive about those. Health care professionals, especially nurses, should organize enlightenment programs to educate adolescents, parents and the public on the benefits of adolescents' contraceptives use, especially ECP.
West, Lindsey M.; Stepleman, Lara M.; Wilson, Christina K.; Campbell, Jeff; Villarosa, Margo; Bodie, Brittany; Decker, Matthew
The health professional and the patient are cultural beings with beliefs and attitudes that are shaped by family traditions, social development, and exposure to novel experiences. As such, it is especially important for health profession students to gain awareness about the personal and educational factors that likely inform their practice and…
Ross, Lesley A.; Attaway, Tracey L.; Staik, Irene M.; Harwell, Brad D.; Burling, John W.; Gilbert, D. Kristen.
Many Web sites and professional journal articles address professional burnout in helping professions. Professional organizations in social work, psychology, and medicine have identified stressors and developed effective coping strategies, allowing helping professionals to alleviate stress and burnout via a reactive approach. This pilot study…
Osama M. Rababah
Full Text Available Knowledge as a result of processing the relevant information which is collection of raw data, facts, measurements, and statistics, requires sensitive management that leads educators and learners to increase concern for knowledge management, especially in the educational field. This paper intends to present this proposed approach directly to the one of its main sources of creation; Education. After the introductory part, the paper presents the Knowledge Management in the context of “The University of Jordan” emphasizing every components of knowledge management: people, process, and technology. Then, the researchers will show the result of the survey which had been carried out on 140 students at The University of Jordan, the survey was about their perceptions regarding the utility and quality of knowledge they gained through their studying at The University of Jordan.
.... Data were gathered from academic and popular literature for evaluation. Sufficient evidence exists in literature to identify the factors of special knowledge and service orientation of a profession as critical to professional...
Wilkinson, Joyce E; Rycroft-Malone, Jo; Davies, Huw T O; McCormack, Brendan
A group of researchers and practitioners interested in advancing knowledge utilization met as a colloquium in Belfast (KU 11) and used a "world café" approach to exploit the social capital and shared understanding built up over previous events to consider the research and practice agenda. We considered three key areas of relevance to knowledge use: (1) understanding the nature of research use, influence and impact; (2) blended and collaborative approaches to knowledge production and use; and (3) supporting sustainability and spread of evidence-informed innovations. The approach enabled the development of artifacts that reflected the three areas and these were analyzed using a creative hermeneutic approach. The themes that emerged and which are outlined in this commentary are not mutually exclusive. There was much overlap in the discussions and therefore of the themes, reflecting the complex nature of knowledge translation work. The agenda that has emerged from KU 11 also reflects the participatory and creative approach in which the meeting was structured and focused, and therefore emphasizes the processual, relational and contingent nature of some of the challenges we face. The past 20 years has seen an explosion in activity around understanding KU, and we have learned much about the difficulties. Whilst the agenda for the next decade may be becoming clearer, colloquia such as KU 11, using creative and engaging approaches, have a key role to play in dissecting, articulating and sharing that agenda. In this way, we also build an ever-expanding international community that is dedicated to working towards increasing the chances of success for better patient care. © 2012 Sigma Theta Tau International.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Bayesian Network (BN is a powerful approach to reconstructing genetic regulatory networks from gene expression data. However, expression data by itself suffers from high noise and lack of power. Incorporating prior biological knowledge can improve the performance. As each type of prior knowledge on its own may be incomplete or limited by quality issues, integrating multiple sources of prior knowledge to utilize their consensus is desirable. Results We introduce a new method to incorporate the quantitative information from multiple sources of prior knowledge. It first uses the Naïve Bayesian classifier to assess the likelihood of functional linkage between gene pairs based on prior knowledge. In this study we included cocitation in PubMed and schematic similarity in Gene Ontology annotation. A candidate network edge reservoir is then created in which the copy number of each edge is proportional to the estimated likelihood of linkage between the two corresponding genes. In network simulation the Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling algorithm is adopted, and samples from this reservoir at each iteration to generate new candidate networks. We evaluated the new algorithm using both simulated and real gene expression data including that from a yeast cell cycle and a mouse pancreas development/growth study. Incorporating prior knowledge led to a ~2 fold increase in the number of known transcription regulations recovered, without significant change in false positive rate. In contrast, without the prior knowledge BN modeling is not always better than a random selection, demonstrating the necessity in network modeling to supplement the gene expression data with additional information. Conclusion our new development provides a statistical means to utilize the quantitative information in prior biological knowledge in the BN modeling of gene expression data, which significantly improves the performance.
Kim, Bae-Joo; Kim, Gwang-Bong
Knowledge is the most important factor in the safe and reliable operation of NPP. One generation has passed since we began to operate NPP in Korea. And then it became time to retire much experienced personnel in NPP. Although we have many kinds of knowledge sharing systems inside KHNP, we don't have any systematic experience knowledge preservation and transfer systems that are important for the operation of NPP. So we have lost important experience knowledge since we started operating. Especially, KHNP has adopted an internal promotion system as the human resource management policy, which induced frequent job position changes of staff members because there were job positions for a good promotion. Additionally, KHNP doesn't overlap jobs for long enough periods between previous staff and new staff when staff changes occur. With these reasons KHNP could not accumulate experience knowledge inside the company system. Therefore, KHNP could not preserve and transfer to the next generation the experience related to NPP operations systematically. To resolve these issues KNPEI performed a research project from March 2006 to September 2007. The purpose of this report is to introduce the experience knowledge preservation and transfer system that KNPEI has established and the utilization of the system
Edgar, Linda; Herbert, Rosemary; Lambert, Sylvie; MacDonald, Jo-Ann; Dubois, Sylvie; Latimer, Margot
Knowledge utilization (KU) is an essential component of today's nursing practice and healthcare system. Despite advances in knowledge generation, the gap in knowledge transfer from research to practice continues. KU models have moved beyond factors affecting the individual nurse to a broader perspective that includes the practice environment and the socio-political context. This paper proposes one such theoretical model the Joint Venture Model of Knowledge Utilization (JVMKU). Key components of the JVMKU that emerged from an extensive multidisciplinary review of the literature include leadership, emotional intelligence, person, message, empowered workplace and the socio-political environment. The model has a broad and practical application and is not specific to one type of KU or one population. This paper provides a description of the JVMKU, its development and suggested uses at both local and organizational levels. Nurses in both leadership and point-of-care positions will recognize the concepts identified and will be able to apply this model for KU in their own workplace for assessment of areas requiring strengthening and support.
Zhang, Chuan; Romagnoli, Alessandro; Zhou, Li; Kraft, Markus
Highlights: •An intelligent energy management system for Eco-Industrial Park (EIP) is proposed. •An explicit domain ontology for EIP energy management is designed. •Ontology-based approach can increase knowledge interoperability within EIP. •Ontology-based approach can allow self-optimization without human intervention in EIP. •The proposed system harbours huge potential in the future scenario of Internet of Things. -- Abstract: An ontology-based approach for Eco-Industrial Park (EIP) knowledge management is proposed in this paper. The designed ontology in this study is formalized conceptualization of EIP. Based on such an ontological representation, a Knowledge-Based System (KBS) for EIP energy management named J-Park Simulator (JPS) is developed. By applying JPS to the solution of EIP waste heat utilization problem, the results of this study show that ontology is a powerful tool for knowledge management of complex systems such as EIP. The ontology-based approach can increase knowledge interoperability between different companies in EIP. The ontology-based approach can also allow intelligent decision making by using disparate data from remote databases, which implies the possibility of self-optimization without human intervention scenario of Internet of Things (IoT). It is shown through this study that KBS can bridge the communication gaps between different companies in EIP, sequentially more potential Industrial Symbiosis (IS) links can be established to improve the overall energy efficiency of the whole EIP.
Greer, Roger; Fowler, Susan
In this rapidly changing, knowledge-based society, library and information professionals require a broad understanding of the profession. Introduction to the Library and Information Professions, Second Edition presents a toolbox of models that enable this essential understanding for undergraduate and graduate students in library and information science programs as well as practicing professionals seeking continuing education. The materials in this second edition reflect the latest trends in the library and information profession, including services and issues that stem from new advances in te
Nishizawa, Yasuo; Nagaoka, Yukio; Sato, Takao; Matsuki, Tsutomu.
A method of knowledge generation and utilization using design information is described. This method is used to generate rules concerned with propagation of state change in a plant due to equipment manipulation or anomaly. The rules describe macroscopic behavior of plant subsystems consisting of many devices, and are used for high speed information processing in expert systems for plant diagnosis, maintenance, etc. Knowledge generation is comprised of two steps. In the first step, the changes of state values are propagated according to connectivity between devices and the input-output relationships of the devices. In the second step, the input change, output change of plant subsystems, and other information are edited according to the results of state change propagation, and rules for state change propagation are generated. By using these rules, the simulation of state change propagation can be accelerated about 10 times compared with the case of device level propagation. The method of knowledge generation has been applied to the inference system in a maintenance work scheduling system and a new-type expert system was realized. It grows by generating rules for problem solving and by expanding its knowledge base by itself. (author)
Şuayyip Doğuş DEMİRCİ
Full Text Available Accounting profession emerges as an important career choice for students of business administration department. By this study, the role of personality traits and some other factors on career choices regarding accountancy profession of 3rd and 4th degree undergraduate students of Business Department at the stage of discovering their careers was tried to be determined. For this purpose, survey as one of data collection techniques was applied and quantitative research methods have been utilized. In order to identify the personality traits of participants, five-factor personality scale was used. As a result of conducted statistical analysis, there were found significant differences in career choices regarding accountancy profession according to average monthly income of family, grade point average, whether having knowledge about profession, whether being interested in accounting courses of individual and responsibility dimension of personality.
Yoshimoto, G.; Gargan, R. Jr.; Duggan, P.
The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Nuclear Power Division, has identified the three major goals of high technology applications for nuclear power plants. These goals are to enhance power production through increasing power generation efficiency, to increase productivity of the operations, and to reduce the threats to the safety of the plant. Our project responds to the second goal by demonstrating that significant productivity increases can be achieved for outage maintenance operations based on existing knowledge-based scheduling technology. Its use can also mitigate threats to potential safety problems by means of the integration of risk assessment features into the scheduler. The scheduling approach uses advanced techniques enabling the automation of the routine scheduling decision process that previously was handled by people. The process of removing conflicts in scheduling is automated. This is achieved by providing activity representations that allow schedulers to express a variety of different scheduling constraints and by implementing scheduling mechanisms that simulate kinds of processes that humans use to find better solutions from a large number of possible solutions. This approach allows schedulers to express detailed constraints between activities and other activities, resources (material and personnel), and requirements that certain states exist for their execution. Our scheduler has already demonstrated its benefit to improving the shuttle processing flow management at Kennedy Space Center. Knowledge-based scheduling techniques should be examined by utilities industry researchers, developers, operators and management for application to utilities planning problems because of its great cost benefit potential. 4 refs., 4 figs
Jelínek, Jan; Škoda, Petr; Hoksza, David
Protein-protein interactions (PPI) play a key role in an investigation of various biochemical processes, and their identification is thus of great importance. Although computational prediction of which amino acids take part in a PPI has been an active field of research for some time, the quality of in-silico methods is still far from perfect. We have developed a novel prediction method called INSPiRE which benefits from a knowledge base built from data available in Protein Data Bank. All proteins involved in PPIs were converted into labeled graphs with nodes corresponding to amino acids and edges to pairs of neighboring amino acids. A structural neighborhood of each node was then encoded into a bit string and stored in the knowledge base. When predicting PPIs, INSPiRE labels amino acids of unknown proteins as interface or non-interface based on how often their structural neighborhood appears as interface or non-interface in the knowledge base. We evaluated INSPiRE's behavior with respect to different types and sizes of the structural neighborhood. Furthermore, we examined the suitability of several different features for labeling the nodes. Our evaluations showed that INSPiRE clearly outperforms existing methods with respect to Matthews correlation coefficient. In this paper we introduce a new knowledge-based method for identification of protein-protein interaction sites called INSPiRE. Its knowledge base utilizes structural patterns of known interaction sites in the Protein Data Bank which are then used for PPI prediction. Extensive experiments on several well-established datasets show that INSPiRE significantly surpasses existing PPI approaches.
Short, S D
The female-dominated professions in health care are not as powerful as the male-dominated medical profession. This paper suggests that the key factor in shaping the discrepancies in pay, status and power between medicine and the female-dominated professions is gender. It is argued that physiotherapy developed as a profession for middle-class women and that family responsibilities continue to take priority over professional responsibilities for the majority of physiotherapists. Physiotherapy enjoys higher occupational prestige than social work, speech therapy, occupational therapy and nursing and it is suggested that physiotherapy has achieved this status through recruitment of women from middle and upper middle class backgrounds. The history of physiotherapy is the history of a middle class feminine profession. Copyright © 1986 Australian Physiotherapy Association. Published by . All rights reserved.
Lehmann-Jacobsen, Emilie Tinne
and macro level. Whereas role theory works as both a discursive tool in conversations with journalists and as an analytical tool sensitive to agency processes on a micro level, field theory adds relational aspects and helps to connect the micro level analysis to macro level structures, uncovering the forces...... conditioning the profession. The analysis reveals political forces to be most dominating in structuring and conditioning the journalistic profession in both countries which leads the dissertation to suggest a reconceptualization of Bourdieu’s field model to account for political capital. Though economic...... capital and cultural capital (profession-specific forces) also conditions journalism, political forces structure the profession on a number of levels. The state’s active involvement in the profession in both countries through laws and regulation and with promotion (and to some extent enforcement...
Siddique, Md Kaoser Bin; Islam, Sheikh Mohammed Shariful; Banik, Palash Chandra; Rawal, Lal B
Diabetes is a significant global public health concern. Poor knowledge of disease and healthcare utilization is associated with worse health outcomes, leading to increasing burden of diabetes in many developing countries. This study aimed to determine diabetes related knowledge and factors affecting utilization of healthcare services among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Bangladesh. This analytical study was conducted among 318 patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) attending two large tertiary hospitals in Dhaka, Bangladesh between August 2014 and January 2015. Interviewer assisted semi-structured survey questionnaire was used to collect data on diabetes knowledge (measured by a validated Likert scale) and self-reported utilization of service for diabetes. Univariate and bivariate analyses were conducted to determine the factors associated with diabetes knowledge and healthcare utilization. The mean (±SD) age of participants was 52 (±10) years. Majority of the participants were females (58%) and urban residents (74%). Almost two-third (66%) of the participants had an average level of knowledge of T2DM. One-fifth (21%) of the participants had poor knowledge which was significantly associated with gender (P knowledge of diabetes which might affect the utilization of healthcare services for diabetes management. Innovations in increasing diabetes knowledge and health behavior change are recommended specially for females, those with lower education and less income.
Decker, Sola; Iphofen, Ron
This paper is based on ongoing research into the profession of radiography using the oral history method. Knowledge of radiographic practice as a profession has in the past been based on what is written or learnt from other professions both within and beyond the field of health care. The profession has experienced substantial technological and sociological changes both in training and in practice over the past few decades and these look set to continue into the immediate future. Evidence-based practice is invoked as a quality measure on all health professions, and part of the body of knowledge which forms the evidence base of practice development involves an understanding of how the profession has responded to change and what this might mean for the further changes it is likely to meet. This paper explores the potential role of oral history research as a tool for the development of knowledge about the practice of radiography
Al-Ghabeesh, Suhair Husni; Abu-Moghli, Fathieh; Salsali, Mahvash; Saleh, Mohammad
Understanding sources of knowledge used in everyday practice is very helpful in improving the quality of health care services. There is a consensus in the literature that nurses mostly relied in their practice on experiential knowledge gained through their interactions with other members of health care professionals and patients. The general aim of this study is to explore the sources of knowledge Jordanian registered nurses use during their practice. A descriptive correlational design was used to collect data from 539 Jordanian registered nurses from 10 hospitals using a self-administered questionnaire. The mean year of experience of the sample was 7.08 years. Of the 615 questionnaires distributed, 555 were returned. This yields a response rate of 87.6%. Results revealed that the top five ranked sources used by Jordanian registered nurses include: the information that nurses learned during nursing education, personal experience in nursing over time, what was learned through providing care to patients, information gained through discussion between physicians and nurses about patients, and information from policy and procedure manuals. Jordanian registered nurses recognize the value of research and that research utilization (RU) is an important issue and must not be ignored. The study has many implications for practice, education and research. Health care managers and decision makers need to play a more visible and instrumental role in encouraging RU to improve patients' quality of life. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Zhang, Junfeng; Benedetto, Di A.C.; Hoenig, S.
This study examines the interplay of product development strategy, knowledge utilization, and product innovation performance in the context of Chinese subsidiaries of multinational companies. When firms strive to develop highly innovative products (breakthrough focus), the amount of resources
Full Text Available The primary purpose of the study was to assess the extent of knowledge and perception of extension workers towards ICT utilization and to determine the relationship between the selected characteristics of the respondents and knowledge and perception of extension workers towards ICT utilization in extension service delivery. The study was conducted in Gazipur district and comprised proportionate random sample of 90 extension workers from five upazila of Gazipur district. A pre-tested interview schedule was used to collect data from the respondents. To measure the knowledge on ICT utilization 35 statements were selected regarding 7 ICT with five possible answer of each tools and a score of one was given to the right answer and zero to the wrong answer alternatively to measure the perception of the respondents rated each of 10 statements ICT utilization in agriculture on a 5-point Likert type scale and the total of these ratings formed perception index. The result of the study showed that out of seven ICT tools the knowledge of extension workers was highest in case of MS Word this was followed by internet/ web service and the lowest knowledge was found in case of Geographical Information System. It is observed that an overwhelming majority (88.9% of agricultural extension workers in the study area had low to medium knowledge towards ICT utilization. Findings reveal that the respondents had top most perception on the ICT utilization in respect of ‘Extension work can be greatly enhanced by ICT’ followed by on ‘The benefits of ICT use outweigh the financial burden involved’. The result also indicated that more than fourth-fifth (84.4% of the respondents had medium to high perception towards ICT utilization. There were significant relationship between service experience and use of the information sources of the respondents with their knowledge towards ICT utilization conversely innovativeness, cosmopoliteness and job satisfaction of the
Anotace: The thesis "The motivation for the teaching profession" dealt with fundamental problems of motivation to the teaching profession. In the theoretical part, we have focused on general characteristics of terms that pertain to the teaching profession, particularly the theory of the teaching profession, the choice of the teaching profession, the phase of the teaching profession, teacher typology, the role of teacher training and professionalization of teachers, but also washed into the te...
Cruess, Sylvia R; Johnston, Sharon; Cruess, Richard L
To provide a working definition of professionalism for medical educators. Thus far, the literature has not provided a concise and inclusive definition of the word profession. There appears to be a need for one as a basis for teaching the cognitive aspects of the subject and for evaluating behaviors characteristic of professionals. Furthermore, a knowledge of the meaning of the word is important as it serves as the basis of the contract between medicine and society, and hence, of the obligations required of medicine to sustain the contract. A definition is proposed based on the Oxford English Dictionary and the literature on the subject. It is suggested that this can be useful to medical educators with responsibilities for teaching about the professions, professional responsibilities, and professional behavior. The proposed definition is as follows: Profession: An occupation whose core element is work based upon the mastery of a complex body of knowledge and skills. It is a vocation in which knowledge of some department of science or learning or the practice of an art founded upon it is used in the service of others. Its members are governed by codes of ethics and profess a commitment to competence, integrity and morality, altruism, and the promotion of the public good within their domain. These commitments form the basis of a social contract between a profession and society, which in return grants the profession a monopoly over the use of its knowledge base, the right to considerable autonomy in practice and the privilege of self-regulation. Professions and their members are accountable to those served and to society.
Hasan, Md Mahmudul; Hasan, Md Mainul; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Li, Xuexian
Phosphorus is a poorly bioavailable macronutrient that is essential for crop growth and yield. Overuse of phosphorus fertilizers results in low phosphorus use efficiency (PUE), has serious environmental consequences and accelerates the depletion of phosphorus mineral reserves. It has become extremely challenging to improve PUE while preserving global food supplies and maintaining environmental sustainability. Molecular and genetic analyses have revealed the primary mechanisms of phosphorus uptake and utilization and their relationships to phosphorus transporters, regulators, root architecture, metabolic adaptations, quantitative trait loci, hormonal signaling and microRNA. The ability to improve PUE requires a transition from this knowledge of molecular mechanisms and plant architecture to practical strategies. These could include: i) the use of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal symbioses for efficient phosphorus mining and uptake; ii) intercropping with suitable crop species to achieve phosphorus activation and mobilization in the soil; and iii) tissue-specific overexpression of homologous genes with advantageous agronomic properties for higher PUE along with breeding for phosphorus-efficient varieties and introgression of key quantitative trait loci. More effort is required to further dissect the mechanisms controlling phosphorus uptake and utilization within plants and provide new insight into the means to efficiently improve PUE.
Rasmussen, Kristine; Belisario, José Marcano; Wark, Petra A; Molina, Joseph Antonio; Loong, Stewart Lee; Cotic, Ziva; Papachristou, Nikos; Riboli-Sasco, Eva; Tudor Car, Lorainne; Musulanov, Eve Marie; Kunz, Holger; Zhang, Yanfeng; George, Pradeep Paul; Heng, Bee Hoon; Wheeler, Erica Lynette; Al Shorbaji, Najeeb; Svab, Igor; Atun, Rifat; Majeed, Azeem; Car, Josip
The world is short of 7.2 million health-care workers and this figure is growing. The shortage of teachers is even greater, which limits traditional education modes. eLearning may help overcome this training need. Offline eLearning is useful in remote and resource-limited settings with poor internet access. To inform investments in offline eLearning, we need to establish its effectiveness in terms of gaining knowledge and skills, students' satisfaction and attitudes towards eLearning. We conducted a systematic review of offline eLearning for students enrolled in undergraduate, health-related university degrees. We included randomised controlled trials that compared offline eLearning to traditional learning or an alternative eLearning method. We searched the major bibliographic databases in August 2013 to identify articles that focused primarily on students' knowledge, skills, satisfaction and attitudes toward eLearning, and health economic information and adverse effects as secondary outcomes. We also searched reference lists of relevant studies. Two reviewers independently extracted data from the included studies. We synthesized the findings using a thematic summary approach. Forty-nine studies, including 4955 students enrolled in undergraduate medical, dentistry, nursing, psychology, or physical therapy studies, met the inclusion criteria. Eleven of the 33 studies testing knowledge gains found significantly higher gains in the eLearning intervention groups compared to traditional learning, whereas 21 did not detect significant differences or found mixed results. One study did not test for differences. Eight studies detected significantly higher skill gains in the eLearning intervention groups, whilst the other 5 testing skill gains did not detect differences between groups. No study found offline eLearning as inferior. Generally no differences in attitudes or preference of eLearning over traditional learning were observed. No clear trends were found in the
Full Text Available The world is short of 7.2 million health–care workers and this figure is growing. The shortage of teachers is even greater, which limits traditional education modes. eLearning may help overcome this training need. Offline eLearning is useful in remote and resource–limited settings with poor internet access. To inform investments in offline eLearning, we need to establish its effectiveness in terms of gaining knowledge and skills, students’ satisfaction and attitudes towards eLearning.
Shahmoradi, Leila; Safadari, Reza; Jimma, Worku
Healthcare is a knowledge driven process and thus knowledge management and the tools to manage knowledge in healthcare sector are gaining attention. The aim of this systematic review is to investigate knowledge management implementation and knowledge management tools used in healthcare for informed decision making. Three databases, two journals websites and Google Scholar were used as sources for the review. The key terms used to search relevant articles include: "Healthcare and Knowledge Management"; "Knowledge Management Tools in Healthcare" and "Community of Practices in healthcare". It was found that utilization of knowledge management in healthcare is encouraging. There exist numbers of opportunities for knowledge management implementation, though there are some barriers as well. Some of the opportunities that can transform healthcare are advances in health information and communication technology, clinical decision support systems, electronic health record systems, communities of practice and advanced care planning. Providing the right knowledge at the right time, i.e., at the point of decision making by implementing knowledge management in healthcare is paramount. To do so, it is very important to use appropriate tools for knowledge management and user-friendly system because it can significantly improve the quality and safety of care provided for patients both at hospital and home settings.
Vingilis, Evelyn; Hartford, Kathleen; Schrecker, Ted; Mitchell, Beth; Lent, Barbara; Bishop, Joan
Knowledge diffusion and utilization (KDU) have become a key focus in the health research community because of the limited success to date of research findings to inform health policies, programs and services. Yet, evidence indicates that successful KDU is often predicated on the early involvement of potential knowledge users in the conceptualization and conduct of the research and on the development of a "partnership culture". This study describes the integration of KDU theory with practice via a case study analysis of the Consortium for Applied Research and Evaluation in Mental Health (CAREMH). This qualitative study, using a single-case design, included a number of data sources: proposals, meeting minutes, presentations, publications, reports and curricula vitae of CAREMH members. CAREMH has adopted the following operational strategies to increase KDU capacity: 1) viewing research as a means and not as an end; 2) bringing the university and researcher to the community; 3) using participatory research methods; 4) embracing transdisciplinary research and interactions; and 5) using connectors. Examples of the iterative process between researchers and potential knowledge users in their contribution to knowledge generation, diffusion and utilization are provided. This case study supports the importance of early and ongoing involvement of relevant potential knowledge users in research to enhance its utilization potential. It also highlights the need for re-thinking research funding approaches.
Mafimisebi Taiwo E
Full Text Available Abstract Smallholder livestock farmers in Nigeria utilize traditional medicines derived from medicinal plants (PMs for the maintenance of their animals' health. This study was designed to determine the PMs used in the study area and their level of utilization by livestock farmers, compare the level of utilization of PMs across the three states surveyed and identify the socio-economic factors influencing farmer's utilization of PMs. Thirty-five PMs were identified. Farmers had considerable knowledge about the identified PMs but about 80.0% of them used the PMs to poor/moderate extent. There were statistical differences in the utilization level of PMs among the three states. Six socio-economic variables were found to be statistically significant in influencing PMs' utilization. Farmer's age, household size, distance to the nearest veterinary hospital/clinic and extent of travels, had positive effects while negative effects were exhibited by farm income and number of heads of livestock. It was concluded that there was considerable knowledge about PMs and that utilization of PMs varied between the three states. It was recommended that local knowledge of PMs be preserved in the study area through screening and documentation.
Full Text Available The article focuses on how information-communication and network computer technology effects changes in library operation and presents new possibilities in the development and differentiation of the librarian profession. At the time of the introduction of the Internet, numerous experts were convinced that the decline of librarianship, as a profession, was only a question of time. According to such opinions, users were supposed to search and obtain information on their own and purchase books through electronic bookstores. The reality turned out to be just the opposite. Nowadays, librarians are required to make more and more complex inquiries, to provide rapid, high-quality and non-stop services, to supply documents directly by computer or onto the working table. Moreover, librarians must follow the rapid development of the profession and participate in permanent and polyvalent training. The introduction of the digitalisation of materials and the future development of libraries require that librarians familiarize themselves with complex hypertext protocols, graphic design, and marketing. Moreover, librarians are obliged to accept any change brought about during the process of technological development. Therefore, in the developed world, new professions are being established and relating to the provision of aggregate information in form of various services and products. Those professions do not only imply universal information providers but trained experts with regard to individual fields of interest.
Chang Yeh, Mei
The present article discusses the role of nursing education in the advancement of the nursing profession in the context of the three facets of knowledge: generation, dissemination, and application. Nursing is an applied science and the application of knowledge in practice is the ultimate goal of the nursing profession. The reform of the healthcare delivery model requires that nurses acquire and utilize evidence-based clinical knowledge, critical thinking, effective communication, and team collaboration skills in order to ensure the quality of patient care and safety. Therefore, baccalaureate education has become the minimal requirement for pre-licensure nursing education. Schools of nursing are responsible to cultivate competent nurses to respond to the demands on the nursing workforce from the healthcare system. Attaining a master's education in nursing helps cultivate Advanced Practice Registered Nurses (APRNs) to further expand the roles and functions of the nursing profession in order to promote the quality of care in clinical practice. Nursing faculty and scholars of higher education institutions generate nursing knowledge and develop professional scholarship through research. Attaining a doctoral education in nursing cultivates faculties and scholars who will continually generate and disseminate nursing knowledge into the future.
Stanhope, Carl; Wu, Q Jackie; Yuan, Lulin; Liu, Jianfei; Hood, Rodney; Yin, Fang-Fang; Adamson, Justus
Increased interest regarding sensitivity of pre-treatment intensity modulated radiotherapy and volumetric modulated arc radiotherapy (VMAT) quality assurance (QA) to delivery errors has led to the development of dose-volume histogram (DVH) based analysis. This paradigm shift necessitates a change in the acceptance criteria and action tolerance for QA. Here we present a knowledge based technique to objectively quantify degradations in DVH for prostate radiotherapy.Using machine learning, organ-at-risk (OAR) DVHs from a population of 198 prior patients’ plans were adapted to a test patient’s anatomy to establish patient-specific DVH ranges. This technique was applied to single arc prostate VMAT plans to evaluate various simulated delivery errors: systematic single leaf offsets, systematic leaf bank offsets, random normally distributed leaf fluctuations, systematic lag in gantry angle of the mutli-leaf collimators (MLCs), fluctuations in dose rate, and delivery of each VMAT arc with a constant rather than variable dose rate.Quantitative Analyses of Normal Tissue Effects in the Clinic suggests V 75Gy dose limits of 15% for the rectum and 25% for the bladder, however the knowledge based constraints were more stringent: 8.48 ± 2.65% for the rectum and 4.90 ± 1.98% for the bladder. 19 ± 10 mm single leaf and 1.9 ± 0.7 mm single bank offsets resulted in rectum DVHs worse than 97.7% (2σ) of clinically accepted plans. PTV degradations fell outside of the acceptable range for 0.6 ± 0.3 mm leaf offsets, 0.11 ± 0.06 mm bank offsets, 0.6 ± 1.3 mm of random noise, and 1.0 ± 0.7° of gantry-MLC lag.Utilizing a training set comprised of prior treatment plans, machine learning is used to predict a range of achievable DVHs for the test patient’s anatomy. Consequently, degradations leading to statistical outliers may be identified. A
Lane, David A.; Stelter, Reinhard; Rostron, Sunny Stout
such as the professionalisation of coaching, and the ICRF has begun work to promote the value of research, critical self-reflective practice, and the development of a coaching knowledge base. There are nevertheless lessons that coaching can learn from other professions who have already trod this path. This chapter outlines...
required for the education and training of health professionals within the specific learning environment of ... health professions, today's health professionals have to be highly skilled and knowledgeable in a ... examines the improvement of the learning environment and wellness of trainee regis trars to prevent burnout and ...
George, Pradeep Paul; Papachristou, Nikos; Belisario, José Marcano; Wang, Wei; Wark, Petra A; Cotic, Ziva; Rasmussen, Kristine; Sluiter, René; Riboli-Sasco, Eva; Tudor Car, Lorainne; Musulanov, Eve Marie; Molina, Joseph Antonio; Heng, Bee Hoon; Zhang, Yanfeng; Wheeler, Erica Lynette; Al Shorbaji, Najeeb; Majeed, Azeem; Car, Josip
Health systems worldwide are facing shortages in health professional workforce. Several studies have demonstrated the direct correlation between the availability of health workers, coverage of health services, and population health outcomes. To address this shortage, online eLearning is increasingly being adopted in health professionals' education. To inform policy-making, in online eLearning, we need to determine its effectiveness. We performed a systematic review of the effectiveness of online eLearning through a comprehensive search of the major databases for randomised controlled trials that compared online eLearning to traditional learning or alternative learning methods. The search period was from January 2000 to August 2013. We included articles which primarily focused on students' knowledge, skills, satisfaction and attitudes toward eLearning and cost-effectiveness and adverse effects as secondary outcomes. Two reviewers independently extracted data from the included studies. Due to significant heterogeneity among the included studies, we presented our results as a narrative synthesis. Fifty-nine studies, including 6750 students enrolled in medicine, dentistry, nursing, physical therapy and pharmacy studies, met the inclusion criteria. Twelve of the 50 studies testing knowledge gains found significantly higher gains in the online eLearning intervention groups compared to traditional learning, whereas 27 did not detect significant differences or found mixed results. Eleven studies did not test for differences. Six studies detected significantly higher skill gains in the online eLearning intervention groups, whilst 3 other studies testing skill gains did not detect differences between groups and 1 study showed mixed results. Twelve studies tested students' attitudes, of which 8 studies showed no differences in attitudes or preferences for online eLearning. Students' satisfaction was measured in 29 studies, 4 studies showed higher satisfaction for online e
Estabrooks, Carole A; Derksen, Linda; Winther, Connie; Lavis, John N; Scott, Shannon D; Wallin, Lars; Profetto-McGrath, Joanne
It has been argued that science and society are in the midst of a far-reaching renegotiation of the social contract between science and society, with society becoming a far more active partner in the creation of knowledge. On the one hand, new forms of knowledge production are emerging, and on the other, both science and society are experiencing a rapid acceleration in new forms of knowledge utilization. Concomitantly since the Second World War, the science underpinning the knowledge utilization field has had exponential growth. Few in-depth examinations of this field exist, and no comprehensive analyses have used bibliometric methods. Using bibliometric analysis, specifically first author co-citation analysis, our group undertook a domain analysis of the knowledge utilization field, tracing its historical development between 1945 and 2004. Our purposes were to map the historical development of knowledge utilization as a field, and to identify the changing intellectual structure of its scientific domains. We analyzed more than 5,000 articles using citation data drawn from the Web of Science. Search terms were combinations of knowledge, research, evidence, guidelines, ideas, science, innovation, technology, information theory and use, utilization, and uptake. We provide an overview of the intellectual structure and how it changed over six decades. The field does not become large enough to represent with a co-citation map until the mid-1960s. Our findings demonstrate vigorous growth from the mid-1960s through 2004, as well as the emergence of specialized domains reflecting distinct collectives of intellectual activity and thought. Until the mid-1980s, the major domains were focused on innovation diffusion, technology transfer, and knowledge utilization. Beginning slowly in the mid-1980s and then growing rapidly, a fourth scientific domain, evidence-based medicine, emerged. The field is dominated in all decades by one individual, Everett Rogers, and by one paradigm
Ayenan, Mathieu Anatole Tele; Danquah, Agyemang; Ahoton, Léonard Essehou; Ofori, Kwadwo
Understanding factors driving farmers' uses of crop genetic resources is a key component not only to design appropriate conservation strategies but also to promote sustainable production. However, in Benin, limited information is available on farmers' knowledge related to pigeonpea uses and conservation. This study aimed at i) identifying and investigating the different uses of pigeonpea in relation with socio-cultural factors, namely age, gender, ethnic group and respondents' residence, ii) assessing pigeonpea varieties richness at household level and iii) evaluating the extent and distribution of pigeonpea varieties. Three hundred and two farmers were surveyed using structured questionnaire. Direct observation, field visit and focus group discussion were carried out. Association between number of varieties maintained at household level and socio-cultural variables was tested. Mann-Whitney test was used to assess whether the number of varieties held by households headed by men and women were different. Distribution and extent of diversity was assessed through four cells analysis. Farmers in Benin mainly grow pigeonpea for its grains for home consumption. Pigeonpea's stem and leaves are used for medicinal purposes to treat malaria, dizziness, measles, and eye infection. The ethnic group and the locality of residence of farmers influenced on the use of pigeonpea for medicinal purposes (P 0.05) between the number of varieties held by household and the age of the respondent, number of years of experience in pigeonpea cultivation, the size of household, number of family members engaged in agricultural activities and gender. Farmers used criteria including seed colors, seed size, plant height, maturity groups and cooking time to classify their varieties. Varieties with white seed coat color were the most grown while varieties with black, red or mottled seed coat color are being abandoned and deserve to be conserved. Knowledge on medicinal uses of pigeonpea is
Full Text Available Introduction. Teaching profession dates back to ancient times, when formulation of an ideal of a man with comprehensively developed personality was primarily based on such values as wisdom and knowledge. The profession of a teacher/master was influenced by many factors and underwent numerous transformations over the centuries. Aim. The aim is to assess the impact of stress and burnout at work and functioning of the teachers. Material and methods. The survey was conducted using a proprietary questionnaire consisting of 21 questions, in which the respondent select one of the following answers. The study assured full anonymity. The survey was conducted among a group of randomly selected teacher of primary, middle and secondary schools operating in the province of Opole. Results. As a result of conducted research it appeared that 54% of respondents many times a week feel stress related to their work. There are 28% of surveyed to sense nervous tension due to their professional occupation. 10% among them admit to experience this kind of stress up to twice a week whereas 8% of them tend to feel stressed once a week or less often. Conclusions. It is obvious that stress cannot be totally eliminated out of teacher profession. However we can reduce its size by applying a number of tools. These can be following: Implementation of educational programs dedicated for teachers- programs which aim at minimizing consequences of stress on teacher’s health and life as well as on their environment. Organizing of workshops of “coping with stress” and with difficult situations; education of behaving in situations of “overload”. The change of system of educating teachers and gaining professional competences.
Manuel Fernández Areal, Ph. D.
Full Text Available New technologies can foster the impression that journalism, as a profession will become extinct probably in a short term. Anybody can have access to any information sources as well as to transmit – through Internet- all sorts of messages at an unusual speed, and this fact seems to support the idea that no technical training will be needed in the future not even an specific cultural background will be required, much less an university degree or qualification that ensures a responsible and appropriate practice of the modern social communication. The Federation of Journalists Associations in Spain (FAPE in its Draft of the Professional Statute is in favor of a graduated or qualified profession at an university level, and its Commission for Complaints has been developing a successful work regarding the professional self-regulation and self-control for the benefit of society. Therefore, there are good reasons for being optimist. Journalism, as a profession, is not going to disappear, and maybe it is time to consider it, really, as an academic qualified profession.
analytical strategies can frame in sufficiently complex ways what it means to be a professional today. It is assumed that at least four main issues must be dealt with in order to conduct a satisfactory analysis of professions and their identities. Firstly, it is of fundamental strategic importance that one...
Juel Jacobsen, Alice
This paper empirically investigates organizational change in the making as it is constructed in the interaction between managers and professions in a school setting. The empirical basis is three Danish upper secondary schools, all in the process of translating a school reform into practice. Using...
Farrell, Ivan K.; Hamed, Kastro M.
Utilizing a correlational research design, we sought to examine the relationship between the technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) of in-service teachers and student achievement measured with each individual teacher's Value-Added Model (VAM) score. The TPACK survey results and a teacher's VAM score were also examined, separately,…
Cohen, Barak; Ogorek, Daniel; Oifa, Stanislav; Cattan, Anat; Matot, Idit
A 2005 survey led by the Israeli Society of Anesthesiologists (ISA) found that large parts of the Israeli public are not familiar with the profession of anesthesia. The ISA has subsequently been conducting a public campaign for several years with the aim to enhance community knowledge regarding the anesthesiologists' training and their critical role in the perioperative period. The present study sought to evaluate the value of a campaign aiming to enhance public understanding of the importance of a medical profession; more specifically, a campaign to promote awareness of the community regarding the anesthesia profession. If proved to be successful, public campaigns may be considered in other countries and for other medical professions with similar difficulties. In 2013, five hundred participants from the general community were asked to answer a questionnaire focusing on the profession of anesthesia. Public knowledge has improved following the campaign. Specifically, improvement was demonstrated regarding the qualification of the anesthesiologist as an MD (92% vs. 64% in 2013 and 2005, respectively), and enhanced awareness of the anesthesia team's critical role in the operating room (OR) (48% vs. 30% in 2013 and 2005, respectively). The Israeli community is attentive to public campaigns that address the roles of a medical profession. Enhanced public knowledge regarding the importance of the anesthesia profession may have a significant impact on both the payment policy for anesthesiologists and on the recruitment of more physicians to the field of anesthesia. Public campaigns may be considered for other medical professions with similar difficulties.
Chiu, Chia-Nan; Chen, Huei-Huang
Many studies on the significance of knowledge management (KM) in the business world have been performed in recent years. Public sector KM is a research area of growing importance. Findings show that few authors specialize in the field and there are several obstacles to developing a cohesive body of literature. In order to examine their effect of the knowledge management capability [which consists of knowledge infrastructure capability (KIC) and knowledge process capability (KPC)] and organizational effectiveness (OE), this study conducted structural equation modeling to test the hypotheses with 302 questionnaires of Taipei Water Department staffs in Taiwan. In exploring the model developed in this study, the findings show that there exists a significant relationship between KPC and OE, while KIC and OE are insignificant. These results are different from earlier findings in the literature. Furthermore, this research proposed organizational commitment (OC) as the mediator role. The findings suggest that only OC has significant mediating effects between KPC and OE, whereas this is not the case for KIC and OE. It is noteworthy that the above findings inspired managers, in addition to construct the knowledge infrastructure more than focus on social media tools on the Internet, which engage knowledge workers in "peer-to-peer" knowledge sharing across organizational and company boundaries. The results are likely to help organizations (particularly public utilities) sharpen their knowledge management strategies. Academic and practical implications were drawn based on the findings.
Woreta, Solomon Assefa; Kebede, Yigzaw; Zegeye, Desalegn Tegabu
Despite the relatively huge ICT investment and policy deployment in higher institutions in Ethiopia, there is still scant information about the success of implementation of the Information Communication Technology (ICT) in the higher education. This study, therefore, was carried out with an aim to assess knowledge and utilization of Information Communication Technology (ICT) among medicine and health science students and its associated factors in Gondar College of Medicine and Health sciences, University of Gondar. A cross-sectional study was conducted at the College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Ethiopia. Data regarding socio-demographic characteristics of the students, level of knowledge and utilization of ICT were collected by means of a self-administered questionnaire. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 13. A total of 1096 students responded giving a response rate of 97.8%. The mean age of the study participants was 20.3 (±1. 3) years. Females constitute only 26% of the respondents. The majority (79%) were fulltime students. Only half of the respondents (51%) had ICT knowledge and only 46% students utilized ICT while 47% of the respondents never used electronic communication (e.g. email or chat room) and 39% of the respondents never used Microsoft office (e.g. word (®) or WordPerfect (®)). ICT knowledge [AOR = 2.5, 95% CI: 1.7-3.5], family educational background [AOR = 4.36, 95% CI: 2.16-8.80], and perceived quality of training [AOR = 1.9, 95% CI: 1.3-2.8] showed strong and positive associations with ICT utilization. Students from urban areas were more likely to utilize ICT compared with those from rural areas [AOR = 2.7, 95% CI: 2.097, 3.497], and information technology training was found to be positively associated with ICT utilization [AOR = 2. 07, 95% CI: 1.18, 3.62]. The result showed that students' knowledge was inadequate and utilization of ICT was poor. Therefore, the university should sustain professional development to
Background Despite the relatively huge ICT investment and policy deployment in higher institutions in Ethiopia, there is still scant information about the success of implementation of the Information Communication Technology (ICT) in the higher education. This study, therefore, was carried out with an aim to assess knowledge and utilization of Information Communication Technology (ICT) among medicine and health science students and its associated factors in Gondar College of Medicine and Health sciences, University of Gondar. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted at the College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Ethiopia. Data regarding socio-demographic characteristics of the students, level of knowledge and utilization of ICT were collected by means of a self-administered questionnaire. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 13. Results A total of 1096 students responded giving a response rate of 97.8%. The mean age of the study participants was 20.3 (±1. 3) years. Females constitute only 26% of the respondents. The majority (79%) were fulltime students. Only half of the respondents (51%) had ICT knowledge and only 46% students utilized ICT while 47% of the respondents never used electronic communication (e.g. email or chat room) and 39% of the respondents never used Microsoft office (e.g. word ® or WordPerfect ®). ICT knowledge [AOR = 2.5, 95% CI: 1.7-3.5], family educational background [AOR = 4.36, 95% CI: 2.16-8.80], and perceived quality of training [AOR = 1.9, 95% CI: 1.3-2.8] showed strong and positive associations with ICT utilization. Students from urban areas were more likely to utilize ICT compared with those from rural areas [AOR = 2.7, 95% CI: 2.097, 3.497], and information technology training was found to be positively associated with ICT utilization [AOR = 2. 07, 95% CI: 1.18, 3.62]. Conclusions The result showed that students’ knowledge was inadequate and utilization of ICT was poor. Therefore, the
Milburn, Peter C.; Colyer, Hazel
Interprofessional education (IPE) is well-established in the professional discipline of radiography and other health and social care professions, driven by central government policies promoting interprofessional, collaborative working. The development of an appropriate knowledge base for interprofessional work is therefore important and, as a starting point, the article investigates the concept and significance of professional knowledge as a means to unravel and shed light on the potential emergence of a new body of knowledge, 'interprofessional knowledge'. The paper discusses whether the term 'interprofessional knowledge' (IPK) is meaningful and its utility for interprofessional practice, arguing that such knowledge is located within the discourse of interprofessional learning and practice. As such it is fluid and contextualised. The implications of this for all health and social care professionals, including radiographers, are elaborated to assist in future curriculum development and enhance understanding of the knowledge that underpins effective, collaborative, interprofessional practice. The paper concludes by suggesting there are a number of key implications for professional practice namely, IPE cannot teach interprofessional knowledge, rather it should facilitate interprofessional practice, through which such knowledge is construed, and person-centred care can be more effectively achieved. Second, interprofessional practice is highly contextualised by practice setting and point of service delivery. Any attempt to decontextualise it for the purpose of curriculum development would be illogical; interprofessional knowledge is in a symbiotic relationship with its prior professional knowledge. Third, the organisation of IPE would be better driven by alliances of complementary professions in order to maximise its potential effectiveness and credibility with practitioners
Full Text Available The scientific approach is focused on identifying the social representation of the profession of physical therapist referring to mental images of social reality to a group consensus meeting. The goal of research identifies social representation of the profession of physical therapist, on the premise that students of the Faculty of Physical Education and Sport have made a social representation of the profession of physical therapist in accordance with the description of the occupation of COR. Working method was based on the questionnaire. Interpretation of results, the first two items of the questionnaire was done through word association technique, developed by P. Verges (1 and an alternative method for determining the structure and organization of elements representation proposed by. C. Havârneanu (2. Qualitative analysis reveals that students’ specialization Physical Therapy and Special Motricity believes that a therapist uses therapy as a strategy to work, and it must be applied professionally. Respondents considered, as shown in the data collected, that this profession is subject to skills, education, cognitive baggage, all sending to knowledge, experience and passion. The core refers to the complex representation obtained thanks cognitive process by which individuals or groups in familiar transforms abstract and it integrates knowledge of their system.
Methods: An Institution based cross-sectional study was conducted in June, 2013 on 403 obstetric care providers. A pre-tested and structured ... Being a midwife by profession, on job training, knowledge and attitude of obstetric care providers were factors affecting partograph utilization. Providing on job training for providers ...
Full Text Available This paper will examine the development of sustainable SME methods for tracking tacit (informal knowledge transfer as a series of networks of larger complex system. Understanding sustainable systems begins with valuing tacit knowledge networks and their ability to produce connections on multiple levels. The behaviour of the social or socio aspects of a system in relation to the explicit formal/physical structures need to be understood and actively considered when utilizing methodologies for interacting within complex systems structures. This paper utilizes theory from several previous studies to underpin the key case study discussed. This approach involved examining the behavioural phenomena of an SME knowledge network. The knowledge network elements were highlighted to identify their value within an SME structure. To understand the value of these emergent elements from between tacit and explicit knowledge networks, is to actively, simultaneously and continuous support sustainable development for SME organizations. The simultaneous links within and between groups of organizations is crucial for understanding sustainable networking structures of complex systems.
Karas, Steve; Westerheide, Angela; Daniel, Laura
There is extensive evidence that mobilization and manipulation of the thoracic spine is associated with improved outcomes in patients with neck pain. However, these evidence-based techniques are not always utilized. Successful knowledge translation programmes are needed to move the best available evidence to clinical practice. The purpose of the present research was to evaluate the effects of a structured knowledge translation programme on the frequency of manual therapy techniques performed by physical therapists on patients with neck pain. Prior to our intervention, we assessed physical therapists' use of thoracic spine intervention for the treatment of neck pain and their knowledge of the evidence. We delivered a multimodal knowledge translation programme and then reassessed their use and knowledge of the interventions. The majority of our physical therapists increased the use of thoracic spine techniques for their patients with neck pain. The increase was greater in those who used the techniques infrequently. Overall knowledge of the evidence appeared unchanged. Knowledge translation programmes are essential in ensuring clinical use of evidence-based practice. Our programme results, although on a small scale and not statistically significant, showed a positive trend toward increased thoracic spine manual therapy use for neck pain. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Seong, Baek Seok; Lee, J. S.; Sim, C. M. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
The purpose of this project is to support external user for the promotion of HANARO common utilization effectively. To do this, external manpower was recruited and trained. Also, in order to find out and cultivate HANARO user, practice-oriented education was done. The total number of project selected as the promotion of HANARO common utilization was 44 in this year. These composed of four fields such as neutron beam utilization, materials/nuclear materials irradiation test, neutron activation analysis and radioisotope production. In each field, the numbers of project were 27, 9, 5 and 3 respectively. Also, from the utilization time point of view, total supporting ratio was reached to average 15% over four fields. In each field, it was 33% for neutron beam utilization, 24% for materials/nuclear materials irradiation test, 70% for neutron activation analysis and 12% for radioisotope production. In order to contribute finding and cultivating of HANARO potential user and increase utilization ratio of HANARO experimental facility, practice-oriented HANARO user education has been done. All participants from industries, universities, institutes were educated and practiced on instrument in the various fields such as neutron beam applications, materials/nuclear materials irradiation test, and neutron activation analysis. 'HANARO (utilization and research)information management system' has been developed in an effort to create a single database. By having it available on the net, it will serve as HANARO's important 'Information Platform' along with HANARO web site
.... One goal of the Command 21 project is the development and operational evaluation of the Knowledge Web concept and technologies to support shared situation awareness, to facilitate group interaction...
Lloyd, Ellen M.
Several researchers have pointed out the failures of current schooling to adequately prepare students in science and called for radical reform in science education to address the problem. One dominant critique of science education is that several groups of students are not well served by current school science practices and discourses. Rural students represent one of these underserved populations. Yet, there is little in the literature that speaks specifically to reforming the science education of rural students. Utilizing action research as a methodology, this study was designed to learn more about the unique knowledge and life experiences of rural students, and how these unique knowledge, skills and interests could suggest new ways to improve science education in rural schools. Informed by this ultimate goal, I created an after school science club where the participating high school students engaged in solving a local watershed problem, while explicitly bringing to bear their unique backgrounds, local knowledge and life experiences from living in a rural area of Upstate New York. Using Funds of Knowledge as the theoretical framework, this after-school club served as the context to investigate the following research questions: (1) What science-related funds of knowledge do rural high school students have? (2) How were these funds of knowledge capitalized on to support science learning in an after-school setting?
Full Text Available Welfare professions constitute one of the backbones in the development of the Nordic welfare states. Working in the public sector was for decades associated with high status; public sector employees were trusted employees. Through their work, they had important responsibilities for the welfare state and its citizens. To provide job security—through employment as officials—was a part of ensuring the stability of the state (Åkerstrøm, 2001, and we saw the establishment of what could be called a public ethos, a special morality aimed at serving the needs of the citizens and the state (Hoggett, 2005. The term welfare professions is widely used, referring to public sector employees in the field of, for example, health, education, care, and social work. So this term covers professionals who work directly in contact with patients, citizens, clients, students, etc. (Brante, 1990; Järvinen & Mik-Meyer, 2012. Along with the development and modernization of the welfare state, a number of new welfare professions, such as pedagogues, social works, physiotherapists, social care assistants, and auxiliary nurses have joined the existing ones like nurses, teachers, psychologists, and physicians. At the same time, however, the public sector has undergone dramatic changes as part of a neoliberal transformation of the welfare state. With the New Public Management (NPM wave from 1980s and onwards efforts to restructure public institutions and introduce market-like relationships between them, to outsource and privatize public services and to transform citizens to customers in a market have prevailed (Busch, 2005; Christensen & Lægreid, 2007; Greve, 2008. Within this reform strategy, welfare professionals are perceived as part of the problem that NPM is created to solve, namely an uncontrollable and wildly growing bureaucracy (Clarke & Newman, 1997 (...
Sandholm, Niels; Nielsen, Ulla Søbjerg; Nielsen, Iben Husted
Forhold mellem profession og bureaukrati undersøges med afsæt i to cases, sygeplejersker på hospital og sygehussocialrådgivere. Det empiriske materiale er fokusgruppeinterviews med to grupper af sygeplejersker og to grupper af socialrådgivere. Perspektivet er mikrosociologisk og der trækkes på an....... Et markant fund er, at mens socialrådgiverne fremstår som overvejende loyale overfor klienter, så udtrykker sygeplejerskerne en højere grad af loyalitet med organisatoriske mål og logikker....
Suarez, Vista V; Shanklin, Carol W
Increased job opportunities in health professions make recruitment of students imperative. Effective recruitment requires a knowledge of what students value when making career decisions. This study of dietetic (n = 514) and other college students (n = 352) showed that achievement and economic security were the most important factors in their career selection regardless of major or race. Dietetic majors rated achievement, economic security, ability utilization, personal development, altruism, and working conditions significantly higher than did nondietetic students (p values important to students in this study are attainable through careers in dietetics and other allied health professions. The results of this study should be examined further with a larger sample of allied health majors to assist educators in recruiting and providing career counseling to students.
Full Text Available The number of medical practitioners in the developed world has increased but in relative terms their incomes have decreased. Published comments suggest that some doctors are dissatisfied with what they earn. However doctors are still perceived as having a high status in society. Publicly available data suggests that doctors chose to live and work in affluent suburbs where arguably the need for their skills is less than that in neighbouring deprived areas. The gender balance in medicine is also changing with more women entering the workforce and a greater acceptance of parttime working arrangements. In some countries doctors have relinquished the responsibility for emergency out of hours care in general practice and personal continuity of care is no longer on offer. The profession is also challenged by policy makers’ enthusiasm for guidelines while the focus on multidisciplinary teamwork makes it more likely that patients will routinely be able to consult professionals other than medical practitioners. At the same time the internet has changed patient expectations so that health care providers will be expected to deploy information technology to satisfy patients. Medicine still has a great deal to offer. Information may be readily available on the internet, but it is not an independently sufficient, prerequisite for people to contend with the physical and psychological distress associated with disease and disability. We need to understand and promote the crucial role doctors play in society at a time of tremendous change in the attitudes to, and within, the profession.
Polsgrove, Myles Jay; Frimming, Renee Elizabeth
The social media format can be used to create a physical education community of experienced and new student members. In this setting, opportunities for novel and meaningful student interactions can be made possible. Through access to the insights of experienced members, new or incoming members can more quickly become knowledgeable members.…
Calderón Espinosa, Emmanuel; Becerril Montekio, Víctor; Alcalde Rabanal, Jacqueline; García Bello, Luis
The search for efficient answers to strengthen maternal health care has included various sources of evidence for decision making. In this article, we present a systematic mapping of the scientific literature on the use of tacit knowledge in relation to maternal healthcare. A systematic mapping was conducted of scientific articles published in Spanish and English between 1971 and 2014 following the recommendations of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses guidelines. Of 793 articles, 30 met the inclusion criteria; 60% were from high-income countries and 66.7% were focused on health professionals. We identified a predominance of qualitative methodologies (62%). Four categories regarding the use of tacit knowledge were generated: proposals to improve the organization of the maternal care system (30%) and to improve the care provided to women during the continuum of pregnancy, childbirth and postpartum (26.7%), determination of health workers' perception and skill levels (26.7%) and the interactions between tacit and explicit knowledge in clinical decision making (16.7%). This mapping shows that tacit knowledge is an emerging, innovative and versatile research approach used primarily in high-income countries and that includes interesting possibilities for its use as evidence to improve maternal healthcare, particularly in middle- and low-income countries, where it needs to be strengthened. Copyright © 2015 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Pedoche, Margarette Anne U.; Taladua, Janica Mae M.; Panal, Geicky Pearl C.; Magsayo, Joy R.; Guarin, Rica Mae B.; Myrna, H. Lahoylahoy
The main objective of the study was to enhance knowledge construction activities on its design particularly the objectives, support materials, student activities and assessment tools. Activities from the 2nd Quarter of Science Learners Material were the basis in the adaptation of activities. The adapted activities were evaluated by the In-service Science teachers and undergone modification by the researchers based on the teacher's comments and suggestions. It was then evaluated, revised, and validated, tried-out using the 21st CLD Rubric. Subjects of the study were 110 students from Grade 7-B, Grade 7-D, Grade 7-F in Geronima Cabrera National High School, Kolambugan, Lanao del Norte during the academic year 2016-2017, the study to determine their learning capabilities investigated by the use of Knowledge Construction Activities in the 21st Century Classroom, to investigate how the lessons were understood and appreciated by students, to stimulate interpretation, analysis, synthesizing, or evaluating ideas and develop critical thinking. Both quantitative and qualitative data were obtained from the students' scores in three activities. Results showed that there was a significant difference between the pretest and posttest scores of students. Mean scores between the pretest and posttest showed a mean difference of 3.35, thus the null hypothesis was rejected. It could be concluded with sufficient evidence to show that the students had basically low prior knowledge about the topic ecosystem. A significant difference was seen in the pretest and posttest, scores of the activities and Ecosystem model results after the implementation phase that a knowledge construction type of activity was better than the traditional one for it promoted meaningful learning and active engagement of students. Based on the results, it was clear that the use of knowledge construction activities had an effect on student's achievement in comparison to traditional teaching method. Thus, it was
Ahmed, Zainab Datti; Sule, Ibrahim Baffa; Abolaji, Mohammed Lukman; Mohammed, Yahaya; Nguku, Patrick
Students in the universities mostly live independently from their parents or guardians, some of them for the first time. This gives them freedom and opportunity for high risk behavior such as unplanned and unprotected sex. The results of such sexual experimentation may include unplanned and or unwanted pregnancies that may lead to unsafe abortions and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV/AIDS. Contraception has the potential to prevent unwanted pregnancies, abortion, and STIs. This study aimed at assessing the general knowledge on contraceptives, sexual practices, and level of utilization of contraceptives devices among unmarried students of the Bayero University Kano. We did an institutional based cross-sectional descriptive study. We administered a pretested, self-administered, structured questionnaire to randomly selected unmarried undergraduate students of the institution. We analyzed data using Microsoft Excel 2016 and Epi-info7. A total of 300 students were interviewed. The median age for respondents was 23 years with an age range of 16-25 years. Male respondents made up 61.3% (184) while the females made up the remaining 38.7% (116). Also, 158(47.33%) of respondents lived outside the school campus, while 158(52.67%) lived in the school hostels. Knowledge on contraception was 87.7% among respondents with internet (91%) and media (89.3%) as the commonest sources of knowledge. Proportion of sexually active students was 10.67%, while prevalence of contraceptive utilization among sexually active students was 15.63%. About 8(25%) had their sexual debut at knowledge on contraceptive used was high among the respondents, utilization of contraceptives among sexually active students was low, thus creating a window for possible unintended and unwanted pregnancies among these group of students.
Rajić, Andrijana; Young, Ian; McEwen, Scott A
Knowledge translation and transfer (KTT) aims to increase research utilization and ensure that the best available knowledge is used to inform policy and practice. Many frameworks, methods, and terms are used to describe KTT, and the field has largely developed in the health sector over the past decade. There is a need to review key KTT principles and methods in different sectors and evaluate their potential application in agri-food public health. We conducted a structured mixed-method review of the KTT literature. From 827 citations identified in a comprehensive search, we characterized 160 relevant review articles, case studies, and reports. A thematic analysis was conducted on a prioritized and representative subset of 33 articles to identify key principles and characteristics for ensuring effective KTT. The review steps were conducted by two or more independent reviewers using structured and pretested forms. We identified five key principles for effective KTT that were described within two contexts: to improve research utilization in general and to inform policy-making. To ensure general research uptake, there is a need for the following: (1) relevant and credible research; (2) ongoing interactions between researchers and end-users; (3) organizational support and culture; and (4) monitoring and evaluation. To inform policy-making, (5) researchers must also address the multiple and competing contextual factors of the policy-making process. We also describe 23 recommended and promising KTT methods, including six synthesis (e.g., systematic reviews, mixed-method reviews, and rapid reviews); nine dissemination (e.g., evidence summaries, social media, and policy briefs); and eight exchange methods (e.g., communities of practice, knowledge brokering, and policy dialogues). A brief description, contextual example, and key references are provided for each method. We recommend a wider endorsement of KTT principles and methods in agri-food public health, but there are
Rosen, Daniel; Berrios-Thomas, Saskia; Engel, Rafael J
The objective was to assess self-care knowledge changes with dually eligible Medicare and Medicaid patients diagnosed with congestive heart failure (CHF), who received a telecoaching protocol integrating symptom monitoring with face-to-face video chat with a social worker. We recruited 45 patients with CHF from a regional managed care organization. Sessions via a Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant tablet-based platform focused on educational information designed to improve patient self-care. Social workers administered the 13-item Member Confidence Measure (MCM) at baseline and at a 30-day follow-up period. Scores were recorded to measure differences in patients' understanding of CHF and related symptoms, their knowledge of the disease, and the behaviors necessary to prevent their symptoms from getting worse. Over the 30-day period, scores significantly (p safety). Gender, race, and age were unrelated to these improvements. In addition, effect sizes for the sub-scales ranged from .54 to 1.08; the effect size of the intervention as expressed by the total scale score was 1.12. Overall, patients increased knowledge over a 30-day period. Tele-coaching by social workers holds promise as a feasible model for health education for high-risk populations.
Full Text Available Human or social dimensions need to be significantly considered to maintain organizational sustainability. Unfortunately, this aspect has received relatively little attention when compared to other dimensions of sustainability. This study promotes the presence of a leader to manage conflicts, which cause hindrances in achieving sustainability. This is possible by maximizing sustainable knowledge sharing in a team, by effectively utilizing temporal diversity, including time urgency, time perspective, and pacing style diversity under a certain time pressure. This study has examined the effect of temporal diversity on knowledge sharing within teams by taking temporal conflict as a mediator. Moreover, it was also investigated whether the role of team temporal leadership is effective in utilizing the conflicts arising from the temporal diversity. The research design was quantitative in nature. A purposive sampling technique was used to gather data from 100 dyads working in the telecom sector of Pakistan, by distributing questionnaires. The findings suggest that team temporal leadership plays an effective role when a conflict arises rather than after it has arisen because more time and resources will be required to resolve such conflicts arising from temporal diversity. When the temporal diversity is low, the leader can manage the conflicts quite well, but as the diversity increases, the role of the temporal leader become much harder which may cause increased conflicts because of the limited capacity of a leader to manage those conflicts. Furthermore, it was observed that conflicts, if managed properly, may lead to increased knowledge sharing.
Knorring, Mia von
Background: Managers and physicians have two important roles in healthcare organisations. However, several studies have identified problems in the manager–physician relationship and more knowledge is needed to improve the situation. Using theories on organisation, professions, and role taking to inform thinking, this thesis addresses one aspect of the manager-physician relationship, namely how managers handle their role in relation to the medical profession. This was studied in the context of...
Defining the effect and mediators of two knowledge translation strategies designed to alter knowledge, intent and clinical utilization of rehabilitation outcome measures: a study protocol [NCT00298727
Full Text Available Abstract Background A substantial number of valid outcome measures have been developed to measure health in adult musculoskeletal and childhood disability. Regrettably, national initiatives have merely resulted in changes in attitude, while utilization remains unacceptably low. This study will compare the effectiveness and mediators of two different knowledge transfer (KT interventions in terms of their impact on changing knowledge and behavior (utilization and clinical reasoning related to health outcome measures. Method/Design Physical and occupational therapists (n = 144 will be recruited in partnership with the national professional associations to evaluate two different KT interventions with the same curriculum: 1 Stakeholder-Hosted Interactive Problem-Based Seminar (SHIPS, and 2 Online Problem-Based course (e-PBL. SHIPS will consist of face-to-face problem-based learning (PBL for 2 1/2 days with outcome measure developers as facilitators, using six problems generated in consultation with participants. The e-PBL will consist of a 6-week web-based course with six generic problems developed by content experts. SHIPS will be conducted in three urban centers in Canada. Participants will be block-allocated by a minimization procedure to either of the two interventions to minimize any prognostic differences. Trained evaluators at each site will conduct chart audits and chart-stimulated recall. Trained interviewers will conduct semi-structured interviews focused on identifying critical elements in KT and implementing practice changes. Interviews will be transcribed verbatim. Baseline predictors including demographics, knowledge, attitudes/barriers regarding outcome measures, and Readiness to Change will be assessed by self-report. Immediately post-intervention and 6 months later, these will be re-administered. Primary qualitative and quantitative evaluations will be conducted 6-months post-intervention to assess the relative effectiveness of KT
Per Arne Tufte
Full Text Available Modern professions provide important and essential services like engineering, financial services, and welfare state services. Sustaining a sufficient supply of these services requires professionals to remain in the workforce as long as possible. This article examines variation in the risk of disability pension among individuals with different professional education backgrounds according to the status of the profession and its primary task (i.e., caring for others, “life” professions; or providing other kinds of services, “thing” professions. Event history analy-sis was employed to examine register data for the Norwegian population from 1992 through 2008, with gender, age at completed education, birth year, and social status as control variables. The results indicate that individuals in low-status life professions were exposed to a greater risk of disability pension than individuals with other professional education backgrounds. Possible explanations are mechanisms related to selection effects, physical and mental job strain, and professional ethics.
Advanced Natural Language Processing Tools for Web Information Retrieval, Content Analysis, and Synthesis. The goal of this SBIR was to implement and evaluate several advanced Natural Language Processing (NLP) tools and techniques to enhance the precision and relevance of search results by analyzing and augmenting search queries and by helping to organize the search output obtained from heterogeneous databases and web pages containing textual information of interest to DOE and the scientific-technical user communities in general. The SBIR investigated 1) the incorporation of spelling checkers in search applications, 2) identification of significant phrases and concepts using a combination of linguistic and statistical techniques, and 3) enhancement of the query interface and search retrieval results through the use of semantic resources, such as thesauri. A search program with a flexible query interface was developed to search reference databases with the objective of enhancing search results from web queries or queries of specialized search systems such as DOE's Information Bridge. The DOE ETDE/INIS Joint Thesaurus was processed to create a searchable database. Term frequencies and term co-occurrences were used to enhance the web information retrieval by providing algorithmically-derived objective criteria to organize relevant documents into clusters containing significant terms. A thesaurus provides an authoritative overview and classification of a field of knowledge. By organizing the results of a search using the thesaurus terminology, the output is more meaningful than when the results are just organized based on the terms that co-occur in the retrieved documents, some of which may not be significant. An attempt was made to take advantage of the hierarchy provided by broader and narrower terms, as well as other field-specific information in the thesauri. The search program uses linguistic morphological routines to find relevant entries regardless of
Ünal, Fatma; Tarhan, Sinem; Köksal, Eda Çürükvelioglu
There are negative impacts of gender stereotypes particularly on the education of girls and women. The purpose of this study is to examine pre-service teachers' profession perceptions within the context of gender using word association test technique and to identify the definition of the concept of "profession" depending on sex. This…
Goldhaber, Dan, Ed.; Hannaway, Jane, Ed.
Considering that having a quality teacher is the foremost in-school predictor of students' success, ensuring teacher excellence is vital to the nation's educational system. In "Creating a New Teaching Profession," diverse scholars assess the state of human capital development in the teaching profession today and how to progress.
Kienle, Gunver S; Kiene, Helmut
Objectives Clinical judgment is a central element of the medical profession, essential for the performance of the doctor, and potentially generating information also for other clinicians and for scientists and health care managers. The recently renewed interest in clinical judgement is primarily engaged with its role in communication, diagnosis and decision making. Beyond this issue, the present article highlights the interrelations between clinical judgement, therapy assessment and medical professionalism. Methods Literature review and theory development. Results The article presents different methodological approaches to causality assessment in clinical studies and in clinical judgement, and offers criteria for clinical single case causality. The article outlines models of medical professionalism such as technical rationality and practice epistemology, and characterizes features of professional expertise such as tacit knowledge, reflection in action, and gestalt cognition. Conclusions Consequences of a methodological and logistical advancement of clinical judgment are discussed, both in regard to medical progress and to the renewel of the cognitive basis of the medical profession. PMID:20973873
population groups rather than those of individuals. Central elements of the profession are to assess the impact of various aspects of the food systems on the nutritional status, health and health inequalities of population groups, and to develop, recommend and implement evidence-based measures to improve...... dietary intake and nutritional status of population groups. These measures may be environmental, educational, social, economic, structural, political and/or legislative. The knowledge, skills, competencies and cultural heritage of the broader community should form a basis for all analyses and actions...... nutrition related challenges in the Nordic region and globally. The network facilitates exchange of lecturers, students, innovative educational resources and teaching methods and supports the consolidation of PHN as a recognized/accredited profession throughout the Nordic region. The network has done...
The increasing impacts of information technology and the internet have demystified knowledge and skills in all professions leaving the lawyer of today a person of business and ethics. The key argument in this paper is that ... knowledge and skill in that order. Keywords: Legal education, excellence, globalization, technology ...
Bellazzini, Marc A; Rankin, Peter M; Quisling, Jason; Gangnon, Ronald; Kohrs, Mike
Increased concerns over the safety of air medical transport have prompted development of novel ways to increase safety. The objective of our study was to determine if an Internet streaming media safety video increased crew safety knowledge. 23 out of 40 crew members took an online safety pre-test, watched a safety video specific to our program and completed immediate and long-term post-testing 6 months later. Mean pre-test, post-test and 6 month follow up test scores were 84.9%, 92.3% and 88.4% respectively. There was a statistically significant difference in all scores (p Streaming media proved to be an accessible and effective supplement to safety training in our study.
Conclusions: Online EBP learning modules were effective in developing EBP knowledge and skills for health professions students. Using the same modules ensured that students from different health professions at different stages of their professional programs had consistent knowledge and enabled each student to fully engage in an interprofessional evidence-based activity. Student feedback indicated the modules were valued and beneficial.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Globally, there was an estimated number of 287,000 maternal deaths in 2010. Eighty five percent (245,000 of these deaths occurred in Sub-Saharan Africa and Southern Asia. Among the causes of these deaths were obstructed and prolonged labour which could be prevented by cost effective and affordable health interventions like the use of the partograph. The Use of the partograph is a well-known best practice for quality monitoring of labour and subsequent prevention of obstructed and prolonged labour. However, a number of cases of obstructed labour do happen in health facilities due to poor quality of intrapartum care. Methods A cross-sectional quantitative study assessed knowledge and utilization of partograph among obstetric care givers in public health institutions of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia using a structured interviewer administered questionnaire. The collected data was analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with knowledge and use of partograph among obstetric care givers. Results Knowledge about the partograph was fair: 189 (96.6% of all the respondents correctly mentioned at least one component of the partograph, 104 (53.3% correctly explained the function of alert line and 161 (82.6% correctly explained the function of action line. The study showed that 112 (57.3% of the obstetric care givers at public health institutions reportedly utilized partograph to monitor mothers in labour. The utilization of the partograph was significantly higher among obstetric care givers working in health centres (67.9% compared to those working in hospitals (34.4% [Adjusted OR = 3.63(95%CI: 1.81, 7.28]. Conclusions A significant percentage of obstetric care givers had fair knowledge of the partograph and why it is necessary to use it in the management of labour and over half of obstetric care givers reported use of the partograph to monitor mothers in labour. Pre-service and
Full Text Available Abstract Background Large numbers of unmarried migrants are on the continuous move from rural-to-urban areas within China mainland, meanwhile their Reproductive Health (RH is underserved when it is compared with the present urban RH policies. The purpose of this study is to investigate the RH knowledge and the utilization of RH services among unmarried migrants. Methods A cross-section survey was performed in three cities in China-Shenzhen, Guangzhou and Wuhan. A total of 3,450 rural-to-urban unmarried migrants were chosen according to a purposive sampling method. Around 3,412 (male: 1,680, female: 1,732 were qualified for this study. A face-to-face structured questionnaire survey was used, which focused on the knowledge concerning "fertility, contraception and STD/AIDS," as well as RH service utilization. Results Among unmarried migrants the RH knowledge about pregnancy-fertilization (29.4% and contraception (9.1% was at its lowest level. Around 21% of unmarried migrants had pre-marital sexual experience and almost half (47.4% never used condoms during sexual intercourse. The most obtained RH services was about STD/AIDS health education (female: 49.6%, male: 50.2% and free prophylactic use of contraceptives and/or condoms (female: 42.5%, male: 48.3%. As for accessing RH checkup services it was at its lowest level among females (16.1%. Those who migrated to Shenzhen (OR = 0.64 and Guangzhou (OR = 0.53 obtained few RH consultations compared to those in Wuhan. The white collar workers received more RH consultations and checkup services than the blue collar workers (all group P Conclusion RH knowledge and the utilization of RH services amongst unmarried migrants remain insufficient in the three studied major cities. This study reveals the important gaps in the RH services' delivery, and highlights the requirements for tailored interventions, including further research, to address more effectively the demands and the needs of the unmarried migrant
Ram Janak Yadav
Full Text Available Background: As no study was available about the usage of Indian system of Medicine and homoeopathy in North eastern states accordingly Indian Council of Medical Research entrusted this study to this Institute. Aims & Objective: To know the knowledge, attitude and practices of Indian system of Medicine and homoeopathy in Assam state. Material & Methods: To achieve these objectives, Fifty villages were selected from each selected district for Assam states. Twenty households with at least one member ill during the last three months and availed medical care services for treatment have been selected from each village. About 3,000 households were covered to know their perception about the ISM&H. From these households in all, 4800 sick persons (who fell sick in last three months and taken any treatment were interviewed. Results: More than three fourth of the household are being headed by male members. About 40 percent of households reported to have visited traditional healers at the time of their illness. Bone setting (37%, Dog bite (23%, Jaundice (20%, Measles (16%, Sciatica (9% and Snake bite (5%. Jaundic, Sciatica, Measles and Migraine were the illnesses for which the patients also visited traditional healers. As a whole, ISM&H was preferred in Government setup by 65% in case of normal ailments but in case of serious ailments, assistance preferred for Government was about 25%. Allopathy system was more preferred in case of serious ailments as compared to Ayurveda in normal ailments which were about 45%.
Conclusion: Knowledge regarding dental insurance was poor in both groups, while the insured group showed a more positive attitude toward benefits of dental insurance. Utilization of dental services was seen more among insured group.
Kolb, Rachel R.; Hoover, Marcey L.
Over the course of time, the profession of quality engineering has witnessed significant change, from its original emphasis on quality control and inspection to a more contemporary focus on upholding quality processes throughout the organization and its product realization activities. This paper describes the profession of quality engineering, exploring how todays quality engineers and quality professionals are certified individuals committed to upholding quality processes and principles while working with different dimensions of product development. It also discusses the future of the quality engineering profession and the future of the quality movement as a whole.
Berling, Trine Villumsen
Scientific knowledge in international relations has generally focused on an epistemological distinction between rationalism and reflectivism over the last 25 years. This chapter argues that this distinction has created a double distinction between theory/reality and theory/practice, which works...... and reflectivism. Bourdieu, on the contrary, lets the challenge to the theory/reality distinction spill over into a challenge to the theory/practice distinction by thrusting the scientist in the foreground as not just a factor (discourse/genre) but as an actor. In this way, studies of IR need to include a focus...... as a ghost distinction structuring IR research. While reflectivist studies have emphasised the impossibility of detached, objective knowledge production through a dissolution of the theory/reality distinction, the theory/practice distinction has been left largely untouched by both rationalism...
Leschied, Jessica R; Knoepp, Ursula S; Hoff, Carrie Nicole; Mazza, Michael B; Klein, Katherine A; Mullan, Patricia B; Kelly, Aine M
Given recent advances in and wider availability of complex imaging, physicians are expected to understand imaging appropriateness. We introduced second-year medical students to the American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria (ACR-AC) in an interactive case-based elective to demonstrate their use in imaging for common emergency department clinical complaints. Prospective pre- and post-test design assessed second-year medical students' performance on case-based knowledge applications and self-assessed confidence related to ACR-AC guidelines compared to second-year students participating in a different concurrent radiology elective. Students participated in a 3-day elective covering the ACR-AC, comparative effective imaging, and risks associated with imaging radiation exposure, with outcomes of perceived confidence using a 5-point Likert scale and knowledge of ACR-AC using case-based multiple choice questions. Analysis included computing mean scores and assessing effect sizes for changes in knowledge. Before the elective, 24 students scored an average of 3.45 questions correct of 8 (43.1%). On course completion, students scored an average of 5.3 questions correct of the same questions (66.3%) (P .85; effect size = 0.008). Students' confidence in ordering appropriate imaging improved nearly 2-fold from a range of 1.9 to 3.2 (on a scale of 1.0 to 5.0) to a range of 3.7 to 4.5. Following a short radiology elective, second-year medical students improved their knowledge of appropriate image utilization and perceived awareness of the indications, contraindications, and effects of radiation exposure related to medical imaging. Copyright © 2013 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Since mechanization is progressing more and more in the health service, especially in the hospitals, persons working in medical assisting professions must increase their knowledge and understanding of technical and physical matters. This book aims at showing the physical connections important for the medical sphere and to describe their application in medicine. The topics of the book were selected according to the 'physical profile' of a modern large hospital and to the legally assigned subjects for physics in nursing training. Contents and presentation of the subjects have been proving good for several years in physics taught in nursing schools. (orig./RW) [de
Laursen, Scott; Puniwai, Noelani; Genz, Ayesha S; Nash, Sarah A B; Canale, Lisa K; Ziegler-Chong, Sharon
Complex socio-ecological issues, such as climate change have historically been addressed through technical problem solving methods. Yet today, climate science approaches are increasingly accounting for the roles of diverse social perceptions, experiences, cultural norms, and worldviews. In support of this shift, we developed a research program on Hawai'i Island that utilizes knowledge coproduction to integrate the diverse worldviews of natural and cultural resource managers, policy professionals, and researchers within actionable science products. Through their work, local field managers regularly experience discrete land and waterscapes. Additionally, in highly interconnected rural communities, such as Hawai'i Island, managers often participate in the social norms and values of communities that utilize these ecosystems. Such local manager networks offer powerful frameworks within which to co-develop and implement actionable science. We interviewed a diverse set of local managers with the aim of incorporating their perspectives into the development of a collaborative climate change research agenda that builds upon existing professional networks utilized by managers and scientists while developing new research products. We report our manager needs assessment, the development process of our climate change program, our interactive forums, and our ongoing research products. Our needs assessment showed that the managers' primary source of information were other professional colleagues, and our in-person forums informed us that local managers are very interested in interacting with a wider range of networks to build upon their management capacities. Our initial programmatic progress suggests that co-created research products and in-person forums strengthen the capacities of local managers to adapt to change.
Clinical cytology is an interdisciplinary medical diagnostic profession that integrates clinical, laboratory and analytical fields along with final cytologist's expert opinion. Cytology involves nonaggressive, minimally invasive and simple for use procedures that are fully acceptable for the patient. Cytology offers rapid orientation, while in combination with additional technologies on cytologic smear analysis (cytochemistry, immunocytochemistry for cell marker analysis, computer image analysis) or sophisticated methods on cytologic samples (flow cytometry, molecular and cytogenetic analysis) it plays a major role in the diagnosis, subtyping and prognosis of malignant tumors. Ten rules for successful performance in cytology are as follows: 1) due knowledge of overall cytology (general cytologist); 2) inclusion in all stages of cytologic sample manipulation from sampling through reporting; 3) due knowledge of additional technologies to provide appropriate interpretation and/or rational advice in dubious cases; 4) to preserve dignity of the profession because every profession has its advantages, shortcomings and limitations; 5) to insist on quality control of the performance, individual cytologists and cytology team; 6) knowledge transfer to young professionals; 7) assisting fellow professionals in dubious cases irrespective of the time needed and fee because it implies helping the patient and the profession itself; 8) experience exchange with other related professionals to upgrade mutual understanding; 9) to prefer the interest of the profession over one's own interest; and 10) to love cytology.
Full Text Available The accounting profession fulfills a vital role in the development of modern economy, contributing to the thorough knowledge of business environment, the improvement of economic performance and solving some of the many problems the post-modern society is facing. Accounting profession fulfills a vital role in modern economy, contributing to a thorough knowledge of business to improve economic performance and to resolve some of the many problems facing post-modern society. Currently, the accounting profession is characterized by the expansion of information technology, internationalization of businesses and professional specialization which has made possible the creation of several professional bodies. Against this background, it becomes urgent to discover new perspectives on strategies able to maintain and increase business success, based on the simultaneous combination of the elements of cooperation and competition, which involves a new type of relation, called by the North - American literature "co-opetition".
Full Text Available Passion is an important power that develops, matures, and exalts personality within certain boundaries and dimensions, reflected in thought, behaviour and action from emotional life. Passion in the broadest sense is a form of behaviour that is constantly evoked by the influence and enforcement of the tendencies arising from forces within the human being. Passion is identified with learning new things, care, and action. Passionate education requires emotional, motivational and scientific qualities. Teachers, who are considered as passionate about teaching, have features such as emotion, motivation and knowledge.
Sorensen, Roslyn; Iedema, Rick; Severinsson, Elisabeth
To examine nursing leadership in contemporary health care and its potential contribution to health service organization and management. As the nursing profession repositions itself as an equal partner in health care beside medicine and management, its enhanced nursing standards and clinical knowledge are not leading to a commensurate extension of nursing's power and authority in the organization. An ethnographic study of an ICU in Sydney, Australia, comprising: interviews with unit nursing managers (4); focus groups (3) with less experienced, intermediate and experienced nurses (29 in total); and interviews with senior nurse manager (1). Inter- and intra-professional barriers in the workplace, fragmentation of multidisciplinary clinical systems that collectively deliver care, and clinical and administrative disconnection in resolving organizational problems, prevented nurses articulating a model of intensive and end-of-life care. Professional advocacy skills are needed to overcome barriers and to articulate and operationalize new nursing knowledge and standards if nurses are to enact and embed a leadership role. The profession will need to move beyond a reliance on professional clinical models to become skilled multidisciplinary team members and professional advocates for nurses to take their place as equal partners in health care.
Olsen, P R; Bradbury-Jones, C
To discuss the complexities of moving research into practice and through a case example, explore how empirical findings from one specific study could be applied to nursing in other contexts. The processes of moving research findings into practice are complex and multidimensional. In this paper, an innovative approach to social support, network-focused nursing (NFN), is used as a case example to illustrate these complexities. Social support is associated with better recovery and survival after illness and based on this, a NFN programme was developed in a Danish oncology youth unit. Subsequently, a research study was undertaken to investigate the programme and based on the findings, the concept NFN was developed. A knowledge utilization framework is used to explore how empirical findings from the NFN study could be applied to nursing more generally. Aligned with this, the specific considerations for implementing NFN are explicated. Strong leadership, education, management support and effective communication are critical factors for research utilization. Moving research into practice requires openness to new ideas. Nursing and healthcare policies therefore need to support environments in which creativity and innovation can flourish. NFN was developed in teenager and young adult cancer care, but its principles may be transferable to other clinical environments. It is important that nurse managers and policy makers ensure that support and education are available to nurses to facilitate moving research into practice. Moreover, resources need to be considered, particularly in countries where financial and organizational infrastructures may be weak. © 2013 The Authors. International Nursing Review © 2013 International Council of Nurses.
Prem Lal Chauhan
Full Text Available Introduction: Safe motherhood is perceived as a human right, and the health sector is always encouraged to provide quality services to ensure the same. Government of India launched a scheme called Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY on April 11, 2005, under the flagship of National Rural Health Mission to reduce maternal and neonatal mortality, by promoting institutional deliveries for which financial incentives are provided to mothers delivering in the health facilities. Objective: To study the knowledge, awareness, and utilization pattern of services under JSY among the beneficiaries in rural area of Shimla, Himachal Pradesh, India. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among the 78 JSY beneficiaries residing in the rural field practice area of Indira Gandhi Medical College Shimla, Himachal Pradesh, India. These beneficiaries were interviewed with pretested, predesigned, semi-structured close ended questionnaire by house-to-house visits, after obtaining informed consent. Results: Majority of the JSY beneficiaries (50; 64% were in the age group of 20–25 years and 43 (55.1% of them heard about the JSY scheme before the present pregnancy. Anganwadi workers 78 (100% and female health workers (62; 79.5% were the main sources of information. More than half of the study participants (44; 56% had good knowledge about the scheme and 42 (53.85% registered their name in health institution during thefirst trimester of last pregnancy. Forty-four (56.4% beneficiaries had undergone three antenatal checkups and only 11 (14.1% of them received three postnatal (PN visits. All the beneficiaries received the JSY incentives 1-week the following delivery. Conclusions: Awareness regarding the JSY scheme, early antenatal registration, minimum three antenatal care visits, and three PN visits is still low among rural women which needs strengthening through intensification of IEC activities.
Backhouse, Mark; Fitzpatrick, Michael; Hutchinson, Joseph; Thandi, Charankumal S; Keenan, Iain D
Innovative educational strategies can provide variety and enhance student learning while addressing complex logistical and financial issues facing modern anatomy education. Observe-Reflect-Draw-Edit-Repeat (ORDER), a novel cyclical artistic process, has been designed based on cognitivist and constructivist learning theories, and on processes of critical observation, reflection and drawing in anatomy learning. ORDER was initially investigated in the context of a compulsory first year surface anatomy practical (ORDER-SAP) at a United Kingdom medical school in which a cross-over trial with pre-post anatomy knowledge testing was utilized and student perceptions were identified. Despite positive perceptions of ORDER-SAP, medical student (n = 154) pre-post knowledge test scores were significantly greater (P learning methods (3.26, SD = ±2.25) than with ORDER-SAP (2.17, ±2.30). Based on these findings, ORDER was modified and evaluated in the context of an optional self-directed gross anatomy online interactive tutorial (ORDER-IT) for participating first year medical students (n = 55). Student performance was significantly greater (P 0.05) to those students without these characteristics. These findings will be of value to anatomy instructors seeking to engage students from diverse learning backgrounds in a research-led, innovative, time and cost-effective learning method, in the context of contrasting learning environments. Anat Sci Educ 10: 7-22. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.
Puncreobutr, Vichian; Malee; Somjate
The objective of this research was to study the level of work integrated learning (WIL), and the competency of the teaching profession based on the standards of knowledge of the graduates at St. Theresa International College. The study group consisted of 115 graduates pursuing Graduate Diploma in Teaching Profession Program. The questionnaire was…
This article focuses on understanding teaching activities, especially in the field of health science, as a set of tasks and actions that teachers undertake when transforming scientific knowledge into curriculum contents and actions. There are several ways to address this issue. Some authors identify specific roles and qualities of teachers structured as variables and dimensions. Others use the term competencies, applied as skills, aptitudes or abilities to do something very well or duly intervene in a certain matter. The term competence, although not yet clearly defined, is used in this work because it is widely used in Health Sciences education. Some definitions are reviewed. Teacher's competencies in the following areas recognized: those related to specific professional skills, in contents organization, in learning skills, in new information and communication technologies, in evaluation and in social and ethical areas of educational practices.
Nielsen, Birgitte Lund
Review af resultater fra 10 års publikationer i Teaching and Teacher Education i relation til samarbejde mellem profession og uddannelse i partnerskaber og forsøgsskoleregi viser, at der er bred konsensus om, at det centrale formål er alle aktørers læring gennem bedre praktik i den primære...... konkrete samarbejder mellem profession og uddannelse; FoU, der både undersøger de resultater, der opnås gennem sådanne samarbejder, og de fremmende og hæmmende faktorer for udvikling af selve samarbejdet....
Shahmoradi, Leila; Safadari, Reza; Jimma, Worku
Background Healthcare is a knowledge driven process and thus knowledge management and the tools to manage knowledge in healthcare sector are gaining attention. The aim of this systematic review is to investigate knowledge management implementation and knowledge management tools used in healthcare for informed decision making. Methods Three databases, two journals websites and Google Scholar were used as sources for the review. The key terms used to search relevant articles include: “Healthcar...
Bøllingtoft Knudsen, Søren
Focus on evidence-based policymaking is greater than ever, and public spending on evaluations is rising. A primary merit of these expenditures is that politicians actually use new knowledge instrumentally--to influence and inform decision making. Nevertheless, we know surprisingly little about whether and how research-based knowledge is utilised.…
Busch-Jensen, Peter; Kondrup, Sissel
to be ‘welfare technological literate’ – both generally as well as within specific welfare professions. Secondly to support the development of a helpful educational framework that enables students to develop welfare technological literacy. This paper discusses some difficulties and preliminary findings...
Spitzberg, Brian H
Despite the central role that communication skills play in contemporary accounts of effective health care delivery in general, and the communication of medical error specifically, there is no common or consensual core in the health professions regarding the nature of such skills. This lack of consensus reflects, in part, the tendency for disciplines to reinvent concepts and measures without first situating such development in disciplines with more cognate specialization in such concepts. In this essay, an integrative model of communication competence is introduced, along with its theoretical background and rationale. Communication competence is defined as an impression of appropriateness and effectiveness, which is functionally related to individual motivation, knowledge, skills, and contextual facilitators and constraints. Within this conceptualization, error disclosure contexts are utilized to illustrate the heuristic value of the theory, and implications for assessment are suggested. Significance for public healthModels matter, as do the presuppositions that underlie their architecture. Research indicates that judgments of competence moderate outcomes such as satisfaction, trust, understanding, and power-sharing in relationships and in individual encounters. If the outcomes of health care encounters depend on the impression of competence that patients or their family members have of health care professionals, then knowing which specific communicative behaviors contribute to such impressions is not merely important - it is essential. To pursue such a research agenda requires that competence assessment and operationalization becomes better aligned with conceptual assumptions that separate behavioral performance from the judgments of the competence of that performance.
Spitzberg, Brian H.
Despite the central role that communication skills play in contemporary accounts of effective health care delivery in general, and the communication of medical error specifically, there is no common or consensual core in the health professions regarding the nature of such skills. This lack of consensus reflects, in part, the tendency for disciplines to reinvent concepts and measures without first situating such development in disciplines with more cognate specialization in such concepts. In this essay, an integrative model of communication competence is introduced, along with its theoretical background and rationale. Communication competence is defined as an impression of appropriateness and effectiveness, which is functionally related to individual motivation, knowledge, skills, and contextual facilitators and constraints. Within this conceptualization, error disclosure contexts are utilized to illustrate the heuristic value of the theory, and implications for assessment are suggested. Significance for public health Models matter, as do the presuppositions that underlie their architecture. Research indicates that judgments of competence moderate outcomes such as satisfaction, trust, understanding, and power-sharing in relationships and in individual encounters. If the outcomes of health care encounters depend on the impression of competence that patients or their family members have of health care professionals, then knowing which specific communicative behaviors contribute to such impressions is not merely important – it is essential. To pursue such a research agenda requires that competence assessment and operationalization becomes better aligned with conceptual assumptions that separate behavioral performance from the judgments of the competence of that performance. PMID:25170494
Contact time with students is becoming more valuable and must be utilized efficiently. Unfortunately, many students attend anatomy lectures and labs ill-prepared, and this limits efficiency. To address this issue we have created an interactive mobile app designed to facilitate the acquisition and transfer of critical anatomical knowledge in…
Most of the farmers in the arid and semi arid are poorly endowed with resources. Market liberalisation and withdrawal of government support (subsidies) in accessing some of the modern technologies has led to decreased use of most of the modern recommended technologies due to their high prices. A a coping strategy most of the resources poor farmers have turned to utilization of the indigenous technology to sustain their agricultural production. The main objective of this paper is to document the indigenous technologies utilized by farmers, explore the possibility of refining/calibrating and up-scaling them and the advantages and disadvantages of utilizing them as identified by the farmers. The method for data collection was by use of interviews the farmers who were stratified in terms of gender and age sets (young, middle aged and old) and data analysed by use of qualitative methods. The results indicate that, most farmers do utilize indigenous technology in crops, livestock pests, diseases, soil and water conservation as cropping strategies to increase input prices due to market liberalization and withdrawal of government subsidies. It was also observed that, there is need for scientists to calibrate the most important practices for improved adoption and up-scaling of the main indigenous technologies within and outside the study areas
Agich, G J
This paper analyzes one dimension of the frequently alleged contradiction between treating medicine as a business and as a profession, namely the incompatibility between viewing the physician patient relationship in economic and moral terms. The paper explores the utilitarian foundations of economics and the deontological foundations of professional medical ethics as one source for the business/medicine conflict that influences beliefs about the proper understanding of the therapeutic relationship. It then, focuses on the contrast and distinction between medicine as business and profession by critically analyzing the classic economic view of the moral status of medicine articulated by Kenneth Arrow. The paper concludes with a discussion of some advantages associated with regarding medicine as a business.
Currently, the accounting profession is in the process of transitioning from a male dominated profession to a predominantly female one. Other professions that have undergone this switch experienced declines in the status of the profession and the salaries. So, although women have not yet gained equal access to all levels of the accounting…
required to suppress competing emotions of right and wrong in battle. Since loyalty motivates Soldiers to act in a particular way, Connor also provides...given. Therefore, a sound understanding of loyalty is essential to understanding its role in the profession of arms. Ten readings from various...sound understanding of loyalty is essential. This research paper presents an approach by offering 10 readings to provide a substantial
Full Text Available Teachers, as an element of the educational system, are considered to be the most important factor for improving the quality of work in schools. At the same time, schools and teachers, as well as the entire educational system, are functioning in the framework of broader social conditions that may be perceived as favorable and unfavorable for particular aspects of their job and profession. The paper examined teachers' perceptions of the social circumstances in which they work and professionally develop, as well as their temporal satisfaction of their profession and professional development. Temporal satisfaction involves cognitive evaluation of professional area of life through the prism of time (past, present, future. Examined was the interrelationship between these factors, as well as correlations with certain socio-demographic variables: length of employment, age, gender, initial education and type of school in which they are employed. Results indicate that teachers generally perceive social conditions as unfavorable to their professional development, being more satisfied with the past, than with the present and future professional aspects of life. Professional satisfaction was significantly correlated with the perception of social circumstances. Significant differences were established in the temporal satisfaction and perception of social conditions in relation to sex. Teachers in secondary vocational schools are more satisfied with their profession compared to teachers in gymnasiums and primary schools.
Briand-Lamarche, Mélodie; Pinard, Renée; Thériault, Pascale; Dagenais, Christian
To encourage the use of research-based information (RBI) in education in Quebec, the "Centre de transfert pour la réussite educative du Québec" CTREQ and the RENARD team, a knowledge transfer research team, developed the Competency Model for Knowledge Translation to Support Educational Achievement among Quebec Youth. They then developed…
It shows the local medicinal uses of biodiversity in Brazil's Amazonian littoral, promoting the value of folk knowledge, and its applicability in future studies. To demonstrate the importance of the knowledge of medicinal plants in the Amazonian coastal community of Marudá, located in Pará State, Brazil. Fieldwork was conducted between 1996 and 1998, using the methods of participant observation, semi-structured interviews and informal discussions to elicit information from community residents and plant specialists, in addition to collecting plant material. Community residents possess knowledge of 229 medicinal plants distributed in 81 botanical families and know how to manipulate them in a variety of ways, with special care taken to ensure that they are used in the safest and most efficient manner. Therapeutic indications for these plants include illness and disease recognized in the repertoire of Western medicine as well as ailments perceived from a local cultural perspective. Results from this study attest to informants' knowledge of medicinal flora and their ability and openness to integrate new species from diverse origins into their gamut of medicinal knowledge, including industrial therapeutic preparations and animal products. Local uses of biodiversity in Brazil's Amazonian littoral are also evinced, promoting the value of folk medicinal knowledge. Similarly, it mentions the potential of implementing local knowledge in Brazil's Unitary Health System.
Shrestha, J R; Manandhar, D S; Manandhar, S R; Adhikari, D; Rai, C; Rana, H; Poudel, M; Pradhan, A
As part of the Partnership for Maternal and Newborn Health Project (PMNH), HealthRight International collaborated with Mother and Infant Research Activities (MIRA) to conduct operations research in Arghakhanchi district of Nepal to explore the intervention impact of strengthening health facility, improving community facility linkages along with Community Based Newborn Care Program (CB-NCP) on Maternal Neonatal Care (MNC) service quality, utilization, knowledge and care seeking behavior. This was a quasi-experimental study. Siddahara, Pokharathok, Subarnakhal,Narpani Health Posts (HPs) and Thada Primary Health Care Center(PHCC)in Electoral Constituency-2 were selected as intervention sites and Arghatosh, ,Argha, Khana, Hansapur HPs and Balkot PHCC in Electoral Constituency-1 were chosen as controls. The intervention started in February 2011 and was evaluated in August 2013. To compare MNC knowledge and practice in the community, mothers of children aged 0-23 months were selected from the corresponding Village Development Committees(VDCs) by a two stage cluster sampling design during both baseline (July 2010) and endline (August, 2013) assessments. The difference in difference analysis was used to understand the intervention impact. Local resource mobilization for MNC, knowledge about MNC and service utilization increased in intervention sites. Though there were improvements, many effects were not significant. Extensive trainings followed by reviews and quality monitoring visits increased the knowledge, improved skills and fostered motivation of health facility workers for better MNC service delivery. MNC indicators showed an upsurge in numbers due to the synergistic effects of many interventions.
Galton, D J
The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) defines a profession as 'a vocation or calling especially one that involves some branch of advanced learning or science (the Medical Profession)'. A vocation in this sense means work in a field that requires dedication. Other distinguishing features include work that deals with vital issues such as matters of life-or-death for medicine, freedom-or-internment for the law, war-or-peace for politicians, defence-or-attack for the military, etc. Such professionals have a certain amount of autonomy to decide what needs doing. They are never on holiday; doctors are expected to treat patients in an emergency whatever the time or place; politicians interrupt their holidays to debate matters of war or peace. They consider the value of their work to be above disputes about salary or pensions and do not go on strike for such issues. In return, they earn a certain amount of respect and trust from the public they serve. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Association of Physicians. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Andersson, B.T.; Lundgren, S.M.; Lundén, M.
Introduction: The expansion of the radiography profession in recent decades has widened the scope of radiographic practice. This has raised questions about which trends have had an impact on the profession over the years. The study aim was to explore trends that have influenced the radiography profession over the last four decades. Methods: A qualitative design was used. Eleven focus group interviews inspired by the Scenario Planning Method were conducted at 11 diagnostic radiology departments in public hospitals in Sweden. The target group consisted of 48 registered radiographers. To analyse the data, qualitative content analysis was used. Results: Thematic data analysis revealed three broad categories; technological development and radiation doses, current status of the radiography profession and specialisation leading to expert knowledge. Each category derived from two or three sub-categories. Conclusion: The results demonstrate significant trends of influences on the radiography profession in Sweden over the last four decades. New methods and technology and control of radiation doses have had a favourable effect on the development of the radiography profession. Nevertheless, current status such as shortage of radiographers has had an adverse way. Specialisation leading to expert knowledge has an influence on career advancement and a specialist education regulated by the law, might be a prerequisite for the development of the radiography profession. - Highlights: • Scenario Planning Method, a relatively underutilised methodology, was used. • The findings report the influencing trends perceived by Swedish radiographers. • Technological development and radiation dose awareness impacted the profession. • Shortage, work shifting and higher independency influenced the profession. • Expert knowledge affects career advancement and requests specialist education.
This thesis addresses aspects of helping professions that could represent a certain ?risk? of using power; it especially focuses on a social work sphere. In the first part, the thesis deals with basic terms that are essential for this issue. It pays attention to power itself and its specifications and connections to the helping professions. Further, it focuses on characteristics of terms that apply to the helping professions and social work or on a formulation of aspects which represent a ris...
doctors, nurses, lawyers, and architects can enjoy the benefits of the 2005/36/EC Directive amended by 2013/55/EU Directive on the recognition of professional qualifications, public health professionals are left out from these influential (elite professions. Firstly, we use the profession traits theory as a framework in arguing whether public health can be a legitimate profession in itself; secondly, we explain who public health professionals are and what usually is required for shaping the public health profession; and thirdly, we attempt to sketch the road to the authorisation or licensing of public health professionals. Finally, we propose some recommendations.
Holbert, Nathan R.; Wilensky, Uri
While video games have become a source of excitement for educational designers, creating informal game experiences that players can draw on when thinking and reasoning in non-game contexts has proved challenging. In this paper we present a design principle for creating educational video games that enables players to draw on knowledge resources…
Kann-Christensen, Nanna; Balling, Gitte
Policy, Profession and Public Management: Conflict or Coherence? By Gitte Balling, Assistant Professor, PhD. Email firstname.lastname@example.org Nanna Kann-Christensen, Associate Professor, PhD. Email: email@example.com Royal School of Library and Information Science Birketinget 6 DK-2300 Copenhagen S T +45 32 58 60 66...... Introduction The aim of this paper is to contribute to the establishment of a theoretically based understanding of the role that cultural policy plays in the way literature promotion is practiced in Danish public libraries. More specifically we aim at refining a model that integrates different issues which...... interconnected concerns that relates to literature promotion. Besides cultural policy we regard the logics of New Public Management (NPM) and professional logics in the field of public libraries. Cultural policy along with the identification of underlying logics present among politicians, government officials...
Hasegawa, Aya; Yasuoka, Junko; Ly, Po; Nguon, Chea; Jimba, Masamine
Malaria and other communicable diseases remain major threats in developing countries. In Cambodia, village malaria workers (VMWs) have been providing malaria control services in remote villages to cope with the disease threats. In 2009, the VMW project integrated child health services into the original malaria control services. However, little has been studied about the utilization of VMWs' child health services. This study aimed to identify determinants of caregivers' VMW service utilization for childhood illness and caregivers' knowledge of malaria management. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 36 VMW villages of Kampot and Kampong Thom provinces in July-September 2012. An equal number of VMW villages with malaria control services only (M) and those with malaria control plus child health services (M+C) were selected from each province. Using structured questionnaires, 800 caregivers of children under five and 36 VMWs, one of the two VMWs who was providing VMW services in each study village were interviewed. Among the caregivers, 23% in M villages and 52% in M+C villages utilized VMW services for childhood illnesses. Determinants of caregivers' utilization of VMWs in M villages included their VMWs' length of experience (AOR = 11.80, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.46-31.19) and VMWs' service quality (AOR = 2.04, CI = 1.01-4.11). In M+C villages, VMWs' length of experience (AOR = 2.44, CI = 1.52-3.94) and caregivers' wealth index (AOR = 0.35, CI = 0.18-0.68) were associated with VMW service utilization. Meanwhile, better service quality of VMWs (AOR = 3.21, CI = 1.34-7.66) and caregivers' literacy (AOR = 9.91, CI = 4.66-21.05) were positively associated with caregivers' knowledge of malaria management. VMWs' service quality and length of experience are important determinants of caregivers' utilization of VMWs' child health services and their knowledge of malaria management. Caregivers are seeking VMWs' support for childhood illnesses even if they are
Juan Sebastian Velásquez Iral
Full Text Available The following article presents some considerations about the crisis of the University in the commercial and business dynamics demanded by the world of globalization and virtualization, and the possible micro resistances that, from gratuity, donation and professing. State of the modern university that is evident from the analysis of Derrida in front of the crisis of the Humanities. Dominating the Cloister for technical-scientific knowledge and research as an appropriation of cultural capital by the world of globalization, it remains as an alternative to speak of changes from the professed as a testimony of life and as the main task of the intellectuals to make their Praxis a resistance in the University through its individuality. For this, it is necessary to show two transformative and propositive projects of what professes implies. These are the University of Caen and the Nomad University (UNINOMADA. Two positions that have as central point the gratuitousness and the access to the knowledge from the popular education. Hence, each training project must involve the individuality of each actor so that from their difference can build a micro resistance.
Dahnke, Michael D.
Codes of ethics abound in health care, the aims and purposes of which are multiple and varied, from operating as a decision making tool to acting as a standard of practice that can be operational in a legal context to providing a sense of elevated seriousness and professionalism within a field of practice. There is some doubt and controversy,…
van den Berg, Joost W.; Mastenbroek, Nicole J. J. M.; Scheepers, Renee A.; Jaarsma, A. Debbie C.
Work engagement deserves more attention in health professions education because of its positive relations with personal well-being and performance at work. For health professions education, these outcomes have been studied on various levels. Consider engaged clinical teachers, who are seen as better
The licensing of teachers should be modeled against professions similar to teaching rather than professions like medicine and architecture that are vastly different. Applying similar licensing practices can raise the status of teaching. Ignoring these licensing practices will prevent teachers from functioning as professionals. (MD)
Zufiaurre, Benjamin; de Villarreal, Maider Pérez
Nurses as professionals of health, childhood education teachers, social workers and caregivers, join a group of "feminine professions" which grew through policies of a welfare state in postwar constructive period, or in times of postwar accords (Jones, 1983). These professions are under challenge because of neoliberal policies and…
Full Text Available The construction industry is facing a period of change. The roles ofthe professions involved in the industry in general, and of quantitysurveyors in particular, are also changing. There are opportunitiesfor surveyors to seize the initiative to broaden their involvement inprojects, and attain strategic positions within the industry. However,they will have to improve upon their skill sets and their knowledgebases. Senior quantity surveyors interviewed in Singapore sharedtheir views on the challenges facing the construction industry,and their profession. They suggested that the quantity surveyingprofession would only be able to address the pressing issues itfaces if it pays more attention to innovation and the development ofits people. It should be able to attract and retain talent. Knowledgemanagement will be of critical importance. This will be enabled andfacilitated by knowledge leadership.
Carpenter, E S
Analysis of survey data on six health professions in Michigan suggests the extent to which sex-role stereotypes are reflected in the distribution of women within and among those professions which typically function as independent practitioners. The particular emphasis of the analysis is the structural or organizational aspects of the professions which facilitate or hinder the recruitment and participation of women. Distribution of women among professions is associated with relative levels of sex-segregation and with the relative availability of career opportunities in nonentrepreneurial settings. Implications of these findings for future trends in the sex structure of the health professions are discussed and a research agenda on women health professionals is proposed.
In spite of their knowledge about stressors, health hazards and coping, health professionals are in general not aware of their own health risks. In an attempt to clarify the issue results of our own studies are compared to the relevant literature. A survey on 1,248 Swiss nurses confirmed the major stressors known: ethical conflicts about appropriate patient care, team conflicts, role ambiguity, workload and organizational deficits. In doctors workload and shortage of time, combined with specific responsibility in decision making, are most prominent. Nevertheless, job satisfaction is still high in both professions. Health hazards in doctors are considerable, although life expectancy has improved and is comparable to the general public, but still lower as compared to other professionals. Depression and substance abuse are related to higher suicide rates. The specific role strain of female doctors is responsible for health risks with an alarming 10 years lower life expectancy than in the general population. Little is known about specific health hazards in nurses, except for burnout. A lack of coping research in the field makes conclusions difficult. Our own studies show limited coping skills in nurses, but good buffering effect in 1,700 Swiss dentists.
Burgess, Annette; van Diggele, Christie; Mellis, Craig
The importance of mentorship within health care training is well recognised. It offers a means to further enhance workforce performance and engagement, promote learning opportunities and encourage multidisciplinary collaboration. There are both career and life benefits associated with mentorship, and it is increasingly recognised as a bidirectional process that benefits both mentors and mentees. Recently, mentoring has been considered an essential step in professional and personal development, particularly in the field of health care. This article provides a review of the recent literature to assist those considering the implementation of mentorship programmes within their institutions. Discussion includes topics relating to the key elements of effective mentorship, the various phases and styles of mentorship, the need for career-long mentoring, ethical issues and potential difficulties in mentorship. Learning within the workplace includes the development of knowledge and skills, and an understanding of the values important to the profession and the culture of organisations. Within health care training, organisations may encompass hospitals, universities, training organisations and regulatory bodies. The practice of mentorship may help to foster an understanding of the enduring elements of practice within these organisations. Mentoring involves both a coaching and an educational role, requiring a generosity of time, empathy, a willingness to share knowledge and skills, and an enthusiasm for teaching and the success of others. Being mentored is believed to have an important influence on personal development, career guidance and career choice. Ethical issues and potential difficulties in mentorship include conflict of interest, imbalance of power and unrealistic expectations. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.
Bundy, B D; Bellemann, N; Weber, M-A
The compatibility of family and profession is especially difficult for employees in medical professions because of shift work and overtime. It seems that in the future women are going to represent the majority of medical professionals. Hence, with the manifest lack of physicians social aspects will also play a bigger role in the choice of the place of employment. In most families the classic role model prevails although women are well educated and men also set a high value on the compatibility of family and profession and would like to take parental leave and work in flexible working hours. This represents a chance, especially for radiology.
Clarke, David; Duke, Jan; Wuliji, Tana; Smith, Alyson; Phuong, Keat; San, Un
This paper describes a rapid assessment of Cambodia's current system for regulating its health professions. The assessment forms part of a co-design process to set strategic priorities for strengthening health profession regulation to improve the quality and safety of health services. A health system approach for strengthening health professions' regulation is underway and aims to support the Government of Cambodia's plans for scaling up its health workforce, improving health services' safety and quality, and meeting its Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) obligations to facilitate trade in health care services. The assessment used a mixed methods approach including: A desktop review of key laws, plans, reports and other documents relating to the regulation of the health professions in Cambodia (medicine, dentistry, midwifery, nursing and pharmacy); Key informant interviews with stakeholders in Cambodia (The term "stakeholders" refers to government officials, people working on health professional regulation, people working for the various health worker training institutions and health workers at the national and provincial level); Surveys and questionnaires to assess Cambodian stakeholder knowledge of regulation; Self-assessments by members of the five Cambodian regulatory councils regarding key capacities and activities of high-performing regulatory bodies; and A rapid literature review to identify: The key functions of health professional regulation; The key issues affecting the Cambodian health sector (including relevant developments in the wider ASEAN region); and "Smart" health profession regulation practices of possible relevance to Cambodia. We found that the current regulatory system only partially meets Cambodia's needs. A number of key regulatory functions are being performed, but overall, the current system was not designed with Cambodia's specific needs in mind. The existing system is also overly complex, with considerable duplication and
related field. The perception that the profession lacks a career ladder is a critical detriment to the retention of CLS/CLT professionals. The clinical laboratory science profession continues to suffer from a lack of knowledge about the field by the general public, college advisors, and even healthcare workers. State and national programs involving grants/scholarships or loan forgiveness programs offered by healthcare institutions would be beneficial in attracting students to study the clinical laboratory sciences.
Pomés, Xavier; Oriol, Albert; de Oleza, Rafael; Ania, Olinda; Avila, Alicia; Branda, Luis; Brugulat, Pilar; Gual, Arcadi; Creus, Mariona; Zurro, Amando Martin
The White Paper of the Health Professions of Catalonia (WPHPC) is a strategic document for the development of the health professions. It deals with the main components of the manpower development (education, management and planning) in relation to the health services development required to attain the objectives defined in the Catalan Health Plan. The WPHPC fosters the coherence between social needs and professional competencies required to respond to them, as well as to the quantitative aspects of service needs under adequate standards of quality, effectiveness and efficiency. The WPHPC has followed a methodological process with maximum stakeholder participation and transparency. Citizens, professionals and health organizations have contributed significantly. The conclusions and recommendations of the WPHPC are organized around four axis: the citizenship, the professionals, the health care organizations and the health care model. Key elements are: the requirement of a new social contract between the different stakeholders, the values of professionalism, the need for a new credentialism of professional competencies, innovation in the education process, innovation of governance and management for organization of knowledge, the redistribution of work inside teams requires deregulation and reregulation of the professions, the need for actualized data on workforce and job positions and the permanent requirement of sociological research.
Hansman, Catherine A.
This chapter is a case story of the evolution of the Master of Education in Health Professions Education (MEHPE), a collaborative graduate program developed by the Adult Learning and Development program at Cleveland State University and the Cleveland Clinic.
Bierema, Laura L.
This chapter focuses on the process of learning in health professions education (HPE) in terms of key issues that shape HPE learning and essential strategies for promoting and facilitating learning among professionals.
Journal Home > Vol 10, No 1 (2018). Log in or ... The AJHPE is a journal for health professions educators. ... Transition-to-practice guidelines: Enhancing the quality of nursing education · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT
Hardung von Hardung, H
The nuclear field is an area fraught with particular difficulties for industries, banks, and public authorities etc. in acquiring the precise knowledge needed for decision making. This gap can be filled by the activities of nuclear consultants; in view of the size of the market which, in Europe, probably involves a capital investment by far exceeding DM 100 billion, chances are promising. These consultant activities include technological problems as well as economics, organization, strategy, and training in nuclear technology. Of course, the consultant staff must have broad and specialized knowledge.
Hardung von Hardung, H.
The nuclear field is an area fraugh with particular difficulties for industries, banks, public authorities etc. in acquiring the precise knowledge needed for decision making. This gap can be filled by the activities of nuclear consultants; in view of the size of the market which, in Europe, probably involves a capital investment by far exceeding DM 100 billion, chances are promising. These consultant activities include technological problems as well as economics, organization, strategy, and training in nuclear technology. Of course, the consultant staff must have broad and specialized knowledge. (orig.) [de
Phyo Than, Wint; Oo, Tin; Wai, Khin Thet; Thi, Aung; Owiti, Philip; Kumar, Binay; Deepak Shewade, Hemant; Zachariah, Rony
Myanmar lies in the Greater Mekong sub-region of South-East Asia faced with the challenge of emerging resistance to artemisinin combination therapies (ACT). Migrant populations are more likely than others to spread ACT resistance. A vital intervention to reduce malaria transmission, resistance spread and eliminate malaria is the use of bed nets. Among seasonal and stable migrants in an artemisinin resistance containment region of Myanmar, we compared a) their household characteristics, b) contact with health workers and information material, and c) household knowledge, access and utilization of bed nets. Secondary data from community-based surveys on 2484 migrant workers (2013 and 2014, Bago Region) were analyzed of which 37% were seasonal migrants. Bed net access and utilization were assessed using a) availability of at least one bed net per household, and b) one bed net per two persons, and c) proportion of household members who slept under abed net during the previous night (Indicator targets = 100%). Over 70% of all migrants were from unstable work settings with short transitory stays. Average household size was five (range 1-25) and almost half of all households had children under-five years. Roughly 10 % of migrants were night-time workers. Less than 40% of households had contact with health workers and less than 30% had exposure to information education and communication (IEC) materials, the latter being significantly lower among seasonal migrants. About 70% of households were aware of the importance of insecticide-treated bed-nets/long-lasting insecticidal nets (ITNs/LLINs), but knowledge on insecticide impregnation and retreatment of ITNs was poor (Myanmar. Possible ways forward include frequent distribution campaigns to compensate for short transitory stays, matching household distributions to household size, enhanced information campaigns and introducing legislation to make mosquito repellents available for night-time workers at plantations and farms
Stalsberg, R.; Thingnes, E.R.
Purpose: To explore how Norwegian radiographers are portrayed in written press. Method: Textual discourse analysis, following a multiple step strategy, combining both a quantitative and a qualitative approach. 189 newspaper articles were included. The articles were registered and subject fields were inductively categorized. Each subject field was analysed regarding the field's role as an agent of influence on public perception of radiographers. Results: On average, less than one article a year concerning radiography profession is published in Norwegian newspapers. A majority are published in newspapers with small circulation figures, often reporting on resources in the local health services where radiographers are involved. Mostly radiographers are placed in the articles' background playing supporting roles, frequently mentioned in the cutline as an operator of a new medical technology. There is a heavy emphasis on the technology, leaving the specialized expertise and radiography knowledge out. This focus persist in the instances where radiographers play a main role in the texts. When patient stories are told, positive value-laden words are used to describe the radiographer and both the technical and the patient-care aspects of being a radiographer are noticeable. Conclusion: Norwegian radiographers typically appear, in glimpses, as anonymous allied health technicians in local reports on new diagnostic equipment or resource utilization. The professional qualities and decisive skills required to handle sophisticated diagnostic equipment and continuity of patient care are underestimated. A more-nuanced media coverage might give radiographers a strengthened identity as important health-care service contributors. - Highlights: • The radiography profession is an inconspicuous topic in Norwegian written press. • Written press involving radiographers highlight new equipment and medical technology. • Radiographers' professional qualities and decisive
Anderson, Jane A; Willson, Pamela
Almost everything we do in nursing is based on our knowledge. In 1984, Benner (From Novice to Expert: Excellence and Power in Clinical Nursing Practice. Menlo Park, CA: Addison-Wesley; 1984) described nursing knowledge as the culmination of practical experience and evidence from research, which over time becomes the "know-how" of clinical experience. This "know-how" knowledge asset is dynamic and initially develops in the novice critical care nurse, expands within competent and proficient nurses, and is actualized in the expert intensive care nurse. Collectively, practical "know-how" and investigational (evidence-based) knowledge culminate into the "knowledge of caring" that defines the profession of nursing. The purpose of this article is to examine the concept of knowledge management as a framework for identifying, organizing, analyzing, and translating nursing knowledge into daily practice. Knowledge management is described in a model case and implemented in a nursing research project.
Mingwei, Zhao; Yanzhong, Dang
Based on the analysis of object-oriented model, knowledge base and knowledge base system by using theories on object-oriented and knowledge base, the relationships between object-oriented model and knowledge base are discussed in this paper. The architecture of object-oriented knowledge system is proposed and the Rule-Case-Based Reasoning knowledge base system is designed.
Gilfoyle, E M
Professional evolution includes a period of disunity, a phase when old values and concepts are being examined, and new perspectives emerge. Disunity can be a positive impetus for dynamic change. Transformation provides a higher level reintegration through which new understanding and progress unfold. Occupational therapy's transformation is now; it is time for careful analysis and creative synthesis. Transformation is a three-fold process of integration of past, present, and future into an upward spiral of professional development. Transformation is a constant flow of activities influenced by both internal and external factors. Although there are multidimensions that influence occupational therapy's transformation, three major components are inherent in the profession's paradigm shift: society's decline in patriarchal authority; decline in allegiance to a biomedical model; and shift in values, dimensions of practice, and education that form the reality of occupational therapy. Transformation of our profession will be a paradigm shift: in our value system of purposeful activity to a new perspective of occupation and occupational, in our quest to develop a unifying theory for recognition of the unifying force of values, in our concepts and theories to include the science of occupation and the art of purposefulness from total allegiance to scientific knowledge to include intuitive knowledge, from being an allied medical field to an independent health profession that is both educationally and medically related, from a biomedical model to a paradigm of wellness, in balancing of feminine and masculine values of human nature in organizing educational curricula and entry-level requirements that reflect our value system and predicted practice dimensions.
Traulsen, Janine Marie; Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna
In this article, the authors look at the relationship between pharmaceutical policy and the pharmacy profession with focus on pharmacy practice and pharmacists in the health care sector. Pharmaceutical policy encompasses three major policy inputs: public health policy, health care policy and indu......In this article, the authors look at the relationship between pharmaceutical policy and the pharmacy profession with focus on pharmacy practice and pharmacists in the health care sector. Pharmaceutical policy encompasses three major policy inputs: public health policy, health care policy...... and industrial policy. In order to analyse and understand pharmaceutical policy, it is important to know how policymakers view pharmacy and pharmacists. The authors look at the issues that arise when policy regulates pharmacy as a business, and what this means for the profession. The perspective of pharmacy...... in managerialism, and how the division of labour with other health professionals such as physicians and pharmacy assistants is affecting the pharmacy profession's position in the labour market. Next the authors look at ways in which the pharmacy profession has affected policy. Pharmacists have been instrumental...
Fassnacht, Axel [Univ. Hannover (Germany)
With the emergence of new professions and training subjects in power and water supply engineering, new standards have been set for vocational qualifications. Experts of public utilities and industrial associations have cooperated in setting a new frame of standards for the new professions. (orig.)
The popular appeal of astronomy allows us to share regularly the latest advances in our knowledge of the Universe with a large audience, via numerous and varied outreach activities. These activities is an opportunity for us to present the diversity of professions involved in this fabulous quest of knowledge, including technicians, engineers and scientists in numerous fields. We thus communicate an overview of the many players in the adventure of astronomy to the public, hopefully encouraging young people to choose scientific studies. Films, on-line videos, exhibition panels, round table discussions and press releases are among the many easily-implemented possibilities of attracting the attention of a local or even wider public.
Full Text Available Given the conditions of a society oriented towards material satisfaction, where the didactic profession is sometimes pushed to the limit of social respect, where the lack of motivation and interest for school and learning, in general, is increasingly invoked, there are young people who choose to dedicate their whole energy for training and educating the new generations. The basis of this choice is the consciousness of the role of the teacher in the life of a child and, at the same time, the responsability for the assumed mission: opening the way to knowledge. Vocation and talent are necessary conditions of a successful pedagogical model, but only complemented by the love for children, the desire to contribute to the formation of people, the joy of giving knowledge and love.
This study uses discourse, ideology and hegemony as a theoretical foundation to investigate the development of the polarised discourses of management accounting and the medical profession during the introduction of a NPM reform in the public health care debate, using Denmark as a case study. 194...... newspaper articles and 73 medical profession articles from 2002 to 2008 are analysed, using critical discourse analysis. The analysis shows that the management accounting discourse becomes the dominating ideology which is embedded in the public rhetorical debate. There are three peculiar outcomes...... perspective of a patient oriented focus to a quantitative focus through strong rationalised arguments. This puts the medical profession in a dilemma concerning their ideological Hippocratic Oath versus the NPM efficiency focus. However, they choose to gradually adopt management accounting terms in their own...
Adams, Tracey L; Bourgeault, Ivy Lynn
Historically, prevailing gender ideologies were an important element in both the exclusionary strategies employed by male occupational groups and the countervailing responses by female groups. The way in which evolving gender ideologies, and feminism in particular, influence the continuing struggle for greater status and recognition by female professions, however, remains to be fully explored. In this paper, we examine the impact and the role of feminism and feminist ideologies within three female professional projects: nursing, dental hygiene and midwifery in Ontario. We argue that feminism provides an ideology of opposition that enables leaders in these professions to battle against professional inequalities by laying bare the gender inequalities that underlie them. Framing their struggles in feminist terms, female professions also seek recognition for the uniquely female contribution they make to the health care division of labour. At the same time, there exists a tension between ideals of feminism and ideals of professionalism, that has the potential to undermine female professional projects.
Full Text Available Psychology is powerful science, with great knowledge deposited for understanding the individual (his development and pathological outcomes, behavior and predicting behavior in different situations, groups, historical flows and historical characters, cultural and civilisation changes, artistic and other creations. Psychology, as it becomes to the science of soul, has covered all areas of human spirit. Discreprancy between potential and power of psychology and her use (in the work of psychologists author connects for positioning and realisation of psychology in university teachings. Whit the help of psychology we can, not just successes in life but we can also understand life itself. But, how many psychologists can contribute to that? Why is that so?.
in the theoretical as well as the practical potential of the public health professional. Thus, he and she must be able to perform, what WHO Europe has developed as Essential Public Health Operations (EPHOs).3 This, in turn, implies that the public health professional possesses the set of intellectual (knowledge...... endorsed by WHO Europe’s member states as the basis for the public health education in Europe.5 The sections of the lists include: Public health methods; Population health and: Its social and economic determinants, and: Its material environmental determinants; Man-made interventions and systems, namely...... Health policy, health economics, organizational theory, health legislation, and public health leadership and management; Health promotion—health education, health protection, disease prevention; public health ethics. This should form the central part of the basis for all public health professionals...
Professions are important today due to the growing number and their development. Furthermore there is a technological development unimaginable in the previous centuries. At the beginning it was recognized that there were three professions: Priest, Ruler and Doctor, representing the classical conception of Universe divided into ``Macrocosmos'', ``Mesocosmos'' and ``Microcosmos'' respectively. Modern age means the beginning of a change in this classical conception; that has been arguable, until the actual view that it is difficult to define what an ethical behaviour is in the professionals. This presentation tries to show some of the difficulties and conflicts presented by the technological and professional development.
Sheridan, Martha A; White, Barbara J; Mounty, Judith L
This article aims to familiarize the social work profession with a paradox in its midst. Culturally sensitive and accessible services for deaf and hard of hearing people can often best be provided by social workers who are themselves deaf and hard of hearing, who have specialized language and communication skills, as well as unique cultural knowledge of this population at risk. Yet, deaf and hard of hearing graduates of social work education programs routinely experience difficulties accessing the profession. Addressing this paradox calls for creative collaborations among professional social work organizations, social work education programs, policymakers, and deaf and hard of hearing social workers.
The inclusion of Medical Physics in the International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO-08) underlines the increased significance of the profession. This opens new horizons, but also challenges in front of the profession. One of these is the need for re-organisation of the medical physics education. Some Universities already open under-graduate (BSc) courses on medical physics in order to accommodate the increased volume of professional knowledge. The paper discusses briefly the background of this trend and presents the urgent need of a wide professional discussion on the matter. (author)
Semerci, Çetin; Kara, Ahmet
This study seeks to evaluate the effects of teaching profession courses on the attitudes towards the teaching profession of doctorate students. An Attitude Scale for the Teaching Profession was given to 64 doctoral students of the institutes of Social Studies, Health, Natural and Applied Sciences at Fırat University in the 2000-2001 academic year. There were 30 items in the scale. The KMO (Kaiser- Meyer- Olkin) value was 0.88, the Bartlett test value was 8980.25 and Cronbach alpha mean was 0....
Wise, Arthur E.; Usdan, Michael D.
"Advocates of bureaucratic and professional teacher accountability have been battling each other for decades in a war that has barely been acknowledged," write Arthur E. Wise and Michael D. Usdan. Teachers' organizations and others who favor advancing the teaching profession have promoted professional accountability mechanisms, such…
Ras, Gerard J. M.
This paper seeks to solve the labor shortage in the public accounting profession. It examines why people want to become CPAs, the influence of generational differences on career choices and considers methods to attract and retain CPAs that focus on attracting students, work-life balance issues and alternative work arrangements through career…
Leadership skills are required at all levels of the profession. Using theoretical concepts and models, coupled with practical tools, this book encourages readers to think about their own leadership and the leadership provided by others around them as the basis for continuing improvement in management and professional practice.
Wylie, David A; Gallagher, Helen L
The aim of this study was to explore self-reported transformational leadership behavior profiles within the six largest allied health profession groups in the National Health Service in Scotland and to determine whether factors such as seniority of grade, locus of employment, and/or leadership training have a positive influence on transformational leadership behaviors. A postal survey comprising the shorter version of the Multifactorial Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) and contextual demographic information was completed by 753 allied health professionals from four Health Board areas across Scotland who were randomly selected through a modified cluster sampling technique. The MLQ contains 36 items that measure nine identified leadership factors; however, only the responses to the five transformational leadership factors are reported here. The study identified significant differences in transformational leadership behaviors between individual allied health professions. Radiographers and podiatrists scored consistently lower than the other professional groups across the range of transformational behaviors. Seniority of grade significantly influenced the scores, with higher-graded staff reporting greater leadership behaviors (p leadership training also positively influenced transformational behaviors (p transformational leadership behaviors between individual allied health professions, indicating that some professional groups are inherently advantaged in embracing the modernization agenda. This highlights an as-yet missed opportunity for effectively targeting and evaluating multidisciplinary leadership training programs across the allied health professions.
Stitt-Gohdes, Wanda L.
This monograph provides a framework or foundation for business teacher education. Chapter 1 is an overview and historical perspective of business education that traces the roots of the profession and significant milestones on the path leading to business education today. Chapter 2 discusses administration of business education, including a variety…
Phelps, Patricia H.; Benson, Tammy R.
The purpose of this article is to describe commonalities among teachers who have sustained passion for the teaching profession, identify ways to instill a similar passion in teacher education candidates, and encourage teacher educators to maintain and model an enthusiastic passion. The authors present the results of a study that consisted of…
Schmidt, Steven W.; Lawson, Luan
In this chapter, the major concepts from program planning in adult education will be applied to health professions education (HPE). Curriculum planning and program planning will be differentiated, and program development and planning will be grounded in a systems thinking approach.
Kiel, Ewald; Lerche, Thomas; Kollmannsberger, Markus; Oubaid, Viktor; Weiss, Sabine
Lee S. Shulman deplores that the field of education as a profession does not have a pedagogic signature, which he characterizes as a synthesis of cognitive, practical and moral apprenticeship. In this context, the following study has three goals: 1) In the first theoretical part, the basic problems of constructing a pedagogic signature are…
Kvammen, O. C.; Leboeuf-Yde, C.
BACKGROUND: The chiropractic profession in Norway has increased five-fold in the last two decades. As there is no academic graduate program in Norway, all chiropractors have been trained outside of Norway, in either Europe, America or Australia. This might have given Norwegian chiropractors heter...
This article focuses on the current state of the ESL profession for teachers in Intensive English Programs (IEPs). Because the IEP context may be unfamiliar to some readers, the author first gives an overview of the characteristics and goals of these types of programs. Second, an examination of how administrators and programs are striving to…
Full Text Available The article deals with the author’s interpretation of the process of teaching profession specific bilateral translation to student teacher of English in the Master’s program. The goal of the model of teaching profession specific bilateral translation development is to determine the logical sequence of educational activities of the teacher as the organizer of the educational process and students as its members. English and Ukrainian texts on methods of foreign languages and cultures teaching are defined as the object of study. Learning activities aimed at the development of student teachers of English profession specific competence in bilateral translation and Translation Proficiency Language Portfolio for Student Teachers of English are suggested as teaching tools. The realization of the model of teaching profession specific bilateral translation to student teachers of English in the Master’s program is suggested within the module topics of the academic discipline «Practice of English as the first foreign language»: Globalization; Localization; Education; Work; The role of new communication technologies in personal and professional development. We believe that the amount of time needed for efficient functioning of the model is 48 academic hours, which was determined by calculating the total number of academic hours allotted for the academic discipline «Practice of English as the first foreign language» in Ukrainian universities. Peculiarities of the model realization as well as learning goals and content of class activities and home self-study work of students are outlined.
- Basic concepts: charity, helping professions, client, social worker, social work - describe "love if", "love it" and "I love you and love dot". Their advantages and disadvantages compared. - explanation of the meaning of unconditional love - types and application of unconditional love in the work of social worker - implementation (adoption process) - the answer to the question we need to change?
Bhargava, Anupama; Pathy, M. K.
Teaching being a dynamic activity requires a favourable attitude and certain specific competencies from its practitioners. Teachers' proficiency depends on the attitude she possesses for the profession. The positive attitude helps teacher to develop a conductive learner friendly environment in the classroom. This also casts a fruitful effect on…
Langner, Jonas; Zhok, Andrea
Teaching, together with translating, is probably one of the employment options most closely associated with a Modern Foreign Languages degree, or at least one where the language skills acquired are an intrinsic part of the profession in question. Yet, British undergraduate language degree programmes do not systematically offer students…
Liempd, Dennis van
Even though auditing research could play a role in understanding the many challenges that are threatening the profession, and in providing possible solutions, it seems to have failed in adequately doing so. This is for a major part because of a lack of research into auditing's basic assumptions......, and a too one-sided view on the creation of auditing knowledge. The purpose of this paper is to call for more (diverse) research in this area. Earlier calls have been few and far between, and have not resulted in a lot of research. Within the last two decades though, the auditing universe has changed so...... much that high-quality auditing research never has been needed more. By reviewing available literature challenges to the auditing profession are explored, and the creation of knowledge in general and auditing knowledge in particular are discussed with respect to methodological approaches and operative...
Maybery, Darryl; Goodyear, Melinda; O'Hanlon, Brendan; Cuff, Rose; Reupert, Andrea
There is a large gulf between what psychiatric services should (or could) provide and what they do in practice. This article sought to determine practice differences between the differing professions working in adult mental health services in terms of their family focused work. Three hundred and seven adult mental health professionals completed a cross-sectional survey of family focused practices in adult mental health services. Findings highlight that social workers engaged in more family focused practice compared to psychiatric nurses, who performed consistently the lowest on direct family care, compared to both social workers and psychologists. Clear skill, knowledge, and confidence differences are indicated between the professions. The article concludes by offering direction for future profession education and training in family focused practices. © 2014 Family Process Institute.
The aim of this study was to clarify the meanings and dimensions of the concepts "profession" and "role." The results from the concept determination were discussed in relation to the profession "nurse educator." This study is based on Koort's semantic analysis methods, using select parts of Eriksson's approach for concept determination, using dictionaries published between the years 1948 and 2015. The findings underline the complexity of the professional role of nurse educators. The nurse educator profession is based on society's trust and requires integration of ability, attitudes, norms, reflection, and theoretical knowledge, along with individual, organizational, and social conditions. Nurse educators must achieve a sufficient degree of pedagogical competence, subject competence, social competence and organizational competence in order to develop their professional role. When nurse educators define their function, a professional role takes form. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
By applying current standards of job descriptions and performance profiles in the healthcare sector, this article focuses on the issue whether there are fundamental differences between physicians and other healthcare professionals compared to other professions. There are special requirements for physicians, such as a university degree, but the same also holds true for other professions. The increasing economization of the healthcare sector in recent years has led to a situation where differences in the standards for healthcare professionals when compared to other occupations are no longer apparent. Medical directors at university hospitals also have to conform to standards that are applied to executive managers in other businesses. Besides the obvious professional skills, communication with patients and collaborators, knowledge of economics and leadership competence are also mandatory. This does not exclude the impression that physicians and nurses subjectively see in their profession more than just a job but truly a vocation.
Sim, Jenny; Radloff, Alex
Purpose: Deregulation, reduced operating costs, new ways of organising the professional workforce, increasing competition within the healthcare sector and increasing consumer expectations are factors that challenge any health profession. This paper, which forms part of the first author's doctoral study on continuing professional development in medical radiation science, details the journey of medical radiation science as a profession in Australia. Specifically, the paper examines the challenges confronting practitioners in their struggle to be recognised as a profession in its own right. Findings: The challenges facing medical radiation science practitioners included low professional self-esteem and apathy, which adversely affects their willingness and ability to continue learning and to assume increasing work responsibilities which are essential attributes of a health professional. Low self-esteem and apathy are also preventing practitioners from venturing beyond their comfort zone of daily workplace practices. This ultimately impacts on their ability to advance clinical practice in response to a constantly changing health care system. Conclusion: Despite the current difficulties confronting the profession, it is possible for practitioners to assume a more proactive role in moving the profession forward. As part of the solution to improving practitioners' low self-esteem and to rekindling their enthusiasm for the profession, the authors propose that continuing professional development programs should go beyond simply assisting practitioners in advancing clinical competence. They should also aim to empower practitioners to develop their reflective skills. Reflection is now widely promoted in healthcare professions as one of the means of enhancing clinical practice and improving healthcare delivery. To this end, educational designers should incorporate reflection into professional development programs as both a learning goal and a strategy. Helping practitioners to
Sim, Jenny [RMIT University, Medical Radiations, School of Medical Sciences, PO Box 71, Bundoora, Victoria 3083 (Australia)], E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Radloff, Alex [Central Queensland University, Rockhampton Campus, Bruce Highway, North Rockhampton, Queensland 4702 (Australia)], E-mail: email@example.com
Purpose: Deregulation, reduced operating costs, new ways of organising the professional workforce, increasing competition within the healthcare sector and increasing consumer expectations are factors that challenge any health profession. This paper, which forms part of the first author's doctoral study on continuing professional development in medical radiation science, details the journey of medical radiation science as a profession in Australia. Specifically, the paper examines the challenges confronting practitioners in their struggle to be recognised as a profession in its own right. Findings: The challenges facing medical radiation science practitioners included low professional self-esteem and apathy, which adversely affects their willingness and ability to continue learning and to assume increasing work responsibilities which are essential attributes of a health professional. Low self-esteem and apathy are also preventing practitioners from venturing beyond their comfort zone of daily workplace practices. This ultimately impacts on their ability to advance clinical practice in response to a constantly changing health care system. Conclusion: Despite the current difficulties confronting the profession, it is possible for practitioners to assume a more proactive role in moving the profession forward. As part of the solution to improving practitioners' low self-esteem and to rekindling their enthusiasm for the profession, the authors propose that continuing professional development programs should go beyond simply assisting practitioners in advancing clinical competence. They should also aim to empower practitioners to develop their reflective skills. Reflection is now widely promoted in healthcare professions as one of the means of enhancing clinical practice and improving healthcare delivery. To this end, educational designers should incorporate reflection into professional development programs as both a learning goal and a strategy. Helping
Gambescia, Stephen F; Cottrell, Randall R; Capwell, Ellen; Auld, M Elaine; Mullen Conley, Kathleen; Lysoby, Linda; Goldsmith, Malcolm; Smith, Becky
In July 2007, a market research report was produced by Hezel Associates on behalf of five sponsoring health education profession member organizations and the National Commission for Health Education Credentialing. The purpose of the survey was to learn about current or potential employers' knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors toward health educators and the health education profession and their future hiring practices. This article presents the background leading up to the production of this report, the major findings of the survey of employers, recommendations from the market research group regarding core messages, and implications for the profession having discovered for the first time information about employers' understanding of professionally prepared health educators. The article discusses the umbrella and key messages that may be incorporated into a marketing plan and other recommendations by the firm that should assist health educators in marketing the profession. Furthermore, this article presents reactions by leaders in this field to these messages and recommendations and concludes with next steps in this project and a call for the overall need to market the profession of health education.
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Gertsson, Nellie; Sylvander, Johanna; Broberg, Pernilla; Friberg, Josefine
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to explore why audit assistants leave the audit profession. By including both the perceptions held by audit assistants that left the audit profession and the perceptions of audit assistants still working in the audit profession, this study aims to explore how determinants of job satisfaction are associated with decisions to leave the audit profession. Design/methodology/approach - To explore the association between determinants of job satisfaction and de...
Examines whether art therapy is a profession or an idea by exploring the differences implied by the words "profession" and "idea" and comparing them with the author's experiences as a art therapist. Specifically examines this question in light of the prevalent and distinguishing characteristics of those in the profession. (Author/MKA)
Tolsgaard, Martin G.; Kulasegaram, Kulamakan M.; Ringsted, Charlotte V
Objectives: This study is designed to provide an overview of why, how, when and for whom collaborative learning of clinical skills may work in health professions education. Why: Collaborative learning of clinical skills may influence learning positively according to the non-medical literature...... suggests that learning is dependent on cognitive co-construction, shared knowledge and reduced cognitive load. When and for whom: The literature on the collaborative learning of clinical skills in health science education is reviewed to support or contradict the hypotheses provided by the theories outlined...... above. Collaborative learning of clinical skills leads to improvements in self-efficacy, confidence and performance when task processing is observable or communicable. However, the effects of collaborative learning of clinical skills may decrease over time as benefits in terms of shared cognition...
Sijmons, Jaap G; Winter, Heinrich B; Hubben, Joep H
In 2013 the Dutch Individual Healthcare Professions Act (known as the BIG law) was evaluated for the second time. The research showed that patients have limited awareness of the registration of healthcare professionals and that the system of reserved procedures is almost unknown. On the other hand, healthcare institutions (especially hospitals) frequently check the register, as do healthcare insurance companies when contracting institutions. Knowledge of the reserved procedures system is moderate amongst professionals too, while the organisation of care is to a great extent based on this system. Since the change of system in 2006 quality assurance in professional practice has been much more rooted in the internal structure of care; in this way, the BIG law did not go the way the legislator intended. According to the researchers, this has not prevented the BIG law from still playing an essential function. Indeed, the BIG law has not reached its final destination, but it may reach its goal via another route.
Full Text Available In today’s world, globalization and the increased use of information technology have resulted to the significant increases of economic crimes in recent years. Accordingly, financial crimes, such as money laundering misconducts have increased significantly. The police play active roles in the fight against money laundering and related crimes in Turkey. However, professional support is essential in order to effectively combat money laundering. In other words, not only a good level of economics, finance, accounting knowledge is critical; but also, a decent level of law information is crucial in the detection and prevention of these crimes. Increasing the effectiveness of forensic accounting profession, especially in the USA, has an important role in the prevention and detection of money laundering. Since forensic accountants have skills and capacities of litigation support, investigative accounting and expertise.
Full Text Available Teachers always seek for possible ways to develop their teaching. There are many ways teachers can develop professionally. They can do this by generating new ideas or thinking deeply about reformulating what they do in class. Nevertheless, they cannot fully improve professional development on their own. Teachers can learn with the help of other people who have knowledge and experience in teaching and learning. They learn from in-service training programs that teach new techniques and approaches. Teacher development is a long-term process that requires systematic planning. Professional advancement in the teaching profession is based on some factors. This paper defines the characteristics of teachers’ professional development and aims to explain the factors it hinges upon.
Full Text Available Taking care of oneself is crucial for maintaining one´s psychical and physical health. In the context of risky profession this topic can play an even more important role, because it can be the source of necessary information for improvement of coping capacity when one is confronted with crisis situations. The aim of the present study is to identify the most common forms of self-care among selected risky professions. In the second part is the attention focused on the comparison of the specificities of risky to non-risky professions in self-care. Methods: For data collection Self-regulation Self-care Questionnaire by authors Hricová and Lovaš (in press is used. The sample consists of two groups. In the first one participated 156 respondents, who worked in risky professions - namely police officers (60 at the age between 22 to 55 years (average age is 36.88, SD=9.49, fire fighters (46 at the age between 22 to 62 years (average age is 35.13, SD=8.31 and paramedics (50 at the age between 25 to 55 years (average age is 40.3, SD=6.62. 76.2% of the sample are men, 19.0% are women and 4,8% didn´t state their gender. The second sample consists of 161 participants who work in administrative, industry production or IT sphere. They were at the age between 23 to 61 years (average age is 38.01, SD=10.45. 74% of the sample are men and 21.7% are women. Results and discussion: Results confirmed the dominance of psychological self-care above physical among risky professions. To the forefront gets the need to live meaningful life, to fully use one´s skills and to be satisfied with one´s life and decisions. All this needs can be assigned to the necessity of sense, which could be seen as a result of everyday contact with critical and life threaten situations. Equally important sphere of self-care is the necessity of high-quality relationships, which doesn´t mean only relationships with family or friends. It is important to highlight also relationships with
This paper is a presentation made in support of the statistics profession. This field can say it has had a major impact in most major fields of study presently undertaken by man, yet it is not perceived as an important, or critical field of study. It is not a growth field either, witness the almost level number of faculty and new PhD`s produced over the past twenty years. The author argues the profession must do a better job of selling itself to the students it educates. Awaken them to the impact of statistics in their lives and their business worlds, so that they see beyond the formulae to the application of these principles.
Pedersen, Inge Nygaard
This special feature is a series of papers from a symposium held on 15th April 2016 at Aalborg University, Denmark on the topic: ‘Music therapy: A profession for the future’. The two core questions listed in the title: ‘Why music? Why and when is a music therapist needed?’ were the vehicle...... wondered if common answers to the two core questions in the profession of music therapy would emerge at an international base during the day, or if multiple ideas and subjective answers to the questions would come up. As the contributions show, it is mostly multiple ideas; yet with regard to case material......, the way of carrying out music therapy in a relationship with the users of music therapy is very similar. The theoretical understanding and ideological positions are different. There still seems to be, however, a growing integration of theories and ideas by many presenters and discussion partners...
Tatyana V. Filipieva
The profession of a flight attendant appeared in aviation in the 1920s. Professional community of flight attendants is constantly growing with the growth of complexity of aviation technology, professional standards of passenger service and safety. The psychological scientific research was carried out by a psychologist who worked as a flight attendant. The study revealed the psychological content, demands, peculiarities in cabin crews' labor. A job description was accomplished. Temporal and sp...
Holyoak, B.; Overend, J.K.; Gill, J.R.
A survey, conducted by the Health and Safety Executive (HSE), on the standard of radiation protection in the dental profession in the United Kingdom is described. The results are compared with UK advisory standards. The preliminary survey results were reported in the professional press and each participating dental practitioner received comments and advice concerning the basic requirements for radiation protection. The method of survey has been broadened to form the basis of inspection of dental radiography by the HSE. (H.K.)
von Lindeman, Katharina; Kugler, Joachim; Klewer, Jörg
Incomplete vaccinations among students in health care professions lead to an increased risk for infections. Until now, only few studies related to this issue do exist. Therefore vaccinations and awareness regarding the importance of vaccinations among students in health care professions should be investigated. All 433 students of a regional college for health care professionals were asked to complete a standardized and anonymous questionnaire. Altogether 301 nursing students and 131 students of the other health care professions participated. About 66.1 percent of nursing students and 50.4 percent of students of other health care professions rated vaccination as "absolutely necessary". Different percentages of completed vaccinations were reported for tetanus (79.1 percent versus 64.4 percent), hepatitis B (78.7 percent versus 77.5 percent) and hepatitis A (74.1 percent versus 68.5 percent). 6.3 percent versus 15.4 percent did not know if they were vaccinated against tetanus, hepatitis B (5.3 percent versus 7.7 percent) and hepatitis A (5.6 percent versus 9.2 percent). While approximately half of the students reported "primary vaccination and booster" against mumps (59.5 percent versus 53.5 percent), measles (58.8 percent versus 54.6 percent) and rubella (58.3 percent versus 55.4 percent), this was reported less for pertussis (43.8 percent versus 39.8 percent) and varicella (32.4 percent versus 25.2 percent). The results indicate inadequate vaccination status in the investigated students. In addition, a gap between the awareness of the importance of vaccinations and personal preventive behavior became obvious. Therefore, education of these future health professionals still requires issues related to vaccinations.
47. New York, NY: Springer Science + Business Media. Luvaas, Jay. 1986. Frederick the Great: The education of a great captain. In The John Biggs ...based on individual assignments undermines the nature of mixed agency related tensions that dual professionals experience. John Lunsroth suggests...Lunsroth, John . 2008. Torture and the regulation of the health care professions. In Physicians at War: The Dual-Loyalties Challenge, ed. Fritz Allhoff, 127
van den Berg, Joost W; Mastenbroek, Nicole J J M; Scheepers, Renée A; Jaarsma, A Debbie C
Work engagement deserves more attention in health professions education because of its positive relations with personal well-being and performance at work. For health professions education, these outcomes have been studied on various levels. Consider engaged clinical teachers, who are seen as better clinical teachers; consider engaged residents, who report committing fewer medical errors than less engaged peers. Many topics in health professions education can benefit from explicitly including work engagement as an intended outcome such as faculty development programs, feedback provision and teacher recognition. In addition, interventions aimed at strengthening resources could provide teachers with a solid foundation for well-being and performance in all their work roles. Work engagement is conceptually linked to burnout. An important model that underlies both burnout and work engagement literature is the job demands-resources (JD-R) model. This model can be used to describe relationships between work characteristics, personal characteristics and well-being and performance at work. We explain how using this model helps identifying aspects of teaching that foster well-being and how it paves the way for interventions which aim to increase teacher's well-being and performance.
Reed, Kathlyn L
The creation of a new profession in the early 20th century, such as occupational therapy, required a commitment to certain ideas and a willingness to accept certain challenges. This study examines the commitment to the idea of therapeutic and health supporting occupation by the early leaders and proponents of the profession and the challenges they faced in gaining acceptance of occupational therapy as a profession capable of delivering a valued health care service to society. Six challenges are reviewed as they occurred in the history of the profession and as they continue to challenge the profession into the present era.
Full Text Available The relation between accounting and taxation is a complex issue. The development of this relation is still in progress in Romania. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the evolution of the accounting and tax profession in Romania for the last twenty-five years and to establish the moment of the separation between the two professions and the impact of this separation on the application of the accounting and taxation treatments, in the context of the sustainable development. This evolution is important to the three dimensions of sustainable development. In this paper it will be taken into consideration a theoretical and qualitative research using as methodology the analysis of the social documents: the regulations regarding the profession of chartered accountant and the profession of tax advisory. The starting point in this research is the fall of the communism when Romania is in research of a new identity. There can be identified three major stages of evolution: between 1990-2000 when the accountant was really important for accounting and fiscal issues, between 2001-2006 when the accountant professionals and tax professionals had different activities and after 2007 when there appeared the Chamber of Tax Consultants and the two professions have been separated through two professional bodies.
Full Text Available Background: The school oral health education program is believed to be a cost-effective method for promoting oral health. The KAP (knowledge–attitude–practice model of oral health education is often the foundation of most health education programs. Objectives: To assess the existing knowledge, attitude, and oral health care practices among 11- to 13-year-old children and the association of knowledge with attitude, oral health care practices, and dental caries prevalence. Design: Cross-sectional design, involving 858 children studying in class seven at various schools in the city of Mangalore, India. The children were selected using stratified random sampling method. Prevalence of dental caries was determined using decayed, missing, and filled permanent teeth (DMFT index. A self-administered questionnaire on self-care practices in oral health, knowledge, and attitude toward oral health care was filled by children. The association of different variables with knowledge was analyzed using binary logistic regression analysis. Results: The dental caries prevalence was 59.4%, and 54.5% had low knowledge. They lacked knowledge regarding use of fluoridated toothpaste and did not use them. Children with low knowledge had significantly higher odds of having DMFT ≥ 1, not using fluoridated toothpaste, and being afraid of going to the dentist due to possible pain. There was no association of other oral health care practices and attitudes with knowledge. Conclusion: Oral health care practices and attitudes are not fully explained by knowledge, and other models of health education need to be considered.
Full Text Available Although the engineering profession has been called “the failed profession” owing to its lack of social closure, engineers have been successful in claiming their area of expertise and specialized knowledge as legitimate areas of research, knowledge, and intervention. In this article, the historical development of engineering professions in Sweden is used as a case of professional development. With the use of primary statistical sources and secondary historical sources, I endeavor to explain engineers’ professional development via coinciding factors such as the expansion and scientific content of lower and higher engineering education, the struggle for power in interest groups and unions, and engineers’ position in what seems to be an ever-increasingly diversified labor market. I argue that the professionalization process for Swedish engineers has fluctuated and that more than one professional take-off (two or even three has occurred.
An element of professionalization is the development of a body of knowledge and the integration of that knowledge into practice, also known as evidence-informed practice (EIP). EIP was officially adopted in Ontario, Canada, by the massage therapy profession in 2002 when the professional competency document was updated to include competencies related to research literacy (College of Massage Therapists of Ontario, 2002). Despite efforts to increase EIP, there continues to be a research-practice gap in massage therapy. However, there also seems to be interest in finding ways to support the increase massage therapists' capacity to apply research. To support change, it is useful to describe the relationships in the profession that may have an effect on the use of evidence in practice and the development of a broader culture of inquiry. In order to better understand how these relationships may impact on EIP, an ecological model is proposed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Objective The Internet provides the general public with information about speech pathology services, including client groups and service delivery models, as well as the professionals providing the services. Although this information assists the general public and other professionals to both access and understand speech pathology services, it also potentially provides information about speech pathology as a prospective career, including the types of people who are speech pathologists (i.e. demographics). The aim of the present study was to collect baseline data on how the speech pathology profession was presented via images on the Internet. Methods A pilot prospective observational study using content analysis methodology was conducted to analyse publicly available Internet images related to the speech pathology profession. The terms 'Speech Pathology' and 'speech pathologist' to represent both the profession and the professional were used, resulting in the identification of 200 images. These images were considered across a range of areas, including who was in the image (e.g. professional, client, significant other), the technology used and the types of intervention. Results The majority of images showed both a client and a professional (i.e. speech pathologist). While the professional was predominantly presented as female, the gender of the client was more evenly distributed. The clients were more likely to be preschool or school aged, however male speech pathologists were presented as providing therapy to selected age groups (i.e. school aged and younger adults). Images were predominantly of individual therapy and the few group images that were presented were all paediatric. Conclusion Current images of speech pathology continue to portray narrow professional demographics and client groups (e.g. paediatrics). Promoting images of wider scope to fully represent the depth and breadth of speech pathology professional practice may assist in attracting a more diverse
Full Text Available It has been claimed that Israel has the highest per capital rate of lawyers in the world, resulting in belief that the Israel Bar is overpopulated. The first law colleges, which were established 20 years ago, are newcomers to the production of legal professions. The leadership of the Israel Bar have held the law colleges responsible for Israel’s overpopulation of lawyers and for the legal profession’s decline in prestige. This paper examines whether the perception of overcrowding of the profession is a new “discovery” or rather the recycling of a standard dynamic between professionals and legal education institutions. While this paper focuses specifically on Israel, concern about the overpopulation of the profession has become a central concern in many other jurisdictions. Se ha asegurado que Israel tiene el ratio de abogados per cápita más alto del mundo, lo que hace creer que el Colegio de Abogados de Israel está superpoblado. Las primeras facultades de derecho, que se establecieron hace 20 años, son recién llegados de la producción de abogados. El liderazgo del Colegio de Abogados de Israel ha hecho que las facultades de derecho sean responsables de la superpoblación de abogados en Israel y del descenso del prestigio de la abogacía. Este artículo analiza si la percepción de superpoblación de la profesión es un nuevo “descubrimiento”, o, por el contrario, el reciclaje de una dinámica estándar entre profesionales e instituciones de formación en derecho. Aunque este artículo se centra especialmente en Israel, la superpoblación de la profesión se ha convertido en una preocupación central en muchas otras jurisdicciones.
Specialization is an important feature of post-World War II health sector development. Its value is indisputable. On the other hand, unchecked specialization also brings problems, notably of cost escalation and service profile twisting. To exploit the potentials of highly specialized medicine without neglecting the everyday problems that constitute the bulk of medicine, one needs a carefully constructed policy. To design such a policy, one needs, among other things, to understand the whys and hows of specialization. This reports discusses three different approaches to the understanding of the process of specialization: the sociological (S is a reflection of the selfish interests of the professions), the medical (S is the natural response to scientific and technological progress), and the economic (S is a result of increased market demand). Much is to be said in favour of the sociological explanation. Occupational groups do pursue interests of their own, centering on the construction and defence of job monopolies. The histories of the professions readily lend themselves to this kind of interpretation, and its gives, beyond doubt, valuable insight into the ways in which occupational groups relate to each other, to clients and to the surrounding society. This report, however, argues that the sociology of the professions is largely concerned with phenomena secondary to the process of specialization. It explains the behaviour of occupational groups, once they have been established. It does not, however, explain why they came into being in the first place. For that purpose, the perspective of medicine and, in particular, that of economy, may be more suitable. I support this position by data on the specialization of the health service system of Norway.
Aronoff, Nell; Stellrecht, Elizabeth; Lyons, Amy G; Zafron, Michelle L; Glogowski, Maryruth; Grabowski, Jeremiah; Ohtake, Patricia J
The research assessed online learning modules designed to teach health professions students evidence-based practice (EBP) principles in an interprofessional context across two institutions. Students from nine health professions at two institutions were recruited to participate in this pilot project consisting of two online learning modules designed to prepare students for an in-person case-based interprofessional activity. Librarians and an instructional designer created two EBP modules. Students' competence in EBP was assessed before and after the modules as well as after the in-person activity. Students evaluated the online learning modules and their impact on the students' learning after the in-person session. A total of 39 students from 8 health professions programs participated in the project. Average quiz scores for online EBP module 1 and module 2 were 83% and 76%, respectively. Following completion of the learning modules, adapted Fresno test of competence in EBP scores increased ( p =0.001), indicating that the modules improved EBP skill competence. Student evaluations of the learning modules were positive. Students indicated that they acquired new information skills that contributed to their ability to develop a patient care plan and that they would use these information skills in their future clinical practice. Online EBP learning modules were effective in developing EBP knowledge and skills for health professions students. Using the same modules ensured that students from different health professions at different stages of their professional programs had consistent knowledge and enabled each student to fully engage in an interprofessional evidence-based activity. Student feedback indicated the modules were valued and beneficial.
Full Text Available The anthology Kunstner eller lærer? Profesjonsdilemmaer i musikk- og kunstpedagogisk utdanning (Artist or teacher? Profession Dilemmas in the music and art educational fields is edited by Elin Angelo and Signe Kalsnes. The reviewer concludes there is a label identity construction through the use of terms, including how you choose to position yourself and how you are categorised by others, which makes the book a very valuable contribution to the discussion of the professional dilemma and professional identity of students, teachers and researchers in the art educational fields.
Tatyana V. Filipieva
Full Text Available The profession of a flight attendant appeared in aviation in the 1920s. Professionalcommunity of flight attendants is constantly growing with the growth ofcomplexity of aviation technology, professional standards of passenger serviceand safety. The psychological scientific research was carried out by a psychologistwho worked as a flight attendant. The study revealed the psychological content,demands, peculiarities in cabin crews’ labor. A job description was accomplished.Temporal and spatial characteristics, the main contradictions, unfavorable psychogenicand stress factors in labor were examined and described. Psychological profilesof a cabin attendant and of an air passenger were drawn up.
DiMaria-Ghalili, Rose Ann; Mirtallo, Jay M; Tobin, Brian W; Hark, Lisa; Van Horn, Linda; Palmer, Carole A
Understanding and applying nutrition knowledge and skills to all aspects of health care are extremely important, and all health care professions need basic training to effectively assess dietary intake and provide appropriate guidance, counseling, and treatment to their patients. With obesity rates at an all-time high and the increasing prevalence of diabetes projected to cost the Federal government billions of dollars, the need for interprofessional nutrition education is paramount. Physicians, physician assistants, nurses, nurse practitioners, pharmacists, dentists, dental hygienists, occupational therapists, physical therapists, speech and language pathologists, and others can positively affect patient care by synchronizing and reinforcing the importance of nutrition across all specialty areas. Although nutrition is a critical component of acute and chronic disease management, as well as health and wellness across the health care professions, each profession must reevaluate its individual nutrition-related professional competencies before the establishment of meaningful interprofessional collaborative nutrition competencies. This article discusses gaps in nutrition education and training within individual health professions (ie, nursing, pharmacy, dentistry, and dietetics) and offers suggestions for educators, clinicians, researchers, and key stakeholders on how to build further capacity within the individual professions for basic and applied nutrition education. This “gaps methodology” can be applied to all health professions, including physician assistants, physical therapists, speech and language pathologists, and occupational therapists. PMID:24646823
This article has two coordinate goals: to undergird the functionalist understanding of professionalism with classical normative theory and to advance the classical theory of civic virtue with the insights of modern social science. More specifically, this article seeks to connect classical theories about the care of the body and the soul with modern theories of market and government failure. The first step is to distinguish two kinds of professions, caring professions like medicine and public professions like law, by identifying the distinctive virtue of each. The distinctive virtue of the caring professions is single-minded commitment to those in their care, their principals, to the virtual exclusion of all other concerns; the distinctive virtue of the public professions is commitment to the common good, sometimes even at the expense of their principals' self-defined interest. The next step is to show how these two distinctive professional virtues, the one principal-protecting, the other public-protecting, branch from the same root, the common function of all proper professions: guaranteeing the delivery of socially essential but necessarily esoteric knowledge when the usual protections of both private contracts and government regulation systematically fail. The third and final step is to map out the implications of this neo-classical understanding of professionalism, beginning at its core in the paradigmatic caring and public professions of medicine and law, through putative professions that take these as their models, to the kind of republican society that places care of individuals and concern for the public welfare at the center of its value system. The result of this analysis should be not only a fuller theoretical appreciation of professionalism's proper function, but also a practical guide to professionals themselves for better service to both the individuals in their care and the common good of all humankind.
Litosseliti, Lia; Leadbeater, Claire
The speech and language therapy/pathology (SLT/SLP) profession is characterized by extreme 'occupational sex segregation', a term used to refer to persistently male- or female-dominated professions. Men make up only 2.5% of all SLTs in the UK, and a similar imbalance is found in other countries. Despite calls to increase diversity in the allied health professions more generally, research into the reasons for occupational sex segregation and gender as a potential key factor remains scarce. This study aims to explore the potential role of gender/gendered discourses in people's decision to pursue a career in SLT/SLP. It seeks to illustrate how gendered assumptions/expectations/discourses continue to construct SLT as a 'gendered' profession, and to make some recommendations in this area for SLT recruitment and practice. The study adopted a qualitative design which elicited research participants' views, knowledge and experiences (in their own words) in relation to the research questions. Data collection involved two iterative phases: a preliminary data phase--which involved semi-structured interviews with newly qualified SLT graduates and practising SLTs, and the completion of questionnaires by undergraduate SLTs--and a main/focus group phase. In the focus group phase reported in this paper, six focus groups in total were held with SLTs, teachers of SLT, and careers advisors in London, UK. The data were analysed qualitatively using grounded theory principles, thematic analysis and discourse analysis. The findings extend our knowledge and understanding of gender as a parameter of people's motivations and perceptions, which can influence their choice of career (e.g. as regards pay and flexibility). The findings also show that discourses around women as carers, nurturers and communicators constitute key ways through which the SLT profession continues to be constructed as 'women's work'. The topic of structural gender inequalities in the profession was also discussed in the
As an answer to the welfare state's transformation and increased focus on goal- and result-oriented regulation, Swedish educational policy is in a state of change. The matter of the teaching profession's aspirations with regard to professionalisation has come up once again: reminders that reference the introduction of teacher certification in…
The study discovered why teachers around the world choose the Teaching profession and the factors affecting their choices. The study is meaningful to teacher education curriculum developers and teacher recruiters, for revealing the effects of teachers' perceptions on their career planning and professional growth. The findings from inferential…
McGaghie, William C
Scholarship and publication are key contributors to career advancement in health professions education worldwide. Scholarship is expressed in many ways including original research; integration and synthesis of ideas and data, often across disciplines; application of skill and knowledge to problems that have consequences for health professionals, students, and patients; and teaching in many forms. Professional publication also has diverse outlets ranging from empirical articles in peer reviewed journals, textbook chapters, videos, simulation technologies, and many other means of expression. Scholarship and publication are evaluated and judged using criteria that are consensual, public, and transparent. This three-part AMEE Guide presents advice about how to prepare and publish health professions education research reports and other forms of scholarship in professional journals and other outlets. Part One addresses scholarship-its varieties, assessment, and attributes of productive scholars and scholarly teams. Part Two maps the road to publication, beginning with what's important and reportable and moving to manuscript planning and writing, gauging manuscript quality, manuscript submission and review, and writing in English. Part Three offers 21 practical suggestions about how to advance a successful and satisfying career in the academic health professions. Concluding remarks encourage health professions educators to pursue scholarship with vision and reflection.
Asokan, G V
Allied healthcare workers are from diverse professions and the key skill required is providing evidence-based care but this concept has not permeated enough for using it skillfully in their professions. A well structured curriculum in allied health professions is needed to strengthen concerted teaching, research, and practice to empower their professionals and make considerable differences in the lives of people by adopting evidence-based practice. Information sources for allied health professionals have relied on advice of their supervisors and colleagues, personal experiences, authoritative theory and texts for practice. Because of "research-practice" gap, often the use of evidence is not reflected in an individual day to day professional practice. Although allied health professionals work in resource and evidence challenged settings, there are certain barriers and facilitators, which need to be addressed. To implement practice-related research findings and uptake of evidence requires two essential components, namely, practical component and knowledge component. Research bench marking and research metrics for quality assurance and standardization through evidence-based practice will promote academic status and credibility of allied health profession. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd and Chinese Cochrane Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University.
Sukhera, Javeed; Watling, Chris
Existing literature on implicit bias is fragmented and comes from a variety of fields like cognitive psychology, business ethics, and higher education, but implicit-bias-informed educational approaches have been underexplored in health professions education and are difficult to evaluate using existing tools. Despite increasing attention to implicit bias recognition and management in health professions education, many programs struggle to meaningfully integrate these topics into curricula. The authors propose a six-point actionable framework for integrating implicit bias recognition and management into health professions education that draws on the work of previous researchers and includes practical tools to guide curriculum developers. The six key features of this framework are creating a safe and nonthreatening learning context, increasing knowledge about the science of implicit bias, emphasizing how implicit bias influences behaviors and patient outcomes, increasing self-awareness of existing implicit biases, improving conscious efforts to overcome implicit bias, and enhancing awareness of how implicit bias influences others. Important considerations for designing implicit-bias-informed curricula-such as individual and contextual variables, as well as formal and informal cultural influences-are discussed. The authors also outline assessment and evaluation approaches that consider outcomes at individual, organizational, community, and societal levels. The proposed framework may facilitate future research and exploration regarding the use of implicit bias in health professions education.
Giami, Alain; de Colomby, Patrick
A national survey of sexologists was carried out in France in 1998-1999, among the individuals listed in the professional directories and the telephone book as "sexologists." It described the sociodemographic characteristics of sexologists, their initial profession and training in sexology, sex therapy and psychotherapeutic techniques, and how they practice sexology. A total of 959 individuals were identified and surveyed. The response rate was 63%. Two thirds of the sexologists were physicians and 60% were men. French sexologists appeared to be segmented into three subgroups: (1) one-third were general practitioners, trained in sexology and psychotherapeutic approaches, recognized themselves as sexologists, and devoted 40% of their professional activity to sexology. Men were about two thirds of this group; (2) one-third were nonphysicians (including psychologists and other health professionals, such as social workers and nurses), recognized themselves as sex therapists and devoted one third of their time to sexology. Men and women were equally represented in this group; (3) one-third were specialists, with less training in sexology and psychotherapeutic techniques, and did not generally recognize themselves as sexologists. They devoted a lesser part of their time to sexology and had academic and hospital practice. Men comprised more than 75% of this group. This study raised the issue of the diversity of primary professions involved in the field of sexology and showed that sexology is a secondary professional choice for the majority of sexologists.
Just as the ICRP system of radiological protection must adapt to changes in scientific understanding, social and ethical values, and practical experience, ICRP itself continues to adapt as an organisation. One aspect of the continual modernisation of ICRP is a greater emphasis on engaging with the radiological protection profession.Ten years ago, on August 8, 2004, ICRP formally began open consultation on what was then referred to as the draft “2005 Recommendations of ICRP”. As most readers will know, this was published in due course as ICRP Publication 103, “The 2007 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection” (ICRP, 2007).Being managed through the ICRP website, it opened up the possibility for anyone, anywhere, with an internet connection and an interest in radiological protection, to review the draft document and submit comments directly to ICRP.Open consultation on draft publications is but one aspect of ICRP’s efforts to become a more open and transparent organisation, and to increase engagement with the radiological protection profession. A modern arrangement for formal relations with other international organisations was established in 2012 with the objective of being more inclusive, effective, and efficient. In addition, there are efforts underway to seek the support needed to enable ICRP to broaden awareness of our recommendations, particularly in the medical field, and to increase engagement through social media and at relevant conferences, symposia, meetings, etc
Full Text Available ABSTRACT In this study the researcher attempted to understand and explain to explore the social development dimension of the nurse professions in managing HIV cases. Specifically the study sought to answer the following questions 1 what is the profile of the key informants with regards to HIV Patients age gender education and socio economics status Nurses age gender no of years of work experiences specific to HIV social workers age gender and no of years of work experiences specific to HIV. 2 What are lived experiences of key informants on social development dimension of the helping process HIV patients Nurses and Social Workers 3 What social development model can be designed in managing HIV cases 4 What policy recommendations can be developed pertaining to development dimension in managing HIV cases. This study utilized qualitative approach. The phenomenology was used to explore and describe HIV patients through their lived experiences in a selected rehabilitation center in Sukabumi West Java Indonesia the nurses and social workers. The approach developed an understanding of the experiences as perceived by the key informants. Qualitative research aims to collect a deep understanding of human behavior. Survey checklists In-depth interviews repertory grid and dendogram were utilized in the data gathering procedure data presentations and data analyses. The informants of this study were focused on nurses social workers and HIV Patients in the rehabilitation center the Directorate General for Social Rehabilitation Social Ministries of the Republic of Indonesia the school nurses Ministry of Health Community Health Centers that carry out community health care program-specific examination of VCT. Generally the findings of the research conducted by qualitative research methods in a statement obtained significant categories and themes that emerged is significant for the statement is feeling sad angry when patients get HIV diagnosis the process of
Castagnoli, E.; Licalzi, M.
This paper advances an interpretation of Von Neumann–Morgenstern’s expected utility model for preferences over lotteries which does not require the notion of a cardinal utility over prizes and can be phrased entirely in the language of probability. According to it, the expected utility of a lottery can be read as the probability that this lottery outperforms another given independent lottery. The implications of this interpretation for some topics and models in decision theory are considered....
Hutchings, Jeremy; Corr, Susan
The paper describes how specific descriptors for the Conservation-Restoration profession have been developed by the European Confederation of Conservator-Restorers' Organizations. The result of which is in accordance with the threefold rubric of Knowledge, Skills and Competence as defined by the European Qualifications Framework. Instead of giving…
Møller, Marie Østergaard
Active social policy is an example of New Public Management, which contains a set of policy tools directly affecting the various professions working in the welfare sector (Harrits & Møller 2011). The legitimization of the policy is based in a need to strengthen control with public expenditures...... capacities and the doctor’s specialized focus on physical deviations. As such, the paper is an empirically informed contribution to understanding what happens when new forms of New Public Management meet front-line workers such as social workers and doctors who use both rules and professional norms...... and to restore public support for redistributive social benefits such as early retirement pension. Yet, New Public Management and professional norms are typically seen as two distinct rationalities, as reflected in the conflicting aims of the political system (retrenchment) and the ‘street-level bureaucrats...
Plesner, Ursula; Raviola, Elena
Purpose: The purpose of this article is to investigate what role particular new management devices play in the development of the news profession in an organizational setting shifting to new technologies. Design/methodology/approach: This is studied through of observations of work practices...... they produce new practices and power relationships. It is shown that the devices produce increased collaboration among journalists and interaction between managers and output journalists, that mundane work and power is delegated to technological devices and that news products are increasingly standardized....... Furthermore, the article’s focus on devices opens up for conceptualizing power in the news room as distributed across a network of people and things, rather executed by managers alone....
Doona, Mary Ellen
The emergence of the trained nurse as a new profession for women coincided with the transformation of hospitals from refuges for the sick and poor into treatment facilities. The hospital was an apt setting for learning nursing's fundamentals, but the domestic demands of the setting soon took precedence over nursing education. Nursing superintendents struggled to honor the right of pupil nurses to an education over the might of the hospital's demands. The 20th anniversary of the Trained Nurse Movement in 1893 proved the decisive moment when nursing superintendents created professional associations and gathered the nursing diaspora into a coherent force. Recourse to the law followed with nurses seeking legal validation of their authority over nursing education. Now, as then, a nurse's authority is a right that has to be protected when the might of individuals and institutions, both subtle and blatant, interferes with nurses caring for the well-being of society.
Plesner, Ursula; Raviola, Elena
in the newsroom and through documentary research and qualitative interviews with managers, editors, and other professionals. Findings: It is shown that management devices such as the news table and the news concept are central to the reorganization of news work, as they realize managers’ strategies, just like......Purpose: The purpose of this article is to investigate what role particular new management devices play in the development of the news profession in an organizational setting shifting to new technologies. Design/methodology/approach: This is studied through of observations of work practices...... they produce new practices and power relationships. It is shown that the devices produce increased collaboration among journalists and interaction between managers and output journalists, that mundane work and power is delegated to technological devices and that news products are increasingly standardized...
Forenza, Brad; Eckert, Caitlin
Social work is a broad field encompassing micro, mezzo, and macro areas of practice. Consequently, the field lacks a unifying professional identity due to the expansiveness of the profession. Professional identity is conceptualized as an extension of social identity, vis-à-vis the embodiment of three qualities: connectedness, expansiveness, and effectiveness. This study used 12 in-depth, individual interviews with practicing social workers to explore these qualities. Findings from interviews reveal six primary themes and 21 subthemes pertaining to social worker identity. Themes and subthemes are organized according to three broad families (social work in context, professional trajectories, and external influences). Implications for policy, practice, and future research are presented. © 2017 National Association of Social Workers.
Fried, Jacquelyn L
This executive summary for Section 5 of the "Advancing Dental Education in the 21 st Century" project addresses the current and future educational systems for dental assisting, dental hygiene, dental therapy, and dental laboratory technology. Nineteen experts prepared six background articles on the educational changes necessary for future roles and practices. The key issues addressed relate to delivery system changes, educational curricula, scopes of practice, regulatory measures, and the public's oral health. The major finding is that substantial reforms will be needed to adequately prepare allied oral health professionals for the changes anticipated in 2040. A reconsideration of current accreditation guidelines, more flexibility with scopes of practice, and an adherence to rigorous academic programs are essential elements for the future of these professions.
This article uses the theory of body phenomenology and Watson's caring theory to develop and apply body ethics to the clinical healthcare profession. This attempt is meant to facilitate deep, humanistic experiences for healthcare personnel. The analysis of body phenomenology reveals that the soul is banished from her familiar and comfortable "at-home" status when illness and pain invade the body. In such situations, the body becomes an external object that is self-alienated. This experience induces experiences such as solitude and violence. However, it also holds the potential to expose the original morality of the body. Additionally, this article discusses popular tools used in clinical ethics such as principalism and virtual-based ethics, which are based on moral reasoning and moral feeling. In contrast to these, body ethics seek a more profound and humble level of sensibility that is able to implant authenticity into the ethics. Finally, we offer some suggestions related to Watson's caring theory.
The chapter aims to develop conceptions of practical knowledge, relevant to skills and Bildung in engineering science. The starting point is Francis Bacon’s ideas of new science, developed 400 years ago. It is argued that Bacon’s vision has become dogmatized during the course of history, whereas....... Furthermore, and still with reference to truth, utility, and goodness, it is claimed that unification of skills and Bildung should include the ability to deal with complexity. A second-order complexity challenges the search for adequacy between; a) the complexity of knowledge-creation; and b) the complexity...
Bosma, Mark; Cassidy, Keri-Leigh; Le Clair, J Kenneth; Helsdingen, Sherri; Devichand, Pratima
Background The Canadian Coalition for Seniors’ Mental Health (CCSMH) developed national best-practice guidelines in seniors’ mental health. Promoting adoption of new guidelines is challenging, as paper dissemination alone has limited impact on practice change. Purpose We hypothesized that the existing knowledge transfer (KT) mechanisms of the Nova Scotia Seniors’ Mental Health Network would prove useful in transferring the CCSMH best-practice guidelines. Methods In this observational KT study, CCSMH best-practice guidelines were delivered through two interactive, case-based teaching modules on Depression & Suicide, and Delirium via a provincial tele-education program and local face-to-face sessions. Usefulness of KT was measured using self-report evaluations of material quality and learning. Evaluation results from the two session topics and from tele-education versus face-to-face sessions were compared. Results Sessions were well attended (N = 347), with a high evaluation return rate (287, 83%). Most participants reported enhanced knowledge in seniors’ mental health and intended to apply knowledge to practice. Ratings did not differ significantly between KT session topics or modes of delivery. Conclusions The KT mechanisms of a provincial seniors’ mental health network facilitated knowledge acquisition and the intention of using national guidelines on seniors’ mental health among Nova Scotian clinicians. Key elements of accelerating KT used in this initiative are discussed. PMID:23251305
Zacko-Smith, Jeffrey D.; Smith, G. Pritchy
In order to teach effectively in hyper-diverse contexts, if effective teaching is considered to be the creation of knowledge, the transmission of ideas, and the "growing" of human beings intellectually, morally and socially, educators at all levels, but particularly those who are new to the field, must be well-versed in multiculturalism and…
Christopher A. Armatas; Tyron J. Venn; Brooke B. McBride; Alan E. Watson; Steve J. Carver
The field of adaptive management has been embraced by researchers and managers in the United States as an approach to improve natural resource stewardship in the face of uncertainty and complex environmental problems. Integrating multiple knowledge sources and feedback mechanisms is an important step in this approach. Our objective is to contribute to the...
In today’s world of multi-component and multi-technology products, firms are obliged to seek knowledge for new product development (NPD) from external sources. Supplier firms are one such external source. The thesis aims to contribute to the development of a theory on supplier involvement in new
Andrea Ferraz Fernandez
Full Text Available Journalism as a profession in Brazil discusses the professional characteristics of Journalism in Brazil under the following aspects: 1 formal conditions of access, 2 conditions and effects of the monopoly on the journalistic activity 3 presence of a distinct culture and ethic, based on the notion of the journalist’s social responsibility and 4 characteristics of the real community of individuals who share the journalistic identity. Based on this scope, we can perceive the singularity of the Brazilian formal access conditions, albeit currently in transition. The university diploma for professional journalists, a recently eliminated mandatory requirement, created in the past a speciﬁc access condition and produced a ﬁeld of specialized journalists with a university diploma. The journalists debate today about the end of their access card and a total lack of professional regulation. At the same time, there is a reduction of formal job positions, which are more concentrated with the large media groups, and worsening of working conditions and salaries. The emergence of other types of functions, due to new technological characteristics of the communication ﬁeld, although potentially increasing professional possibilities, generate dilemmas regarding production and distribution of information. To these new challenges old ones have to be added, such as the need to ethically equate the work done by press ofﬁces, as these consist today the majority of job positions for journalists in the country. This work expands the discussion about these characteristics of the journalistic profession in Brazil based on quantitative and qualitative dada produced by the Comprehensive Analysis of Brazilian Communications and Telecommunications.
Ana L. O. Oliveira
Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground:Analyzing the historical and social path of an occupation using the sociology of professions and the perspective of scientific knowledge promotes an understanding of the origin of physical therapy in Brazil and of discussions of the profession in its contemporary context.Objective: The aim of this paper was to discuss the professionalization process of physical therapy in São Paulo. The authors tried to analyze bath therapy, massage therapy, and physical therapy as occupations involving distinct expertise and as part of the group of occupations that evolved into the profession of physiotherapy in the first half of the twentieth century.Method: The analysis undertaken was a qualitative study based on an analysis of historical documents. Eighty-six professional records from the Service of Inspection of Professional Practice in the state of São Paulo and healthcare legislation from the 1930s and 1940s were analyzed.Results:The distinction between physical therapy practitioner and profession of physiotherapy can be seen by examining registration requirements for rank-and-file nurses with expertise in interactions; this distinction suggests the emergence of specialized expertise that was clearly a part of neither medicine nor nursing and contributed to expertise in physical therapy since the 1950s.Conclusion: The regulation of physiotherapy practices, the recognition of expertise, the accreditation of practical nurses by the State, and the institutionalization of a course for physical therapy practitioners in 1951 are key elements of the professionalization process for the physical therapy profession in Brazil.
Full Text Available Introduction: Moral intelligence is one of the aspects of intelligence which can provide a framework for proper performance of the humans, which is known as a forecaster factor of behavior. MI is a vital intelligence for humans owing to guidance of other shapes of intelligence toward valuable tasks . It is a combination of knowledge, interest and resolve, also includes the method of thinking, feeding and acting. The role and importance of MI is outstanding because of making balance and improvement in individual's interactions and social terms, especially in occupations related to medical and nursing field which directly deals with people's life. The goal of this study is the definition and identification of MI and its application in medical science, especially nursing. Methods: This research is a retrospective article in which other researchers' study has been investigated and analyzed. Therefore, three main keywords; intelligence, morality, MI, has been searched in different nursing field databases such as SID, CVID, PUBMED, CINAHL, SCIENCE, MAGIRAN DIRECT, GOOGLE SCHOLAR and SCOPUS. Hence, based on these criteria, published articles from 2000 up to the present has been found and abstracted or editors interpretation ones eliminated. Only full text articles have been used. Definitions and applications of MI in nursing, presented in articles has been organized and revised in this article. Results: The results showed that MI education is a revolution and essential requirement in nursing, since changing to a descent nurse not only depends on theoretical knowledge and clinical skills but also needs applying moral knowledge and responsibility. Following moral criterion in nurse's performance is more important than other care issues as moral behavior accompany nurses' responsibility can be an effective factor in patients' remission and recovery. Conclusion: Achievement of MI skills leads to nursing profession advancement by basic changes in nurse
Jose Garcia Molina
Full Text Available From its beginnings the Bolonya plan has generated a wide debate around its market-oriented and neoliberal tendencies, present at all levels of the university institution. The tension between idealized views of the university, probably impossible to realize, and utilitarian views, clearly unjust, centers the focus of the debate. These tensions bring to light the pluriversity and multiversity that traverse the contemporary university. To what does the university and its professionals still give form? Taking as a reference some teachings by Alain Badiou and Jacques Derrida, we try to think the university situation, and the links between professing, the professor, and the profession. The analysis attempts to synthesize, in a different way, what the university can do or can be today. This synthesis leads us to think the function of the university teacher using the metaphors of the philosopher and the double agent.
Smith, Tony [University of Newcastle Department of Rural Health, Taree, New South Wales (Australia); Harris, Jillian [Crown Princess Mary Cancer Centre, Westmead, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Woznitza, Nick [Homerton University Hospital and School of Allied Health Professions, Canterbury Christ Church University, Canterbury (Australia); Maresse, Sharon [Department of Imaging and Applied Physics, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia (Australia); Sale, Charlotte [School of Medical Science, RMIT University, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); University of Newcastle Department of Rural Health, Taree, New South Wales (Australia)
Professions grapple with defining advanced practice and the characteristics of advanced practitioners. In nursing and allied health, advanced practice has been defined as ‘a state of professional maturity in which the individual demonstrates a level of integrated knowledge, skill and competence that challenges the accepted boundaries of practice and pioneers new developments in health care’. Evolution of advanced practice in Australia has been slower than in the United Kingdom, mainly due to differences in demography, the health system and industrial relations. This article describes a conceptual model of advanced practitioner characteristics in the medical radiation professions, taking into account experiences in other countries and professions. Using the CanMEDS framework, the model includes foundation characteristics of communication, collaboration and professionalism, which are fundamental to advanced clinical practice. Gateway characteristics are: clinical expertise, with high level competency in a particular area of clinical practice; scholarship and teaching, including a masters qualification and knowledge dissemination through educating others; and evidence-based practice, with judgements made on the basis of research findings, including research by the advanced practitioner. The pinnacle of advanced practice is clinical leadership, where the practitioner has a central role in the health care team, with the capacity to influence decision making and advocate for others, including patients. The proposed conceptual model is robust yet adaptable in defining generic characteristics of advanced practitioners, no matter their clinical specialty. The advanced practice roles that evolve to meet future health service demand must focus on the needs of patients, local populations and communities.
Smith, Tony; Harris, Jillian; Woznitza, Nick; Maresse, Sharon; Sale, Charlotte
Professions grapple with defining advanced practice and the characteristics of advanced practitioners. In nursing and allied health, advanced practice has been defined as ‘a state of professional maturity in which the individual demonstrates a level of integrated knowledge, skill and competence that challenges the accepted boundaries of practice and pioneers new developments in health care’. Evolution of advanced practice in Australia has been slower than in the United Kingdom, mainly due to differences in demography, the health system and industrial relations. This article describes a conceptual model of advanced practitioner characteristics in the medical radiation professions, taking into account experiences in other countries and professions. Using the CanMEDS framework, the model includes foundation characteristics of communication, collaboration and professionalism, which are fundamental to advanced clinical practice. Gateway characteristics are: clinical expertise, with high level competency in a particular area of clinical practice; scholarship and teaching, including a masters qualification and knowledge dissemination through educating others; and evidence-based practice, with judgements made on the basis of research findings, including research by the advanced practitioner. The pinnacle of advanced practice is clinical leadership, where the practitioner has a central role in the health care team, with the capacity to influence decision making and advocate for others, including patients. The proposed conceptual model is robust yet adaptable in defining generic characteristics of advanced practitioners, no matter their clinical specialty. The advanced practice roles that evolve to meet future health service demand must focus on the needs of patients, local populations and communities
Landgraf, Ellen L.; Stanko, Brian B.; Jinkerson, Darcia
This paper provides a detailed description of a unique program focused on preparing students for entry into the accounting profession. The program, Preparing for the Profession, consisted of four distinct workshops provided to accounting majors during fall semester 2010. Planning for the program began a year earlier during a meeting of Accounting…
In this article, I focus on assessing multicultural competence of helping-profession students. The "Multicultural Competence Scale of Helping-Profession Students" was used for data collection. The aim of the research was to find out the level of students' multicultural competence due to the current lack of this information in Central…
This research investigates aspirations for a master's-level teaching profession in England, providing key stakeholder perceptions in one densely populated region within a multiple case study. Although this intended move to a master's-level profession represented a major shift in teachers' professional development in England, only limited…
The aim of this paper is to contextualise the gender status of the South African actuarial profession, both historically and relative to elsewhere in the world, as well as to establish the current level of representation of women in the profession. The authors have investigated the extent to which women are represented in ...
de Wet, Corene
Using ten universally accepted criteria for a profession and following the Structural-Functional Model of professionalism, this study evaluates the status of teaching as a profession in South Africa. The study found that policies and structures have been put in place since the beginning of the new millennium to enhance the professional status of…
Teaching is a professional job that requires expertise. The characteristics of the professionals can affect the quality of the profession. One of these characteristics is gender. In this study, the gender-related role of teaching profession in Turkey is examined. The analysis in a historical perspective of gender distributions of students who have…
Kammer, Rebecca; Schreiner, Laurie; Kim, Young K.; Denial, Aurora
There is a need for an assessment tool for evaluating the effectiveness of active learning strategies such as problem-based learning in promoting deep learning and clinical reasoning skills within the dual environments of didactic and clinical settings in health professions education. The Active Learning in Health Professions Scale (ALPHS)…
National Foundation for Educational Research, 2015
Between 9 December 2014 and 2 February 2015 the Government conducted a consultation into its vision for a world-class teaching profession and the establishment of a College of Teaching. The Government is committed to improving teacher quality as a key part of our plan for education. The teaching profession is fortunate to include many thousands of…
Sakhieva, Regina G.; Kuvaldina, Elena ?.
The importance of the study is due to the problem of lack of the teaching staff. Despite the sufficient number of graduates of pedagogical faculties, the number of those who really want to work in the profession and devote their lives to the teaching profession is limited. Many schools, especially in rural areas, have to face shortage of…
Understanding the evolving trends and issues in the music profession is essential for professional training institutions so they can provide their students with a solid preparation for professional life. Feedback on this evolving profession was sought from professional stakeholders, as well as from
Null, J. Wesley
This essay raises the question, "Is there a future for the teaching profession?" Beginning with a brief story illustrating the difficulties teachers and teacher educators face, this essay addresses three topics educators must address if the profession is to thrive: teaching and research within universities, the recruitment of educators, and the…
Kidd, Lynda; Brown, Natalie; Fitzallen, Noleine
Beginning teachers' induction into the teaching profession needs to be personally and professionally fulfilling, which is often not the case. The main objective of this mixed method study was to gain a deeper understanding of beginning teachers' experiences and the perceptions of their induction into the teaching profession and the support they…
Liu, Catherine; Balcom, Sarah; Carrigan, Steven; Malloy, Morgan; Mammba, Violet
Health professions students need to have increasing exposure to interprofessional and international experience in developing the knowledge and skills needed to work with older adults. As students, the authors explore in this article the significant elements of our learning that took place in a blended Gerontology Across the Professions and the Atlantic course for participants from the United States, Canada, and Norway. These factors focus on the following aspects of this course: (1) weekly online topic discussions and learning experiences, (2) group case studies and presentations, (3) international perspectives, (4) interprofessional perspectives, and (5) the final course seminar in Bergen. The authors end their discussion by sharing sidebar stories of their experiences in this course that brought together the powerful, transformative elements of interprofessional and international insights into the challenges of geriatric care in the future.
Bjerså, Kristofer; Forsberg, Anna; Fagevik Olsén, Monika
There is increasing interest in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) among healthcare professions. However, no studies have been conducted in Sweden or in a surgical context. The aim of this study is to describe different perceptions of complementary therapies among registered healthcare professions in Swedish surgical care. Sixteen interviews were conducted with registered physicians, nurses, physiotherapists and clinical dieticians at a Swedish university hospital. Analysis was made with a phenomenographic research approach. The findings showed variations in perceptions of the definition of complementary therapies. A constructive approach toward use was observed, but there was a conflict in matters of indications and contraindications, and also criticism over a lack of knowledge. There was seen to be a need for education to be able to act professionally. Scepticism over high costs of treatment was highlighted. In conclusion, a need for policies on management, education and research in the field of CAM should be addressed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wise, Rita E. Mullen
The profession of nursing is composed, primarily of females. Hence, the profession becomes gendered due to the persons who primarily engage in the work and the characteristic that is primarily associated with the profession--caring. When men enter the profession, they are challenging the gendered image of the profession. Those individuals who…
Clark, Florence A
Powerful professions have the capacity to obtain leadership positions, advocate successfully in the policy arena, and secure the resources necessary to achieve their professional goals. Within the occupational therapy profession, cultivating power and confidence among our practitioners is essential to realize our full capacity for meeting society's occupational needs. Drawing from a historical analysis of the medical and nursing professions, this paper discusses the implications of power and disempowerment among health professions for their practitioners, clients, and public image. Theoretical perspectives on power from social psychology, politics, organizational management, and post-structuralism are introduced and their relevance to the profession of occupational therapy is examined. The paper concludes with recommendations for occupational therapy practitioners to analyze their individual sources of power and evaluate opportunities to develop confidence and secure power for their professional work--in venues both in and outside the workplace.
Full Text Available The past fifty years have witnessed a widespread increase in the study of small states, including island studies; and the rise of the research management profession and its associated literature. Within a small island state context, the profession cannot be taken for granted, owing to smallness and other inherent characteristics of small island states. These characteristics may potentially re-shape the profession in a unique fashion and may influence the manner in which the roles of university research managers and administrators evolve in a small island state. So far, studies investigating the profession in the context of islands and small states have been lacking. This paper aims to instigate a discussion that hopefully inspires further studies about how the research manager’s role and profession may be re-shaped within small island states.
Bafanov Artem Pavlovich
Full Text Available Purpose: the elevation of the status of working-class professions Methodology: theoretical analysis of sociology of work-related literature and statistical data regarding the number of young workers of the Sverdlov Plant. Results: Rapid development of the services gives rise to various negative “subsidiary” effects connected with the youth switching to managerial professions and, as a result, the loss of interest to working professions. Many Russian industrial enterprises are lacking personnel due to the depreciation of working professions by youth. The author of the article believes that in this situation it is necessary to brisk up social programs, aimed at enhancing the prestige of working professions. Practical implications: industrial enterprises.
Mariño, Rodrigo; Habibi, Elmira; Morgan, Michael; Au-Yeung, Winnie
The objective of this study was to determine and analyze the use of information and communication technology (ICT) by oral health professions students in Victoria and South Australia. Data were collected during the 2009 and 2010 academic years via electronic survey. Out of 1,138 students studying in Adelaide and Victorian dental schools, 740 students participated, for an overall response rate of 65 percent. The majority were dental students (n=609) with 131 seeking a Bachelor of Oral Health (B.O.H.) degree. The majority were female (62.0 percent), had home Internet access (91.7 percent), and no barriers to accessing the Internet (87.2 percent). Among those who mentioned barriers, difficult access and cost were the most common. The Internet was accessed at least once a week by the majority for general purposes (93.5 percent) and for study purposes (84.2 percent). Nonetheless, thirty-nine students (5.3 percent) were non-frequent ICT users. The probability of an oral health professions student being in the non-ICT users group was explored utilizing a logistic regression analysis. The final model contained three predictors: location of school, ethnic background, and place of Internet use (χ(2) =117.7; pstudents from an Asian background were three times more likely to be non-users (OR=3.06; 95 percent CI 1.16 to 8.08). Those who had access to the Internet at home (OR=0.02; 95 percent CI 0.01 to 0.05) were less likely to be a non-user. These results represent a preliminary evaluation of ICT use among oral health professions students in Australia. It seems that a digital divide exists among these students. The information can be utilized in planning dental education programs and incorporating the use of ICT suitable for oral health professions students and in the design and implementation of employment recruitment and retention programs.
Hathaway, Elaine Osier
The transfusion medicine profession can be easily compared and contrasted with an early 1900 ironclad ship operating in the rough seas of the 21st century. Without modifying the old ship to today's standards, even the captain and crew will begin to expect the ship to meet its demise. The unfortunate passengers, on the other hand, do not expect that they are on an old obsolete ship and, instead, are innocent victims stuck on a doomed course. The old ironclad ship must change into a sleek cruiser and utilize the latest available technology so that its well-educated and competent captain and crew can safely navigate even the most challenging waters. The transfusion medicine profession must transform itself into a state-of-the-art ship so that it, like the refurbished ironclad ship, can be set on cruise control through the open seas. The question facing our industry is do we have the courage to utilize modern technology and to commit the funds necessary to develop, implement, and maintain our existence? It is difficult to plot a steady course into the future because of existing challenges that stand ready to sink our profession, including economic wrangling over regulation, technologic changes, generation conflict, and political differences that threaten our excellence. The primary purpose of this article is to focus on the educational needs that affect all personnel involved in transfusion medicine. In addition, this article will address potential adverse outcomes and investigate possible resolutions to avoid the "sinking ship." Within the next 5 to 7 years, without a corrective course of action, our profession will be at the bottom of the clinical ladder, remembered more for its demise and tragic ending than for its accomplishments. It is hoped, successful implementation of changes in educational paradigms in transfusion medicine may lead to a renaissance within our workforce-generations working together, each sharing and learning from one another.
Covering the emerging field of knowledge service engineering, this groundbreaking handbook outlines how to acquire and utilize knowledge in the 21st century. Drawn on the expertise of the founding faculty member of the world's first university knowledge engineering service department, this book describes what knowledge services engineering means and how it is different from service engineering and service production. Presenting multiple cultural aspects including US, Finnish, and Korean, this handbook provides engineering, systemic, industry, and consumer use viewpoints to knowledge service sy
Full Text Available The regulation of a profession is justified when it improves consumer protection and public health. Higher education food science and technology (FST degrees, widely offered in many universities in Europe open to a wide range of jobs in the food sectors where the employees could cover different positions, roles and carry out diverse activities dealing with the food production and the quality and safety of the food products. This work reviews the state of the art of the FST regulated professions requiring higher education qualifications in the European countries. The research was carried out by collecting specific information on regulated professions by contacting unions, professional associations, public servant categories/professions, and by visiting national and EU websites. The data collected for each regulated profession were: country, training/education required, date of implementation of regulation, professional training (if required, capability test (if required and acts required by law to be signed by a regulated professional. Only professions that required a higher education diploma were included in this search. Few countries were found to have a regulated profession in FST, in particular: Food Engineering (Turkey, Food Technologist (Greece, Iceland, Italy and Slovenia, and Oenologist (Italy, Portugal and Spain. FST regulated professions in Europe are thus scarce and have a rather limited history. The Food Technologist in Italy and the Food Engineer in Turkey were found to be the only completely regulated professions found in Europe. Food and professional regulation have been evolved over the years and raised the debate on the regulation of FST professions. Academia as well as other policymakers has to further contribute to this discussion to keep high the standards for quality of education and training of the qualified workforce and professionals in the food sector.
Aluwihare-Samaranayake, D; Ogilvie, L; Cummings, G G; Gellatly, Ian R
We address issues and challenges in nursing in Sri Lanka with the aim of identifying where and how policy changes need to be made. Increased global interconnectivity calls for professional leadership, research, education, and policy reform in nursing as these are identified as enhancing health workforce performance and professionalization, thereby improving health systems. We draw on first-hand knowledge of health care and nursing in Sri Lanka and a recent survey of nurses at a large urban government hospital in Sri Lanka, followed by discussion and proposed action on themes identified through analysis of published and unpublished literature about the nursing profession. Policy and action are needed to: (a) establish mandatory nurse licensure in the public and private healthcare sectors; (b) implement realistic policies to further develop nursing education; (c) develop a professionalization process to support nursing autonomy and voice; and (d) promote systematic processes for educational accreditation, curriculum revision, continuing professional development, evidence-based practice, research, leadership, and information systems. There is a policy vacuum that requires careful analysis and strategic planning by formal nurse leaders. Implementing change will require political and professional power and strategic, innovative, and evolutionary policy initiatives as well as organizational infrastructure modifications best achieved through committed multidisciplinary collaboration, augmented research capacity, bolstered nursing leadership, and promotion of partnerships with policy makers. © 2017 International Council of Nurses.
Jahangiri, Leila; Mucciolo, Thomas W
Using an expanded definition of scholarship that goes beyond the scholarship of discovery (research) to include the scholarship of integration, the scholarship of application, and the scholarship of teaching, this article explains interrelationships among these scholarship types in health professions and specifically dental education. Such interrelationships can lead to meaningful expansion of scholarship especially in the form of translational research, which relies on the development of all four of these types of scholarship. In recent years, health care-related organizations have been seeking ways to expand translational research. At the same time, an increasing number of academic institutions have been considering how to redefine what qualifies as advancing one's discipline in ways that go beyond mere number of publications and grants to better reflect the faculty member's overall scholarly effort. These redefinitions and a new attention to scholarly collaboration have led to the concept of a "complete scholar": one who makes contributions in all four areas of scholarship by collaborating with other scholars, practitioners, and members of the community. Expanding the concept of a complete scholar to that of a "complete institution" is the basis for what we propose as a Model of Institutional Scholarship. This model is exemplified by the Cochrane Collaboration, a gold standard for a complete vision of research on evidence-based health care. In the Model of Institutional Scholarship, an institution can visualize, plan, develop, and orchestrate all scholarship being conducted within its realm, creating collaborations among individual efforts that will enhance effectiveness and the creation of new knowledge.
Sportsman, Susan; Hamilton, Patti
The purpose of the study was to determine prevalent conflict management styles chosen by students in nursing and to contrast these styles with those chosen by students in allied health professions. The associations among the level of professional health care education and the style chosen were also determined. A convenience sample of 126 students in a comprehensive university completed the Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument (TKI), which requires respondents to choose behaviors most characteristic of their response to conflict and classifies these behaviors as one of five styles. There was no significant difference between the prevalent conflict management styles chosen by graduate and undergraduate nursing students and those in allied health. Some of the students were already licensed in their discipline; others had not yet taken a licensing exam. Licensure and educational level were not associated with choice of styles. Women and men had similar preferences. The prevalent style for nursing students was compromise, followed by avoidance. In contrast, avoidance, followed by compromise and accommodation, was the prevalent style for allied health students. When compared to the TKI norms, slightly more than one half of all participants chose two or more conflict management styles, commonly avoidance and accommodation at the 75th percentile or above. Only 9.8% of the participants chose collaboration at that level. Implications for nurse educators, researchers, and administrators are discussed.
Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos; Stevens, Lillian; Morlett Paredes, Alejandra; Ardila, Alfredo; Rivera, Diego
The purpose of this study was to analyze characteristics of individuals working in the profession of neuropsychology in Latin America in order to understand their background, professional training, current work situation, assessment and diagnostic procedures used, rehabilitation techniques employed, population targeted, teaching responsibilities, and research activities. A total of 808 professionals working in neuropsychology from 17 countries in Latin America completed an online survey between July 2013 and January 2014. The majority of participants were female and the mean age was 36.76 years (range 21-74 years). The majority of professionals working in neuropsychology in Latin America have a background in psychology, with some additional specialized training and supervised clinical practice. Over half work in private practice, universities, or private clinics and are quite satisfied with their work. Those who identify themselves as clinicians primarily work with individuals with learning problems, ADHD, mental retardation, TBI, dementia, and stroke. The majority respondents cite the top barrier in the use of neuropsychological instruments to be the lack of normative data for their countries. The top perceived barriers to the field include: lack of academic training programs, lack of clinical training opportunities, lack of willingness to collaborate between professionals, and lack of access to neuropsychological instruments. There is a need in Latin America to increase regulation, improve graduate curriculums, enhance existing clinical training, develop professional certification programs, validate existing neuropsychological tests, and create new, culturally-relevant instruments.
In this study more than 1,000 cases of long-term disability among members of the press and media were evaluated. Mental disorders were the main cause of disability in almost every fourth case. In women psychiatric illnesses were even more important. The most common diagnosis was that of a depressive disorder which accounted for more than half of all psychiatric cases. The causes of disability of other insurance systems such as the German social security scheme and the pension and disability plan for the medical profession were compared. Mental illnesses are the leading cause of disability in white collar workers and orthopaedic illnesses, especially disorders of the vertebral column, are the leading cause in blue collar workers, as one might have expected. In females mental disorders are even more common than in men whereas men tend to have more cardiovascular problems than women. In this study also some interesting features regarding disability caused by various illnesses after long-term follow-up were found. This opens unknown perspectives allowing new assessment of diseases and eventually will enable the actuary to price medical diagnoses for disability insurance.
Page-Jones, S; Abbey, G
This research investigates vet and vet nurse career identity through the qualitative methodology of narrative enquiry. It derives learning and understanding from these empirical data to assist the veterinary profession to adjust to the changing industry landscape. Through a case series of 20 vets and vet nurses' career stories, this paper seeks understanding about career identity and its impact on individuals and organisations in the light of industry consolidation. Findings suggest that career is central to identity for many veterinary professionals who tend to have a strong sense of self; this is particularly evident around self as learner and technically competent, teacher and educator, ethical and moral and dedicated and resilient. Consequently, mismatches between 'who I am' and 'what I do' tend not to lead to identity customisation (to fit self into role or organisation) but to the search for alternative, more identity-compatible employment. This study offers a valuable insight for employers, veterinary professionals and universities. It suggests that businesses can gain competitive advantage and employees achieve validation and enrichment by working towards organisational and individual identity congruence and that teaching veterinary professionals with contemporary business in mind may develop graduates with a more sustainable identity. British Veterinary Association.
Ramm, Hans Henrik
Technology and knowledge make up the knowledge capital that has been so essential to the oil and gas industry's value creation, competitiveness and internationalization. Report prepared for the Norwegian Oil Industry Association (OLF) and The Norwegian Society of Chartered Technical and Scientific Professionals (Tekna), on the Norwegian petroleum cluster as an environment for creating knowledge capital from human capital, how fiscal and other framework conditions may influence the building of knowledge capital, the long-term perspectives for the petroleum cluster, what Norwegian society can learn from the experiences in the petroleum cluster, and the importance of gaining more knowledge about the functionality of knowledge for increased value creation (author) (ml)
Jerome J. DeRidder
Full Text Available The Accounting Profession in the United States began with the 1896 NewYork Bill which provided for an examination to become a “Certified Public Accountant.”During this early period the professional accountant searched for the fairest presentation of financial data. The auditors responsibilities were not clearly defined nor were there any “Generally Accepted Principles.”Over the years, efforts were made to improve the level of financial reporting by the New York Stock Exchange, the Investment Bankers Association and by the Accounting Profession; however, they lacked authority to enforce their recommendations.Many times the profession was several criticized for their lack of uniform standards, relying upon precedent rather than using the scientific method and sometimes yielding to industry pressure on important issues. In 1956, Mr. Spacek, the managing partner of Arthur Anderson and Co. made a prophetic statement when at a commerce and industry luncheon he stated that the profession: “must wait for the CATASTROPHE — because we do not have a self-appraising profession.”Arthur Anderson and Co. no longer exists due to accounting fraud and irregularities. The Securities and Exchange Commission empowered by the SARBANES-OXLEY Act established a New Accounting Oversight Board Profession and they control the accounting Profession in the United States.
Most of professional ethics is grounded on the assumption that we can speak meaningfully about particular, insulated professions with aims and goals, that conceptually there exists a clear "inside and outside" to any given profession. Professional ethics has also inherited the two-part assumption from mainstream moral philosophy that we can speak meaningfully about agent-relative versus agent-neutral moral perspectives, and further, that it is only from the agent-neutral perspective that we can truly evaluate our professional moral aims, rules, and practices. Several important changes that have occurred, or are currently taking place, in the structure of the health care professions, challenge those assumptions and signal the need for teachers of professional ethics to rethink the content of what we teach as well as our teaching methods. The changes include: influences and critique from other professions and from those who are served by the health professions, and influences and critique from professionals themselves, including increased activism and dissent from within the professions. The discussion focuses on changes that have occurred in the health-related fields, but insofar as similar changes are occurring in other professions such as law and business, these arguments will have broader conceptual implications for the way we ought to think about professional ethics more generally.
Jovanovic, S.; Dlabac, A.
Provision of adequate knowledge, competence and expertise represents a major concern when addressing nuclear and radiation safety issues in small countries — if inadequate, safety will eventually be jeopardized. Montenegro is such a small, developing and “nonnuclear” country—the use of radiation sources being modest and limited to a few ordinary applications (primarily in health care). Even though, there is (or will be in the foreseeable future) a significant need in nuclear knowledge, competence and expertise — directly or indirectly related to nuclear/radiation safety and security issues. It goes about the following, the list being not exhaustive: (i) medical applications (diagnostics, radiotherapy, palliation, sterilization of equipment, consumables, blood products, etc.), (ii) radiation protection, including various dosimetry services and QC/QA of radiation sources; (iii) environmental protection (radioecology, analytical and monitoring services, etc.), (iv) low and medium activity radioactive waste management (including a newly licenced storage), (v) industrial, geological, hydrological, agricultural, biochemical and archaeological applications (non-destructive testing, various gauges, radioisotope labeling, harmful insects sterilization, etc.), (vi) scientific and educational uses, (vii) cultural heritage preservation and investigation, (viii) legislative and regulatory aspects, including complying to international safety/security norms and joining international conventions in the field, (ix) preparedness and response to radiological and nuclear emergency situations, (x) combating illicit trafficking of nuclear and other radioactive materials, (xi) nuclear forensics, (xii) security systems based on X-ray and other nuclear methods, (xiii) introduction of some future topics (e.g., nuclear power for electricity generation and sea water desalination), (xiv) public information and communication with media, etc.
Frederic G. Reamer
Full Text Available Social workers' understanding of ethical issues has matured significantly. This article traces the evolution of the profession's approach to the values and ethics. During its history, social work has moved through four major periods-- the morality period, the values period, the ethical theories and decision-making period, and the ethical standards and risk-management (the prevention of ethics complaints and ethics related lawsuits is diverting social workers from in-depth exploration of core professional and personal values, ethical dilemmas, and the nature of the profession's moral mission. The author encourages the profession to recalibrate its focus on values and ethics.
Full Text Available BackgroundMobile technology (mHealth is increasingly being used to achieve improved access and quality of maternal care, particularly in rural areas of low- and middle-income countries. In 2011, a mobile application—Mobile for Mothers (MfM—was implemented in Jharkhand, India to support home visits by community health workers. The objective of this study is to assess the impact of the mHealth intervention on maternal health.MethodsHouseholds from three subdistricts in the Deoghar district of Jharkhand were selected using a multistage cluster sampling approach. Households from the Sarwan subdistrict received the MfM intervention, those from Devipur subdistrict received other interventions asides MfM from the implementing non-governmental organization (NGO, while households from Mohanpur subdistrict received the current standard of care. Women (n = 2,200 between the ages of 18 and 45 who had delivered a baby in the past 1 year were enrolled into the study. The primary outcomes of interest were maternal health knowledge, antenatal care (ANC attendance, and delivery in a health facility.ResultsPost-intervention, women in the MfM group had higher maternal health knowledge, were more likely to attend four or more ANC visits, and deliver at the health facility when compared with the NGO and standard care group. After controlling for predictors, women in the intervention group significantly performed better than both the NGO and standard care groups on all three-outcome variables (all P > 0.05.ConclusionThe results indicate that although the MfM mHealth intervention could influence adherence and practice of recommended maternal health behaviors, it could not overcome key sociocultural determinants of maternal health such as caste and educational status, which are specific to the Indian context. mHealth holds continued promise for maternal health but implementers and policy makers must additionally address health system and sociocultural
The concept of tacit knowledge encompasses all of the intricacy of the different experiences that people acquire over time, and which they utilize and bring to bear in carrying out tasks effectively, reacting to unforeseen circumstances, or innovating. The intuitive nature of tacit knowledge, its particular context, and the difficulty of…
Pusic, Martin V; Boutis, Kathy; Hatala, Rose; Cook, David A
Learning curves, which graphically show the relationship between learning effort and achievement, are common in published education research but are not often used in day-to-day educational activities. The purpose of this article is to describe the generation and analysis of learning curves and their applicability to health professions education. The authors argue that the time is right for a closer look at using learning curves-given their desirable properties-to inform both self-directed instruction by individuals and education management by instructors.A typical learning curve is made up of a measure of learning (y-axis), a measure of effort (x-axis), and a mathematical linking function. At the individual level, learning curves make manifest a single person's progress towards competence including his/her rate of learning, the inflection point where learning becomes more effortful, and the remaining distance to mastery attainment. At the group level, overlaid learning curves show the full variation of a group of learners' paths through a given learning domain. Specifically, they make overt the difference between time-based and competency-based approaches to instruction. Additionally, instructors can use learning curve information to more accurately target educational resources to those who most require them.The learning curve approach requires a fine-grained collection of data that will not be possible in all educational settings; however, the increased use of an assessment paradigm that explicitly includes effort and its link to individual achievement could result in increased learner engagement and more effective instructional design.
Dr. Daan Andriessen; Linda Johnson
With the rise of the knowledge-based economy, Higher Education Institutions not only have to produce (under)graduates that are skilled in their profession but who also are competent as knowledge workers. This study focused on the enabling competences of the knowledge worker. Our aim was to develop a
skills in all professions leaving the lawyer of today a person of business and ethics. ... to meet complex expectations of clients in terms of high ethical standards, personal ... practice of law to addressing legal issues and solving real life prob-.
...? How can underserved populations be better served? The broad scope of RAND's assignment-identifying for the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board important issues in health professions education-was made more complicated by the fact that issues...
... using the Google scholar search engine: Pubmed, Medline, Science Direct, ... Key search words were “biokinetics,” “exercise therapy” and “kinesiotherapy. ... is medicine,” academic curriculum, clinical training and scope of profession.
Darlington, Joanne D
For the past several years, as the profession of emergency management has been evolving, there has been a growing interest in the need for more formalized training for the nation s hazards and emergency managers...
van der Kaap, Harm G.; de Weert, Egbert; Galaz-Fontes, Jesus F.; Arimoto, Akira; Teichler, Ulrich; Brennan, John
This chapter describes, based on the Netherlands’ CAP (Changing Academic Profession) survey, the personal backgrounds, attitudes toward careers and career trajectories, the views on scholarship and job satisfaction of academics in Netherlands. The survey considered a representative sample of the
Cervero, Ronald M.; Daley, Barbara J.
This chapter provides an overview of the emerging social and organizational contexts for health professions education and the rationale for foundational adult and continuing education concepts to be included in the curricula of HPE graduate programs.
Problems experienced by women re-entering the education profession: a South ... in maternity benefits, as well as the introduction of paternity and childcare leave, should be introduced to assist women educators to combine work and family ...
Abstract: The Evolution of the Nursing Profession Post Genocide. ... Journal Home > Vol 2, No 2 (2015) > ... In 1997, in collaboration with the MoH, Minister of Education, AMREF Health Africa, and the World Health Organization, health ...
Boshuizen, H. P. A. (2011, 30 August - 3 September). Expertise development in the professions; Implications for teaching and assessment. Paper presented at the bi-annual EARLI conferences, Exeter, UK.
Haji, Faizal; Morin, Marie-Paule; Parker, Kathryn
For nearly 40 years, outcome-based models have dominated programme evaluation in health professions education. However, there is increasing recognition that these models cannot address the complexities of the health professions context and studies employing alternative evaluation approaches that are appearing in the literature. A similar paradigm shift occurred over 50 years ago in the broader discipline of programme evaluation. Understanding the development of contemporary paradigms within this field provides important insights to support the evolution of programme evaluation in the health professions. In this discussion paper, we review the historical roots of programme evaluation as a discipline, demonstrating parallels with the dominant approach to evaluation in the health professions. In tracing the evolution of contemporary paradigms within this field, we demonstrate how their aim is not only to judge a programme's merit or worth, but also to generate information for curriculum designers seeking to adapt programmes to evolving contexts, and researchers seeking to generate knowledge to inform the work of others. From this evolution, we distil seven essential elements of educational programmes that should be evaluated to achieve the stated goals. Our formulation is not a prescriptive method for conducting programme evaluation; rather, we use these elements as a guide for the development of a holistic 'programme of evaluation' that involves multiple stakeholders, uses a combination of available models and methods, and occurs throughout the life of a programme. Thus, these elements provide a roadmap for the programme evaluation process, which allows evaluators to move beyond asking whether a programme worked, to establishing how it worked, why it worked and what else happened. By engaging in this process, evaluators will generate a sound understanding of the relationships among programmes, the contexts in which they operate, and the outcomes that result from them
Kennedy, Ann B.; Cambron, Jerrilyn A.; Sharpe, Patricia A.; Travillian, Ravensara S.; Saunders, Ruth P.
Background Massage therapists are at times unclear about the definition of massage therapy, which creates challenges for the profession. It is important to investigate the current definitions and to consider the field as a whole in order to move toward clarity on what constitutes the constructs within the profession. Purpose To determine how a sample of experts understand and describe the field of massage therapy as a step toward clarifying definitions for massage and massage therapy, and framing the process of massage therapy practice. Setting A two-day symposium held in 2010 with the purpose of gathering knowledge to inform and aid in the creation of massage therapy best practice guidelines for stress and low back pain. Participants Thirty-two experts in the field of massage therapy from the United States, Europe, and Canada. Design Qualitative analysis of secondary cross-sectional data using a grounded theory approach. Results Three over-arching themes were identified: 1) What is massage?; 2) The multidimensional nature of massage therapy; and 3) The influencing factors on massage therapy practice. Discussion The data offered clarifying definitions for massage and massage therapy, as well as a framework for the context for massage therapy practice. These clarifications can serve as initial steps toward the ultimate goal of creating new theory for the field of massage therapy, which can then be applied in practice, education, research, and policy. Conclusions Foundational research into how experts in the profession understand and describe the field of massage therapy is limited. Understanding the potential differences between the terms massage and massage therapy could contribute to a transformation in the profession in the areas of education, practice, research, policy and/or regulation. Additionally, framing the context for massage therapy practice invites future discussions to further clarify practice issues. PMID:27648109
Kennedy, Ann B; Cambron, Jerrilyn A; Sharpe, Patricia A; Travillian, Ravensara S; Saunders, Ruth P
Massage therapists are at times unclear about the definition of massage therapy, which creates challenges for the profession. It is important to investigate the current definitions and to consider the field as a whole in order to move toward clarity on what constitutes the constructs within the profession. To determine how a sample of experts understand and describe the field of massage therapy as a step toward clarifying definitions for massage and massage therapy, and framing the process of massage therapy practice. A two-day symposium held in 2010 with the purpose of gathering knowledge to inform and aid in the creation of massage therapy best practice guidelines for stress and low back pain. Thirty-two experts in the field of massage therapy from the United States, Europe, and Canada. Qualitative analysis of secondary cross-sectional data using a grounded theory approach. Three over-arching themes were identified: 1) What is massage?; 2) The multidimensional nature of massage therapy; and 3) The influencing factors on massage therapy practice. The data offered clarifying definitions for massage and massage therapy, as well as a framework for the context for massage therapy practice. These clarifications can serve as initial steps toward the ultimate goal of creating new theory for the field of massage therapy, which can then be applied in practice, education, research, and policy. Foundational research into how experts in the profession understand and describe the field of massage therapy is limited. Understanding the potential differences between the terms massage and massage therapy could contribute to a transformation in the profession in the areas of education, practice, research, policy and/or regulation. Additionally, framing the context for massage therapy practice invites future discussions to further clarify practice issues.
Knowles, M S
Although the threat of human obsolescence confronts all of humanity, given the accelerating pace of change in our society, it has a particularly strong impact on the professions--especially the health professions. The half-life of the knowledge, skills, attitudes, and values required by physicians, nurses, allied health professionals, and pharmacists is shrinking with increasing speed. Citizens worry about being treated by health practitioners who have not kept up to date and have reacted by passing laws mandating relicensing and continuing professional education. The health care professions and institutions have responded to the threat by mounting massive programs of continuing professional education; in fact, this is probably the fastest-growing aspect of all of education. And, since the clientele of continuing professional education consists exclusively of adults, these programs have tended increasingly to be based on principles of adult learning. This chapter opens with a description of a pilot project for physicians at the University of Southern California, in which the central theme is self-directed learning. The selection presents the need for and assumptions and goals of the project and the major program components, including needs assessment, individualized learning plans, information brokering, and the use of peer resource groups. Then follow three selections focused on the continuing education of nurses. Selection 2, by the American Nurses' Association, sets forth a policy statement and guidelines for self-directed continuing education in nursing. Its provisions could easily be adapted to other professions. The application of the andragogical model to highly technical training in cardiovascular nursing at Doctors Hospital in Little Rock is presented in selection 3, and selection 4 describes an innovative inservice education program in which primary responsibility is placed on the clinical nursing units at St. Mary's Hospital in Waterbury, Connecticut.
A. M. Sultana; Norhirdawati. M. Zahir; Norzalan. H. Yaacob
Recently in Malaysia, women's participation in teaching profession has increased. The increasing trend of women’s participation in the teaching profession poses challenges in families, especially in the developing countries like Malaysia. One of these challenges, concerns in balancing their role between family and job responsibility that faced by many women teachers. The purpose of this study is to discover how women teachers' impact on family happiness and the challenges faced by them in bal...
Stecivová Fořtová, Irena
This study (Risk of the Burnout Syndrome in Caring Professions) deals with the risk of the development of the Burnout Syndrome in Caring Professions, possible prevention and therapy. In the theoretical part the dissertation describes the Burnout Syndrome and the circumstances which lead to its beginning and development. In the practical part the dissertation describes the research on the frequency of symptoms of the Burnout Syndrome (enclosed is the questionnaire of the research) and assumed ...
Buys, Pieter; Visser, Susan; Oberholzer, Merwe
When considering some of the key reasons for the desperate state of the current global economic environment, it is difficult to deny accounting's role therein. Although accounting institutes require adherence to codes of conduct, the question remains as to what happened to the stewardship function of the accounting profession. This article has critically reflected on the question, 'What constitutes an ethical accounting profession'? The key principles within many institutes' codes of conduct,...
Victor Munteanu; Mihaela Cornelia Berechet (Dragnea)
Massive unprecedented changes, that best describe this era, are affecting the accountant and auditor profession, as well as the global business environment. The traditional role of the financial auditor will change, but if it will adapt and provide new services, may become a trusted councillor for its clients. The way financial auditors approach future tendencies will shape the destiny of the accountant and auditor profession. Financial auditors must understand innovation, to be open towar...
Thoo, S. L.; Marjanovic-Halburd, L.
The purpose of this study is to determine if the target set by Singapore’s Inter-Ministerial Committee for Sustainable Development to have 80% of the buildings at least Green Mark certified by 2030 has any impact on raising the profession, perception and prospection (3Ps) of Sustainable Facilities Management (SFM) in Singapore. The objectives are to understand the tertiary students’ choice of study, determine the core knowledge for SFM, compare the pre-existing 3Ps of Tertiary Students (TS) a...
Full Text Available Recent decades have witnessed a notable expansion of architectural research activities, with respect to both subject and methodology. This expansion can be mostly credited to an increase in government and private funding of primarily academic research initiatives. More recently, however, a noticeable increase in research activities within the architectural profession makes it possible to argue that it is the profession itself that is now taking leadership in the development of contemporary research agendas. This growing significance of architectural research, in both academia and the profession,is ultimately a response to the diverse challenges facing the profession; most notably, the issue of environmental sustainability, but also including the rapid pace of technological change, the increase ddiversity of users, and the growing complexity of architectural projects. Engaging research is an essential factor in facing these challenges as well as taking full advantage of the opportunities they offer. For this research to be most effective, however, a greater perspective and a clearer definition of its role and the goals it can aspire to, in both academia and the profession, are needed; and most importantly, the question becomes, how do we foster a more integrated research culture between academia and the profession?
Van Der Weyden, Martin B
Since the 1960s, Australian society and the medical profession have undergone enormous change. Our society has moved from a relatively homogeneous and conservative community, supported by limited government services, to one that is multicultural, focused on the individual and consumerism, and supported by extensive government programs, with health care a top public and political priority. A defining feature of contemporary society is its mistrust of institutions, professionals, public servants and politicians. The medical profession has changed from a cohesive entity, valuing generalism and with limited specialisation, to one splintered by ultra-specialisation and competing professional agendas. The medical workforce shortage and efforts to maintain the safety and quality of health services are putting acute pressure on the profession. Task transfer or role substitution of medical services is mooted as a potential solution to this pressure. This has the potential to drastically transform the profession. How task transfer will evolve and change medicine depends on the vision and leadership of the profession and a flexible pragmatism that safeguards quality and safety and places patient priorities above those of the profession.
Schmitz, Daniela; Höhmann, Ulrike
Care for people with dementia is considered a multi-professional challenge that requires a collaborative approach between health professionals and non-health professionals. Didactic strategies to ensure the same qualifications across these occupational groups are lacking. This article presents the joint learning of selected properties and promotive and obstructive conditions, using the example of a multi-professional Master's programme. It subsequently draws conclusions for didactic concepts. The perceptions of 12 teachers on this Master's programme, all representing different professions, were determined by using a qualitative exploratory survey on the three stated dimensions. With the aid of a summarising content analysis, their statements were condensed and abstracted so as to deduce appropriate requirements for methodical and didactic learning scenarios. In view of the fact that the students have very varied previous knowledge, the main challenge is finding a balance between expertise and tediousness. Establishing essential and common expertise, as well as sensitivity for different perspectives, is made particularly difficult by the fact that health and non-health professions differ greatly in terms of methods and approaches. For a successful outcome, the content focal points and didactic and methodical concepts for a learning group need to take into account the composition of that specific group. Recourse to didactic standard concepts is only possible to a limited extent. The aim of joint teaching and learning of health and non-health professionals is to enhance the understanding of a profession: This is done by making individuals aware of their role in the chain of care, so they can recognise and organise the mutual conditionality of their own and external professional contributions.
The author analyses the medical profession's need for information on ionizing radiations, the reasons, objectives and obstacles, and presents the actions that have been led in Languedoc-Roussillon (France) by the university, associations (GRRINS, SFEN,...) and medias
Full Text Available It's as old as human history in the Executive Office and of the concept has caused the unborn. From the industrial revolution, they perform the organizational activities of all employees in the area are the name of the Office. Businesses are not just places that made production. Businesses also allows the production of all kinds of people have seen the need, the important strategic decisions, increase the quali ty of production and employees must work efficiently and effectively - conscious upon arrival places always have been offices. Marketing, management, human resources, accounting, as units have been operating in all offices within the organization. In today' s information age, information offices are produced, distributed to individuals and corporations concerned, but also has been the destruction of redundant information and important information later when needed has been used places. Today's globalization i s rapid change in knowledge and technology organizations in the management of business owners and managers will help many professions on WikiMapia. Office; Administrator, officer, Secretary, will serve the objectives of the business class ser vices help kin d of elements are needed. Businesses in maintaining vital activities, production and service provision of the activities of the Organization in ensuring an effective and efficient manner within the framework of the team spirit in the conduct of managers with the most important requirements for an Assistant Manager's position has been. Most modern - day organizations close to the administrator should be looking to key features of the Administrative Assistant; the Office of the administrator, who knows how t o keep a secret is not a characteristic of people who best represent the Bureau. When a business can stand in straight execution activities Administrative Assistant has important tasks to. Executive Assistants are indispensable ingredients of today's mode rn office.
Ikefuji, M.; Laeven, R.J.A.; Magnus, J.R.; Muris, C.H.M.
In searching for an appropriate utility function in the expected utility framework, we formulate four properties that we want the utility function to satisfy. We conduct a search for such a function, and we identify Pareto utility as a function satisfying all four desired properties. Pareto utility
Felton, Teena M; Nickols-Richardson, Sharon M; Serrano, Elena; Hosig, Kathy W
African-American professionals are underrepresented in the profession of dietetics. This preliminary qualitative study identified African-American students' perceptions of their majors, future professions, and the dietetics major/profession to understand why they did or did not enter dietetics. It was hypothesized that dietetics students chose dietetics primarily for altruistic reasons, whereas students in other fields of study did not choose dietetics due to lack of awareness of dietetics. To learn students' views, African-American college students engaged in elicitation interviews or focus group discussions. Twenty-eight women and 12 men participated. Phenomenologic analysis identified common themes and meanings: African-American students selected their majors for a variety of reasons, including desire to help people, interest in the field, recommendation from an adult, and family influence. African-American students in fields of study other than dietetics believed that the dietetics major was not selected due to lack of awareness about dietetics. Both dietetics students and students in other fields of study perceived versatility, ability to work with/help people, and to have an influence as positive qualities about their future professions. Advanced degree and training requirements, lack of diversity, and low salary were identified as negative qualities about future professions. African-American students in fields of study other than dietetics had not been exposed to the dietetics major, careers, and profession. Recruitment efforts should begin early to increase the number of African-American students in dietetics.
Sachdeva, A K
In the current milieu of monumental change in medicine and the health sciences, effective leadership is needed from within the health care profession to address various challenges. A leader needs to be visionary, and must possess the ability to share this vision with others through effective communication. The leader should be fair, trustworthy, sincere, truthful, honest, courageous, and compassionate. He or she should be strong and resolute and be able to lead through persuasion rather than coercion. The leader should possess the attributes and skills to mold organizational change in the desired direction and to deal with reactions of individuals going through the change process. The democratic style of leadership appears to be the most effective, although the autocratic style may be needed occasionally to accomplish a specific task. The noncentered, laissez-faire style of leadership is generally not effective and results in significant frustration among subordinates. The most desirable type of power a leader can exercise over subordinates results from deep trust and effective communication, which make people follow the leader willingly. The health care profession needs to solicit the help of experienced members who have shown leadership to help guide various activities and to serve as mentors for the less experienced individuals. Special courses should be designed and implemented to develop specific leadership skills, which are applicable to various health care disciplines. Practical teaching models, including individuals from various disciplines working together in teams, with opportunities for leadership, should be implemented. Also, an appropriate culture that recognizes and rewards effective leadership in academe needs to be established within academic institutions.
Björkman, B.; Fridell, K.; Tavakol Olofsson, P.
Introduction: Radiography is a healthcare speciality with many technical challenges. Advances in engineering and information technology applications may continue to drive and be driven by radiographers. The world of diagnostic imaging is changing rapidly and radiographers must be proactive in order to survive. To ensure sustainable development, organisations have to identify future opportunities and threats in a timely manner and incorporate them into their strategic planning. Hence, the aim of this study was to analyse and describe plausible scenarios for the radiography profession in 2025. Method: The study has a qualitative design with an inductive approach based on focus group interviews. The interviews were inspired by the Scenario-Planning method. Results: Of the seven trends identified in a previous study, the radiographers considered two as the most uncertain scenarios that would have the greatest impact on the profession should they occur. These trends, labelled “Access to career advancement” and “A sufficient number of radiographers”, were inserted into the scenario cross. The resulting four plausible future scenarios were: The happy radiographer, the specialist radiographer, the dying profession and the assembly line. Conclusion: It is suggested that “The dying profession” scenario could probably be turned in the opposite direction by facilitating career development opportunities for radiographers within the profession. Changing the direction would probably lead to a profession composed of “happy radiographers” who are specialists, proud of their profession and competent to carry out advanced tasks, in contrast to being solely occupied by “the assembly line”. - Highlights: • The world of radiography is changing rapidly and radiographers must be proactive in order to survive. • Future opportunities and threats should be identified and incorporated into the strategic planning. • Appropriate actions can probably change the
Maria Rosaria Gualano
Full Text Available Background: The World Health Organization, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, and the Canadian Public Health Association have developed the Global Health Professions Student Survey (GHPSS questionnaire in order to collect data on tobacco use and cessation counselling among health- profession students. The aims of the study were to evaluate the reliability and validity of the GHPSS questionnaire in Italy among health-profession students and to examine the prevalence of tobacco use, knowledge and attitudes to it and tobacco cessation training among students attending Italian medical schools using the standardised GHPSS approach. Methods: Before testing tobacco use prevalence, knowledge and attitudes, and tobacco cessation training, we calculated the Cronbach’s alpha to assess the internal validity with the intention of avoiding misleading results. The questionnaire was administered to 100 health-profession students and data were collected in March 2009, during regular class sessions among students of two Italian Schools of Medicine. The original GHPSS instrument was translated into the Italian language and modified by adding three specific questions regarding I the knowledge about the use of antidepressants, ii Acetylcholine Receptor Partial Agonists, and iii counselling techniques used in tobacco cessation programs. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 13.0, statistical software for windows. Results: Cronbach’s alpha was higher on 17 items (alpha= 0.872, belonging to section I and IV (respectively: “Tobacco Use Prevalenceú and “Behaviour/Cessationú. The addition, also, of only one more of the others items (sectionmade the alpha value worse. Cronbach’s alpha for section VI for all items together (n. 44 items was 0.815, which implies that the questionnaire had a very
Background: The World Health Organization, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, and the Canadian Public Health Association have developed the Global Health Professions Student Survey (GHPSS questionnaire in order to collect data on tobacco use and cessation counselling among health- profession students. The aims of the study were to evaluate the reliability and validity of the GHPSS questionnaire in Italy among health-profession students and to examine the prevalence of tobacco use, knowledge and attitudes to it and tobacco cessation training among students attending Italian medical schools using the standardised GHPSS approach.
Methods: Before testing tobacco use prevalence, knowledge and attitudes, and tobacco cessation training, we calculated the Cronbach’s alpha to assess the internal validity with the intention of avoiding misleading results. The questionnaire was administered to 100 health-profession students and data were collected in March 2009, during regular class sessions among students of two Italian Schools of Medicine. The original GHPSS instrument was translated into the Italian language and modified by adding three specific questions regarding I the knowledge about the use of antidepressants, ii Acetylcholine Receptor Partial Agonists, and iii counselling techniques used in tobacco cessation programs. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 13.0, statistical software for windows.
Results: Cronbach’s alpha was higher on 17 items (alpha= 0.872, belonging to section I and IV (respectively: “Tobacco Use Prevalenceú and “Behaviour/Cessationú. The addition, also, of only one more of the others items (sectionmade the alpha value worse. Cronbach’s alpha for section VI for all items together (n. 44 items was 0.815, which implies that the questionnaire had a very
Denniston, Charlotte; Molloy, Elizabeth; Nestel, Debra; Woodward-Kron, Robyn; Keating, Jennifer L
The aim of this study was to identify and analyse communication skills learning outcomes via a systematic review and present results in a synthesised list. Summarised results inform educators and researchers in communication skills teaching and learning across health professions. Systematic review and qualitative synthesis. A systematic search of five databases (MEDLINE, PsycINFO, ERIC, CINAHL plus and Scopus), from first records until August 2016, identified published learning outcomes for communication skills in health professions education. Extracted data were analysed through an iterative process of qualitative synthesis. This process was guided by principles of person centredness and an a priori decision guide. 168 papers met the eligibility criteria; 1669 individual learning outcomes were extracted and refined using qualitative synthesis. A final refined set of 205 learning outcomes were constructed and are presented in 4 domains that include: (1) knowledge (eg, describe the importance of communication in healthcare), (2) content skills (eg, explore a healthcare seeker's motivation for seeking healthcare),( 3) process skills (eg, respond promptly to a communication partner's questions) and (4) perceptual skills (eg, reflect on own ways of expressing emotion). This study provides a list of 205 communication skills learning outcomes that provide a foundation for further research and educational design in communication education across the health professions. Areas for future investigation include greater patient involvement in communication skills education design and further identification of learning outcomes that target knowledge and perceptual skills. This work may also prompt educators to be cognisant of the quality and scope of the learning outcomes they design and their application as goals for learning. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Pudelko, Beatrice; Young, Meredith; Vincent-Lamarre, Philippe; Charlin, Bernard
Mapping is a means of representing knowledge in a visual network and is becoming more commonly used as a learning strategy in medical education. The assumption driving the development and use of concept mapping is that it supports and furthers meaningful learning. The goal of this paper was to examine the effectiveness of concept mapping as a learning strategy in health professions education. The authors conducted a critical analysis of recent literature on the use of concept mapping as a learning strategy in the area of health professions education. Among the 65 studies identified, 63% were classified as empirical work, the majority (76%) of which used pre-experimental designs. Only 24% of empirical studies assessed the impact of mapping on meaningful learning. Results of the analysis do not support the hypothesis that mapping per se furthers and supports meaningful learning, memorisation or factual recall. When documented improvements in learning were found, they often occurred when mapping was used in concert with other strategies, such as collaborative learning or instructor modelling, scaffolding and feedback. Current empirical research on mapping as a learning strategy presents methodological shortcomings that limit its internal and external validity. The results of our analysis indicate that mapping strategies that make use of feedback and scaffolding have beneficial effects on learning. Accordingly, we see a need to expand the process of reflection on the characteristics of representational guidance as it is provided by mapping techniques and tools based on field of knowledge, instructional objectives, and the characteristics of learners in health professions education. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2012.
Braun, Hannan M; Garcia-Grossman, Ilana R; Quiñones-Rivera, Andrea; Deutsch, Madeline B
Being transgender is associated with numerous health disparities, and transgender individuals face mistreatment and discrimination in healthcare settings. At the same time, healthcare professionals report inadequate preparation to care for transgender people, and patients often have to teach their own medical providers about transgender care. Our study aimed to evaluate the impact of an elective course for health profession students in transgender health that was implemented to address these gaps in provider knowledge. Students participated in a 10-session, lunch-hour elective course during the spring of 2015. To evaluate impact, course participants completed pre-, immediately post-, and 3-month postcourse questionnaires, including a previously validated nine-item transphobia scale, to determine the course's effect on knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about transgender health. Forty-six students completed the pre- and immediately postelective questionnaire (74% response rate). Compared with pre-elective surveys, immediately postelective scores demonstrated increased knowledge in most domains and reduced transphobia. Specific knowledge domains with improvements included terminology, best practices for collecting gender identity, awareness of the DSM-V gender dysphoria diagnosis, medications used for gender affirmation, and relevant federal policies. A previously validated transphobia scale was found to have good reliability in the current sample. This elective course led to positive short-term changes in measures of multiple knowledge domains and reduced measures of transphobia among health profession students. Further study is needed to assess the long-term impact. Our methods and findings, including the demonstration of reliability of a previously validated nine-item transphobia scale, serve as formative data for the future development of theory-based transgender medicine curricula and measures.
The management of nuclear knowledge has emerged as a growing challenge in recent years. The need to preserve and transfer nuclear knowledge is compounded by recent trends such as ageing of the nuclear workforce, declining student numbers in nuclear-related fields, and the threat of losing accumulated nuclear knowledge. Addressing these challenges, the IAEA promotes a 'knowledge management culture' through: - Providing guidance for policy formulation and implementation of nuclear knowledge management; - Strengthening the contribution of nuclear knowledge in solving development problems, based on needs and priorities of Member States; - Pooling, analysing and sharing nuclear information to facilitate knowledge creation and its utilization; - Implementing effective knowledge management systems; - Preserving and maintaining nuclear knowledge; - Securing sustainable human resources for the nuclear sector; and - Enhancing nuclear education and training
Gunn, John S; Ledford, Cynthia H; Mousetes, Steven J; Grever, Michael R
Many students entering professional degree programs, particularly M.D., Ph.D., and M.D./Ph.D., are not well prepared regarding the breadth of scientific knowledge required, communication skills, research experience, reading and understanding the scientific literature, and significant shadowing (for M.D.-related professions). In addition, physician scientists are a needed and necessary part of the academic research environment but are dwindling in numbers. In response to predictions of critical shortages of clinician investigators and the lack of proper preparation as undergraduates for these professions, the Biomedical Science (BMS) undergraduate major was created at The Ohio State University to attract incoming college freshmen with interests in scientific research and the healthcare professions. The intent of this major was to graduate an elite cohort of highly talented individuals who would pursue careers in the healthcare professions, biomedical research, or both. Students were admitted to the BMS major through an application and interview process. Admitted cohorts were small, comprising 22 to 26 students, and received a high degree of individualized professional academic advising and mentoring. The curriculum included a minimum of 4 semesters (or 2 years) of supervised research experience designed to enable students to gain skills in clinical and basic science investigation. In addition to covering the prerequisites for medicine and advanced degrees in health professions, the integrated BMS coursework emphasized research literacy as well as skills related to work as a healthcare professional, with additional emphasis on independent learning, teamwork to solve complex problems, and both oral and written communication skills. Supported by Ohio State's Department of Internal Medicine, a unique clinical internship provided selected students with insights into potential careers as physician scientists. In this educational case report, we describe the BMS
Englar, Ryane E; Show-Ridgway, Alyssa; Noah, Donald L; Appelt, Erin; Kosinski, Ross
Conflicts among health care professionals often stem from misperceptions about each profession's role in the health care industry. These divisive tendencies impede progress in multidisciplinary collaborations to improve human, animal, and environmental health. Inter-professional education (IPE) may repair rifts between health care professions by encouraging students to share their professional identities with colleagues in unrelated health care disciplines. An online survey was conducted at Midwestern University (MWU) to identify baseline perceptions about veterinary medicine among entry-level human health care students before their enrollment in an inter-professional course. Participation was anonymous and voluntary. The survey included Likert-type scales and free-text questions. Survey participants expressed their interest in and respect for the discipline of veterinary medicine, but indicated that their unfamiliarity with the profession hindered their ability to collaborate. Twenty percent of human health care students did not know the length of a Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (DVM) program and 27.6% were unaware that veterinarians could specialize. Although 83.2% of participants agreed that maintaining the human-animal bond is a central role of the veterinary profession, veterinary contributions to stem cell research, food and water safety, public health, environmental conservation, and the military were infrequently recognized. If IPE is to successfully pave the way for multidisciplinary collaboration, it needs to address these gaps in knowledge and broaden the definition of veterinary practice for future human health care providers.
Usher, Kim; Woods, Cindy; Casellac, Evan; Glass, Nel; Wilson, Rhonda; Mayner, Lidia; Jackson, Debra; Brown, Janie; Duffy, Elaine; Mather, Carey; Cummings, Elizabeth; Irwin, Pauletta
Increased bandwidth, broadband network availability and improved functionality have enhanced the accessibility and attractiveness of social media. The use of the Internet by higher education students has markedly increased. Social media are already used widely across the health sector but little is currently known of the use of social media by health profession students in Australia. A cross-sectional study was undertaken to explore health profession students' use of social media and their media preferences for sourcing information. An electronic survey was made available to health profession students at ten participating universities across most Australian states and territories. Respondents were 637 first year students and 451 final year students. The results for first and final year health profession students indicate that online media is the preferred source of information with only 20% of students nominating traditional peer-reviewed journals as a preferred information source. In addition, the results indicate that Facebook usage was high among all students while use of other types of social media such as Twitter remains comparatively low. As health profession students engage regularly with social media, and this use is likely to grow rather than diminish, educational institutions are challenged to consider the use of social media as a validated platform for learning and teaching.
Over the past century and half, groundwater has played an important role in the economic prosperity of the United States. The groundwater profession which has contributed to this prosperity has grown through the contributions of the U.S. and State Geological Surveys,academia, and industry. A century ago, the energies of the profession were channeled towards discovering new sources of groundwater in a largely unexplored land, and exploiting the resources for maximum economic benefit. Experience has since revealed that groundwater systems are finite, and are intimately linked to surface water bodies and the biosphere. A consequence is that aggressive exploitation of groundwater can lead to unacceptable environmental degradation and social cost. At present, the groundwater profession is in a state of transition from one of discovery and exploitation, to one of balancing resource development with avoiding unacceptable damage to the environment. This paper outlines the history of the groundwater profession in the United States since the late nineteenth century, and speculates on what may lie ahead in the near future, as the profession makes the transition from discovering new sources of groundwater to one of better understanding and adapting to nature's constraints.
Hewa, S; Hetherington, R W
This paper examines the crisis in the nursing profession in Western industrial societies in the light of Max Weber's theory of rationalisation. The domination of instrumental rational action in modern industrial societies in evident in the field of modern medicine. The burgeoning mechanistic approach to the human body and health makes modern health care services increasingly devoid of human values. Although the nursing profession has been influenced by various changes that took place in health care during the last few decades (for example greater reliance on technology), the underlying values of the nursing profession still emphasise a broad definition of the well-being of patients. Hence, in recent years the irrational consequences of growing technological medicine in North America has resulted in a serious crisis in the nursing profession. To resolve this crisis the authors propose a reorganisation of modern health care services on the basis of a new paradigm which is compatible with both the health care needs of the people and the main emphasis in education and training of the nursing profession. PMID:2287012
Amass, Sandra F
To evaluate how the veterinary profession is represented in nonfiction children's books and determine whether representations reflect the current veterinary profession or the demographics of the United States. Survey. Covers of 46 nonfiction children's books and contents of 45 nonfiction children's books. Book covers and book contents (images and text) were evaluated for representations of veterinarians and to identify settings, clients, technology and equipment, and animals portrayed. Book contents were additionally evaluated to identify specialties and career opportunities specifically mentioned in the text. Book covers predominantly portrayed veterinarians as Caucasian women who wore examination coats, worked alone in veterinary clinics, and cared for dogs without a client present. Book contents predominantly portrayed veterinarians as a Caucasian man or woman who wore an examination coat, worked as part of a team in a veterinary clinic, and helped clients care for dogs, cats, and exotic animals. Specialties and career opportunities in the veterinary profession were mentioned in the text of 29 of 45 (64.4%) books. Nonfiction children's book covers that focused on the veterinary profession portrayed a greater percentage of women than is currently found in the profession. Similarly, books portrayed a greater percentage of Caucasians than in the current or predicted US population. With the exception of Asians, books collectively represented lower or similar percentages of underrepresented minorities, compared with the US population. Veterinarians are encouraged to select books for individual children that portray veterinarians with whom the children can identify.
Henry-Noel, Nayanee; Bishop, Maria; Gwede, Clement K; Petkova, Ekaterina; Szumacher, Ewa
Mentoring skills are valuable assets for academic medicine and allied health faculty, who influence and help shape the careers of the next generation of healthcare providers. Mentors are role models who also act as guides for students' personal and professional development over time. Mentors can be instrumental in conveying explicit academic knowledge required to master curriculum content. Importantly, they can enhance implicit knowledge about the "hidden curriculum" of professionalism, ethics, values, and the art of medicine not learned from texts. In many cases, mentors also provide emotional support and encouragement. It must be noted that to be an effective mentor, one must engage in ongoing learning in order to strengthen and further mentoring skills. Thus, learning communities can provide support, education, and personal development for the mentor. The relationship benefits mentors as well through greater productivity, career satisfaction, and personal gratification. Maximizing the satisfaction and productivity of such relationships entails self-awareness, focus, mutual respect, and explicit communication about the relationship. In this article, the authors describe the development of optimal mentoring relationships, emphasizing the importance of different approaches to mentorship, roles of the mentors and mentees, mentor and mentee benefits, interprofessional mentorships for teams, gender and mentorship, and culture and mentorship.
Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl
Case studies can be an important methodology for ethics and philosophy in humanistic management and liberal education as well as in the social sciences because they integrate a deeper, reflective, philosophical, and ethical understanding of the organization. A case study approach based...... on philosophy of management contributes to putting into practice the Carnegie Foundation report Rethinking Undergraduate Education: Liberal Learning for the Profession. This approach is both inductive and deductive and very different from a soft Socratic approach to case studies such as the one often used...... in business schools following the Harvard method, wherein students are supposed to get knowledge through the reading of a case prepared by the teacher or from a business textbook. The aim of the case study is to analyze a concrete case and get general knowledge through the integrated analysis of the different...
Mary A Kaidonis
Full Text Available As an integral facet of society, the accounting profession has a role in the State and thecorporate sector, and is also expected to serve the public interest. The capacity for theAustralian accounting profession to serve the public interest is considered in the context oflegislation and the accounting standard setting process. Specific reference is made to theCLERP Act 1999 and ASIC Act 2001. It is argued that the combined effect of these Acts is tolegislate bias so that accounting standards privilege the specific needs of holders of capital,that is capital interest. The assumption that capital markets are surrogate for the publicinterest is contested. Accordingly, if the accounting profession follows national objectives tosupport capital markets, it may undermine its role in serving society.
Smith, Darron T; Jacobson, Cardell K
To examine whether racial, gender, and ethnic salary disparities exist in the physician assistant (PA) profession and what factors, if any, are associated with the differentials. We use a nationally representative survey of 15,105 PAs from the American Academy of Physician Assistants (AAPA). We use bivariate and multivariate statistics to analyze pay differentials from the 2009 AAPA survey. Women represent nearly two-thirds of the profession but receive approximately $18,000 less in primary compensation. The differential reduces to just over $9,500 when the analysis includes a variety of other variables. According to AAPA survey, minority PAs tend to make slightly higher salaries than White PAs nationally, although the differences are not statistically significant once the control variables are included in the analysis. Despite the rough parity in primary salary, PAs of color are vastly underrepresented in the profession. The salaries of women lag in comparison to their male counterparts. © Health Research and Educational Trust.
Bresso Tatiana Ivanovna
Full Text Available The article focuses on the experimental study of prosocial motivation in students sotsionomicheskih professions: psychologists, social workers and managers. The author of a new approach to the study of patterns and identify differences in prosocial motivation in different socio-cultural characteristics of student groups, students sotsionomicheskim professions. Based on the analysis of psychological research on the author developed the levels of prosocial motivation of students in relation to sotsionomicheskim professions. The experiment revealed the presence of psychological specificity and sociocultural orientation to the relationship between altruism (prosocial motivation with the value orientation and the level of emotional intelligence. It is proved that the manifestation of prosocial motivation is greatly influenced by the level of emotional intelligence, as an integral index, and index of empathy in particular. The author stresses that the psychological specifics of students in the humanities encourages the development of new skills and allow them to efficiently realize their personal potential in their future careers.
Bell, J D; Fay, M T
This paper examines the attitudes of general medical practitioners towards competition and advertising and the changes that have occurred between 1985 and 1988. The data was derived from a self completion questionnaire, 1500 of which were evenly distributed among the members of five professions; doctors, dentists, lawyers, accountants and veterinarians. General practitioners are now favourably disposed towards advertising by the profession as a whole in an effort to increase awareness of medical services (70% in favour in 1988 compared to only 53% in 1985), but the perceived need for increased business efficiency has lessened (70% in 1988 compared to 78% in 1985). Collegiality continues to be the dominant ideology but this position has weakened slightly. In 1988 only 65% of general practitioners regarded other members of the profession as colleagues rather than competitors, compared to 73% in 1985.
in the Act of the Bachelor in Journalism, while the internship is also characterized by the terms and conditions which apply specifically to the media and communications industry as commercial, political or publicist organizations or companies. In other words, there is no reason to assume identical content...... or outcome of the two processes of formation, which also can be considered as the distinctions in literature between media and journalism profession (Svith, 2011). This paper examines how the industry forms the profession. What happens to the students' professional standards (how the professional practice...... at the Danish Media and Journalism School with 2.5 years of schooling and 1.5 years of internship in news, entertainment media and communications organizations. The journalistic profession is formed in two very different settings. The school curriculum is primarily oriented towards providing the skills set out...
Oct 26, 2017 ... The impact of cardiovascular disease (CVD) on global disease burden ... from CVDs, with CVD projected to remain the single leading cause of death. Over 80% of ..... burden of disease from 2002 to 2030. PLoS Med 2006 ...
Ethical issues; institutional characteristics and organizational arrangements; and roles and skills of the researcher must be considered if the government is to apply social science research findings more widely for the public good. (Available from: Jossey-Bass, Inc., 433 California St., San Francisco, CA 94104, single issue, $6.95.) (Author/GDC)
They are extremely vulnerable, and they have to cope with few resources, poor health, ... and improve research implementation approaches and instruments through ... The project's long-term aim is to contribute to integrated policies that link health, ... IWRA/IDRC webinar on climate change and adaptive water management.
Kagan, I; Biran, E; Telem, L; Steinovitz, N; Alboer, D; Ovadia, K L; Melnikov, S
In recent years, much effort has been invested all over the world in nurse recruitment and retention. Issues arising in this context are low job satisfaction, the poor public image of nursing and the reluctance of nurses to promote or market their profession. This study aimed to examine factors explaining the marketing of the nursing profession by nurses working at a general tertiary medical centre in Israel. One hundred sixty-nine registered nurses and midwives from five clinical care units completed a structured self-administered questionnaire, measuring (a) professional self-image, (b) job satisfaction, (c) nursing promotional and marketing activity questionnaire, and (d) demographic data. The mean scores for the promotion of nursing were low. Nurses working in an intensive cardiac care unit demonstrated higher levels of promotional behaviour than nurses from other nursing wards in our study. Nurse managers reported higher levels of nursing promotion activity compared with first-line staff nurses. There was a strong significant correlation between job satisfaction and marketing behaviour. Multiple regression analysis shows that 15% of the variance of promoting the nursing profession was explained by job satisfaction and job position. Nurses are not inclined to promote or market their profession to the public or to other professions. The policy on the marketing of nursing is inadequate. A three-level (individual, organizational and national) nursing marketing programme is proposed for implementation by nurse leadership and policy makers. Among proposed steps to improve marketing of the nursing profession are promotion of the image of nursing by the individual nurse in the course of her or his daily activities, formulation and implementation of policies and programmes to promote the image of nursing at the organizational level and drawing up of a long-term programme for promoting or marketing the professional status of nursing at the national level. © 2015
Liu, Qian; Peng, Weijun; Zhang, Fan; Hu, Rong; Li, Yingxue; Yan, Weirong
Blended learning, defined as the combination of traditional face-to-face learning and asynchronous or synchronous e-learning, has grown rapidly and is now widely used in education. Concerns about the effectiveness of blended learning have led to an increasing number of studies on this topic. However, there has yet to be a quantitative synthesis evaluating the effectiveness of blended learning on knowledge acquisition in health professions. We aimed to assess the effectiveness of blended learning for health professional learners compared with no intervention and with nonblended learning. We also aimed to explore factors that could explain differences in learning effects across study designs, participants, country socioeconomic status, intervention durations, randomization, and quality score for each of these questions. We conducted a search of citations in Medline, CINAHL, Science Direct, Ovid Embase, Web of Science, CENTRAL, and ERIC through September 2014. Studies in any language that compared blended learning with no intervention or nonblended learning among health professional learners and assessed knowledge acquisition were included. Two reviewers independently evaluated study quality and abstracted information including characteristics of learners and intervention (study design, exercises, interactivity, peer discussion, and outcome assessment). We identified 56 eligible articles. Heterogeneity across studies was large (I(2) ≥93.3) in all analyses. For studies comparing knowledge gained from blended learning versus no intervention, the pooled effect size was 1.40 (95% CI 1.04-1.77; Pblended learning with nonblended learning (pure e-learning or pure traditional face-to-face learning), the pooled effect size was 0.81 (95% CI 0.57-1.05; PBlended learning appears to have a consistent positive effect in comparison with no intervention, and to be more effective than or at least as effective as nonblended instruction for knowledge acquisition in health professions
Keim Janssen, Sarah A; VanderMeulen, Stephane P; Shostrom, Valerie K; Lomneth, Carol S
Hands-on educational experiences can stimulate student interest, increase knowledge retention, and enhance development of clinical skills. The Lachman test, used to assess the integrity of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), is commonly performed by health care professionals and is relatively easy to teach to first-year health profession students. This study integrated teaching the Lachman test into a first-year anatomy laboratory and examined if students receiving the training would be more confident, competent, and if the training would enhance anatomical learning. First-year medical, physician assistant and physical therapy students were randomly assigned into either the intervention (Group A) or control group (Group B). Both groups received the course lecture on knee anatomy and training on how to perform the Lachman test during a surface anatomy class. Group A received an additional 15 minutes hands-on training for the Lachman test utilizing a lightly embalmed cadaver as a simulated patient. One week later, both groups performed the Lachman test on a lightly embalmed cadaver and later completed a post-test and survey. Students with hands-on training performed significantly better than students with lecture-only training in completing the checklist, a post-test, and correctly diagnosing an ACL tear. Students in Group A also reported being more confident after hands-on training compared to students receiving lecture-only training. Both groups reported that incorporating clinical skill activities facilitated learning and created excitement for learning. Hands-on training using lightly embalmed cadavers as patient simulators increased confidence and competence in performing the Lachman test and aided in learning anatomy. © 2013 American Association of Anatomists.
Full Text Available This is a first-person account of seminal events that have helped shape the rich history and cultural heritage of the social work profession. In examining these events, the author has provided some personal history as a Mexican American growing up in South Texas that provides a historical and value context for his participation in these events. He also discusses his leadership experiences in serving on the national staff of NASW and volunteer leadership experiences in a number of professional organizations during critical times for the profession.
learner oriented approach and providing a stealth mode of teaching. In some fields it represents an ideal instrument for continuous health professions education also in terms of costs because it is cheaper than traditional training methods that use cadavers or mannequins. In this paper we make a scoping review of serious games developed for health professions and health related fields in order to understand if they are useful tools for health related fields training. Many papers confirmed that serious gaming is a useful technology that improves learning and skills development for health professionals.
Pfadenhauer, Michaela; Kirschner, Heiko
With the emergence and spread of digital media, more business models foster and empower client participation in medical professions. With services and products ranging from rating platforms to apps targeting self-diagnosis, these businesses transform the client–practitioner relationship yet risk...... undermining a central pillar of professions – autonomy. Practitioners have to take legal actions against these business models, making visible the frictional interplay among the involved actors. This development calls for an analytical understanding of how this technology-induced cultural change affects...
Full Text Available Massive unprecedented changes, that best describe this era, are affecting the accountant and auditor profession, as well as the global business environment. The traditional role of the financial auditor will change, but if it will adapt and provide new services, may become a trusted councillor for its clients. The way financial auditors approach future tendencies will shape the destiny of the accountant and auditor profession. Financial auditors must understand innovation, to be open towards globalization, to be prepared as human resources that are competing not only nationally but also globally.
young, single-site firms search for distant sources of complementary competences. The discussion is positioned within a comprehensive framework that allows a systematic investigation of the approaches available to firms engaged in globally extended learning. By utilizing the distinction between problem...... awareness (what remote knowledge is needed?) and source awareness (where does this knowledge reside?) the article explores the relative merits and inherent limitations of pipelines, listening posts, crowdsourcing and trade fairs to acquire knowledge and solutions from geographically and relationally remote...
GEORGETA ANDRONACHE (GOGEANU
Full Text Available An educational institution is a place blessed within its mission full of nobility and generosity-that of forming and cultivating personalities, shaping livings, of creating individualities, opening gates to culture, prompting the knowledge, and building step by step the foundation of the future society. Beyond the walls, old or newly renovated, school is about people. According to Gonzales Report, one of the essential documents substantiating European policies – for the period 2020-2030, "human capital is the strategic key tool for success in the global economy." Therefore, the school plays a central role in the formation and development of the younger generation in the field of human resources activity, being equivalent to the progress of society. They should bring with themselves training, experience, reason, intelligence, discernment, creativity, motivation and effort in the service of increasing the quality of teaching and school organization visibility. All these elements underline the power of teachers, sine qua non condition of performance. Referring to the set of knowledge, skills and attitudes that a teacher should have, the performance standard for teaching reminds methodological skills, communication and relationship skills, student assessment skills, psychosocial skills, technical, technological and career management skills. The literature suggests in turn a number of personal characteristics which define the structure of teacher effective and efficient. The question is to what extent these skills contribute to the formation of educated citizens, citizens able to value the information, to use it creatively, to proactive spirit citizens, flexible and motivated for success. Do these competences talk about success in teaching, about individual and organizational performance? Concerning performance in terms of result and behavior, that thing that a teacher leaves behind, we may say that it is a direct reflection on student performance
McCarthy Carey F
Full Text Available Abstract Background More than thirty-five sub-Saharan African countries have severe health workforce shortages. Many also struggle with a mismatch between the knowledge and competencies of health professionals and the needs of the populations they serve. Addressing these workforce challenges requires collaboration among health and education stakeholders and reform of health worker regulations. Health professional regulatory bodies, such as nursing and midwifery councils, have the mandate to reform regulations yet often do not have the resources or expertise to do so. In 2011, the United States of America Centers for Disease Control and Prevention began a four-year initiative to increase the collaboration among national stakeholders and help strengthen the capacity of health professional regulatory bodies to reform national regulatory frameworks. The initiative is called the African Health Regulatory Collaborative for Nurses and Midwives. This article describes the African Health Regulatory Collaborative for Nurses and Midwives and discusses its importance in implementing and sustaining national, regional, and global workforce initiatives. Discussion The African Health Profession Regulatory Collaborative for Nurses and Midwives convenes leaders responsible for regulation from 14 countries in East, Central and Southern Africa. It provides a high profile, south-to-south collaboration to assist countries in implementing joint approaches to problems affecting the health workforce. Implemented in partnership with Emory University, the Commonwealth Secretariat, and the East, Central and Southern African College of Nursing, this initiative also supports four to five countries per year in implementing locally-designed regulation improvement projects. Over time, the African Health Regulatory Collaborative for Nurses and Midwives will help to increase the regulatory capacity of health professional organizations and ultimately improve regulation and
Lyles, Marjorie; Pedersen, Torben; Petersen, Bent
The study explores what factors influence the reduction of managers' perceivedknowledge gaps in the context of the environments of foreign markets. Potentialdeterminants are derived from traditional internationalization theory as well asorganizational learning theory, including the concept...... of absorptive capacity. Building onthese literature streams a conceptual model is developed and tested on a set of primarydata of Danish firms and their foreign market operations. The empirical study suggeststhat the factors that pertain to the absorptive capacity concept - capabilities ofrecognizing......, assimilating, and utilizing knowledge - are crucial determinants ofknowledge gap elimination. In contrast, the two factors deemed essential in traditionalinternationalization process theory - elapsed time of operations and experientiallearning - are found to have no or limited effect.Key words...
Constantin, Marin; Ghitescu, Petre
Nuclear knowledge is characterized by high-complexity and variety of the component topics and long duration required by the build-up of individual competence. At organizational level, these characteristics made the power of an organization or institution to be determined by the capital accumulated of existing knowledge. Furthermore, the capacity of an organization to re-generate and raise the knowledge capital according to the specific processes it is running according to the existing demand decides its position/ranking in the economy of nuclear field. Knowledge management emphasizes re-utilization of existing practice and experience, upgrade, enrich and re-value of accumulated knowledge. The present paper identifies and classifies the nuclear knowledge steps, namely: tacit knowledge, explicit knowledge, preserving, transfer, knowledge capture etc. On this basis there are identified the existing problems of nuclear knowledge management in Romania such as: difficulties to keep within the country the existing expertise, lack of interest in nuclear education, low level of organization of existing knowledge due to a small number of data bases, an insufficient integration of existing knowledge in IT systems, lack of ontology and taxonomy or an average structuralism. Nuclear knowledge in Romania is facing a major challenge which is generated by the future development of nuclear facilities. It is related to the rising demand of expertise and experts. This challenge is better solved by partnership between end users and institutions of Research and Development and university organization as well which could ensure the generation, transfer and preservation of nuclear knowledge. (authors)
Henderson, T. [CANDU Owners' Group, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)
To capture and retain the CANDU experience from a wider CANDU base and transfer knowledge and experience to our members, supplier participants and universities in a cost effective manner. Major focus area of the program is knowledge management joint projects, generic training delivery, inter-utilities mentoring and technical support, public education programs. The path forward is execution of transition of OPG NPDS Program as an ongoing program in COG with member funding, pursue opportunities to provide member utilities with additional leadership and train-the-trainer training and grow the knowledge management activities by 20% per year based on 2013/2014 results.
To capture and retain the CANDU experience from a wider CANDU base and transfer knowledge and experience to our members, supplier participants and universities in a cost effective manner. Major focus area of the program is knowledge management joint projects, generic training delivery, inter-utilities mentoring and technical support, public education programs. The path forward is execution of transition of OPG NPDS Program as an ongoing program in COG with member funding, pursue opportunities to provide member utilities with additional leadership and train-the-trainer training and grow the knowledge management activities by 20% per year based on 2013/2014 results.
Lee, Ya-Wen; Dai, Yu-Tzu; Chang, Mei Yeh; Chang, Yue-Cune; Yao, Kaiping Grace; Liu, Mei-Chun
To examine the associations among quality of work life, nurses' intention to leave the profession, and nurses leaving the profession. A prospective study design was used. Participants were 1,283 hospital nurses with a purposive sampling in Taiwan. The self-reported questionnaire consisted of three questionnaires: the Chinese version of the Quality of Nursing Work Life scale, an intention-to-leave profession questionnaire, and a demographic questionnaire. Records of nurses leaving the profession were surveyed 1 year later. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. As many as 720 nurses (56.1%) had tendencies to leave their profession. However, only 31 nurses (2.5%) left their profession 1 year later. Nurses' intention to leave the profession mediated the relationship between the milieu of respect and autonomy, quality of work life, and nurses leaving the profession. The milieu of respect and autonomy describing the quality of work life predicts the nurses' intention to leave the profession, and together these predict nurses leaving the profession. This study illustrates that nurse managers could provide effective interventions to ameliorate the milieu of respect and autonomy aspect of quality of work life to prevent nurses from leaving their profession. © 2017 Sigma Theta Tau International.
After a presentation of the renewable energy sector, this report identifies the development or transformation of professions within this sector, and assesses its recruitment needs. It also identifies the associated needs in terms of education and of professional course organization. It indicates the various organizations and institutions involved in matching employment offer and demand. It discusses how to valorise the main professions and education courses. Recommendations are formulated to develop knowledge, to communicate, to educate all students in building construction and architecture, to promote architecture quality in individual housing, to educate both theoretically and practically, to match offer and demand, to propose appropriate remunerations, to educate teachers, and so on
Does the Health Professions Council of South Africa (HPCSA) receive more complaints about anaesthesiologists than any other speciality, and if they do, are these complaints mainly restricted to billing issues, i.e. relating to the financial consent process or costs? Although disputed, and subsequently corrected, the South ...
Ma, Fang; Bai, Yangjing; Bai, Yangjuan; Ma, Weiguang; Yang, Xiangyu; Li, Jiping
There is a growing recognition that training is not translated into performance and the 'transfer problem' exists in organization training today. Although factors contributing to training transfer have been identified in business and industry, the factors influencing training transfer in nursing profession remain less clear. A qualitative descriptive study was undertaken in two tertiary referral hospitals in China from February 2013 to September 2013. Purposeful sampling of 24 nursing staffs were interviewed about the factors influencing training transfer. Seven themes evolved from the analysis, categorized in 4 main domains, which described the factors influencing training transfer in nursing profession in trainee characteristics, training design, work environment and profession domain. The trainee characteristics domain included attitude and ability. The training design domain included training content and instruction method. The work environment domain included supports as facilitators and opposition as hindrance. The theme pertaining to the profession domain was professional development. Health care managers need to understand the factors influencing training transfer for maximizing the benefits of training. The right beliefs and values about training, the rigorous employee selection for training, the relevance of training content, training instructions facilitating learning and transfer, supports from peer, supervisors and the organization, organizational culture such as change, sharing, learning and support, and professional development are key to successful training transfer. Furthermore, managers should be aware of the opposition from co-workers and find ways to prevent it.
Terjesen, Mark D.; Kassay, Kimberly S.; Bolger, Maria
Building upon a successful prior initial trip to Vietnam in January 2008, students and faculty from St. John's University (STJ) School Psychology program returned to work with the faculty from Hanoi National University of Education (HNUE) in developing the profession of school psychology in that country. The purpose of this trip was twofold: (1)…
Varpio, Lara; O'Brien, Bridget; J Durning, Steven; van der Vleuten, Cees; Gruppen, Larry; Ten Cate, Olle; Humphrey-Murto, Susan; Irby, David M; Hamstra, Stanley J; Hu, Wendy
Health professions education scholarship units (HPESUs) are organizational structures within which a group is substantively engaged in health professions education scholarship. Little research investigates the strategies employed by HPESU administrative leaders to secure and maintain HPESU success. Using institutional entrepreneurship as a theoretical lens, this study asks: Do HPESU administrative leaders act as institutional entrepreneurs (IEs)? This study recontextualizes two preexisting qualitative datasets that comprised interviews with leaders in health professions education in Canada (2011-2012) and Australia and New Zealand (2013-1014). Two researchers iteratively analyzed the data using the institutional entrepreneurship construct until consensus was achieved. A third investigator independently reviewed and contributed to the recontextualized analyses. A summary of the analyses was shared with all authors, and their feedback was incorporated into the final interpretations. HPESU leaders act as IEs in three ways. First, HPESU leaders construct arguments and position statements about how the HPESU resolves an institution's problem(s). This theorization discourse justifies the existence and support of the HPESU. Second, the leaders strategically cultivate relationships with the leader of the institution within which the HPESU sits, the leaders of large academic groups with which the HPESU partners, and the clinician educators who want careers in health professions education. Third, the leaders work to increase the local visibility of the HPESU. Practical insights into how institutional leaders interested in launching an HPESU can harness these findings are discussed.
The aim of this study is to determine the levels of concern of Turkish geography student teachers towards the teaching profession. The study was conducted with 293 geography student teachers who are enrolled in the last class of the Geography Student Teachers Program of the Faculties of Education and enrolled in a Non-Thesis Master's Degree…
Department of Energy, Washington, DC.
Many kinds of jobs can be found in the renewable energy and energy conservation industries. This pamphlet indicates that a large career potential exists within the solar and conservation professions and trades. These careers consist of individuals who design, build, or install solar heating or hot water systems, who implement energy conservation…
Edwards, James G.
The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) was used to assess the level and intensity of burnout in 165 California State University at Long Beach college seniors preparing for the human services professions, specifically teaching, nursing, criminal justice, and social welfare. A comparison group of 80 engineering seniors was also assessed. The 40-item…
Hanna, Fred J.
Freedom is presented as an overarching paradigm that may align and bring together the counseling profession's diverse counseling theories and open a doorway to a new generation of counseling techniques. Freedom is defined and discussed in terms of its 4 modalities: freedom from, freedom to, freedom with, and freedom for. The long-standing problem…
Nowakowski, Jeri; And Others
This detailed analysis of the role of measurement across the three professions of law, medicine, and accounting offers insights into entry-level and performance barriers in occupations that rely on certification, licensing, and regulation to influence performance, ethics, and training. (Author/PN)
The modern women's movement and the exigencies of the Vietnam War combined to produce a dramatic change in the composition of law school student bodies in only a few years. The speed with which women continue to be incorporated into the legal profession will be affected by many factors. (MLW)
Although it is a free choice and appears paradoxical, the choice to be a nurse is binding. In keeping with its Code of Ethics, the nursing profession demands an ethical, social, political and collective commitment that we cannot shy away from or we will fail to fulfil our obligations. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.
Novak, Lydia; Chen, Charles P.
In this article, we aim to examine and understand the career development experiences of foreign-trained immigrants from regulated professions (FTIRPs) in Canada. To provide some background on immigration in a Canadian context, we focus on a myriad of factors that affect the vocational well-being of FTIRPs. We apply key concepts from several major…
The author traces the origin of social work to the Confucian concept of Great Unity and social organization of traditional Chinese society. While professional social work started in 1921, its development was interrupted in 1952, but the practice of social work never stopped. Social work was revived as a discipline and profession in 1979 and has…
... the veterinary profession: A study of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria – Nigeria. ... the university, however only 33.7% believed that they obtain veterinary services ... of the opinion that both veterinary and medical students study similar courses. ... that veterinarians, pharmacists and physicians can work together in the Food ...
Porter, Ann M.; Payne, Phillip D.; Burrack, Frederick W.; Fredrickson, William E.
The purpose of this study was to examine the attitudes, communication, and opportunities provided by music teachers to encourage consideration of the music teaching profession. Survey participants (N = 436) were music educators from the Southeast (235), Midwest (51), and Southwest (149) National Association for Music Education regions of the…
Rubinstein, Sidney M; Bolton, Jenni; Webb, Alexandra L
BACKGROUND: Research involving chiropractors is evolving and expanding in Europe while resources are limited. Therefore, we considered it timely to initiate a research agenda for the chiropractic profession in Europe. The aim was to identify and suggest priorities for future research in order to ...
Nielsen, Orla Lund; Kongsted, Alice; Christensen, Henrik Wulff
BACKGROUND: The chiropractic profession has been well established in Denmark for several decades with state authorization, partial reimbursement by the state and a formal academic education. Biennial systematic data collections among all chiropractors and clinics have been performed since 2010 in...
Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.
This document profiles programs for women in technical professions that are offered through the European Commission's Leonardo da Vinci program. The following programs are profiled: (1) Artemis and Diana (vocational guidance programs to help direct girls toward technology-related careers); (2) CEEWIT (an Internet-based information and…
Canli, Suzan; Demirtas, Hasan
The main objective of the present study was to examine the impact of globalization on the teaching profession based on teacher views. Furthermore, the study aimed to make recommendations for the practitioners and the researchers based on the study findings. In the study, the qualitative phenomenology research method was used and the participants…
Ahmedani, Brian K.
Mental health stigma operates in society, is internalized by individuals, and is attributed by health professionals. This ethics-laden issue acts as a barrier to individuals who may seek or engage in treatment services. The dimensions, theory, and epistemology of mental health stigma have several implications for the social work profession. PMID:22211117
Discussion of the effect of book scarcity on law libraries and the legal profession in Nigeria addresses the country's law library collections, reasons for book scarcity, local publication of legal literature, reasons why Nigerians publish abroad, and measures already taken and suggested measures to combat book scarcity. (14 references) (MES)
Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 11, No 2 (2012) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Mentoring in the medical profession: An ...
Hurt, Robert L.; Barro, Frank
The accounting profession is in a state of flux--some might even say crisis. Recent ethical lapses, such as the Enron debacle, have called into question the professionalism of a few, tainting the reputation of many accountants. In this study, we examined the attitudes of accounting students at a comprehensive public university at the beginning and…
Ahmedani, Brian K.
Mental health stigma operates in society, is internalized by individuals, and is attributed by health professionals. This ethics-laden issue acts as a barrier to individuals who may seek or engage in treatment services. The dimensions, theory, and epistemology of mental health stigma have several implications for the social work profession.
The equine veterinarian has regained its position in the veterinary profession. Equine veterinarians work in equine practices as well as in mixed practices. In general, it can be said that the backbone of equine work is formed by a relatively small amount of activities for which only a limited
Biokinetics – the development of a health profession from physical education - a historical perspective. ... In this respect some medical aid funds supported this philosophy of health promotion, as the curative treatment of health problems are becoming increasingly expensive and are burdening health-care costs. At present ...
Child, John; Fulk, Janet
Contemporary conditions relevant to the maintenance of occupational control are examined for five professions (accounting, architecture, civil engineering, law, and medicine) in the United Kingdom and the United States as an impetus for the analysis of control by occupations in general. (Author/CT)
Burke, Linda M.; Harris, Debbie
Stakeholders involved in commissioning and contracting for nursing education (n=34) were asked whether nursing education in Britain should shift completely to degrees instead of diplomas. Although they identified benefits that degreed nurses brought to the profession, the consensus was to continue a mix of degree- and diploma-educated nurses.…
Green, Robert Anthony
Much has been written in academic and popular publications about organizational change. Topics have ranged from case studies to anecdotal stories of how leaders can change an organization. There is little written on changing the culture and vision of a profession at the macro level. This dissertation shows that one key to effecting change within a…
Out of the 14 respondents, 93% (13 respondents) had practiced as qualified accountants for between 1-9 years whilst only 7% (1 respondent) has practiced accountancy for between 10-19 years. This initial finding gave the indication that whilst the accountancy profession in Ghana itself was over 50 years old, the increase ...
Tok, Turkay Nuri
This study examined the attitudes of teacher candidates in Turkey towards the teaching profession. Descriptive surveys were used and the research data was obtained from Pamukkale University Classroom Teaching students. During data analysis, the arithmetic means and standard deviations of the groups were calculated and a t-test and One-Way ANOVA…
Vinodh Kumar, R.
The purpose of the present study was to investigate postgraduate students' attitude towards the teaching profession according to their gender, locality of residence, locality of educational institution, stream of study, and annual income of the parents. A descriptive survey design was adopted with a sample of 207 postgraduate students selected…
Bezen, Sevim; Aykutlu, Isil; Secken, Nilgun; Bayrak, Celai
Purpose of Study: This study aims to reveal, via metaphors, pre-service biology teachers' perceptions of "teaching profession" and "raising students." Research Methods: In accordance with the aim of the study, phenomenology, one of the qualitative paradigm patterns, is used. The study group consists of 80 pre-service biology…
Smith, Deirdre Mary
In Ontario, Canada, both the educational community and the public, which is understood to include parents, students and citizens of the province, participated in a multi-phased, longitudinal, dialogic inquiry to develop a set of ethical standards for the teaching profession. Collective discovery methods, syntheses, and validation of ethical…
Balyer, Aydin; Özcan, Kenan
The success of educational change inevitably depends on the quality and performance of teachers. Therefore, the importance of employing high quality teachers is crucial for educational systems. Choosing talented and committed brains to teaching career depends on making it an attractive profession. It is considered that there are some reasons why…
Ünsal, Serkan; Agçam, Reyhan; Korkmaz, Fahrettin
Taking into consideration the teachers' direct influence on students' educational life and indirect influence on the community life, the present study aims to reveal perspectives of sociologists, who study human social relationships and institutions, toward teaching profession. Data were collected from 20 sociologists working in educational…
Green, Robert Anthony
Much has been written in academic and popular publications about organizational change. Topics have ranged from case studies to anecdotal stories of how leaders can change an organization. There is little written on changing the culture and vision of a profession at the macro level. This dissertation shows that one key to effecting change within a profession is to educate those at the entrant level and thereby effect change with the profession. Over time, these new entrants to the profession will rise to senior positions and be able to effect greater change through the hiring, training, and mentoring processes inherent in the professions and the organizations for which they work. One way to effect change in these entrants is through education in college and professional schools. This study is specifically focused on effecting change in the interdisciplinary field of engineering and public policy. Public policy involves countless infrastructure issues at all levels of government. Engineers are well-versed in dealing with the technical issues of infrastructure but their voice is often lacking at the policy level. Similarly, political scientists are well-versed in policy but are often lacking in a thorough understanding of the technical aspects of the policy. Through an introductory course in engineering and public policy, undergraduate students from the seemingly disparate fields of engineering and political science were placed in a common classroom and through lectures, writings, presentations, and guided discussions their attitudes on key areas were changed. Areas studied were professional interest, legitimacy, deference, the public policy process, and education outside of a specific field. Through the process of education, changes in each of these areas was possible. Further, the movement was towards making students in each discipline more open to the input, opinions, and attitudes of others, and specifically in shifting engineers toward a more positive view of
Kurz, Thomas; Eder, Raimund; Heistracher, Thomas
The paper at hand presents an innovative approach for the conception and implementation of knowledge management in Digital Ecosystems. Based on a reflection of Digital Ecosystem research of the past years, an architecture is outlined which utilizes Knowledge Resources as the central and simplest entities of knowledge transfer. After the discussion of the related conception, the result of a first prototypical implementation is described that helps the transformation of implicit knowledge to explicit knowledge for wide use.
creators and carriers. By contrast, the explicit knowledge approach emphasizes processes for articulating knowledge held by individuals, the design of organizational approaches for creating new knowledge, and the development of systems (including information systems) to disseminate articulated knowledge...
Murray-García, Jann L; Harrell, Steven; García, Jorge A; Gizzi, Elio; Simms-Mackey, Pamela
Efforts in the field of multicultural education for the health professions have focused on increasing trainees' knowledge base and awareness of other cultures, and on teaching technical communication skills in cross-cultural encounters. Yet to be adequately addressed in training are profound issues of racial bias and the often awkward challenge of cross-racial dialogue, both of which likely play some part in well-documented racial disparities in health care encounters. We seek to establish the need for the skill of dialoguing explicitly with patients, colleagues, and others about race and racism and its implications for patient well-being, for clinical practice, and for the ongoing personal and professional development of health care professionals. We present evidence establishing the need to go beyond training in interview skills that efficiently "extract" relevant cultural and clinical information from patients. This evidence includes concepts from social psychology that include implicit bias, explicit bias, and aversive racism. Aiming to connect the dots of diverse literatures, we believe health professions educators and institutional leaders can play a pivotal role in reducing racial disparities in health care encounters by actively promoting, nurturing, and participating in this dialogue, modeling its value as an indispensable skill and institutional priority.
Full Text Available Introduction: The nurse according to the Supreme Chamber of Nurses and Midwives is a person able to recognize the health condition of an individual or group and can create a care plan and realize it. The nurse should be primarily autonomous in making decisions about nursing care and organizing nursing care. Each competent nurse can make a proper assessment of a given situation, makes decisions efficiently and is able to quickly select the right methods of conduct. The awareness that science is always the foundation of practice is extremely important. This is how the profession of a nurse was shaped over the years. These scientific achievements greatly influence the increase of the professional nurse's prestige. Objective: The aim of the work is to gain knowledge about the perception of nursing, as a scientific discipline and nurses, by students of the nursing field. Material and methods: The study covered 100 people who are students of nursing, finishing the three-year education period. The selection of respondents was random. The study group consisted of 100% women aged 20-35, living in urban areas (51% and rural (49%. The research method used in the work is a diagnostic survey. The research tool used is a self-help questionnaire. Results: Nursing understood 16% of respondents as a profession, 3% considered them as a scientific discipline, 1% as a learning system. The vast majority of respondents (92% stated that nursing is both theoretical and practical science. The nurses' forms of activity, which contribute to the development of nursing, 73% of them reported upgrading professional qualifications, 7% writing scientific papers, 2% participation in scientific research, 1% participation in the preparation of apprentices to the profession and 1% activity in organizations unions. The most important features that should be possessed by a good nurse include: diligence and accuracy of performed procedures (25%, possessing rich knowledge in the field
Leffers, Jeanne; Levy, Ruth McDermott; Nicholas, Patrice K; Sweeney, Casey F
The adverse health effects from climate change demand action from the nursing profession. This article examines the calls to action, the status of climate change in nursing education, and challenges and recommendations for nursing education related to climate change and human health. Discussion paper. The integration of climate change into nursing education is essential so that knowledge, skills, and insights critical for clinical practice in our climate-changing world are incorporated in curricula, practice, research, and policy. Our Ecological Planetary Health Model offers a framework for nursing to integrate relevant climate change education into nursing curricula and professional nursing education. Nursing education can offer a leadership role to address the mitigation, adaptation, and resilience strategies for climate change. An ecological framework is valuable for nursing education regarding climate change through its consideration of political, cultural, economic, and environmental interrelationships on human health and the health of the planet. Knowledge of climate change is important for integration into basic and advanced nursing education, as well as professional education for nurses to address adverse health impacts, climate change responses policy, and advocacy roles. For current and future nurses to provide care within a climate-changing environment, nursing education has a mandate to integrate knowledge about climate change issues across all levels of nursing education. Competence in nursing practice follows from knowledge and skill acquisition gained from integration of climate change content into nursing education. © 2017 Sigma Theta Tau International.
This study investigated problems experienced by women re-entering into the education profession by focusing on: • The nature and scope of re-entry by women into the education profession; • the features and problems experienced by women on re-entering the education profession; • the problems women educators experience on re-entering the education profession in the North West Province. To achieve these goals, both an empirical survey and a survey of literature was conducted. The study...
Saunders, A. [Autodesk Inc., (United States); Zeiss, G. [Autodesk Inc., (Canada)
Electric utilities are experiencing an unprecedented workforce turnover as a wave of retirement approaches. The challenge for the industry is to mitigate the loss of industry knowledge and attract talented new designers and engineers. Utilities need to effectively transfer knowledge from an existing workforce with up to three decades of experience to their new hires who have very different skill levels as well as different expectations regarding design tools compared to their predecessors. Knowledge transfer from the retiring workforce to the new hires can be facilitated with rules-based design software. Easy-to-use design software with built-in validations can accelerate training. By investing in utility design software that incorporates the best elements of design processes from other industries, utilities can attract the new generation of engineers and designers to help utilities define new processes to upgrade existing infrastructure, bring online new distributed and renewable generation facilities, implement smart devices and meters, and improve customer service. 3 refs.
Prisca M. Collins
Full Text Available Lack of awareness and knowledge of the occupational therapy (OT and physical therapy (PT professions has been cited as a barrier to consideration of these professions as career options. This study examined the types of exposure to, knowledge of, and career interest in OT and PT of students from underrepresented minority (URM and non-Hispanic White and Asian American (NHW-AA populations. A questionnaire was administered to a convenience sample of 150 high school and undergraduate college students. Demographic data and student responses to questions regarding exposure to, knowledge of, and career interest in OT and PT were collected. Descriptive statistics and chi-square tests of association were computed, and qualitative data were analyzed for themes. The study findings revealed limited exposure to and knowledge of the OT profession among URM and NHW-AA students. Even though participants from both groups showed better knowledge about PT, they reported limited to no interest in the professions as careers. Further research is needed to examine contextual factors that may influence student perceptions of the OT and PT professions, including how clinical encounters can best be leveraged to improve public knowledge and consideration of these professions as careers for high school and undergraduate college students.
Culkin, Michaela A.
This study investigated the factors most influential when veteran teachers seriously consider leaving the teaching profession. Teachers in the education profession who are in the later stages of their careers hold the experience that benefits all who teach in schools. There is ample literature discussing why new teachers leave the profession, but…
J. N. Grigoruk
Full Text Available The article examines the dynamics of students’ attitude to the profession of pharmacist. Motivation factors for the choice of this profession were described. We have substantiated the stability of professional choice, and studied the satisfaction of students with the chosen profession.
This study investigates the status of women engineers in the Middle East, considering women engineers in Lebanon as a case study. The author investigated the following questions: What are the influences behind females' decisions to choose engineering as their major course of study? What are the motives behind this decision? What are the perceptions of females regarding the essential skills for a successful engineering career? An online survey consisting of Likert-scale items was completed by 327 female engineers who graduated from universities in Lebanon and now work in various locations around the world. A genuine interest in the field appeared to be the main influence in the participants' decisions to choose engineering profession. The potential for professional growth was the leading motivator for choosing engineering. Although participants reported that they possessed adequate theoretical knowledge and technical skills before graduation, in the actual practice of engineering, they noted weaknesses in creativity and innovation.
Scherer, Zeyne Alves Pires; Scherer, Edson Arthur; Carvalho, Ana Maria Pimenta
Nursing teaching has been characterized by constant discussions on pedagogical proposals and implementation of curricular changes. The aim of this study was to reflect on nursing students' experience related to their first contacts with the profession, considering traditional perspectives and current tendencies that imprint values and attitudes in learning and practice. Nowadays, the complexity of human beings and the environment they live in is considered within a biopsychosocial, economic and cultural context, constituting resources that allow for the formation of competent professionals in order to deal with the challenges of the XXIst century. Thus, nursing schools have to follow a teaching philosophy to form trained people to attend to local and regional demands and are socially committed to change. What is aimed for is participative learning, in which teacher and student, articulated in the knowledge improvement process, do not forget about humanitarian views.
Objective. To review literature pertaining to grit and resilience in health professions education. Findings. There is significant interest in grit and resilience throughout the health professions, but little has been published with regard to pharmacy. Although there are methodological issues with defining and measuring grit and resilience, several studies have shown relationships between the constructs and personal and academic well-being. Educational interventions aimed at increasing grit and resilience have produced mixed results. Developing protective factors appears to be the most common approach in helping students become more resilient. Summary. Literature pertaining to grit and resilience reveals that the terms are nuanced, complex, and difficult to measure and understand. Regardless, the general characteristics associated with grit and resilience are of interest to educators and warrant further study. PMID:29606705
Tod S. Van Gunten
Full Text Available Scholars interested in the political influence of the economics profession debate whether the discipline is unified by policy consensus or divided among competing schools or factions. We address this question by reanalyzing a unique recent survey of elite economists. We present a theoretical framework based on a formal sociological approach to the structure of belief systems and propose alignment, rather than consensus or polarization, as a model for the structure of belief in the economics profession. Moreover, we argue that social clustering in a heterogeneous network topology is a better model for disciplinary social structure than discrete factionalization. Results show that there is a robust latent ideological dimension related to economists’ departmental affiliations and political partisanship. Furthermore, we show that economists closer to one another in informal social networks also share more similar ideologies.
The Age Demographics of Academic Librarians: A Profession Apart discusses the current demographics of librarianship in North America and examines how a huge retiree rate will affect the profession. With the average age of librarians increasing dramatically since 1990, this book examines the changes that will have to take place in your library, such as recruiting, training, and working with a smaller staff. The Age Demographics of Academic Librarians provides you with insights on how to make your library's transition easier when several of your colleagues leave your library. Valuable and intelligent, The Age Demographics of Academic Librarians discusses trends through easy-to-read charts, tables, and comprehensive data analysis. Exploring possible reasons for the anomalies of this trend, this book explores several surprising facts, such as: 16 percent of the 1995 American Research Libraries population of librarians will retire by the year 2000, another 16 percent between 2000 and 2005, 24 percent between 2005 ...
Mónica de Martino Bermúdez
Full Text Available This article synthesizes some reflections about the future of Social Work as a profession in Uruguay, based on the identification of certain problems that are of concern to the authors. Although they work in different professional activities and at different educational levels, the three share a certain perspective about tendencies observed in Social Work in Uruguay and believe they have some responses. Based on a dialog with the Sociology of Professions and theories of Pierre Bourdieu, the authors demonstrate that Social Work as a "field" as understood by this author, is clearly in an aging process that is expressed in a professional "habitus" that has little harmony with its social-historical time. In light of questions about the responsibility of the academic sector in the reproduction of this "habitus" and about the challenges to the profile of the students of Social Work, the authors map analyses and propose certain lines of interpretation.
Kothari, Anita; Bagatto, Marlene P.; Seewald, Richard; Miller, Linda T.; Scollie, Susan D.
The impetus for evidence-based practice (EBP) has grown out of widespread concern with the quality, effectiveness (including cost-effectiveness), and efficiency of medical care received by the public. Although initially focused on medicine, EBP principles have been adopted by many of the health care professions and are often represented in practice through the development and use of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). Audiology has been working on incorporating EBP principles into its mandate for professional practice since the mid-1990s. Despite widespread efforts to implement EBP and guidelines into audiology practice, gaps still exist between the best evidence based on research and what is being done in clinical practice. A collaborative dynamic and iterative integrated knowledge translation (KT) framework rather than a researcher-driven hierarchical approach to EBP and the development of CPGs has been shown to reduce the knowledge-to-clinical action gaps. This article provides a brief overview of EBP and CPGs, including a discussion of the barriers to implementing CPGs into clinical practice. It then offers a discussion of how an integrated KT process combined with a community of practice (CoP) might facilitate the development and dissemination of evidence for clinical audiology practice. Finally, a project that uses the knowledge-to-action (KTA) framework for the development of outcome measures in pediatric audiology is introduced. PMID:22194314
the Profession of Arms Air University Press Team Chief Editor Jeanne K. Shamburger Copy Editor Sherry Terrell Cover Art and Book Design Steven C...Garst Illustrations Daniel Armstrong Composition and Prepress Production Ann Bailey Quality Review Tammi K. Long Print Preparation Joan Hickey Distribution Diane Clark 02-Back inside cover 3x5 book.in1 1 8/15/07 7:35:38 AM
Full Text Available Practitioners in the legal, accounting, architectural, and medical professions are showing an increasing interest in marketing - particularly in advertising. Some professions such as accounting have already reached finality on whether advertising should be permitted. The medical profession has not given this matter any serious thought and this exploratory study aims to provide some early guidelines by analysing the perceptions of medical practitioners and in particular, the possible implications of lifting advertising restrictions. The empirical results indicate that physicians realise that patients often do not have adequate information at their disposal before choosing the practitioner of their choice. They do not seem to believe, however, that advertising is a means of overcoming this problem. Specifically, older and more experienced physicians feel that advertising will benefit neither the profession nor the public. It is surmised that the status quo will be maintained for the short and medium term. Opsomming Lede van die regs-, rekenkundige-, argiteks- en mediese professies toon toenemend belangstelling in bemarkingspraktyke - veral ten opsigte van reklame. Sommige professies soos die rekenkundiges, het reeds die vraagstuk van beperkings op reklame bevredigend aangespreek. Die mediese beroep het die aangeleentheid nog nie ondersoek nie en die verkennende studie is 'n poging om tentatiewe riglyne in die verband vas te lê. Die primere doelwit was om te bepaal wat mediese praktisyns se persepsies ten opsigte van die moontlike gevolge van reklame deur die mediese beroep is. Die empiriese resultate dui daarop dat medici besef dat pasiente dikwels nie oor voldoende inligting beskik om 'n optimale keuse van 'n geneesheer te maak nie. Tog word daar nie geglo dat reklame die probleem sal kan opios nie. Ouer en meer ervare geneeshere is veral gekant teen die opheffing van die beperking op reklamepraktyke. Daar kan dus verwag word dat die beperkings
Santos, Maria Helena; Amâncio, Lígia
Research in social and political psychology contributes towards understanding the persistence of job market gender segregation prevailing in recent decades, the consequences for those involved and their reactions when having to cope with gender inequality. Within the framework of the literature on shared ideologies that justify and legitimize discrimination against women, this article focuses on Portugal and analyses the particular case of women in two highly qualified professions traditional...
The main purpose of this study is to develop a scale for students’ attitude towards the teaching profession the Colleges of Technical and Vocational Education . The scale was applied to 719 students. In the scale, there are 30 items. The KMO(Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin) value is 0.88, Bartlett test value is 8980.25 and Cronbach alpha mean is 0.68.
Ward, Melanie E.
The academic profession is an occupation in which pay has fallen dramatically, resulting in the setting up of a Committee of Inquiry to examine both pay relativities and mechanisms for pay determination. This paper considers salary determination and the gender salary gap in the academic labour market drawing upon a particularly detailed data set of 900 academics from five traditional Scottish Universities. Results reveal an aggregate gender salary differential for academic staff of 15%. Most ...
Kastens, K. A.; Malyn-Smith, J.; Ippolito, J.; Krumhansl, R.
In August of 2014, the Oceans of Data Institute at Education Development Center, Inc. (EDC) is convening an expert panel to begin the process of developing an occupational skills profile for the "big-data-enabled professional." We define such a professional as an "individual who works with large complex data sets on a regular basis, asking and answering questions, analyzing trends, and finding meaningful patterns, in order to increase the efficiency of processes, make decisions and predictions, solve problems, generate hypotheses, and/or develop new understandings." The expert panel includes several geophysicists, as well as data professionals from engineering, higher education, analytical journalism, forensics, bioinformatics, and telecommunications. Working with experienced facilitators, the expert panel will create a detailed synopsis of the tasks and responsibilities characteristic of their profession, as well as the skills, knowledge and behaviors that enable them to succeed in the workplace. After the panel finishes their work, the task matrix and associated narrative will be vetted and validated by a larger group of additional professionals, and then disseminated for use by educators and employers. The process we are using is called DACUM (Developing a Curriculum), adapted by EDC and optimized for emergent professions, such as the "big-data-enabled professional." DACUM is a well-established method for analyzing jobs and occupations, commonly used in technical fields to develop curriculum and training programs that reflect authentic work tasks found in scientific and technical workplaces. The premises behind the DACUM approach are that: expert workers are better able to describe their own occupation than anyone else; any job can be described in terms of the tasks that successful workers in the occupation perform; all tasks have direct implications for the knowledge, skills, understandings and attitudes that must be taught and learned in preparation for the
Mathews, Ben; Bismark, Marie M
Sexual harassment of women in medicine has become a subject of national debate after a senior female surgeon stated that if a woman complained of unwanted advances her career would be jeopardised, and subsequent reports suggest that sexual harassment is a serious problem in the medical profession. Sexual harassment of women in the medical profession by their colleagues presents substantial legal, ethical and cultural questions for the profession. Women have enforceable legal rights to gender equality and freedom from sexual harassment in the workplace. Both individual offenders and employers face significant legal consequences for sexual harassment in every Australian state and territory, and individual medical practitioners and employers need to understand their legal and ethical rights and responsibilities in this context. An individual offender may be personally liable for criminal offences, and for breaching anti-discrimination legislation, duties owed in civil law, professional standards and codes of conduct. An employer may be liable for breaching anti-discrimination legislation, workplace safety laws, duties owed in contract law, and a duty of care owed to the employee. Employers, professional colleges and associations, and regulators should use this national debate as an opportunity to improve gender equality and professional culture in medicine; individuals and employers have clear legal and ethical obligations to minimise sexual harassment to the greatest extent possible.
Full Text Available Double entry bookkeeping began in fifteenth century Italy. It developed into a fully integrated accounting system in England during the Industrial Revolution. The English system was transferred to America in the early 1880’s by accountants who were sent to America to represent investors in England.The first professional accounting society began in New York in 1886 as the American Association of Public Accountants. It established the requirement for the first Certified Public Accounting Examination (CPA in 1896 .Maryland established the accounting profession with the certification requirement in 1901. Max Tecichman was the first person to pass the CPA exam in Maryland.Max Tecichman is considered the founder of the accounting profession in Maryland. He founded the Association of Public Accountants and was its first president. Since then, the profession in Maryland has expanded rapidly in response to the needs of business. By 1998 it had over 10,000 members to serve the needs of commerce and society within the state and encompassed areas such as tax, ethics, education and public service.
Milutinović, Dragana; Prokes, Bela; Gavrilov-Jerkovié, Vesna; Filipović, Danka
Heinz Leymann defined this phenomenon as a hostile and unethical communication. In his definition Leymann points out that the distinction between "conflict" and "mobbing" does not focus on what is done or how it is done, but rather on the frequency and duration of whatever is done. The exposure to the strain of mobbing begins to result in psychiatrically or psychosomatically pathological conditions due to the accumulation of negative emotions. Leyman emphasizes four main factors which cause harrasment in the workplace: lack of clarity of goals in work, inadequate management, victim's social status and low moral standards in the work environment. The epidemiological data in the European Union, indicate great national differences relative to the percentage of those subjected to mobbing, with increasing exposure rates in all professions, the highest being found in education (14%) and health services. Nurses are considered a professional group at a rather high risk for trauma caused by harrasment in the workplace. "Horizontal violence" is a widely used term regarding mobbing aclions in nursing profession even though vertical violence is present both in this profession and all other health services. Horizontal violence is implied due to the traditional assumption that nurses have a subordinate role compared to doctors, which often brings them into conflict with their peers. Mobbing may be prevented by systematic primary prevention, information, education, and training in communication skills. As a result, we could expect to get a higher quality of nursing care and healthier nurses.
This article explains what clinical research is and why it is necessary. The term "clinical" refers to an academic way of solving practical problems. Clinical research starts from a view of science that not only acknowledges the value of rational analysis and empirical research, but also acknowledges the need for human skills and…
Guerriero, Sonia, Ed.
Highly qualified and competent teachers are fundamental for equitable and effective education systems. Teachers today are facing higher and more complex expectations to help students reach their full potential and become valuable members of 21st century society. The nature and variety of these demands imply that teachers, more than ever before,…
Full Text Available This study investigates whether aspiring and professional accountants understand the benefits and security challenges brought by emerging technologies such as: Big Data, data analytics, cloud computing and mobile technologies. 115 participants took part in a survey during January and February 2017, all having at least one year of practical experience in accounting or audit and 80% of them being affiliated with national or international accounting professional bodies. The research has three key findings: (1 Professional accountants and auditors are having in average a theoretical knowledge of the emerging technologies in the accounting field, but they still need to enhance their skills to exploit them efficiently, (2 Mobile technologies started to be adopted by the Romanian practitioners and (3 The profession has become aware of the security risks brought by emerging technologies in the digital accounting. The accounting profession is on the verge of change and the practitioners do not yet possess sufficient skills regarding the analyzed emerging technologies. As per this, the professional bodies and academic environment should reassess their curricula to enforce the necessary changes for preparing practitioners to successfully face the future challenges and avoid their replacement by other professions more qualified.
Funk, Eric; Riddell, Jeff; Ankel, Felix; Cabrera, Daniel
Health professions educators face multiple challenges, among them the need to adapt educational methods to new technologies. In the last decades multiple new digital platforms have appeared in the learning arena, including massive open online courses and social media-based education. The major critique of these novel methods is the lack of the ability to ascertain the origin, validity, and accountability of the knowledge that is created, shared, and acquired. Recently, a novel technology based on secured data storage and transmission, called blockchain, has emerged as a way to generate networks where validity, trust, and accountability can be created. Conceptually blockchain is an open, public, distributed, and secure digital registry where information transactions are secured and have a clear origin, explicit pathways, and concrete value. Health professions education based on the blockchain will potentially allow improved tracking of content and the individuals who create it, quantify educational impact on multiple generations of learners, and build a relative value of educational interventions. Furthermore, institutions adopting blockchain technology would be able to provide certification and credentialing of healthcare professionals with no intermediaries. There is potential for blockchain to significantly change the future of health professions education and radically transform how patients, professionals, educators, and learners interact around safe, valid, and accountable information.
This paper contains a scholarly description of pedagogical practices of the Rutgers Physics/Physical Science Teacher Preparation program. The program focuses on three aspects of teacher preparation: knowledge of physics, knowledge of pedagogy, and knowledge of how to teach physics (pedagogical content knowledge—PCK). The program has been in place for 7 years and has a steady production rate of an average of six teachers per year who remain in the profession. The main purpose of the paper is t...
To ascertain views about constraints on the progress of audit experienced by members of four of the therapy professions: physiotherapy, occupational therapy, speech and language therapy, and clinical psychology. Interviews in six health service sites with a history of audit in these professions. 62 interviews were held with members of the four professions and 60 with other personnel with relevant involvement. Five main themes emerged as the constraints on progress: resources; expertise; relations between groups; organisational structures; and overall planning of audit activities. Concerns about resources focused on lack of time, insufficient finance, and lack of access to appropriate systems of information technology. Insufficient expertise was identified as a major constraint on progress. Guidance on designing instruments for collection of data was the main concern, but help with writing proposals, specifying and keeping to objectives, analysing data, and writing reports was also required. Although sources of guidance were sometimes available, more commonly this was not the case. Several aspects of relations between groups were reported as constraining the progress of audit. These included support and commitment, choice of audit topics, conflicts between staff, willingness to participate and change practice, and concerns about confidentiality. Organisational structures which constrained audit included weak links between heads of professional services and managers of provider units, the inhibiting effect of change, the weakening of professional coherence when therapists were split across directorates, and the ethos of regarding audit findings as business secrets. Lack of an overall plan for audit meant that while some resources were available, others equally necessary for successful completion of projects were not. Members of four of the therapy professions identified a wide range of constraints on the progress of audit. If their commitment to audit is to be
Knowledge sharing and knowledge transfer are important to knowledge communication. However when groups of knowledge workers engage in knowledge communication activities, it easily turns into mere mechanical information processing despite other ambitions. This article relates literature of knowledge...... communication and knowledge creation to an intervention study in a large Danish food production company. For some time a specific group of employees uttered a wish for knowledge sharing, but it never really happened. The group was observed and submitted to metaphor analysis as well as analysis of co...
Zozus, Meredith N; Lazarov, Angel; Smith, Leigh R; Breen, Tim E; Krikorian, Susan L; Zbyszewski, Patrick S; Knoll, Shelly K; Jendrasek, Debra A; Perrin, Derek C; Zambas, Demetris N; Williams, Tremaine B; Pieper, Carl F
To assess and refine competencies for the clinical research data management profession. Based on prior work developing and maintaining a practice standard and professional certification exam, a survey was administered to a captive group of clinical research data managers to assess professional competencies, types of data managed, types of studies supported, and necessary foundational knowledge. Respondents confirmed a set of 91 professional competencies. As expected, differences were seen in job tasks between early- to mid-career and mid- to late-career practitioners. Respondents indicated growing variability in types of studies for which they managed data and types of data managed. Respondents adapted favorably to the separate articulation of professional competencies vs foundational knowledge. The increases in the types of data managed and variety of research settings in which data are managed indicate a need for formal education in principles and methods that can be applied to different research contexts (ie, formal degree programs supporting the profession), and stronger links with the informatics scientific discipline, clinical research informatics in particular. The results document the scope of the profession and will serve as a foundation for the next revision of the Certified Clinical Data Manager TM exam. A clear articulation of professional competencies and necessary foundational knowledge could inform the content of graduate degree programs or tracks in areas such as clinical research informatics that will develop the current and future clinical research data management workforce. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org
The first of the four papers in this symposium, "Knowledge Management and Knowledge Dissemination" (Wim J. Nijhof), presents two case studies exploring the strategies companies use in sharing and disseminating knowledge and expertise among employees. "A Theory of Knowledge Management" (Richard J. Torraco), develops a conceptual…
incredibly fatiguing which cuts into my personal time to include mental health, physical health, and emotional well-being.” Understand this...April 2016. Its findings contribute to shared understanding of the State of the Army Profession within the Army Culture of Trust -- informing senior...Army leaders regarding the effectiveness of policies and practices intended to inspire and motivate Army professionals to “live by and uphold the Army
Brown, Angela; Crookes, Patrick; Dewing, Jan
In the last decade literature, inquiries and reports into the short comings in health services have highlighted the vital role of leadership in clinical practice and the impact on patient care and effective workplace culture. Whilst there is an abundance of literature on leadership and the registered nursing workforce, an international literature review revealed there is very little known on leadership development in pre-registration nursing programmes. To identify what the profession's views are on proposed indicative curriculum content suggested for clinical leadership development in a pre-registration nursing degree in Australia. This is a multi-method research study. This paper presents the development and results of one aspect of the study, a national online survey. Nurses: clinicians, managers and academics. In the absence of a strong evidence base in the literature review, additional pre-requisite curriculum content was augmented from the work of two published frameworks of leadership and management. From this a 67-item survey was designed to ask the profession whether the aggregated content is a reasonable view of what should be included in a pre-registration programme to develop clinical leadership. The survey sought the views of nurses on whether the proposed content was relevant (yes/no) and their opinion on whether it is significant via a 5-point Likert scale. Descriptive and chi-square analyses were performed in SPSS v.19. A total of 418 nurses completed the survey; there was consensus amongst the profession on what is considered relevant and important in a pre-registration nursing programme. The content identified could be considered indicative and pre-requisite to include in a pre-registration nursing programme. Members of the nursing profession in Australia have clear views about this. The next step is to design and evaluate a purposeful pedagogical approach and curriculum, leading to the development of clinical leadership knowledge, skills and
Singh, Rajani; Shane Tubbs, R; Gupta, Kavita; Singh, Man; Jones, D Gareth; Kumar, Raj
The continuous decrease in teaching time, the artificially created scarcity of competent anatomical faculties and a reduced allocation of resources have brought about the decline of anatomy in medical education. As a result of this, anatomical knowledge and the standard of medical education have fallen with consequences including safety in clinical practice. The aim of the present study is to analyze this declining phase of anatomy and its impact on medical education and to consider corrective measures. This article expresses comparative viewpoints based on a review of the literature. Anatomy enables doctors to master the language of medical science so they can communicate with patients, the public and fellow doctors and diagnose and treat diseases successfully in all medical fields. No medical specialist or expert can master their field without adequate knowledge of human anatomy. The shrinkage of anatomical schedules, inadequate faculties and declining allocation of resources is therefore unfortunate. These factors produce stress in both student and faculty creating gaps in anatomical knowledge that means insufficient skill is developed to practice medicine safely. This decline is hazardous not only to the medical profession but also to society. Reforms consisting of balanced rescheduling of medical curricula and optimum resource allocation have been proposed to improve the standard of education of doctors.
This paper provides a perspective on what knowledge is, why knowledge is important, and how we might encourage good knowledge behaviours. A knowledge management framework is described, and although the framework is project management-centric the basic principles are transferrable to other contexts. From a strategic perspective, knowledge can be considered an asset that has the potential to provide a competitive advantage provided that it has intrinsic value, it is not easily accessible by ...
Gibbs, Karen A; Furney, Steven R
Physical therapist practice is grounded in patient management principles encompassing all body systems and focuses on prevention, education, and functional outcomes. As such, management of the integumentary system crosses all practice settings, emphasizing the importance that basic integumentary content be adequately addressed during entry-level education. The purpose of this qualitative study was to compare the self-reported integumentary knowledge and skill of recent graduates to profession-determined expectations for education. Participants were 7 licensed physical therapists experienced in wound management. Semi-structured interview data were recorded, transcribed, and coded. A matrix compiling professional expectations for integumentary education was utilized to identify topics as absent, covered only briefly, or covered only during clinical rotations. Compression, vascular screening, infection, factors impacting healing, modalities, dressings, wound measurements, topicals, and sutures/staples were among the most commonly reported areas of deficiency. While integumentary care makes up a small percentage of physical therapy practice, it is a significant part of a comprehensively educated therapist. This study found participants did not perceive themselves to have received the minimum entry-level integumentary knowledge and skill deemed necessary by the profession. Study results are supported by current literature and demonstrate the need for integumentary curriculum review in entry-level programs.
Arndt, Channing; Simler, Kenneth R.
A fundamental premise of absolute poverty lines is that they represent the same level of utility through time and space. Disturbingly, a series of recent studies in middle- and low-income economies show that even carefully derived poverty lines rarely satisfy this premise. This article proposes a......, with the current approach tending to systematically overestimate (underestimate) poverty in urban (rural) zones.......A fundamental premise of absolute poverty lines is that they represent the same level of utility through time and space. Disturbingly, a series of recent studies in middle- and low-income economies show that even carefully derived poverty lines rarely satisfy this premise. This article proposes...... an information-theoretic approach to estimating cost-of-basic-needs (CBN) poverty lines that are utility consistent. Applications to date illustrate that utility-consistent poverty measurements derived from the proposed approach and those derived from current CBN best practices often differ substantially...
José A Aguilar-Pérez
.OBJECTIVE: To identify and evaluate the predisposing factors regarding the utilization of the Pap smears in the population seen in the Cervical Cancer Screening Program in Mexico METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted from January 1997 through December 1998 in Mexico city. A questionnaire was applied to a total of 2,107 women of reproductive age who attended a family planning program and data was collected regarding the following topics: social-demographics, reproductive risk factors associated with cervical cancer, sexual behavior and partner history, birth control, knowledge about Pap smear' benefits, and its utilization. Statistic analysis was conducted using Student´s test and non-conditional multiple logistic regression model for determining significance. RESULTS: The predisposing factors were: knowledge about Pap smear's benefits (OR=6.00, CI 95% 4.70-7.67, history of using at least two birth control methods (OR=2.38, CI 95% 1.75-3.24, previous history of vaginal infection (OR=2.18, CI 95% 1.73-2.75, sexual partner's approval of gynecological examinations (OR=1.56, CI 95% 1.07-2.29. CONCLUSIONS: Educational programs on cancer prevention in this population should include the benefits of screening tests. Pap smears for Mexican women of reproductive age are mostly offered opportunely. The previous use of health services is a determinant factor for the utilization of the Cervical Cancer Screening Program. These results show the need to strengthen health promotion programs to women at high risk of cervical cancer and their sexual partners.
Said, Mohamed Ben; Dougherty, Nini; Anderson, Curtis; Altman, Stanley J.; Bouhaddou, Omar; Warner, Homer R.
KESS (Knowledge Engineering Support System) is a relational information management system created at the University of Utah to document each step in the building of four expert knowledge bases. In weekly knowledge engineering sessions, groups of experts propose decision making criteria and examine information sources in the process of creating HELP knowledge frames. KESS utilizes many-to-many links with multiple files and central link files to track the different kinds of information generate...
Peng, Weijun; Zhang, Fan; Hu, Rong; Li, Yingxue
Background Blended learning, defined as the combination of traditional face-to-face learning and asynchronous or synchronous e-learning, has grown rapidly and is now widely used in education. Concerns about the effectiveness of blended learning have led to an increasing number of studies on this topic. However, there has yet to be a quantitative synthesis evaluating the effectiveness of blended learning on knowledge acquisition in health professions. Objective We aimed to assess the effectiveness of blended learning for health professional learners compared with no intervention and with nonblended learning. We also aimed to explore factors that could explain differences in learning effects across study designs, participants, country socioeconomic status, intervention durations, randomization, and quality score for each of these questions. Methods We conducted a search of citations in Medline, CINAHL, Science Direct, Ovid Embase, Web of Science, CENTRAL, and ERIC through September 2014. Studies in any language that compared blended learning with no intervention or nonblended learning among health professional learners and assessed knowledge acquisition were included. Two reviewers independently evaluated study quality and abstracted information including characteristics of learners and intervention (study design, exercises, interactivity, peer discussion, and outcome assessment). Results We identified 56 eligible articles. Heterogeneity across studies was large (I2 ≥93.3) in all analyses. For studies comparing knowledge gained from blended learning versus no intervention, the pooled effect size was 1.40 (95% CI 1.04-1.77; Plearning with nonblended learning (pure e-learning or pure traditional face-to-face learning), the pooled effect size was 0.81 (95% CI 0.57-1.05; Pmethod showed that the effect size changed to 0.26 (95% CI -0.01 to 0.54) after adjustment. In the subgroup analyses, pre-posttest study design, presence of exercises, and objective outcome assessment
Holdt Christensen, Peter
The concept of knowledge management has, indeed, become a buzzword that every single organization is expected to practice and live by. Knowledge management is about managing the organization's knowledge for the common good of the organization -but practicing knowledge management is not as simple...... as that. This article focuses on knowledge sharing as the process seeking to reduce the resources spent on reinventing the wheel.The article introduces the concept of time sensitiveness; i.e. that knowledge is either urgently needed, or not that urgently needed. Furthermore, knowledge sharing...... is considered as either a push or pull system. Four strategies for sharing knowledge - help, post-it, manuals and meeting, and advice are introduced. Each strategy requires different channels for sharing knowledge. An empirical analysis in a production facility highlights how the strategies can be practiced....
Foss, Nicolai Juul; Mahnke, Volker
Knowledge management has emerged as a very successful organization practice and has beenextensively treated in a large body of academic work. Surprisingly, however, organizationaleconomics (i.e., transaction cost economics, agency theory, team theory and property rightstheory) has played no role...... in the development of knowledge management. We argue thatorganizational economics insights can further the theory and practice of knowledge managementin several ways. Specifically, we apply notions of contracting, team production,complementaries, hold-up, etc. to knowledge management issues (i.e., creating...... and integrationknowledge, rewarding knowledge workers, etc.) , and derive refutable implications that are novelto the knowledge management field from our discussion....
Maria del Pilar Naranjo
Full Text Available After using simplified Labanotation as a didactic tool for some years, the author can conclude that it accomplishes at least three main functions: efficiency of rehearsing time, social recognition and broadening of the choreographic consciousness of the dancer. The doubts of the dancing community about the issue of ‘to write or not to write’ are highly determined by the contexts and their own choreographic evolution, but the utility of Labanotation, as a tool for knowledge, is undeniable.
Judith P. Hunter
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Health care trainees/students lack knowledge and skills for the comprehensive clinical assessment and management of pain. Moreover, most teaching has been limited to classroom settings within each profession.
MacPherson, Meghan M; MacArthur, Lauren; Jadan, Patrick; Glassman, Leah; Bouzubar, Fawzi F; Hamdan, Elham; Landry, Michel D
Since the end of the Gulf War in 1991, Kuwait has become one of the wealthiest countries in the world and one that has a highly socialized health-care system. This rapid growth and socio-economic development appears to have had a negative impact on the health of its people. As such, the profession of physiotherapy may be in a unique position to address this issue by providing health behaviour interventions and promoting healthy lifestyles. The purpose of this study was to explore the current state of physiotherapy in Kuwait and provide recommendations for future development and growth. Using a qualitative research approach, we conducted 17 key informant interviews (clinicians, administrators and other key stakeholders) in Kuwait. The strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats framework was then used to categorize the emerging themes and provide a basis for a strategic direction for the profession. Informants reported that strengths included funding for services and motivation of professionals. Weaknesses included education and professional resources, marketing/advocacy, standardization and regulation of practice. Opportunities discussed were untapped demand for physiotherapy services, internal development and evolution of the physiotherapy association, along with professional collaboration. Threats addressed included low public awareness of physiotherapy, challenges with inter-professional practice/communication, and cultural perspectives of healthy lifestyles. Our research indicates that many unique opportunities exist for physiotherapists in Kuwait. Further development and evolution of Kuwait's physiotherapy professional association could facilitate efforts to advocate for the profession, initiate standards of practice and provide enhanced opportunities for professional collaboration. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Hobdell, E F; Slusser, M; Patterson, J; Burgess, E
Interacting with the media is a method of showcasing the nursing profession. Clinical nurse specialists (CNSs) have a variety of opportunities available for these interactions: appearing on television, participating in a radio program or writing to the media. A survey completed by the authors indicated that CNSs had many media interactions, yet overall, only 17% of all nurses surveyed used writing. This paper begins by discussing where to publish and how to prepare and target the audience. General and specific guidelines for publishing feature articles, health tips, letters to the editor, and other publishing possibilities are presented.
Nóvoa, António, 1954-
Les Enseignants: à la recherche de leur profession reprend les idées centrales présentées à la Conférence donnée, sur l'invitation de l'ATEE, au Séminaire de Barcelone, en 1993. Cet article est la reproduction du texte de support à la Conférence. Étant donné l'espace disponible, il n'a pas été possible de le travailler dans le sens d'une plus grande problématisation et élaboration théorique.
Bennett, AnneMarie; Murphy, Breda
Professions possess a service ideal orientation (Dillard 2008; Starr 1982; Toren 1975) and play an important role in the 'pursuit of public interest and the common good’ (Jennings et al. 1987, 3). This incorporates ‘serving the public’ or ‘protecting the public interest’ (Pierce 2007, 7). While there is no agreement on what the ‘public interest’ means or how to measure it (Baker 2005; Boseman 2007; Canning and O’Dwyer 2001; Dellaportas and Davenport 2008; Sikka et al.1989), salient suggestion...
Broome, Barbara S; Williams-Evans, Shiphrah
The theories of Florence Nightingale and Jean Watson provide a framework for the caring work of nurses. Ironically, this caring profession struggles with bullying. Bullying has both physiological and psychological ramifications for the person being bullied and a negative impact on the organization and patient care. Strategies to address bullying include education, developing codes of acceptable conduct for the workplace, and a zero-tolerance policy. Mental health nurses have a vital role in helping nurses return to roles of caring. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.
N S Terekhina
Full Text Available The article presents the results of the research of the psychological characteristics, including the behavior regulation, of people of different professions: with their activity strictly regulated (pilots, N = 44 and with flexible timetables (freelancers, teachers... N = 40. It is shown that there exist certain development features of the behavior control components (volitional, cognitive control and emotional regulation and the relationship between these components in groups of people with a different degree of professional activity regulation. The behaviour control of pilots is characterized by a higher integration and interrelation of all the components, whereas the behavior control of people working flexible hours has lower connectivity and fragmentation of its components.
In this bachelor thesis I have focused on the Czech tea culture and tea profession across tea rooms. I have dealt with influences that led to the present tea rooms' appearances. Furthermore I am dealing with ways of tea culture spreading, and what conduces to the tea room establishing. I am using the term of subculture in the connection with the tea culture, its meaning and position in the Czech culture. The main data source were semi- structured interviews with the tea rooms owners, all comp...
One of the factors influential on teacher achievement is their attitudes towards the profession. Teacher attitude influences a teacher's satisfaction with their profession, devotion to the profession, belief in the necessity and importance of the teaching profession, and belief in professional development. General evaluation of pre-service…
Kirkeby, Inge Mette
Although serious efforts are made internationally and nationally, it is a slow process to make our physical environment accessible. In the actual design process, architects play a major role. But what kinds of knowledge, including research-based knowledge, do practicing architects make use of when...... designing accessible environments? The answer to the question is crucially important since it affects how knowledge is distributed and how accessibility can be ensured. In order to get first-hand knowledge about the design process and the sources from which they gain knowledge, 11 qualitative interviews...... were conducted with architects with experience of designing for accessibility. The analysis draws on two theoretical distinctions. The first is research-based knowledge versus knowledge used by architects. The second is context-independent knowledge versus context-dependent knowledge. The practitioners...
Though the biggest impact on a utility of nuclear power plant decommissioning may occur many years from now, procrastination of efforts to be prepared for that time is unwarranted. Foresight put into action through planning can significantly affect that impact. Financial planning can assure the recovery of decommissioning costs in a manner equitable to customers. Decision-making planning can minimize adverse affects of current decisions on later decommissioning impacts and prepare a utility to be equipped to make later decommissioning decisions. Technological knowledge base planning can support all other planning aspects for decommissioning and prepare a utility for decommissioning decisions. Informed project planning can ward off potentially significant pitfalls during decommissioning and optimize the effectiveness of the actual decommissioning efforts
Traulsen, Janine Marie; Druedahl, Louise C
The future of the pharmacy profession and concerns about professional identity have been popular and recurring themes in professional journals and at international pharmacy conferences for more than 30 years. The aim of this paper is to contribute to realistic and viable visions for the future of the pharmacy profession via insights through labor market and work organization theories. These insights provide an understanding of contemporary work patterns and what they mean for the future role of community pharmacists. It appears that an important and influential contemporary trend in work organization today is precarious work, i.e. non-standard employment that promotes and relies on a flexible and fluid work force. Contrary to permanent employment, precarious work is often poorly paid, insecure, unprotected, and in many cases cannot support a household. The growth of precarious work among professionals, including pharmacists has been documented in many countries. In the early 21st century a major concern in the UK was the growth in the number of pharmacists who choose to be self-employed "locums" as opposed to seeking permanent employment. With the spread of precarious work a new, involuntary form of employment appeared a decade later with the spread of "zero-hour contracts" and "exclusivity agreements". Particularly affected by these flexible, precarious work conditions are the highly-educated young health professionals such as pharmacists. The profession needs to be proactive in order to stay abreast of economic/workforce and organizational trends. The way forward is a commitment to a dynamic, knowledge-based vision that includes an ongoing analysis of the outside world. The core role of pharmacists in the future includes: 1. engagement in interprofessional education with other healthcare professionals; 2. an acceptance of the contribution that lay knowledge provides to the understanding of health and medicines, and 3.keeping ajour with new and revolutionary
Stiggelbout, A.M.; Wakker, P.P.
Methods for determining the form of utilities are needed for the implementation of utility theory in specific decisions. An important step forward was achieved when utility theorists characterized useful parametric families of utilities, and simplifying decompositions of multiattribute utilities.
Wakker, P.P.; Miyamoto, J.
Methods for determining the form of utilities are needed for the implementation of utility theory in specific decisions. An important step forward was achieved when utility theorists characterized useful parametric families of utilities, and simplifying decompositions of multiattribute utilities.
Knowledge spaces offer a rigorous mathematical foundation for various practical systems of knowledge assessment. An example is offered by the ALEKS system (Assessment and LEarning in Knowledge Spaces), a software for the assessment of mathematical knowledge. From a mathematical standpoint, knowledge spaces generalize partially ordered sets. They are investigated both from a combinatorial and a stochastic viewpoint. The results are applied to real and simulated data. The book gives a systematic presentation of research and extends the results to new situations. It is of interest to mathematically oriented readers in education, computer science and combinatorics at research and graduate levels. The text contains numerous examples and exercises and an extensive bibliography.
Sofka, Wolfgang; de Faria, Pedro; Shehu, Edlira
Most firms use secrecy to protect their knowledge from potential imitators. However, the theoretical foundations for secrecy have not been well explored. We extend knowledge protection literature and propose theoretical mechanisms explaining how information visibility influences the importance...... of secrecy as a knowledge protection instrument. Building on mechanisms from information economics and signaling theory, we postulate that secrecy is more important for protecting knowledge for firms that have legal requirements to reveal information to shareholders. Furthermore, we argue that this effect...... and a firm's investment in fixed assets. Our findings inform both academics and managers on how firms balance information disclosure requirements with the use of secrecy as a knowledge protection instrument....
In this paper the author proposes a few tracks in order to reinvent the profession as a dispensing chemist and in order to regain a social credibility. This credibility, once based on the preparation of drugs with the know-how of the mortar-pestle, must be redefined in a society which is evolving which is organising so as to encourage all professionals towards a search for the quality of products and services. The author would like the university to evolve in a parallel direction and to contribute to the professional evolution by being party involved.
To describe the paradox in pharmacy between the vision of patient care and the reality of community pharmacy practice and to explore how integrated reimbursement for the retail prescription and linking cognitive patient care services directly to prescription processing could benefit the profession. A dichotomy exists between what many pharmacists do and what they've been trained to do. Pharmacy leaders have formulated a vision for pharmacists to become more involved in direct patient care. All graduates now receive PharmD-level training, and some leaders call for requirements of postgraduate residency training and board certification for pharmacists who provide patient care. How such requirements would relate to community pharmacy practice is unclear. The retail prescription remains the primary link between the pharmacist and the health care consumer. Cognitive services, such as medication therapy management (MTM), need to be integrated into the standard workflow of community pharmacies so as to become a natural extension of the professional services rendered in the process of filling a prescription. Current prescription fees are not sufficient to support legitimate professional services. A proposed integrated pricing system for retail prescriptions includes a $15 professional fee that is scaled upward for value-added services, such as MTM. Pharmacy includes a diversity of practice that has historically been a source of division. For pharmacists to reach their potential as patient care providers, the various factions within the profession must forge a unified vision of the future that addresses all realms of practice.
Slusarska, Barbara; Krajewska-Kułak, Elzbieta; Zarzycka, Danuta
The drawing, as a kind of artistic language, used by the child-artist to express his or her thoughts and opinions concerning their environment is an immensely interesting form of cognition for the viewers of such artistic creations. The aim of the study was the analysis of the presentation of the image of the nursing profession created by children and the application of these experiences in vocational education of nurses. The objects of the analysis, were 182 artistic creations of children living in eastern Poland. The detailed analysis of the works was carried out by three independent competent judges who grouped the works according to the accepted indicators of evaluation. The young artists created the image of the nurse that presents a detailed range of professional duties, the quality of the child-nurse relationship and the prognostic vision of the new activities that will be put into practice in the future. The rich content of the drawings was complemented by the high artistic value of the composition. The study material collected should be used not only by nurses participating in care of children, but also in vocational education of nurses for more complete preparation of candidates to perform their future profession.
Mattingly, T Joseph; Cain, Jeff; Fink, Joseph L
To provide a brief history of Facebook and online social networking and discuss how it has contributed and can contribute in the future to a paradigm change in social communications. When student pharmacists complete school and enter practice, they encounter enhanced expectations to act appropriately and professionally. Facebook expands the dilemma of separating private and public life--a challenge for individuals in all professions. From the standpoint of a professional association, Facebook provides a tremendous opportunity to reach out to members in an unprecedented way. Pharmacy organizations are beginning to use these new tools to increase communication and dissemination of information. The popularity of Facebook has brought the issue of online social networking to the forefront of professional and organizational discussions. The issues of privacy, identity protection, and e-professionalism are likely to reappear as pharmacists and student pharmacists continue to communicate via online networks. The potential exists for organizations to harness this organizational and communication power for their own interests. Further study is needed regarding the interaction between online social networking applications and the profession of pharmacy.
Mary Ann Stark
Full Text Available Health profession students may need help establishing and maintaining positive health behaviors when they are in college. This study explored the effectiveness of text messaging as an innovative method for promoting an increase in daily physical activity. A convenience sample (N = 134 was recruited from students at a college of Health and Human Services in Michigan. The participants were randomized into an intervention or control group (n = 67 each. The intervention group received daily affective text messages encouraging more physical activity by taking more steps. The control group received only messages reminding them to report their number of steps. All of the participants received a pedometer, completed a demographics and daily habits questionnaire, and completed the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS. There was no significant difference between the intervention and control groups in their number of daily steps. However, the most inactive participants had a significant increase in steps during the study period. Health profession students’ lifestyle behaviors have consequences, as they become caregivers in our dynamic, demanding health-care system. For those with the greatest need for physical activity, encouraging such activity via text messaging may improve their ability to care for themselves and their clients.
Full Text Available New materials, use of sophisticated technologies and increased customer demands, in combination with growing competition among construction companies, have led to a high organizational boundaries. The results indicate that personal networks are the most common source of learning for all professions. While clients, architects, and designers also engage in reading and attending courses, site managers and workers are less engaged in these activities. Experimenting and organizing for learning appear to be underutilized strategies by all professions. This leads to the conclusion that attempts to increase learning have to address the differences in learning behaviours of the various groups. Further, focus on experimenting and organizing for learning is a possibility to change the learning behaviour from learning as a consequence of problems to learning for future improvement.degree of specialization. For successful integration of the different professional specialists, there is a need for shared learning between project co-workers. Based on twenty eight interviews in six different Swedish construction projects, this paper illustrates strategies for individual and shared learning, among different actors and across various
Benton, David; Shaffer, Franklin
As of 1 January 2016, the UN sustainable development goals (SDGs) became the focus of global efforts on a wide range of development agenda. The SDGs have subsumed the work of the UN millennium development goals (MDGs), so it is timely to reflect on the contribution made by nurses and midwives, so that we can optimise the profession's contribution to the 17 SDGs. This article reports the results of a scientometrics analysis of the published literature related to the MDGs and SDGs indexed in CINAHL, which identified the underlying themes addressed by nurses and midwives. It shows how analysis demonstrates that although nursing was slow to engage with the MDG agenda, it has made some progress in contributing to SDG scholarship. So far this contribution has been narrowly focused, but the profession could contribute to all 17 of the SDG goals. Routine updates of the analysis described here could help monitor progress, identify gaps in nursing's contributions to the goals, and provide further impetus to its engagement in this major global policy initiative.
Maria Helena Santos
Full Text Available Research in social and political psychology contributes towards understanding the persistence of job market gender segregation prevailing in recent decades, the consequences for those involved and their reactions when having to cope with gender inequality. Within the framework of the literature on shared ideologies that justify and legitimize discrimination against women, this article focuses on Portugal and analyses the particular case of women in two highly qualified professions traditionally carried out by men – politics and medicine. Drawing on the results of quantitative and qualitative studies, our analytical approach demonstrates how while a majority of participants show awareness of the existence of gender inequality in these markedly masculine professions, meritocratic individualism and personal attributions to discrimination are the recurring explanations rather than any gender-based account. These results allow us to highlight the relevance of gender-based analysis as an ideology and furthermore to argue that ignoring this perspective not only diminishes individual responsibility for social change but also perpetuates gender asymmetries.
Duma, Olga-Odetta; Roşu, Solange Tamara; Manole, M; Manole, Alina; Constantin, Brânduşa
To identify the key favorable issues, showing a high degree of job satisfaction, and also the adverse issues that may affect the work performance among medical assistants. This research is a type of inquiry-based opinion survey carried out by administering a self-managed, anonymous questionnaire, consisting of five sections with 25 items. The study group included 175 medical assistants from all specialties, working in public hospitals in the city of Iasi, who answered the questionnaires. A number of 167 subjects have responded, the return rate being of 95.4%. The respondents were asked to indicate the amount of agreement or disagreement on a typical five-level Likert scale. The study has identified some positive aspects: positive perception of the medical assistant profession (76.6%); concern about personal growth and career development (86.3%); good rel ationships established with other colleagues (71.2%), and some negative aspects: inappropriate work conditions and equipments (70%); the income compared to the volume of work was perceived by majority as an important source of dissatisfaction (80.8%); willingness to work abroad (53.9%). The findings of the present research focused on the variables of job satisfaction in the medical assistant profession and should be a real concern for managers, because the job dissatisfaction may affect the employee's productivity.
Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. More and more, we are practicing in a challenging environment. Job satisfaction for our profession is at an all-time low, burnout at an all-time high and there exists an alarming depression rate. As a profession, we face no shortage of problems. Our medical student graduates await many hurdles and need to be prepared to deal with increasing educational costs, ACGME duty hour changes, declining interest in primary care, health care reform, declining Medicare reimbursement, assaults to fee for service designs, bundled payments, care for the uninsured, medical malpractice, ABIM recertification, and MOC changes, the electronic health record, among many others. If you are like most physicians, you have found yourself grappling with patients seeking a particular drug especially when that drug is a controlled substance or an antibiotic. You want your patient’s approval of your care and maybe even avoidance of their anger while providing the appropriate care that is …
Roubanis, Jody L.
The Family and Consumer Sciences Body of Knowledge (FCS-BOK) provides an ideological stance that is universal to all practitioners of the profession, and it has major implications for the normative ethics that guide professional practice. The purpose of this article is to outline a conceptual framework to reveal the relational ethic inherent in…
There is a global strategy to improve health through prompt identification and treatment of diseases. The pharmacy profession has remodelled its roles in an attempt to meet these global expectations through pharmaceutical care. The objective of this study was therefore to assess the knowledge and practice of ...
Background: Although electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a safe and effective treatment modality with a long history of use in psychiatry, it remains controversial owing to misconceptions and negative attitudes among the public and medical profession. The aim of this study was to explore the state of knowledge and attitudes ...
Jefferson, Therese; Klass, Des; Lord, Linley; Nowak, Margaret; Thomas, Gail
Leadership studies which focus on categorising leadership styles have been critiqued for failure to consider the lived experience of leadership. The purpose of this paper is to use the framework of Jepson's model of contextual dynamics to explore whether this framework assists understanding of the "how and why" of lived leadership experience within the nursing profession. Themes for a purposeful literature search and review, having regard to the Jepson model, are drawn from the contemporary and dynamic context of nursing. Government reports, coupled with preliminary interviews with a nurseleadership team, guided selection of contextual issues. The contextual interactions arising from managerialism, existing hierarchical models of leadership and increasing knowledge work provided insights into leadership experience in nursing, in the contexts of professional identity and changing educational and generational profiles of nurses. The authors conclude that employing a contextual frame provides insights in studying leadership experience. The author propose additions to the cultural and institutional dimensions of Jepson's model. The findings have implications for structuring and communicating key roles and policies relevant to nursing leadership. These include the need to: address perceptions around the legitimacy of current nursing leaders to provide clinical leadership; modify hierarchical models of nursing leadership; address implications of the role of the knowledge workers. Observing nursing leadership through the lens of Jepson's model of contextual dynamics confirms that this is an important way of exploring how leadership is enacted. The authors found, however, the model also provided a useful frame for considering the experience and understanding of leadership by those to be led.
Full Text Available The civil mediation programme, which is a court-connected programme, established as a form of alternative dispute resolution, is increasingly gaining ground as a field with its own theoretical and practical knowledge, principles and basic rules. Mediation has already set up its own body of knowledge, based on studies, classification of cases and the analyses of the results. In this article, we examine whether in the context of the development of mediation in Slovenia we might already talk about the profession of the mediator, defined as a provider of the mediation process. We examine the court-connected civil mediation and mediators who mediate at the court-connected civil mediation, and define them theoretically. By interviewing the mediation experts and mediators we examine their opinions about mediators and the court mediation. We examine the legal basis for the court-connected mediation programmes in Slovenia as well as in the European Union. Proceeding from our findings we conclude that the legal regulation of the court mediation in Slovenia is well established, and that the mediators of the court-connected civil mediation programmes can be accepted as the professional providers of the mediation process.
M.Comm. The objective of this research could broadly be stated as an initial investigation into the field of management consulting — with regard to the ethical standards and the requirements for professions, as well as the consultant's required skill set. More detailed objectives are the following: To define the requirements necessary to view management consulting as an ethical profession based on the guidelines set for management and management consulting as a profession. To investigate t...