WorldWideScience

Sample records for productivity simulator beps

  1. International tax planning by multinationals: Simulating a tax-minimising intercompany response to the OECD's recommendation on BEPS Action 4

    OpenAIRE

    Kayis-Kumar, Ann

    2016-01-01

    In October 2015, the OECD/G20 presented their final report on the Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS) Project. This article presents a unique analysis of the OECD/G20’s recommendation on Action 4 by utilising tax optimisation modelling to simulate and examine a hypothetical multinational enterprise’s (MNE’s) behavioural response to this recommendation. The literature to date has primarily focused on the “debt bias”, which arises from the distortion in the tax treatment between debt an...

  2. China and BEPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuven Avi-Yonah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an overview of China’s reaction to the G20/OECD Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS project. From 2013 to 2015, the OECD developed a series of actions designed to address BEPS activities by multinational enterprises, culminating in a final report of 15 action steps. The article reviews and explains China’s reaction to the BEPS project and its actions in detail, with a particular focus on transfer pricing issues. It shows that China has actively participated in both developing and implementing the BEPS project. The article further suggests that in the post-BEPS era, China is expected to implement the BEPS project in a more consistent and coherent way, and will take whatever measures necessary to guarantee the successful implementation of the BEPS package in collaboration with the global community.

  3. Changes of global terrestrial carbon budget and major drivers in recent 30 years simulated using the remote sensing driven BEPS model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, W.; Chen, J.; Liu, R.; Liu, Y.

    2013-12-01

    The process-based Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS) model was employed in conjunction with spatially distributed leaf area index (LAI), land cover, soil, and climate data to simulate the carbon budget of global terrestrial ecosystems during the period from 1981 to 2008. The BEPS model was first calibrated and validated using gross primary productivity (GPP), net primary productivity (NPP), and net ecosystem productivity (NEP) measured in different ecosystems across the word. Then, four global simulations were conducted at daily time steps and a spatial resolution of 8 km to quantify the global terrestrial carbon budget and to identify the relative contributions of changes in climate, atmospheric CO2 concentration, and LAI to the global terrestrial carbon sink. The long term LAI data used to drive the model was generated through fusing Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and historical Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data pixel by pixel. The meteorological fields were interpolated from the 0.5° global daily meteorological dataset produced by the land surface hydrological research group at Princeton University. The results show that the BEPS model was able to simulate carbon fluxes in different ecosystems. Simulated GPP, NPP, and NEP values and their temporal trends exhibited distinguishable spatial patterns. During the period from 1981 to 2008, global terrestrial ecosystems acted as a carbon sink. The averaged global totals of GPP NPP, and NEP were 122.70 Pg C yr-1, 56.89 Pg C yr-1, and 2.76 Pg C yr-1, respectively. The global totals of GPP and NPP increased greatly, at rates of 0.43 Pg C yr-2 (R2=0.728) and 0.26 Pg C yr-2 (R2=0.709), respectively. Global total NEP did not show an apparent increasing trend (R2= 0.036), averaged 2.26 Pg C yr-1, 3.21 Pg C yr-1, and 2.72 Pg C yr-1 for the periods from 1981 to 1989, from 1990 to 1999, and from 2000 to 2008, respectively. The magnitude and temporal trend of global

  4. [Simulating of carbon fluxes in bamboo forest ecosystem using BEPS model based on the LAI assimilated with Dual Ensemble Kalman Filter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue Jian; Mao, Fang Jie; Du, Hua Qiang; Zhou, Guo Mo; Xu, Xiao Jun; Li, Ping Heng; Liu, Yu Li; Cui, Lu

    2016-12-01

    LAI is one of the most important observation data in the research of carbon cycle of forest ecosystem, and it is also an important parameter to drive process-based ecosystem model. The Moso bamboo forest (MBF) and Lei bamboo forest (LBF) were selected as the study targets. Firstly, the MODIS LAI time series data during 2014-2015 was assimilated with Dual Ensemble Kalman Filter method. Secondly, the high quality assimilated MBF LAI and LBF LAI were used as input dataset to drive BEPS model for simulating the gross primary productivity (GPP), net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and total ecosystem respiration (TER) of the two types of bamboo forest ecosystem, respectively. The modeled carbon fluxes were evaluated by the observed carbon fluxes data, and the effects of different quality LAI inputs on carbon cycle simulation were also studied. The LAI assimilated using Dual Ensemble Kalman Filter of MBF and LBF were significantly correlated with the observed LAI, with high R 2 of 0.81 and 0.91 respectively, and lower RMSE and absolute bias, which represented the great improvement of the accuracy of MODIS LAI products. With the driving of assimilated LAI, the modeled GPP, NEE, and TER were also highly correlated with the flux observation data, with the R 2 of 0.66, 0.47, and 0.64 for MBF, respectively, and 0.66, 0.45, and 0.73 for LBF, respectively. The accuracy of carbon fluxes modeled with assimilated LAI was higher than that acquired by the locally adjusted cubic-spline capping method, in which, the accuracy of mo-deled NEE for MBF and LBF increased by 11.2% and 11.8% at the most degrees, respectively.

  5. Preventing BEPS in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Sourinthone, Aksone

    2017-01-01

    In the recent years, the focus on multinationals’ tax avoidance schemes or Base Erosion & Profit Shifting (BEPS) has been increasing constantly. The OECD and the European Commission are working on new tax rulings to counter those harmful practices. The report aims to analyse and assess the anti-BEPS package: what does it contain, how can it be effective on the European level and how is Finland implementing the new recommendations? The analysis was a desktop study: peer-reviewed articles, ...

  6. BEPS MAAKOHTAINEN RAPORTOINTI : Case Fortum

    OpenAIRE

    Salo, Joonas

    2016-01-01

    BEPS on suurin muutos, mitä verojärjestelmään on tehty viimeisten vuosikymmenten aikana. Vaikka BEPS ei ole vielä valmis, niin on hyvä tutkia, mitä vaikutuksia BEPS:lla ja etenkin siihen sisältyvällä maakohtaisella raportoinnilla olisi yritysten tulevaisuuteen. Maakohtaista raportointia juuri verotukseen liittyen ei ole ennemmin juurikaan ollut, joten sen toteuttaminen on aivan uutta. Yrityksillä sen enempää kuin veroviranomaisillakaan ei ole kokemusta asiasta. Etenkin nyt, kun OECD on antanu...

  7. BEPS: IS INTERNATIONAL TAX PLANNING OVER?

    OpenAIRE

    A. CONTRINO

    2014-01-01

    The consequences of the definition of “aggressive” tax planning, the source of BEPS. – . The consequences of the definition of “aggressive” tax planning, the source of BEPS. – The effectiveness and the “side effects”, in the Italian experience, of the tools against BEPS.

  8. [Collaborative application of BEPS at different time steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wei; Fan, Wen Yi; Tian, Tian

    2016-09-01

    BEPSHourly is committed to simulate the ecological and physiological process of vegetation at hourly time steps, and is often applied to analyze the diurnal change of gross primary productivity (GPP), net primary productivity (NPP) at site scale because of its more complex model structure and time-consuming solving process. However, daily photosynthetic rate calculation in BEPSDaily model is simpler and less time-consuming, not involving many iterative processes. It is suitable for simulating the regional primary productivity and analyzing the spatial distribution of regional carbon sources and sinks. According to the characteristics and applicability of BEPSDaily and BEPSHourly models, this paper proposed a method of collaborative application of BEPS at daily and hourly time steps. Firstly, BEPSHourly was used to optimize the main photosynthetic parameters: the maximum rate of carboxylation (V c max ) and the maximum rate of photosynthetic electron transport (J max ) at site scale, and then the two optimized parameters were introduced into BEPSDaily model to estimate regional NPP at regional scale. The results showed that optimization of the main photosynthesis parameters based on the flux data could improve the simulate ability of the model. The primary productivity of different forest types in descending order was deciduous broad-leaved forest, mixed forest, coniferous forest in 2011. The collaborative application of carbon cycle models at different steps proposed in this study could effectively optimize the main photosynthesis parameters V c max and J max , simulate the monthly averaged diurnal GPP, NPP, calculate the regional NPP, and analyze the spatial distribution of regional carbon sources and sinks.

  9. BEPS Action Plan: Global Tax Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Shelepov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Given the dynamics of economic and financial globalization, national tax authorities often do not have adequate tools to effectively combat tax avoidance practices that exploit gaps in the existing tax rules. To address the global problem of tax base erosion and profit shifting (BEPS, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD and the Group of 20 (G20 have consolidated their efforts on an equal footing. Their joint BEPS Action Plan allowed to involve more than 100 countries, both developing and advanced, in designing and implementing rules aimed at aligning the generation of profits and their taxation and increasing the predictability, transparency and flexibility of the international tax environment for business. This article examines the history of the BEPS project, emphasizing the mode of OECD-G20 engagement in global tax governance, describes the key recommendations made by international institutions to tackle BEPS and forecasts further developments in the area. The author pays special attention to the mechanisms designed to stimulate participation by non-OECD and non-G20 members in the BEPS project and the stance of business on the proposed reforms. He concludes that the work on BEPS is far from finished. Different interpretations of standards, risks of strengthening tax competition between countries and potentially excessive tax burdens on businesses should be addressed. In this regard, OECD and G20 should strengthen their efforts to ensure the participation of developing countries and the private sector, which would stimulate other reforms in international taxation to support global growth and development.

  10. Assessing BEPS: Origins, Standards, and Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Shay, Stephen E.; Christians, Allison

    2017-01-01

    The G20/OECD’s multi-year campaign to combat base erosion and profit shifting (BEPS) marks a critical step in the evolution of the international tax regime and the roles of institutions that guide it. This General Report for Subject 1, IFA Congress 2017, provides a snapshot of the outcomes of the BEPS project by comparing national responses to key mandates, recommendations and best practices through the end of October, 2016 based on National Reports representing the perspectives of 48 countri...

  11. Aggresive tax planning, beps and Litigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María LAGO MONTERO

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available These article thinks about aggressive tax planning and the OECD plan BEPS to fight it, Base Erosion and Profit Shifting. It is also analysed the litigation that the simultaneus application general and specific antiabuse clauses would induced in the struggle againstfiscal avoid/evasion strategies.

  12. Basic Education and Policy Support (BEPS) Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creative Associates International, Inc., Washington, DC.

    The Basic Education and Policy Support (BEPS) Activity is a multi-year, worldwide, indefinite quantity contract by which the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) Global Bureau Center for Human Capacity (G/HCD) can work to achieve four objectives: (1) improve the quality, efficiency, access, and equity of education, particularly basic…

  13. BOREAS Follow-On DSP-05 Process-Modeled Net Primary Productivity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The BOREAS DSP-5 team generated a NPP image over the BOREAS region from a process-based ecosystem model, the Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS). The NPP...

  14. Pressure loss tests for DR-BEP of fullsize 17 x 17 PWR fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Moon Ki; Chun, Se Young; Chang, Seok Kyu; Won, Soon Youn; Cho, Young Rho; Kim, Bok Deuk; Min, Kyoung Ho

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the conditions, procedure and results in the pressure loss tests carried out for a double grid type debris resistance bottom end piece (DR-BEP) designed by KAERI. In this test, the pressure loss coefficients of the full size 17 x 17 PWR simulated fuel assembly with DR-BET and with standard-BEP were measured respectively, and the pressure loss coefficients of DR-BEP were compared with the coefficients of STD-BET. The test conditions fall within the ranges of loop pressure from 5.2 to 45 bar, loop temperature from 27 to 221 deg C and Reynolds number in fuel bundle from 2.17 x 10 4 to 3.85 x 10 5 . (Author) 5 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs

  15. Beamed-Energy Propulsion (BEP) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Patrick; Beach, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    The scope of this study was to (1) review and analyze the state-of-art in beamed-energy propulsion (BEP) by identifying potential game-changing applications, (2) formulate a roadmap of technology development, and (3) identify key near-term technology demonstrations to rapidly advance elements of BEP technology to Technology Readiness Level (TRL) 6. The two major areas of interest were launching payloads and space propulsion. More generally, the study was requested and structured to address basic mission feasibility. The attraction of beamed-energy propulsion (BEP) is the potential for high specific impulse while removing the power-generation mass. The rapid advancements in high-energy beamed-power systems and optics over the past 20 years warranted a fresh look at the technology. For launching payloads, the study concluded that using BEP to propel vehicles into space is technically feasible if a commitment to develop new technologies and large investments can be made over long periods of time. From a commercial competitive standpoint, if an advantage of beamed energy for Earth-to-orbit (ETO) is to be found, it will rest with smaller, frequently launched payloads. For space propulsion, the study concluded that using beamed energy to propel vehicles from low Earth orbit to geosynchronous Earth orbit (LEO-GEO) and into deep space is definitely feasible and showed distinct advantages and greater potential over current propulsion technologies. However, this conclusion also assumes that upfront infrastructure investments and commitments to critical technologies will be made over long periods of time. The chief issue, similar to that for payloads, is high infrastructure costs.

  16. Estimation of net primary productivity using a process-based model in Gansu Province, Northwest China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Peijuan; Xie, Donghui; Zhou, Yuyu; E, Youhao; Zhu, Qijiang

    2014-01-16

    The ecological structure in the arid and semi-arid region of Northwest China with forest, grassland, agriculture, Gobi, and desert, is complex, vulnerable, and unstable. It is a challenging and sustaining job to keep the ecological structure and improve its ecological function. Net primary productivity (NPP) modeling can help to improve the understanding of the ecosystem, and therefore, improve ecological efficiency. The boreal ecosystem productivity simulator (BEPS) model provides the possibility of NPP modeling in terrestrial ecosystem, but it has some limitations for application in arid and semi-arid regions. In this paper we improve the BEPS model, in terms of its water cycle by adding the processes of infiltration and surface runoff, to be applicable in arid and semi-arid regions. We model the NPP of forest, grass, and crop in Gansu Province as an experimental area in Northwest China in 2003 using the improved BEPS model, parameterized with moderate resolution remote sensing imageries and meteorological data. The modeled NPP using improved BEPS agrees better with the ground measurements in Qilian Mountain than that with original BEPS, with a higher R2 of 0.746 and lower root mean square error (RMSE) of 46.53 gC/m2 compared to R2 of 0.662 and RMSE of 60.19 gC/m2 from original BEPS. The modeled NPP of three vegetation types using improved BEPS show evident differences compared to that using original BEPS, with the highest difference ratio of 9.21% in forest and the lowest value of 4.29% in crop. The difference ratios between different vegetation types lie on the dependence on natural water sources. The modeled NPP in five geographic zones using improved BEPS are higher than those with original BEPS, with higher difference ratio in dry zones and lower value in wet zones.

  17. Measurements and simulation of forest leaf area index and net primary productivity in Northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, P; Sun, R; Hu, J; Zhu, Q; Zhou, Y; Li, L; Chen, J M

    2007-11-01

    Large scale process-based modeling is a useful approach to estimate distributions of global net primary productivity (NPP). In this paper, in order to validate an existing NPP model with observed data at site level, field experiments were conducted at three sites in northern China. One site is located in Qilian Mountain in Gansu Province, and the other two sites are in Changbaishan Natural Reserve and Dunhua County in Jilin Province. Detailed field experiments are discussed and field data are used to validate the simulated NPP. Remotely sensed images including Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+, 30 m spatial resolution in visible and near infrared bands) and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER, 15m spatial resolution in visible and near infrared bands) are used to derive maps of land cover, leaf area index, and biomass. Based on these maps, field measured data, soil texture and daily meteorological data, NPP of these sites are simulated for year 2001 with the boreal ecosystem productivity simulator (BEPS). The NPP in these sites ranges from 80 to 800 gCm(-2)a(-1). The observed NPP agrees well with the modeled NPP. This study suggests that BEPS can be used to estimate NPP in northern China if remotely sensed images of high spatial resolution are available.

  18. Status of 174 MHz RF system for BEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biryuchevsky, Yu.A.; Gorniker, E.I.; Kendjebulatov, E.K.; Krutikhin, S.A.; Kurkin, G.Ya.; Petrov, V.M.; Pilan, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    The new RF system for the BEP storage ring (which is an injector of VEPP-2000 accelerating complex) will increase the particles energy in the BEP from 0.9 to 1 GeV. RF system operates at a frequency of 174 MHz and consists of an accelerating cavity, RF power generator and control system.

  19. Variations of Terrestrial Net Primary Productivity in East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangmin Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the heterogeneity and complexity of terrestrial ecosystems of East Asia, a better understanding of relationships between climate change and net primary productivity (NPP distribution is important to predict future carbon dynamics. The objective of this study is to analyze the temporal-spatial patterns of NPP in East Asia (10°S - 55°N, 60 - 155°E from 1982 to 2006 using the process-based Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS model. Prior to the regional simulation, the annual simulated NPP was validated using field observed NPP demonstrating the ability of BEPS to simulate NPP in different ecosystems of East Asia.

  20. Energy consumption in commercial buildings: A comparison with BEPS budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    Metered energy consumption data were collected on existing commercial buildings to help establish the proposed building energy performance standards (BEPS). The search has identified 84 buildings whose metered energy consumption is equal to or less than that proposed for their BEPS budgets and another 7 buildings whose metered consumption is less than 20 percent above their BEPS budgets. The methodology used to identify the buildings and to collect their metered energy consumption data are described. The data are analyzed and summarized and conclusions are drawn.

  1. Corporate Taxation and BEPS: A Fair Slice for Developing Countries?

    OpenAIRE

    Burgers, Irene; Mosquera, Irma

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of this article is to examine the differences in perception of ‘fairness’ between developing and developed countries, which influence developing countries’ willingness to embrace the Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS) proposals and to recommend as to how to overcome these differences. The article provides an introduction to the background of the OECD’s BEPS initiatives (Action Plan, Low Income Countries Report, Multilateral Framework, Inclusive Framework) and the conc...

  2. Randomized phase III study comparing paclitaxel-bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP) to standard BEP in intermediate-prognosis germ-cell cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Wit, Ronald; Skoneczna, Iwona; Daugaard, Gedske

    2012-01-01

    To compare the efficacy of four cycles of paclitaxel-bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (T-BEP) to four cycles of bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP) in previously untreated patients with intermediate-prognosis germ-cell cancer (GCC)....

  3. Progress of Bep Treatments on Nb at JLAB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, A.T.; Jin, S.; Rimmer, R.A.; Lu, X.Y.; Zhao, K.

    2010-01-01

    Recent experimental results have indicated that Buffered Electropolishing (BEP) is a promising candidate for the next generation of surface treatment technique for Nb superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities to be used in particle accelerators. In order to lay the foundation for using BEP as the next generation surface treatment technique for Nb SRF cavities, some fundamental aspects of BEP treatments for Nb have to be investigated. In this report, recent progress on BEP study at JLab is shown. Improvements on the existing vertical BEP are made to allow water cooling from outside of a Nb single cell cavity in addition to cooling provided by acid circulation so that the temperature of the cavity can be stable during processing. Some investigation on the electrolyte mixture was performed to check the aging effect of the electrolyte. It is shown that good polishing results can still be obtained on Nb at a current density of 171 mA/cm when the BEP electrolyte was at the stationary condition and was more than 1.5 years old.

  4. A spatially explicit hydro-ecological modeling framework (BEPS-TerrainLab V2.0): Model description and test in a boreal ecosystem in Eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govind, Ajit; Chen, Jing Ming; Margolis, Hank; Ju, Weimin; Sonnentag, Oliver; Giasson, Marc-André

    2009-04-01

    SummaryA spatially explicit, process-based hydro-ecological model, BEPS-TerrainLab V2.0, was developed to improve the representation of ecophysiological, hydro-ecological and biogeochemical processes of boreal ecosystems in a tightly coupled manner. Several processes unique to boreal ecosystems were implemented including the sub-surface lateral water fluxes, stratification of vegetation into distinct layers for explicit ecophysiological representation, inclusion of novel spatial upscaling strategies and biogeochemical processes. To account for preferential water fluxes common in humid boreal ecosystems, a novel scheme was introduced based on laboratory analyses. Leaf-scale ecophysiological processes were upscaled to canopy-scale by explicitly considering leaf physiological conditions as affected by light and water stress. The modified model was tested with 2 years of continuous measurements taken at the Eastern Old Black Spruce Site of the Fluxnet-Canada Research Network located in a humid boreal watershed in eastern Canada. Comparison of the simulated and measured ET, water-table depth (WTD), volumetric soil water content (VSWC) and gross primary productivity (GPP) revealed that BEPS-TerrainLab V2.0 simulates hydro-ecological processes with reasonable accuracy. The model was able to explain 83% of the ET, 92% of the GPP variability and 72% of the WTD dynamics. The model suggests that in humid ecosystems such as eastern North American boreal watersheds, topographically driven sub-surface baseflow is the main mechanism of soil water partitioning which significantly affects the local-scale hydrological conditions.

  5. Observation and simulation of net primary productivity in Qilian Mountain, western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y; Zhu, Q; Chen, J M; Wang, Y Q; Liu, J; Sun, R; Tang, S

    2007-11-01

    We modeled net primary productivity (NPP) at high spatial resolution using an advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflection radiometer (ASTER) image of a Qilian Mountain study area using the boreal ecosystem productivity simulator (BEPS). Two key driving variables of the model, leaf area index (LAI) and land cover type, were derived from ASTER and moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) data. Other spatially explicit inputs included daily meteorological data (radiation, precipitation, temperature, humidity), available soil water holding capacity (AWC), and forest biomass. NPP was estimated for coniferous forests and other land cover types in the study area. The result showed that NPP of coniferous forests in the study area was about 4.4 tCha(-1)y(-1). The correlation coefficient between the modeled NPP and ground measurements was 0.84, with a mean relative error of about 13.9%.

  6. Indonesia and the BRICS: Implementing the BEPS Action Plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Shelepov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Tax base erosion and profit shifting (BEPS is a global problem. Finding solutions is a challenge for most countries. The global economic crisis led to a new environment and requirements for doing business. These requirements have been developed by two key international institutions: the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD and the Group of 20 (G20. This approach has engaged the developed and developing countries that are members of these institutions, as well as a significant number of partner countries. As a result, more than 100 countries have confirmed their commitment to the BEPS Action Plan. This article assesses the level of implementation of the BEPS Plan in Indonesia and in the BRICS countries of Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa. The author monitored their activities for 13 of the 15 actions (excluding Actions 11 and 15 and identifies several best practices that can be used by Russia. Monitoring considered implemented and planned actions, primarily amendments to and new norms in relevant national legislation, as well as the expected implementation time for all BEPS actions. In addition, the author assessed institutional environments created to implement the provisions of the Action Plan, consultation processes and mechanisms for informing stakeholders. Analysis shows that approaches to implementing the BEPS Action Plan differ among the six countries. Although several lag behind in terms of their implementation schedule, each country has demonstrated some efforts that can be considered best practices. Russia has succeeded the most in implementing the Action Plan

  7. Pockets of opportunity: multicultural marketing strategies for BEP growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Kelly

    2003-01-01

    Ranked among the 50 largest food service corporations in America, the Randolph-Sheppard Business Enterprise Program (BEP) represents a challenging and rewarding career opportunity for Americans who are legally blind. In recent years, however, the number of facilities and facility managers has declined. Multicultural consumers represent a major emerging growth market. The multicultural market is one of the most overlooked retail markets in the United States--and the one with the most buying power and growth potential. Multicultural marketing is among the least understood strategies available to facility managers, vocational rehabilitation counselors and BEP directors. Four major minority markets are discussed and marketing strategies are offered to help BEPs target and serve these unique consumers.

  8. Assessment of SMAP soil moisture for global simulation of gross primary production

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Liming; Chen, Jing M.; Liu, Jane; Bélair, Stéphane; Luo, Xiangzhong

    2017-07-01

    In this study, high-quality soil moisture data derived from the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite measurements are evaluated from a perspective of improving the estimation of the global gross primary production (GPP) using a process-based ecosystem model, namely, the Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS). The SMAP soil moisture data are assimilated into BEPS using an ensemble Kalman filter. The correlation coefficient (r) between simulated GPP from the sunlit leaves and Sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) measured by Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 is used as an indicator to evaluate the performance of the GPP simulation. Areas with SMAP data in low quality (i.e., forests), or with SIF in low magnitude (e.g., deserts), or both are excluded from the analysis. With the assimilated SMAP data, the r value is enhanced for Africa, Asia, and North America by 0.016, 0.013, and 0.013, respectively (p r appears in single-cropping agricultural land where the irrigation is not considered in the model but well captured by SMAP (e.g., 0.09 in North America, p < 0.05). With the assimilation of SMAP, areas with weak model performances are identified in double or triple cropping cropland (e.g., part of North China Plain) and/or mountainous area (e.g., Spain and Turkey). The correlation coefficient is enhanced by 0.01 in global average for shrub, grass, and cropland. This enhancement is small and insignificant because nonwater-stressed areas are included.

  9. Effects of the "Behavior Education Program" (BEP) on Office Discipline Referrals of Elementary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawken, Leanne S.; Sandra MacLeod, K.; Rawlings, Linda

    2007-01-01

    The "Behavior Education Program" (BEP; Crone et al., 2004) is a modified check-in, check-out intervention implemented with students who are at risk for more severe problem behaviors. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of the BEP on problem behavior with 12 elementary school students. Results indicated that the BEP was…

  10. Corporate Taxation and BEPS : A Fair Slice for Developing Countries?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgers, I.J.J.; Mosquera, Valderrama I.J.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this article is to examine the differences in perception of ‘fairness’ between developing and developed countries, which influence developing countries’ willingness to embrace the Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS) proposals and to recommend as to how to overcome these

  11. Corporate Taxation and BEPS : A Fair Slice for Developing Countries?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgers, Irene; Mosquera, Irma

    The aim of this article is to examine the differences in perception of ‘fairness’ between developing and developed countries, which influence developing countries’ willingness to embrace the Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS) proposals and to recommend as to how to overcome these differences.

  12. Corporate Taxation and BEPS: A Fair Slice for Developing Countries?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Burgers (Irene); I. Mosquera (Irma)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of this article is to examine the differences in perception of ‘fairness’ between developing and developed countries, which influence developing countries’ willingness to embrace the Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS) proposals and to recommend as to how to overcome these

  13. Simulation of salt production process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraveva, E. A.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper an approach to the use of simulation software iThink to simulate the salt production system has been proposed. The dynamic processes of the original system are substituted by processes simulated in the abstract model, but in compliance with the basic rules of the original system, which allows one to accelerate and reduce the cost of the research. As a result, a stable workable simulation model was obtained that can display the rate of the salt exhaustion and many other parameters which are important for business planning.

  14. Simulated Batch Production of Penicillin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, A.; Walker, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    Describes a program in applied biology in which the simulation of the production of penicillin in a batch fermentor is used as a teaching technique to give students experience before handling a genuine industrial fermentation process. Details are given for the calculation of minimum production cost. (JR)

  15. BEP-relations for N2 dissociation over stepped transition metal and alloy surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fronczek-Munter, Ture Rønved; Bligaard, Thomas; Christensen, Claus H.

    2008-01-01

    , a perfectly linear Bronsted-Evans-Polanyi (BEP) relation between the transition-state potential energy and the dissociative chemisorption energy is obtained. The perfect BEP relation, which extends over 12 eV in chemisorption energy, suggests that the manifestation of BEP relations for surface reactions...... is a general electronic structure effect, and that geometric effects are responsible for the scatter which is normally observed around the BEP line. The BEP relation is also shown to be valid for both surface and bulk alloys. The scatter is, however, larger than for the pure elements. This can be understood...

  16. Interest Limitation Rules in the Post-BEPS Era

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tell, Michael

    2017-01-01

    compliance by all taxpayers, according to the OECD. The focus in the OECD BEPS project and the Anti-Tax Avoidance Directive (ATAD) is to counteract these tax planning strategies to ensure taxation where the value is created (economic activity). This article focuses on one anti-tax avoidance measure: interest...... of OECD action 4 and ATAD Article 4. Lastly, the article will discuss alternatives to these interest limitation rules as a way to address BEPS.......The use of debt is, according to the OECD, one of the simplest profit-shifting techniques available in international tax planning, due to the mobility of money. A debt tax planning strategy can be applied without any people or machinery being moved or re-allocated; it can be done by advisors or in...

  17. Nuclear Waste Disposal in Space: BEP's Best Hope?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coopersmith, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    The best technology is worthless if it cannot find a market Beam energy propulsion (BEP) is a very promising technology, but faces major competition from less capable but fully developed conventional rockets. Rockets can easily handle projected markets for payloads into space. Without a new, huge demand for launch capability, BEP is unlikely to gain the resources it needs for development and application. Launching tens of thousands of tons of nuclear waste into space for safe and permanent disposal will provide that necessary demand while solving a major problem on earth. Several options exist to dispose of nuclear waste, including solar orbit, lunar orbit, soft lunar landing, launching outside the solar system, and launching into the sun

  18. Towards 250 m mapping of terrestrial primary productivity over Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsamo, A.; Chen, J. M.

    2011-12-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems are an important part of the climate and global change systems. Their role in climate change and in the global carbon cycle is yet to be well understood. Dataset from satellite earth observation, coupled with numerical models provide the unique tools for monitoring the spatial and temporal dynamics of territorial carbon cycle. The Boreal Ecosystems Productivity Simulator (BEPS) is a remote sensing based approach to quantifying the terrestrial carbon cycle by that gross and net primary productivity (GPP and NPP) and terrestrial carbon sinks and sources expressed as net ecosystem productivity (NEP). We have currently implemented a scheme to map the GPP, NPP and NEP at 250 m for first time over Canada using BEPS model. This is supplemented by improved mapping of land cover and leaf area index (LAI) at 250 m over Canada from MODIS satellite dataset. The results from BEPS are compared with MODIS GPP product and further evaluated with estimated LAI from various sources to evaluate if the results capture the trend in amount of photosynthetic biomass distributions. Final evaluation will be to validate both BEPS and MODIS primary productivity estimates over the Fluxnet sites over Canada. The primary evaluation indicate that BEPS GPP estimates capture the over storey LAI variations over Canada very well compared to MODIS GPP estimates. There is a large offset of MODIS GPP, over-estimating the lower GPP value compared to BEPS GPP estimates. These variations will further be validated based on the measured values from the Fluxnet tower measurements over Canadian. The high resolution GPP (NPP) products at 250 m will further be used to scale the outputs between different ecosystem productivity models, in our case the Canadian carbon budget model of Canadian forest sector CBM-CFS) and the Integrated Terrestrial Ecosystem Carbon model (InTEC).

  19. DIFICULTADES EN LA IMPLEMENTACION DEL PLAN BEPS EN COLOMBIA

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-Díaz, Nidia Rocio

    2015-01-01

    El presente trabajo tiene como finalidad analizar las principales dificultades que debe contraponer Colombia en la implementación del Plan BEPS, cuyo objetivo principal es evitar la erosión de las bases imponibles, lo cual requiere efectuar diversos cambios principalmente en la normatividad referente a aspectos contables y tributarios. Precisamente es esta situación la que genera mayores dificultades, por cuanto entre los Estados se genera competencia al tratar de atraer nuevos inversionistas...

  20. Randomized phase III study comparing paclitaxel-bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP) to standard BEP in intermediate-prognosis germ-cell cancer: Intergroup study EORTC 30983

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. de Wit (Ronald); I. Skoneczna (I.); G. Daugaard (Gedske); M. de Santis (Maria); A. Garin (A.); N. Aass (N.); J.A. Witjes (Alfred); P. Albers (Peter); J.D. White (Jeffrey); J.R. Germa-Lluch; S. Marreaud (Sandrine); L.A.J. Collette (Lau)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: To compare the efficacy of four cycles of paclitaxel-bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (T-BEP) to four cycles of bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP) in previously untreated patients with intermediate-prognosis germ-cell cancer (GCC). Patients and Methods: Patients were

  1. Hadron production simulation by FLUKA

    CERN Document Server

    Battistoni, G; Ferrari, A; Ranft, J; Roesler, S; Sala, P R

    2013-01-01

    For the purposes of accelerator based neutrino experiments, the simulation of parent hadron production plays a key role. In this paper a quick overview of the main ingredients of the PEANUT event generator implemented in the FLUKA Monte Carlo code is given, together with some benchmarking examples.

  2. Optimizing Photosynthetic and Respiratory Parameters Based on the Seasonal Variation Pattern in Regional Net Ecosystem Productivity Obtained from Atmospheric Inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z.; Chen, J.; Zheng, X.; Jiang, F.; Zhang, S.; Ju, W.; Yuan, W.; Mo, G.

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we explore the feasibility of optimizing ecosystem photosynthetic and respiratory parameters from the seasonal variation pattern of the net carbon flux. An optimization scheme is proposed to estimate two key parameters (Vcmax and Q10) by exploiting the seasonal variation in the net ecosystem carbon flux retrieved by an atmospheric inversion system. This scheme is implemented to estimate Vcmax and Q10 of the Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS) to improve its NEP simulation in the Boreal North America (BNA) region. Simultaneously, in-situ NEE observations at six eddy covariance sites are used to evaluate the NEE simulations. The results show that the performance of the optimized BEPS is superior to that of the BEPS with the default parameter values. These results have the implication on using atmospheric CO2 data for optimizing ecosystem parameters through atmospheric inversion or data assimilation techniques.

  3. Dependent Agents after BEPS : Especially with regard to commissionaire arrangements

    OpenAIRE

    Einar, Gustav

    2017-01-01

    The OECD estimates that every year between 100 and 240 billion US dollars of tax revenue is lost due to domestic tax base erosion and profit shifting resulting from the business practices used by multinational enterprises. In 2013, the BEPS Action Plan, encompassing 15 different actions, was sanctioned in response. In 2015, the Final Report on BEPS Action 7 was published. BEPS Action 7 targets the artificial avoidance of permanent establishment status by proposing changes to the wording of th...

  4. Strategic Control of Transfer Pricing in a BEPS Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossing, Christian Plesner; Pearson, Thomas C.; Nesimi, Ardit

    2016-01-01

    In the context of the BEPS Final Reports released by the OECD on 5 October 2015, the need to develop and implement strategies for international transfer pricing has been further intensified. Currently, the quality of transfer pricing strategies across multinational enterprises (multinationals......) varies significantly. Some multinationals have fairly advanced approaches to transfer pricing, while others still struggle with basic strategic formulation and implementation – or seem to have no formal strategic approach at all. This article provides an overview of key concepts for controlling transfer...

  5. Asymptotic normalization coefficients for 10B→9Be+p

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhamedzhanov, A.M.; Clark, H.L.; Gagliardi, C.A.; Lui, Y.; Trache, L.; Tribble, R.E.; Xu, H.M.; Zhou, X.G.; Burjan, V.; Cejpek, J.; Kroha, V.; Carstoiu, F.

    1997-01-01

    The differential cross sections for the reactions 9 Be( 10 B, 10 B) 9 Be and 9 Be( 10 B, 9 Be) 10 B have been measured at an incident energy of 100 MeV. The elastic scattering data have been used to determine the optical model parameters for the 9 Be+ 10 B system at this energy. These parameters are then used in distorted-wave Born approximation (DWBA) calculations to predict the cross sections of the 9 Be( 10 B, 9 Be) 10 B proton exchange reaction, populating the ground and low-lying states in 10 B. By normalizing the theoretical DWBA proton exchange cross sections to the experimental ones, the asymptotic normalization coefficients (ANC's), defining the normalization of the tail of the 10 B bound state wave functions in the two-particle channel 9 Be+p, have been found. The ANC for the virtual decay 10 B(g.s.)→ 9 Be+p will be used in an analysis of the 10 B( 7 Be, 8 B) 9 Be reaction to extract the ANC's for 8 B→ 7 Be +p. These ANC's determine the normalization of the 7 Be(p,γ) 8 B radiative capture cross section at very low energies, which is crucially important for nuclear astrophysics. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  6. BEPS redesign of 168 commercial buildings: summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoops, J.L.; Deringer, J.J.; Moreno, S.; Misuriello, H.P.

    1984-05-01

    The objective of this report is to present, in usable form, summary data from the Building Energy Performance Standards (BEPS) Phase II commercial buildings energy research conducted in 1978-1979. Summary data presented were obtained from two major research efforts: the BEPS Phase II Redesign experiment; and the related research on ASHRAE Standard 90-75R. The bulk of this report consists of data tabulations of key energy parameters for the 168 sample buildings, which were tabulated from computer-stored files of the 1978-1979 data. Two kinds of tabulations are included: numerical tabulations that extracted information from the computer-stored data base for the 168 sample buildings; and graphic presentations of the computer-generated data, plus data extracted from other sources. The intent is to provide a single data compendium of key energy-related factors from the 1978 redesign experiment and the associated 1978-1979 ASHRAE Standard 90-75R research. This report also supplements the information for which there was not space in the magazine articles. Thus, for some building types, additional analysis, comments, and data tabulations are included that could not be included in the articles because space was limited. These additional analysis items are not consistent across building types because both the energy conservation opportunities and the design strategies applied by the building designers varied considerably by building type. The chapters have been entered individually into EDB and ERA.

  7. ATAD (DIRECTIVE 2016/1164/EU AND BEPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ancuta-Larisa TOMA

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In the latest tax competition between the European countries, and not just them (as we will see that this is happening at a global level, made the private companies to chose the best optimization plan for their businesses in all areas so choosing the country that best fitted their needs. This aroused multiple complaints from the countries that had a higher levele of taxation blaming the others and the business men for fiscal crime. As a result of this argument an labeling, there were born two important legislative acts: BEPS and ATAD. In this article I will try to show the connection between this two legislative acts, showing their importance in the intelectual property area and also in the business field. We will se the similarities between them and why this exists and I will explain just a part of the numerous rules established by the international acts BEPS and ATAD. The importance of fiscality and of the businesses, of the multinationals in the context of the globalisation and of the R&D, patents, trademarks, copyrights, all of them are connected and cannot survive without each other in nowadays society, that is why I consider important to present this article and to have together a look into the complicate world of fiscal law

  8. BEPS Hybrid Entities Proposal: A slippery slope, especially for developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanghavi, Dhruv

    2017-01-01

    Article 1(2) has been proposed in the final report on G20/OECD's Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS) Action 2. Two principle purposes of the BEPS project can be identified: First, to combat against aggressive tax planning which results in less than single taxation, and secondly, to allocate

  9. Effects of topography on simulated net primary productivity at landscape scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X F; Chen, J M; An, S Q; Ju, W M

    2007-11-01

    Local topography significantly affects spatial variations of climatic variables and soil water movement in complex terrain. Therefore, the distribution and productivity of ecosystems are closely linked to topography. Using a coupled terrestrial carbon and hydrological model (BEPS-TerrainLab model), the topographic effects on the net primary productivity (NPP) are analyzed through four modelling experiments for a 5700 km(2) area in Baohe River basin, Shaanxi Province, northwest of China. The model was able to capture 81% of the variability in NPP estimated from tree rings, with a mean relative error of 3.1%. The average NPP in 2003 for the study area was 741 gCm(-2)yr(-1) from a model run including topographic effects on the distributions of climate variables and lateral flow of ground water. Topography has considerable effect on NPP, which peaks near 1350 m above the sea level. An elevation increase of 100 m above this level reduces the average annual NPP by about 25 gCm(-2). The terrain aspect gives rise to a NPP change of 5% for forests located below 1900 m as a result of its influence on incident solar radiation. For the whole study area, a simulation totally excluding topographic effects on the distributions of climatic variables and ground water movement overestimated the average NPP by 5%.

  10. The Chemical Product Simulator - ProCAPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalakul, Sawitree; Eden, Mario Richard; Gani, Rafiqul

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a chemical product design simulator called ProCAPD is presented. ProCAPD works in the same way as a chemical process simulator, that is, it helps to verify product design decisions and generates information that can be used to make design decisions. Like the contents of the process...... simulator, the product simulator needs a database of chemicals and properties, a library of models, numerical routines to solve mathematical problems as well as various calculation options. Also, like the process simulator, the product simulator comes with a user-interface to describe the problems.......); calculation tools (product attributes, blend compositions, environmental impact, etc.); design templates (single molecules, blends, formulations, emulsions, devices); and, design-simulation-analysis functions. All these capabilities are based on the prototype tool developed by Kalakul et al. (2017...

  11. Production of Synthetic Lunar Simulants, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Zybek Advanced Products has proven the ability to produce industrial quantities of lunar simulant materials, including glass, agglutinate and melt breccias. These...

  12. Enhanced productivity of simulation engineers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohrmann, C.

    1999-01-01

    Simulation has always required a hybrid collection of individuals for software development and maintenance, half engineers and half computer scientists. This paper presents a chronology and an indication of some of the technology currently available to simplify simulation software development and maintenance so that engineers can truly be engineers and not computer scientists. (author)

  13. Simulation of the FRP Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paugam, Ronan; Wooster, Martin; Johnston, Joshua; Gastellu-Etchegorry, Jean-Philippe

    2014-05-01

    Among the different alternative of remote sensing technologies for estimating global fire carbon emission, the thermally-based measures of fire radiative power (FRP; and its temporal integration, fire radiative energy or FRE) has the potential to capture the spatial and temporal variability of fire occurrence. It was shown that a strong linear relationship exists between the total amount of thermal radiant energy emitted by a fire over its lifetime (the FRE) and the amount of fuel burned. Since all vegetation is 50(±5)% carbon, it is therefore in theory a potentially simple matter to measure the FRE and estimate the carbon release. In a fire inventory like the Global Fire Assimilation System (GFAS), the total carbon emission is derived from a gridded FRE product forced by the MODIS observation, using Ct = β x FRE x Ef, where β is a conversion factor initially estimated from small scale experiment as β=0.368 and later derived for different bio dome by comparison with the Global Fire Emission Database (GFED). The sensitivities of the above equation to (i) different types of fire activity (ie, flaming, smoldering, torching), (ii) sensor view angles or (iii) soot/smoke absorption have not yet been well studied. The investigation of these types of sensitivity, and of the information content of thermal IR observations of actively burning fires in general, is one of the primary subjects of this study. Our approach is based on a combination of observational work and simulations conducted via the linkage of different fire models and the 3D radiative transfer (RT) model DART operating in the thermal domain. The radiation properties of a fire as seen from above its plume (e.g. space/air borne sensor) depend on the temperature distribution, the gas concentration (mainly CO2, H2O), and the amount, shape, distribution and optical properties of the soot particles in the flame (where they are emitting) and in the cooling plume (where they are mainly absorbing). While gas and

  14. Productivity improvement using discrete events simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazza, M. H. F. Al; Elbishari, E. M. Y.; Ismail, M. Y. Bin; Adesta, E. Y. T.; Rahman, Nur Salihah Binti Abdul

    2018-01-01

    The increasing in complexity of the manufacturing systems has increased the cost of investment in many industries. Furthermore, the theoretical feasibility studies are not enough to take the decision in investing for that particular area. Therefore, the development of the new advanced software is protecting the manufacturer from investing money in production lines that may not be sufficient and effective with their requirement in terms of machine utilization and productivity issue. By conducting a simulation, using accurate model will reduce and eliminate the risk associated with their new investment. The aim of this research is to prove and highlight the importance of simulation in decision-making process. Delmia quest software was used as a simulation program to run a simulation for the production line. A simulation was first done for the existing production line and show that the estimated production rate is 261 units/day. The results have been analysed based on utilization percentage and idle time. Two different scenarios have been proposed based on different objectives. The first scenario is by focusing on low utilization machines and their idle time, this was resulted in minimizing the number of machines used by three with the addition of the works who maintain them without having an effect on the production rate. The second scenario is to increase the production rate by upgrading the curing machine which lead to the increase in the daily productivity by 7% from 261 units to 281 units.

  15. Electronic structure and physical properties of the spinel-type phase of BeP2N4 from all-electron density functional calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ching, W. Y.; Aryal, Sitram; Rulis, Paul; Schnick, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Using density-functional-theory-based ab initio methods, the electronic structure and physical properties of the newly synthesized nitride BeP 2 N 4 with a phenakite-type structure and the predicted high-pressure spinel phase of BeP 2 N 4 are studied in detail. It is shown that both polymorphs are wide band-gap semiconductors with relatively small electron effective masses at the conduction-band minima. The spinel-type phase is more covalently bonded due to the increased number of P-N bonds for P at the octahedral sites. Calculations of mechanical properties indicate that the spinel-type polymorph is a promising superhard material with notably large bulk, shear, and Young's moduli. Also calculated are the Be K, P K, P L 3 , and N K edges of the electron energy-loss near-edge structure for both phases. They show marked differences because of the different local environments of the atoms in the two crystalline polymorphs. These differences will be very useful for the experimental identification of the products of high-pressure syntheses targeting the predicted spinel-type phase of BeP 2 N 4 .

  16. Stress Linearization and Strength Evaluation of the BEP's Flow Plates for a Dual Cooled Fuel Assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Yong; Yoon, Kyung Ho; Kang, Heung Seok; Lee, Young Ho; Lee, Kang Hee; Kim, Hyung Kyu

    2009-01-01

    A fuel assembly is composed of 5 major components, such as a top end piece (TEP), a bottom end piece (BEP), spacer grids (SGs), guide tubes (GTs) and an instrumentation tube (IT) and fuel rods (FRs). There are no ASME criteria about all components except for a TEP/BEP. The TEP/BEP should satisfy stress intensity limits in case of condition A and B of ASME, Section III, Division 1 . Subsection NB. In a dual cooled fuel assembly, the array and position of fuels are changed from those of a conventional PWR fuel assembly to achieve a power uprating. The flow plates of top/bottom end pieces (TEP/BEP) have to be modified into proper shape to provide flow holes to direct the heated coolant into/out of the fuel assembly but structural intensity of these plates within a 22.241 kN axial loading should satisfy Tresca stress limits in ASME code. In this paper, stress linearization procedure and strength evaluation of a newly designed BEP for the dual cooled fuel assembly are described

  17. Improved assessment of gross and net primary productivity of Canada's landmass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsamo, Alemu; Chen, Jing M.; Price, David T.; Kurz, Werner A.; Liu, Jane; Boisvenue, Céline; Hember, Robbie A.; Wu, Chaoyang; Chang, Kuo-Hsien

    2013-12-01

    assess Canada's gross primary productivity (GPP) and net primary productivity (NPP) using boreal ecosystem productivity simulator (BEPS) at 250 m spatial resolution with improved input parameter and driver fields and phenology and nutrient release parameterization schemes. BEPS is a process-based two-leaf enzyme kinetic terrestrial ecosystem model designed to simulate energy, water, and carbon (C) fluxes using spatial data sets of meteorology, remotely sensed land surface variables, soil properties, and photosynthesis and respiration rate parameters. Two improved key land surface variables, leaf area index (LAI) and land cover type, are derived at 250 m from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer sensor. For diagnostic error assessment, we use nine forest flux tower sites where all measured C flux, meteorology, and ancillary data sets are available. The errors due to input drivers and parameters are then independently corrected for Canada-wide GPP and NPP simulations. The optimized LAI use, for example, reduced the absolute bias in GPP from 20.7% to 1.1% for hourly BEPS simulations. Following the error diagnostics and corrections, daily GPP and NPP are simulated over Canada at 250 m spatial resolution, the highest resolution simulation yet for the country or any other comparable region. Total NPP (GPP) for Canada's land area was 1.27 (2.68) Pg C for 2008, with forests contributing 1.02 (2.2) Pg C. The annual comparisons between measured and simulated GPP show that the mean differences are not statistically significant (p > 0.05, paired t test). The main BEPS simulation error sources are from the driver fields.

  18. Hybrid simulation models of production networks

    CERN Document Server

    Kouikoglou, Vassilis S

    2001-01-01

    This book is concerned with a most important area of industrial production, that of analysis and optimization of production lines and networks using discrete-event models and simulation. The book introduces a novel approach that combines analytic models and discrete-event simulation. Unlike conventional piece-by-piece simulation, this method observes a reduced number of events between which the evolution of the system is tracked analytically. Using this hybrid approach, several models are developed for the analysis of production lines and networks. The hybrid approach combines speed and accuracy for exceptional analysis of most practical situations. A number of optimization problems, involving buffer design, workforce planning, and production control, are solved through the use of hybrid models.

  19. A randomised phase 2 trial of intensive induction chemotherapy (CBOP/BEP) and standard BEP in poor-prognosis germ cell tumours (MRC TE23, CRUK 05/014, ISRCTN 53643604).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddart, Robert A; Gabe, Rhian; Cafferty, Fay H; Pollock, Philip; White, Jeff D; Shamash, Jonathan; Cullen, Michael H; Stenning, Sally P

    2015-03-01

    Standard chemotherapy for poor-prognosis metastatic nonseminoma has remained bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP) for many years; more effective regimens are required. To explore whether response rates with a new intensive chemotherapy regimen, CBOP/BEP (carboplatin, bleomycin, vincristine, cisplatin/BEP), versus those in concurrent patients treated with standard BEP justify a phase 3 trial. We conducted a phase 2 open-label randomised trial in patients with germ cell tumours of any extracranial primary site and one or more International Germ Cell Cancer Collaborative Group poor-prognosis features. Patients were randomised between 2005 and 2009 at 16 UK centres. BEP (bleomycin 30,000 IU) was composed of four cycles over 12 wk. CBOP/BEP was composed of 2×CBOP, 2×BO, and 3×BEP (bleomycin 15,000 IU). Primary end point was favourable response rate (FRR) comprising complete response or partial response and normal markers. Success required the lower two-sided 90% confidence limit to exclude FRRs <60%; 44 patients on CBOP/BEP gives 90% power to achieve this if the true FRR is ≥80%. Equal numbers were randomised to BEP to benchmark contemporary response rates. A total of 89 patients were randomised (43 CBOP/BEP, 46 BEP); 40 and 41, respectively, completed treatment. CBOP/BEP toxicity, largely haematologic, was high (96% vs 63% on BEP had Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v.3 grade ≥3). FRRs were 74% (90% confidence interval [CI], 61-85) with CBOP/BEP, 61% with BEP (90% CI, 48-73). After a median of 58-mo follow-up, 1-yr progression-free survival (PFS) was 65% and 43%, respectively (hazard ratio: 0.59; 95% CI, 0.33-1.06); 2-yr overall survival (OS) was 67% and 61%. Overall, 3 of 14 CBOP/BEP and 2 of 18 BEP deaths were attributed to toxicity, one after an overdose of bleomycin during CBOP/BEP. The trial was not powered to compare PFS. The primary outcome was met, the CI for CBOP/BEP excluding FRRs <61%, but CBOP/BEP was more toxic. PFS and OS data

  20. Simulation Study of a Vehicle Production Line for Productivity Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F.F. Ab Rashid

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the study of a motorcycle frame production line in a particular company in Malaysia. Due to the high demand, the company needs to increase its production by at least 12% compared with current output. In order to improve productivity, the production-floor data was collected and simulated using the discrete event simulation approach. Later, a number of suggestions for improvement were simulated to identify the effect of the suggestions on productivity. In addition, cost analysis was also undertaken to identify the profit margin for a particular period of time for each suggestion. Simulation results indicate that there are three suggestions that are able to fulfill the 12% volume increment. In the short term, the suggestion to hire an assistant line leader will give instant effect to the profit. Meanwhile, for the medium term, Poka-yoke will give higher profit compared with the others, while in the long term, SOP (standard operating procedure implementation will yield a better profit margin. In future, the simulation of a dynamic demand model for this product is suggested to cope with new trends in the market.

  1. Image based SAR product simulation for analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domik, G.; Leberl, F.

    1987-01-01

    SAR product simulation serves to predict SAR image gray values for various flight paths. Input typically consists of a digital elevation model and backscatter curves. A new method is described of product simulation that employs also a real SAR input image for image simulation. This can be denoted as 'image-based simulation'. Different methods to perform this SAR prediction are presented and advantages and disadvantages discussed. Ascending and descending orbit images from NASA's SIR-B experiment were used for verification of the concept: input images from ascending orbits were converted into images from a descending orbit; the results are compared to the available real imagery to verify that the prediction technique produces meaningful image data.

  2. The Impact of the OECD BEPS Action Plan on Finnish Multinational Companies – Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hirvinen, Jyri

    2017-01-01

    This research attempts to evaluate the effects that the new OECD BEPS action plan might cause to the companies, main focus being in Finnish multinational companies and in the company being researched in the case study part of the research. The author understands the limitations of the one company case study model in the research but believes that use-ful information can be gained on the effects of the OECD BEPS action plan by examining the changes that the case study company has to go through...

  3. An Investigation of the Impact of Function of Problem Behavior on Effectiveness of the Behavior Education Program (BEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawken, Leanne S.; O'Neill, Robert E.; MacLeod, K. Sandra

    2011-01-01

    The Behavior Education Program (BEP) is a check-in, check-out intervention implemented with students who are at-risk for engaging in more severe problem behavior. Previous research with middle and elementary school students found that the BEP was more effective with students who had adult attention maintained problem behavior. The purposes of this…

  4. BID-F1 and BID-F2 domains of Bartonella henselae effector protein BepF trigger together with BepC the formation of invasome structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truttmann, Matthias C; Guye, Patrick; Dehio, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    The gram-negative, zoonotic pathogen Bartonella henselae (Bhe) translocates seven distinct Bartonella effector proteins (Beps) via the VirB/VirD4 type IV secretion system (T4SS) into human cells, thereby interfering with host cell signaling [1], [2]. In particular, the effector protein BepG alone or the combination of effector proteins BepC and BepF trigger massive F-actin rearrangements that lead to the establishment of invasome structures eventually resulting in the internalization of entire Bhe aggregates [2], [3]. In this report, we investigate the molecular function of the effector protein BepF in the eukaryotic host cell. We show that the N-terminal [E/T]PLYAT tyrosine phosphorylation motifs of BepF get phosphorylated upon translocation but do not contribute to invasome-mediated Bhe uptake. In contrast, we found that two of the three BID domains of BepF are capable to trigger invasome formation together with BepC, while a mutation of the WxxxE motif of the BID-F1 domain inhibited its ability to contribute to the formation of invasome structures. Next, we show that BepF function during invasome formation can be replaced by the over-expression of constitutive-active Rho GTPases Rac1 or Cdc42. Finally we demonstrate that BID-F1 and BID-F2 domains promote the formation of filopodia-like extensions in NIH 3T3 and HeLa cells as well as membrane protrusions in HeLa cells, suggesting a role for BepF in Rac1 and Cdc42 activation during the process of invasome formation.

  5. BID-F1 and BID-F2 domains of Bartonella henselae effector protein BepF trigger together with BepC the formation of invasome structures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias C Truttmann

    Full Text Available The gram-negative, zoonotic pathogen Bartonella henselae (Bhe translocates seven distinct Bartonella effector proteins (Beps via the VirB/VirD4 type IV secretion system (T4SS into human cells, thereby interfering with host cell signaling [1], [2]. In particular, the effector protein BepG alone or the combination of effector proteins BepC and BepF trigger massive F-actin rearrangements that lead to the establishment of invasome structures eventually resulting in the internalization of entire Bhe aggregates [2], [3]. In this report, we investigate the molecular function of the effector protein BepF in the eukaryotic host cell. We show that the N-terminal [E/T]PLYAT tyrosine phosphorylation motifs of BepF get phosphorylated upon translocation but do not contribute to invasome-mediated Bhe uptake. In contrast, we found that two of the three BID domains of BepF are capable to trigger invasome formation together with BepC, while a mutation of the WxxxE motif of the BID-F1 domain inhibited its ability to contribute to the formation of invasome structures. Next, we show that BepF function during invasome formation can be replaced by the over-expression of constitutive-active Rho GTPases Rac1 or Cdc42. Finally we demonstrate that BID-F1 and BID-F2 domains promote the formation of filopodia-like extensions in NIH 3T3 and HeLa cells as well as membrane protrusions in HeLa cells, suggesting a role for BepF in Rac1 and Cdc42 activation during the process of invasome formation.

  6. CMS: Simulated Higgs production and decay

    CERN Multimedia

    David Barney

    2005-01-01

    This track is an example of simulated data modelled for the CMS detector on the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, which will begin taking data in 2008. These graphics show two possible signatures that a Higgs boson may leave in the detector. As the Higgs will be very short-lived, it cannot be observed directly but rather its production is inferred from the products of its decay.

  7. Kanban simulation model for production process optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golchev Riste

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A long time has passed since the KANBAN system has been established as an efficient method for coping with the excessive inventory. Still, the possibilities for its improvement through its integration with other different approaches should be investigated further. The basic research challenge of this paper is to present benefits of KANBAN implementation supported with Discrete Event Simulation (DES. In that direction, at the beginning, the basics of KANBAN system are presented with emphasis on the information and material flow, together with a methodology for implementation of KANBAN system. Certain analysis on combining the simulation with this methodology is presented. The paper is concluded with a practical example which shows that through understanding the philosophy of the implementation methodology of KANBAN system and the simulation methodology, a simulation model can be created which can serve as a basis for a variety of experiments that can be conducted within a short period of time, resulting with production process optimization.

  8. Multiscale simulation approach for battery production systems

    CERN Document Server

    Schönemann, Malte

    2017-01-01

    Addressing the challenge of improving battery quality while reducing high costs and environmental impacts of the production, this book presents a multiscale simulation approach for battery production systems along with a software environment and an application procedure. Battery systems are among the most important technologies of the 21st century since they are enablers for the market success of electric vehicles and stationary energy storage solutions. However, the performance of batteries so far has limited possible applications. Addressing this challenge requires an interdisciplinary understanding of dynamic cause-effect relationships between processes, equipment, materials, and environmental conditions. The approach in this book supports the integrated evaluation of improvement measures and is usable for different planning horizons. It is applied to an exemplary battery cell production and module assembly in order to demonstrate the effectiveness and potential benefits of the simulation.

  9. Lowering the Permanent Establishment Threshold via the Anti-BEPS Convention: Much Ado about Nothing?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.F. de Wilde (Maarten)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe author examines the lowering of the threshold at which commissionaire, auxiliary, and building site and construction activities qualify as a permanent establishment under the Multilateral anti-BEPS Convention (MLI). With a view to countries planning to implement the provisions in

  10. The Meaning of Avoidance and Aggressive Tax Planning and the BEPS Initiative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.F. de Wilde (Maarten); C. Wisman (Ciska)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractThis national report has been prepared as a contribution to the Conference of the European Association of Tax Law Professors entitled ‘Tax Avoidance Revisited: Exploring the Boundaries of Anti-Avoidance Rules in the EU BEPS Context. The conference is to be held in Munich, Germany, on

  11. Simulation and Flexibility Analysis of Milk Production Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Hongyuan; Friis, Alan

    . Such flexible dairy production line can adjust its production pace in manufacturing different products without replacing existing equipment in the production line. In this work, the dairy process simulator is applied to study the flexibility of milk production line. In the same production line, various......In this work, process simulation method is used to simulate pasteurised market milk production line. A commercial process simulation tool - Pro/II from Simulation Science Inc. is used in the simulation work. In the simulation, a new model is used to calculate the thermal property of milk....... In this work, a simulator is obtained for the milk production line. Using the simulator, different milk processing situation can be quantitatively simulated investigated, such as different products production, capacity changes, fat content changes in raw milk, energy cost at different operation conditions etc...

  12. Erosion products in disruption simulation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safronov, V.; Arkhipov, N.; Bakhtin, V.; Barsuk, V.; Kurkin, S.; Mironova, E.; Toporkov, D.; Vasenin, S.; Zhitlukhin, A.; Arkhipov, I.; Werle, H.; Wuerz, H.

    1998-01-01

    Erosion of divertor materials under tokamak disruption event presents a serious problem of ITER technology. Erosion restricts the divertor lifetime and leads to production of redeposited layers of the material retaining large amount of tritium, which is a major safety issue for future fusion reactor. Since ITER disruptive heat loads are not achievable in existing tokamaks, material erosion is studied in special simulation experiments. Till now the simulation experiments have focused mainly on investigation of shielding effect and measurement of erosion rate. In the present work the properties of eroded and redeposited graphite are studied under condition typical for hard ITER disruption. (author)

  13. Simulation methods for nuclear production scheduling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miles, W.T.; Markel, L.C.

    1975-01-01

    Recent developments and applications of simulation methods for use in nuclear production scheduling and fuel management are reviewed. The unique characteristics of the nuclear fuel cycle as they relate to the overall optimization of a mixed nuclear-fossil system in both the short-and mid-range time frame are described. Emphasis is placed on the various formulations and approaches to the mid-range planning problem, whose objective is the determination of an optimal (least cost) system operation strategy over a multi-year planning horizon. The decomposition of the mid-range problem into power system simulation, reactor core simulation and nuclear fuel management optimization, and system integration models is discussed. Present utility practices, requirements, and research trends are described. 37 references

  14. SWOT Oceanography and Hydrology Data Product Simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peral, Eva; Rodriguez, Ernesto; Fernandez, Daniel Esteban; Johnson, Michael P.; Blumstein, Denis

    2013-01-01

    The proposed Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission would demonstrate a new measurement technique using radar interferometry to obtain wide-swath measurements of water elevation at high resolution over ocean and land, addressing the needs of both the hydrology and oceanography science communities. To accurately evaluate the performance of the proposed SWOT mission, we have developed several data product simulators at different levels of fidelity and complexity.

  15. Interest Deductibility and the BEPS Action Plan: nihil novi sub sole?

    OpenAIRE

    Traversa, Edoardo

    2013-01-01

    Interest payments between affiliated companies which aim at shifting profit from high to low tax countries are a well-known and frequently used tool in international tax planning. It is therefore not surprising that in the OECD Action Plan on Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS) (Action Plan) considerable attention is given to the measures limiting the deductibility of (excessive) intra-group interest payments.1 The Action Plan does not, however, provide any clear guidance as to which, amo...

  16. Lowering the Permanent Establishment Threshold via the Anti-BEPS Convention: Much Ado about Nothing?

    OpenAIRE

    Wilde, Maarten

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe author examines the lowering of the threshold at which commissionaire, auxiliary, and building site and construction activities qualify as a permanent establishment under the Multilateral anti-BEPS Convention (MLI). With a view to countries planning to implement the provisions in this convention on permanent establishments within their tax treaty networks, the author argues for exercising a degree of caution. Some caution may be worthwhile to be exercised specifically with reg...

  17. Simulation Based Optimization for World Line Card Production System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan APAK

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Simulation based decision support system is one of the commonly used tool to examine complex production systems. The simulation approach provides process modules which can be adjusted with certain parameters by using data relatively easily obtainable in production process. World Line Card production system simulation is developed to evaluate the optimality of existing production line via using discrete event simulation model with variaty of alternative proposals. The current production system is analysed by a simulation model emphasizing the bottlenecks and the poorly utilized production line. Our analysis identified some improvements and efficient solutions for the existing system.

  18. 7Be(p, γ)8B and the high-energy solar neutrino flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csoto, A.

    1997-01-01

    Despite thirty years of extensive experimental and theoretical work, the predicted solar neutrino flux is still in sharp disagreement with measurements. The solar neutrino measurements strongly suggest that the problem cannot be solved within the standard electroweak and astrophysical theories. Thus, the solar neutrino problem constitutes the strongest evidence for physics beyond the Standard Model. Whatever the solution of the solar neutrino problem turns out to be, it is of paramount importance that the input parameters of the underlying electroweak and solar theories rest upon solid ground. The most uncertain nuclear input parameter in standard solar models is the low-energy 7 Be(p, γ) 8 B radiative capture cross section. This reaction produces 8 B in the Sun, whose β + decay is the main source of the high-energy solar neutrinos. Here, the importance of the 7 Be(p, γ) 8 B reaction in predicting the high energy solar neutrino flux is discussed. The author presents a microscopic eight-body model and a potential model for the calculation of the 7 Be(p, γ) 8 B cross section

  19. Probabilistic production simulation including CHP plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, H.V.; Palsson, H.; Ravn, H.F.

    1997-04-01

    A probabilistic production simulation method is presented for an energy system containing combined heat and power plants. The method permits incorporation of stochastic failures (forced outages) of the plants and is well suited for analysis of the dimensioning of the system, that is, for finding the appropriate types and capacities of production plants in relation to expansion planning. The method is in the tradition of similar approaches for the analysis of power systems, based on the load duration curve. The present method extends on this by considering a two-dimensional load duration curve where the two dimensions represent heat and power. The method permits the analysis of a combined heat and power system which includes all the basic relevant types of plants, viz., condensing plants, back pressure plants, extraction plants and heat plants. The focus of the method is on the situation where the heat side has priority. This implies that on the power side there may be imbalances between demand and production. The method permits quantification of the expected power overflow, the expected unserviced power demand, and the expected unserviced heat demand. It is shown that a discretization method as well as double Fourier series may be applied in algorithms based on the method. (au) 1 tab., 28 ills., 21 refs.

  20. ANALISA BREAK EVENT POINT (BEP TERHADAP LABA PERUSAHAAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Yusuf

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Break event point or the break-even point can be defined as a situation where the operating company does not make a profit and not a loss. The goal is to provide the knowledge to increase knowledge about the break event point (the point of principal and its relationship with the company profit and to know how the results of the. Analysis break event point is very important for the leadership of the company to determine the production rate how much the cost will be equal to the amount of sales or in other words to determine the break event point we will determine the relationship between sales, production, selling price, cost, loss or profit, making it easier for leaders to take discretion.DOI: 10.15408/ess.v4i1.1955 

  1. Internprising i multinasjonale konsern - En analyse av eierskapsbestemmelsene til overskudd fra immaterielle eiendeler i skatteavtalesituasjoner etter OECDs reviderte retningslinjer fra BEPS-prosjektet

    OpenAIRE

    Hamnes, Benjamin Jacobsen

    2017-01-01

    Oppgaven omhandler OECDs oppdaterte internprisingsretningslinjer fra BEPS-prosjektet, som medfører endrede begrensninger i rettslig eiers rett til residualoverskudd fra en selvutviklet immateriell eiendel.

  2. Amino acid analysis and cell cycle dependent phosphorylation of an H1-like, butyrate-enhanced protein (BEP; H10; IP25) from Chinese hamster cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Anna, J.A.; Gurley, L.R.; Becker, R.R.; Barham, S.S.; Tobey, R.A.; Walters, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    A fraction enriched in the butyrate-enhanced protein (BEP) has been isolated from Chinese hamster (line CHO) cells by perchloric acid extraction and Bio-Rex 70 chromatography. Amino acid analyses indicate that the composition of BEP resembles that of CHO H1; however, BEP contains 11% less alanine than H1, and, in contrast to H1, BEP contains methionine. Treatment of BEP with cyanogen bromide results in the cleavage of a small fragment of approx. 20 amino acids so that the large fragment seen in sodium dodecyl sulfate-acrylamide gels has a molecular weight of approx. 20,000. Radiolabeling and electrophoresis indicate that BEP is phosphorylated in a cell cycle dependent fashion. These data suggest that (1) BEP is a specialized histone of the H1 class and (2) BEP is the species equivalent of calf lung histone H1 0 , rat H1 0 , and IP 25 , a protein enhanced in differentiated Friend erythroleukemia cells. The data also indicate that putative HMG1 and HMG2 proteins do not undergo the extensive cell cycle dependent phosphorylations measured for histone H1 and BEP

  3. Simulating plasma production from hypervelocity impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fletcher, Alex, E-mail: alexcf@stanford.edu; Close, Sigrid [Stanford University, Aeronautics and Astronautics, 496 Lomita Mall, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Mathias, Donovan [NASA Ames Research Center, Bldg. 258, Moffett Field, California 94035 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Hypervelocity particles, such as meteoroids and space debris, routinely impact spacecraft and are energetic enough to vaporize and ionize themselves and as well as a portion of the target material. The resulting plasma rapidly expands into the surrounding vacuum. While plasma measurements from hypervelocity impacts have been made using ground-based technologies such as light gas guns and Van de Graaff dust accelerators, some of the basic plasma properties vary significantly between experiments. There have been both ground-based and in-situ measurements of radio frequency (RF) emission from hypervelocity impacts, but the physical mechanism responsible and the possible connection to the impact-produced plasma are not well understood. Under certain conditions, the impact-produced plasma can have deleterious effects on spacecraft electronics by providing a new current path, triggering an electrostatic discharge, causing electromagnetic interference, or generating an electromagnetic pulse. Multi-physics simulations of plasma production from hypervelocity impacts are presented. These simulations incorporate elasticity and plasticity of the solid target, phase change and plasma formation, and non-ideal plasma physics due to the high density and low temperature of the plasma. A smoothed particle hydrodynamics method is used to perform a continuum dynamics simulation with these additional physics. By examining a series of hypervelocity impacts, basic properties of the impact produced plasma plume (density, temperature, expansion speed, charge state) are determined for impactor speeds between 10 and 72 km/s. For a large range of higher impact speeds (30–72 km/s), we find the temperature is unvarying at 2.5 eV. We also find that the plasma plume is weakly ionized for impact speeds less than 14 km/s and fully ionized for impact speeds greater than 20 km/s, independent of impactor mass. This is the same velocity threshold for the detection of RF emission in recent

  4. A physiological production model for cacao : results of model simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuidema, P.A.; Leffelaar, P.A.

    2002-01-01

    CASE2 is a physiological model for cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) growth and yield. This report introduces the CAcao Simulation Engine for water-limited production in a non-technical way and presents simulation results obtained with the model.

  5. Study of Low Temperature Baking Effect on Field Emission on Nb Samples Treated by BEP, EP, and BCP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Andy; Jin, Song; Rimmer, Robert; Lu, Xiang Yang; Zhao, K.; MacIntyre, Laura; Ike, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Field emission is still one of the major obstacles facing Nb superconducting radio frequency (SRF) community for allowing Nb SRF cavities to reach routinely accelerating gradient of 35 MV/m that is required for the international linear collider. Nowadays, the well know low temperature baking at 120 C for 48 hours is a common procedure used in the SRF community to improve the high field Q slope. However, some cavity production data have showed that the low temperature baking may induce field emission for cavities treated by EP. On the other hand, an earlier study of field emission on Nb flat samples treated by BCP showed an opposite conclusion. In this presentation, the preliminary measurements of Nb flat samples treated by BEP, EP, and BCP via our unique home-made scanning field emission microscope before and after the low temperature baking are reported. Some correlations between surface smoothness and the number of the observed field emitters were found. The observed experimental results can be understood, at least partially, by a simple model that involves the change of the thickness of the pent-oxide layer on Nb surfaces.

  6. OECD BEPS: Reconciling global trade, taxation principles and the digital economy

    OpenAIRE

    Lee-Makiyama, Hosuk; Verschelde, Bert

    2014-01-01

    Following media reports on the low tax rates paid by some of the world's largest multinationals, international tax reform has moved to the top of policy-makers' agendas across the world. At the request of the G20, the OECD has designed an action plan to address what it calls base erosion and profit shifting (BEPS) - namely that the corporate tax base is eroding due to the internet. However OECD itself admits there is no evidence of base erosion in reality. Nonetheless, some OECD and EU Member...

  7. The Meaning of Avoidance and Aggressive Tax Planning and the BEPS Initiative

    OpenAIRE

    Wilde, Maarten; Wisman, Ciska

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractThis national report has been prepared as a contribution to the Conference of the European Association of Tax Law Professors entitled ‘Tax Avoidance Revisited: Exploring the Boundaries of Anti-Avoidance Rules in the EU BEPS Context. The conference is to be held in Munich, Germany, on 2-4 June 2016. The national report – quite comprehensively – deals with the phenomena of tax avoidance and tax planning by multinationals and the addressing of these in the Netherlands’ corporatio...

  8. Experimental study of collective effects in BEP storage ring with high stored current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danilov, V.; Koop, I.; Lysenko, A.; Militsyn, B.; Nesterenko, I.; Perevedentsev, E.; Pozdeev, E.; Ptitsin, V.; Shatunov, Yu.; Vasserman, I.

    1993-01-01

    The results of extensive investigation of beam dynamics with high current in BEP booster are presented. Strong bunch lengthening due to the potential well distortion by the inductive impedance was observed on the background of the multiple intrabeam scattering and of the ion accumulation (in the e - beam). The octupole and sextupole corrections enabled control of collective damping of the head-tail modes. Fast damping is also observed at zero chromaticity, this is attributed to the injection kickers acting as transmission lines. The proper tuning of the nonlinearity corrections cures the transverse instabilities and enables capability to store up to 0.8A current in a single bunch

  9. Virtual Collaborative Simulation Environment for Integrated Product and Process Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulli, Michael A.

    1997-01-01

    Deneb Robotics is a leader in the development of commercially available, leading edge three- dimensional simulation software tools for virtual prototyping,, simulation-based design, manufacturing process simulation, and factory floor simulation and training applications. Deneb has developed and commercially released a preliminary Virtual Collaborative Engineering (VCE) capability for Integrated Product and Process Development (IPPD). This capability allows distributed, real-time visualization and evaluation of design concepts, manufacturing processes, and total factory and enterprises in one seamless simulation environment.

  10. An Interactive Simulation Tool for Production Planning in Bacon Factories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard; Nielsen, Kirsten Mølgaard

    1994-01-01

    The paper describes an interactive simulation tool for production planning in bacon factories. The main aim of the tool is to make it possible to combine the production plans of all parts of the factory......The paper describes an interactive simulation tool for production planning in bacon factories. The main aim of the tool is to make it possible to combine the production plans of all parts of the factory...

  11. VPPD Lab - The Chemical Product Simulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalakul, Sawitree; Hussain, Rehan; Elbashir, Nimir

    2015-01-01

    , detergent, etc.). It has interface to identify workflow/data-flow for the inter-related activities between knowledge-based system and model-based calculation procedures to systematically, efficiently and robustly solve various types of product design-analysis problems. The application of the software......In this paper, the development of a systematic model-based framework for product design, implemented in the new product design software called VPPD-Lab is presented. This framework employs its in-house knowledge-based system to design and evaluate chemical products. The built-in libraries...... of product performance models and product-chemical property models are used to evaluate different classes of product. The product classes are single molecular structure chemicals (lipids, solvents, aroma, etc.), blended products (gasoline, jet-fuels, lubricants, etc.), and emulsified product (hand wash...

  12. The OECD-BEPS Measures to Deal with Aggressive Tax Planning in South America and Sub-Saharan Africa : The Challenges Ahead

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mosquera, Valderrama I.J.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to assess the feasibility to introduce the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)-BEPS measures to deal with aggressive tax planning in South America and Sub-Saharan Africa. The BEPS and its Action Plan have been developed by the OECD following

  13. Application of Discrete Event Simulation in Mine Production Forecast

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Application of Discrete Event Simulation in Mine Production Forecast. Felix Adaania Kaba, Victor Amoako Temeng, Peter Arroja Eshun. Abstract. Mine production forecast is pertinent to mining as it serves production goals for a production period. Perseus Mining Ghana Limited (PMGL), Ayanfuri, deterministically forecasts ...

  14. Simulation modeling for quality and productivity in steel cord manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Türkseven, Can Hulusi; Turkseven, Can Hulusi; Ertek, Gürdal; Ertek, Gurdal

    2003-01-01

    We describe the application of simulation modeling to estimate and improve quality and productivity performance of a steel cord manufacturing system. We describe the typical steel cord manufacturing plant, emphasize its distinguishing characteristics, identify various production settings and discuss applicability of simulation as a management decision support tool. Besides presenting the general structure of the developed simulation model, we focus on wire fractures, which can be an important...

  15. Simulation Tool For Energy Consumption and Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nysteen, Michael; Mynderup, Henrik; Poulsen, Bjarne

    2013-01-01

    In order to promote adoption of smart grid with the general public it is necessary to be able to visualize the benefits of a smart home. Software tools that model the effects can help significantly with this. However, only little work has been done in the area of simulating and visualizing...... the energy consumption in smart homes. This paper presents a prototype simulation tool that allows graphical modeling of a home. Based on the modeled homes the user is able to simulate the energy consumptions and compare scenarios. The simulations are based on dynamic weather and energy price data as well...... as well as appliances and other electrical components used in the modeled homes....

  16. Spatially explicit simulation of peatland hydrology and carbon dioxide exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonnentag, O.

    2008-01-01

    A recent version of the Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS) was extended and modified to include northern peatlands. This thesis evaluated the BEPS-TerrainLab using observations made at the Mer Bleue bog located near Ottawa, Ontario, and the Sandhill fen located near Prince Albert, Saskatchewan. The code was revised to represent the multi-layer canopy and processes related to energy, water vapour and carbon dioxide fluxes through remotely-sensed leaf area index (LAI) maps. A quick and reliable method was also developed to determine shrub LAI with the LAI-2000 plant canopy analyzer. A large number of LAI data was collected at the Mer Bleue bog for the development of a new remote sensing-based methodology using multiple end member spectral unmixing to allow for separate tree and shrub LAI mapping in ombrotrophic peatlands. The methodology was also adapted for use in minerotrophic peatlands and their surrounding landscapes. These LAI maps within the BEPS-TerrainLab represented the tree and shrub layers of the Mer Bleue bog and the tree and shrub/sedge layers of the Sandhill fen. The study examined the influence of mesoscale topography (Mer Bleue bog) and macro- and mesoscale topography (Sandhill fen) on wetness, evapotranspiration, and gross primary productivity during the snow-free period of 2004. The results suggested that a peatland type-specific differentiation of macro- and mesoscale topographic effects on hydrology should be included in future peatland ecosystem modelling efforts in order to allow for a more realistic simulation of the soil water balance in peatlands and to reduce uncertainties in carbon dioxide and methane annual fluxes from wetlands

  17. Spatially explicit simulation of peatland hydrology and carbon dioxide exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonnentag, O.

    2008-08-01

    A recent version of the Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS) was extended and modified to include northern peatlands. This thesis evaluated the BEPS-TerrainLab using observations made at the Mer Bleue bog located near Ottawa, Ontario, and the Sandhill fen located near Prince Albert, Saskatchewan. The code was revised to represent the multi-layer canopy and processes related to energy, water vapour and carbon dioxide fluxes through remotely-sensed leaf area index (LAI) maps. A quick and reliable method was also developed to determine shrub LAI with the LAI-2000 plant canopy analyzer. A large number of LAI data was collected at the Mer Bleue bog for the development of a new remote sensing-based methodology using multiple end member spectral unmixing to allow for separate tree and shrub LAI mapping in ombrotrophic peatlands. The methodology was also adapted for use in minerotrophic peatlands and their surrounding landscapes. These LAI maps within the BEPS-TerrainLab represented the tree and shrub layers of the Mer Bleue bog and the tree and shrub/sedge layers of the Sandhill fen. The study examined the influence of mesoscale topography (Mer Bleue bog) and macro- and mesoscale topography (Sandhill fen) on wetness, evapotranspiration, and gross primary productivity during the snow-free period of 2004. The results suggested that a peatland type-specific differentiation of macro- and mesoscale topographic effects on hydrology should be included in future peatland ecosystem modelling efforts in order to allow for a more realistic simulation of the soil water balance in peatlands and to reduce uncertainties in carbon dioxide and methane annual fluxes from wetlands.

  18. SHIPBUILDING PRODUCTION PROCESS DESIGN METHODOLOGY USING COMPUTER SIMULATION

    OpenAIRE

    Marko Hadjina; Nikša Fafandjel; Tin Matulja

    2015-01-01

    In this research a shipbuilding production process design methodology, using computer simulation, is suggested. It is expected from suggested methodology to give better and more efficient tool for complex shipbuilding production processes design procedure. Within the first part of this research existing practice for production process design in shipbuilding was discussed, its shortcomings and problem were emphasized. In continuing, discrete event simulation modelling method, as basis of sugge...

  19. Simulation of continuous cast steel product solidification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardelean, E.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Primary cooling – inside the tundish – has a great impact over the thickness of the solidified steel crust. If on exiting the tundish the crust is too thin, it can punch and break, as a result of the ferrostatic pressure exerted from the inside by the liquid steel as well as because of the weight of the molten steel. The parameters that influence the amount of dissipated heat depend on the cooling water flow of the tundish, on the pressure and temperature of the cooling water but also on the overheating of the continuously cast steel. The secondary cooling takes place at the exit of the semi-finished product from the tundish, when the solidification is supposed to take place all along the cross section of the strand. In order to achieve it, in addition to a correctly managed primary cooling, it is necessary to obtain the proper correlation of the factors that influence the secondary cooling as well: the water flow rate long the three zones of the installation and its pressure in the secondary circuit. All these have in view a proper solidification length; an intense cooling can generate cracks due to the thermal stress, while a too slow cooling can generate a partial solidification of the strand up to the cropping machine area. The paper presents a mathematical simulation of the continuously cast steel solidification.

    El enfriamiento primario del cristalizador tiene una gran importancia sobre el espesor de la costra de acero solidificado. Si al salir del cristalizador, esta costra es demasiado sutil, bajo la acción de la presión ferro estática ejercitada por el acero líquido del interior y gracias el peso propio del hilo, ésta, puede perforar resultando su rompimiento. Los parámetros que influenyen sobre la cantidad de calor cedida dependen del agua de enfriamiento del catalizador, de la presión y de la temperatura de agua de enfriamiento, pero también del sobrecalentamiento del acero fundido continuamente. A la salida del

  20. The Rise and Attenuation of the Basic Education Programme (BEP) in Botswana: A Global-Local Dialectic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabulawa, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Using a global-local dialectic approach, this paper traces the rise of the basic education programme in the 1980s and 1990s in Botswana and its subsequent attenuation in the 2000s. Amongst the local forces that led to the rise of BEP were Botswana's political project of nation-building; the country's dire human resources situation in the decades…

  1. Simulating browse production and response of Acacia karroo to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Even if it is possible to reduce stock in times of drought, this was shown to be of very little benefit. Keywords: acacia karroo; browse production; browsing; defoliation; drought; eastern cape; goats; growth; management; management strategy; model; number of camps; production; productivity; simulation model; south africa; ...

  2. IMPACT OF BEP OR CARBOPLATIN CHEMOTHERAPY ON TESTICULAR FUNCTION AND SPERM NUCLEUS OF SUBJECTS WITH TESTICULAR GERM CELL TUMOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco eGhezzi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Young males have testicular germ cells tumours (TGCT as the most common malignancy and its incidence is increasing in several countries. Besides unilateral orchiectomy (UO, the treatment of TGCT may include surveillance, radiotherapy or chemotherapy (CT, basing on tumour histology and stage of disease. It is well known that both radio and CT may have negative effects on testicular function, affecting spermatogenesis and sex hormones. Many reports investigated these aspects in patients treated with bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin (BEP, after UO. In contrast no data are available on the side effects of carboplatin treatment in these patients. We included in this study 212 consecutive subjects who undergone to sperm banking at our Andrology and Human Reproduction Unit after UO for TGCT. Hundred subjects were further treated with one or more BEP cycles (BEP-group, 54 with carboplatin (Carb group and 58 were just surveilled (S-group. All patients were evaluated for seminal parameters, sperm aneuploidy, sperm DNA, sex hormones, volume of the residual testis at baseline (T0 and after 12 (T1 and 24 months (T2 from UO or end of CT. Seminal parameters, sperm aneuploidies, DNA status, gonadic hormones and testicular volume at baseline were not different between groups. At T1 we observed a significant reduction of sperm concentration and sperm count in the BEP group versus baseline and versus both Carb and S- group. A significant increase of sperm aneuploidies was present at T1 in the BEP group. Similarly, the same group at 1 had altered sperm DNA integrity and fragmentation compared with baseline, S group and Carb group. These alterations were persistent after two years from the end of BEP treatment. Despite a slight improvement at T2, the BEP group had still higher percentages of sperm aneuploidies than other groups. No impairment of sperm aneuploidies and DNA status were observed in the Carb group both after one and two years from the end of treatment

  3. The importance and effects of BEPS multilateral convention in international tax law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Dejan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Multilateral Convention to Implement Tax Treaty Related Measures to Prevent Base Erosion and Profit Shifting is a result of the BEPS project carried out by the OECD and G20. The object and purpose of the BEPS Multilateral Convention is swift and consistent implementation of the agreed solutions aimed at preventing tax evasion or avoidance via modifications of the existing bilateral tax treaties, while providing for a high level of flexibility in the implementation. Signed on 7 June 2017, the Convention encompasses provisions on hybrid mismatches, treaty abuse, avoidance of permanent establishment status, improving dispute resolution and arbitration. The first four groups of norms have a bilateral impact on the relations between contracting jurisdictions regulated by their covered tax agreements; the effect of the optional provisions on arbitration is multilateral. The Convention contains two minimum standards each party is required to include in its covered tax agreements in an offered manner. The first one refers to the prevention of treaty shopping arrangements, while the second one concerns improvements in the dispute resolution. The flexibility is assured by granting each party the right to specify the tax treaties to which the Convention applies, to opt out of a wide range of provisions (apart from the minimum standards set out in the Convention as eligible for reservations, as well as to select an offered alternative. Serbia's position vis-à-vis the given choices has been elaborated. Serbia specified all its tax treaties as the 'covered tax agreements' but Germany, Switzerland and Sweden did not do the same with their respective treaties with Serbia. Serbia opted out of five articles of the Convention. While not contesting its importance, one may conclude that the Convention does not represent an announcement of a new multilateral tax order but rather a multilateral agreement of a number of states motivated by practical considerations.

  4. Simulation of the styrene production process via catalytic dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene using CHEMCAD® process simulator

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-Sánchez, Amaury; Sánchez, Eddy Javier Pérez; Segura Silva, Rutdali María

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Process simulation has been extensively used in recent years to design, evaluate or optimize processes, systems and specific operations of the chemical industry and its related disciplines. Currently, CHEMCAD® constitute one of the most used process simulators because of the great number of chemical and petrochemical processes that can be simulated. Method: The simulation of the production process of styrene via catalytic dehydrogenation of ethyl-benzene is carried ou...

  5. Simulation of the styrene production process via catalytic dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene using CHEMCAD® process simulator

    OpenAIRE

    Amaury Pérez Sánchez; Eddy Javier Pérez Sánchez; Rutdali María Segura Silva

    2017-01-01

    Background: Process simulation has been extensively used in recent years to design, evaluate or optimize processes, systems and specific operations of the chemical industry and its related disciplines. Currently, CHEMCAD® constitute one of the most used process simulators because of the great number of chemical and petrochemical processes that can be simulated. Method: The simulation of the production process of styrene via catalytic dehydrogenation of ethyl-benzene is carried out by usin...

  6. Product Maturation Guide - A Digital Simulation Outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boorla, Srinivasa Murthy; Howard, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    . Tolerance analysis tools, those optimizing the individual part tolerances at the time of design can generate a product maturation guide that eliminates many problem solving procedures and saves time on root cause analysis. Assume a first product built on a new assembly line was found to need improvements....... To conclude the actions we need information about all the dimensions of child parts and processes involved and their influence. At the time of product design, the tolerance analysis system works with the same variables with a given range of variations virtually. For a practical build, instead of variation...... range, it has to consider one fixed value measured from initial parts. By adding information about process characteristics, like speed, cost, etc. to all the dimensions, the system can directly guide the manufacturing team, on which parameter to modify, which direction and how much. At the same time...

  7. Time Domain Partitioning of Electricity Production Cost Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrows, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hummon, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jones, W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hale, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Production cost models are often used for planning by simulating power system operations over long time horizons. The simulation of a day-ahead energy market can take several weeks to compute. Tractability improvements are often made through model simplifications, such as: reductions in transmission modeling detail, relaxation of commitment variable integrality, reductions in cost modeling detail, etc. One common simplification is to partition the simulation horizon so that weekly or monthly horizons can be simulated in parallel. However, horizon partitions are often executed with overlap periods of arbitrary and sometimes zero length. We calculate the time domain persistence of historical unit commitment decisions to inform time domain partitioning of production cost models. The results are implemented using PLEXOS production cost modeling software in an HPC environment to improve the computation time of simulations while maintaining solution integrity.

  8. Simulation of production setup changes in an SME

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvolby, Hans-Henrik; Svensson, Carsten; Steger-Jensen, Kenn

    2012-01-01

    This case study demonstrates how a simple simulation model can help Small and Medium Size manufactures to identify current and future possible problem areas and assist management in taking the best possible decisions regarding future production strategies...

  9. Simulation of Production Setup Changes in an SME

    KAUST Repository

    Hvolby, Hans-Henrik

    2012-10-04

    This case study demonstrates how a simple simulation model can help Small and Medium Size manufactures to identify current and future possible problem areas and assist management in taking the best possible decisions regarding future production strategies

  10. Simulation of Production Setup Changes in an SME

    KAUST Repository

    Hvolby, Hans-Henrik; Svensson, Carsten; Steger-Jensen, Kenn

    2012-01-01

    This case study demonstrates how a simple simulation model can help Small and Medium Size manufactures to identify current and future possible problem areas and assist management in taking the best possible decisions regarding future production

  11. Simulation of dust production in ITER transient events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pestchanyi, S.E.; Landman, I.S.

    2008-01-01

    Dust production from the divertor armour during edge-localised modes (ELMs) has been investigated. Analysis of available experimental data on the dust particle production and the particles distribution on size for the MPG-8 graphite and for NB31 carbon fibre composite (CFC) under the disruption-like surface heat load allowed revealing the unknown mechanical parameters of the NB31 CFC. Using these data the code PEGASUS-3D has been fitted and verified for simulation of the dust production by ELMs. First simulation of the dust production for the ELM of 1 MJ/m 2 heat load and 0.5 ms time duration has been calculated

  12. Simulation of dust production in ITER transient events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pestchanyi, S.E. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institute for Pulsed Power and Microwave Technology, P.B. 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)], E-mail: sergey.pestchanyi@ihm.fzk.de; Landman, I.S. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institute for Pulsed Power and Microwave Technology, P.B. 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2008-12-15

    Dust production from the divertor armour during edge-localised modes (ELMs) has been investigated. Analysis of available experimental data on the dust particle production and the particles distribution on size for the MPG-8 graphite and for NB31 carbon fibre composite (CFC) under the disruption-like surface heat load allowed revealing the unknown mechanical parameters of the NB31 CFC. Using these data the code PEGASUS-3D has been fitted and verified for simulation of the dust production by ELMs. First simulation of the dust production for the ELM of 1 MJ/m{sup 2} heat load and 0.5 ms time duration has been calculated.

  13. Study on oxidative lipid and DNA damages in the malignant transformed BEP2D cells induced by α-particle exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gou Qiao; Wang Chunyan; Zhang Cuilan; Tong Peng; Su Xu

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the mechanism of malignant transformation in human bronchial epithelial cell line BEP2D exposed to α-particles. Methods: The levels of intracellular ROS and malonaldehyde (MDA) in BEP2D, RH22 (passage 22 of α-particle-irradiated BEP2D cells) and BERP35T-1 cells (derived from nude mice bearing malignant transformed cells generated from the passage 35 of α-particle-irradiated BEP2D cells) were assayed with DCFH-DA and MDA kit, respectively. The expressions of 8-OH-dG and γ-H2AX in BEP2D, RH23 (passage 23 of α-particle-irradiated BEP2D cells) and BERP35T-1 cells were also measured with immunocytochemistry and immunofluorescence staining. Results: Compared to BEP2D cells, the levels of ROS (t=4.30 and 3.94, P<0.05) and MDA (t=4.89 and 15.10, P<0.05) increased in RH22 and BERP35T-1 cells. The expressions of 8-OH-dG (t=3.80 and 2.92, P<0.05) and γ-H2AX (t=7.61 and 12.67, P<0.05) in RH23 and BERP35T-1 cells were also higher than those in BEP2D cells. Conclusions: Oxidative stress induces lipid peroxidation and DNA damage leading to genomic instability, which could contribute to cellular malignant transforming process in the human bronchial epithelial cell line BEP2D with α-particle exposure. (authors)

  14. Simulation studies for charmed baryons production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Fernanda Gallinucci; Escobar, Carlos O.

    1994-01-01

    Multiparticle soft production is a dominant characteristic in most of high energy hadron collision. Processes with many particles at the final state are intrinsically complicated, since too many variables are involved. Nevertheless, it would be possible to utilize the QCD Lagrangian for studying these soft processes, which do not involve large transferred momenta and therefore, the strong coupling constant α s is to much large for using. Consequently, non-perturbative procedures must be adopted. Presently, when describing the soft hadron physics, it is advisable to build models incorporating all the available ideas, motivated by both QCD non-perturbative studies and the S-matrix general properties (duality and unitarity). A non-perturbative approach presently studied consists in N -1 expansions, where N can be either the color number N c or the N f flavor number. This expansion provides a topological diagram classification. A model which has been very successful in the light particle production is the Quark Gluon String Model. This model uses the Pomerons quark-gluon strings idea for describing the multiple production of hadrons with low p t at high energies

  15. Simulation of a Sponge Iron Production Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tor Onshus

    1983-07-01

    Full Text Available A model for reduction of FeO with hydrogen in a countercurrent moving bed reactor is summarized. This model is a special case of a mor ecomplete model which also includes reduction of the higher oxides, hematite and magnetite, with a mixture of reducing gases, thus describing the production of direct-reduced iron from iron ores. Equations governing the heat and mass transfer between the gas and solid phase are not given here, but play an important role in the dynamic bahviour of the model.

  16. Breeding for Welfare in outdoor pig production : simulation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gourdine, J.L.; Greef, de K.H.; Rydhmer, L.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the societal and market attention, to our knowledge, there is no breeding program for outdoor pig production in which improvement in animal welfare is emphasized. In this study, a dam-line selected for an outdoor production system was simulated. The purpose was to investigate the

  17. Simulation-based optimization for product and process design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, L.

    2006-01-01

    The design of products and processes has gradually shifted from a purely physical process towards a process that heavily relies on computer simulations (virtual prototyping). To optimize this virtual design process in terms of speed and final product quality, statistical methods and mathematical

  18. Phase Equilibrium Modeling for Shale Production Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandoval Lemus, Diego Rolando

    is obtained for hydrocarbon mixtures. Such behavior is mainly caused by compositional changes in the bulk phase due to selective adsorption of the heavier components onto the rock, while the change in bubble point pressure is mainly due to capillary pressure. This study has developed several robust......Production of oil and gas from shale reservoirs has gained more attention in the past few decades due to its increasing economic feasibility and the size of potential sources around the world. Shale reservoirs are characterized by a more tight nature in comparison with conventional reservoirs......, having pore size distributions ranging in the nanometer scale. Such a confined nature introduces new challenges in the fluid phase behavior. High capillary forces can be experienced between the liquid and vapor, and selective adsorption of components onto the rock becomes relevant. The impact...

  19. [Simulation of cropland soil moisture based on an ensemble Kalman filter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhao; Zhou, Yan-Lian; Ju, Wei-Min; Gao, Ping

    2011-11-01

    By using an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) to assimilate the observed soil moisture data, the modified boreal ecosystem productivity simulator (BEPS) model was adopted to simulate the dynamics of soil moisture in winter wheat root zones at Xuzhou Agro-meteorological Station, Jiangsu Province of China during the growth seasons in 2000-2004. After the assimilation of observed data, the determination coefficient, root mean square error, and average absolute error of simulated soil moisture were in the ranges of 0.626-0.943, 0.018-0.042, and 0.021-0.041, respectively, with the simulation precision improved significantly, as compared with that before assimilation, indicating the applicability of data assimilation in improving the simulation of soil moisture. The experimental results at single point showed that the errors in the forcing data and observations and the frequency and soil depth of the assimilation of observed data all had obvious effects on the simulated soil moisture.

  20. Simulating the production of free defects in irradiated metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinisch, H.L.

    1995-01-01

    Under cascade-producing irradiation by high energy neutrons or charged particles, only a small fraction of the initially displaced atoms contribute to the population of free defects that are available to migrate throughout the metal and cause microstructural changes. Although, in principle, computer simulations of free defect production could best be done using molecular dynamics, in practice, the wide ranges of time and distance scales involved can be done only by a combination of atomistic models that employ various levels of approximation. An atomic-scale, multi-model approach has been developed that combines molecular dynamics, binary collision models and stochastic annealing simulation. The annealing simulation is utilized in calibrating binary collision simulations to the results of molecular dynamics calculations, as well as to model the subsequent migration of the defects on more macroscopic time and size scales. The annealing simulation and the method of calibrating the multi-model approach are discussed, and the results of simulations of cascades in copper are presented. The temperature dependence of free defect production following simulated annealing of isolated cascades in copper shows a differential in the fractions of free vacancies and interstitial defects escaping from the cascade above stage V. This differential, a consequence of the direct formation of interstitial clusters in cascades and the relative thermal stability of vacancy and interstitial clusters during subsequent annealing, is the basis for the production bias mechanism of void swelling. (orig.)

  1. Simulation-based comparisons of four apparel cell production modes of one clothing production line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoqiang Pan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This research, by using the SIMIO simulation platform, provides a quantitative and comparative analysis of how the efficiency of four different cell production modes is affected. It is hoped that the outcomes will be of some help for garment factories to optimize their production lines. Design/methodology/approach: The SIMIO simulation platform was employed in the research and comparisons were made of the simulation test results about the four different production modes. Findings: The operation mode, number of operators, and number of buffer areas are key factors affecting the production line efficiency, and need to be reasonably set to achieve the highest efficiency. Originality/value: As most research literature so far is qualitative, this research provided a simulation-based quantitative analysis of the production efficiency under different cell production modes.

  2. Synthesis of non-ionic and ionic resins for BEP intaglio inks curing by electron-beam radiation. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, B.J.; Dickens, B.

    1992-01-01

    The inks currently used to print US postage stamps on web presses are dried by heat evaporation of solvents. Emission of solvents into the atmosphere is governed by Local and Federal Government Regulations. Reduction of these emissions to acceptable levels can be accomplished by either of two methods available to the BEP. The work was part of a continuing effort to produce resins for use in formulation of intaglio inks for the printing of postage stamps and security documents. The inks are to be cured by exposure to an electron beam. The uncured inks are cleaned from the roller and wiping blade by washing the wiping blade with neutral water or with caustic water. Laboratory scale work on the urethane/polyethylene oxide/methacrylate resins has now been concluded and information on the synthesis has been provided to BEP for patenting and scaleup. Some effort on nonionic resins continued into FY88

  3. Energy shifts of the binary encounter peak (BEP) in 1 MeV/uSiq+ + H2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidmi, H.I.; Sanders, J.M.; Zouros, T.J.M.; Richard, P.

    1993-01-01

    The double differential cross section of the BEP for 1 MeV/u Si q+ on H 2 was measured at 0 degrees observation angle for q = 5-13. The data were fitted to the theoretical prediction of the impulse approximation (IA) using a two parameter model. The first parameter was a scaling factor which corresponds to the enhancement ratio between the ion of charge state q and the bare ion. The second was an open-quote energy correction close-quote which enters into the calculation of the energy of the bound target electron in the projectile rest frame. The observed enhancement ratio increases with increasing number of electrons on the projectile, in agreement with previously reported data. The energy correction parameter required to fit the BEP energy decreases with increasing number of electrons on the projectile ion

  4. Planning organization and productivity simulation tool for maritime container terminals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Beškovnik

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The article describes a proposed planning organization and productivity simulation tool, with a special emphasis on orientations to the optimization of operations in a maritime container terminal. With the application of an adequate model frame for traffic and technical-technologic forecasting, infrastructure and manpower planning and productivity simulation are possible to measure and increase the productivity in the whole subsystem of the maritime container terminal. The emphasis is mainly put on setting up planning organization in order to collect important information and consequently to raise productivity. This is the main task and goal of terminal management that must develop elements and strategies for optimal operational and financial production. An adequate planning structure must use simplified but efficient simulation tools enabling owners and management to take a vast number of adequate financial and operational decisions. Considering all important and very dynamic facts in container and shipping industry, the proposed simulation tool gives a helpful instrument for checking productivity and its time variation and monitoring a competitive position of a certain maritime terminal with the terminals from the same group. Therefore, the management of every maritime container terminal must establish an appropriate internal planning system as a mechanism for strategic decision support relating basically to the assessment of the best development and optimization solutions for the infrastructure and suprastructure of the entire system.

  5. Perencanaan Penetapan Laba Melalui Pendekatan Analisis Break Even Point (BEP) Perusahaan Wingko UD. TUJUH TUJUH ELOK Babat - Lamongan

    OpenAIRE

    Zulyanti, Noer Rafikah

    2017-01-01

    This research is a type quantitative descriptiveresearch on companies wingko UD TUJUH TUJUH ELOK Babat whit the title “Planing the estabilishment of profit though analysis approach break even point (BEP) on the company wingko UD. TUJUH TUJUH ELOK Babat Lamongan”. Analyzing profit planning methods break even point on wingko to find large companies and large minimum targets to be achieved by the company the stages of analysis used by the autor in the study ware: (1) separation costs (2) The cal...

  6. Perencanaan Penetapan Laba melalui Pendekatan Analisis Break Even Point (BEP) Perusahaan Wingko UD. TUJUH TUJUH ELOK Babat - Lamongan

    OpenAIRE

    Zulyanti, Noer Rafikah

    2017-01-01

    This research is a type quantitative descriptiveresearch on companies wingko UD TUJUH TUJUH ELOK Babat whit the title “Planing the estabilishment of profit though analysis approach break even point (BEP) on the company wingko UD. TUJUH TUJUH ELOK Babat Lamongan”. Analyzing profit planning methods break even point on wingko to find large companies and large minimum targets to be achieved by the company the stages of analysis used by the autor in the study ware: (1) separation costs (2) The cal...

  7. Brief Eclectic Psychotherapy for Traumatic Grief (BEP-TG): toward integrated treatment of symptoms related to traumatic loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smid, Geert E; Kleber, Rolf J; de la Rie, Simone M; Bos, Jannetta B A; Gersons, Berthold P R; Boelen, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic events such as disasters, accidents, war, or criminal violence are often accompanied by the loss of loved ones, and may then give rise to traumatic grief. Traumatic grief refers to a clinical diagnosis of persistent complex bereavement disorder (PCBD) with comorbid (symptoms of) posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and/or major depressive disorder (MDD) following confrontation with a traumatic loss. Trauma survivors, who are frequently from different cultural backgrounds, have often experienced multiple losses and ambiguous loss (missing family members or friends). Current evidence-based treatments for PTSD do not focus on traumatic grief. To develop a treatment for traumatic grief combining treatment interventions for PTSD and PCBD that may accommodate cultural aspects of grief. To provide a rationale for treatment, we propose a cognitive stress model of traumatic grief. Based on this model and on existing evidence-based treatments for PTSD and complicated grief, we developed Brief Eclectic Psychotherapy for Traumatic Grief (BEP-TG) for the treatment of patients with traumatic grief. The treatment is presented along with a case vignette. Processes contributing to traumatic grief include inadequately integrating the memory of the traumatic loss, negative appraisal of the traumatic loss, sensitivity to matching triggers and new stressors, and attempting to avoid distress. BEP-TG targets these processes. The BEP-TG protocol consists of five parts with proven effectiveness in the treatment of PCBD, PTSD, and MDD: information and motivation, grief-focused exposure, memorabilia and writing assignments, finding meaning and activation, and a farewell ritual. Tailored to fit the needs of trauma survivors, BEP-TG can be used to address traumatic grief symptoms related to multiple losses and ambiguous loss, as well as cultural aspects of bereavement through its different components.

  8. Changes of net primary productivity in China during recent 11 years detected using an ecological model driven by MODIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yibo; Ju, Weimin; He, Honglin; Wang, Shaoqiang; Sun, Rui; Zhang, Yuandong

    2013-03-01

    Net primary productivity (NPP) is an important component of the terrestrial carbon cycle. Accurately mapping the spatial-temporal variations of NPP in China is crucial for global carbon cycling study. In this study the process-based Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS) was employed to study the changes of NPP in China's ecosystems for the period from 2000 to 2010. The BEPS model was first validated using gross primary productivity (GPP) measured at typical flux sites and forest NPP measured at different regions. Then it was driven with leaf area index (LAI) inversed from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) reflectance and land cover products and meteorological data interpolated from observations at 753 national basic meteorological stations to simulate NPP at daily time steps and a spatial resolution of 500 m from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2010. Validations show that BEPS is able to capture the seasonal variations of tower-based GPP and the spatial variability of forest NPP in different regions of China. Estimated national total of annual NPP varied from 2.63 to 2.84Pg C·yr-1, averaging 2.74 Pg C·yr-1 during the study period. Simulated terrestrial NPP shows spatial patterns decreasing from the east to the west and from the south to the north, in association with land cover types and climate. South-west China makes the largest contribution to the national total of NPP while NPP in the North-west account for only 3.97% of the national total. During the recent 11 years, the temporal changes of NPP were heterogamous. NPP increased in 63.8% of China's landmass, mainly in areas north of the Yangtze River and decreased in most areas of southern China, owing to the low temperature freezing in early 2008 and the severe drought in late 2009.

  9. Dynamic simulation for effective workforce management in new product development

    OpenAIRE

    M. Mutingi

    2012-01-01

    Effective planning and management of workforce for new product development (NPD) projects is a great challenge to many organisations, especially in the presence of engineering changes during the product development process. The management objective in effective workforce management is to recruit, develop and deploy the right people at the right place at the right time so as to fulfill organizational objectives. In this paper, we propose a dynamic simulation model to address the workforce mana...

  10. Process Simulation of Biobutanol Production from Lignocellulosic Feedstocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Procentese, A.; Guida, T.; Raganati, F.; Olivieri, G.; Salatino, P.; Marzocchella, A.

    2014-01-01

    A potential flowsheet to produce butanol production by conversion of a lignocellulosic biomass has been simulated by means of the software Aspen Plus®. The flowsheet has included upstream, fermentation, and downstream sections and the attention has been focused on the upstream section. The proposed

  11. Approaching a reliable process simulation for the virtual product development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kose, K.; Rietman, Bert; Tikhomirov, D.; Bessert, N.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper an outline for a strategy to include manufacturing effects in subsequent simulations for the virtual product development from an industrial point of view is given. Especially the conditions for a successful mapping of geometry and results between different applications are discussed.

  12. Reduction of net primary productivity in southern China caused by abnormal low-temperature freezing in winter of 2008 detected by a remote sensing-driven ecosystem model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, W.; Liu, Y.; Zhou, Y.; Zhu, G.

    2011-12-01

    Terrestrial carbon cycle is an important determinant of global climate change and affected by various factors, including climate, CO2 concentration, atmospheric nitrogen deposition and human activities. Extreme weather events can significantly regulate short-term even long-term carbon exchanges between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. During the period from the middle January to the middle February 2008, Southern China was seriously hit by abnormal low-temperature freezing, which caused serous damages to forests and crops. However, the reduction of net primary productivity (NPP) of terrestrial ecosystems caused by this extremely abnormal weather event has not been quantitatively investigated. In this study, the Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS) model was employed to assess the reduction of NPP in Southern China caused by the abnormal low-temperature freezing. Prior to the regional simulation, the BEPS model was validated using measured NPP in different ecosystems, demonstrating the ability of this model to simulate NPP reliably in China. Then, it was forced using meteorological data interpolated from observations of weather stations and leaf area index inversed from MODIS reflectance data to simulate national wide NPP at a 500 m resolution for the period from 2003 to 2008. The departures of NPP in 2008 from the means during 2003-2007 were used as the indicator of NPP reduction caused by the low-temperature freezing. It was found out that NPP in 2008 decreased significantly in forests of Southern China, especially in Guangdong, Fujian, Zhejiang, Guangxi, Jiangxi, and Hunan Provinces, in which the low-temperature freeing was more serious. The annul reduction of NPP was above 150 g C/m^2/yr in these areas. Key words: Net Primary Productivity, low-temperature freezing, BEPS model, MODIS Correspondence author: Weimin Ju Email:juweimin@nju.edu.cn

  13. [Development of APSIM (agricultural production systems simulator) and its application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yuying; Nan, Zhibiao; Bellotti, Bill; Robertson, Michael; Chen, Wen; Shao, Xinqing

    2002-08-01

    Soil-crop simulator model is an effective tool for providing decision on agricultural management. APSIM (Agricultural Production Systems Simulator) was developed to simulate the biophysical process in farming system, and particularly in the economic and ecological features of the systems under climatic risk. The current literatures revealed that APSIM could be applied in wide zone, including temperate continental, temperate maritime, sub-tropic and arid climate, and Mediterranean climates, with the soil type of clay, duplex soil, vertisol, silt sandy, silt loam and silt clay loam. More than 20 crops have been simulated well. APSIM is powerful on describing crop structure, crop sequence, yield prediction, and quality control as well as erosion estimation under different planting pattern.

  14. [Characteristics of terrestrial ecosystem primary productivity in East Asia based on remote sensing and process-based model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fang-Min; Ju, Wei-Min; Chen, Jing-Ming; Wang, Shao-Qiang; Yu, Gui-Rui; Han, Shi-Jie

    2012-02-01

    Based on the bi-linearly interpolated meteorological reanalysis data from National Centers for Environmental Prediction, USA and by using the leaf area index data derived from the GIMMS NDVI to run the process-based Boreal Ecosystems Productivity Simulator (BEPS) model, this paper simulated and analyzed the spatiotemporal characteristics of the terrestrial ecosystem gross primary productivity (GPP) and net primary productivity (NPP) in East Asia in 2000-2005. Before regional simulating and calculating, the observation GPP data of different terrestrial ecosystem in 15 experimental stations of AsiaFlux network and the inventory measurements of NPP at 1300 sampling sites were applied to validate the BEPS GPP and NPP. The results showed that BEPS could well simulate the changes in GPP and NPP of different terrestrial ecosystems, with the R2 ranging from 0.86 to 0.99 and the root mean square error (RMSE) from 0.2 to 1.2 g C x m(-2) x d(-1). The simulated values by BEPS could explain 78% of the changes in annual NPP, and the RMSE was 118 g C x m(-2) x a(-1). In 2000-2005, the averaged total GPP and total NPP of the terrestrial ecosystems in East Asia were 21.7 and 10.5 Pg C x a(-1), respectively, and the GPP and NPP exhibited similar spatial and temporal variation patterns. During the six years, the total NPP of the terrestrial ecosystems varied from 10.2 to 10.7 Pg C x a(-1), with a coefficient of variation being 2. 2%. High NPP (above 1000 g C x m(-2) x a(-1)) occurred in the southeast island countries, while low NPP (below 30 g C x m(-2) x a(-1)) occurred in the desert area of Northwest China. The spatial patterns of NPP were mainly attributed to the differences in the climatic variables across East Asia. The NPP per capita also varied greatly among different countries, which was the highest (70217 kg C x a(-1)) in Mongolia, far higher than that (1921 kg C x a(-1)) in China, and the lowest (757 kg C x a(-1)) in India.

  15. Simulation of Fission Product Liftoff Behavior During Depressurization Transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tak, Nam-il; Yoon, Churl; Lee, Sung Nam

    2016-01-01

    As one of crucial technologies for the NHDD project, the development of the GAMMA-FP code is on-going. The GAMMA-FP code is targeted for fission product transport analysis under accident conditions. A well-known experiment named COMEDIE considered two important phenomena, i.e., fission product plateout and liftoff, for fission product transport within the primary circuit of a prismatic high temperature gas cooled reactor. The accumulated fission products on the structural material via the plateout can be liftoff during a blowdown phase after a pipe break accident. Since the fission product liftoff can increase a radioactivity risk, it is important to predict the amount of fission product liftoff during depressurization accidents. In this work, a model for fission product liftoff is implemented into the GAMMA-FP code and the GAMMA-FP code with the implemented model is validated using the COMEDIE blowdown test data. The results of GAMMA-FP show that the GAMMA-FP code can reliably simulate a pressure transient during blowdown phase after a pipe break accident. In addition, a reasonable amount of fission product liftoff was predicted by the GAMMA-FP code. The maximum difference between the measured and predicted liftoff fraction was less than a factor of 10. More in-depth study is required to increase the accuracy of prediction for a fission product liftoff

  16. Transient productivity index for numerical well test simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanc, G.; Ding, D.Y.; Ene, A. [Institut Francais du Petrole, Pau (France)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    The most difficult aspect of numerical simulation of well tests is the treatment of the Bottom Hole Flowing (BHF) Pressure. In full field simulations, this pressure is derived from the Well-block Pressure (WBP) using a numerical productivity index which accounts for the grid size and permeability, and for the well completion. This productivity index is calculated assuming a pseudo-steady state flow regime in the vicinity of the well and is therefore constant during the well production period. Such a pseudo-steady state assumption is no longer valid for the early time of a well test simulation as long as the pressure perturbation has not reached several grid-blocks around the well. This paper offers two different solutions to this problem: (1) The first one is based on the derivation of a Numerical Transient Productivity Index (NTPI) to be applied to Cartesian grids; (2) The second one is based on the use of a Corrected Transmissibility and Accumulation Term (CTAT) in the flow equation. The representation of the pressure behavior given by both solutions is far more accurate than the conventional one as shown by several validation examples which are presented in the following pages.

  17. OECD:s multilaterala BEPS-konvention – Ärdubbelbeskattning tillbaka på menyn?OECD:s multilateral BEPS-convention – Is double Taxation back on the menu?

    OpenAIRE

    Bender, Lars-Ole

    2017-01-01

    Uppsatsen behandlar OECD:s multilaterala BEPS-konvention för vilken i skrivande stund OECD om några dagar ska hålla en signeringscermoni. Uppsatsen innefattar en redogörelse för bakomliggande traktatsrätt, en redogörelse för konventionen i sig samt hänvisningar till relevant nationell rätt där denna är aktuell för konveentionens tillämpning.

  18. Constrained optimization via simulation models for new product innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujowidianto, Nugroho A.

    2017-11-01

    We consider the problem of constrained optimization where the decision makers aim to optimize the primary performance measure while constraining the secondary performance measures. This paper provides a brief overview of stochastically constrained optimization via discrete event simulation. Most review papers tend to be methodology-based. This review attempts to be problem-based as decision makers may have already decided on the problem formulation. We consider constrained optimization models as there are usually constraints on secondary performance measures as trade-off in new product development. It starts by laying out different possible methods and the reasons using constrained optimization via simulation models. It is then followed by the review of different simulation optimization approach to address constrained optimization depending on the number of decision variables, the type of constraints, and the risk preferences of the decision makers in handling uncertainties.

  19. Production Logistics Simulation Supported by Process Description Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohács Gábor

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The process description languages are used in the business may be useful in the optimization of logistics processes too. The process description languages would be the obvious solution for process control, to handle the main sources of faults and to give a correct list of what to do during the logistics process. Related to this, firstly, the paper presents the main features of the frequent process description languages. The following section describes the currently most used process modelling languages, in the areas of production and construction logistics. In addition, the paper gives some examples of logistics simulation, as another very important field of logistics system modelling. The main edification of the paper, the logistics simulation supported by process description languages. The paper gives a comparison of a Petri net formal representation and a Simul8 model, through a construction logistics model, as the major contribution of the research.

  20. Cost analysis of simulated base-catalyzed biodiesel production processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasić, Marija B.; Stamenković, Olivera S.; Veljković, Vlada B.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Two semi-continuous biodiesel production processes from sunflower oil are simulated. • Simulations were based on the kinetics of base-catalyzed methanolysis reactions. • The total energy consumption was influenced by the kinetic model. • Heterogeneous base-catalyzed process is a preferable industrial technology. - Abstract: The simulation and economic feasibility evaluation of semi-continuous biodiesel production from sunflower oil were based on the kinetics of homogeneously (Process I) and heterogeneously (Process II) base-catalyzed methanolysis reactions. The annual plant’s capacity was determined to be 8356 tonnes of biodiesel. The total energy consumption was influenced by the unit model describing the methanolysis reaction kinetics. The energy consumption of the Process II was more than 2.5 times lower than that of the Process I. Also, the simulation showed the Process I had more and larger process equipment units, compared with the Process II. Based on lower total capital investment costs and biodiesel selling price, the Process II was economically more feasible than the Process I. Sensitivity analysis was conducted using variable sunflower oil and biodiesel prices. Using a biodiesel selling price of 0.990 $/kg, Processes I and II were shown to be economically profitable if the sunflower oil price was 0.525 $/kg and 0.696 $/kg, respectively

  1. Simulation of Top Quark Production for the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00352736; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The Monte Carlo setups used by ATLAS to model the $t\\bar{t}$ and single-top production in 13 TeV pp collisions are described. The performance of different event generators is assessed by comparing measurements at 7 TeV, 8 TeV and 13 TeV to predictions from simulated data. The evaluation of systematic uncertainties and the dependence of generator predictions on the tuning parameters are also discussed.

  2. The low-lying electronic states of BeP: a reliable and accurate quantum mechanical prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ornellas, Fernando R

    2009-01-01

    A very high level of theoretical treatment (complete active space self-consistent field CASSCF/MRCI/aug-cc-pV5Z) was used to characterize the spectroscopic properties of a manifold of quartet and doublet states of the species BeP, as yet experimentally unknown. Potential energy curves for 11 electronic states were obtained, as well as the associated vibrational energy levels, and a whole set of spectroscopic constants. Dipole moment functions and vibrationally averaged dipole moments were also evaluated. Similarities and differences between BeN and BeP were analysed along with the isovalent SiB species. The molecule BeP has a X 4 Σ - ground state, with an equilibrium bond distance of 2.073 A, and a harmonic frequency of 516.2 cm -1 ; it is followed closely by the states 2 Π (R e = 2.081 A, ω e = 639.6 cm -1 ) and 2 Σ - (R e = 2.074 A, ω e = 536.5 cm -1 ), at 502 and 1976 cm -1 , respectively. The other quartets investigated, A 4 Π (R e = 1.991 A, ω e = 555.3 cm -1 ) and B 4 Σ - (R e = 2.758 A, ω e = 292.2 cm -1 ) lie at 13 291 and 24 394 cm -1 , respectively. The remaining doublets ( 2 Δ, 2 Σ + (2) and 2 Π(3)) all fall below 28 000 cm -1 . Avoided crossings between the 2 Σ + states and between the 2 Π states add an extra complexity to this manifold of states.

  3. Productivity simulation model for optimization of maritime container terminals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elen TWRDY

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a proposed productivity simulation model enabling container terminal operators to find optimization possibilities. A research of more than forty terminals has been done, in order to provide a helping tool for maritime container terminals. By applying an adequate simulation model, it is possible to measure and increase the productivity in all subsystem of the maritime container terminal. Management of a maritime container terminal includes a vast number of different financial and operational decisions. Financial decisions are often in a direct connection with investments in infrastructure and handling equipment. Such investments are very expensive. Therefore, they must give back the invested money as soon as possible. On the other hand, some terminals are limited by the physical extension and are forced to increase annual throughput only with sophisticated equipment on the berth side and on the yard as well. Considering all these important facts in container and shipping industry, the proposed simulation model gives a helping tool for checking the productivity and its time variation and monitoring competitiveness of a certain maritime terminal with terminals from the same group.

  4. Dynamic simulation for effective workforce management in new product development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mutingi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Effective planning and management of workforce for new product development (NPD projects is a great challenge to many organisations, especially in the presence of engineering changes during the product development process. The management objective in effective workforce management is to recruit, develop and deploy the right people at the right place at the right time so as to fulfill organizational objectives. In this paper, we propose a dynamic simulation model to address the workforce management problem in a typical NPD project consisting of design, prototyping, and production phases. We assume that workforce demand is a function of project work remaining and the current available skill pool. System dynamics simulation concepts are used to capture the causality relationships and feedback loops in the workforce system from a systems thinking. The evaluation of system dynamics simulation reveals the dynamic behaviour in NPD workforce management systems and shows how adaptive dynamic recruitment and training decisions can effectively balance the workforce system during the NPD process.

  5. Enhanced Simulated Annealing for Solving Aggregate Production Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Rizam Abu Bakar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Simulated annealing (SA has been an effective means that can address difficulties related to optimisation problems. SA is now a common discipline for research with several productive applications such as production planning. Due to the fact that aggregate production planning (APP is one of the most considerable problems in production planning, in this paper, we present multiobjective linear programming model for APP and optimised by SA. During the course of optimising for the APP problem, it uncovered that the capability of SA was inadequate and its performance was substandard, particularly for a sizable controlled APP problem with many decision variables and plenty of constraints. Since this algorithm works sequentially then the current state will generate only one in next state that will make the search slower and the drawback is that the search may fall in local minimum which represents the best solution in only part of the solution space. In order to enhance its performance and alleviate the deficiencies in the problem solving, a modified SA (MSA is proposed. We attempt to augment the search space by starting with N+1 solutions, instead of one solution. To analyse and investigate the operations of the MSA with the standard SA and harmony search (HS, the real performance of an industrial company and simulation are made for evaluation. The results show that, compared to SA and HS, MSA offers better quality solutions with regard to convergence and accuracy.

  6. Chapter 3 – VPPD-Lab: The Chemical Product Simulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalakul, Sawitree; Cignitti, Stefano; Zhang, L.

    2017-01-01

    for computer-aided chemical product design and evaluation, implemented in the software called VPPD-Lab, is presented. In the same way a typical process simulator works, the VPPD-Lab allows users to: (1) analyze chemical-based products by performing virtual experiments (product property and performance......Computer-aided methods and tools for current and future product–process design and development need to manage problems requiring efficient handling of models, data, and knowledge from different sources and at different times and size scales. In this chapter, a systematic model-based framework...... lotion design. Through these case studies, the use of design templates, associated workflows (methods), data flows (software integration), and solution strategies (database and tools) are highlighted....

  7. Antioxidant ability and radiosensitivity in malignant transformed human bronchial epithelial cell line BEP2D induced by α-particle irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gou Qiao; Zhang Wei; Wang Chunyan; Su Xu

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the antioxidant ability and radiosensitivity in the malignant transformed human bronchial epithelial cell line BEP2D induced by α-particle exposure. Methods: Glutathione Peroxidase (GPX), Catalase (CAT) and Glutathione (GSH) assay kits were employed to detect GPX and CAT enzyme abilities and the levels of GSH in BEP2D, RH21 (passage 21 of α-particle-irradiated BEP2D cells), and BERP35T-1 cells (derived from nude mice bearing malignant transformed cells generated from cells of passage 35 of α-particle-irradiated BEP2D cells). MTT assay were used to test the growth rate of BEP2D, RH21 and BERP35T-1 cells treated with 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 μmoL/L H 2 O 2 . Colony-forming test and MTT assay were used to examine the cell survival fraction and the growth rate of BEP2D, RH21 and BERP35T-1 cells exposed to 0, 2, 4, and 8 Gy of γ-rays,respectively. Results: GPX and CAT enzyme activities in RH21 and BERP35T-1 cells were obviously lower than in BEP2D (t=5.75-67.92, P<0.05). CAT enzyme activity in BERP35T-1 was lower than that in RH21 cells (t=22.25, P<0.01). Compared to BEP2D cells, decreased level of GSH was detected in BERP35T-1 cells (t=7.76, P<0.05), but there was no change in RH21. After treatment with 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 μmol/L H 2 O 2 , the growth rates of BEP2D were all higher than those of BERP35T-1 cells (t=10.37-58.36, P<0.01). Meanwhile,the growth rates of BEP2D were all higher than those of RH21 cells after treatment with 60, 90, 120, and 150 μ mol/L H 2 O 2 (t =29.90-84.68, P<0.01). In addition,compared to BEP2D cells,decreased cell survival fraction and growth rate of BERP35T-1 cells were observed after irradiation with 2, 4, and 8 Gy of y-rays (t=5.87-34.17, P<0.05). The cell survival fraction and growth rate of RH21 were all lower than those of BEP2D cells at 4 and 8 Gy post-irradiation (t=6.33- 45.00, P<0.05). Conclusion: The function of antioxidant system decreased in the α-particle-induced transformed cells

  8. Net primary productivity distribution in the BOREAS region from a process model using satellite and surface data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J.; Chen, J. M.; Cihlar, J.; Chen, W.

    1999-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to upscale tower measurements of net primary productivity (NPP) to the Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) study region by means of remote sensing and modeling. The Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS) with a new daily canopy photosynthesis model was first tested in one coniferous and one deciduous site. The simultaneous CO2 flux measurements above and below the tree canopy made it possible to isolate daily net primary productivity of the tree canopy for model validation. Soil water holding capacity and gridded daily meteorological data for the region were used as inputs to BEPS, in addition to 1 km resolution land cover and leaf area index (LAI) maps derived from the advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) data. NPP statistics for the various cover types in the BOREAS region and in the southern study area (SSA) and the northern study area (NSA) are presented. Strong dependence of NPP on LAI was found for the three major cover types: coniferous forest, deciduous forest and cropland. Since BEPS can compute total photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by the canopy in each pixel, light use efficiencies for NPP and gross primary productivity could also be analyzed. From the model results, the following area-averaged statistics were obtained for 1994: (1) mean NPP for the BOREAS region of 217 g C m-2 yr-1; (2) mean NPP of forests (excluding burnt areas in the region) equal to 234 g C m-2 yr-1; (3) mean NPP for the SSA and the NSA of 297 and 238 g C m-2 yr-1, respectively; and (4) mean light use efficiency for NPP equal to 0.40, 0.20, and 0.33 g C (MJ APAR)-1 for deciduous forest, coniferous forest, and crops, respectively.

  9. A CFD Simulation of Hydrogen Production in Microreactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Sabziani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the modeling of hydrogen production process in microreactors by methanol-steam reforming reaction is investigated. The catalytic reaction of methanol-steam reforming producing hydrogen is simulated considering a 3D geometry for the microreactor. To calculate diffusion among species, mixture average correlations are compared to Stephan-Maxwell equations. The reactions occurring inside the microreactor include reforming of methanol with steam, methanol decomposition, and a reaction between carbon dioxide and hydrogen. The main objectives of this study are the prediction of temperature profile along the microreactor using either mixture average method or Stephan-Maxwell one and the comparison between the present predictions and some existing experimental data. The simulation results indicate that Stephan-Maxwell method conforms more suitably to the experimental results. The difference is more at lower feed flow rates since, when the flow rate increases, mass transfer mechanism changes from diffusion to convection, which in turn reduces the difference.

  10. Simulations of Shor's algorithm using matrix product states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D. S.; Hill, Charles D.; Hollenberg, L. C. L.

    2017-07-01

    We show that under the matrix product state formalism the states produced in Shor's algorithm can be represented using O(\\max (4lr^2, 2^{2l})) space, where l is the number of bits in the number to factorise and r is the order and the solution to the related order-finding problem. The reduction in space compared to an amplitude formalism approach is significant, allowing simulations as large as 42 qubits to be run on a single processor with 32 GB RAM. This approach is readily adapted to a distributed memory environment, and we have simulated a 45-qubit case using 8 cores with 16 GB RAM in approximately 1 h.

  11. Simulation of the styrene production process via catalytic dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene using CHEMCAD® process simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaury Pérez Sánchez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Process simulation has been extensively used in recent years to design, evaluate or optimize processes, systems and specific operations of the chemical industry and its related disciplines. Currently, CHEMCAD® constitute one of the most used process simulators because of the great number of chemical and petrochemical processes that can be simulated. Method: The simulation of the production process of styrene via catalytic dehydrogenation of ethyl-benzene is carried out by using the process simulator CHEMCAD® version 5.2.0, in order to determine the composition and mass flow-rate of each process involved in the production, as well as the main operating parameters of the equipment used. Two sensitivity studies were carried out: firstly, the influence of the temperature and pressure values applied at the LLV Separator on the amounts of ethyl-benzene and styrene to be obtained by the intermediate and top currents of this equipment; secondly, the influence of the operating pressure of the Distillation Column No. 1 (benzene-toluene column on the quantity of ethyl-benzene and styrene obtained at the bottom stream. The simulating software MATLAB® version 7.8.0 was used to process the results obtained. Results: Around 9234.436 kg/h of styrene is obtained in the last distillation column with 99.6% purity. Additionally, it was found that the water is the main impurity found on this stream, which represents 0.35% of the weight. Conclusions: The LLV Separator must operate at a low temperature (5 – 10 ºC and at a relatively high pressure (10 bar, whereas the Distillation Column No. 1 must work at a pressure near atmospheric (1.0 bar, or preferably under vacuum conditions in order to obtain the highest yields of styrene and ethyl-benzene.

  12. BEPS a jeho dopad na daňový systém České republiky

    OpenAIRE

    Chrien, Kristián

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this diploma thesis is to analyze the BEPS measures for the digital economy in connection with the relevant measures related to this sector of the economy. The first part of the thesis characterizes the digital sector and its key business models. The main risks in the field of direct and indirect taxation are described below. The second part of the thesis analyzes the BEPS special measures related to the digital economy sector as well as other measures related to the digital econom...

  13. Monte Carlo simulation techniques for predicting annual power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, J.P.; Bulandr, P.J.

    1991-01-01

    As the owner and operator of a number of small to mid-sized hydroelectric sites, STS HydroPower has been faced with the need to accurately predict anticipated hydroelectric revenues over a period of years. The typical approach to this problem has been to look at each site from a mathematical deterministic perspective and evaluate the annual production from historic streamflows. Average annual production is simply taken to be the area under the flow duration curve defined by the operating and design characteristics of the selected turbines. Minimum annual production is taken to be a historic dry year scenario and maximum production is viewed as power generated under the most ideal of conditions. Such an approach creates two problems. First, in viewing the characteristics of a single site, it does not take into account the probability of such an event occurring. Second, in viewing all sites in a single organization's portfolio together, it does not reflect the varying flow conditions at the different sites. This paper attempts to address the first of these two concerns, that being the creation of a simulation model utilizing the Monte Carlo method at a single site. The result of the analysis is a picture of the production at the site that is both a better representation of anticipated conditions and defined probabilistically

  14. Switchboard simulation to improve productivity and customer service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaCourse, E D

    1996-01-01

    An application of classical industrial engineering/operations research techniques (i.e., multichannel queueing analysis) and detailed workload distribution data. An analytic simulation model developed on a personal computer (PC) is used with interactive analysis to develop switchboard coverage requirements and optimal staffing schedules by time of day and day of week. This represents a tangible example of how classical techniques can be used with newer approaches and a close working relationship between the analyst and line management, to solve a practical problem of optimizing both productivity and customer service quality.

  15. Simulated recalls of fish products in five Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randrup, Maria; Storøy, J.; Lievonen, S.

    2008-01-01

    Simulated recalls of fish products sampled in retailer shops were conducted in five Nordic countries to indicate the effectiveness and accuracy of chain traceability systems. The results suggested poor traceability practices at the vessels/auctions and revealed that batch sizes at the last...... traceable step of the raw material vary considerably. However, the existing traceable information seemed to be easily accessible. Altogether, the fish industry in the Nordic countries seems not to be fully prepared for a recall.. Improved traceability awareness and practices in the whole chain can limit...

  16. Simulation of a porous ceramic membrane reactor for hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, W.; Ohmori, T.; Yamamoto, T.; Endo, A.; Nakaiwa, M.; Hayakawa, T. [National Inst. of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba (Japan); Itoh, N. [National Inst. of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba (Japan); Utsunomiya Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Applied Chemistry

    2005-08-01

    A systematic simulation study was performed to investigate the performance of a porous ceramic membrane reactor for hydrogen production by means of methane steam reforming. The results show that the methane conversions much higher than the corresponding equilibrium values can be achieved in the membrane reactor due to the selective removal of products from the reaction zone. The comparison of isothermal and non-isothermal model predictions was made. It was found that the isothermal assumption overestimates the reactor performance and the deviation of calculation results between the two models is subject to the operating conditions. The effects of various process parameters such as the reaction temperature, the reaction side pressure, the feed flow rate and the steam to methane molar feed ratio as well as the sweep gas flow rate and the operation modes, on the behavior of membrane reactor were analyzed and discussed. (author)

  17. Simulation of vanadium-48 production using MCNPX code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadeghi Mahdi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vanadium-48 was produced through the irradiation of the natural titanium target via the natTi(p, xn48V reaction. The titanium target was irradiated at 1 mA current and by a 21 MeV proton beam for 4 hours. In this paper, the activity of 48V, 43Sc, and 46Sc radionuclides and the efficacy of the 47Ti(p, g, 48Ti(p, n, and 49Ti(p, 2n channel reactions to form 48V radionuclide were determined using MCNPX code. Furthermore, the experimental activity of 48V was compared with the estimated value for the thick target yield produced in the irradiation time according to MCNPX code. Good agreement between production yield of the 48V and the simulation yield was observed. In conclusion, MCNPX code can be used for the estimation of the production yield.

  18. A Graphical Interactive Simulation Environment for Production Planning in Bacon Factories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten Mølgaard; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard

    1994-01-01

    The paper describes a graphical interactive simulation tool for production planning in bacon factories........The paper describes a graphical interactive simulation tool for production planning in bacon factories.....

  19. Improvement of productivity in low volume production industry layout by using witness simulation software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffrey, V.; Mohamed, N. M. Z. N.; Rose, A. N. M.

    2017-10-01

    In almost all manufacturing industry, increased productivity and better efficiency of the production line are the most important goals. Most factories especially small scale factory has less awareness of manufacturing system optimization and lack of knowledge about it and uses the traditional way of management. Problems that are commonly identified in the factory are a high idle time of labour and also small production. This study is done in a Small and Medium Enterprises (SME) low volume production company. Data collection and problems affecting productivity and efficiency are identified. In this study, Witness simulation software is being used to simulate the layout and the output is focusing on the improvement of layout in terms of productivity and efficiency. In this study, the layout is rearranged by reducing the travel time from a workstation to another workstation. Then, the improved layout is modelled and the machine and labour statistic of both, original and improved layout is taken. Productivity and efficiency are calculated for both layout and then being compared.

  20. Estimating Diurnal Courses of Gross Primary Production for Maize: A Comparison of Sun-Induced Chlorophyll Fluorescence, Light-Use Efficiency and Process-Based Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianxiang Cui

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Accurately quantifying gross primary production (GPP is of vital importance to understanding the global carbon cycle. Light-use efficiency (LUE models and process-based models have been widely used to estimate GPP at different spatial and temporal scales. However, large uncertainties remain in quantifying GPP, especially for croplands. Recently, remote measurements of solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF have provided a new perspective to assess actual levels of plant photosynthesis. In the presented study, we evaluated the performance of three approaches, including the LUE-based multi-source data synergized quantitative (MuSyQ GPP algorithm, the process-based boreal ecosystem productivity simulator (BEPS model, and the SIF-based statistical model, in estimating the diurnal courses of GPP at a maize site in Zhangye, China. A field campaign was conducted to acquire synchronous far-red SIF (SIF760 observations and flux tower-based GPP measurements. Our results showed that both SIF760 and GPP were linearly correlated with APAR, and the SIF760-GPP relationship was adequately characterized using a linear function. The evaluation of the modeled GPP against the GPP measured from the tower demonstrated that all three approaches provided reasonable estimates, with R2 values of 0.702, 0.867, and 0.667 and RMSE values of 0.247, 0.153, and 0.236 mg m−2 s−1 for the MuSyQ-GPP, BEPS and SIF models, respectively. This study indicated that the BEPS model simulated the GPP best due to its efficiency in describing the underlying physiological processes of sunlit and shaded leaves. The MuSyQ-GPP model was limited by its simplification of some critical ecological processes and its weakness in characterizing the contribution of shaded leaves. The SIF760-based model demonstrated a relatively limited accuracy but showed its potential in modeling GPP without dependency on climate inputs in short-term studies.

  1. Wave Energy Converter Annual Energy Production Uncertainty Using Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clayton E. Hiles

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Critical to evaluating the economic viability of a wave energy project is: (1 a robust estimate of the electricity production throughout the project lifetime and (2 an understanding of the uncertainty associated with said estimate. Standardization efforts have established mean annual energy production (MAEP as the metric for quantification of wave energy converter (WEC electricity production and the performance matrix approach as the appropriate method for calculation. General acceptance of a method for calculating the MAEP uncertainty has not yet been achieved. Several authors have proposed methods based on the standard engineering approach to error propagation, however, a lack of available WEC deployment data has restricted testing of these methods. In this work the magnitude and sensitivity of MAEP uncertainty is investigated. The analysis is driven by data from simulated deployments of 2 WECs of different operating principle at 4 different locations. A Monte Carlo simulation approach is proposed for calculating the variability of MAEP estimates and is used to explore the sensitivity of the calculation. The uncertainty of MAEP ranged from 2%–20% of the mean value. Of the contributing uncertainties studied, the variability in the wave climate was found responsible for most of the uncertainty in MAEP. Uncertainty in MAEP differs considerably between WEC types and between deployment locations and is sensitive to the length of the input data-sets. This implies that if a certain maximum level of uncertainty in MAEP is targeted, the minimum required lengths of the input data-sets will be different for every WEC-location combination.

  2. The Proposed Tiebreaker Rule in OECD/G20 BEPS Action 6: A Critical Examination of the Possible Motives and Means, and a Potential Alternative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanghavi, Dhruv

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the author critically examines the proposed tiebreaker rule in the OECD’s Final Report on Action 6 of the Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS) project, and the motives behind the proposal. The author concludes by suggesting an alternative, which he argues is a more effective

  3. Simulating quantum systems on classical computers with matrix product states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleine, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis, the numerical simulation of strongly-interacting many-body quantum-mechanical systems using matrix product states (MPS) is considered. Matrix-Product-States are a novel representation of arbitrary quantum many-body states. Using quantum information theory, it is possible to show that Matrix-Product-States provide a polynomial-sized representation of one-dimensional quantum systems, thus allowing an efficient simulation of one-dimensional quantum system on classical computers. Matrix-Product-States form the conceptual framework of the density-matrix renormalization group (DMRG). After a general introduction in the first chapter of this thesis, the second chapter deals with Matrix-Product-States, focusing on the development of fast and stable algorithms. To obtain algorithms to efficiently calculate ground states, the density-matrix renormalization group is reformulated using the Matrix-Product-States framework. Further, time-dependent problems are considered. Two different algorithms are presented, one based on a Trotter decomposition of the time-evolution operator, the other one on Krylov subspaces. Finally, the evaluation of dynamical spectral functions is discussed, and a correction vector-based method is presented. In the following chapters, the methods presented in the second chapter, are applied to a number of different physical problems. The third chapter deals with the existence of chiral phases in isotropic one-dimensional quantum spin systems. A preceding analytical study based on a mean-field approach indicated the possible existence of those phases in an isotropic Heisenberg model with a frustrating zig-zag interaction and a magnetic field. In this thesis, the existence of the chiral phases is shown numerically by using Matrix-Product-States-based algorithms. In the fourth chapter, we propose an experiment using ultracold atomic gases in optical lattices, which allows a well controlled observation of the spin-charge separation (of

  4. Simulating quantum systems on classical computers with matrix product states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleine, Adrian

    2010-11-08

    In this thesis, the numerical simulation of strongly-interacting many-body quantum-mechanical systems using matrix product states (MPS) is considered. Matrix-Product-States are a novel representation of arbitrary quantum many-body states. Using quantum information theory, it is possible to show that Matrix-Product-States provide a polynomial-sized representation of one-dimensional quantum systems, thus allowing an efficient simulation of one-dimensional quantum system on classical computers. Matrix-Product-States form the conceptual framework of the density-matrix renormalization group (DMRG). After a general introduction in the first chapter of this thesis, the second chapter deals with Matrix-Product-States, focusing on the development of fast and stable algorithms. To obtain algorithms to efficiently calculate ground states, the density-matrix renormalization group is reformulated using the Matrix-Product-States framework. Further, time-dependent problems are considered. Two different algorithms are presented, one based on a Trotter decomposition of the time-evolution operator, the other one on Krylov subspaces. Finally, the evaluation of dynamical spectral functions is discussed, and a correction vector-based method is presented. In the following chapters, the methods presented in the second chapter, are applied to a number of different physical problems. The third chapter deals with the existence of chiral phases in isotropic one-dimensional quantum spin systems. A preceding analytical study based on a mean-field approach indicated the possible existence of those phases in an isotropic Heisenberg model with a frustrating zig-zag interaction and a magnetic field. In this thesis, the existence of the chiral phases is shown numerically by using Matrix-Product-States-based algorithms. In the fourth chapter, we propose an experiment using ultracold atomic gases in optical lattices, which allows a well controlled observation of the spin-charge separation (of

  5. Biodiesel Production by Reactive Flash: A Numerical Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Regalado-Méndez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive flash (RF in biodiesel production has been studied in order to investigate steady-state multiplicities, singularities, and effect of biodiesel quality when the RF system approaches to bubble point. The RF was modeled by an index-2 system of differential algebraic equations, the vapor split (ϕ was computed by modified Rachford-Rice equation and modified Raoult’s law computed bubble point, and the continuation analysis was tracked on MATCONT. Results of this study show the existence of turning points, leading to a unique bubble point manifold, (xBiodiesel,T=(0.46,478.41 K, which is a globally stable flashing operation. Also, the results of the simulation in MATLAB® of the dynamic behavior of the RF show that conversion of triglycerides reaches 97% for a residence time of 5.8 minutes and a methanol to triglyceride molar flow ratio of 5 : 1.

  6. Dynamic Simulation and Optimization of Nuclear Hydrogen Production Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul I. Barton; Mujid S. Kaximi; Georgios Bollas; Patricio Ramirez Munoz

    2009-07-31

    This project is part of a research effort to design a hydrogen plant and its interface with a nuclear reactor. This project developed a dynamic modeling, simulation and optimization environment for nuclear hydrogen production systems. A hybrid discrete/continuous model captures both the continuous dynamics of the nuclear plant, the hydrogen plant, and their interface, along with discrete events such as major upsets. This hybrid model makes us of accurate thermodynamic sub-models for the description of phase and reaction equilibria in the thermochemical reactor. Use of the detailed thermodynamic models will allow researchers to examine the process in detail and have confidence in the accurary of the property package they use.

  7. Simulation for sodium-24 production using cyclic neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahamed, O. M. H.

    2012-04-01

    The cyclic neutron activation analysis is a method for elemental analysis which is preferred to use short-lived radio-nuclides. In recent years this method became a new application for radioisotope production especially in low power research reactors. In this study instrumental cyclic neutron activation analysis was used for 2 4N a production using 2 3N a (n, γ) 2 4N a reaction. The simplified westcott convention method is used neutron activation analysis in a research reactor. The method takes into account all corrections that can affect that yield created. In this work a model was devolving for calculations through this simplified Westcott convention method by using C++ program and selecting good parameters that can produce the expected activity. The simulation is used for the theoretical yield calculated has been validated by data from the 1 77L u production used for theoretical yield which it gives the approached result had been obtained by FORTRAN 90 from literature (8). The results were achieved for expected activity at full power (1 x 10 1 2n cm -2 s - 1 ) and half power (5 x 10 11 cm -2 s -1 ) for research reactor MNSR. The activity at full power was equal to about twice the activity at half power ( 49±7, 24.9 ± MBq/g), respectively. The irradiation parameters selected were irradiation time 4 min and decay time 12 min. Sample weight was 50 mg at 12 numbers of cycles, when the K-factor was equal to 1.74. This work is considered as first step for production of 2 4N a which can use such parameters experimentally. It is then possible to compare the expected activity with measured activity. (Author)

  8. Beamed-Energy Propulsion (BEP): Considerations for Beaming High Energy-Density Electromagnetic Waves Through the Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    A study to determine the feasibility of employing beamed electromagnetic energy for vehicle propulsion within and outside the Earth's atmosphere was co-funded by NASA and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency that began in June 2010 and culminated in a Summary Presentation in April 2011. A detailed report entitled "Beamed-Energy Propulsion (BEP) Study" appeared in February 2012 as NASA/TM-2012-217014. Of the very many nuances of this subject that were addressed in this report, the effects of transferring the required high energy-density electromagnetic fields through the atmosphere were discussed. However, due to the limitations of the length of the report, only a summary of the results of the detailed analyses were able to be included. It is the intent of the present work to make available the complete analytical modeling work that was done for the BEP project with regard to electromagnetic wave propagation issues. In particular, the present technical memorandum contains two documents that were prepared in 2011. The first one, entitled "Effects of Beaming Energy Through the Atmosphere" contains an overview of the analysis of the nonlinear problem inherent with the transfer of large amounts of energy through the atmosphere that gives rise to thermally-induced changes in the refractive index; application is then made to specific beamed propulsion scenarios. A brief portion of this report appeared as Appendix G of the 2012 Technical Memorandum. The second report, entitled "An Analytical Assessment of the Thermal Blooming Effects on the Propagation of Optical and Millimeter- Wave Focused Beam Waves For Power Beaming Applications" was written in October 2010 (not previously published), provides a more detailed treatment of the propagation problem and its effect on the overall characteristics of the beam such as its deflection as well as its radius. Comparisons are then made for power beaming using the disparate electromagnetic wavelengths of 1.06 microns and 2

  9. Merging Satellite Precipitation Products for Improved Streamflow Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggioni, V.; Massari, C.; Barbetta, S.; Camici, S.; Brocca, L.

    2017-12-01

    statistics, as well as bias reduction and correlation coefficient, with the Bayesian approach being superior to other methods. A study case in the Tiber river basin is also presented to discuss the performance of forcing a hydrological model with the merged satellite precipitation product to simulate streamflow time series.

  10. SIMULATION AS AN APPROPRIATE WAY OF VERIFYING THE EFFICIENCY OF PRODUCTION VARIANTS IN THE DESIGN OF PRODUCTION AND NON-PRODUCTION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Kliment

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with simulation and her forms of use in designing of production and non-production systems. Points to the possibility of using software can help in planning and subsequently in other phase of the lifecycle production and products. Article informs about some of the advantages of this type of software and his options. Sets out some theoretical knowledge of simulation and in the practical part presents some frequently used simulation software.

  11. Erosion products of ITER divertor materials under plasma disruption simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guseva, M.I.; Gureev, V.M.; Kolbasov, B.N.; Korshunov, S.N.; Martynenko, Yu.V. E-mail: martyn@nfi.kiae.ru; Stolyarova, V.G.; Strunnikov, V.M.; Vasiliev, V.I

    2003-09-01

    Candidate ITER divertor armor materials: carbon-fiber-composite and four tungsten grades/alloys as well as mixed re-deposited W+Be and W+C layers were exposed in electrodynamic plasma accelerator MKT which provided a pulsed deuterium plasma flux simulating plasma disruptions with maximum ion energy of 1-2 keV, an energy density of 300 kJ/m{sup 2} per shot and a pulse duration of {approx}60 {mu}s. The number of pulses was from 2 to 10. The resultant erosion products were collected on a basalt filter and Si-collectors and studied in terms of morphology and size distribution using both scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Metal erosion products usually occurred in the form of spherical droplets, sometimes flakes. Their size distribution depended on the positioning of the collector. Simultaneously irradiated W, CFC and mixed W+Be targets appeared to have undergone a greater erosion than the same targets irradiated individually. Particles sized from 0.01 to 30 {mu}m were found on collectors and on a molten W-surface. A model of droplet emission and behavior in shielding plasma is provided.

  12. Numerical Simulation of Shale Gas Production with Thermodynamic Calculations Incorporated

    KAUST Repository

    Urozayev, Dias

    2015-06-01

    In today’s energy sector, it has been observed a revolutionary increase in shale gas recovery induced by reservoir fracking. So-called unconventional reservoirs became profitable after introducing a well stimulation technique. Some of the analysts expect that shale gas is going to expand worldwide energy supply. However, there is still a lack of an efficient as well as accurate modeling techniques, which can provide a good recovery and production estimates. Gas transports in shale reservoir is a complex process, consisting of slippage effect, gas diffusion along the wall, viscous flow due to the pressure gradient. Conventional industrial simulators are unable to model the flow as the flow doesn’t follow Darcy’s formulation. It is significant to build a unified model considering all given mechanisms for shale reservoir production study and analyze the importance of each mechanism in varied conditions. In this work, a unified mathematical model is proposed for shale gas reservoirs. The proposed model was build based on the dual porosity continuum media model; mass conservation equations for both matrix and fracture systems were build using the dusty gas model. In the matrix, gas desorption, Knudsen diffusion and viscous flow were taken into account. The model was also developed by implementing thermodynamic calculations to correct for the gas compressibility, or to obtain accurate treatment of the multicomponent gas. Previously, the model was built on the idealization of the gas, considering every molecule identical without any interaction. Moreover, the compositional variety of shale gas requires to consider impurities in the gas due to very high variety. Peng-Robinson equation of state was used to com- pute and correct for the gas density to pressure relation by solving the cubic equation to improve the model. The results show that considering the compressibility of the gas will noticeably increase gas production under given reservoir conditions and slow down

  13. Simulation of dust production in ITER transient events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pestchanyi, S. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    The tritium retention problem is a critical issue for the tokamak ITER performance. Tritium is trapped in redeposited T-C layers and at the surface of carbon dust, where it is retained in form of various hydrocarbons. The area of dust surface and hence, the amount of tritium deposited on the surface depends on the dust amount and of the dust sizes. The carbon dust appears as a result of brittle destruction at the surface of the carbon fibre composite (CFC) which is now the reference armour material for the most loaded part of tokamak divertor. Stationary heat flux on the ITER divertor armour does not cause its brittle destruction and does not produce dust. However, according to the modern understanding of tokamak fusion devices performance, the most attractive regime of ITER operation is the ELMy H mode. This regime is associated with a repetitive short time increase of heat flux at the CFC divertor armour of 2-3 orders of magnitude over its stationary value during edge localized modes (ELMs). Under influence of these severe heat shocks CFC armour can crack due to the thermostress, producing a dust of carbon. Besides, a carbon dust produced during disruptions due to brittle destruction of the armour under influence of thermoshock. Most of the modern tokamaks do not produce the ELMs powerful enough to cause CFC brittle destruction at the divertor surface, except of very special regimes in JET. This is why the CFC erosion and dust production could be investigated now only theoretically and experimentally in plasma guns and electron beam facilities. Simulation of the CFC brittle destruction has been done using the code PEGASUS already developed and tested in FZK for simulation of erosion for ITER candidate materials under the heat shocks. After upgrades the code was used for simulation of the amount of carbon dust particles and of the distribution of their sizes. The code has been tested against available experimental data from the plasma gun MK-200UG and from the

  14. Simulation of dust production in ITER transient events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pestchanyi, S.

    2007-01-01

    The tritium retention problem is a critical issue for the tokamak ITER performance. Tritium is trapped in redeposited T-C layers and at the surface of carbon dust, where it is retained in form of various hydrocarbons. The area of dust surface and hence, the amount of tritium deposited on the surface depends on the dust amount and of the dust sizes. The carbon dust appears as a result of brittle destruction at the surface of the carbon fibre composite (CFC) which is now the reference armour material for the most loaded part of tokamak divertor. Stationary heat flux on the ITER divertor armour does not cause its brittle destruction and does not produce dust. However, according to the modern understanding of tokamak fusion devices performance, the most attractive regime of ITER operation is the ELMy H mode. This regime is associated with a repetitive short time increase of heat flux at the CFC divertor armour of 2-3 orders of magnitude over its stationary value during edge localized modes (ELMs). Under influence of these severe heat shocks CFC armour can crack due to the thermostress, producing a dust of carbon. Besides, a carbon dust produced during disruptions due to brittle destruction of the armour under influence of thermoshock. Most of the modern tokamaks do not produce the ELMs powerful enough to cause CFC brittle destruction at the divertor surface, except of very special regimes in JET. This is why the CFC erosion and dust production could be investigated now only theoretically and experimentally in plasma guns and electron beam facilities. Simulation of the CFC brittle destruction has been done using the code PEGASUS already developed and tested in FZK for simulation of erosion for ITER candidate materials under the heat shocks. After upgrades the code was used for simulation of the amount of carbon dust particles and of the distribution of their sizes. The code has been tested against available experimental data from the plasma gun MK-200UG and from the

  15. Assessing uncertainties in crop and pasture ensemble model simulations of productivity and N2O emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simulation models are extensively used to predict agricultural productivity and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, the uncertainties of (reduced) model ensemble simulations have not been assessed systematically for variables affecting food security and climate change mitigation, within multisp...

  16. An Agent-Based Monetary Production Simulation Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Charlotte

    2006-01-01

    An Agent-Based Simulation Model Programmed in Objective Borland Pascal. Program and source code is downloadable......An Agent-Based Simulation Model Programmed in Objective Borland Pascal. Program and source code is downloadable...

  17. Pricing and Timing Strategies for New Product Using Agent-Based Simulation of Behavioural Consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Keeheon Lee; Hoyeop Lee; Chang Ouk Kim

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we are interested in the problem of determining the pricing and timing strategies of a new product by developing an agent-based product diffusion simulation. In the proposed simulation model, agents imitate behavioural consumers, who are reference dependent and risk averse in the evaluation of new products and whose interactions create word-of-mouth regarding new products. Pricing and timing strategies involve the timing of a new product release, the timing of providing a disco...

  18. Computerized simulations for indoor climate separation products; Computersimulaties voor klimaatscheidingsproducten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cremers, B.E. [Biddle, Kootstertille (Netherlands)

    2000-08-01

    This article discusses how climate separation works by using computer simulations. There is very good agreement between computer simulations and measurements in practice. The simulations can therefore be used as a tool in the development of comfort air curtains in the retail sector and in the development of air partitions in cold stores. Even so, practical measurements remain necessary in order to validate the simulations. 1 ref.

  19. Application of Tecnomatix Plant Simulation for Modeling Production and Logistics Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Siderska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the article was to present the possibilities and examples of using Tecnomatix Plant Simulation (by Siemens to simulate the production and logistics processes. This tool allows to simulate discrete events and create digital models of logistic systems (e.g. production, optimize the operation of production plants, production lines, as well as individual logistics processes. The review of implementations of Tecnomatix Plant Simulation for modeling processes in production engineering and logistics was conducted and a few selected examples of simulations were presented. The author’s future studies are going to focus on simulation of production and logistic processes and their optimization with the use of genetic algorithms and artificial neural networks.

  20. A study for production simulation model generation system based on data model at a shipyard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myung-Gi Back

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Simulation technology is a type of shipbuilding product lifecycle management solution used to support production planning or decision-making. Normally, most shipbuilding processes are consisted of job shop production, and the modeling and simulation require professional skills and experience on shipbuilding. For these reasons, many shipbuilding companies have difficulties adapting simulation systems, regardless of the necessity for the technology. In this paper, the data model for shipyard production simulation model generation was defined by analyzing the iterative simulation modeling procedure. The shipyard production simulation data model defined in this study contains the information necessary for the conventional simulation modeling procedure and can serve as a basis for simulation model generation. The efficacy of the developed system was validated by applying it to the simulation model generation of the panel block production line. By implementing the initial simulation model generation process, which was performed in the past with a simulation modeler, the proposed system substantially reduced the modeling time. In addition, by reducing the difficulties posed by different modeler-dependent generation methods, the proposed system makes the standardization of the simulation model quality possible.

  1. Net primary productivity of China's terrestrial ecosystems from a process model driven by remote sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, X; Liu, G; Chen, J M; Chen, M; Liu, J; Ju, W M; Sun, R; Zhou, W

    2007-11-01

    The terrestrial carbon cycle is one of the foci in global climate change research. Simulating net primary productivity (NPP) of terrestrial ecosystems is important for carbon cycle research. In this study, China's terrestrial NPP was simulated using the Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS), a carbon-water coupled process model based on remote sensing inputs. For these purposes, a national-wide database (including leaf area index, land cover, meteorology, vegetation and soil) at a 1 km resolution and a validation database were established. Using these databases and BEPS, daily maps of NPP for the entire China's landmass in 2001 were produced, and gross primary productivity (GPP) and autotrophic respiration (RA) were estimated. Using the simulated results, we explore temporal-spatial patterns of China's terrestrial NPP and the mechanisms of its responses to various environmental factors. The total NPP and mean NPP of China's landmass were 2.235 GtC and 235.2 gCm(-2)yr(-1), respectively; the total GPP and mean GPP were 4.418 GtC and 465 gCm(-2)yr(-1); and the total RA and mean RA were 2.227 GtC and 234 gCm(-2)yr(-1), respectively. On average, NPP was 50.6% of GPP. In addition, statistical analysis of NPP of different land cover types was conducted, and spatiotemporal patterns of NPP were investigated. The response of NPP to changes in some key factors such as LAI, precipitation, temperature, solar radiation, VPD and AWC are evaluated and discussed.

  2. Extensive deep vein thrombosis as a complication of testicular cancer treated with the BEP protocol (bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Senna Mano

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: There are no reports in the literature of massive deep venous thrombosis (DVT associated with cisplatin, bleomycin and etoposide (BEP cancer treatment. CASE REPORT: The patient was a 18-year-old adolescent with a nonseminomatous germ cell tumor of the right testicle, with the presence of pulmonary, liver, and massive retroperitoneal metastases. Following radical orchiectomy, the patient started chemotherapy according to the BEP protocol (without routine prophylaxis for DVT. On day 4 of the first cycle, massive DVT was diagnosed, extending from both popliteal veins up to the thoracic segment of the inferior vena cava. Thrombolytic therapy with streptokinase was immediately started. On day 2 of thrombolytic therapy, the patient developed acute renal failure, due to extension of the thrombosis to the renal veins. Streptokinase was continued for six days and the outcome was remarkably favorable.

  3. Simulation of Production Lines in the Education of Engineers: How to Choose the Right Software?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rostkowska Marta

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the problems of modeling and simulation in the design of production lines, mainly from an educator's perspective. Nowadays, there is a wide range of computer programs that can be used to design production lines and to simulate various aspects of their operation. However, the programs being available vary considerably as to their functionality, the approach to production system design, and the visualization tools. Therefore we demonstrate and evaluate in this paper four simulation programs, focusing on the easiness of system design, area of the possible applications in education of engineers, and the limitations imposed by versions dedicated for students. We evaluate three of programs for digital factory simulation on a common, simple assembly task, then demonstrate that these programs may be also used for more specialized simulations in various areas of production, and compare with a specialized program for simulation of robotised production lines and work cells.

  4. Simulation and optimization of agricultural product supply chain system based on Witness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiandong Liu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Researches on agricultural product supply chain have important implications for improving the efficiency of agricultural products circulation, strengthening the construction of agricultural market system, promoting agricultural modernization and solving the three rural issues. Agricultural product supply chain system has begun to be optimized through simulation technique. In this paper, agricultural product supply chain system is reasonably simplified and assumed. A simulation model was developed by using the simulation software Wit-ness to study agricultural product supply chain. Through the analysis of the simulation output data, improvement suggestions were also proposed as follows: improving the organization degree of agricultural products, improving the agricultural products processing, establishing strategic partnership and scientifically developing agricultural products logistics.

  5. Production of continuous glass fiber using lunar simulant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Dennis S.; Ethridge, Edwin C.; Curreri, Peter A.

    1991-01-01

    The processing parameters and mechanical properties of glass fibers pulled from simulated lunar basalt are tested. The simulant was prepared using a plasma technique. The composition is representative of a low titanium mare basalt (Apollo sample 10084). Lunar gravity experiments are to be performed utilizing parabolic aircraft free-fall maneuvers which yield 30 seconds of 1/6-g per maneuver.

  6. Precision measurement of the $^{7}$Be(p, $\\gamma$)$\\,^{8}$B cross section with an implanted $^{7}$Be target

    CERN Document Server

    Baby, L.T.; Goldring, G.; Hass, M.; Weissman, L.; Fedoseyev, V.N.; Koester, U.; Nir-El, Y.; Haquin, G.; Gaggeler, H.W.; Weinreich, R.

    2003-01-01

    The $^{7}$Be(p, $\\gamma$) $\\,^{8}$B reaction plays a central role in the evaluation of solar neutrino fluxes. We report on a new precision measurement of the cross section of this reaction, following our previous experiment with an implanted $^{7}$Be target, a raster- scanned beam, and the elimination of the backscattering loss. The new measurement incorporates a more abundant $^{7}$Be target and a number of improvements in design and procedure. The point at E$_{lab}$ = 991 keV was measured several times under varying experimental conditions, yielding a value of S$_{17}$(E$_{c.m.}$ = 850 keV) = 24.0 $\\pm$ 0.5 eV b. Measurements were carried out at lower energies as well. Because of the precise knowledge of the implanted $^{7}$Be density profile, it was possible to reconstitute both the off- and on-resonance parts of the cross section and to obtain from the entire set of measurements an extrapolated value of S$_{17}$(0)=21.2 $\\pm$ 0.7 eV b.

  7. Structure of the excited states of 11Be reached through the reaction d(10Be,p)11Be

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delaunay, F.

    2003-10-01

    The one-neutron transfer reaction d( 10 Be,p) 11 Be has been studied at 32 A.MeV at GANIL with a 10 Be secondary beam. Protons were detected by the silicon strip array MUST. The ground state and excited states of 11 Be at 0.32, 1.78 and 3.41 MeV were populated, demonstrating the feasibility of transfer reactions induced by radioactive beams leading to bound and unbound states. A DWBA (distorted wave born approximation) analysis indicates for the 3.41 MeV state spin and parity 3/2 + or 5/2 + and a spectroscopic factor of 0.18 or 0.11, respectively. A broad structure centered at 10 MeV is also observed and corresponds to transfer to the 1d sub-shells. If one assumes that only the 1d3/2 orbital contributes to this structure, the splitting of the 1d neutron states in 11 Be is estimated to be 6.3 MeV. Using a 2-particle-RPA (random phase approximation) model, we have shown that neutron-neutron correlations play an important role in the inversion between the 2s1/2 and 1p1/2 neutron states in 11 Be. (author)

  8. Sensitivity Analysis of Methane Hydrate Reservoirs: Effects of Reservoir Parameters on Gas Productivity and Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, B. J.; Gaddipati, M.; Nyayapathi, L.

    2008-12-01

    This paper presents a parametric study on production rates of natural gas from gas hydrates by the method of depressurization, using CMG STARS. Seven factors/parameters were considered as perturbations from a base-case hydrate reservoir description based on Problem 7 of the International Methane Hydrate Reservoir Simulator Code Comparison Study led by the Department of Energy and the USGS. This reservoir is modeled after the inferred properties of the hydrate deposit at the Prudhoe Bay L-106 site. The included sensitivity variables were hydrate saturation, pressure (depth), temperature, bottom-hole pressure of the production well, free water saturation, intrinsic rock permeability, and porosity. A two-level (L=2) Plackett-Burman experimental design was used to study the relative effects of these factors. The measured variable was the discounted cumulative gas production. The discount rate chosen was 15%, resulting in the gas contribution to the net present value of a reservoir. Eight different designs were developed for conducting sensitivity analysis and the effects of the parameters on the real and discounted production rates will be discussed. The breakeven price in various cases and the dependence of the breakeven price on the production parameters is given in the paper. As expected, initial reservoir temperature has the strongest positive effect on the productivity of a hydrate deposit and the bottom-hole pressure in the production well has the strongest negative dependence. Also resulting in a positive correlation is the intrinsic permeability and the initial free water of the formation. Negative effects were found for initial hydrate saturation (at saturations greater than 50% of the pore space) and the reservoir porosity. These negative effects are related to the available sensible heat of the reservoir, with decreasing productivity due to decreasing available sensible heat. Finally, we conclude that for the base case reservoir, the break-even price (BEP

  9. Retrieved Products from Simulated Hyperspectral Observations of a Hurricane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susskind, Joel; Kouvaris, Louis; Iredell, Lena; Blaisdell, John

    2015-01-01

    Demonstrate via Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs) the potential utility of flying high spatial resolution AIRS class IR sounders on future LEO and GEO missions.The study simulates and analyzes radiances for 3 sounders with AIRS spectral and radiometric properties on different orbits with different spatial resolutions: 1) Control run 13 kilometers AIRS spatial resolution at nadir on LEO in Aqua orbit; 2) 2 kilometer spatial resolution LEO sounder at nadir ARIES; 3) 5 kilometers spatial resolution sounder on a GEO orbit, radiances simulated every 72 minutes.

  10. Application of Discrete EventSimulation in Mine Production Forecast*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael

    2016-06-01

    Jun 1, 2016 ... Mine production forecast is pertinent to mining as it serves production ... Besides the inability of this method to mimic the .... management and truck operators understood the ..... Mining Engineering Handbook, Hartman, H. L..

  11. Numerical Simulation of Shale Gas Production with Thermodynamic Calculations Incorporated

    KAUST Repository

    Urozayev, Dias

    2015-01-01

    to pressure relation by solving the cubic equation to improve the model. The results show that considering the compressibility of the gas will noticeably increase gas production under given reservoir conditions and slow down the production decline curve

  12. Simulation of less master production schedule nervousness model

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera , Carlos; Thomas , André

    2009-01-01

    International audience; In production decision making systems, Master Production Schedule (MPS) states the requirements for individual end items by date and quantity. The solution sensitivity to demand forecast changes, unforeseen supplier and production problem occurrences, is known as nervousness. This feature cause undesirable effects at tactical and operational levels. Some of these effects are production and inventory cost increases and, also, negative impacts on overall and labor produc...

  13. Blood platelet production with breaks : optimization by SDP and simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haijema, R.; Dijk, van N.M.; Wal, van der J.; Smit Sibinga, C.

    2009-01-01

    The production and inventory management of blood products at blood banks and hospitals is a problem of general human interest. As a shortage may put lives at risk, shortages are to be kept to a minimum. As the supply is voluntary and costly, any spill of unused blood (products) is also to be

  14. Blood platelet production with breaks : optimization by SDP and simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haijema, Rene; van Dijk, Nico; van der Wal, Jan; Smit Sibinga, Cees

    2009-01-01

    The production and inventory management of blood products at blood banks and hospitals is it problem of general human interest. As a shortage may put lives at risk, shortages are to be kept to a minimum. As the supply is voluntary and costly, any spill of unused blood (products) is also to be

  15. Blood platelet production with breaks: optimization by SDP and simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haijema, R.; van Dijk, N.; van der Wal, J.; Smit Sibinga, C.

    2009-01-01

    The production and inventory management of blood products at blood banks and hospitals is a problem of general human interest. As a shortage may put lives at risk, shortages are to be kept to a minimum. As the supply is voluntary and costly, any spill of unused blood (products) is also to be

  16. Blood Platelet Production with Breaks: Optimization by SDP and Simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haijema, R.; Dijk, van N.M.; Wal, van der J.; Smit Sibinga, C.

    2009-01-01

    The production and inventory management of blood products at blood banks and hospitals is a problem of general human interest. As a shortage may put lives at risk, shortages are to be kept to a minimum. As the supply is voluntary and costly, any spill of unused blood (products) is also to be

  17. Improved Lunar and Martian Regolith Simulant Production, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The technical objective of the Phase II project is to provide a more complete investigation of the long-term needs of the simulant community based on the updated...

  18. Mass Production of Mature Lunar Regolith Simulant, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As NASA prepares for future exploration activities on the Moon, there is a growing need to develop higher fidelity lunar soil simulants that can accurately reproduce...

  19. PRODUCTION SYSTEM MODELING AND SIMULATION USING DEVS FORMALISM

    OpenAIRE

    Amaya Hurtado, Darío; Castillo Estepa, Ricardo Andrés; Avilés Montaño, Óscar Fernando; Ramos Sandoval, Olga Lucía

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the Discrete Event System Specification (DEVS) formalism, in their atomic and coupled configurations; it is used for discrete event systems modeling and simulation. Initially this work describes the analysis of discrete event systems concepts and its applicability. Then a comprehensive description of the DEVS formalism structure is presented, in order to model and simulate an industrial process, taking into account changes in parameters such as process service time, each...

  20. Reusing salad from salad bars – simulating the effects on product loss, microbial safety and product quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tromp, S.O.; Rijgersberg, H.; Franz, E.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study is to model the effects of reusing salad from salad bars to reduce product loss, while keeping microbial safety and product quality at acceptable levels. We, therefore, expand our previously developed simulation model by incorporating reuse strategies and a quality decay

  1. Blood platelet production : optimization by dynamic programming and simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haijema, R.; Wal, van der J.; Dijk, van N.M.

    2007-01-01

    Blood platelets are precious, as voluntarily supplied by donors, and highly perishable, with limited lifetimes of 5–7 days. Demand is highly variable and uncertain. A practical production and inventory rule is strived for that minimizes shortages and spill. The demand and production are periodic, as

  2. Blood Platelet Production: Optimization by Dynamic Programming and Simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haijema, R.; Wal, van der J.; Dijk, van N.M.

    2007-01-01

    Blood platelets are precious, as voluntarily supplied by donors, and highly perishable, with limited lifetimes of 5¿7 days. Demand is highly variable and uncertain. A practical production and inventory rule is strived for that minimizes shortages and spill. The demand and production are periodic, as

  3. Feasibility Study for Installing Machine in Production Line to Avoid Particle Contamination Based on CFD Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaokom, Adisorn; Thongsri, Jatuporn

    2017-10-01

    Ventilation system inside production line for electronic component production needs to meet the factory standard. Because it can eliminate small particles which may cause of human or machine in production as well as it can distribute the circulating air temperature uniformly. CFD is used in this research in order to study the feasibility and plan for machine layout in production line before actual installation. The simulation shows the airflow in every area inside production line. From simulation with releasing the particles from human and machine is found that this ventilation system generates airflow that makes most particles float out of the machines and no particle downs to the conveyor, it results to contamination. In addition, the simulation also shows the range of 19-26 °C air temperature that meets the factory standard. The results of this research are the parts of the data to renovate the production line to get more efficiency and proper on the production.

  4. Management of Wood Products Manufacturing Using Simulation/Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Earl Kline; J.K. Wiedenbeck; Philip A. Araman

    1992-01-01

    Managers of hardwood processing facilities need timely information on which to base important decisions such as when to add costly equipment or how to improve profitability subject to time-varying demands. The overall purpose of this paper is to introduce a method that can effectively provide such timely information. A simulation/animation modeling procedure is...

  5. Simulated production of a black hole in ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    This track is an example of simulated data modelled for the ATLAS detector on the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, which will begin taking data in 2008. These tracks would be produced if a miniature black hole was created in the proton-proton collision. Such a small black hole would decay instantly to various particles via a process known as Hawking radiation.

  6. Development and application of a crossbreeding simulation model for goat production systems in tropical regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukahara, Y; Oishi, K; Hirooka, H

    2011-12-01

    A deterministic simulation model was developed to estimate biological production efficiency and to evaluate goat crossbreeding systems under tropical conditions. The model involves 5 production systems: pure indigenous, first filial generations (F1), backcross (BC), composite breeds of F1 (CMP(F1)), and BC (CMP(BC)). The model first simulates growth, reproduction, lactation, and energy intakes of a doe and a kid on a 1-d time step at the individual level and thereafter the outputs are integrated into the herd dynamics program. The ability of the model to simulate individual performances was tested under a base situation. The simulation results represented daily BW changes, ME requirements, and milk yield and the estimates were within the range of published data. Two conventional goat production scenarios (an intensive milk production scenario and an integrated goat and oil palm production scenario) in Malaysia were examined. The simulation results of the intensive milk production scenario showed the greater production efficiency of the CMP(BC) and CMP(F1) systems and decreased production efficiency of the F1 and BC systems. The results of the integrated goat and oil palm production scenario showed that the production efficiency and stocking rate were greater for the indigenous goats than for the crossbreeding systems.

  7. Consistent simulation of nonresonant diphoton production in hadron collisions including associated jet production up to two jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odaka, Shigeru; Kurihara, Yoshimasa

    2016-12-01

    An event generator for diphoton (γ γ ) production in hadron collisions that includes associated jet production up to two jets has been developed using a subtraction method based on the limited leading-log subtraction. The parton shower (PS) simulation to restore the subtracted divergent components involves both quantum electrodynamic (QED) and quantum chromodynamic radiation, and QED radiation at very small Q2 is simulated by referring to a fragmentation function (FF). The PS/FF simulation has the ability to enforce the radiation of a given number of energetic photons. The generated events can be fed to PYTHIA to obtain particle (hadron) level event information, which enables us to perform realistic simulations of photon isolation and hadron-jet reconstruction. The simulated events, in which the loop-mediated g g →γ γ process is involved, reasonably reproduce the diphoton kinematics measured at the LHC. Using the developed simulation, we found that the two-jet processes significantly contribute to diphoton production. A large two-jet contribution can be considered as a common feature in electroweak-boson production in hadron collisions although the reason is yet to be understood. Discussion concerning the treatment of the underlying events in photon isolation is necessary for future higher precision measurements.

  8. Studies on dissolution characteristics of simulated corrosion products on pressurized water reactor primary coolant loops. Pt.2: Cobalt simulated corrosion product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shan; Zhou Xianyu

    1997-01-01

    The studies on the dissolution characteristics of simulated corrosion product of cobalt on pressurized water reactor primary coolant loops in aqueous solution of citric acid, hydrogen peroxide and citric acid-hydrogen peroxide have been performed. The results show that the portion of the dissolved simulated corrosion product of cobalt in citric acid aqueous solution clearly increases with a rise in citric acid concentration and is ten times above the corresponding value of iron. The portion of the products that dissolve is the largest at pH 3.00 in the pH range of 2.33∼4.50 and at 70 degree C in the range of 60∼80 degree C. It is shown that the portion of the dissolved simulated corrosion product of cobalt in hydrogen peroxide aqueous solution is smaller than the corresponding value in citric acid, and that the portion of the dissolved simulated corrosion product of cobalt in aqueous solution of hydrogen peroxide-citric acid is larger than the corresponding value in single citric acid aqueous solution

  9. Exclusive π0 production at HERMES. Detection - simulation - analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenbroucke, A.

    2007-02-01

    In this thesis the experimental study of the process #vector#e#vector#p(#vector#d)→e'π 0 p(d) in th HERMES experiment at the HERA storage ring is described. Especially the electron beam, the polarized target, the detector components of the HERMES spectrometer and the silicon recoil detector are described, whereby especially tracking and particle identification is considered. Furthermore a Monte Carlo simulation of this experiment with special regards to the calorimeter is presented. (HSI)

  10. Comparing Productivity Simulated with Inventory Data Using Different Modelling Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopf, M.; Pietsch, S. A.; Hasenauer, H.

    2009-04-01

    The Lime Stone National Park in Austria was established in 1997 to protect sensible lime stone soils from degradation due to heavy forest management. Since 1997 the management activities were successively reduced and standing volume and coarse woody debris (CWD) increased and degraded soils began to recover. One option to study the rehabilitation process towards natural virgin forest state is the use of modelling technology. In this study we will test two different modelling approaches for their applicability to Lime Stone National Park. We will compare standing tree volume simulated resulting from (i) the individual tree growth model MOSES, and (ii) the species and management sensitive adaptation of the biogeochemical-mechanistic model Biome-BGC. The results from the two models are compared with filed observations form repeated permanent forest inventory plots of the Lime Stone National Park in Austria. The simulated CWD predictions of the BGC-model were compared with dead wood measurements (standing and lying dead wood) recorded at the permanent inventory plots. The inventory was established between 1994 and 1996 and remeasured from 2004 to 2005. For this analysis 40 plots of this inventory were selected which comprise the required dead wood components and are dominated by a single tree species. First we used the distance dependant individual tree growth model MOSES to derive the standing timber and the amount of mortality per hectare. MOSES is initialized with the inventory data at plot establishment and each sampling plot is treated as forest stand. The Biome-BGC is a process based biogeochemical model with extensions for Austrian tree species, a self initialization and a forest management tool. The initialization for the actual simulations with the BGC model was done as follows: We first used spin up runs to derive a balanced forest vegetation, similar to an undisturbed forest. Next we considered the management history of the past centuries (heavy clear cuts

  11. Mastoidectomy performance assessment of virtual simulation training using final-product analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steven A W; Cayé-Thomasen, Per; Sørensen, Mads S

    2015-01-01

    a modified Welling scale. The simulator gathered basic metrics on time, steps, and volumes in relation to the on-screen tutorial and collisions with vital structures. RESULTS: Substantial inter-rater reliability (kappa = 0.77) for virtual simulation and moderate inter-rater reliability (kappa = 0.......59) for dissection final-product assessment was found. The simulation and dissection performance scores had significant correlation (P = .014). None of the basic simulator metrics correlated significantly with the final-product score except for number of steps completed in the simulator. CONCLUSIONS: A modified...... version of a validated final-product performance assessment tool can be used to assess mastoidectomy on virtual temporal bones. Performance assessment of virtual mastoidectomy could potentially save the use of cadaveric temporal bones for more advanced training when a basic level of competency...

  12. Simulated top-quark pair production in the CLIC_ILD detector

    CERN Multimedia

    CLIC, Compact Linear Collider Project

    2017-01-01

    Simulated production of a top-quark pair with a nominal collision energy of 3 TeV, in the CLIC_ILD detector. The event display show the reconstructed particles used as input for a jet clustering algorithm.

  13. Evolution Model and Simulation of Profit Model of Agricultural Products Logistics Financing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo; Wu, Yan

    2018-03-01

    Agricultural products logistics financial warehousing business mainly involves agricultural production and processing enterprises, third-party logistics enterprises and financial institutions tripartite, to enable the three parties to achieve win-win situation, the article first gives the replication dynamics and evolutionary stability strategy between the three parties in business participation, and then use NetLogo simulation platform, using the overall modeling and simulation method of Multi-Agent, established the evolutionary game simulation model, and run the model under different revenue parameters, finally, analyzed the simulation results. To achieve the agricultural products logistics financial financing warehouse business to participate in tripartite mutually beneficial win-win situation, thus promoting the smooth flow of agricultural products logistics business.

  14. Grid-based Simulation of Industrial Thin Film Production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krzhizhanovskaya, V.V.; Sloot, P.M.A.; Gorbachev, Y.E.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the authors introduce a Grid-based virtual reactor, a High Level Architecture (HLA)-supported problem-solving environment that allows for detailed numerical study of industrial thin-film production in plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) reactors. They briefly describe

  15. A stochastic simulation approach for production scheduling and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology ... management decisions related to production scheduling and investment planning. ... and indicate the value of promoting an information culture in the entire work forces. ... to support decision making in a BPR (Business Processes Re-engineering) scenario.

  16. Modeling requirements for full-scope reactor simulators of fission-product transport during severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellison, P.G.; Monson, P.R.; Mitchell, H.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes in the needs and requirements to properly and efficiently model fission product transport on full scope reactor simulators. Current LWR simulators can be easily adapted to model severe accident phenomena and the transport of radionuclides. Once adapted these simulators can be used as a training tool during operator training exercises for training on severe accident guidelines, for training on containment venting procedures, or as training tool during site wide emergency training exercises

  17. Impacts of climate change on rice production in Africa and causes of simulated yield changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oort, Van Pepijn A.J.; Zwart, Sander J.

    2018-01-01

    This study is the first of its kind to quantify possible effects of climate change on rice production in Africa. We simulated impacts on rice in irrigated systems (dry season and wet season) and rainfed systems (upland and lowland). We simulated the use of rice varieties with a higher temperature

  18. Research in biomass production and utilization: Systems simulation and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Albert Stewart

    There is considerable public interest in developing a sustainable biobased economy that favors support of family farms and rural communities and also promotes the development of biorenewable energy resources. This study focuses on a number of questions related to the development and exploration of new pathways that can potentially move us toward a more sustainable biobased economy. These include issues related to biomass fuels for drying grain, economies-of-scale, new biomass harvest systems, sugar-to-ethanol crop alternatives for the Upper Midwest U.S., biomass transportation, post-harvest biomass processing and double cropping production scenarios designed to maximize biomass feedstock production. The first section of this study considers post-harvest drying of shelled corn grain both at farm-scale and at larger community-scaled installations. Currently, drying of shelled corn requires large amounts of fossil fuel energy. To address future energy concerns, this study evaluates the potential use of combined heat and power systems that use the combustion of corn stover to produce steam for drying and to generate electricity for fans, augers, and control components. Because of the large capital requirements for solid fuel boilers and steam turbines/engines, both farm-scale and larger grain elevator-scaled systems benefit by sharing boiler and power infrastructure with other processes. The second and third sections evaluate sweet sorghum as a possible "sugarcane-like" crop that can be grown in the Upper Midwest. Various harvest systems are considered including a prototype mobile juice harvester, a hypothetical one-pass unit that separates grain heads from chopped stalks and traditional forage/silage harvesters. Also evaluated were post-harvest transportation, storage and processing costs and their influence on the possible use of sweet sorghum as a supplemental feedstock for existing dry-grind ethanol plants located in the Upper Midwest. Results show that the concept

  19. Solubility of simulated PWR primary circuit corrosion products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunig, R.H.; Sandler, Y.L.

    1986-08-01

    The solubility behavior of non-stoichiometric nickel ferrites, nickel-cobalt ferrites, and magnetite, as model substances for the corrosion products (''crud'') formed in nuclear pressurized water reactors, was studied in a flow system in aqueous solutions of lithium hydroxide, boric acid, and hydrogen with pH, temperature, and hydrogen concentrations as parameters. Below the temperature region of 300 to 330 0 C, at hydrogen concentrations of 25 to 40 cm 3 /kg H 2 O as used during reactor operation, the solubility of nickel-cobalt ferrite is the same as that of Ni and Co/sub x/Fe/sub 3-x/O 4 (x 3 /kg of hydrogen, the equilibrium iron and nickel solubilities increase congruently down to about 100 0 C, in a manner consistent with the solubility of Fe 3 O 4 , but sharply decline at lower temperatures, apparently due to formation of a borated layer. A cooldown experiment on a time scale of a typical Westinghouse reactor shutdown, as well as static experiments carried out on various ferrite samples at 60 0 C show that after addition of oxygen or peroxide evolution of nickel (and possibly cobalt) above the equilibrium solubility in hydrogen depends on the presence of dissociation products prior to oxidation. Thermodynamic calculations of various reduction and oxidative decomposition reactions for stoichiometric and non-stoichiometric nickel ferrite and cobalt ferrite are presented. Their significance to evolutions of nickel and cobalt on reactor shutdown is discussed. 30 refs., 38 figs., 34 tabs

  20. Modelling and simulation of a pervaporation process using tubular module for production of anhydrous ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieu, Nguyen Huu

    2017-09-01

    Pervaporation is a potential process for the final step of ethanol biofuel production. In this study, a mathematical model was developed based on the resistance-in-series model and a simulation was carried out using the specialized simulation software COMSOL Multiphysics to describe a tubular type pervaporation module with membranes for the dehydration of ethanol solution. The permeance of membranes, operating conditions, and feed conditions in the simulation were referred from experimental data reported previously in literature. Accordingly, the simulated temperature and density profiles of pure water and ethanol-water mixture were validated based on existing published data.

  1. Simulation of the Production of Secondary Particles from a Neutron Beam on Polyethylene Targets using the GEANT4 Simulation Tool

    CERN Document Server

    Ilgner, C

    2003-01-01

    In view of a beam test of RadFET semiconductor detectors and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) detectors as on-line dosimeters for radiation monitoring purposes in the caverns of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments, a simulation on the production of secondary particles from a neutron beam on a polyethylene target was carried out. We describe the yield of recoil protons, scattered neutrons as well as electrons, positrons and photons, when neutrons of an average energy of 20 MeV hit polyethylene targets of several thicknesses. The simulation was carried out using the latest release 5.2 of the GEANT4 detector description and simulation tool, including advanced hadron interaction models.

  2. Shrub biomass production following simulated herbivory: A test of the compensatory growth hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terri B. Teaschner; Timothy E. Fulbright

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to test the hypotheses that 1) simulated herbivory stimulates increased biomass production in spiny hackberry (Celtis pallida), but decreases biomass production in blackbrush acacia (Acacia rigidula) compared to unbrowsed plants and 2) thorn density and length increase in blackbrush acacia to a...

  3. Supporting conceptual product design by hybrid simulation of use processes with scenario structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Vegte, W.F.; Horváth, I.

    2007-01-01

    The approach described in this paper aims to offer designers a new way to investigate use processes of products by integrating scenarios of expected user behaviour with simulations of physical artefact behaviour. Use is considered a key process in the life cycle of a product, being the phase in

  4. Estimating and validating ground-based timber harvesting production through computer simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingxin Wang; Chris B. LeDoux

    2003-01-01

    Estimating ground-based timber harvesting systems production with an object oriented methodology was investigated. The estimation model developed generates stands of trees, simulates chain saw, drive-to-tree feller-buncher, swing-to-tree single-grip harvester felling, and grapple skidder and forwarder extraction activities, and analyzes costs and productivity. It also...

  5. Sensitivity of Distributed Hydrologic Simulations to Ground and Satellite Based Rainfall Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singaiah Chintalapudi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, seven precipitation products (rain gauges, NEXRAD MPE, PERSIANN 0.25 degree, PERSIANN CCS-3hr, PERSIANN CCS-1hr, TRMM 3B42V7, and CMORPH were used to force a physically-based distributed hydrologic model. The model was driven by these products to simulate the hydrologic response of a 1232 km2 watershed in the Guadalupe River basin, Texas. Storm events in 2007 were used to analyze the precipitation products. Comparison with rain gauge observations reveals that there were significant biases in the satellite rainfall products and large variations in the estimated amounts. The radar basin average precipitation compared very well with the rain gauge product while the gauge-adjusted TRMM 3B42V7 precipitation compared best with observed rainfall among all satellite precipitation products. The NEXRAD MPE simulated streamflows matched the observed ones the best yielding the highest Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency correlation coefficient values for both the July and August 2007 events. Simulations driven by TRMM 3B42V7 matched the observed streamflow better than other satellite products for both events. The PERSIANN coarse resolution product yielded better runoff results than the higher resolution product. The study reveals that satellite rainfall products are viable alternatives when rain gauge or ground radar observations are sparse or non-existent.

  6. Investment in the capacity of production in a simulate environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Hartmut Kopittke

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available With the objective of contributing with the theory about performance, strategic administration and business games, this study presents an evaluation and innovation approach of the GI-Logística business games. Initially, it is made a presentation of the business games, indicating your characteristic principal, objectives and conduction of the elements for take of decision with focus in the investments in the working production. The second section approaches the administration methodology and evaluation of performance of Balanced Scorecard, with emphasis in the processes of operations. The tool Balanced Scorecard will be described to be used as mark for the updatings in the GI-Logística business games. Finally, they are suggested alterations in the GI-Logística business games, as well as the due alterations in your didactic material of support.

  7. BEPS: quo vadis Nederland?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelisse, R.P.C.

    2015-01-01

    Schrijver blikt vooruit op de ontwikkelingen die dit jaar in de fiscale wereld gaan plaatsvinden. Hij stelt de vraag aan de orde of Nederland de ontwikkelingen op dit terrein moet afwachten of dat het verstandiger is juist niet af te wachten maar pro-actief haar fiscale stelsel op korte termijn

  8. BIM-Integrated Construction Operation Simulation for Just-In-Time Production Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WoonSeong Jeong

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Traditional construction planning, which depends on historical data and heuristic modification, prevents the integration of managerial details such as productivity dynamics. Specifically, the distance between planning and execution brings cost overruns and duration extensions. To minimize variations, this research presents a Building Information Modeling (BIM-integrated simulation framework for predicting productivity dynamics at the construction planning phase. To develop this framework, we examined critical factors affecting productivity at the operational level, and then forecast the productivity dynamics. The resulting plan includes specific commands for retrieving the required information from BIM and executing operation simulations. It consists of the following steps: (1 preparing a BIM model to produce input data; (2 composing a construction simulation at the operational level; and (3 obtaining productivity dynamics from the BIM-integrated simulation. To validate our framework, we applied it to a structural steel model; this was due to the significance of steel erections. By integrating BIM with construction operation simulations, we were able to create reliable construction plans that adapted to project changes. Our results show that the developed framework facilitates the reliable prediction of productivity dynamics, and can contribute to improved schedule reliability, optimized resource allocation, cost savings associated with buffers, and reduced material waste.

  9. Using Computer Simulation Method to Improve Throughput of Production Systems by Buffers and Workers Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kłos Sławomir

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the application of computer simulation methods to support decision making regarding intermediate buffer allocations in a series-parallel production line. The simulation model of the production system is based on a real example of a manufacturing company working in the automotive industry. Simulation experiments were conducted for different allocations of buffer capacities and different numbers of employees. The production system consists of three technological operations with intermediate buffers between each operation. The technological operations are carried out using machines and every machine can be operated by one worker. Multi-work in the production system is available (one operator operates several machines. On the basis of the simulation experiments, the relationship between system throughput, buffer allocation and the number of employees is analyzed. Increasing the buffer capacity results in an increase in the average product lifespan. Therefore, in the article a new index is proposed that includes the throughput of the manufacturing system and product life span. Simulation experiments were performed for different configurations of technological operations.

  10. Simulation and optimization of logistics distribution for an engine production line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, L.; Jin, S.; Tang, P.

    2016-07-01

    In order to analyze and study the factors about Logistics distribution system, solve the problems of out of stock on the production line and improve the efficiency of the assembly line. Using the method of industrial engineering, put forward the optimization scheme of distribution system. The simulation model of logistics distribution system for engine assembly line was build based on Witness software. The optimization plan is efficient to improve Logistics distribution efficiency, production of assembly line efficiency and reduce the storage of production line. Based on the study of the modeling and simulation of engine production logistics distribution system, the result reflects some influence factors about production logistics system, which has reference value to improving the efficiency of the production line. (Author)

  11. Simulation and optimization of logistics distribution for an engine production line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijun Song

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In order to analyze and study the factors about Logistics distribution system, solve the problems of out of stock on the production line and improve the efficiency of the assembly line. Design/methodology/approach: Using the method of industrial engineering, put forward the optimization scheme of distribution system. The simulation model of logistics distribution system for engine assembly line was build based on Witness software. Findings: The optimization plan is efficient to improve Logistics distribution efficiency, production of assembly line efficiency and reduce the storage of production line Originality/value: Based on the study of the modeling and simulation of engine production logistics distribution system, the result reflects some influence factors about production logistics system, which has reference value to improving the efficiency of the production line.

  12. Practical improvements and merging of POWHEG simulations for vector boson production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliolo, Simone; Hamilton, Keith; Re, Emanuele

    2011-10-01

    In this article we generalise POWHEG next-to-leading order parton shower (NLOPS) simulations of vector boson production and vector boson production in association with a single jet, to give matrix element corrected MENLOPS simulations. In so doing we extend and provide, for the first time, an exact and faithful implementation of the MENLOPS formalism in hadronic collisions. We also consider merging the resulting event samples according to a phase space partition defined in terms of an effective jet clustering scale. The merging scale is restricted such that the component generated by the associated production simulation does not impact on the NLO accuracy of inclusive vector boson production observables. The dependence of the predictions on the unphysical merging scale is demonstrated. Comparisons with Tevatron and LHC data are presented. (orig.)

  13. Practical improvements and merging of POWHEG simulations for vector boson production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliolo, Simone [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Hamilton, Keith [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Milan (Italy); Re, Emanuele [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics

    2011-10-15

    In this article we generalise POWHEG next-to-leading order parton shower (NLOPS) simulations of vector boson production and vector boson production in association with a single jet, to give matrix element corrected MENLOPS simulations. In so doing we extend and provide, for the first time, an exact and faithful implementation of the MENLOPS formalism in hadronic collisions. We also consider merging the resulting event samples according to a phase space partition defined in terms of an effective jet clustering scale. The merging scale is restricted such that the component generated by the associated production simulation does not impact on the NLO accuracy of inclusive vector boson production observables. The dependence of the predictions on the unphysical merging scale is demonstrated. Comparisons with Tevatron and LHC data are presented. (orig.)

  14. A Survey on Efficient Collaboration of Design and Simulation in Product Development

    OpenAIRE

    Kreimeyer, M.;Deubzer, F.;Herfeld, U..;Lindemann, U.

    2017-01-01

    Efficient collaboration is a popular topic in all kinds of industry with products evolving into evermore complex sytems and with taylorism in product development increasing. With the goal of satisfying the customer’s functional desires for the product, the cooperation of embodiment design, simulation and testing departments in a company plays an essential role. The results of a survey to explore problems and chances of the former two are layed out in the following. For the survey, about 50 qu...

  15. ARM Cloud Radar Simulator Package for Global Climate Models Value-Added Product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yuying [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Xie, Shaocheng [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-05-01

    It has been challenging to directly compare U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility ground-based cloud radar measurements with climate model output because of limitations or features of the observing processes and the spatial gap between model and the single-point measurements. To facilitate the use of ARM radar data in numerical models, an ARM cloud radar simulator was developed to converts model data into pseudo-ARM cloud radar observations that mimic the instrument view of a narrow atmospheric column (as compared to a large global climate model [GCM] grid-cell), thus allowing meaningful comparison between model output and ARM cloud observations. The ARM cloud radar simulator value-added product (VAP) was developed based on the CloudSat simulator contained in the community satellite simulator package, the Cloud Feedback Model Intercomparison Project (CFMIP) Observation Simulator Package (COSP) (Bodas-Salcedo et al., 2011), which has been widely used in climate model evaluation with satellite data (Klein et al., 2013, Zhang et al., 2010). The essential part of the CloudSat simulator is the QuickBeam radar simulator that is used to produce CloudSat-like radar reflectivity, but is capable of simulating reflectivity for other radars (Marchand et al., 2009; Haynes et al., 2007). Adapting QuickBeam to the ARM cloud radar simulator within COSP required two primary changes: one was to set the frequency to 35 GHz for the ARM Ka-band cloud radar, as opposed to 94 GHz used for the CloudSat W-band radar, and the second was to invert the view from the ground to space so as to attenuate the beam correctly. In addition, the ARM cloud radar simulator uses a finer vertical resolution (100 m compared to 500 m for CloudSat) to resolve the more detailed structure of clouds captured by the ARM radars. The ARM simulator has been developed following the COSP workflow (Figure 1) and using the capabilities available in COSP

  16. Simulation of fission products behavior in severe accidents for advanced passive PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong, L.L.; Huang, G.F.; Cao, X.W.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A fission product analysis model based on thermal hydraulic module is developed. • An assessment method for fission product release and transport is constructed. • Fission products behavior during three modes of containment response is investigated. • Source term results for the three modes of containment response are obtained. - Abstract: Fission product behavior for common Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) has been studied for many years, and some analytical tools have developed. However, studies specifically on the behavior of fission products related to advanced passive PWR is scarce. In the current study, design characteristics of advanced passive PWR influencing fission product behavior are investigated. An integrated fission products analysis model based on a thermal hydraulic module is developed, and the assessment method for fission products release and transport for advanced passive PWR is constructed. Three modes of containment response are simulated, including intact containment, containment bypass and containment overpressure failure. Fission products release from the core and corium, fission products transport and deposition in the Reactor Coolant System (RCS), fission products transport and deposition in the containment considering fission products retention in the in-containment refueling water storage tank (IRWST) and in the secondary side of steam generators (SGs) are simulated. Source term results of intact containment, containment bypass and containment overpressure failure are obtained, which can be utilized to evaluate the radiological consequences

  17. Investigation of Effect of Machine Layout on Productivity and Utilization Level: What If Simulation Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam Faisal Bourini

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Designing and selecting the material handling system is a vital factor for any production line, and as result for the whole manufacturing system. Poor design and unsuitable handling equipment may increase the risk of having bottlenecks, longer production time and as a result the higher total production cost. One of the useful and effective tools are using “what if” simulation techniques. However, this technique needs effective simulation software. The main objective for this research is to simulate different types of handling system using what if scenario. To achieve the objective of the research, Delmia Quest software has been used to simulate two different systems: manual system and conveyers system for the same production line and analyses the differences in terms of utilization and production rate. The results obtained have been analysed and appraised to induce the bottleneck locations, productivity and utilizations of the machines and material handling systems used in the design system. Finally, the best model have been developed to increase the productivity, utilizations of the machines, material handling systems and to minimize the bottleneck locations.

  18. [Applicability of agricultural production systems simulator (APSIM) in simulating the production and water use of wheat-maize continuous cropping system in North China Plain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Zheng, You-fei; Yu, Qiang; Wang, En-li

    2007-11-01

    The Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM) was applied to simulate the 1999-2001 field experimental data and the 2002-2003 water use data at the Yucheng Experiment Station under Chinese Ecosystem Research Network, aimed to verify the applicability of the model to the wheat-summer maize continuous cropping system in North China Plain. The results showed that the average errors of the simulations of leaf area index (LAI), biomass, and soil moisture content in 1999-2000 and 2000-2001 field experiments were 27.61%, 24.59% and 7.68%, and 32.65%, 35.95% and 10.26%, respectively, and those of LAI and biomass on the soils with high and low moisture content in 2002-2003 were 26.65% and 14.52%, and 23.91% and 27.93%, respectively. The simulations of LAI and biomass accorded well with the measured values, with the coefficients of determination being > 0.85 in 1999-2000 and 2002-2003, and 0.78 in 2000-2001, indicating that APSIM had a good applicability in modeling the crop biomass and soil moisture content in the continuous cropping system, but the simulation error of LAI was a little larger.

  19. Discrete-event system simulation on small and medium enterprises productivity improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulistio, J.; Hidayah, N. A.

    2017-12-01

    Small and medium industries in Indonesia is currently developing. The problem faced by SMEs is the difficulty of meeting growing demand coming into the company. Therefore, SME need an analysis and evaluation on its production process in order to meet all orders. The purpose of this research is to increase the productivity of SMEs production floor by applying discrete-event system simulation. This method preferred because it can solve complex problems die to the dynamic and stochastic nature of the system. To increase the credibility of the simulation, model validated by cooperating the average of two trials, two trials of variance and chi square test. Afterwards, Benferroni method applied to development several alternatives. The article concludes that, the productivity of SMEs production floor increased up to 50% by adding the capacity of dyeing and drying machines.

  20. Simulation-optimization model for production planning in the blood supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, Andres F; Brailsford, Sally C; Smith, Honora K; Forero-Matiz, Sonia P; Camacho-Rodríguez, Bernardo A

    2017-12-01

    Production planning in the blood supply chain is a challenging task. Many complex factors such as uncertain supply and demand, blood group proportions, shelf life constraints and different collection and production methods have to be taken into account, and thus advanced methodologies are required for decision making. This paper presents an integrated simulation-optimization model to support both strategic and operational decisions in production planning. Discrete-event simulation is used to represent the flows through the supply chain, incorporating collection, production, storing and distribution. On the other hand, an integer linear optimization model running over a rolling planning horizon is used to support daily decisions, such as the required number of donors, collection methods and production planning. This approach is evaluated using real data from a blood center in Colombia. The results show that, using the proposed model, key indicators such as shortages, outdated units, donors required and cost are improved.

  1. Production of proteinase A by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a cell-recycling fermentation system: Experiments and computer simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøn, S.; Biedermann, K.; Emborg, Claus

    1996-01-01

    experimentally and by computer simulations. Experiments and simulations showed that cell mass and product concentration were enhanced by high ratios of recycling. Additional simulations showed that the proteinase A concentration decreased drastically at high dilution rates and the optimal volumetric...... productivities were at high dilution rates just below washout and at high ratios of recycling. Cell-recycling fermentation gave much higher volumetric productivities and stable product concentrations in contrast to simple continuous fermentation....

  2. Numerical simulation of internal flow in mixed-flow waterjet propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, T T; Pan, Z Y; Zhang, D Q; Jia, Y Y

    2012-01-01

    In order to reveal the internal flow characteristic of a mixed-flow waterjet propulsion, a mixed-flow waterjet propulsion under different conditions was simulated based on multi-reference frame(MRF), the standard k − ε turbulent model and SIMPLEC algorithm. The relationship between pump performance instability and internal flow was obtained. The numerical results showed that characteristic instability occurred at 0.65-0.67Q BEP , the reason is that the backflow on the vaned diffuser hub-side blocks the downstream flow from the impeller. Therefore, the flow separates on the pressure surface of the impeller outlet and a strong vortex is generated, then the characteristic instability appeared due to the instability of internal flow. Backflow was found in diffuser passage at 0.65 Q BEP and 0.85 Q BEP , as flow rate decreases, the backflow region and velocity increases. Pressure fluctuation at diffuser inlet and diffuser passages was severe at at 0.65 Q BEP . According to the numerical simulation, the mixed-flow waterjet propulsion has characteristic instability at partial flow rate condition.

  3. Integration of scheduling and discrete event simulation systems to improve production flow planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenczyk, D.; Paprocka, I.; Kempa, W. M.; Grabowik, C.; Kalinowski, K.

    2016-08-01

    The increased availability of data and computer-aided technologies such as MRPI/II, ERP and MES system, allowing producers to be more adaptive to market dynamics and to improve production scheduling. Integration of production scheduling and computer modelling, simulation and visualization systems can be useful in the analysis of production system constraints related to the efficiency of manufacturing systems. A integration methodology based on semi-automatic model generation method for eliminating problems associated with complexity of the model and labour-intensive and time-consuming process of simulation model creation is proposed. Data mapping and data transformation techniques for the proposed method have been applied. This approach has been illustrated through examples of practical implementation of the proposed method using KbRS scheduling system and Enterprise Dynamics simulation system.

  4. North American water availability under stress and duress: building understanding from simulations, observations and data products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, R. M.; Condon, L. E.; Atchley, A. L.; Hector, B.

    2017-12-01

    Quantifying the available freshwater for human use and ecological function depends on fluxes and stores that are hard to observe. Evapotranspiration (ET) is the largest terrestrial flux of water behind precipitation but is observed with low spatial density. Likewise, groundwater is the largest freshwater store, yet is equally uncertain. The ability to upscale observations of these variables is an additional complication; point measurements are made at scales orders of magnitude smaller than remote sensing data products. Integrated hydrologic models that simulate continental extents at fine spatial resolution are now becoming an additional tool to constrain fluxes and address interconnections. For example, recent work has shown connections between water table depth and transpiration partitioning, and demonstrated the ability to reconcile point observations and large-scale inferences. Here we explore the dynamics of large hydrologic systems experiencing change and stress across continental North America using integrated model simulations, observations and data products. Simulations of aquifer depletion due to pervasive groundwater pumping diagnose both stream depletion and changes in ET. Simulations of systematic increases in temperature are used to understand the relationship between snowpack dynamics, surface and groundwater flow, ET and a changing climate. Remotely sensed products including the GRACE estimates of total storage change are downscaled using model simulations to better understand human impacts to the hydrologic cycle. These example applications motivate a path forward to better use simulations to understand water availability.

  5. Simulating forest productivity and surface-atmosphere carbon exchange in the BOREAS study region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, John S.; Thornton, Peter E.; White, Mike A.; Running, Steven W.

    1997-01-01

    A process-based, general ecosystem model (BIOME-BGC) was used to simulate daily gross primary production, maintenance and heterotrophic respiration, net primary production and net ecosystem carbon exchange of boreal aspen, jack pine and black spruce stands. Model simulations of daily net carbon exchange of the ecosystem (NEE) explained 51.7% (SE = 1.32 g C m(-2) day(-1)) of the variance in daily NEE derived from stand eddy flux measurements of CO(2) during 1994. Differences between measured and simulated results were attributed to several factors including difficulties associated with measuring nighttime CO(2) fluxes and model assumptions of site homogeneity. However, comparisons between simulations and field data improved markedly at coarser time-scales. Model simulations explained 66.1% (SE = 0.97 g C m(-2) day(-1)) of the variance in measured NEE when 5-day means of daily results were compared. Annual simulations of aboveground net primary production ranged from 0.6-2.4 Mg C ha(-1) year(-1) and were concurrent with results derived from tree increment core measurements and allometric equations. Model simulations showed that all of the sites were net sinks (0.1-4.1 Mg C ha(-1) year(-1)) of atmospheric carbon for 1994. Older conifer stands showed narrow margins between uptake of carbon by net photosynthesis and carbon release through respiration. Younger stands were more productive than older stands, primarily because of lower maintenance respiration costs. However, all sites appeared to be less productive than temperate forests. Productivity simulations were strongly linked to stand morphology and site conditions. Old jack pine and aspen stands showed decreased productivity in response to simulated low soil water contents near the end of the 1994 growing season. Compared with the aspen stand, the jack pine stand appeared better adapted to conserve soil water through lower daily evapotranspiration losses but also exhibited a narrower margin between daily net

  6. Design and simulation of ion optics for ion sources for production of singly charged ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelenak, A.; Bogomolov, S. L.

    2004-05-01

    During the last 2 years different types of the singly charged ion sources were developed for FLNR (JINR) new projects such as Dubna radioactive ion beams, (Phase I and Phase II), the production of the tritium ion beam and the MASHA mass separator. The ion optics simulations for 2.45 GHz electron cyclotron resonance source, rf source, and the plasma ion source were performed. In this article the design and simulation results of the optics of new ion sources are presented. The results of simulation are compared with measurements obtained during the experiments.

  7. Design and simulation of ion optics for ion sources for production of singly charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelenak, A.; Bogomolov, S.L.

    2004-01-01

    During the last 2 years different types of the singly charged ion sources were developed for FLNR (JINR) new projects such as Dubna radioactive ion beams, (Phase I and Phase II), the production of the tritium ion beam and the MASHA mass separator. The ion optics simulations for 2.45 GHz electron cyclotron resonance source, rf source, and the plasma ion source were performed. In this article the design and simulation results of the optics of new ion sources are presented. The results of simulation are compared with measurements obtained during the experiments

  8. Simulation and sensitivity analysis for heavy linear paraffins production in LAB production Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karimi Hajir

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Linear alkyl benzene (LAB is vastly utilized for the production of biodegradable detergents and emulsifiers. Predistillation unit is a part of LAB production plant in which that produced heavy linear paraffins (nC10-nC13. In this study, a mathematical model has been developed for heavy linear paraffins production in distillation columns, which has been solved using a commercial code. The models have been validated by the actual data. The effects of process parameters such as reflux rate, and reflux temperature using Gradient Search technique has been investigated. The sensitivity analysis shows that optimum reflux in columns are achieved.

  9. Simulating local measurements on a quantum many-body system with stochastic matrix product states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelmark, Søren; Mølmer, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate how to simulate both discrete and continuous stochastic evolutions of a quantum many-body system subject to measurements using matrix product states. A particular, but generally applicable, measurement model is analyzed and a simple representation in terms of matrix product operators...... is found. The technique is exemplified by numerical simulations of the antiferromagnetic Heisenberg spin-chain model subject to various instances of the measurement model. In particular, we focus on local measurements with small support and nonlocal measurements, which induce long-range correlations....

  10. Teaching Model Innovation of Production Operation Management Engaging in ERP Sandbox Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinggui Chen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In light of the course of production operation management status, this article proposes the innovation and reform of the teaching model from three aspects of from the curriculum syllabus reform, the simulation of typical teaching organization model, and the enterprise resource process (ERP sandbox application in the course practice. There are an exhaustive implementation procedure and a further discussion on the promotion outcome. The results indicate that the innovation of teaching model and case studying practice in production operation management based on ERP sandbox simulation is feasible.

  11. The simulation of stationary and non-stationary regime operation of heavy water production facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peculea, M.; Beca, T.; Constantinescu, D.M.; Dumitrescu, M.; Dimulescu, A.; Isbasescu, G.; Stefanescu, I.; Mihai, M.; Dogaru, C.; Marinescu, M.; Olariu, S.; Constantin, T.; Necula, A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper refers to testing procedures of the production capacity of heavy water production pilot, industrial scale plants and of heavy water reconcentration facilities. Simulation codes taking into account the mass and heat transfers inside the exchange columns were developed. These codes provided valuable insight about the isotope build-up of the installation which allowed estimating the time of reaching the stationary regime. Also transient regimes following perturbations in the operating parameters (i.e. temperature, pressure, fluid rates) of the installation were simulated and an optimal rate of routine inspections and adjustments was thus established

  12. Simulation of kefiran production of Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens JCM6985 in fed-batch reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamas Cheirsilp

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Kinetics of kefiran production by Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens JCM6985 has been investigated. A mathematical model taking into account the mechanism of exopolysaccharides production has been developed. Experiments were carried out in batch mode in order to obtain kinetic model parameters that were further applied to simulate fed-batch processes. A simplification of parameter fitting was also introduced for complicated model. The fed-batch mode allows more flexibility in the control of the substrate concentration as well as product concentration in the culture medium. Based on the batch mathematical model, a fed-batch model was developed and simulations were done. Simulation study in fed-batch reactor resulted that substrate concentration should be controlled at 20 g L-1 to soften the product inhibition and also to stimulate utilization of substrate and its hydrolysate. From simulation results of different feeding techniques, it was found that constant feeding at 0.01 L h-1 was most practically effective feeding profile for exopolysaccharides production in fed-batch mode.

  13. Process simulation of ethanol production from biomass gasification and syngas fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo-Planas, Oscar; Atiyeh, Hasan K; Phillips, John R; Aichele, Clint P; Mohammad, Sayeed

    2017-12-01

    The hybrid gasification-syngas fermentation platform can produce more bioethanol utilizing all biomass components compared to the biochemical conversion technology. Syngas fermentation operates at mild temperatures and pressures and avoids using expensive pretreatment processes and enzymes. This study presents a new process simulation model developed with Aspen Plus® of a biorefinery based on a hybrid conversion technology for the production of anhydrous ethanol using 1200tons per day (wb) of switchgrass. The simulation model consists of three modules: gasification, fermentation, and product recovery. The results revealed a potential production of about 36.5million gallons of anhydrous ethanol per year. Sensitivity analyses were also performed to investigate the effects of gasification and fermentation parameters that are keys for the development of an efficient process in terms of energy conservation and ethanol production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Simulation of a Production Line with Automated Guided Vehicle: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Felipe Verpa Leite

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, companies have increasingly needed to improve and develop their processes to flexible the production in order to reduce waiting times and increase productivity through smaller time intervals. To achieve these objectives, efficient and automated transport and handling material systems are required. Therefore, the AGV systems (Automated Guided Vehicle are often used to optimize the flow of materials within the production systems. In this paper, the author evaluates the usage of an AGV system in an industrial environment and analyzes the advantages, disadvantages of the project. Furthermore, the author uses the systems simulation software Promodel® 7.0 to develop a model, based on data collected from real production system, in order to analyze and optimize the use of AGVs. Throughout this paper, problems are identified as well as solution adopted by the author and the results obtained from the simulations.

  15. The Reasonableness Test of the Principal Purpose Test Rule in OECD BEPS Action 6 (Tax Treaty Abuse) versus the EU Principle of Legal Certainty and the EU Abuse of Law Case Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Weber (Dennis)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe OECD BEPS Action 6 report contains a principal pur- pose test rule (PPT rule) for the purpose of combating abuse of tax treaties. This PPT rule is also included in the OECD Multilateral Instrument. The PPT rule is (amongst others) applicable when ‘it is rea- sonable to conclude’

  16. Monte Carlo simulation of air sampling methods for the measurement of radon decay products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sima, Octavian; Luca, Aurelian; Sahagia, Maria

    2017-08-01

    A stochastic model of the processes involved in the measurement of the activity of the 222 Rn decay products was developed. The distributions of the relevant factors, including air sampling and radionuclide collection, are propagated using Monte Carlo simulation to the final distribution of the measurement results. The uncertainties of the 222 Rn decay products concentrations in the air are realistically evaluated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of global fine-resolution precipitation products and their uncertainty quantification in ensemble discharge simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, W.; Zhang, C.; Fu, G.; Sweetapple, C.; Zhou, H.

    2016-02-01

    The applicability of six fine-resolution precipitation products, including precipitation radar, infrared, microwave and gauge-based products, using different precipitation computation recipes, is evaluated using statistical and hydrological methods in northeastern China. In addition, a framework quantifying uncertainty contributions of precipitation products, hydrological models, and their interactions to uncertainties in ensemble discharges is proposed. The investigated precipitation products are Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) products (TRMM3B42 and TRMM3B42RT), Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS)/Noah, Asian Precipitation - Highly-Resolved Observational Data Integration Towards Evaluation of Water Resources (APHRODITE), Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks (PERSIANN), and a Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation (GSMAP-MVK+) product. Two hydrological models of different complexities, i.e. a water and energy budget-based distributed hydrological model and a physically based semi-distributed hydrological model, are employed to investigate the influence of hydrological models on simulated discharges. Results show APHRODITE has high accuracy at a monthly scale compared with other products, and GSMAP-MVK+ shows huge advantage and is better than TRMM3B42 in relative bias (RB), Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient of efficiency (NSE), root mean square error (RMSE), correlation coefficient (CC), false alarm ratio, and critical success index. These findings could be very useful for validation, refinement, and future development of satellite-based products (e.g. NASA Global Precipitation Measurement). Although large uncertainty exists in heavy precipitation, hydrological models contribute most of the uncertainty in extreme discharges. Interactions between precipitation products and hydrological models can have the similar magnitude of contribution to discharge uncertainty as the hydrological models. A

  18. Effects of foliage clumping on the estimation of global terrestrial gross primary productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing M.; Mo, Gang; Pisek, Jan; Liu, Jane; Deng, Feng; Ishizawa, Misa; Chan, Douglas

    2012-03-01

    Sunlit and shaded leaf separation proposed by Norman (1982) is an effective way to upscale from leaf to canopy in modeling vegetation photosynthesis. The Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS) makes use of this methodology, and has been shown to be reliable in modeling the gross primary productivity (GPP) derived from CO2flux and tree ring measurements. In this study, we use BEPS to investigate the effect of canopy architecture on the global distribution of GPP. For this purpose, we use not only leaf area index (LAI) but also the first ever global map of the foliage clumping index derived from the multiangle satellite sensor POLDER at 6 km resolution. The clumping index, which characterizes the degree of the deviation of 3-dimensional leaf spatial distributions from the random case, is used to separate sunlit and shaded LAI values for a given LAI. Our model results show that global GPP in 2003 was 132 ± 22 Pg C. Relative to this baseline case, our results also show: (1) global GPP is overestimated by 12% when accurate LAI is available but clumping is ignored, and (2) global GPP is underestimated by 9% when the effective LAI is available and clumping is ignored. The clumping effects in both cases are statistically significant (p < 0.001). The effective LAI is often derived from remote sensing by inverting the measured canopy gap fraction to LAI without considering the clumping. Global GPP would therefore be generally underestimated when remotely sensed LAI (actually effective LAI by our definition) is used. This is due to the underestimation of the shaded LAI and therefore the contribution of shaded leaves to GPP. We found that shaded leaves contribute 50%, 38%, 37%, 39%, 26%, 29% and 21% to the total GPP for broadleaf evergreen forest, broadleaf deciduous forest, evergreen conifer forest, deciduous conifer forest, shrub, C4 vegetation, and other vegetation, respectively. The global average of this ratio is 35%.

  19. Simulations of corrosion product transfer with the OSCAR V1.2 code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dacquait, F.; Francescatto, J.; Broutin, F.; Genin, J.B.; Benier, G.; Girard, M.; You, D.; Ranchoux, G.; Bonnefon, J.; Bachet, M.; Riot, G.

    2012-09-01

    Activated Corrosion Products (ACPs) generate a radiation field in PWRs, which is the major contributor to the dose absorbed by nuclear power plant staff working during shutdown operations and maintenance. Therefore, a thorough understanding of the mechanisms that control the corrosion product transfer is of the highest importance. Since the 1970's, the R and D strategy in France has been based on experiments in test loops representative of PWR conditions, on in-situ gamma spectrometry measurements of the PWR primary system contamination and on simulation code development. The simulation of corrosion product transfers in PWR primary circuits is a major challenge since it involves many physical and chemical phenomena including: corrosion, dissolution, precipitation, erosion, deposition, convection, activation... In addition to the intrinsic difficulty of multi-physics modelling, the primary systems present severe operating conditions (300 deg. C, 150 bar, neutron flux, fluid velocity up to 15 m.s -1 and very low corrosion product concentrations). The purpose of the OSCAR code, developed by the CEA in cooperation with EDF and AREVA NP, is to predict the PWR primary system contamination by corrosion and fission products. The OSCAR code is considered to be not only a tool for numerical simulations and predictions (operational practices improvements and new-built PWRs design) but also one that might combine and organise all new knowledge useful to progress on contamination. The OSCAR code for Products of Corrosion, OSCAR PC, allows researchers to analyse the corrosion product behaviour and to calculate the ACP volume and surface activities of the primary and auxiliary systems. In the new version, OSCAR PC V1.2, the corrosion product transfer in the particulate form is enhanced and a new feature is the possibility to simulate cold shutdowns. In order to validate this version, the contamination transfer has been simulated in 5 French PWRs with different operating and

  20. Agent Behavior-Based Simulation Study on Mass Collaborative Product Development Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mass collaborative product development (MCPD benefits people by high innovation products with lower cost and shorter lead time due to quick development of group innovation, Internet-based customization, and prototype manufacturing. Simulation is an effective way to study the evolution process and therefore to guarantee the success of MCPD. In this paper, an agent behavior-based simulation approach of MCPD is developed, which models the MCPD process as the interactive process of design agents and the environment objects based on Complex Adaptive System (CAS theory. Next, the structure model of design agent is proposed, and the modification and collaboration behaviors are described. Third, the agent behavior-based simulation flow of MCPD is designed. At last, simulation experiments are carried out based on an engineering case of mobile phone design. The experiment results show the following: (1 the community scale has significant influence on MCPD process; (2 the simulation process can explicitly represent the modification and collaboration behaviors of design agents; (3 the community evolution process can be observed and analyzed dynamically based on simulation data.

  1. Global sensitivity analysis for UNSATCHEM simulations of crop production with degraded waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    One strategy for maintaining irrigated agricultural productivity in the face of diminishing resource availability is to make greater use of marginal quality waters and lands. A key to sustaining systems using degraded irrigation waters is salinity management. Advanced simulation models and decision ...

  2. SIMULATION OF STRATEGY DEVELOPMENT PRODUCTION IN DEFENSE-INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandr M. Batkovsky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the methodological frameworkand tools for manag-ing the strategic development ofproduction created by the defense-industrial complexof Russia. A model of the development strategy ofproducing the products is worked out, the backgroundand stability of the simulation results are analyzed.

  3. Simulating the impact of climate change on rice production in Asia and evaluating options for adaptation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matthews, R.B.; Kropff, M.J.; Horie, T.; Bachelet, D.

    1997-01-01

    The likely effects of climate change caused by increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide levels on rice production in Asia were evaluated using two rice crop simulation models, ORYZA1 and SIMRIW, running under fixed-change' climate scenarios and scenarios predicted for a doubled-CO2 (2xCO2) atmosphere

  4. Simulation of nuclear plant operation into a stochastic energy production model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco, R.L.

    1983-04-01

    A simulation model of nuclear plant operation is developed to fit into a stochastic energy production model. In order to improve the stochastic model used, and also reduce its computational time burdened by the aggregation of the model of nuclear plant operation, a study of tail truncation of the unsupplied demand distribution function has been performed. (E.G.) [pt

  5. Steel corrosion products solubility under conditions simulating various water chemistry parameters in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slobodov, A.A.; Kritskij, V.G.; Zarembo, V.I.; Puchkov, L.V.

    1988-01-01

    To simulate construction material corrosion product mass transfer model in power plant circuits calculation of iron oxide and hydroxide solubility, depending on water chemistry parameters: temperature, pH-value, content of dissolved in water hydrogen and oxygen, is carried out

  6. Products of Ozone-Initiated Chemistry in a Simulated Aircraft Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisthaler, Armin; Tamás, Gyöngyi; Wyon, David P.

    2005-01-01

    We used proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) to examine the products formed when ozone reacted with the materials in a simulated aircraft cabin, including a loaded high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter in the return air system. Four conditions were examined: cabin (baseline...

  7. Simulation by the method of inverse cumulative distribution function applied in optimising of foundry plant production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Szymszal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The study discusses application of computer simulation based on the method of inverse cumulative distribution function. The simulationrefers to an elementary static case, which can also be solved by physical experiment, consisting mainly in observations of foundryproduction in a selected foundry plant. For the simulation and forecasting of foundry production quality in selected cast iron grade, arandom number generator of Excel calculation sheet was chosen. Very wide potentials of this type of simulation when applied to theevaluation of foundry production quality were demonstrated, using a number generator of even distribution for generation of a variable ofan arbitrary distribution, especially of a preset empirical distribution, without any need of adjusting to this variable the smooth theoreticaldistributions.

  8. Experimental and simulation analysis of hydrogen production by partial oxidation of methanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikander, U. [National Univ. of Science and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2014-10-15

    Partial oxidation of methanol is the only self-sustaining process for onboard production of hydrogen. For this a fixed bed catalytic reactor is designed, based on heterogeneous catalytic reaction. To develop an optimized process, simulation is carried out using ASPEN HYSYS v 7.1. Reaction kinetics is developed on the basis of Langmuir Hinshel wood model. 45:55:5 of CuO: ZnO: Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ is used as a catalyst. Simulation results are studied in detail to understand the phenomenon of partial oxidation of methanol inside the reactor. An experimental rig is developed for hydrogen production through partial oxidation of methanol. Results obtained from process simulation and experimental work; are compared with each other. (author)

  9. Simulative Winding of Roll Formed Profile in Carcass Production for Flexible Pipes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Søe; Ormstrup, Casper Alexander; Hartz, Benjamin Arnold Krekeler

    2015-01-01

    numerous welds between coils of stainless steel, often duplex grades. The welds are a source of failure, since fracture from time to time occurs here in the winding stage. A simulative test in form of three-point-bending is developed, which shows promising results together with simplified air- and v......-bent profiles allowing offline testing of welds for optimisation purposes. Comparative studies are shown possible but discrepancies in boundary conditions cause the maximum strains in the simulative test to differ from those in production. A study of weld failure is done applying the simulative test and tensile...... tests using GOM ARAMIS 4M system for strain measurements. The results show strain localization at the weld from onset of yielding caused by the soft, heat affected zone next to the weld seam resulting in a local thinning of the strip similar to what is observed in production....

  10. Production Planning with Respect to Uncertainties. Simulator Based Production Planning of Average Sized Combined Heat and Power Production Plants; Produktionsplanering under osaekerhet. Simulatorbaserad produktionsplanering av medelstora kraftvaermeanlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haeggstaahl, Daniel [Maelardalen Univ., Vaesteraas (Sweden); Dotzauer, Erik [AB Fortum, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2004-12-01

    Production planning in Combined Heat and Power (CHP) systems is considered. The focus is on development and use of mathematical models and methods. Different aspects on production planning are discussed, including weather and load predictions. Questions relevant on the different planning horizons are illuminated. The main purpose with short-term (one week) planning is to decide when to start and stop the production units, and to decide how to use the heat storage. The main conclusion from the outline of pros and cons of commercial planning software are that several are using Mixed Integer Programming (MIP). In that sense they are similar. Building a production planning model means that the planning problem is formulated as a mathematical optimization problem. The accuracy of the input data determines the practical detail level of the model. Two alternatives to the methods used in today's commercial programs are proposed: stochastic optimization and simulator-based optimization. The basic concepts of mathematical optimization are outlined. A simulator-based model for short-term planning is developed. The purpose is to minimize the production costs, depending on the heat demand in the district heating system, prices of electricity and fuels, emission taxes and fees, etc. The problem is simplified by not including any time-linking conditions. The process model is developed in IPSEpro, a heat and mass-balance software from SimTech Simulation Technology. TOMLAB, an optimization toolbox in MATLAB, is used as optimizer. Three different solvers are applied: glcFast, glcCluster and SNOPT. The link between TOMLAB and IPSEpro is accomplished using the Microsoft COM technology. MATLAB is the automation client and contains the control of IPSEpro and TOMLAB. The simulator-based model is applied to the CHP plant in Eskilstuna. Two days are chosen and analyzed. The optimized production is compared to the measured. A sensitivity analysis on how variations in outdoor

  11. Process simulation of nuclear-based thermochemical hydrogen production with a copper-chlorine cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chukwu, C.C.; Naterer, G.F.; Rosen, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Thermochemical processes for hydrogen production driven by nuclear energy are promising alternatives to existing technologies for large-scale commercial production of hydrogen without fossil fuels. The copper-chlorine (Cu-Cl) cycle, in which water is decomposed into hydrogen and oxygen, is promising for thermochemical hydrogen production in conjunction with a Supercritical Water Cooled Reactor. Here, the cycle efficiency is examined using the Aspen Plus process simulation code. Possible efficiency improvements are discussed. The results are expected to assist the development of a lab-scale cycle demonstration, which is currently being undertaken at University of Ontario Institute of Technology in collaboration with numerous partners. (author)

  12. Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Ngada, Narcisse

    2015-06-15

    The complexity and cost of building and running high-power electrical systems make the use of simulations unavoidable. The simulations available today provide great understanding about how systems really operate. This paper helps the reader to gain an insight into simulation in the field of power converters for particle accelerators. Starting with the definition and basic principles of simulation, two simulation types, as well as their leading tools, are presented: analog and numerical simulations. Some practical applications of each simulation type are also considered. The final conclusion then summarizes the main important items to keep in mind before opting for a simulation tool or before performing a simulation.

  13. Simulation of COMEDIE Fission Product Plateout Experiment Using GAMMA-FP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tak, Nam-il; Yoon, Churl

    2014-01-01

    FThis phenomenon is particularly important under a VHTR design with vented low pressure confinement (VLPC), because the vent allows the prompt release of fission products accumulated within the primary circuit to environment during an initial blow-down phase after pipe break accidents. In order to analyze the fission product plateout, an numerical model was developed by Yoo et al. and incorporated into the GAMMA-FP code in the past. The GAMMA-FP model was validated against two experiment data, i.e., VAMPYR-1 and OGL, during the development phase. One of the well-known experiments for fission product plateout is the COMEDIE experiment. In this work, the COMEDIE experiment has been simulated using the GAMMA-FP code to investigate the reliability and applicability of the plateout model of GAMMA-FP. The COMEDIE experiment for fission product plateout was simulated using the GAMMA-FP code in this work. A good agreement was achieved between the measured and predicted plateout activities. The existing solution scheme was modified to allow larger time step size for fission product analysis in order to speed-up the computational time. Nevertheless, the modification of the existing numerical model of GAMMA-FP is necessary when a simulation capability of a long duration of plateout period (e.g., 60 years) is targeted

  14. Modeling, Simulation and Optimization of Hydrogen Production Process from Glycerol using Steam Reforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jeongpil; Cho, Sunghyun; Kim, Tae-Ok; Shin, Dongil; Lee, Seunghwan; Moon, Dong Ju

    2014-01-01

    For improved sustainability of the biorefinery industry, biorefinery-byproduct glycerol is being investigated as an alternate source for hydrogen production. This research designs and optimizes a hydrogen-production process for small hydrogen stations using steam reforming of purified glycerol as the main reaction, replacing existing processes relying on steam methane reforming. Modeling, simulation and optimization using a commercial process simulator are performed for the proposed hydrogen production process from glycerol. The mixture of glycerol and steam are used for making syngas in the reforming process. Then hydrogen are produced from carbon monoxide and steam through the water-gas shift reaction. Finally, hydrogen is separated from carbon dioxide using PSA. This study shows higher yield than former U.S.. DOE and Linde studies. Economic evaluations are performed for optimal planning of constructing domestic hydrogen energy infrastructure based on the proposed glycerol-based hydrogen station

  15. Simulation of milk production by dairy cows fed sugarcane top-based diets with locally available supplements under Indian condition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Behera, U.K.; Kebreab, E.; Dijkstra, J.; Assis, A.G.; France, J.

    2005-01-01

    A model of sugarcane digestion was applied to indicate the suitability of various locally available supplements for enhancing milk production of Indian crossbred dairy cattle. Milk production was calculated according to simulated energy, lipogenic, glucogenic and aminogenic substrate availability.

  16. Simulation of product distribution at PT Anugrah Citra Boga by using capacitated vehicle routing problem method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamdjaya, T.; Jobiliong, E.

    2017-01-01

    PT Anugrah Citra Boga is a food processing industry that produces meatballs as their main product. The distribution system of the products must be considered, because it needs to be more efficient in order to reduce the shipment cost. The purpose of this research is to optimize the distribution time by simulating the distribution channels with capacitated vehicle routing problem method. Firstly, the distribution route is observed in order to calculate the average speed, time capacity and shipping costs. Then build the model using AIMMS software. A few things that are required to simulate the model are customer locations, distances, and the process time. Finally, compare the total distribution cost obtained by the simulation and the historical data. It concludes that the company can reduce the shipping cost around 4.1% or Rp 529,800 per month. By using this model, the utilization rate can be more optimal. The current value for the first vehicle is 104.6% and after the simulation it becomes 88.6%. Meanwhile, the utilization rate of the second vehicle is increase from 59.8% to 74.1%. The simulation model is able to produce the optimal shipping route with time restriction, vehicle capacity, and amount of vehicle.

  17. Universal Generating Function Based Probabilistic Production Simulation Approach Considering Wind Speed Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to the volatile and correlated nature of wind speed, a high share of wind power penetration poses challenges to power system production simulation. Existing power system probabilistic production simulation approaches are in short of considering the time-varying characteristics of wind power and load, as well as the correlation between wind speeds at the same time, which brings about some problems in planning and analysis for the power system with high wind power penetration. Based on universal generating function (UGF, this paper proposes a novel probabilistic production simulation approach considering wind speed correlation. UGF is utilized to develop the chronological models of wind power that characterizes wind speed correlation simultaneously, as well as the chronological models of conventional generation sources and load. The supply and demand are matched chronologically to not only obtain generation schedules, but also reliability indices both at each simulation interval and the whole period. The proposed approach has been tested on the improved IEEE-RTS 79 test system and is compared with the Monte Carlo approach and the sequence operation theory approach. The results verified the proposed approach with the merits of computation simplicity and accuracy.

  18. Global Simulation of Bioenergy Crop Productivity: Analytical Framework and Case Study for Switchgrass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Shujiang [ORNL; Kline, Keith L [ORNL; Nair, S. Surendran [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Nichols, Dr Jeff A [ORNL; Post, Wilfred M [ORNL; Brandt, Craig C [ORNL; Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL; Wei, Yaxing [ORNL; Singh, Nagendra [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    A global energy crop productivity model that provides geospatially explicit quantitative details on biomass potential and factors affecting sustainability would be useful, but does not exist now. This study describes a modeling platform capable of meeting many challenges associated with global-scale agro-ecosystem modeling. We designed an analytical framework for bioenergy crops consisting of six major components: (i) standardized natural resources datasets, (ii) global field-trial data and crop management practices, (iii) simulation units and management scenarios, (iv) model calibration and validation, (v) high-performance computing (HPC) simulation, and (vi) simulation output processing and analysis. The HPC-Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (HPC-EPIC) model simulated a perennial bioenergy crop, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), estimating feedstock production potentials and effects across the globe. This modeling platform can assess soil C sequestration, net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, nonpoint source pollution (e.g., nutrient and pesticide loss), and energy exchange with the atmosphere. It can be expanded to include additional bioenergy crops (e.g., miscanthus, energy cane, and agave) and food crops under different management scenarios. The platform and switchgrass field-trial dataset are available to support global analysis of biomass feedstock production potential and corresponding metrics of sustainability.

  19. Production of cellulose nanofibrils from bleached eucalyptus fibers by hyperthermostable endoglucanase treatment and subsequent microfluidization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangxia Wang; Michael D. Mozuch; Ronald C. Sabo; Phil Kersten; J.Y. Zhu; Yongcan Jin

    2015-01-01

    A GH5 hyperthermostable endoglucanase from the archaeon Pyrococcus honkoshii (ph-GH5) and a commercial endoglucanase FR were used to treat bleached eucalyptus pulp (BEP) fibers to produce cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) through subsequent microfluidization Enzymatic treatments facilitated CNF production due to the reduced degree of polymerization (DP)...

  20. A simulation-based approach for evaluating and comparing the environmental footprints of beef production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotz, C A; Isenberg, B J; Stackhouse-Lawson, K R; Pollak, E J

    2013-11-01

    A methodology was developed and used to determine environmental footprints of beef cattle produced at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center (MARC) in Clay Center, NE, with the goal of quantifying improvements achieved over the past 40 yr. Information for MARC operations was gathered and used to establish parameters representing their production system with the Integrated Farm System Model. The MARC farm, cow-calf, and feedlot operations were each simulated over recent historical weather to evaluate performance, environmental impact, and economics. The current farm operation included 841 ha of alfalfa and 1,160 ha of corn to produce feed predominately for the beef herd of 5,500 cows, 1,180 replacement cattle, and 3,724 cattle finished per year. Spring and fall cow-calf herds were fed on 9,713 ha of pastureland supplemented through the winter with hay and silage produced by the farm operation. Feedlot cattle were backgrounded for 3 mo on hay and silage with some grain and finished over 7 mo on a diet high in corn and wet distillers grain. For weather year 2011, simulated feed production and use, energy use, and production costs were within 1% of actual records. A 25-yr simulation of their current production system gave an average annual carbon footprint of 10.9±0.6 kg of CO2 equivalent units per kg BW sold, and the energy required to produce that beef (energy footprint) was 26.5±4.5 MJ/kg BW. The annual water required (water footprint) was 21,300±5,600 L/kg BW sold, and the water footprint excluding precipitation was 2,790±910 L/kg BW. The simulated annual cost of producing their beef was US$2.11±0.05/kg BW. Simulation of the production practices of 2005 indicated that the inclusion of distillers grain in animal diets has had a relatively small effect on environmental footprints except that reactive nitrogen loss has increased 10%. Compared to 1970, the carbon footprint of the beef produced has decreased 6% with no change in the energy footprint, a 3% reduction

  1. A Simulation Model of Combined Biogas, Bioethanol and Protein Fodder Co-Production in Organic Farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleskowicz-Popiel, Piotr; Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2009-01-01

    In order to evaluate new strategies for the production of renewable energy within sustainable organic agriculture, a process-simulation model for a 100 ha organic farm was developed. Data used for the model was obtained from laboratory trials, literature data, consultancy with experts, and results...... ha organic farm with ethanol or biogas, respectively. This calculation was based on the assumption that the electrical efficiency of CHP (combined heat and power) unit was 38%. A variety of different scenarios can be simulated to mirror the farmer's needs....

  2. Simulation of generation of new ideas for new product development and IT services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiopoulos, Dimitrios K.; Sakas, Damianos P.; Vlachos, D. S.; Mavrogianni, Amanda

    2015-02-01

    This paper describes a dynamic model of the New Product Development (NPD) process. The model has been occurring from best practice noticed in our research conducted at a range of situations. The model contributes to determine and put an IT company's NPD activities into the frame of the overall NPD process[1]. It has been found to be a useful tool for organizing data on IT company's NPD activities without enforcement an excessively restrictive research methodology refers to the model of NPD. The framework, which strengthens the model, will help to promote a research of the methods undertaken within an IT company's NPD process, thus promoting understanding and improvement of the simulation process[2]. IT companies tested many techniques with several different practices designed to improve the validity and efficacy of their NPD process[3]. Supported by the model, this research examines how widely accepted stated tactics are and what impact these best tactics have on NPD performance. The main assumption of this study is that simulation of generation of new ideas[4] will lead to greater NPD effectiveness and more successful products in IT companies. With the model implementation, practices concern the implementation strategies of NPD (product selection, objectives, leadership, marketing strategy and customer satisfaction) are all more widely accepted than best practices related with controlling the application of NPD (process control, measurements, results). In linking simulation with impact, our results states product success depends on developing strong products and ensuring organizational emphasis, through proper project selection. Project activities strengthens both product and project success. IT products and services success also depends on monitoring the NPD procedure through project management and ensuring team consistency with group rewards. Sharing experiences between projects can positively influence the NPD process.

  3. Matrix-product-state simulation of an extended Brueschweiler bulk-ensemble database search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SaiToh, Akira; Kitagawa, Masahiro

    2006-01-01

    Brueschweiler's database search in a spin Liouville space can be efficiently simulated on a conventional computer without error as long as the simulation cost of the internal circuit of an oracle function is polynomial, unlike the fact that in true NMR experiments, it suffers from an exponential decrease in the variation of a signal intensity. With the simulation method using the matrix-product-state proposed by Vidal [G. Vidal, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 147902 (2003)], we perform such a simulation. We also show the extensions of the algorithm without utilizing the J-coupling or DD-coupling splitting of frequency peaks in observation: searching can be completed with a single query in polynomial postoracle circuit complexities in an extension; multiple solutions of an oracle can be found in another extension whose query complexity is linear in the key length and in the number of solutions (this extension is to find all of marked keys). These extended algorithms are also simulated with the same simulation method

  4. Impact of rent-seeking on productivity in Chinese coal mine safety supervision: A simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hong; Feng, Qun; Zhu, Dandan; Han, Shuai; Long, Ruyin

    2016-01-01

    During the “golden decade” (2001–2011) of the coal industry in China, rent-seeking increased in coal mine safety supervision alongside significant improvements in coal mine safety status and increased economic benefits in the coal industry. To explore this internal relationship, we developed a Matlab simulation system and simulated the impact of rent-seeking from each level of the supervision department on coal mine productivity in different scenarios. The results showed the following. (1) Rent-seeking had no significant influence on the average level of material productivity but it had an adverse effect on the average level of mental productivity. Due to the effects of rent-seeking, productivity tended to exhibit unstable and destructive fluctuations, and rent-seeking had the dual effect of promoting and restraining productivity in a wide range with a high frequency. (2) In the supervision scenario, supervision by the high-level department was efficient, and productivity was promoted more by the national and provincial supervision department. (3) In the rent-seeking scenario, each level of the department had an intensity threshold above which coal mine accidents occurred. We also propose suggestions that focuses on the improved supervision of Chinese coal mine safety in three areas based on the “new normal” safety concept. - Highlights: •We discussed rent-seeking behavior in Chinese coal mine safety supervision. •We explored the characteristics of coal mine productivity. •We investigated the impact of rent-seeking on coal mine productivity in three scenarios. •We found rent-seeking led to great fluctuations in productivity with a dual effect. •We proposed a model strategy for Chinese coal mine safety supervision in three areas.

  5. Process simulation and economic analysis of biodiesel production from waste cooking oil with membrane bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdurakhman, Yuanita Budiman; Putra, Zulfan Adi; Bilad, Muhammad Roil

    2017-10-01

    Pollution and shortage of clean energy supply are among major problems that are caused by rapid population growth. Due to this growth, waste cooking oil is one of the pollution sources. On the other hand, biodiesel appears to be one of the most promising and feasible energy sources as it emits less toxic pollutants and greenhouse gases than petroleum diesel. Thus, biodiesel production using waste cooking oil offers a two-in-one solution to cater pollution and energy issues. However, the conventional biodiesel production process using homogeneous base catalyst and stirred tank reactor is unable to produce high purity of biodiesel from waste cooking oil. It is due its sensitivity to free fatty acid (FFA) content in waste cooking oil and purification difficulties. Therefore, biodiesel production using heterogeneous acid catalyst in membrane reactor is suggested. The product of this process is fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) or biodiesel with glycerol as by-product. This project is aimed to study techno-economic feasibility of biodiesel production from waste cooking oil via heterogeneous acid catalyst in membrane reactor. Aspen HYSYS is used to accomplish this aim. Several cases, such as considering different residence times and the production of pharmaceutical (USP) grade glycerol, are evaluated and compared. Economic potential of these cases is calculated by considering capital expenditure, utilities cost, product and by-product sales, as well as raw material costs. Waste cooking oil, inorganic pressure-driven membrane and WAl is used as raw material, type of membrane and heterogeneous acid catalyst respectively. Based on literature data, FAME yield formulation is developed and used in the reactor simulation. Simulation results shows that economic potential increases by 30% if pharmaceutical (USP) grade glycerol is produced regardless the residence time of the reactor. In addition, there is no significant effect of residence time on the economic potential.

  6. Simulated Vegetation Response to Climate Change in California: The Importance of Seasonal Production Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J. B.; Pitts, B.

    2013-12-01

    MC1 dynamic global vegetation model simulates vegetation response to climate change by simulating vegetation production, soil biogeochemistry, plant biogeography and fire. It has been applied at a wide range of spatial scales, yet the spatio-temporal patterns of simulated vegetation production, which drives the model's response to climate change, has not been examined in detail. We ran MC1 for California at a relatively fine scale, 30 arc-seconds, for the historical period (1895-2006) and for the future (2007-2100), using downscaled data from four CMIP3-based climate projections: A2 and B1 GHG emissions scenarios simulated by PCM and GFDL GCMs. The use of these four climate projections aligns our work with a body of climate change research work commissioned by the California Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program. The four climate projections vary not only in terms of changes in their annual means, but in the seasonality of projected climate change. We calibrated MC1 using MODIS NPP data for 2000-2011 as a guide, and adapting a published technique for adjusting simulated vegetation production by increasing the simulated plant rooting depths. We evaluated the simulation results by comparing the model output for the historical period with several benchmark datasets, summarizing by EPA Level 3 Ecoregions. Multi-year summary statistics of model predictions compare moderately well with Kuchler's potential natural vegetation map, National Biomass and Carbon Dataset, Leenhouts' compilation of fire return intervals, and, of course, the MODIS NPP data for 2000-2011. When we compared MC1's monthly NPP values with MODIS monthly GPP data (2000-2011), however, the seasonal patterns compared very poorly, with NPP/GPP ratio for spring (Mar-Apr-May) often exceeding 1, and the NPP/GPP ratio for summer (Jun-Jul-Aug) often flattening to zero. This suggests MC1's vegetation production algorithms are overly biased for spring production at the cost of summer production. We

  7. N2O and CO production by electric discharge - Atmospheric implications. [Venus atmosphere simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, J. S.; Howell, W. E.; Hughes, R. E.; Chameides, W. L.

    1979-01-01

    Enhanced levels of N2O and CO were measured in tropospheric air samples exposed to a 17,500-J laboratory discharge. These enhanced levels correspond to an N2O production rate of about 4 trillion molecules/J and a CO production rate of about 10 to the 14th molecules/J. The CO measurements suggest that the primary region of chemical production in the discharge is the shocked air surrounding the lightning channel, as opposed to the slower-cooling inner core. Additional experiments in a simulated Venus atmosphere (CO2 - 95%, N2 - 5%, at one atmosphere) indicate an enhancement of CO from less than 0.1 ppm prior to the laboratory discharge to more than 2000 ppm after the discharge. Comparison with theoretical calculations appears to confirm the ability of a shock-wave/thermochemical model to predict the rate of production of trace species by an electrical discharge.

  8. Operational Excellence through Schedule Optimization and Production Simulation of Application Specific Integrated Circuits.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flory, John Andrew [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Padilla, Denise D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gauthier, John H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Zwerneman, April Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Miller, Steven P [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Upcoming weapon programs require an aggressive increase in Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) production at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). SNL has developed unique modeling and optimization tools that have been instrumental in improving ASIC production productivity and efficiency, identifying optimal operational and tactical execution plans under resource constraints, and providing confidence in successful mission execution. With ten products and unprecedented levels of demand, a single set of shared resources, highly variable processes, and the need for external supplier task synchronization, scheduling is an integral part of successful manufacturing. The scheduler uses an iterative multi-objective genetic algorithm and a multi-dimensional performance evaluator. Schedule feasibility is assessed using a discrete event simulation (DES) that incorporates operational uncertainty, variability, and resource availability. The tools provide rapid scenario assessments and responses to variances in the operational environment, and have been used to inform major equipment investments and workforce planning decisions in multiple SNL facilities.

  9. Prospective developments, production and revenues from the UKCS 1995-2000: a financial and regional simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemp, A.G.; Stephen, L.

    1996-01-01

    This paper examines the development and production prospects for oil and gas from the UKCS in the period 1995-2000 using a financial simulation model applied to a large database. Emphasis is given to the prospects in the different regions of the UKCs. Oil production is likely to peak in the period and decline slowly thereafter. Gas production will increase substantially throughout the period to 2000. The relative importance of the central North Sea as a producing region will increase substantially in the period, while the northern North Sea will show a decrease. Investment patterns will reflect these trends. Revenues from the UKCS will continue to make a substantial contribution to the economy. The UK should be more than self sufficient in oil and to beyond 2000. Potential gas production should also exceed UK gas demand well beyond 2000. (author)

  10. A high-compression electron gun for C6+ production: concept, simulations and mechanical design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertzig, Robert; Breitenfeldt, M.; Mathot, S.; Pitters, J.; Shornikov, A.; Wenander, F.

    2017-07-01

    In this paper we report on simulations and the mechanical design of a high-compression electron gun for an Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) dedicated for production of high intensity and high repetition rate pulses of bare carbon ions for injection into linac-based hadron therapy facilities. The gun is presently under construction at CERN to be retrofitted into the TwinEBIS test bench for experimental studies. We describe the design constraints, show results of numeric simulations and report on the mechanical design featuring several novel ideas. The reported design makes use of combined-function units with reduced number of mechanical joints that were carefully controlled and tuned during the manufacturing phase. The simulations addressed a wide range of topics including the influence of thermal effects, focusing optics, symmetry-breaking misalignments and injection into a full 5 T field.

  11. Dynamic simulation of pure hydrogen production via ethanol steam reforming in a catalytic membrane reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedayati, Ali; Le Corre, Olivier; Lacarrière, Bruno; Llorca, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Ethanol steam reforming (ESR) was performed over Pd-Rh/CeO 2 catalyst in a catalytic membrane reactor (CMR) as a reformer unit for production of fuel cell grade pure hydrogen. Experiments were performed at 923 K, 6–10 bar, and fuel flow rates of 50–200 μl/min using a mixture of ethanol and distilled water with steam to carbon ratio of 3. A static model for the catalytic zone was derived from the Arrhenius law to calculate the total molar production rates of ESR products, i.e. CO, CO 2 , CH 4 , H 2 , and H 2 O in the catalytic zone of the CMR (coefficient of determination R 2  = 0.993). The pure hydrogen production rate at steady state conditions was modeled by means of a static model based on the Sieverts' law. Finally, a dynamic model was developed under ideal gas law assumptions to simulate the dynamics of pure hydrogen production rate in the case of the fuel flow rate or the operating pressure set point adjustment (transient state) at isothermal conditions. The simulation of fuel flow rate change dynamics was more essential compared to the pressure change one, as the system responded much faster to such an adjustment. The results of the dynamic simulation fitted very well to the experimental values at P = 7–10 bar, which proved the robustness of the simulation based on the Sieverts' law. The simulation presented in this work is similar to the hydrogen flow rate adjustments needed to set the electrical load of a fuel cell, when fed online by the pure hydrogen generating reformer studied. - Highlights: • Ethanol steam reforming (ESR) experiments were performed in a Pd-Ag membrane reactor. • The model of the catalytic zone of the reactor was derived from the Arrhenius law. • The permeation zone (membrane) was modeled based on the Sieverts' law. • The Sieverts' law model showed good results for the range of P = 7–10 bar. • Pressure and fuel flow rate adjustments were considered for dynamic simulation.

  12. Research on a simulation-based ship production support system for middle-sized shipbuilding companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Joo Song

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Today, many middle-sized shipbuilding companies in Korea are experiencing strong competition from shipbuilding companies in other nations. This competition is particularly affecting small- and middle-sized shipyards, rather than the major shipyards that have their own support systems and development capabilities. The acquisition of techniques that would enable maximization of production efficiency and minimization of the gap between planning and execution would increase the competitiveness of small- and middle-sized Korean shipyards. In this paper, research on a simulation-based support system for ship production management, which can be applied to the shipbuilding processes of middle-sized shipbuilding companies, is presented. The simulation research includes layout optimization, load balancing, work stage operation planning, block logistics, and integrated material management. Each item is integrated into a network system with a value chain that includes all shipbuilding processes.

  13. Research on a simulation-based ship production support system for middle-sized shipbuilding companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Young Joo; Woo, Jong Hun; Shin, Jong Gye

    2009-12-01

    Today, many middle-sized shipbuilding companies in Korea are experiencing strong competition from shipbuilding companies in other nations. This competition is particularly affecting small- and middle-sized shipyards, rather than the major shipyards that have their own support systems and development capabilities. The acquisition of techniques that would enable maximization of production efficiency and minimization of the gap between planning and execution would increase the competitiveness of small- and middle-sized Korean shipyards. In this paper, research on a simulation-based support system for ship production management, which can be applied to the shipbuilding processes of middle-sized shipbuilding companies, is presented. The simulation research includes layout optimization, load balancing, work stage operation planning, block logistics, and integrated material management. Each item is integrated into a network system with a value chain that includes all shipbuilding processes.

  14. Impact analysis of satellite rainfall products on flow simulations in the Magdalena River Basin, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr Elgamal

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Magdalena River is the most important river in Colombia in terms of economic activities and is home to about 77% of the country’s population. The river faces water resources allocation challenges, which require reliable hydrological assessments. However, hydrological analysis and model simulations are hampered by insufficient and uncertain knowledge of the actual rainfall fields. In this research the reliability of groundbased measurements, different satellite products of rainfall and their combinations are tested for their impact on the discharge simulations of the Magdalena River. Two different satellite rainfall products from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM, have been compared and merged with the ground-based measurements and their impact on the Magdalena river flows quantified using the Representative Elementary Watershed (REW distributed hydrological model.

  15. Beneficiation of Stillwater Complex Rock for the Production of Lunar Simulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickman, D. L.; Young, C.; Stoeser, D.; Edmunson, J.

    2014-01-01

    The availability of pure, high calcium plagioclase would be a significant asset in any attempt to manufacture high-quality lunar simulants. A suitable plagioclase product can be obtained from materials obtained from the Stillwater Complex of Montana. The access, geology, petrology, and mineralogy of the relevant rocks and the mill tailings are described here. This study demonstrates successful plagioclase recovery from mill tailings produced by the Stillwater Mine Company. Hydrogen peroxide was used to remove carboxymethyl cellulose from the tailing. The characteristics of the plagioclase products are shown and locked grains are identified as a limit to achievable purity. Based on the experimental results, flowsheets were developed showing how these resources could be processed and made into 'separates' of (1) high calcium plagioclase and (2) orthopyroxene/clinopyroxene with the thought that they would be combined later to make simulant.

  16. Uranium-production forecasting: the simulation of a South African gold mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boydell, D.W.

    1979-01-01

    A computer program is described that estimates the amount of uranium that will be produced from a mine as a co-product of gold subject to a changing economic environment. The program makes use of two models. The first simulates activities underground, whereas the second simulates the performance of processing plant on the surface. The combination of these models generates a description of the flow of ore from stopes and from development, through hoisting, sorting, and the metallurgical plant to the despatch of saleable product. The total production of uranium to the end of the life of the mine constitutes the uranium reserve. The effects on production forecasts and reserve estimates of future trends in cost and price factors are illustrated by results generated from the application of the program to a typical South African mine producing gold and uranium. The graphs presented show that South Africa's future uranium production from underground sources is critically dependent on the gold price in the years ahead. (author)

  17. Evaluation on performance and SME’s productivity with discrete system simulation approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabit M. Iqbal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Inventory becomes one of important aspects to identify whether a company has fulfilled the consumers’ demands or not. Shortage of stock, finished goods particularly could emerge the failure of accomplishing the target of consumers’ demand that could also lead to loss of sales. Therefore, it needs good inventory control. This paper is objected improve SME’s productivity by using the approach of discrete system simulation of aluminum industry that rapidly developed in Yogyakarta. Simulation is one of the appropriate tools for experiments that purposed to identify best response from system components. Based from Observation from line production, there are semi-finished products were not finished. Other than that the firm has no clue to solve the problem. Design of experiment and scenario are developed in a model that was built to obtain solution in enhancing the performance and productivity. As the result of initial performance that is not optimal, rescheduling on transporter schedule and the replenishment of machines and operators on the lathing process could be performed as improvements to enhance the productivity. This experiment can be used as the solution in improving the product’s output as 64.36%.

  18. Analysis of the Precursors, Simulants and Degradation Products of Chemical Warfare Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkiewicz, Zygfryd; Neffe, Slawomir; Sliwka, Ewa; Quagliano, Javier

    2018-09-03

    Recent advances in analysis of precursors, simulants and degradation products of chemical warfare agents (CWA) are reviewed. Fast and reliable analysis of precursors, simulants and CWA degradation products is extremely important at a time, when more and more terrorist groups and radical non-state organizations use or plan to use chemical weapons to achieve their own psychological, political and military goals. The review covers the open source literature analysis after the time, when the chemical weapons convention had come into force (1997). The authors stated that during last 15 years increased number of laboratories are focused not only on trace analysis of CWA (mostly nerve and blister agents) in environmental and biological samples, but the growing number of research are devoted to instrumental analysis of precursors and degradation products of these substances. The identification of low-level concentration of CWA degradation products is often more important and difficult than the original CWA, because of lower level of concentration and a very large number of compounds present in environmental and biological samples. Many of them are hydrolysis products and are present in samples in the ionic form. For this reason, two or three instrumental methods are used to perform a reliable analysis of these substances.

  19. Numerical simulation for production of O and N radicals in an atmospheric-pressure streamer discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komuro, Atsushi; Ono, Ryo; Oda, Tetsuji

    2012-01-01

    A streamer discharge model is developed to analyse the characteristics of a pulsed positive streamer discharge in point-to-plane electrodes filled with oxygen-nitrogen mixed gas at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. In this paper we study the mechanisms of O and N radical production in an atmospheric-pressure streamer discharge. To confirm the validity of the simulation model, the discharge emission of light and the discharge current are compared with experimental data at several voltages in gas mixtures with 2-20% oxygen concentrations. The calculated streak picture and the axial distribution of streamer luminous intensity are in good agreement with our previous experimental results. After demonstrating the reliability of the model, we performed a numerical study on radical production by the streamer discharge. The experimentally obtained axial distributions of oxygen radical production in O 2 (20%)/N 2 and nitrogen radical production in O 2 (2%)/N 2 are successfully reproduced in our simulation. For the production of nitrogen radicals, two-step dissociation through the vibrationally excited states is predominant. (paper)

  20. Progressive decrease of melatonin production over consecutive days of simulated night work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Marie; Paquet, Jean

    2014-12-01

    Decreased melatonin production, due to nighttime exposure to light, has been proposed as one of the physiological mechanisms increasing cancer risk in night workers. However, few studies measured melatonin production in night workers, and most of these studies did not measure melatonin over 24 h. One study compared total melatonin production between day and night shifts in rotating night workers and did not find significant differences. However, without baseline measures, it was not possible to exclude that melatonin production was reduced during both day and night work. Here, we used data collected in a simulation study of night work to determine the effect of night work on both nighttime and 24-h melatonin production, during three consecutive days of simulated night work. Thirty-eight healthy subjects (15 men, 23 women; 26.6 ± 4.2 years) participated in a 6-d laboratory study. Circadian phase assessments were made with salivary dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) on the first and last days. Simulated day work (09:00-17:00 h) occurred on the second day, followed by three consecutive days of simulated night work (00:00-08:00 h). Light intensity at eye level was set at 50 lux during both simulated day and night work. The subjects were divided into three matched groups exposed to specific daytime light profiles that produced various degrees of circadian phase delays and phase advances. Melatonin production was estimated with the excretion of urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6s). For the entire protocol, urine was collected every 2 h, except for the sleep episodes when the interval was 8 h. The aMT6s concentration in each sample was multiplied by the urine volume and then added to obtain total aMT6s excretion during nighttime (00:00-08:00 h) and during each 24-h day (00:00-00:00 h). The results showed that melatonin production progressively decreased over consecutive days of simulated night work, both during nighttime and over the 24 h. This

  1. Global Simulation of Bioenergy Crop Productivity: Analytical framework and Case Study for Switchgrass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nair, S. Surendran [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Nichols, Jeff A. {Cyber Sciences} [ORNL; Post, Wilfred M [ORNL; Wang, Dali [ORNL; Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL; Kline, Keith L [ORNL; Wei, Yaxing [ORNL; Singh, Nagendra [ORNL; Kang, Shujiang [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary global assessments of the deployment potential and sustainability aspects of biofuel crops lack quantitative details. This paper describes an analytical framework capable of meeting the challenges associated with global scale agro-ecosystem modeling. We designed a modeling platform for bioenergy crops, consisting of five major components: (i) standardized global natural resources and management data sets, (ii) global simulation unit and management scenarios, (iii) model calibration and validation, (iv) high-performance computing (HPC) modeling, and (v) simulation output processing and analysis. A case study with the HPC- Environmental Policy Integrated Climate model (HPC-EPIC) to simulate a perennial bioenergy crop, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and global biomass feedstock analysis on grassland demonstrates the application of this platform. The results illustrate biomass feedstock variability of switchgrass and provide insights on how the modeling platform can be expanded to better assess sustainable production criteria and other biomass crops. Feedstock potentials on global grasslands and within different countries are also shown. Future efforts involve developing databases of productivity, implementing global simulations for other bioenergy crops (e.g. miscanthus, energycane and agave), and assessing environmental impacts under various management regimes. We anticipated this platform will provide an exemplary tool and assessment data for international communities to conduct global analysis of biofuel biomass feedstocks and sustainability.

  2. European-wide simulations of croplands using an improved terrestrial biosphere model: Phenology and productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, P. C.; de Noblet-Ducoudré, N.; Ciais, P.; Peylin, P.; Viovy, N.; Meurdesoif, Y.; Bondeau, A.

    2010-03-01

    Aiming at producing improved estimates of carbon source/sink spatial and interannual patterns across Europe (35% croplands), this work combines the terrestrial biosphere model Organizing Carbon and Hydrology in Dynamic Ecosystems (ORCHIDEE), for vegetation productivity, water balance, and soil carbon dynamics, and the generic crop model Simulateur Multidisciplinaire pour les Cultures Standard (STICS), for phenology, irrigation, nitrogen balance, and harvest. The ORCHIDEE-STICS model, relying on three plant functional types for the representation of temperate agriculture, is evaluated over the last few decades at various spatial and temporal resolutions. The simulated leaf area index seasonal cycle is largely improved relative to the original ORCHIDEE simulating grasslands, and compares favorably with remote-sensing observations (correlation doubles over Europe). Crop yield is derived from annual net primary productivity and compared with wheat and grain maize harvest data for five European countries. Discrepancies between 30 year mean simulated and reported yields are large in Mediterranean countries. Interannual variability amplitude expressed relative to the mean is reduced toward the observed variability (≈10%) when using ORCHIDEE-STICS. Overall, this study highlights the importance of accounting for the specific phenologies of crops sown both in winter and in spring and for irrigation applied to spring crops in regional/global models of the terrestrial carbon cycle. Limitations suggest to account for temporal and spatial variability in agricultural practices for further simulation improvement.

  3. Identification of tetraphenylborate radiolysis products in a simulated feedstock for radioactive waste processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eibling, R.E.; Bartlett, M.G.; Carlson, R.E.; Testino, S.A. Jr.; Kunkel, G.J.; Browner, R.F.; Busch, K.L.

    1994-01-01

    The first step towards immobilization of the soluble radioactive species in borosilicate glass is the addition of sodium tetraphenylborate (TPB) and sodium titanate to the radioactive aqueous solution. Initial studies of the TPB hydrolysis process have found that some component of the radiolysis mixture inactivates the Cu catalyst. The interaction of organic materials with the catalyst, and the subsequent interference with the hydrolysis process, would have presented problems with the use of the vitrification process. Prevention of the catalyst deactivation is obtained by washing the irradiated TPB precipitate in the Late Wash Facility prior to hydrolysis to remove the soluble radiolysis products. Identification of the organic radiolysis products, their distribution in the Late Wash Facility, and their interactions with the Cu catalyst has become an important analytical issue. To further investigate the reaction products of the TPB precipitation process, a simulated feedstock was created from compounds known to be present in the starting materials. This simulated feedstock was precipitated with sodium TPB and then exposed to Co-60 gamma radiation to simulate two years of additional storage time prior to the hydrolysis process. The irradiated product was divided into two parts, the filtered supernatant liquid and the precipitate slurry, which contains the TPB and the solid sodium titanate. Using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, liquid secondary ion mass spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry, ion chromatography, and high performance liquid chromatography, over 50 organic and inorganic species have been identified in the aqueous portion of a simulated feedstock for TPB hydrolysis. The major organic species present are benzene, phenol, benzamide and a variety of substituted phenylphenols. The major inorganic species present are sodium, nitrite, and oxalate ions

  4. Collaborative enterprise and virtual prototyping (CEVP): a product-centric approach to distributed simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Vance M.

    1999-06-01

    The downsizing of the Department of Defense (DoD) and the associated reduction in budgets has re-emphasized the need for commonality, reuse, and standards with respect to the way DoD does business. DoD has implemented significant changes in how it buys weapon systems. The new emphasis is on concurrent engineering with Integrated Product and Process Development and collaboration with Integrated Product Teams. The new DoD vision includes Simulation Based Acquisition (SBA), a process supported by robust, collaborative use of simulation technology that is integrated across acquisition phases and programs. This paper discusses the Air Force Research Laboratory's efforts to use Modeling and Simulation (M&S) resources within a Collaborative Enterprise Environment to support SBA and other Collaborative Enterprise and Virtual Prototyping (CEVP) applications. The paper will discuss four technology areas: (1) a Processing Ontology that defines a hierarchically nested set of collaboration contexts needed to organize and support multi-disciplinary collaboration using M&S, (2) a partial taxonomy of intelligent agents needed to manage different M&S resource contributions to advancing the state of product development, (3) an agent- based process for interfacing disparate M&S resources into a CEVP framework, and (4) a Model-View-Control based approach to defining `a new way of doing business' for users of CEVP frameworks/systems.

  5. Industrial and simulation analysis of the nitrogen trichloride decomposition process in electrolytic chlorine production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares Neto, J.I.H.; Brito, K.D.; Vasconcelos, L.G.S.; Alves, J.J.N.; Fossy, M.F.; Brito, R.P.

    2007-01-01

    This work presents the dynamic simulation of the thermal decomposition of nitrogen trichloride (NCl 3 ) during electrolytic chlorine (Cl 2 ) production, using an industrial plant as a case study. NCl 3 is an extremely unstable and explosive compound and the decomposition process has the following main problems: changeability of the reactor temperature and loss of solvent. The results of this work will be used to establish a more efficient and safe control strategy and to analyze the loss of solvent during the dynamic period. The implemented model will also be used to study the use of a new solvent, considering that currently used solvent will be prohibited from commercial use in 2010. The process was simulated by using the commercial simulator Aspen TM and the simulations were validated with plant data. From the results of the simulation it can be concluded that the rate of decomposition depends strongly on the temperature of the reactor, which has a stronger relationship to the liquid Cl 2 (reflux) and gaseous Cl 2 flow rates which feed the system. The results also showed that the loss of solvent changes strongly during the dynamic period

  6. H1 Grid production tool for large scale Monte Carlo simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobodzinski, B; Wissing, Ch [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Bystritskaya, E; Vorobiew, M [ITEP, Moscow (Russian Federation); Karbach, T M [University of Dortmund (Germany); Mitsyn, S [JINR, Moscow (Russian Federation); Mudrinic, M, E-mail: bogdan.lobodzinski@desy.d [VINS, Belgrad (Serbia)

    2010-04-01

    The H1 Collaboration at HERA has entered the period of high precision analyses based on the final data sample. These analyses require a massive production of simulated Monte Carlo (MC) events. The H1 MC framework (H1MC) is a software for mass MC production on the LCG Grid infrastructure and on a local batch system created by H1 Collaboration. The aim of the tool is a full automatisation of the MC production workflow including management of the MC jobs on the Grid down to copying of the resulting files from the Grid to the H1 mass storage tape device. The H1 MC framework has modular structure, delegating a specific task to each module, including task specific to the H1 experiment: Automatic building of steer and input files, simulation of the H1 detector, reconstruction of particle tracks and post processing calculation. Each module provides data or functionality needed by other modules via a local database. The Grid jobs created for detector simulation and reconstruction from generated MC input files are fully independent and fault-tolerant for 32 and 64-bit LCG Grid architecture and in Grid running state they can be continuously monitored using Relational Grid Monitoring Architecture (R-GMA) service. To monitor the full production chain and detect potential problems, regular checks of the job state are performed using the local database and the Service Availability Monitoring (SAM) framework. The improved stability of the system has resulted in a dramatic increase in the production rate, which exceeded two billion MC events in 2008.

  7. Advanced productivity forecast using petrophysical wireline data calibrated with MDT tests and numerical reservoir simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andre, Carlos de [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Canas, Jesus A.; Low, Steven; Barreto, Wesley [Schlumberger, Houston, TX (United States)

    2004-07-01

    This paper describes an integrated and rigorous approach for viscous and middle oil reservoir productivity evaluation using petrophysical models calibrated with permeability derived from mini tests (Dual Packer) and Vertical Interference Tests (VIT) from open hole wire line testers (MDT SLB TM). It describes the process from Dual Packer Test and VIT pre-job design, evaluation via analytical and inverse simulation modeling, calibration and up scaling of petrophysical data into a numerical model, history matching of Dual Packer Tests and VIT with numerical simulation modeling. Finally, after developing a dynamic calibrated model, we perform productivity forecasts of different well configurations (vertical, horizontal and multilateral wells) for several deep offshore oil reservoirs in order to support well testing activities and future development strategies. The objective was to characterize formation static and dynamic properties early in the field development process to optimize well testing design, extended well test (EWT) and support the development strategies in deep offshore viscous oil reservoirs. This type of oil has limitations to flow naturally to surface and special lifting equipment is required for smooth optimum well testing/production. The integrated analysis gave a good overall picture of the formation, including permeability anisotropy and fluid dynamics. Subsequent analysis of different well configurations and lifting schemes allows maximizing formation productivity. The simulation and calibration results are compared to measured well test data. Results from this work shows that if the various petrophysical and fluid properties sources are integrated properly an accurate well productivity model can be achieved. If done early in the field development program, this time/knowledge gain could reduce the risk and maximize the development profitability of new blocks (value of the information). (author)

  8. Techno-economic simulation data based deterministic and stochastic for product engineering research and development BATAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrus Zacharias; Abdul Jami

    2010-01-01

    Researches conducted by Batan's researchers have resulted in a number competences that can be used to produce goods and services, which will be applied to industrial sector. However, there are difficulties how to convey and utilize the R and D products into industrial sector. Evaluation results show that each research result should be completed with techno-economy analysis to obtain the feasibility of a product for industry. Further analysis on multy-product concept, in which one business can produce many main products, will be done. For this purpose, a software package simulating techno-economy I economic feasibility which uses deterministic and stochastic data (Monte Carlo method) was been carried out for multi-product including side product. The programming language used in Visual Basic Studio Net 2003 and SQL as data base processing software. This software applied sensitivity test to identify which investment criteria is sensitive for the prospective businesses. Performance test (trial test) has been conducted and the results are in line with the design requirement, such as investment feasibility and sensitivity displayed deterministically and stochastically. These result can be interpreted very well to support business decision. Validation has been performed using Microsoft Excel (for single product). The result of the trial test and validation show that this package is suitable for demands and is ready for use. (author)

  9. The study of production performance of water heater manufacturing by using simulation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, M.; Bamatraf, OAA; Tadjuddin, M.

    2018-02-01

    In industrial companies, as demand increases, decision-making to increase production becomes difficult due to the complexity of the model systems. Companies are trying to find the optimum methods to tackle such problems so that resources are utilized and production is increased. One line system of a manufacturing company in Malaysia was considered in this research. The Company produces several types of water heater and each type went into many processes, which was divided into twenty six sections. Each section has several operations. The main type of the product was 10G water heater which is produced most compare to other types, hence it was taken under consideration to be studied in this research. It was difficult to find the critical section that could improve the productions of the company. This research paper employed Delmia Quest software, Distribution Analyser software and Design of Experiment (DOE software) to simulate one model system taken from the company to be studied and to find the critical section that will improve the production system. As a result, assembly of inner and outer tank section were found to be the bottleneck section. Adding one section to the bottleneck increases the production rate by four products a day. The buffer size is determined by the experiment was six items.

  10. Simulation of the Effect of Intensive Forest Management on Forest Production in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola Rosvall

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of intensifying the management of 15% of the Swedish forest land on potential future forest production over a 100-year period were investigated in a simulation study. The intensive management treatments, which were introduced over a period of 50 years, were: intensive fertilization of Norway spruce (IntFert; bulking-up Norway spruce elite populations using somatic embryogenesis (SE-seedlings; planting of lodgepole pine, hybrid larch, and Sitka spruce (Contorta, Larch, and Sitka; fertilization with wood ash on peatlands (Wood ash; and conventional fertilization in mature forests (ConFert. Potential sites for applying intensive forest management (IFM to sites with low nature conservation values were determined with a nature conservation score (NCS. Four different scenarios were simulated: “Base scenario”, which aimed at reducing the negative impact on nature conservation values, “Fast implementation”, “No IntFert” (IntFert was not used, and “Large Forest Companies”, where the majority of plots were selected on company land. Total yields during the 100-year simulation period were about 85–92% higher for the intensive forest management scenarios than for the reference scenario (business as usual. In the “No IntFert” scenario total production was 1.8% lower and in the “Large Forest Companies” scenario total production was 4.8% lower than in the “Base scenario”. “Fast implementation” of IFM increased yield by 15% compared to the “Base scenario”. Norway spruce SE-seedlings and IntFert gave the highest yields, measured as total production during the 100-year simulation period, but relative to the yields in the reference scenario, the highest increases in yield were for Contorta. The “Base scenario” and “No IntFert” gave the highest yields for plots with the lowest NCS, but plots with higher NCS had to be used in the “Fast implementation” and “Large Forest Companies” scenarios. More than

  11. Advantages of simulated microgravity in the production of compounds of industrial relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versari, Silvia; Villa, Alessandro; Barenghi, Livia; Bradamante, Silvia

    2005-08-01

    Glutathione (α-glutamyl-L-cysteinylglycine, GSH) is the most abundant non-protein thiol compound and it is widely distributed in living organisms, mainly, in eukaryotic cells. Inside the cells, GSH assumes pivotal roles in bioreduction processes and protection against oxidative stress. Due to its antioxidant properties, GSH is widely used not only in food and cosmetic area but also as a pharmaceutical compound.The best total GSH production obtained culturing yeast cells in standard conditions is about 3.5% DCW, as the sum of intracellular (mainly) and extracellular GSH. Its production is limited by a feedback inhibition process. Using our patented microgravity (μg) simulator, the NRG bioreactor, we obtained a three-fold increase in total GSH production. In particular we observed an increased GSH extracellular excretion (9%), thus avoiding the feedback inhibition and easing the downstream processing.To confirm the role of μg, we extended our findings on GSH extracellular production using another μg simulator, the Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV).

  12. Simulation model for improved production planning and control through quality, cycle time and batch size management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotevski Živko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Production planning and control (PPC systems are the base of all production facilities. In today's surroundings, having a good PPC system generates lots of benefits for the companies. But, having an excellent PPC system provides great competitive advantage and serious reduction of cost in many fields. In order to get to a point of having excellent PPC, the companies turn more and more to the newest software tools, for simulations as an example. Considering today's advanced computer technology, by using the simulations in this area, companies will have strong asset when dealing with different kinds of wastes, delays, overstock, bottlenecks and generally loss of time. This model is applicable in almost all production facilities. Taking into account the different scrap percentages for the pieces that form the end product, a detailed model and analysis were made in order to determine the optimal starting parameters. At first all the conditions of the company were determined, conceptual model was created along with all assumptions. Then the model was verified and validated and at the end a cost benefit analysis was conducted in order to have clear results.

  13. Spatially Explicit Simulation of Mesotopographic Controls on Peatland Hydrology and Carbon Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnentag, O.; Chen, J. M.; Roulet, N. T.

    2006-12-01

    A number of field carbon flux measurements, paleoecological records, and model simulations have acknowledged the importance of northern peatlands in terrestrial carbon cycling and methane emissions. An important parameter in peatlands that influences both net primary productivity, the net gain of carbon through photosynthesis, and decomposition under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, is the position of the water table. Biological and physical processes involved in peatland carbon dynamics and their hydrological controls operate at different spatial scales. The highly variable hydraulic characteristics of the peat profile and the overall shape of the peat body as defined by its surface topography at the mesoscale (104 m2) are of major importance for peatland water table dynamics. Common types of peatlands include bogs with a slightly domed centre. As a result of the convex profile, their water supply is restricted to atmospheric inputs, and water is mainly shed by shallow subsurface flow. From a modelling perspective the influence of mesotopographic controls on peatland hydrology and thus carbon balance requires that process-oriented models that examine the links between peatland hydrology, ecosystem functioning, and climate must incorporate some form of lateral subsurface flow consideration. Most hydrological and ecological modelling studies in complex terrain explicitly account for the topographic controls on lateral subsurface flow through digital elevation models. However, modelling studies in peatlands often employ simple empirical parameterizations of lateral subsurface flow, neglecting the influence of peatlands low relief mesoscale topography. Our objective is to explicitly simulate the mesotopographic controls on peatland hydrology and carbon fluxes using the Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS) adapted to northern peatlands. BEPS is a process-oriented ecosystem model in a remote sensing framework that takes into account peatlands multi

  14. Simulating fission product transients via the history-based local-parameter methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, D.A.; Rouben, B.; Salvatore, M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the fission-product-calculation capacity of the history-based local-parameter methodology for evaluating lattice properties for use in core-tracking calculations in CANDU reactors. In addition to taking into account the individual past history of each bundles flux/power level, fuel temperature, and coolant density and temperature that the bundle has seen during its stay in the core, the latest refinement of the history-based method provides the capability of fission-product-drivers. It allows the bundle-specific concentrations of the three basic groups of saturating fission products to be calculated in steady state or following a power transient, including long shutdowns. The new capability is illustrated by simulating the startup period following a typical long-shutdown, starting from a snapshot in the Point Lepreau operating history. 9 refs., 7 tabs

  15. Technology Evaluation of Process Configurations for Second Generation Bioethanol Production using Dynamic Model-based Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales Rodriguez, Ricardo; Meyer, Anne S.; Gernaey, Krist

    2011-01-01

    An assessment of a number of different process flowsheets for bioethanol production was performed using dynamic model-based simulations. The evaluation employed diverse operational scenarios such as, fed-batch, continuous and continuous with recycle configurations. Each configuration was evaluated...... against the following benchmark criteria, yield (kg ethanol/kg dry-biomass), final product concentration and number of unit operations required in the different process configurations. The results has shown the process configuration for simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) operating...... in continuous mode with a recycle of the SSCF reactor effluent, results in the best productivity of bioethanol among the proposed process configurations, with a yield of 0.18 kg ethanol /kg dry-biomass....

  16. Scientific computing and algorithms in industrial simulations projects and products of Fraunhofer SCAI

    CERN Document Server

    Schüller, Anton; Schweitzer, Marc

    2017-01-01

    The contributions gathered here provide an overview of current research projects and selected software products of the Fraunhofer Institute for Algorithms and Scientific Computing SCAI. They show the wide range of challenges that scientific computing currently faces, the solutions it offers, and its important role in developing applications for industry. Given the exciting field of applied collaborative research and development it discusses, the book will appeal to scientists, practitioners, and students alike. The Fraunhofer Institute for Algorithms and Scientific Computing SCAI combines excellent research and application-oriented development to provide added value for our partners. SCAI develops numerical techniques, parallel algorithms and specialized software tools to support and optimize industrial simulations. Moreover, it implements custom software solutions for production and logistics, and offers calculations on high-performance computers. Its services and products are based on state-of-the-art metho...

  17. Fission product vapour - aerosol interactions in the containment: simulant fuel studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beard, A.M.; Benson, C.G.; Bowsher, B.R.

    1988-12-01

    Experiments have been conducted in the Falcon facility to study the interaction of fission product vapours released from simulant fuel samples with control rod aerosols. The aerosols generated from both the control rod and fuel sample were chemically distinct and had different deposition characteristics. Extensive interaction was observed between the fission product vapours and the control rod aerosol. The two dominant mechanisms were condensation of the vapours onto the aerosol, and chemical reactions between the two components; sorption phenomena were believed to be only of secondary importance. The interaction of fission product vapours and reactor materials aerosols could have a major impact on the transport characteristics of the radioactive emission from a degrading core. (author)

  18. Essays of leaching in cemented products containing simulated waste from evaporator concentrated of PWR reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haucz, Maria Judite A.; Calabria, Jaqueline A. Almeida; Tello, Cledola Cassia O.; Candido, Francisco Donizete; Seles, Sandro Rogerio Novaes

    2011-01-01

    This paper evaluated the results from leaching resistance essays of cemented products, prepared from three distinct formulations, containing simulated waste of concentrated from the PWR reactor evaporator. The leaching rate is a parameter of qualification of solidified products containing radioactive waste and is determined in accordance with regulation ISO 6961. This procedure evaluates the capacity of transfer organic and inorganic substances presents in the waste through dissolution in the extractor medium. For the case of radioactive waste it is reached the more retention of contaminants in the cemented product, i.e.the lesser value of lixiviation rate. Therefore, this work evaluated among the proposed formulation that one which attend the criterion established in the regulation CNEN-NN-6.09

  19. Linking state-and-transition simulation and timber supply models for forest biomass production scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer K. Costanza

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We linked state-and-transition simulation models (STSMs with an economics-based timber supply model to examine landscape dynamics in North Carolina through 2050 for three scenarios of forest biomass production. Forest biomass could be an important source of renewable energy in the future, but there is currently much uncertainty about how biomass production would impact landscapes. In the southeastern US, if forests become important sources of biomass for bioenergy, we expect increased land-use change and forest management. STSMs are ideal for simulating these landscape changes, but the amounts of change will depend on drivers such as timber prices and demand for forest land, which are best captured with forest economic models. We first developed state-and-transition model pathways in the ST-Sim software platform for 49 vegetation and land-use types that incorporated each expected type of landscape change. Next, for the three biomass production scenarios, the SubRegional Timber Supply Model (SRTS was used to determine the annual areas of thinning and harvest in five broad forest types, as well as annual areas converted among those forest types, agricultural, and urban lands. The SRTS output was used to define area targets for STSMs in ST-Sim under two scenarios of biomass production and one baseline, business-as-usual scenario. We show that ST-Sim output matched SRTS targets in most cases. Landscape dynamics results indicate that, compared with the baseline scenario, forest biomass production leads to more forest and, specifically, more intensively managed forest on the landscape by 2050. Thus, the STSMs, informed by forest economics models, provide important information about potential landscape effects of bioenergy production.

  20. Linking state-and-transition simulation and timber supply models for forest biomass production scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanza, Jennifer; Abt, Robert C.; McKerrow, Alexa; Collazo, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    We linked state-and-transition simulation models (STSMs) with an economics-based timber supply model to examine landscape dynamics in North Carolina through 2050 for three scenarios of forest biomass production. Forest biomass could be an important source of renewable energy in the future, but there is currently much uncertainty about how biomass production would impact landscapes. In the southeastern US, if forests become important sources of biomass for bioenergy, we expect increased land-use change and forest management. STSMs are ideal for simulating these landscape changes, but the amounts of change will depend on drivers such as timber prices and demand for forest land, which are best captured with forest economic models. We first developed state-and-transition model pathways in the ST-Sim software platform for 49 vegetation and land-use types that incorporated each expected type of landscape change. Next, for the three biomass production scenarios, the SubRegional Timber Supply Model (SRTS) was used to determine the annual areas of thinning and harvest in five broad forest types, as well as annual areas converted among those forest types, agricultural, and urban lands. The SRTS output was used to define area targets for STSMs in ST-Sim under two scenarios of biomass production and one baseline, business-as-usual scenario. We show that ST-Sim output matched SRTS targets in most cases. Landscape dynamics results indicate that, compared with the baseline scenario, forest biomass production leads to more forest and, specifically, more intensively managed forest on the landscape by 2050. Thus, the STSMs, informed by forest economics models, provide important information about potential landscape effects of bioenergy production.

  1. Photodegradation of malachite green under simulated and natural irradiation: Kinetics, products, and pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong, Li; Zhanqi, Gao; Yuefei, Ji; Xiaobin, Hu; Cheng, Sun; Shaogui, Yang; Lianhong, Wang; Qingeng, Wang; Die, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Photofate of malachite green was studied under simulated and natural irradiation. • Favorable conditions for degradation were optimized by the orthogonal array design. • Main ROS for the decomposition were determined by free radical quenchers. • Fifty-three products were determined by LC–MS and GC–MS. • Pathways were proposed with the aid of theoretical calculation. - Abstract: In this work photodegradation rates and pathways of malachite green were studied under simulated and solar irradiation with the goal of assessing the potential of photolysis as a removal mechanism in real aquatic environment. Factors influencing the photodegradation process were investigated, including pH, humic acid, Fe 2+ , Ca 2+ , HCO 3 − , and NO 3 − , of which favorable conditions were optimized by the orthogonal array design under simulated sunlight irradiation in the presence of dissolved oxygen. The degradation processes of malachite green conformed to pseudo first-order kinetics and their degradation rate constants were between 0.0062 and 0.4012 h −1 . Under solar irradiation, the decolorization efficiency of most tests can reach almost 100%, and relatively thorough mineralization could be observed. Forty degradation products were detected by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry, and thirteen small molecular products were identified by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Based on the analyses of the degradation products and calculation of the frontier electron density, the pathways were proposed: decomposition of conjugated structure, N-demethylation reactions, hydroxyl addition reactions, the removal of benzene ring, and the ring-opening reaction. This study has provided a reference, both for photodegradation of malachite green and future safety applications and predictions of decontamination of related triphenylmethane dyes under real conditions

  2. Photodegradation of malachite green under simulated and natural irradiation: Kinetics, products, and pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yong, Li [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Zhanqi, Gao [State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Monitoring and Analysis for Organic Pollutants in Surface Water, Jiangsu Provincial Environmental Monitoring Center, Nanjing 210036 (China); Yuefei, Ji [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Xiaobin, Hu [School of Life Science, Huzhou University, Huzhou 313000 (China); Cheng, Sun, E-mail: envidean@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Shaogui, Yang; Lianhong, Wang; Qingeng, Wang; Die, Fang [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China)

    2015-03-21

    Highlights: • Photofate of malachite green was studied under simulated and natural irradiation. • Favorable conditions for degradation were optimized by the orthogonal array design. • Main ROS for the decomposition were determined by free radical quenchers. • Fifty-three products were determined by LC–MS and GC–MS. • Pathways were proposed with the aid of theoretical calculation. - Abstract: In this work photodegradation rates and pathways of malachite green were studied under simulated and solar irradiation with the goal of assessing the potential of photolysis as a removal mechanism in real aquatic environment. Factors influencing the photodegradation process were investigated, including pH, humic acid, Fe{sup 2+}, Ca{sup 2+}, HCO{sub 3}{sup −}, and NO{sub 3}{sup −}, of which favorable conditions were optimized by the orthogonal array design under simulated sunlight irradiation in the presence of dissolved oxygen. The degradation processes of malachite green conformed to pseudo first-order kinetics and their degradation rate constants were between 0.0062 and 0.4012 h{sup −1}. Under solar irradiation, the decolorization efficiency of most tests can reach almost 100%, and relatively thorough mineralization could be observed. Forty degradation products were detected by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry, and thirteen small molecular products were identified by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Based on the analyses of the degradation products and calculation of the frontier electron density, the pathways were proposed: decomposition of conjugated structure, N-demethylation reactions, hydroxyl addition reactions, the removal of benzene ring, and the ring-opening reaction. This study has provided a reference, both for photodegradation of malachite green and future safety applications and predictions of decontamination of related triphenylmethane dyes under real conditions.

  3. Biological methanol production by immobilized Methylocella tundrae using simulated biohythane as a feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sanjay K S; Singh, Raushan K; Kumar, Ashok; Jeong, Jae-Hoon; Jeong, Seong Hun; Kalia, Vipin C; Kim, In-Won; Lee, Jung-Kul

    2017-10-01

    Biohythane may be used as an alternative feed for methanol production instead of costly pure methane. In this study, methanol production potential of Methylocella tundrae immobilized through covalent immobilization, adsorption, and encapsulation was evaluated. Cells covalently immobilized on groundnut shells and chitosan showed a relative methanol production potential of 83.9 and 91.6%, respectively, compared to that of free cells. The maximum methanol production by free cells and cells covalently immobilized on groundnut shells and chitosan was 6.73, 6.20, and 7.23mM, respectively, using simulated biohythane as a feed. Under repeated batch conditions of eight cycles, cells covalently immobilized on chitosan and groundnut shells, and cells encapsulated in sodium-alginate resulted in significantly higher cumulative methanol production of 37.76, 31.80, and 25.58mM, respectively, than free cells (18.57mM). This is the first report on immobilization of methanotrophs on groundnut shells and its application in methanol production using biohythane as a feed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Petrophysical Characterization and Reservoir Simulator for Methane Gas Production from Gulf of Mexico Hydrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishore Mohanty; Bill Cook; Mustafa Hakimuddin; Ramanan Pitchumani; Damiola Ogunlana; Jon Burger; John Shillinglaw

    2006-06-30

    Gas hydrates are crystalline, ice-like compounds of gas and water molecules that are formed under certain thermodynamic conditions. Hydrate deposits occur naturally within ocean sediments just below the sea floor at temperatures and pressures existing below about 500 meters water depth. Gas hydrate is also stable in conjunction with the permafrost in the Arctic. Most marine gas hydrate is formed of microbially generated gas. It binds huge amounts of methane into the sediments. Estimates of the amounts of methane sequestered in gas hydrates worldwide are speculative and range from about 100,000 to 270,000,000 trillion cubic feet (modified from Kvenvolden, 1993). Gas hydrate is one of the fossil fuel resources that is yet untapped, but may play a major role in meeting the energy challenge of this century. In this project novel techniques were developed to form and dissociate methane hydrates in porous media, to measure acoustic properties and CT properties during hydrate dissociation in the presence of a porous medium. Hydrate depressurization experiments in cores were simulated with the use of TOUGHFx/HYDRATE simulator. Input/output software was developed to simulate variable pressure boundary condition and improve the ease of use of the simulator. A series of simulations needed to be run to mimic the variable pressure condition at the production well. The experiments can be matched qualitatively by the hydrate simulator. The temperature of the core falls during hydrate dissociation; the temperature drop is higher if the fluid withdrawal rate is higher. The pressure and temperature gradients are small within the core. The sodium iodide concentration affects the dissociation pressure and rate. This procedure and data will be useful in designing future hydrate studies.

  5. A deterministic computer simulation model of life-cycle lamb and wool production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C T; Dickerson, G E

    1991-11-01

    A deterministic mathematical computer model was developed to simulate effects on life-cycle efficiency of lamb and wool production from genetic improvement of performance traits under alternative management systems. Genetic input parameters can be varied for age at puberty, length of anestrus, fertility, precocity of fertility, number born, milk yield, mortality, growth rate, body fat, and wool growth. Management options include mating systems, lambing intervals, feeding levels, creep feeding, weaning age, marketing age or weight, and culling policy. Simulated growth of animals is linear from birth to inflection point, then slows asymptotically to specified mature empty BW and fat content when nutrition is not limiting. The ME intake requirement to maintain normal condition is calculated daily or weekly for maintenance, protein and fat deposition, wool growth, gestation, and lactation. Simulated feed intake is the minimum of availability, DM physical limit, or ME physiological limit. Tissue catabolism occurs when intake is below the requirement for essential functions. Mortality increases when BW is depressed. Equations developed for calculations of biological functions were validated with published and unpublished experimental data. Lifetime totals are accumulated for TDN, DM, and protein intake and for market lamb equivalent output values of empty body or carcass lean and wool from both lambs and ewes. These measures of efficiency for combinations of genetic, management, and marketing variables can provide the relative economic weighting of traits needed to derive optimal criteria for genetic selection among and within breeds under defined industry production systems.

  6. MODELING AND SIMULATION OF RELIEF INFLUENCE ON EUCALYPTUS FORESTS: INTERACTION BETWEEN SOLAR IRRADIANCE AND PRODUCTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yhasmin Paiva Rody

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to verify the differences in radiation intensity as a function of distinct relief exposure surfaces and to quantify these effects on the leaf area index (LAI and other variables expressing eucalyptus forest productivity for simulations in a process-based growth model. The study was carried out at two contrasting edaphoclimatic locations in the Rio Doce basin in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Two stands with 32-year-old plantations were used, allocating fixed plots in locations with northern and southern exposure surfaces. The meteorological data were obtained from two automated weather stations located near the study sites. Solar radiation was corrected for terrain inclination and exposure surfaces, as it is measured based on the plane, perpendicularly to the vertical location. The LAI values collected in the field were used. For the comparative simulations in productivity variation, the mechanistic 3PG model was used, considering the relief exposure surfaces. It was verified that during most of the year, the southern surfaces showed lower availability of incident solar radiation, resulting in up to 66% losses, compared to the same surface considered plane, probably related to its geographical location and higher declivity. Higher values were obtained for the plantings located on the northern surface for the variables LAI, volume and mean annual wood increase, with this tendency being repeated in the 3PG model simulations.

  7. Simulation of microwave stimulation for the production of gas from methane hydrate sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Jiafei; Fan, Zhen; Wang, Bin; Dong, Hongsheng; Liu, Yu; Song, Yongchen

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Schematic diagram illustrating the process of gas production in hydrate-bearing sediment induced by microwave stimulation. Temperature gradients caused by the drop of microwave penetration depth appear in the sediment, leading to a rapid dissociation rate at the upper part of reservoir. - Highlights: • Hydrate dissociation behavior was analyzed in porous media by microwave stimulation. • Microwave stimulation provides sufficient energy conversion for hydrate dissociation. • Hydrate saturation and specific heat capacity of sediment mainly affect efficiency. • Heat conduction decreases temperature gradients promoting homogeneous dissociation. - Abstract: Natural gas hydrates dissociate via an endothermic process. One of the key requirements for any production technique is to supply the heat necessary for this dissociation. In this study, first, a microwave stimulation model for the production of gas from methane hydrate sediment is developed, which includes mass transport, energy conversion and conservation, and intrinsic kinetic reactions as the governing equations. In addition, the theoretical mixing rule of Lichtenecker and Rother is introduced for calculating the average dielectric data of the sediment containing methane hydrates, which affects the penetration of microwaves into the sediment. Next, simulations are performed for investigating gas production, as well as effects of initial water saturation, initial hydrate saturation, and sediment thermal properties induced by microwave stimulation. Moreover, the energy efficiency ratio is employed in the simulation. The simulation results show that microwave stimulation provides timely energy conversion sufficient for promoting the dissociation of hydrates, with rapid, continuous gas production. Temperature gradients caused by the decrease of the microwave penetration depth appear in the reservoir, leading to a rapid dissociation rate in the upper part of the sediment. The energy

  8. Simulation study on insoluble granular corrosion products deposited in PWR core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xu; Zhou Tao; Ru Xiaolong; Lin Daping; Fang Xiaolu

    2014-01-01

    In the operation of reactor, such as fuel rods, reactor vessel internals etc. will be affected by corrosion erosion of high pressure coolant. It will produce many insoluble corrosion products. The FLUENT software is adopted to simulate insoluble granular corrosion products deposit distribution in the reactor core. The fluid phase uses the standard model to predict the flow field in the channel and forecast turbulence variation in the near-wall region. The insoluble granular corrosion products use DPM (Discrete Phase Model) to track the trajectory of the particles. The discrete phase model in FLUENT follows the Euler-Lagrange approach. The fluid phase is treated as a continuum by solving the Navier-Stokes equations, while the dispersed phase is solved by tracking a large number of particles through the calculated flow field. Through the study found, Corrosion products particles form high concentration area near the symmetry, and the entrance section of the corrosion products particles concentration is higher than export section. Corrosion products particles deposition attached on large area for the entrance of the cladding, this will change the core neutron flux distribution and the thermal conductivity of cladding material, and cause core axial offset anomaly (AOA). Corrosion products particles dot deposit in the outlet of cladding, which can lead to pitting phenomenon in a sheath. Pitting area will cause deterioration of heat transfer, destroy the cladding integrity. In view of the law of corrosion products deposition and corrosion characteristics of components in the reactor core. this paper proposes regular targeted local cleanup and other mitigation measures. (authors)

  9. Simulation of biodiesel production using hydro-esterification process from wet microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradana Yano Surya

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, algae have received a lot of attention as a new biomass source for the production of renewable energy, such as biodiesel. Conventionally, biodiesel is made through esterification or transesterification of oils where the process involves a catalyst and alcohol to be reacted in a reactor. However, this process is energy intensive for drying and extraction step. To overcome this situation, we studied simulation of a new route of hydro-esterification process which is combine hydrolysis and esterification processes for biodiesel production from wet microalgae. Firstly, wet microalgae treated by hydrolyzer to produce fatty acids (FAs, separated with separator, and then mixed with methanol and esterified at subcritical condition to produce fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs while H2SO4 conducted as the catalyst. Energy and material balance of conventional and hydrolysis-esterification process was evaluated by Aspen Plus. Simulation result indicated that conventional route is energy demanding process, requiring 4.40 MJ/L biodiesel produced. In contrast, the total energy consumption of hydrolysis-esterification method can be reduced significantly into 2.43 MJ/L biodiesel. Based on the energy consumption comparison, hydro-esterification process is less costly than conventional process for biodiesel production.

  10. A case study on Simulation and Design optimization to improve Productivity in cooling tower manufacturing industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pranav Nithin, R.; Gopikrishnan, S.; Sumesh, A.

    2018-02-01

    Cooling towers are the heat transfer devices commonly found in industries which are used to extract the high temperature from the coolants and make it reusable in various plants. Basically, the cooling towers has Fills made of PVC sheets stacked together to increase the surface area exposure of the cooling liquid flowing through it. This paper focuses on the study in such a manufacturing plant where fills are being manufactured. The productivity using the current manufacturing method was only 6 to 8 fills per day, where the ideal capacity was of 14 fills per day. In this plant manual labor was employed in the manufacturing process. A change in the process modification designed and implemented will help the industry to increase the productivity to 14. In this paper, initially the simulation study was done using ARENA the simulation package and later the new design was done using CAD Package and validated using Ansys Mechanical APDL. It’s found that, by the implementation of the safe design the productivity can be increased to 196 Units.

  11. Photodegradation of malachite green under simulated and natural irradiation: kinetics, products, and pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Li; Zhanqi, Gao; Yuefei, Ji; Xiaobin, Hu; Cheng, Sun; Shaogui, Yang; Lianhong, Wang; Qingeng, Wang; Die, Fang

    2015-03-21

    In this work photodegradation rates and pathways of malachite green were studied under simulated and solar irradiation with the goal of assessing the potential of photolysis as a removal mechanism in real aquatic environment. Factors influencing the photodegradation process were investigated, including pH, humic acid, Fe(2+), Ca(2+), HCO3(-), and NO3(-), of which favorable conditions were optimized by the orthogonal array design under simulated sunlight irradiation in the presence of dissolved oxygen. The degradation processes of malachite green conformed to pseudo first-order kinetics and their degradation rate constants were between 0.0062 and 0.4012 h(-1). Under solar irradiation, the decolorization efficiency of most tests can reach almost 100%, and relatively thorough mineralization could be observed. Forty degradation products were detected by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and thirteen small molecular products were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Based on the analyses of the degradation products and calculation of the frontier electron density, the pathways were proposed: decomposition of conjugated structure, N-demethylation reactions, hydroxyl addition reactions, the removal of benzene ring, and the ring-opening reaction. This study has provided a reference, both for photodegradation of malachite green and future safety applications and predictions of decontamination of related triphenylmethane dyes under real conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Simulation of Halocarbon Production and Emissions and Effects on Ozone Depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes; Ellis

    1997-09-01

    / This paper describes an integrated model that simulates future halocarbon production/emissions and potential ozone depletion. Applications and historical production levels for various halocarbons are discussed first. A framework is then presented for modeling future halocarbon impacts incorporating differences in underlying demands, applications, regulatory mandates, and environmental characteristics. The model is used to simulate the potential impacts of several prominent issues relating to halocarbon production, regulation, and environmental interactions, notably: changes in agricultural methyl bromide use, increases in effectiveness of bromine for ozone depletion, modifications to the elimination schedule for HCFCs, short-term expansion of CFC demand in low use compliance countries, and delays in Russian Federation compliance. Individually, each issue does not unequivocally represent a significant likely increase in long-term atmospheric halogen loading and stratospheric ozone depletion. In combination, however, these impacts could increase peak halogen concentrations and long-term integral halogen loading, resulting in higher levels of stratospheric ozone depletion and longer exposure to increased levels of UV radiation.KEY WORDS: Halocarbons; Ozone depletion; Montreal Protocol; Integrated assessment

  13. Computer simulation for improving radio frequency (RF) heating uniformity of food products: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhi; Marra, Francesco; Subbiah, Jeyamkondan; Wang, Shaojin

    2018-04-13

    Radio frequency (RF) heating has great potential for achieving rapid and volumetric heating in foods, providing safe and high-quality food products due to deep penetration depth, moisture self-balance effects, and leaving no chemical residues. However, the nonuniform heating problem (usually resulting in hot and cold spots in the heated product) needs to be resolved. The inhomogeneous temperature distribution not only affects the quality of the food but also raises the issue of food safety when the microorganisms or insects may not be controlled in the cold spots. The mathematical modeling for RF heating processes has been extensively studied in a wide variety of agricultural products recently. This paper presents a comprehensive review of recent progresses in computer simulation for RF heating uniformity improvement and the offered solutions to reduce the heating nonuniformity. It provides a brief introduction on the basic principle of RF heating technology, analyzes the applications of numerical simulation, and discusses the factors influencing the RF heating uniformity and the possible methods to improve heating uniformity. Mathematical modeling improves the understanding of RF heating of food and is essential to optimize the RF treatment protocol for pasteurization and disinfestation applications. Recommendations for future research have been proposed to further improve the accuracy of numerical models, by covering both heat and mass transfers in the model, validating these models with sample movement and mixing, and identifying the important model parameters by sensitivity analysis.

  14. Understanding gas production mechanism and effectiveness of well stimulation in the Haynesville shale through reservoir simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, L.; Thompson, J.W.; Robinson, J.R. [Schlumberger, Houston, TX (United States)

    2010-07-01

    The Haynesville Shale Basin is one of the large and most active shale gas plays in the United States, with 185 horizontal rigs currently in place. The Haynesville Shale is a very tight source rock and resource play. The gas resources are being converted into gas reserves with horizontal wells and hydraulic fracture treatments. A complex fracture network created during well stimulation is the main factor in generating superior early well performance in the area. The key to making better wells in all the gas shale plays is to understand how to create more surface area during hydraulic stimulation jobs and preserve the surface area for as long as possible. This paper presented a unique workflow and methodology that has enabled analysis of production data using reservoir simulation to explain the shale gas production mechanism and the effectiveness of stimulation treatments along laterals. Since 2008, this methodology has been used to analyze production data from more than 30 horizontal wells in the Haynesville Shale. Factors and parameters relating to short and long term well performance were investigated, including pore pressure, rock matrix quality, natural fractures, hydraulic fractures, and complex fracture networks. Operators can use the simulation results to determine where and how to spend resources to produce better wells and to reduce the uncertainties of developing these properties. 19 refs., 1 tab., 17 figs.

  15. Modelling and Simulation of National Electronic Product Code Network Demonstrator Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, John P. T.

    The National Electronic Product Code (EPC) Network Demonstrator Project (NDP) was the first large scale consumer goods track and trace investigation in the world using full EPC protocol system for applying RFID technology in supply chains. The NDP demonstrated the methods of sharing information securely using EPC Network, providing authentication to interacting parties, and enhancing the ability to track and trace movement of goods within the entire supply chain involving transactions among multiple enterprise. Due to project constraints, the actual run of the NDP was 3 months only and was unable to consolidate with quantitative results. This paper discusses the modelling and simulation of activities in the NDP in a discrete event simulation environment and provides an estimation of the potential benefits that can be derived from the NDP if it was continued for one whole year.

  16. Use of simulated annealing in standardization and optimization of the acerola wine production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheyla dos Santos Almeida

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, seven wine samples were prepared varying the amount of pulp of acerola fruits and the sugar content using the simulated annealing technique to obtain the optimal sensory qualities and cost for the wine produced. S. cerevisiae yeast was used in the fermentation process and the sensory attributes were evaluated using a hedonic scale. Acerola wines were classified as sweet, with 11°GL of alcohol concentration and with aroma, taste, and color characteristics of the acerola fruit. The simulated annealing experiments showed that the best conditions were found at mass ratio between 1/7.5-1/6 and total soluble solids between 28.6-29.0 °Brix, from which the sensory acceptance scores of 6.9, 6.8, and 8.8 were obtained for color, aroma, and flavor, respectively, with a production cost 43-45% lower than the cost of traditional wines commercialized in Brazil.

  17. QUALITY THROUGH INTEGRATION OF PRODUCTION AND SHOP FLOOR MANAGEMENT BY DISCRETE EVENT SIMULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Mirović

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available With the intention to integrate strategic and tactical decision making and develop the capability of plans and schedules reconfiguration and synchronization in a very short cycle time many firms have proceeded to the adoption of ERP and Advanced Planning and Scheduling (APS technologies. The final goal is a purposeful scheduling system that guide in the right direction the current, high priority needs of the shop floor while remaining consistent with long-term production plans. The difference, and the power, of Discrete-Event Simulation (DES is its ability to mimic dynamic manufacturing systems, consisting of complex structures, and many heterogeneous interacting components. This paper describes such an integrated system (ERP/APS/DES and draw attention to the essential role of simulation based scheduling within it.

  18. Baseline process description for simulating plutonium oxide production for precalc project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pike, J. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-10-26

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) started a multi-year project, the PreCalc Project, to develop a computational simulation of a plutonium oxide (PuO2) production facility with the objective to study the fundamental relationships between morphological and physicochemical properties. This report provides a detailed baseline process description to be used by SRNL personnel and collaborators to facilitate the initial design and construction of the simulation. The PreCalc Project team selected the HB-Line Plutonium Finishing Facility as the basis for a nominal baseline process since the facility is operational and significant model validation data can be obtained. The process boundary as well as process and facility design details necessary for multi-scale, multi-physics models are provided.

  19. Maintaining environmental quality while expanding biomass production: Sub-regional U.S. policy simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egbendewe-Mondzozo, Aklesso; Swinton, Scott M.; Izaurralde, R. César; Manowitz, David H.; Zhang, Xuesong

    2013-01-01

    This paper evaluates environmental policy effects on ligno-cellulosic biomass production and environmental outcomes using an integrated bioeconomic optimization model. The environmental policy integrated climate (EPIC) model is used to simulate crop yields and environmental indicators in current and future potential bioenergy cropping systems based on weather, topographic and soil data. The crop yield and environmental outcome parameters from EPIC are combined with biomass transport costs and economic parameters in a representative farmer profit-maximizing mathematical optimization model. The model is used to predict the impact of alternative policies on biomass production and environmental outcomes. We find that without environmental policy, rising biomass prices initially trigger production of annual crop residues, resulting in increased greenhouse gas emissions, soil erosion, and nutrient losses to surface and ground water. At higher biomass prices, perennial bioenergy crops replace annual crop residues as biomass sources, resulting in lower environmental impacts. Simulations of three environmental policies namely a carbon price, a no-till area subsidy, and a fertilizer tax reveal that only the carbon price policy systematically mitigates environmental impacts. The fertilizer tax is ineffectual and too costly to farmers. The no-till subsidy is effective only at low biomass prices and is too costly to government. - Highlights: ► Bioeconomic optimization model predicts how biomass production affects environment. ► Rising biomass production could impair climate and water quality. ► Environmental protection policies compared as biomass supply grows. ► Carbon price protects the environment cost-effectively as biomass supply expands

  20. Simulated conditions of microgravity suppress progesterone production by luteal cells of the pregnant rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, G. K.; Yang, H.; Sridaran, R.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether simulated conditions of microgravity induce changes in the production of progesterone by luteal cells of the pregnant rat ovary using an in vitro model system. The microgravity environment was simulated using either a high aspect ratio vessel (HARV) bioreactor with free fall or a clinostat without free fall of cells. A mixed population of luteal cells isolated from the corpora lutea of day 8 pregnant rats was attached to cytodex microcarrier beads (cytodex 3). These anchorage dependent cells were placed in equal numbers in the HARV or a spinner flask control vessel in culture conditions. It was found that HARV significantly reduced the daily production of progesterone from day 1 through day 8 compared to controls. Scanning electron microscopy showed that cells attached to the microcarrier beads throughout the duration of the experiment in both types of culture vessels. Cells cultured in chamber slide flasks and placed in a clinostat yielded similar results when compared to those in the HARV. Also, when they were stained by Oil Red-O for lipid droplets, the clinostat flasks showed a larger number of stained cells compared to control flasks at 48 h. Further, the relative amount of Oil Red-O staining per milligram of protein was found to be higher in the clinostat than in the control cells at 48 h. It is speculated that the increase in the level of lipid content in cells subjected to simulated conditions of microgravity may be due to a disruption in cholesterol transport and/or lesions in the steroidogenic pathway leading to a fall in the synthesis of progesterone. Additionally, the fall in progesterone in simulated conditions of microgravity could be due to apoptosis of luteal cells.

  1. Brucella ovis PA mutants for outer membrane proteins Omp10, Omp19, SP41, and BepC are not altered in their virulence and outer membrane properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu-Muñoz, Rebeca S; Sancho, Pilar; Vizcaíno, Nieves

    2016-04-15

    Mutants in several genes have been obtained on the genetic background of virulent rough (lacking O-polysaccharide) Brucella ovis PA. The target genes encode outer membrane proteins previously associated with the virulence of smooth (bearing O-polysaccharide chains in the lipopolysaccharide) Brucella strains. Multiple attempts to delete omp16, coding for a homologue to peptidoglycan-associated lipoproteins, were unsuccessful, which suggests that Omp16 is probably essential for in vitro survival of B. ovis PA. Single deletion of omp10 or omp19-that encode two other outer membrane lipoproteins--was achieved, but the simultaneous removal of both genes failed, suggesting an essential complementary function between both proteins. Two other deletion mutants, defective in the Tol-C-homologue BepC or in the SP41 adhesin, were also obtained. Surprisingly when compared to previous results obtained with smooth Brucella, none of the B. ovis mutants showed attenuation in the virulence, either in the mouse model or in cellular models of professional and non-professional phagocytes. Additionally, and in contrast to the observations reported with smooth Brucella strains, several properties related to the outer membrane remained almost unaltered. These results evidence new distinctive traits between naturally rough B. ovis and smooth brucellae. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. BeP2: a tetrahedral structure of type order-disorder which obeys a coordination rule for short-range order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L'Haridon, P.; David, J.; Lang, J.; Parthe, E.

    1976-01-01

    Single-crystal studies on BeP 2 indicate that this compound possesses an OD structure. The substructure has a tetragonal unit cell with: a = 3.546 A, c = 15.01 A, Z = 4, space group: I4 1 /amd. The final R factor has a value of 0.033. The atom sites in this substructure correspond to the sites of diamond if the latter is described with a tetragonal cell, where a = (2/sup 1/2//a/sub diamond/ and c = 3a/sub diamond/. A short-range order governs the occupation of these sites with Be and P atoms. Each Be has four tetrahedral P neighbors and every P has two Be and two P neighbors. Consideration of the maxima on the diffuse streaks between the sharp reflectins of the substructure leads to an intermediate unit cell with a = 7.09 A and c = 30.02 A. Coordination considerations allow a structure proposal to be formulated for this intermediate structure which is triclinic but pseudotetragonal. The true unit cell is also pseudotetragonal with a = 7.09 A and c = N . 15.01 A, where N is a large integer

  3. Issues to Be Solved for Energy Simulation of An Existing Office Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Uhn Ahn

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing focus on low energy buildings and the need to develop sustainable built environments, Building Energy Performance Simulation (BEPS tools have been widely used. However, many issues remain when applying BEPS tools to existing buildings. This paper presents the issues that need to be solved for the application of BEPS tools to an existing office building. The selected building is an office building with 33 stories above ground, six underground levels, and a total floor area of 91,898 m2. The issues to be discussed in this paper are as follows: (1 grey data not ready for simulation; (2 subjective assumptions and judgments on energy modeling; (3 stochastic characteristics of building performance and occupants behavior; (4 verification of model fidelity-comparison of aggregated energy; (5 verification of model fidelity-calibration by trial and error; and (6 use of simulation model for real-time energy management. This study investigates the aforementioned issues and explains the factors that should be considered to address these issues when developing a dynamic simulation model for existing buildings.

  4. Laboratory-Scale Bismuth Phosphate Extraction Process Simulation To Track Fate of Fission Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serne, R. JEFFREY; Lindberg, Michael J.; Jones, Thomas E.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Krupka, Kenneth M.

    2007-02-28

    Recent field investigation that collected and characterized vadose zone sediments from beneath inactive liquid disposal facilities at the Hanford 200 Areas show lower than expected concentrations of a long-term risk driver, Tc-99. Therefore laboratory studies were performed to re-create one of the three processes that were used to separate the plutonium from spent fuel and that created most of the wastes disposed or currently stored in tanks at Hanford. The laboratory simulations were used to compare with current estimates based mainly on flow sheet estimates and spotty historical data. Three simulations of the bismuth phosphate precipitation process show that less that 1% of the Tc-99, Cs-135/137, Sr-90, I-129 carry down with the Pu product and thus these isotopes should have remained within the metals waste streams that after neutralization were sent to single shell tanks. Conversely, these isotopes should not be expected to be found in the first and subsequent cycle waste streams that went to cribs. Measurable quantities (~20 to 30%) of the lanthanides, yttrium, and trivalent actinides (Am and Cm) do precipitate with the Pu product, which is higher than the 10% estimate made for current inventory projections. Surprisingly, Se (added as selenate form) also shows about 10% association with the Pu/bismuth phosphate solids. We speculate that the incorporation of some Se into the bismuth phosphate precipitate is caused by selenate substitution into crystal lattice sites for the phosphate. The bulk of the U daughter product Th-234 and Np-237 daughter product Pa-233 also associate with the solids. We suspect that the Pa daughter products of U (Pa-234 and Pa-231) would also co-precipitate with the bismuth phosphate induced solids. No more than 1 % of the Sr-90 and Sb-125 should carry down with the Pu product that ultimately was purified. Thus the current scheme used to estimate where fission products end up being disposed overestimates by one order of magnitude the

  5. Monte Carlo simulations support non-Cerenkov radioluminescence production in tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Nicole L.; Boschi, Federico; Spinelli, Antonello E.

    2017-08-01

    There is experimental evidence for the production of non-Cerenkov radioluminescence in a variety of materials, including tissue. We constructed a Geant4 Monte Carlo simulation of the radiation from P32 and Tc99m interacting in chicken breast and used experimental imaging data to model a scintillation-like emission. The same radioluminescence spectrum is visible from both isotopes and cannot otherwise be explained through fluorescence or filter miscalibration. We conclude that chicken breast has a near-infrared scintillation-like response with a light yield three orders of magnitude smaller than BGO.

  6. A SIMULATION OF THE PENICILLIN G PRODUCTION BIOPROCESS APPLYING NEURAL NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J.G. da Cruz

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The production of penicillin G by Penicillium chrysogenum IFO 8644 was simulated employing a feedforward neural network with three layers. The neural network training procedure used an algorithm combining two procedures: random search and backpropagation. The results of this approach were very promising, and it was observed that the neural network was able to accurately describe the nonlinear behavior of the process. Besides, the results showed that this technique can be successfully applied to control process algorithms due to its long processing time and its flexibility in the incorporation of new data

  7. Optimal Research and Numerical Simulation for Scheduling No-Wait Flow Shop in Steel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huawei Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the m-machine flow shop scheduling problem with the no-wait constraint to minimize total completion time which is the typical model in steel production. First, the asymptotic optimality of the Shortest Processing Time (SPT first rule is proven for this problem. To further evaluate the performance of the algorithm, a new lower bound with performance guarantee is designed. At the end of the paper, numerical simulations show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm and lower bound.

  8. Study of the formation and transport of corrosion products in PWR primary circuit simulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noe, M.; Frejaville, G.; Camp, J.J.

    1983-01-01

    The formation, migration and deposition of corrosion products in PWR primary circuits are studied in out-of-reactor loops. The aim of these studies is to limit the build-up of the radiation fields impinging on out-of-flux walls and to reduce the danger of rapid corrosion of fuel cans, taking into account the tougher conditions imposed on current trends in the operation of such industrial plants. Four simulator loops and their respective possibilities and research methods are described. (author)

  9. Structural Uncertainty in Model-Simulated Trends of Global Gross Primary Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaichun Zhu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Projected changes in the frequency and severity of droughts as a result of increase in greenhouse gases have a significant impact on the role of vegetation in regulating the global carbon cycle. Drought effect on vegetation Gross Primary Production (GPP is usually modeled as a function of Vapor Pressure Deficit (VPD and/or soil moisture. Climate projections suggest a strong likelihood of increasing trend in VPD, while regional changes in precipitation are less certain. This difference in projections between VPD and precipitation can cause considerable discrepancies in the predictions of vegetation behavior depending on how ecosystem models represent the drought effect. In this study, we scrutinized the model responses to drought using the 30-year record of Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS 3g Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI dataset. A diagnostic ecosystem model, Terrestrial Observation and Prediction System (TOPS, was used to estimate global GPP from 1982 to 2009 under nine different experimental simulations. The control run of global GPP increased until 2000, but stayed constant after 2000. Among the simulations with single climate constraint (temperature, VPD, rainfall and solar radiation, only the VPD-driven simulation showed a decrease in 2000s, while the other scenarios simulated an increase in GPP. The diverging responses in 2000s can be attributed to the difference in the representation of the impact of water stress on vegetation in models, i.e., using VPD and/or precipitation. Spatial map of trend in simulated GPP using GIMMS 3g data is consistent with the GPP driven by soil moisture than the GPP driven by VPD, confirming the need for a soil moisture constraint in modeling global GPP.

  10. Assessment of the production of medical isotopes using the Monte Carlo code FLUKA: Simulations against experimental measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Infantino, Angelo, E-mail: angelo.infantino@unibo.it [Department of Industrial Engineering, Montecuccolino Laboratory, University of Bologna, Via dei Colli 16, 40136 Bologna (Italy); Oehlke, Elisabeth [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, V6T 2A3 Vancouver, BC (Canada); Department of Radiation Science & Technology, Delft University of Technology, Postbus 5, 2600 AA Delft (Netherlands); Mostacci, Domiziano [Department of Industrial Engineering, Montecuccolino Laboratory, University of Bologna, Via dei Colli 16, 40136 Bologna (Italy); Schaffer, Paul; Trinczek, Michael; Hoehr, Cornelia [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, V6T 2A3 Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2016-01-01

    The Monte Carlo code FLUKA is used to simulate the production of a number of positron emitting radionuclides, {sup 18}F, {sup 13}N, {sup 94}Tc, {sup 44}Sc, {sup 68}Ga, {sup 86}Y, {sup 89}Zr, {sup 52}Mn, {sup 61}Cu and {sup 55}Co, on a small medical cyclotron with a proton beam energy of 13 MeV. Experimental data collected at the TR13 cyclotron at TRIUMF agree within a factor of 0.6 ± 0.4 with the directly simulated data, except for the production of {sup 55}Co, where the simulation underestimates the experiment by a factor of 3.4 ± 0.4. The experimental data also agree within a factor of 0.8 ± 0.6 with the convolution of simulated proton fluence and cross sections from literature. Overall, this confirms the applicability of FLUKA to simulate radionuclide production at 13 MeV proton beam energy.

  11. Spatially explicit simulation of peatland hydrology and carbon dioxide exchange: Influence of mesoscale topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnentag, O.; Chen, J. M.; Roulet, N. T.; Ju, W.; Govind, A.

    2008-06-01

    Carbon dynamics in peatlands are controlled, in large part, by their wetness as defined by water table depth and volumetric liquid soil moisture content. A common type of peatland is raised bogs that typically have a multiple-layer canopy of vascular plants over a Sphagnum moss ground cover. Their convex form restricts water supply to precipitation and water is shed toward the margins, usually by lateral subsurface flow. The hydraulic gradient for lateral subsurface flow is governed by the peat surface topography at the mesoscale (˜200 m to 5 km). To investigate the influence of mesoscale topography on wetness, evapotranspiration (ET), and gross primary productivity (GPP) in a bog during the snow-free period, we compare the outputs of a further developed version of the daily Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS) with observations made at the Mer Bleue peatland, located near Ottawa, Canada. Explicitly considering mesoscale topography, simulated total ET and GPP correlate well with measured ET (r = 0.91) and derived gross ecosystem productivity (GEP; r = 0.92). Both measured ET and derived GEP are simulated similarly well when mesoscale topography is neglected, but daily simulated values are systematically underestimated by about 10% and 12% on average, respectively, due to greater wetness resulting from the lack of lateral subsurface flow. Owing to the differences in moss surface conductances of water vapor and carbon dioxide with increasing moss water content, the differences in the spatial patterns of simulated total ET and GPP are controlled by the mesotopographic position of the moss ground cover.

  12. Numerical simulation of vortex pyrolysis reactors for condensable tar production from biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.S.; Bellan, J. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). Jet Propulsion Lab.

    1998-08-01

    A numerical study is performed in order to evaluate the performance and optimal operating conditions of vortex pyrolysis reactors used for condensable tar production from biomass. A detailed mathematical model of porous biomass particle pyrolysis is coupled with a compressible Reynolds stress transport model for the turbulent reactor swirling flow. An initial evaluation of particle dimensionality effects is made through comparisons of single- (1D) and multi-dimensional particle simulations and reveals that the 1D particle model results in conservative estimates for total pyrolysis conversion times and tar collection. The observed deviations are due predominantly to geometry effects while directional effects from thermal conductivity and permeability variations are relatively small. Rapid ablative particle heating rates are attributed to a mechanical fragmentation of the biomass particles that is modeled using a critical porosity for matrix breakup. Optimal thermal conditions for tar production are observed for 900 K. Effects of biomass identity, particle size distribution, and reactor geometry and scale are discussed.

  13. Analysis of proton irradiation products in simulated interstellar dusts by mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasamatsu, Takashi; Kaneko, Takeo; Tsuchiya, Masahiko; Kobayashi, Kensei

    1996-01-01

    It is known that various kinds of organic compounds exist in space. In order to study the possibility of the formation of organic compounds in comets or their precursory bodies (interstellar dust grains), ice mixtures of carbon monoxide (or methane), ammonia and water made in a cryostat at 10 K ('simulated cometary ices') were irradiated with high energy protons. Irradiated ice products were warmed up to room temperature, while sublimed gases were analyzed with a quadrupole mass spectrometer. Some hydrocarbons and alcohols were detected. 'Amino acid precursors' (compounds yielding amino acids after hydrolysis) were detected in non-volatile products remaining on the substrate at room temperature. These results suggest the possible formation of organic compounds in interstellar dust grains by cosmic radiation. (author)

  14. Designing a Virtual laboratory for Simulating to Production of Nanocomposite NdFeB Magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Faruk Çakir

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The talent figure for a permanent magnet is the multiplication of the maximum energy (BHmax. Less volume magnet is required for the production of magnet flux density if the BHmax value is higher. Mathematical functions are obtained from the data related to resiudal flux density, magnetic coercitivy, permanent magnet flux product capability, Curie temperature and density which were obtained as a result of the studies on different NdFeB alloys in the laboratory. Besides this, mathematical functions of NdFeB hard magnet’s resiudal flux density are obtained by adding elements. In this study, a virtual laboratory for producing nanocompositedNdFeB magnet has been designed. The virtual laboratory software has been used to simulate NdFeB hard magnets for industrial utilities.

  15. Integrated furfural and first generation bioethanol production: process simulation and techno-economic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. L. Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract Furfural is a base chemical with a wide range of applications and with a great opportunity for market growth in the near term. Derived from biomass, its production may be incorporated to the Brazilian chemical industry using sugarcane bagasse as feedstock. In this context, the integration of a furfural plant to a first generation bioethanol facility, within the biorefinery concept, was simulated considering different scenarios compared to an autonomous bioethanol distillery. The economic analysis of the different scenarios showed that the revenues from furfural commercialization increase the internal rate of return of the project for maximum furfural production (22.0% in comparison to a conventional ethanol distillery (13.5%, despite the decrease in electricity output. Moreover, the economic analysis of the results pointed out the possibility of lowering furfural prices to levels that could lead to its use as a precursor for biofuels.

  16. Simulation of Rn-222 decay products concentration deposited on a filter. Description of radon1.pas computer program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machaj, B.

    1996-01-01

    A computer program allowing simulation of activity distribution of 222 Rn short lived decay products deposited on a filter against time is presented, for any radiation equilibrium degree of the decay products. Deposition of the decay products is simulated by summing discrete samples every 1/10 min in the sampling time from 1 to 10 min. The concentration (activity) of the decay products is computed in one minute intervals in the range 1 - 100 min. The alpha concentration and the total activity of 218 Po + 214 Po produced are computed in the range 1 to 100 min as well. (author). 10 refs, 4 figs

  17. A combined approach of simulation and analytic hierarchy process in assessing production facility layouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, Razamin; Cheng, Kok-Min

    2014-07-01

    One of the important areas of concern in order to obtain a competitive level of productivity in a manufacturing system is the layout design and material transportation system (conveyor system). However, changes in customers' requirements have triggered the need to design other alternatives of the manufacturing layout for existing production floor. Hence, this paper discusses effective alternatives of the process layout specifically, the conveyor system layout. Subsequently, two alternative designs for the conveyor system were proposed with the aims to increase the production output and minimize space allocation. The first proposed layout design includes the installation of conveyor oven in the particular manufacturing room based on priority, and the second one is the one without the conveyor oven in the layout. Simulation technique was employed to design the new facility layout. Eventually, simulation experiments were conducted to understand the performance of each conveyor layout design based on operational characteristics, which include predicting the output of layouts. Utilizing the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), the newly and improved layout designs were assessed before the final selection was done. As a comparison, the existing conveyor system layout was included in the assessment process. Relevant criteria involved in this layout design problem were identified as (i) usage of space of each design, (ii) operator's utilization rates, (iii) return of investment (ROI) of the layout, and (iv) output of the layout. In the final stage of AHP analysis, the overall priority of each alternative layout was obtained and thus, a selection for final use by the management was made based on the highest priority value. This efficient planning and designing of facility layout in a particular manufacturing setting is able to minimize material handling cost, minimize overall production time, minimize investment in equipment, and optimize utilization of space.

  18. Effect of weather data aggregation on regional crop simulation for different crops, production conditions, and response variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Gang; Hoffmann, Holger; Bussel, Van L.G.J.; Enders, Andreas; Specka, Xenia; Sosa, Carmen; Yeluripati, Jagadeesh; Tao, Fulu; Constantin, Julie; Raynal, Helene; Teixeira, Edmar; Grosz, Balázs; Doro, Luca; Zhao, Zhigan; Nendel, Claas; Kiese, Ralf; Eckersten, Henrik; Haas, Edwin; Vanuytrecht, Eline; Wang, Enli; Kuhnert, Matthias; Trombi, Giacomo; Moriondo, Marco; Bindi, Marco; Lewan, Elisabet; Bach, Michaela; Kersebaum, Kurt Christian; Rötter, Reimund; Roggero, Pier Paolo; Wallach, Daniel; Cammarano, Davide; Asseng, Senthold; Krauss, Gunther; Siebert, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the weather data aggregation effect (DAE) on the simulation of cropping systems for different crops, response variables, and production conditions. Using 13 processbased crop models and the ensemble mean, we simulated 30 yr continuous cropping systems for 2 crops (winter wheat and

  19. Experimental outgassing of toxic chemicals to simulate the characteristics of hazards tainting globally shipped products.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lygia Therese Budnik

    Full Text Available Ambient monitoring analyses may identify potential new public health hazards such as residual levels of fumigants and industrial chemicals off gassing from products and goods shipped globally. We analyzed container air with gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (TD-2D-GC-MS/FPD and assessed whether the concentration of the volatiles benzene and 1,2-dichloroethane exceeded recommended exposure limits (REL. Products were taken from transport containers and analyzed for outgassing of volatiles. Furthermore, experimental outgassing was performed on packaging materials and textiles, to simulate the hazards tainting from globally shipped goods. The mean amounts of benzene in analyzed container air were 698-fold higher, and those of ethylene dichloride were 4.5-fold higher than the corresponding REL. More than 90% of all containers struck with toluene residues higher than its REL. For 1,2-dichloroethane 53% of containers, transporting shoes exceeded the REL. In standardized experimental fumigation of various products, outgassing of 1,2-dichloroethane under controlled laboratory conditions took up to several months. Globally produced transported products tainted with toxic industrial chemicals may contribute to the mixture of volatiles in indoor air as they are likely to emit for a long period. These results need to be taken into account for further evaluation of safety standards applying to workers and consumers.

  20. New capabilities for Monte Carlo simulation of deuteron transport and secondary products generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauvan, P.; Sanz, J.; Ogando, F.

    2010-01-01

    Several important research programs are dedicated to the development of facilities based on deuteron accelerators. In designing these facilities, the definition of a validated computational approach able to simulate deuteron transport and evaluate deuteron interactions and production of secondary particles with acceptable precision is a very important issue. Current Monte Carlo codes, such as MCNPX or PHITS, when applied for deuteron transport calculations use built-in semi-analytical models to describe deuteron interactions. These models are found unreliable in predicting neutron and photon generated by low energy deuterons, typically present in those facilities. We present a new computational tool, resulting from an extension of the MCNPX code, which improve significantly the treatment of problems where any secondary product (neutrons, photons, tritons, etc.) generated by low energy deuterons reactions could play a major role. Firstly, it handles deuteron evaluated data libraries, which allow describing better low deuteron energy interactions. Secondly, it includes a reduction variance technique for production of secondary particles by charged particle-induced nuclear interactions, which allow reducing drastically the computing time needed in transport and nuclear response calculations. Verification of the computational tool is successfully achieved. This tool can be very helpful in addressing design issues such as selection of the dedicated neutron production target and accelerator radioprotection analysis. It can be also helpful to test the deuteron cross-sections under development in the frame of different international nuclear data programs.

  1. Simulation of corrosion product activity in pressurized water reactors under flow rate transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirza, Anwar M.; Mirza, Nasir M.; Mir, Imran

    1998-01-01

    Simulation of coolant activation due to corrosion products and impurities in a typical pressurized water reactor has been done under flow rate transients. Employing time dependent production and losses of corrosion products in the primary coolant path an approach has been developed to calculate the coolant specific activity. Results for 24 Na, 56 Mn, 59 Fe, 60 Co and 99Mo show that the specific activity in primary loop approaches equilibrium value under normal operating conditions fairly rapidly. Predominant corrosion product activity is due to Mn-56. Parametric studies at full power for various ramp decreases in flow rate show initial decline in the activity and then a gradual rise to relatively higher saturation values. The minimum value and the time taken to reach the minima are strong functions of the slope of linear decrease in flow rate. In the second part flow rate coastdown was allowed to occur at different flow half-times. The reactor scram was initiated at 90% of the normal flow rate. The results show that the specific activity decreases and the rate of decrease depends on pump half time and the reactor scram conditions

  2. Using a Reactive Transport Simulator to Simulate CH4 Production from Bear Island Basin in the Barents Sea Utilizing the Depressurization Method†

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadijeh Qorbani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The enormous amount of methane stored in natural gas hydrates (NGHsworldwide offers a significant potential source of energy. NGHs will be generally unable to reach thermodynamic equilibrium at their in situ reservoir conditions due to the number of active phases involved. Lack of reliable field data makes it difficult to predict the production potential and safety of CH4 production from NGHs. While the computer simulations will never be able to replace field data, one can apply state-of-the-artmodellingtechniquestoevaluateseveralpossiblelong-termscenarios. Realistic kinetic models for hydrate dissociation and reformation will be required, as well as analysis of all phase transition routes. This work utilizes our in-house extension of RetrasoCodeBright (RCB, a reactive transport simulator, to perform a gas hydrate production case study of the Bjørnøya (Bear Island basin, a promising field with very limited geological data reported by available field studies. The use of a reactive transport simulator allowed us to implement non-equilibrium thermodynamics for analysisofCH4 production from the gas hydrates by treating each phase transition involving hydrates as a pseudo reaction. Our results showed a rapid propagation of the pressure drop through the reservoir following the imposition of pressure drawdown at the well. Consequently, gas hydrate dissociation and CH4 production began in the early stages of the five-year simulation period.

  3. The Cherenkov Telescope Array production system for Monte Carlo simulations and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrabito, L.; Bernloehr, K.; Bregeon, J.; Cumani, P.; Hassan, T.; Haupt, A.; Maier, G.; Moralejo, A.; Neyroud, N.; pre="for the"> CTA Consortium, DIRAC Consortium,

    2017-10-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), an array of many tens of Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes deployed on an unprecedented scale, is the next-generation instrument in the field of very high energy gamma-ray astronomy. An average data stream of about 0.9 GB/s for about 1300 hours of observation per year is expected, therefore resulting in 4 PB of raw data per year and a total of 27 PB/year, including archive and data processing. The start of CTA operation is foreseen in 2018 and it will last about 30 years. The installation of the first telescopes in the two selected locations (Paranal, Chile and La Palma, Spain) will start in 2017. In order to select the best site candidate to host CTA telescopes (in the Northern and in the Southern hemispheres), massive Monte Carlo simulations have been performed since 2012. Once the two sites have been selected, we have started new Monte Carlo simulations to determine the optimal array layout with respect to the obtained sensitivity. Taking into account that CTA may be finally composed of 7 different telescope types coming in 3 different sizes, many different combinations of telescope position and multiplicity as a function of the telescope type have been proposed. This last Monte Carlo campaign represented a huge computational effort, since several hundreds of telescope positions have been simulated, while for future instrument response function simulations, only the operating telescopes will be considered. In particular, during the last 18 months, about 2 PB of Monte Carlo data have been produced and processed with different analysis chains, with a corresponding overall CPU consumption of about 125 M HS06 hours. In these proceedings, we describe the employed computing model, based on the use of grid resources, as well as the production system setup, which relies on the DIRAC interware. Finally, we present the envisaged evolutions of the CTA production system for the off-line data processing during CTA operations and

  4. Numerical and analytical simulation of the production process of ZrO2 hollow particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaei, Hadi; Emami, Mohsen Davazdah

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, the production process of hollow particles from the agglomerated particles is addressed analytically and numerically. The important parameters affecting this process, in particular, the initial porosity level of particles and the plasma gun types are investigated. The analytical model adopts a combination of quasi-steady thermal equilibrium and mechanical balance. In the analytical model, the possibility of a solid core existing in agglomerated particles is examined. In this model, a range of particle diameters (50μm ≤ D_{p0} ≤ 160 μ m) and various initial porosities ( 0.2 ≤ p ≤ 0.7) are considered. The numerical model employs the VOF technique for two-phase compressible flows. The production process of hollow particles from the agglomerated particles is simulated, considering an initial diameter of D_{p0} = 60 μm and initial porosity of p = 0.3, p = 0.5, and p = 0.7. Simulation results of the analytical model indicate that the solid core diameter is independent of the initial porosity, whereas the thickness of the particle shell strongly depends on the initial porosity. In both models, a hollow particle may hardly develop at small initial porosity values ( p disintegrates at high initial porosity values ( p > 0.6.

  5. BIM-Based 4D Simulation to Improve Module Manufacturing Productivity for Sustainable Building Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joosung Lee

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Modular construction methods, where products are manufactured beforehand in a factory and then transported to the site for installation, are becoming increasingly popular for construction projects in many countries as this method facilitates the use of the advanced technologies that support sustainability in building projects. This approach requires dual factory–site process management to be carefully coordinated and the factory module manufacturing process must therefore be managed in a detailed and quantitative manner. However, currently, the limited algorithms available to support this process are based on mathematical methodologies that do not consider the complex mix of equipment, factories, personnel, and materials involved. This paper presents three new building information modeling-based 4D simulation frameworks to manage the three elements—process, quantity, and quality—that determine the productivity of factory module manufacturing. These frameworks leverage the advantages of 4D simulation and provide more precise information than existing conventional documents. By utilizing a 4D model that facilitates the visualization of a wide range of data variables, manufacturers can plan the module manufacturing process in detail and fully understand the material, equipment, and workflow needed to accomplish the manufacturing tasks. Managers can also access information about material quantities for each process and use this information for earned value management, warehousing/storage, fabrication, and assembly planning. By having a 4D view that connects 2D drawing models, manufacturing errors and rework can be minimized and problems such as construction delays, quality lapses, and cost overruns vastly reduced.

  6. Simulating forest productivity and surface-atmosphere carbon exchange in the BOREAS study region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimball, J.S.; Thornton, P.E.; White, M.A.; Running, S.W. [Montana Univ., Missoula, MT (United States). School of Forestry

    1997-12-31

    Studies have shown that the boreal forest region is in danger of experiencing significant warming and drying in response to increases in atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration and other greenhouse gases. Since the boreal forest region contains 16-24 per cent of the world`s soil carbon, warming in this region could result in a rapid, large-scale displacement and redistribution of boreal forest, enhanced release of CO{sub 2} to the atmosphere, and an intensification of global warming. A study was conducted in which a process-based, general ecosystem model (BIOME-BGC) was used to simulate daily gross primary production, maintenance and heterotrophic respiration, net primary production and net ecosystem carbon exchange of boreal aspen, jack pine and black spruce. The objective was to integrate point measurements across multiple spatial and temporal scales using process level models of the boreal forest water, energy and biogeochemical cycles. Climate characteristics that control simulated carbon fluxes were also studied. Results showed that trees with large daily evapotranspiration rates and those situated on sandy soils with low water holding capacities were especially vulnerable to increased temperature and drought conditions. Trees subject to frequent water stress during the growing season, particularly older trees that exhibit low photosynthetic and high respiration rates, were on the margin between being annual net sources or sinks for atmospheric carbon. 71 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs.

  7. CFD simulation of fatty acid methyl ester production in bubble column reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salleh, N. S. Mohd; Nasir, N. F.

    2017-09-01

    Non-catalytic transesterification is one of the method that was used to produce the fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) by blowing superheated methanol bubbles continuously into the vegetable oil without using any catalyst. This research aimed to simulate the production of FAME from palm oil in a bubble column reactor. Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) simulation was used to predict the distribution of fatty acid methyl ester and other product in the reactor. The fluid flow and component of concentration along the reaction time was investigated and the effects of reaction temperature (523 K and 563 K) on the non-catalytic transesterification process has been examined. The study was carried out using ANSYS CFX 17.1. The finding from the study shows that increasing the temperature leads to higher amount of fatty acid methyl ester can be produced in shorter time. On the other hand, concentration of the component such as triglyceride (TG), glycerol (GL) and fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) can be known when reaching the optimum condition.

  8. Defect production in simulated cascades: Cascade quenching and short-term annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinisch, H.L.

    1983-01-01

    Defect production in displacement cascades in copper has been modeled using the MARLOWE code to generate cascades and the stochastic annealing code ALSOME to simulate cascade quenching and short-term annealing of isolated cascades. Quenching is accomplished by using exaggerated values for defect mobilities and for critical reaction distances in ALSOME for a very short time. The quenched cascades are then short-term annealed with normal parameter values. The quenching parameter values were empirically determined by comparison with results of resistivity measurements. Throughout the collisional, quenching and short-term annealing phases of cascade development, the high energy cascades continue to behave as a collection of independent lower energy lobes. For recoils above about 30 keV the total number of defects and the numbers of free defects scale with the damage energy. As the energy decreases from 30 keV, defect production varies with the changing nature of the cascade configuration, resulting in more defects per unit damage energy. The simulated annealing of a low fluence of interacting cascades revealed an interstitial shielding effect on depleted zones during Stage I recovery. (orig.)

  9. Pyranose dehydrogenase ligand promiscuity: a generalized approach to simulate monosaccharide solvation, binding, and product formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael M H Graf

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The flavoenzyme pyranose dehydrogenase (PDH from the litter decomposing fungus Agaricus meleagris oxidizes many different carbohydrates occurring during lignin degradation. This promiscuous substrate specificity makes PDH a promising catalyst for bioelectrochemical applications. A generalized approach to simulate all 32 possible aldohexopyranoses in the course of one or a few molecular dynamics (MD simulations is reported. Free energy calculations according to the one-step perturbation (OSP method revealed the solvation free energies (ΔGsolv of all 32 aldohexopyranoses in water, which have not yet been reported in the literature. The free energy difference between β- and α-anomers (ΔGβ-α of all d-stereoisomers in water were compared to experimental values with a good agreement. Moreover, the free-energy differences (ΔG of the 32 stereoisomers bound to PDH in two different poses were calculated from MD simulations. The relative binding free energies (ΔΔGbind were calculated and, where available, compared to experimental values, approximated from Km values. The agreement was very good for one of the poses, in which the sugars are positioned in the active site for oxidation at C1 or C2. Distance analysis between hydrogens of the monosaccharide and the reactive N5-atom of the flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD revealed that oxidation is possible at HC1 or HC2 for pose A, and at HC3 or HC4 for pose B. Experimentally detected oxidation products could be rationalized for the majority of monosaccharides by combining ΔΔGbind and a reweighted distance analysis. Furthermore, several oxidation products were predicted for sugars that have not yet been tested experimentally, directing further analyses. This study rationalizes the relationship between binding free energies and substrate promiscuity in PDH, providing novel insights for its applicability in bioelectrochemistry. The results suggest that a similar approach could be applied to study

  10. The sensitivity of dimethyl sulfide production to simulated climate change in the Eastern Antarctic Southern Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabric, Albert J.; Cropp, Roger; Marchant, Harvey

    2003-01-01

    Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) is a radiatively active trace gas produced by enzymatic cleavage of its precursor compound, dimethyl sulfoniopropionate (DMSP), which is released by marine phytoplankton in the upper ocean. Once ventilated to the atmosphere, DMS is oxidised to form non-sea-salt sulfate and methane sulfonate (MSA) aerosols, which are a major source of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) in remote marine air and may thus play a role in climate regulation. Here we simulate the change in DMS flux in the Eastern Antarctic ocean from 1960-2086, corresponding to equivalent CO 2 tripling relative to pre-industrial levels. Calibration to contemporary climate conditions was carried out using a genetic algorithm to fit the model to surface chlorophyll from the 4-yr SeaWiFs satellite archive and surface DMS from an existing global database. Following the methodology used previously in the Subantarctic Southern Ocean, we then simulated DMS emissions under enhanced greenhouse conditions by forcing the DMS model with output from a coupled atmospheric-ocean general circulation model (GCM). The GCM was run in transient mode under the IPCC/IS92a radiative forcing scenario. By 2086, the change simulated in annual integrated DMS flux is around 20% in ice-free waters, with a greater increase of 45% in the seasonal ice zone (SIZ). Interestingly, the large increase in flux in the SIZ is not due to higher in situ production but mainly because of a loss of ice cover during summer-autumn and an increase in sea-to-air ventilation of DMS. These proportional changes in areal mean flux (25%) are much higher than previously estimated for the Subantarctic Southern Ocean (5%), and point to the possibility of a significant DMS-climate feedback at high Southern latitudes. Due to the nexus between ice cover and food-web structure, the potential for ecological community shifts under enhanced greenhouse conditions is high, and the implications for DMS production are discussed

  11. Simulating the gas hydrate production test at Mallik using the pilot scale pressure reservoir LARS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeschen, Katja; Spangenberg, Erik; Schicks, Judith M.; Priegnitz, Mike; Giese, Ronny; Luzi-Helbing, Manja

    2014-05-01

    LARS, the LArge Reservoir Simulator, allows for one of the few pilot scale simulations of gas hydrate formation and dissociation under controlled conditions with a high resolution sensor network to enable the detection of spatial variations. It was designed and built within the German project SUGAR (submarine gas hydrate reservoirs) for sediment samples with a diameter of 0.45 m and a length of 1.3 m. During the project, LARS already served for a number of experiments simulating the production of gas from hydrate-bearing sediments using thermal stimulation and/or depressurization. The latest test simulated the methane production test from gas hydrate-bearing sediments at the Mallik test site, Canada, in 2008 (Uddin et al., 2011). Thus, the starting conditions of 11.5 MPa and 11°C and environmental parameters were set to fit the Mallik test site. The experimental gas hydrate saturation of 90% of the total pore volume (70 l) was slightly higher than volumes found in gas hydrate-bearing formations in the field (70 - 80%). However, the resulting permeability of a few millidarcy was comparable. The depressurization driven gas production at Mallik was conducted in three steps at 7.0 MPa - 5.0 MPa - 4.2 MPa all of which were used in the laboratory experiments. In the lab the pressure was controlled using a back pressure regulator while the confining pressure was stable. All but one of the 12 temperature sensors showed a rapid decrease in temperature throughout the sediment sample, which accompanied the pressure changes as a result of gas hydrate dissociation. During step 1 and 2 they continued up to the point where gas hydrate stability was regained. The pressure decreases and gas hydrate dissociation led to highly variable two phase fluid flow throughout the duration of the simulated production test. The flow rates were measured continuously (gas) and discontinuously (liquid), respectively. Next to being discussed here, both rates were used to verify a model of gas

  12. Assessing uncertainties in crop and pasture ensemble model simulations of productivity and N2 O emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrhardt, Fiona; Soussana, Jean-François; Bellocchi, Gianni; Grace, Peter; McAuliffe, Russel; Recous, Sylvie; Sándor, Renáta; Smith, Pete; Snow, Val; de Antoni Migliorati, Massimiliano; Basso, Bruno; Bhatia, Arti; Brilli, Lorenzo; Doltra, Jordi; Dorich, Christopher D; Doro, Luca; Fitton, Nuala; Giacomini, Sandro J; Grant, Brian; Harrison, Matthew T; Jones, Stephanie K; Kirschbaum, Miko U F; Klumpp, Katja; Laville, Patricia; Léonard, Joël; Liebig, Mark; Lieffering, Mark; Martin, Raphaël; Massad, Raia S; Meier, Elizabeth; Merbold, Lutz; Moore, Andrew D; Myrgiotis, Vasileios; Newton, Paul; Pattey, Elizabeth; Rolinski, Susanne; Sharp, Joanna; Smith, Ward N; Wu, Lianhai; Zhang, Qing

    2018-02-01

    Simulation models are extensively used to predict agricultural productivity and greenhouse gas emissions. However, the uncertainties of (reduced) model ensemble simulations have not been assessed systematically for variables affecting food security and climate change mitigation, within multi-species agricultural contexts. We report an international model comparison and benchmarking exercise, showing the potential of multi-model ensembles to predict productivity and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emissions for wheat, maize, rice and temperate grasslands. Using a multi-stage modelling protocol, from blind simulations (stage 1) to partial (stages 2-4) and full calibration (stage 5), 24 process-based biogeochemical models were assessed individually or as an ensemble against long-term experimental data from four temperate grassland and five arable crop rotation sites spanning four continents. Comparisons were performed by reference to the experimental uncertainties of observed yields and N 2 O emissions. Results showed that across sites and crop/grassland types, 23%-40% of the uncalibrated individual models were within two standard deviations (SD) of observed yields, while 42 (rice) to 96% (grasslands) of the models were within 1 SD of observed N 2 O emissions. At stage 1, ensembles formed by the three lowest prediction model errors predicted both yields and N 2 O emissions within experimental uncertainties for 44% and 33% of the crop and grassland growth cycles, respectively. Partial model calibration (stages 2-4) markedly reduced prediction errors of the full model ensemble E-median for crop grain yields (from 36% at stage 1 down to 4% on average) and grassland productivity (from 44% to 27%) and to a lesser and more variable extent for N 2 O emissions. Yield-scaled N 2 O emissions (N 2 O emissions divided by crop yields) were ranked accurately by three-model ensembles across crop species and field sites. The potential of using process-based model ensembles to predict jointly

  13. Effective dose evaluation of NORM-added consumer products using Monte Carlo simulations and the ICRP computational human phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyun Cheol; Yoo, Do Hyeon; Testa, Mauro; Shin, Wook-Geun; Choi, Hyun Joon; Ha, Wi-Ho; Yoo, Jaeryong; Yoon, Seokwon; Min, Chul Hee

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential hazard of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) added consumer products. Using the Monte Carlo method, the radioactive products were simulated with ICRP reference phantom and the organ doses were calculated with the usage scenario. Finally, the annual effective doses were evaluated as lower than the public dose limit of 1 mSv y"−"1 for 44 products. It was demonstrated that NORM-added consumer products could be quantitatively assessed for the safety regulation. - Highlights: • Consumer products considered that NORM would be included should be regulated. • 44 products were collected and its gamma activities were measured with HPGe detector. • Through Monte Carlo simulation, organ equivalent doses and effective doses on human phantom were calculated. • All annual effective doses for the products were evaluated as lower than dose limit for the public.

  14. Impacts of climate change on rice production in Africa and causes of simulated yield changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oort, Pepijn A J; Zwart, Sander J

    2018-03-01

    This study is the first of its kind to quantify possible effects of climate change on rice production in Africa. We simulated impacts on rice in irrigated systems (dry season and wet season) and rainfed systems (upland and lowland). We simulated the use of rice varieties with a higher temperature sum as adaptation option. We simulated rice yields for 4 RCP climate change scenarios and identified causes of yield declines. Without adaptation, shortening of the growing period due to higher temperatures had a negative impact on yields (-24% in RCP 8.5 in 2070 compared with the baseline year 2000). With varieties that have a high temperature sum, the length of the growing period would remain the same as under the baseline conditions. With this adaptation option rainfed rice yields would increase slightly (+8%) but they remain subject to water availability constraints. Irrigated rice yields in East Africa would increase (+25%) due to more favourable temperatures and due to CO2 fertilization. Wet season irrigated rice yields in West Africa were projected to change by -21% or +7% (without/with adaptation). Without adaptation irrigated rice yields in West Africa in the dry season would decrease by -45% with adaptation they would decrease significantly less (-15%). The main cause of this decline was reduced photosynthesis at extremely high temperatures. Simulated heat sterility hardly increased and was not found a major cause for yield decline. The implications for these findings are as follows. For East Africa to benefit from climate change, improved water and nutrient management will be needed to benefit fully from the more favourable temperatures and increased CO2 concentrations. For West Africa, more research is needed on photosynthesis processes at extreme temperatures and on adaptation options such as shifting sowing dates. © 2017 The Authors. Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Developing a versatile simulation, scheduling and economic model framework for bioenergy production systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Matindi

    2019-01-01

    Full Text Available Modelling is an effective way of designing, understanding, and analysing bio-refinery supply chain systems. The supply chain is a complex process consisting of many systems interacting with each other. It requires the modelling of the processes in the presence of multiple autonomous entities (i.e. biomass producers, bio-processors and transporters, multiple performance measures and multiple objectives, both local and global, which together constitute very complex interaction effects. In this paper, simulation models for recovering biomass from the field of the biorefinery are developed and validated using some industry data and the minimum biomass recovery cost is established based on different strategies employed for recovering biomass. Energy densification techniques are evaluated for their net present worth and the technologies that offer greater returns for the industry are recommended. In addition, a new scheduling algorithm is also developed to enhance the process flow of the management of resources and the flow of biomass. The primary objective is to investigate different strategies to reach the lowest cost delivery of sugarcane harvest residue to a sugar factory through optimally located bio-refineries. A simulation /optimisation solution approach is also developed to tackle the stochastic variables in the bioenergy production system based on different statistical distributions such as Weibull and Pearson distributions. In this approach, a genetic algorithm is integrated with simulation to improve the initial solution and search the near-optimal solution. A case study is conducted to illustrate the results and to validate the applicability for the real world implementation using ExtendSIM Simulation software using some real data from Australian Mills.

  16. Optimization of the energy production for the Baghdara hydropower plant in Afghanistan using simulated annealing; Optimierung der Energieerzeugung fuer das Wasserkraftwerk Baghdara in Afghanistan mit simulated annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayros, E.; Hildebrandt, H.; Peissner, K. [Fichtner GmbH und Co. KG, Stuttgart (Germany). Wasserbau und Wasserkraftwerke; Bardossy, A. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Wasserbau

    2008-07-01

    Simulated Annealing (SA) is an optimization method analogous to the thermodynamic method and is a new alternative for optimising the energy production of hydropower systems with storage capabilities. The SA-Algorithm is presented here and it was applied for the maximization of the energy production of the Baghdara hydropower plant in Afghanistan. The results were also compared with a non-linear optimization method NLP. (orig.)

  17. Simulation of the Francis-99 Hydro Turbine During Steady and Transient Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewan, Yuvraj; Custer, Chad; Ivashchenko, Artem

    2017-01-01

    Numerical simulation of the Francis-99 hydroturbine with correlation to experimental measurements are presented. Steady operation of the hydroturbine is analyzed at three operating conditions: the best efficiency point (BEP), high load (HL), and part load (PL). It is shown that global quantities such as net head, discharge and efficiency are well predicted. Additionally, time-averaged velocity predictions compare well with PIV measurements obtained in the draft tube immediately downstream of the runner. Differences in vortex rope structure between operating points are discussed. Unsteady operation of the hydroturbine from BEP to HL and from BEP to PL are modeled. It is shown that simulation methods used to model the steady operation produce predictions that correlate well with experiment for transient operation. Time-domain unsteady simulation is used for both steady and unsteady operation. The full-fidelity geometry including all components is meshed using an unstructured polyhedral mesh with body-fitted prism layers. Guide vane rotation for transient operation is imposed using fully-conservative, computationally efficient mesh morphing. The commercial solver STAR-CCM+ is used for all portions of the analysis including meshing, solving and post-processing.

  18. Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gould, Derek A; Chalmers, Nicholas; Johnson, Sheena J

    2012-01-01

    Recognition of the many limitations of traditional apprenticeship training is driving new approaches to learning medical procedural skills. Among simulation technologies and methods available today, computer-based systems are topical and bring the benefits of automated, repeatable, and reliable p...... performance assessments. Human factors research is central to simulator model development that is relevant to real-world imaging-guided interventional tasks and to the credentialing programs in which it would be used....

  19. Modelling and numerical simulation of the corrosion product transport in the pressurised water reactor primary circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchetto, C.

    2002-05-01

    During operation of pressurised water reactor, corrosion of the primary circuit alloys leads to the release of metallic species such as iron, nickel and cobalt in the primary fluid. These corrosion products are implicated in different transport phenomena and are activated in the reactor core where they are submitted to neutron flux. The radioactive corrosion products are afterwards present in the out of flux parts of primary circuit where they generate a radiation field. The first part of this study deals with the modelling of the corrosion: product transport phenomena. In particular, considering the current state of the art, corrosion and release mechanisms are described empirically, which allows to take into account the material surface properties. New mass balance equations describing the corrosion product behaviour are thus obtained. The numerical resolution of these equations is implemented in the second part of this work. In order to obtain large time steps, we choose an implicit time scheme. The associated system is linearized from the Newton method and is solved by a preconditioned GMRES method. Moreover, a time step auto-adaptive management based on Newton iterations is performed. Consequently, an efficient resolution has been implemented, allowing to describe not only the quasi-steady evolutions but also the fast transients. In a last step, numerical simulations are carried out in order to validate the new corrosion product transport modelling and to illustrate the capabilities of this modelling. Notably, the numerical results obtained indicate that the code allows to restore the on-site observations underlining the influence of material surface properties on reactor contamination. (author)

  20. Atlas pixel opto-board production and analysis and optolink simulation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nderitu, Simon Kirichu

    2007-01-01

    At CERN, a Large collider will collide protons at high energies. There are four experiments being built to study the particle properties from the collision. The ATLAS experiment is the largest. It has many sub detectors among which is the Pixel detector which is the innermost part. The Pixel detector has eighty million channels that have to be read out. An optical link is utilized for the read out. It has optical to electronic interfaces both on the detector and off the detector at the counting room. The component on the detector in called the opto-board. This work discusses the production testing of the opto-boards to be installed on the detector. A total of 300 opto-boards including spares have been produced. The production was done in three laboratories among which is the laboratory at the University of Wuppertal which had the responsibility of Post production testing of all the one third of the total opto-boards. The results are discussed in this work. The analysis of the results from the total production process has been done in the scope of this work as well. In addition to the production, a study by simulation of the communication links optical signal has been done. This has enabled an assessment of the sufficiency of the optical signal against the transmission attenuation and irradiation degradation. A System Test set up has been put up at Wuppertal to enhance general studies for better understanding of the Pixel read out system. Among other studies is the study of the timing parameters behavior of the System which has been done in this work and enhanced by a simulation. These parameters are namely the mark to space ratio and the fine delay and their relatedness during the optolink tuning. A bit error rate test based on the System has also been done which enabled assessment of the transmission quality utilizing the tools inbuilt in the System Test. These results have been presented in this work. (orig.)

  1. Assessing the impact of urbanization on regional net primary productivity in Jiangyin County, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, C; Liu, M; An, S; Chen, J M; Yan, P

    2007-11-01

    Urbanization is one of the most important aspects of global change. The process of urbanization has a significant impact on the terrestrial ecosystem carbon cycle. The Yangtze Delta region has one of the highest rates of urbanization in China. In this study, carried out in Jiangyin County as a representative region within the Yangtze Delta, land use and land cover changes were estimated using Landsat TM and ETM+ imagery. With these satellite data and the BEPS process model (Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator), the impacts of urbanization on regional net primary productivity (NPP) and annual net primary production were assessed for 1991 and 2002. Landsat-based land cover maps in 1991 and 2002 showed that urban development encroached large areas of cropland and forest. Expansion of residential areas and reduction of vegetated areas were the major forms of land transformation in Jiangyin County during this period. Mean NPP of the total area decreased from 818 to 699 gCm(-2)yr(-1) during the period of 1991 to 2002. NPP of cropland was only reduced by 2.7% while forest NPP was reduced by 9.3%. Regional annual primary production decreased from 808 GgC in 1991 to 691 GgC in 2002, a reduction of 14.5%. Land cover changes reduced regional NPP directly, and the increasing intensity and frequency of human-induced disturbance in the urbanized areas could be the main reason for the decrease in forest NPP.

  2. Validation databases for simulation models: aboveground biomass and net primary productive, (NPP) estimation using eastwide FIA data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer C. Jenkins; Richard A. Birdsey

    2000-01-01

    As interest grows in the role of forest growth in the carbon cycle, and as simulation models are applied to predict future forest productivity at large spatial scales, the need for reliable and field-based data for evaluation of model estimates is clear. We created estimates of potential forest biomass and annual aboveground production for the Chesapeake Bay watershed...

  3. Meteorite Impact-Induced Rapid NH3 Production on Early Earth: Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimamura, Kohei; Shimojo, Fuyuki; Nakano, Aiichiro; Tanaka, Shigenori

    2016-12-01

    NH3 is an essential molecule as a nitrogen source for prebiotic amino acid syntheses such as the Strecker reaction. Previous shock experiments demonstrated that meteorite impacts on ancient oceans would have provided a considerable amount of NH3 from atmospheric N2 and oceanic H2O through reduction by meteoritic iron. However, specific production mechanisms remain unclear, and impact velocities employed in the experiments were substantially lower than typical impact velocities of meteorites on the early Earth. Here, to investigate the issues from the atomistic viewpoint, we performed multi-scale shock technique-based ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. The results revealed a rapid production of NH3 within several picoseconds after the shock, indicating that shocks with greater impact velocities would provide further increase in the yield of NH3. Meanwhile, the picosecond-order production makes one expect that the important nitrogen source precursors of amino acids were obtained immediately after the impact. It was also observed that the reduction of N2 proceeded according to an associative mechanism, rather than a dissociative mechanism as in the Haber-Bosch process.

  4. Implementation of system dynamic simulation method to optimize profit in supply chain network of vegetable product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tama, I. P.; Akbar, Z.; Eunike, A.

    2018-04-01

    Vegetables are categorized as a perishable product, which is a product with short lifespan thus requires proper handling and planning to reduce losses caused by the short lifespan. In order to reduce the losses, coordination among the players in the supply chain is required. On the other hand, the decision in the supply chain of vegetables and other farming products in the traditional market of developing country is independent among the players. This research is conducted by using System Dynamic Simulation method to develop model and scenario by coordinating the supply quantity amongst players in the supply chain. The scenarios are developed based on newsboy inventory model. This study aims to compare scenarios combining tiers involved in coordination program. The result shows that coordination in supply chain increases total supply chain profit, although there will always be players who experienced decrements in profit. The scenario of coordination among the farmer, the distributor, and the wholesaler resulted in the highest increase in total supply chain profit compared to other coordination scenarios, with an increased value of 10.49%.

  5. Variability in sunflower oil quality for biodiesel production: A simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereyra-Irujo, Gustavo A.; Izquierdo, Natalia G.; Covi, Mauro; Nolasco, Susana M.; Quiroz, Facundo; Aguirrezabal, Luis A.N.

    2009-01-01

    Biodiesel is an alternative fuel made from vegetable oils or animal fats. The fatty acid composition of the feedstock, which varies among and within species, is the main determinant of biodiesel quality. In this work we analyze the variability in biodiesel quality (density, kinematic viscosity, heating value, cetane number and iodine value) obtained from sunflower oil, by means of a validated crop model that predicts the fatty acid composition of one high-oleic, and three traditional (high-linoleic) sunflower hybrids. The model was run with a 10-year average weather data from 56 weather stations in Argentina, and simulation results were compared to the biodiesel standards of Argentina, USA and Europe. We show that biodiesel produced from sunflower oil does not have one fixed quality, but different qualities depending on weather conditions and agricultural practices, and that intraspecific variation in biodiesel quality can be larger than interspecific differences. Our results suggest that (a) sunflower oil from high-oleic hybrids is suitable for biodiesel production (within limits of all analyzed standards), regardless of growing conditions and (b) sunflower oil from traditional hybrids is suitable for biodiesel production under the standards of Argentina and USA, while only certain hybrids grown in warm regions (e.g., Northern Argentina, Southern USA, China, India, Pakistan) are suitable for biodiesel production according to the European standard

  6. Currency risk and prices of oil and petroleum products: a simulation with a quantitative model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aniasi, L.; Ottavi, D.; Rubino, E.; Saracino, A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper analyzes the relationship between the exchange rates of the US Dollar against the four major European currencies and the prices of oil and its main products in those countries. In fact, the sensitivity of the prices to the exchange rate movements is of fundamental importance for the refining and distribution industries of importing countries. The result of the analysis shows that in neither free market conditions, as those present in Great Britain, France and Germany, nor in regulated markets, i.e. the italian one, do the variations of petroleum product prices fully absorb the variation of the exchange rates. In order to assess the above relationship, we first tested the order of co-integration of the time series of exchange rates of EMS currencies with those of international prices of oil and its derivative products; then we used a transfer-function model to reproduce the quantitative relationships between those variables. Using these results, we then reproduced domestic price functions with partial adjustment mechanisms. Finally, we used the above model to run a simulation of the deviation from the steady-state pattern caused by exchange-rate exogenous shocks. 21 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  7. Directional and Spectral Irradiance in Ocean Models: Effects on Simulated Global Phytoplankton, Nutrients, and Primary Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Watson W.; Rousseaux, Cecile S.

    2016-01-01

    The importance of including directional and spectral light in simulations of ocean radiative transfer was investigated using a coupled biogeochemical-circulation-radiative model of the global oceans. The effort focused on phytoplankton abundances, nutrient concentrations and vertically-integrated net primary production. The importance was approached by sequentially removing directional (i.e., direct vs. diffuse) and spectral irradiance and comparing results of the above variables to a fully directionally and spectrally-resolved model. In each case the total irradiance was kept constant; it was only the pathways and spectral nature that were changed. Assuming all irradiance was diffuse had negligible effect on global ocean primary production. Global nitrate and total chlorophyll concentrations declined by about 20% each. The largest changes occurred in the tropics and sub-tropics rather than the high latitudes, where most of the irradiance is already diffuse. Disregarding spectral irradiance had effects that depended upon the choice of attenuation wavelength. The wavelength closest to the spectrally-resolved model, 500 nm, produced lower nitrate (19%) and chlorophyll (8%) and higher primary production (2%) than the spectral model. Phytoplankton relative abundances were very sensitive to the choice of non-spectral wavelength transmittance. The combined effects of neglecting both directional and spectral irradiance exacerbated the differences, despite using attenuation at 500 nm. Global nitrate decreased 33% and chlorophyll decreased 24%. Changes in phytoplankton community structure were considerable, representing a change from chlorophytes to cyanobacteria and coccolithophores. This suggested a shift in community function, from light-limitation to nutrient limitation: lower demands for nutrients from cyanobacteria and coccolithophores favored them over the more nutrient-demanding chlorophytes. Although diatoms have the highest nutrient demands in the model, their

  8. Simulation of hadron multiple production by cosmic-ray protons in the incident energy region of 1015 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takatsuka, Ichiro

    1984-01-01

    The simulation studies of the unusual cosmic ray families found by the experiment at Mt. Chacaltaya were performed. Those families have a larger number of hadrons than the normal families, or are the families with big transverse extension. The former is called Centauro or Mini-centauro, and the latter is called Binocular and Chiron. In the first simulation, the process was calculated, in which the Lorentz transformation of π-meson multiple production (C-jet) in the energy region of 10 14 eV was made, and the jet with raised energy was combined, and the families were formed. The second simulation was made for the energy region more than 300 TeV, in which the nucleon-antinucleon multiple production with large transverse momentum and the B particle multiple production with larger transverse momentum were assumed. The data used were the C-jet data observed at Mt. Chacaltaya. For the simulation, all the primary particles were considered to be protons. The results of the present simulation study showed that the families with strong hadron components observed at Mt. Chacaltaya might be the new type hadron multiple production such as nucleon-antinucleon multiple production or B-particle multiple production. The total energy of all the families increased with the energy of the primary particles. There are a few families having the same extent of energy and spread as the Chiron. (Kato, T.)

  9. Impact of Future Climate Change on Wheat Production: A Simulated Case for China’s Wheat System

    OpenAIRE

    Dengpan Xiao; Huizi Bai; De Li Liu

    2018-01-01

    With regard to global climate change due to increasing concentration in greenhouse gases, particularly carbon dioxide (CO2), it is important to examine its potential impact on crop development and production. We used statistically-downscaled climate data from 28 Global Climate Models (GCMs) and the Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM)–Wheat model to simulate the impact of future climate change on wheat production. Two future scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) were used for atmos...

  10. Atmospheric Inversion of the Global Surface Carbon Flux with Consideration of the Spatial Distributions of US Crop Production and Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Jonathan Winston

    Carbon dioxide is taken up by crops during production and released back to the atmosphere at different geographical locations through respiration of consumed crop commodities. In this study, spatially distributed county-level US cropland net primary productivity, harvested biomass, changes in soil carbon, and human and livestock consumption data were integrated into the prior terrestrial biosphere flux generated by the Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS). A global time-dependent Bayesian synthesis inversion with a nested focus on North America was carried out based on CO2 observations at 210 stations. Overall, the inverted annual North American CO2 sink weakened by 6.5% over the period from 2002 to 2007 compared to simulations disregarding US crop statistical data. The US Midwest is found to be the major sink of 0.36±0.13 PgC yr-1 whereas the large sink in the US Southeast forests weakened to 0.16±0.12 PgC yr-1 partly due to local CO2 sources from crop consumption.

  11. Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, Sheldon

    2006-01-01

    Ross's Simulation, Fourth Edition introduces aspiring and practicing actuaries, engineers, computer scientists and others to the practical aspects of constructing computerized simulation studies to analyze and interpret real phenomena. Readers learn to apply results of these analyses to problems in a wide variety of fields to obtain effective, accurate solutions and make predictions about future outcomes. This text explains how a computer can be used to generate random numbers, and how to use these random numbers to generate the behavior of a stochastic model over time. It presents the statist

  12. A Timed Colored Petri Net Simulation-Based Self-Adaptive Collaboration Method for Production-Logistics Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Zhengang Guo; Yingfeng Zhang; Xibin Zhao; Xiaoyu Song

    2017-01-01

    Complex and customized manufacturing requires a high level of collaboration between production and logistics in a flexible production system. With the widespread use of Internet of Things technology in manufacturing, a great amount of real-time and multi-source manufacturing data and logistics data is created, that can be used to perform production-logistics collaboration. To solve the aforementioned problems, this paper proposes a timed colored Petri net simulation-based self-adaptive colla...

  13. Improving simulated spatial distribution of productivity and biomass in Amazon forests using the ACME land model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X.; Thornton, P. E.; Ricciuto, D. M.; Shi, X.; Xu, M.; Hoffman, F. M.; Norby, R. J.

    2017-12-01

    Tropical forests play a crucial role in the global carbon cycle, accounting for one third of the global NPP and containing about 25% of global vegetation biomass and soil carbon. This is particularly true for tropical forests in the Amazon region, as it comprises approximately 50% of the world's tropical forests. It is therefore important for us to understand and represent the processes that determine the fluxes and storage of carbon in these forests. In this study, we show that the implementation of phosphorus (P) cycle and P limitation in the ACME Land Model (ALM) improves simulated spatial pattern of NPP. The P-enabled ALM is able to capture the west-to-east gradient of productivity, consistent with field observations. We also show that by improving the representation of mortality processes, ALM is able to reproduce the observed spatial pattern of above ground biomass across the Amazon region.

  14. Three-phase distillation. Simulation and application to the separation of fermentation products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pucci, A; Mikitenko, P; Asselineau, L

    1986-01-01

    In recent years, most of the simulation methods proposed for solving distillation problems in which three-phase distillation occurs use a Newton-Raphson or a comparable approach which requires an initial estimate of variables close enough to the final answer. A plate-to-plate calculation which is more likely to converge on the solution is presented here. The phase equilibria are represented by the NRTL model. The position of three-phase stages is solved automatically. Another three-phase distillation program operating at infinite reflux first supplies the location of feeds and/or sidestreams and computes the minimum number of stages for a given separation. An application of the proposed method is illustrated by the rectification of butanol-acetone fermentation products. The calculated results are in good agreement with the experimental data obtained from the operation of a laboratory glass-plate-type column. 19 references, 8 figures, 1 table.

  15. Kinetic simulation of neutron production in a deuterium z-pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostrom, C.; Stygar, William A.; Thoma, Carsten; Welch, Dale Robert; Clark, R.E.; Leeper, Ramon Joe; Rose, David V.

    2010-01-01

    We have found computationally that, at sufficiently high currents, half of the neutrons produced by a deuterium z pinch are thermonuclear in origin. Early experiments below 1-MA current found that essentially all of the neutrons produced by a deuterium pinch are not thermonuclear, but are initiated by an instability that creates beam-target neutrons. Many subsequent authors have supported this result while others have claimed that pinch neutrons are thermonuclear. To resolve this issue, we have conducted fully kinetic, collisional, and electromagnetic simulations of the complete time evolution of a deuterium pinch. We find that at 1-MA pinch currents, most of the neutrons are, indeed, beam-target in origin. At much higher current, half of the neutrons are thermonuclear and half are beam-target driven by instabilities that produce a power law fall off in the ion energy distribution function at large energy. The implications for fusion energy production with such pinches are discussed.

  16. Update on comparison of the particle production using Mars simulation code

    CERN Document Server

    Prior, G; Kirk, H G; Souchlas, N; Ding, X

    2011-01-01

    In the International Design Study for the Neutrino Factory (IDS-NF), a 5-15 GeV (kinetic energy) proton beam impinges a Hg jet target, in order to produce pions that will decay into muons. The muons are captured and transformed into a beam, then passed to the downstream acceleration system. The target sits in a solenoid eld tapering from 20 T down to below 2 T, over several meters, permitting an optimized capture of the pions that will produce useful muons for the machine. The target and pion capture systems have been simulated using MARS. This paper presents an updated comparison of the particles production using the MARS code versions m1507 and m1510 on different machines located at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) and Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL).

  17. Simulation as a planning tool for job-shop production environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maram, Venkataramana; Nawawi, Mohd Kamal Bin Mohd; Rahman, Syariza Abdul; Sultan, Sultan Juma

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we made an attempt to use discrete event simulation software ARENA® as a planning tool for job shop production environment. We considered job shop produces three types of Jigs with different sequence of operations to study and improve shop floor performance. The sole purpose of the study is to identifying options to improve machines utilization, reducing job waiting times at bottleneck machines. First, the performance of the existing system was evaluated by using ARENA®. Then identified improvement opportunities by analyzing base system results. Second, updated the model with most economical options. The proposed new system outperforms with that of the current base system by 816% improvement in delay times at paint shop by increase 2 to 3 and Jig cycle time reduces by Jig1 92%, Jig2 65% and Jig3 41% and hence new proposal was recommended.

  18. Analysis of MSW treatment plant with production of biogas, RDF and compost through simulative approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosca, R; Giribone, P; Schenone, M. [Genoa Univ. (Italy). ITIM, Engineering Dept.; Macchiavello, A [Genoa Univ. (Italy). ISTIC, Engineering Dept.

    1996-12-31

    This work concerns the feasibility study of a MSW (Municipal Solid Waste) treatment plant based on wet way technology. The choice towards such a plant engineering-solution is due to the utilization of the energetic component of waste, through a production of both biogas and RDF (Refuse Derived Fuel) with practically any impact on environment. That`s why this solution is preferred to the traditional incinerating technologies and pyrolysis, that cause environmental damage because of more or less noxious emissions. In order to analyse how a so called multipurpose platform works, a discrete and stochastic simulation modeL able to describe in detail the flow of plant materials, was built. Then a very accurate experimentation campaign was carried out in order to determine a technical evaluation and consequently an economic analysis to verify the convenience of such a plant in the area of western Liguria. (author)

  19. Analysis of MSW treatment plant with production of biogas, RDF and compost through simulative approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosca, R.; Giribone, P.; Schenone, M. [Genoa Univ. (Italy). ITIM, Engineering Dept.; Macchiavello, A. [Genoa Univ. (Italy). ISTIC, Engineering Dept.

    1995-12-31

    This work concerns the feasibility study of a MSW (Municipal Solid Waste) treatment plant based on wet way technology. The choice towards such a plant engineering-solution is due to the utilization of the energetic component of waste, through a production of both biogas and RDF (Refuse Derived Fuel) with practically any impact on environment. That`s why this solution is preferred to the traditional incinerating technologies and pyrolysis, that cause environmental damage because of more or less noxious emissions. In order to analyse how a so called multipurpose platform works, a discrete and stochastic simulation modeL able to describe in detail the flow of plant materials, was built. Then a very accurate experimentation campaign was carried out in order to determine a technical evaluation and consequently an economic analysis to verify the convenience of such a plant in the area of western Liguria. (author)

  20. Use of Aria to simulate laser weld pool dynamics for neutron generator production.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noble, David R.; Notz, Patrick K.; Martinez, Mario J.; Kraynik, Andrew Michael

    2007-09-01

    This report documents the results for the FY07 ASC Integrated Codes Level 2 Milestone number 2354. The description for this milestone is, 'Demonstrate level set free surface tracking capabilities in ARIA to simulate the dynamics of the formation and time evolution of a weld pool in laser welding applications for neutron generator production'. The specialized boundary conditions and material properties for the laser welding application were implemented and verified by comparison with existing, two-dimensional applications. Analyses of stationary spot welds and traveling line welds were performed and the accuracy of the three-dimensional (3D) level set algorithm is assessed by comparison with 3D moving mesh calculations.

  1. Fate of Staphylococcus aureus in radiation sterilized model food systems simulating dairy products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulebele, G.A.; Kamat, M.Y.

    1976-01-01

    Gamma irradiation was successfully employed for the development of sterile model food systems simulating dairy products such as pedha and cottage cheese which were inoculated with enterotoxigenic S.aureus S-6 and FR1-100 either individually or in association with S.epidermids and other mixed flora comprising of gram-positive, gram-negative and lactic bacteria and stored at 4 and 35 degC for 6-8 weeks. Pedha failed to support growth of S.aureus while cottage cheese favoured profuse growth of the pathogen. S.epidermidis exhibited a synergistic effect on the growth of S.aureus in cottage cheese. Baired-Parker's medium showed very poor recovery of S.aureus which necessitated the development of a new selective medium for the enumeration of staphylococci in processed foods. (author)

  2. The simulated response of dimethylsulfide production in the Arctic Ocean to global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabric, Albert J.; Qu, Bo; Hirst, Anthony C.

    2005-01-01

    Sulfate aerosols (of both biogenic and anthropogenic origin) play a key role in the Earth's radiation balance both directly through scattering and absorption of solar and terrestrial radiation, and indirectly by modifying cloud microphysical properties. However, the uncertainties associated with radiative forcing of climate due to aerosols substantially exceed those associated with the greenhouse gases. The major source of sulfate aerosols in the remote marine atmosphere is the biogenic compound dimethylsulfide (DMS), which is ubiquitous in the world's oceans and is synthesized by plankton. Climate models point to significant future changes in sea-ice cover in the Arctic Ocean due to warming. This will have consequences for primary production and the sea-to-air flux of a number of biogenic compounds, including DMS. In this paper we discuss the impact of warming on the future production of DMS in the Arctic Ocean. A DMS production model has been calibrated to current climate conditions with satellite ocean colour data (SeaWiFS) using a genetic algorithm, an efficient non-derivative based optimization technique. We use the CSIRO Mk 2 climate model to force the DMS model under enhanced greenhouse climate conditions. We discuss the simulated change in DMS flux and its consequences for future aerosol production and the radiative budget of the Arctic. Significant decreases in sea-ice cover (by 18.5% annually and 61% in summer-autumn), increases in mean annual sea surface temperature of 1 deg C, and a decrease of mixed layer depth by 13% annually are predicted to result in annual DMS flux increases of over 80% by the time of equivalent CO 2 tripling (2080). Estimates of the impact of this increase in DMS emissions suggest significant changes to summer aerosol concentrations and the radiative balance in the Arctic region

  3. Hydrogen production by onboard gasoline processing – Process simulation and optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisaria, Vega; Smith, R.J. Byron,

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Process flow sheet for an onboard fuel processor for 100 kW fuel cell output was simulated. • Gasoline fuel requirement was found to be 30.55 kg/hr. • The fuel processor efficiency was found to be 95.98%. • An heat integrated optimum flow sheet was developed. - Abstract: Fuel cell vehicles have reached the commercialization stage and hybrid vehicles are already on the road. While hydrogen storage and infrastructure remain critical issues in stand alone commercialization of the technology, researchers are developing onboard fuel processors, which can convert a variety of fuels into hydrogen to power these fuel cell vehicles. The feasibility study of a 100 kW on board fuel processor based on gasoline fuel is carried out using process simulation. The steady state model has been developed with the help of Aspen HYSYS to analyze the fuel processor and total system performance. The components of the fuel processor are the fuel reforming unit, CO clean-up unit and auxiliary units. Optimization studies were carried out by analyzing the influence of various operating parameters such as oxygen to carbon ratio, steam to carbon ratio, temperature and pressure on the process equipments. From the steady state model optimization using Aspen HYSYS, an optimized reaction composition in terms of hydrogen production and carbon monoxide concentration corresponds to: oxygen to carbon ratio of 0.5 and steam to carbon ratio of 0.5. The fuel processor efficiency of 95.98% is obtained under these optimized conditions. The heat integration of the system using the composite curve, grand composite curve and utility composite curve were studied for the system. The most appropriate heat exchanger network from the generated ones was chosen and that was incorporated into the optimized flow sheet of the100 kW fuel processor. A completely heat integrated 100 kW fuel processor flow sheet using gasoline as fuel was thus successfully simulated and optimized.

  4. Hydrogen production by onboard gasoline processing – Process simulation and optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisaria, Vega; Smith, R.J. Byron

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Process flow sheet for an onboard fuel processor for 100 kW fuel cell output was simulated. • Gasoline fuel requirement was found to be 30.55 kg/hr. • The fuel processor efficiency was found to be 95.98%. • An heat integrated optimum flow sheet was developed. - Abstract: Fuel cell vehicles have reached the commercialization stage and hybrid vehicles are already on the road. While hydrogen storage and infrastructure remain critical issues in stand alone commercialization of the technology, researchers are developing onboard fuel processors, which can convert a variety of fuels into hydrogen to power these fuel cell vehicles. The feasibility study of a 100 kW on board fuel processor based on gasoline fuel is carried out using process simulation. The steady state model has been developed with the help of Aspen HYSYS to analyze the fuel processor and total system performance. The components of the fuel processor are the fuel reforming unit, CO clean-up unit and auxiliary units. Optimization studies were carried out by analyzing the influence of various operating parameters such as oxygen to carbon ratio, steam to carbon ratio, temperature and pressure on the process equipments. From the steady state model optimization using Aspen HYSYS, an optimized reaction composition in terms of hydrogen production and carbon monoxide concentration corresponds to: oxygen to carbon ratio of 0.5 and steam to carbon ratio of 0.5. The fuel processor efficiency of 95.98% is obtained under these optimized conditions. The heat integration of the system using the composite curve, grand composite curve and utility composite curve were studied for the system. The most appropriate heat exchanger network from the generated ones was chosen and that was incorporated into the optimized flow sheet of the100 kW fuel processor. A completely heat integrated 100 kW fuel processor flow sheet using gasoline as fuel was thus successfully simulated and optimized

  5. Assembly Line Productivity Assessment by Comparing Optimization-Simulation Algorithms of Trajectory Planning for Industrial Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Rubio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an analysis of productivity will be carried out from the resolution of the problem of trajectory planning of industrial robots. The analysis entails economic considerations, thus overcoming some limitations of the existing literature. Two methodologies based on optimization-simulation procedures are compared to calculate the time needed to perform an industrial robot task. The simulation methodology relies on the use of robotics and automation software called GRASP. The optimization methodology developed in this work is based on the kinematics and the dynamics of industrial robots. It allows us to pose a multiobjective optimization problem to assess the trade-offs between the economic variables by means of the Pareto fronts. The comparison is carried out for different examples and from a multidisciplinary point of view, thus, to determine the impact of using each method. Results have shown the opportunity costs of non using the methodology with optimized time trajectories. Furthermore, it allows companies to stay competitive because of the quick adaptation to rapidly changing markets.

  6. Leaf chlorophyll constraint on model simulated gross primary productivity in agricultural systems

    KAUST Repository

    Houborg, Rasmus; McCabe, Matthew; Cescatti, Alessandro; Gitelson, Anatoly A.

    2015-01-01

    The benefit of using in-situ measured and satellite retrieved Chll for constraining model simulations of Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) is evaluated over fields in central Nebraska, U.S.A between 2001 and 2005. Landsat-based Chll time-series records derived from the Regularized Canopy Reflectance model (REGFLEC) are used as forcing to the CLM. Validation of simulated GPP against 15 site-years of flux tower observations demonstrate the utility of Chll as a model constraint, with the coefficient of efficiency increasing from 0.91 to 0.94 and from 0.87 to 0.91 for maize and soybean, respectively. Model performances particularly improve during the late reproductive and senescence stage, where the largest temporal variations in Chll (averaging 35–55 μg cm−2 for maize and 20–35 μg cm−2 for soybean) are observed. While prolonged periods of vegetation stress did not occur over the studied fields, given the usefulness of Chll as an indicator of plant health, enhanced GPP predictabilities should be expected in fields exposed to longer periods of moisture and nutrient stress. While the results support the use of Chll as an observational proxy for V max 25 , future work needs to be directed towards improving the Chll retrieval accuracy from space observations and developing consistent and physically realistic modeling schemes that can be parameterized with acceptable accuracy over spatial and temporal domains.

  7. Simulating forest productivity along a neotropical elevational transect: temperature variation and carbon use efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marthews, T.; Malhi, Y.; Girardin, C.; Silva-Espejo, J.; Aragão, L.; Metcalfe, D.; Rapp, J.; Mercado, L.; Fisher, R.; Galbraith, D.; Fisher, J.; Salinas-Revilla, N.; Friend, A.; Restrepo-Coupe, N.; Williams, R.

    2012-04-01

    A better understanding of the mechanisms controlling the magnitude and sign of carbon components in tropical forest ecosystems is important for reliable estimation of this important regional component of the global carbon cycle. We used the JULES vegetation model to simulate all components of the carbon balance at six sites along an Andes-Amazon transect across Peru and Brazil and compared the results to published field measurements. In the upper montane zone the model predicted a vegetation dieback, indicating a need for better parameterisation of cloud forest vegetation. In the lower montane and lowland zones simulated ecosystem productivity and respiration were predicted with reasonable accuracy, although not always within the error bounds of the observations. Model-predicted carbon use efficiency in this transect surprisingly did not increase with elevation, but remained close to the 'temperate' value 0.5. This may be explained by elevational changes in the balance between growth and maintenance respiration within the forest canopy, as controlled by both temperature- and pressure-mediated processes.

  8. Molecular dynamics simulations of ejecta production from sinusoidal tin surfaces under supported and unsupported shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bao; Wu, FengChao; Zhu, YinBo; Wang, Pei; He, AnMin; Wu, HengAn

    2018-04-01

    Micro-ejecta, an instability growth process, occurs at metal/vacuum or metal/gas interface when compressed shock wave releases from the free surface that contains surface defects. We present molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to investigate the ejecta production from tin surface shocked by supported and unsupported waves with pressures ranging from 8.5 to 60.8 GPa. It is found that the loading waveforms have little effect on spike velocity while remarkably affect the bubble velocity. The bubble velocity of unsupported shock loading remains nonzero constant value at late time as observed in experiments. Besides, the time evolution of ejected mass in the simulations is compared with the recently developed ejecta source model, indicating the suppressed ejection of unmelted or partial melted materials. Moreover, different reference positions are chosen to characterize the amount of ejecta under different loading waveforms. Compared with supported shock case, the ejected mass of unsupported shock case saturates at lower pressure. Through the analysis on unloading path, we find that the temperature of tin sample increases quickly from tensile stress state to zero pressure state, resulting in the melting of bulk tin under decaying shock. Thus, the unsupported wave loading exhibits a lower threshold pressure causing the solid-liquid phase transition on shock release than the supported shock loading.

  9. Molecular dynamics simulations of ejecta production from sinusoidal tin surfaces under supported and unsupported shocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao Wu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Micro-ejecta, an instability growth process, occurs at metal/vacuum or metal/gas interface when compressed shock wave releases from the free surface that contains surface defects. We present molecular dynamics (MD simulations to investigate the ejecta production from tin surface shocked by supported and unsupported waves with pressures ranging from 8.5 to 60.8 GPa. It is found that the loading waveforms have little effect on spike velocity while remarkably affect the bubble velocity. The bubble velocity of unsupported shock loading remains nonzero constant value at late time as observed in experiments. Besides, the time evolution of ejected mass in the simulations is compared with the recently developed ejecta source model, indicating the suppressed ejection of unmelted or partial melted materials. Moreover, different reference positions are chosen to characterize the amount of ejecta under different loading waveforms. Compared with supported shock case, the ejected mass of unsupported shock case saturates at lower pressure. Through the analysis on unloading path, we find that the temperature of tin sample increases quickly from tensile stress state to zero pressure state, resulting in the melting of bulk tin under decaying shock. Thus, the unsupported wave loading exhibits a lower threshold pressure causing the solid-liquid phase transition on shock release than the supported shock loading.

  10. Development of a nuclear spallation simulation code and calculations of primary spallation products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishida, Takahiko; Nakahara, Yasuaki; Tsutsui, Tsuneo

    1986-08-01

    In order to make evaluations of computational models for the nuclear spallation reaction from a nuclear physics point of view, a simulation code NUCLEUS has been developed by modifying and combining the Monte Carlo codes NMTC/JAERI and NMTA/JAERI for calculating only the nuclear spallation reaction (intranuclear cascade + evaporation and/or fast fission) between a nucleus and a projectile without taking into consideration of internuclear transport. New several plotting routines have been provided for the rapid process of much more event data, obtained by using the ARGUS plotting system. The results obtained by our code can be directly compared with the experimental results using by thin foil experiments in which internuclear multiple collisions have little effects, and will serve to upgrade the calculational methods and the values of nuclear parameters currently used in the calculations. Some discussions are done about the preliminary computational results obtained by using NUCLEUS. The mass distribution and charge dispersion of reaction products are examined in some detail for the nuclear spallation reaction between incident protons and target nuclei, such as U, Pb and Ag, in the energy range from 0.5 GeV to 3.0 GeV. These results show that the distribution of reaction products ceases to change its form as the proton energy increases over about 2 GeV. The same tendency is seen in the energy dependence of the number of primary particles emitted from a nucleus. After spallation reactions, a variety of nuclei, especially many neutron deficient nuclides with nuclear charges nearly equal to ones of a target nucleus, are produced. Due to their short lifetime most of them will change to stable nuclides in due time. Finally, some important issues are discussed to improve the present simulation method. (author)

  11. Using climate model simulations to assess the current climate risk to maize production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Chris; Pope, Edward; Thompson, Vikki; Lewis, Kirsty; Scaife, Adam A.; Dunstone, Nick

    2017-05-01

    The relationship between the climate and agricultural production is of considerable importance to global food security. However, there has been relatively little exploration of climate-variability related yield shocks. The short observational yield record does not adequately sample natural inter-annual variability thereby limiting the accuracy of probability assessments. Focusing on the United States and China, we present an innovative use of initialised ensemble climate simulations and a new agro-climatic indicator, to calculate the risk of severe water stress. Combined, these regions provide 60% of the world’s maize, and therefore, are crucial to global food security. To probe a greater range of inter-annual variability, the indicator is applied to 1400 simulations of the present day climate. The probability of severe water stress in the major maize producing regions is quantified, and in many regions an increased risk is found compared to calculations from observed historical data. Analysis suggests that the present day climate is also capable of producing unprecedented severe water stress conditions. Therefore, adaptation plans and policies based solely on observed events from the recent past may considerably under-estimate the true risk of climate-related maize shocks. The probability of a major impact event occurring simultaneously across both regions—a multi-breadbasket failure—is estimated to be up to 6% per decade and arises from a physically plausible climate state. This novel approach highlights the significance of climate impacts on crop production shocks and provides a platform for considerably improving food security assessments, in the present day or under a changing climate, as well as development of new risk based climate services.

  12. Development of an Advanced Stimulation / Production Predictive Simulator for Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pritchett, John W. [Leidos, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)

    2015-04-15

    There are several well-known obstacles to the successful deployment of EGS projects on a commercial scale, of course. EGS projects are expected to be deeper, on the average, than conventional “natural” geothermal reservoirs, and drilling costs are already a formidable barrier to conventional geothermal projects. Unlike conventional resources (which frequently announce their presence with natural manifestations such as geysers, hot springs and fumaroles), EGS prospects are likely to appear fairly undistinguished from the earth surface. And, of course, the probable necessity of fabricating a subterranean fluid circulation network to mine the heat from the rock (instead of simply relying on natural, pre-existing permeable fractures) adds a significant degree of uncertainty to the prospects for success. Accordingly, the basic motivation for the work presented herein was to try to develop a new set of tools that would be more suitable for this purpose. Several years ago, the Department of Energy’s Geothermal Technologies Office recognized this need and funded a cost-shared grant to our company (then SAIC, now Leidos) to partner with Geowatt AG of Zurich, Switzerland and undertake the development of a new reservoir simulator that would be more suitable for EGS forecasting than the existing tools. That project has now been completed and a new numerical geothermal reservoir simulator has been developed. It is named “HeatEx” (for “Heat Extraction”) and is almost completely new, although its methodology owes a great deal to other previous geothermal software development efforts, including Geowatt’s “HEX-S” code, the STAR and SPFRAC simulators developed here at SAIC/Leidos, the MINC approach originally developed at LBNL, and tracer analysis software originally formulated at INEL. Furthermore, the development effort was led by engineers with many years of experience in using reservoir simulation software to make meaningful forecasts for real geothermal

  13. Comparative enzyme inhibitive methanol production by Methylosinus sporium from simulated biogas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Yeon-Sun; Han, Ji-Sun; Ahn, Chang-Min; Kim, Chang-Gyun

    2015-01-01

    Methane in a simulated biogas converting to methanol under aerobic condition was comparatively assessed by inhibiting the activity of methanol dehydrogenase (MDH) of Methylosinus sporium using phosphate, NaCl, NH4Cl or EDTA in their varying concentrations. The highest amount of methane was indistinguishably diverted at the typical conditions regardless of the types of inhibitors: 35°C and pH 7 under a 0.4% (v/v) of biogas, specifically for methanol was obtained for the addition of 40 mM phosphate, 100 mM NaCl, 40 mM NH4Cl or 50 µM EDTA. In other words, 0.71, 0.60, 0.66 and 0.66 mmol methanol was correspondingly generated by the oxidation of 1.3, 0.67, 0.74 and 1.3 mmol methane. It gave a methanol conversion rate of 54.7%, 89.9%, 89.6% and 47.8%, respectively. Among them, the maximum rate of methanol production was observed at 6.25 µmol/mg h for 100 mM NaCl. Regardless of types or concentrations of inhibitors differently used, methanol production could be nonetheless identically maximized when the MDH activity was limitedly hampered by up to 35%.

  14. Time and temperature dependence of cascade induced defect production in in situ experiments and computer simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishino, Shiori

    1993-01-01

    Understanding of the defect production and annihilation processes in a cascade is important in modelling of radiation damage for establishing irradiation correlation. In situ observation of heavy ion radiation damage has a great prospect in this respect. Time and temperature dependence of formation and annihilation of vacancy clusters in a cascade with a time resolution of 30 ms has been studied with a facility which comprises a heavy ion accelerator and an electron microscope. Formation and annihilation rates of defect clusters have been separately measured by this technique. The observed processes have been analysed by simple kinetic equations, taking into account the sink effect of surface and the defect clusters themselves together with the annihilation process due to thermal emission of vacancies from the defect clusters. Another tool to study time and temperature dependence of defect production in a cascade is computer simulation. Recent results of molecular dynamics calculations on the temperature dependence of cascade evolution are presented, including directional and temperature dependence of the lengths of replacement collision sequences, temperature dependence of the process to reach thermal equilibrium and so on. These results are discussed under general time frame of radiation damage evolution covering from 10 -15 to 10 9 s, and several important issues for the general understanding have been identified. (orig.)

  15. 600 MeV Simulation of the Production of Cosmogenic Nuclides in Meteorites by Galactic Protons

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    A large variety of stable and radioactive nuclides is produced by the interaction of solar and galactic cosmic rays with extraterrestrial matter. Measurements of such cosmogenic nuclides provide information about the constancy of cosmic ray fluxes in space and time and about the irradiation history of individual extraterrestrial objects provided that there exist reliable models describing the production process. For the calculation of the depth dependent production of cosmogenic nuclides in meteorites no satisfactory Therefore, the irradiation of small stony meteorites (radii~$<$~40~cm) by galactic protons is simulated in a series of thick target irradiation experiments at the 600~MeV proton beam of the SC. \\\\ \\\\ The thick targets are spheres (R = 5, 15, 25 cm) and are made out of diorite because of its low water content, its high density (3.0~g/cm|3) and because it provides a good approximation of the chemical composition of some common meteorite clas These spheres will also contain a wide variety of pure...

  16. Simulation of high-energy particle production through sausage and kink instabilities in pinched plasma discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haruki, Takayuki; Yousefi, Hamid Reza; Masugata, Katsumi; Sakai, Jun-Ichi; Mizuguchi, Yusuke; Makino, Nao; Ito, Hiroaki

    2006-01-01

    In an experimental plasma, high-energy particles were observed by using a plasma focus device, to obtain energies of a few hundred keV for electrons, up to MeV for ions. In order to study the mechanism of high-energy particle production in pinched plasma discharges, a numerical simulation was introduced. By use of a three-dimensional relativistic and fully electromagnetic particle-in-cell code, the dynamics of a Z-pinch plasma, thought to be unstable against sausage and kink instabilities, are investigated. In this work, the development of sausage and kink instabilities and subsequent high-energy particle production are shown. In the model used here, cylindrically distributed electrons and ions are driven by an external electric field. The driven particles spontaneously produce a current, which begins to pinch by the Lorentz force. Initially the pinched current is unstable against a sausage instability, and then becomes unstable against a kink instability. As a result high-energy particles are observed

  17. The Comparison of Layout Arrangements for the Material Flow Ordering Planning in Production Systems through Simulation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet AKSARAYLI

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Enterprises have to make suitable location planning to decrease their product cost and to increase their productivity in our time. The aim of this study is to compare the basic layout types used in arranging inside facility layout with each other by using simulation. Especially in this study, material handling times between machines and ratio of these times in total times were interested. First of all a new production system is designed to the basic layout types used in arranging inside facility layout. And then in the designed production system, machines are arranged for each machine layout types. Machine layout types are transferred to PROMODEL simulation software. Then with the results of analysis, material handling times of different machine layout types and ratio of material handling times in total production time were compared and the results obtained from this analysis were given after commented on this study.

  18. Modeling and simulation of enzymatic gluconic acid production using immobilized enzyme and CSTR-PFTR circulation reaction system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Can; Lin, Jianqun; Gao, Ling; Lin, Huibin; Lin, Jianqiang

    2018-04-01

    Production of gluconic acid by using immobilized enzyme and continuous stirred tank reactor-plug flow tubular reactor (CSTR-PFTR) circulation reaction system. A production system is constructed for gluconic acid production, which consists of a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) for pH control and liquid storage and a plug flow tubular reactor (PFTR) filled with immobilized glucose oxidase (GOD) for gluconic acid production. Mathematical model is developed for this production system and simulation is made for the enzymatic reaction process. The pH inhibition effect on GOD is modeled by using a bell-type curve. Gluconic acid can be efficiently produced by using the reaction system and the mathematical model developed for this system can simulate and predict the process well.

  19. Hydrogen Production From Water By Thermo-Chemical Methods (UT-3): Evaluation of Side Reactions By Simulation Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusli, A.

    1997-01-01

    Hydogen fuel with its advantages will be able to replace all the positions of fossil fuels post o il and gas or migas . Among the advantages of hydrogen fuel are pollution free, abundant of raw material in the form of water molecule, flexible in application, able to stroge and transport as well as fossil energy sources (oil and gas). Hydogen could be produced from water by means of thermochemical, thermolysis, photolysis and electrolysis. Nuclear heat (HTGR), solar heat or waste heat from steel industry can be used as energy source for these processes. In case of thermochemical method, some problems realated to production process should be studied and evaluated. Simulation is considered can be applied to study the effects of side reactions and also to resolve its problems in hydrogen production process. In this paper is reported the evalution results of hydrogen production process by thermochemical (UT-3) through both of the experimental and computer simulation. It has been proposed a new flow chart of hydrogen production to achieve the hydrogen production continuously. A simulator has been developed based on experimental data and related mathematical equations. This simulator can be used to scle-up the UT-3 thermochemical cycle for hydrogen production process

  20. The Reasonableness Test of the Principal Purpose Test Rule in OECD BEPS Action 6 (Tax Treaty Abuse) versus the EU Principle of Legal Certainty and the EU Abuse of Law Case Law

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Dennis

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe OECD BEPS Action 6 report contains a principal pur- pose test rule (PPT rule) for the purpose of combating abuse of tax treaties. This PPT rule is also included in the OECD Multilateral Instrument. The PPT rule is (amongst others) applicable when ‘it is rea- sonable to conclude’ that a benefit (granted by a tax treaty) was one of the principal purposes of any arrangement/ transaction. This requirement contains two elements: the reasonableness test and the principal purpose tes...

  1. LA HACIENDA PÚBLICA EN BUSCA DE LA TRANSPARENCIA DOCUMENTAL SOBRE PRECIOS DE TRANSFERENCIA A LA LUZ DE LA ACCIÓN 13 DEL PROYECTO BEPS ANÁLISIS COMPARATIVO ESPAÑA-COLOMBIA

    OpenAIRE

    MUNEVAR-BECERRA, CLARA INES

    2015-01-01

    Este documento pretende analizar las orientaciones que la OCDE promueve a través de la acción 13 del proyecto BEPS (Plan de acción contra la erosión de la base imponible y el traslado de beneficios), que propone reexaminar la documentación sobre precios de transferencia, con el fin de unificar y detallar la documentación necesaria, razonable y útil a las autoridades hacendarias fomentando la cultura del cumplimiento en los contribuyentes. Para realizar este análisis se elabora una exploración...

  2. Sensitivity analysis for CORSOR models simulating fission product release in LOFT-LP-FP-2 severe accident experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoseyni, Seyed Mohsen [Islamic Azad Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Basic Sciences; Islamic Azad Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Young Researchers and Elite Club; Pourgol-Mohammad, Mohammad [Sahand Univ. of Technology, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Yousefpour, Faramarz [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    This paper deals with simulation, sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of LP-FP-2 experiment of LOFT test facility. The test facility simulates the major components and system response of a pressurized water reactor during a LOCA. MELCOR code is used for predicting the fission product release from the core fuel elements in LOFT LP-FP-2 experiment. Moreover, sensitivity and uncertainty analysis is performed for different CORSOR models simulating release of fission products in severe accident calculations for nuclear power plants. The calculated values for the fission product release are compared under different modeling options to the experimental data available from the experiment. In conclusion, the performance of 8 CORSOR modeling options is assessed for available modeling alternatives in the code structure.

  3. Monitoring of the data processing and simulated production at CMS with a web-based service the Production Monitoring Platform (pMp)

    CERN Document Server

    Norkus, Antanas; Pol, A A; Srimanobhas, N; Walker, J

    2017-01-01

    Physics analysis at the Compact Muon Solenoid requires both the production of simulated events and processing of the data collected by the experiment. Since the end of the LHC Run-I in 2012, CMS has produced over 20 billion simulated events, from 75 thousand processing requests organised in one hundred different campaigns. These campaigns emulate different configurations of collision events, the detector, and LHC running conditions. In the same time span, sixteen data processing campaigns have taken place to reconstruct different portions of the Run-I and Run-II data with ever improving algorithms and calibrations. The scale and complexity of the events simulation and processing, and the requirement that multiple campaigns must proceed in parallel, demand that a comprehensive, frequently updated and easily accessible monitoring be made available. The monitoring must serve both the analysts, who want to know which and when datasets will become available, and the central production teams in charge of submitting...

  4. Modeling canopy-level productivity: is the "big-leaf" simplification acceptable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprintsin, M.; Chen, J. M.

    2009-05-01

    The "big-leaf" approach to calculating the carbon balance of plant canopies assumes that canopy carbon fluxes have the same relative responses to the environment as any single unshaded leaf in the upper canopy. Widely used light use efficiency models are essentially simplified versions of the big-leaf model. Despite its wide acceptance, subsequent developments in the modeling of leaf photosynthesis and measurements of canopy physiology have brought into question the assumptions behind this approach showing that big leaf approximation is inadequate for simulating canopy photosynthesis because of the additional leaf internal control on carbon assimilation and because of the non-linear response of photosynthesis on leaf nitrogen and absorbed light, and changes in leaf microenvironment with canopy depth. To avoid this problem a sunlit/shaded leaf separation approach, within which the vegetation is treated as two big leaves under different illumination conditions, is gradually replacing the "big-leaf" strategy, for applications at local and regional scales. Such separation is now widely accepted as a more accurate and physiologically based approach for modeling canopy photosynthesis. Here we compare both strategies for Gross Primary Production (GPP) modeling using the Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS) at local (tower footprint) scale for different land cover types spread over North America: two broadleaf forests (Harvard, Massachusetts and Missouri Ozark, Missouri); two coniferous forests (Howland, Maine and Old Black Spruce, Saskatchewan); Lost Creek shrubland site (Wisconsin) and Mer Bleue petland (Ontario). BEPS calculates carbon fixation by scaling Farquhar's leaf biochemical model up to canopy level with stomatal conductance estimated by a modified version of the Ball-Woodrow-Berry model. The "big-leaf" approach was parameterized using derived leaf level parameters scaled up to canopy level by means of Leaf Area Index. The influence of sunlit

  5. Effective dose evaluation of NORM-added consumer products using Monte Carlo simulations and the ICRP computational human phantoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Cheol; Yoo, Do Hyeon; Testa, Mauro; Shin, Wook-Geun; Choi, Hyun Joon; Ha, Wi-Ho; Yoo, Jaeryong; Yoon, Seokwon; Min, Chul Hee

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential hazard of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) added consumer products. Using the Monte Carlo method, the radioactive products were simulated with ICRP reference phantom and the organ doses were calculated with the usage scenario. Finally, the annual effective doses were evaluated as lower than the public dose limit of 1mSv y(-1) for 44 products. It was demonstrated that NORM-added consumer products could be quantitatively assessed for the safety regulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Product Costing in FMT: Comparing Deterministic and Stochastic Models Using Computer-Based Simulation for an Actual Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steen

    2000-01-01

    This paper expands the traditional product costing technique be including a stochastic form in a complex production process for product costing. The stochastic phenomenon in flesbile manufacturing technologies is seen as an important phenomenon that companies try to decreas og eliminate. DFM has...... been used for evaluating the appropriateness of the firm's production capability. In this paper a simulation model is developed to analyze the relevant cost behaviour with respect to DFM and to develop a more streamlined process in the layout of the manufacturing process....

  7. Stochastic model simulation using Kronecker product analysis and Zassenhaus formula approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caglar, Mehmet Umut; Pal, Ranadip

    2013-01-01

    Probabilistic Models are regularly applied in Genetic Regulatory Network modeling to capture the stochastic behavior observed in the generation of biological entities such as mRNA or proteins. Several approaches including Stochastic Master Equations and Probabilistic Boolean Networks have been proposed to model the stochastic behavior in genetic regulatory networks. It is generally accepted that Stochastic Master Equation is a fundamental model that can describe the system being investigated in fine detail, but the application of this model is computationally enormously expensive. On the other hand, Probabilistic Boolean Network captures only the coarse-scale stochastic properties of the system without modeling the detailed interactions. We propose a new approximation of the stochastic master equation model that is able to capture the finer details of the modeled system including bistabilities and oscillatory behavior, and yet has a significantly lower computational complexity. In this new method, we represent the system using tensors and derive an identity to exploit the sparse connectivity of regulatory targets for complexity reduction. The algorithm involves an approximation based on Zassenhaus formula to represent the exponential of a sum of matrices as product of matrices. We derive upper bounds on the expected error of the proposed model distribution as compared to the stochastic master equation model distribution. Simulation results of the application of the model to four different biological benchmark systems illustrate performance comparable to detailed stochastic master equation models but with considerably lower computational complexity. The results also demonstrate the reduced complexity of the new approach as compared to commonly used Stochastic Simulation Algorithm for equivalent accuracy.

  8. Mesopelagic Prokaryotes Alter Surface Phytoplankton Production during Simulated Deep Mixing Experiments in Eastern Mediterranean Sea Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Or Hazan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesopelagic prokaryotes (archaea and bacteria, which are transported together with nutrient-rich intermediate-water to the surface layer by deep convection in the oceans (e.g., winter mixing, upwelling systems, can interact with surface microbial populations. This interaction can potentially affect production rates and biomass of surface microbial populations, and thus play an important role in the marine carbon cycle and oceanic carbon sequestration. The Eastern Mediterranean Sea (EMS is one of the most oligotrophic and warm systems in the world's oceans, with usually very shallow winter mixing (<200 m and lack of large-size spring algal blooms. In this study, we collected seawater (0–1,500 m in 9 different cruises at the open EMS during both the stratified and the mixed seasons. We show that the EMS is a highly oligotrophic regime, resulting in low autotrophic biomass and primary productivity and relatively high heterotrophic prokaryotic biomass and production. Further, we simulated deep water mixing in on-board microcosms using Levantine surface (LSW, ~0.5 m and intermediate (LIW, ~400 m waters at a 9:1 ratio, respectively and examined the responses of the microbial populations to such a scenario. We hypothesized that the LIW, being nutrient-rich (e.g., N, P and a “hot-spot” for microbial activity (due to the warm conditions that prevail in these depths, may supply the LSW with not only key-limiting nutrients but also with viable and active heterotrophic prokaryotes that can interact with the ambient surface microbial population. Indeed, we show that LIW heterotrophic prokaryotes negatively affected the surface phytoplankton populations, resulting in lower chlorophyll-a levels and primary production rates. This may be due to out-competition of phytoplankton by LIW populations for resources and/or by a phytoplankton cell lysis via viral infection. Our results suggest that phytoplankton in the EMS may not likely form blooms, even after

  9. Validation of accuracy and stability of numerical simulation for 2-D heat transfer system by an entropy production approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brohi Ali Anwar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The entropy production in 2-D heat transfer system has been analyzed systematically by using the finite volume method, to develop new criteria for the numerical simulation in case of multidimensional systems, with the aid of the CFD codes. The steady-state heat conduction problem has been investigated for entropy production, and the entropy production profile has been calculated based upon the current approach. From results for 2-D heat conduction, it can be found that the stability of entropy production profile exhibits a better agreement with the exact solution accordingly, and the current approach is effective for measuring the accuracy and stability of numerical simulations for heat transfer problems.

  10. Impact of the Gulf of California SST on simulating precipitation and crop productivity in the Southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S.; Kim, J.; Prasad, A. K.; Stack, D. H.; El-Askary, H. M.; Kafatos, M.

    2012-12-01

    Like other ecosystems, agricultural productivity is substantially affected by climate factors. Therefore, accurate climatic data (i.e. precipitation, temperature, and radiation) is crucial to simulating crop yields. In order to understand and anticipate climate change and its impacts on agricultural productivity in the Southwestern United States, the WRF regional climate model (RCM) and the Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM) were employed for simulating crop production. 19 years of WRF RCM output show that there is a strong dry bias during the warm season, especially in Arizona. Consequently, the APSIM crop model indicates very low crop yields in this region. We suspect that the coarse resolution of reanalysis data could not resolve the relatively warm Sea Surface Temperature (SST) in the Gulf of California (GC), causing the SST to be up to 10 degrees lower than the climatology. In the Southwestern United States, a significant amount of precipitation is associated with North American Monsoon (NAM). During the monsoon season, the low-level moisture is advected to the Southwestern United States via the GC, which is known to be the dominant moisture source. Thus, high-resolution SST data in the GC is required for RCM simulations to accurately represent a reasonable amount of precipitation in the region, allowing reliable evaluation of the impacts on regional ecosystems.and evaluate impacts on regional ecosystems. To evaluate the influence of SST on agriculture in the Southwestern U.S., two sets of numerical simulations were constructed: a control, using unresolved SST of GC, and daily updated SST data from the MODIS satellite sensor. The meteorological drivers from each of the 6 year RCM runs were provided as input to the APSIM model to determine the crop yield. Analyses of the simulated crop production, and the interannual variation of the meteorological drivers, demonstrate the influence of SST on crop yields in the Southwestern United States.

  11. Pilot-scale grout production test with a simulated low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fow, C.L.; Mitchell, D.H.; Treat, R.L.; Hymas, C.R.

    1987-05-01

    Plans are underway at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington, to convert the low-level fraction of radioactive liquid wastes to a grout form for permanent disposal. Grout is a mixture of liquid waste and grout formers, including portland cement, fly ash, and clays. In the plan, the grout slurry is pumped to subsurface concrete vaults on the Hanford Site, where the grout will solidify into large monoliths, thereby immobilizing the waste. A similar disposal concept is being planned at the Savannah River Laboratory site. The underground disposal of grout was conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory between 1966 and 1984. Design and construction of grout processing and disposal facilities are underway. The Transportable Grout Facility (TGF), operated by Rockwell Hanford Operations (Rockwell) for the Department of Energy (DOE), is scheduled to grout Phosphate/Sulfate N Reactor Operations Waste (PSW) in FY 1988. Phosphate/Sulfate Waste is a blend of two low-level waste streams generated at Hanford's N Reactor. Other wastes are scheduled to be grouted in subsequent years. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is verifying that Hanford grouts can be safely and efficiently processed. To meet this objective, pilot-scale grout process equipment was installed. On July 29 and 30, 1986, PNL conducted a pilot-scale grout production test for Rockwell. During the test, 16,000 gallons of simulated nonradioactive PSW were mixed with grout formers to produce 22,000 gallons of PSW grout. The grout was pumped at a nominal rate of 15 gpm (about 25% of the nominal production rate planned for the TGF) to a lined and covered trench with a capacity of 30,000 gallons. Emplacement of grout in the trench will permit subsequent evaluation of homogeneity of grout in a large monolith. 12 refs., 34 figs., 5 tabs

  12. Methane production from food waste leachate in laboratory-scale simulated landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, Shishir Kumar; Park, Jun Mo; Kim, Kyeong Ho; Park, Hung-Suck

    2010-01-01

    Due to the prohibition of food waste landfilling in Korea from 2005 and the subsequent ban on the marine disposal of organic sludge, including leachate generated from food waste recycling facilities from 2012, it is urgent to develop an innovative and sustainable disposal strategy that is eco-friendly, yet economically beneficial. In this study, methane production from food waste leachate (FWL) in landfill sites with landfill gas recovery facilities was evaluated in simulated landfill reactors (lysimeters) for a period of 90 d with four different inoculum-substrate ratios (ISRs) on volatile solid (VS) basis. Simultaneous biochemical methane potential batch experiments were also conducted at the same ISRs for 30 d to compare CH(4) yield obtained from lysimeter studies. Under the experimental conditions, a maximum CH(4) yield of 0.272 and 0.294 L/g VS was obtained in the batch and lysimeter studies, respectively, at ISR of 1:1. The biodegradability of FWL in batch and lysimeter experiments at ISR of 1:1 was 64% and 69%, respectively. The calculated data using the modified Gompertz equation for the cumulative CH(4) production showed good agreement with the experimental result obtained from lysimeter study. Based on the results obtained from this study, field-scale pilot test is required to re-evaluate the existing sanitary landfills with efficient leachate collection and gas recovery facilities as engineered bioreactors to treat non-hazardous liquid organic wastes for energy recovery with optimum utilization of facilities. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Development of experimental method to simulate the corrosion products in the primary system of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang Hyun; Kim, In Sup; Jang, Chang Heui

    2005-01-01

    Corrosion products are recognized as one of the major sources of occupational radiation exposure for nuclear power plant workers. Numerous studies have been conducted on the primary water chemistry to reduce the amount of crud in the primary circuit to avoid the radioactivity build-up in the plant. However, experiments with crud are restricted in laboratory because the crud is highly radioactive material. The objective of this study is to develop the simulating method of corrosion product in nuclear power plant

  14. A simulation framework for the evaluation of production planning and order management strategies in the sawmilling industry

    OpenAIRE

    Dumetz , Ludwig; Gaudreault , Jonathan; Thomas , André; Marier , Philippe; Lehoux , Nadia; Bril El-Haouzi , Hind

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Raw material heterogeneity, complex transformation processes, and divergent product flowsmake sawmilling operationsdifficult to manage. Most north-American lumber sawmillsapply a make-to-stock production strategy, some accepting/refusing orders according to available-to-promise (ATP) quantities, while a few uses more advanced approaches. This article introduces a simulation framework allowing comparing and evaluatingdifferentproduction planning strategies as well as or...

  15. Simulation Optimization by Genetic Search: A Comprehensive Study with Applications to Production Management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yunker, James

    2003-01-01

    In this report, a relatively new simulation optimization technique, the genetic search, is compared to two more established simulation techniques-the pattern search and the response surface methodology search...

  16. BEEC: An event generator for simulating the Bc meson production at an e+e- collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhi; Wu, Xing-Gang; Wang, Xian-You

    2013-12-01

    The Bc meson is a doubly heavy quark-antiquark bound state and carries flavors explicitly, which provides a fruitful laboratory for testing potential models and understanding the weak decay mechanisms for heavy flavors. In view of the prospects in Bc physics at the hadronic colliders such as Tevatron and LHC, Bc physics is attracting more and more attention. It has been shown that a high luminosity e+e- collider running around the Z0-peak is also helpful for studying the properties of Bc meson and has its own advantages. For this purpose, we write down an event generator for simulating Bc meson production through e+e- annihilation according to relevant publications. We name it BEEC, in which the color-singlet S-wave and P-wave (cb¯)-quarkonium states together with the color-octet S-wave (cb¯)-quarkonium states can be generated. BEEC can also be adopted to generate the similar charmonium and bottomonium states via the semi-exclusive channels e++e-→|(QQ¯)[n]>+Q+Q¯ with Q=b and c respectively. To increase the simulation efficiency, we simplify the amplitude as compact as possible by using the improved trace technology. BEEC is a Fortran program written in a PYTHIA-compatible format and is written in a modular structure, one may apply it to various situations or experimental environments conveniently by using the GNU C compiler make. A method to improve the efficiency of generating unweighted events within PYTHIA environment is proposed. Moreover, BEEC will generate a standard Les Houches Event data file that contains useful information of the meson and its accompanying partons, which can be conveniently imported into PYTHIA to do further hadronization and decay simulation. Catalogue identifier: AEQC_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEQC_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in

  17. Caseinophosphopeptides released after tryptic hydrolysis versus simulated gastrointestinal digestion of a casein-derived by-product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Huerta, E; García-Nebot, M J; Miralles, B; Recio, I; Amigo, L

    2015-02-01

    The production of caseinophosphopeptides from a casein-derived by-product generated during the manufacture of a functional ingredient based on antihypertensive peptides was attempted. The casein by-product was submitted to tryptic hydrolysis for 30, 60 and 120min and further precipitated with calcium chloride and ethanol at pH 4.0, 6.0 and 8.0. Identification and semi quantification of the derived products by tandem mass spectrometry revealed some qualitative and quantitative changes in the released caseinophosphopeptides over time at the different precipitation pHs. The by-product was also subjected to simulated gastrointestinal digestion. Comparison of the resulting peptides showed large sequence homology in the phosphopeptides released by tryptic hydrolysis and simulated gastrointestinal digestion. Some regions, specifically αS1-CN 43-59, αS1-CN 60-74, β-CN 1-25 and β-CN 30-50 showed resistance to both tryptic hydrolysis and simulated digestion. The results of the present study suggest that this casein-derived by-product can be used as a source of CPPs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Estimates of point defect production in α-quartz using molecular dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowen, Benjamin J.; El-Genk, Mohamed S.

    2017-07-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed to investigate the production of point defects in α-quartz by oxygen and silicon primary knock-on atoms (PKAs) of 0.25-2 keV. The Wigner-Seitz (WS) defect analysis is used to identify the produced vacancies, interstitials, and antisites, and the coordination defect analysis is used to identify the under and over-coordinated oxygen and silicon atoms. The defects at the end of the ballistic phase and the residual defects, after annealing, increase with increased PKA energy, and are statistically the same for the oxygen and silicon PKAs. The WS defect analysis results show that the numbers of the oxygen vacancies and interstitials (VO, Oi) at the end of the ballistic phase is the highest, followed closely by those of the silicon vacancies and interstitials (VSi, Sii). The number of the residual oxygen and silicon vacancies and interstitials are statistically the same. In addition, the under-coordinated OI and SiIII, which are the primary defects during the ballistic phase, have high annealing efficiencies (>89%). The over-coordinated defects of OIII and SiV, which are not nearly as abundant in the ballistic phase, have much lower annealing efficiencies (PKA energy.

  19. MATHEMATICAL SIMULATION AND AUTOMATION OF PROCESS ENGINEERING FOR WELDED STRUCTURE PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Zankovets

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Models and methods for presentation of database and knowledge base have been developed on the basis of composition and structure of data flow in technological process of welding. The information in data and knowledge base is presented in the form of multilevel hierarchical structure and it is organized according to its functionality in the form of separate files. Each file contains a great number of tables. While using mathematical simulation and information technologies an expert system has been developed with the purpose to take decisions in designing and process engineering for production of welded ructures. The system makes it possible to carry out technically substantiated selection of welded and welding materials, sttypes of welded connections, welding methods, parameters and modes of welding. The developed system allows to improve quality of the accepted design decisions due to reduction of manual labour costs for work with normative-reference documentation, analysis and evaluation of dozens of possible alternatives. The system also permits to reduce labour inputs for testing structures on technological effectiveness, to ensure reduction of materials consumption for welded structures, to guarantee faultless formation of welded connections at this stage.

  20. Defect production in simulated cascades: cascade quenching and short-term annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinisch, H.L.

    1982-01-01

    Defect production in high energy displacement cascades has been modeled using the computer code MARLOWE to generate the cascades and the stochastic computer code ALSOME to simulate the cascade quenching and short-term annealing of isolated cascades. The quenching is accomplished by using ALSOME with exaggerated values for defect mobilities and critical reaction distanes for recombination and clustering, which are in effect until the number of defect pairs is equal to the value determined from resistivity experiments at 4K. Then normal mobilities and reaction distances are used during short-term annealing to a point representative of Stage III recovery. Effects of cascade interactions at low fluences are also being investigated. The quenching parameter values were empirically determined for 30 keV cascades. The results agree well with experimental information throughout the range from 1 keV to 100 keV. Even after quenching and short-term annealing the high energy cascades behave as a collection of lower energy subcascades and lobes. Cascades generated in a crystal having thermal displacements were found to be in better agreement with experiments after quenching and annealing than those generated in a non-thermal crystal

  1. TAUOLA for simulation of tau decay and production: perspectives for precision low energy and LHC applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Was, Z.

    2011-01-01

    The status of Monte Carlo system for the simulation of τ-lepton production and decay in high-energy accelerator experiments is reviewed. Since the previous τ-lepton conference in 2008 some practical modifications have been introduced: (i) For the TAUOLA Monte Carlo generator of τ-lepton decays, automated and simultaneous use of many versions of form-factors for the calculation of optional weights for fits was developed and checked to work in the Belle and BaBar software environment. Work on alternative parametrizations of hadronic decays is advanced. (ii) the TAUOLA universal interface based on HepMC (the C++ event record) is now public. A similar interface for PHOTOS is now also public. (iii) Extension of the PHOTOS Monte Carlo for QED bremsstrahlung in decays featuring kernels based on complete first order matrix element are gradually becoming widely available thanks to properties of the new, HepMC based interface. (iv) Systematic tests of the programs with the help of MC-TESTER are now available for FORTRAN and C++ users. The results presented here illustrate the status of the projects performed in collaboration with Nadia Davidson, Piotr Golonka, Gizo Nanava, Tomasz Przedzinski, Olga Shekhovtsova, Elzbieta Richter-Was, Pablo Roig, Qingjun Xu and others.

  2. Atomistic simulation of damage production by atomic and molecular ion irradiation in GaN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullah, M. W.; Kuronen, A.; Nordlund, K.; Djurabekova, F.; Karaseov, P. A.; Titov, A. I.

    2012-01-01

    We have studied defect production during single atomic and molecular ion irradiation having an energy of 50 eV/amu in GaN by molecular dynamics simulations. Enhanced defect recombination is found in GaN, in accordance with experimental data. Instantaneous damage shows non-linearity with different molecular projectile and increasing molecular mass. Number of instantaneous defects produced by the PF 4 molecule close to target surface is four times higher than that for PF 2 molecule and three times higher than that calculated as a sum of the damage produced by one P and four F ion irradiation (P+4×F). We explain this non-linearity by energy spike due to molecular effects. On the contrary, final damage created by PF 4 and PF 2 shows a linear pattern when the sample cools down. Total numbers of defects produced by Ag and PF 4 having similar atomic masses are comparable. However, defect-depth distributions produced by these species are quite different, also indicating molecular effect.

  3. Pilot-scale production of grout with simulated double-shell slurry feed. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whyatt, G.A.

    1994-08-01

    This report describes the pilot-scale production of grout with simulated double-shell slurry feed (DSSF) waste performed in November 1988, and the subsequent thermal behavior of the grout as it cured in a large, insulated vessel. The report was issued in draft form in April 1989 and comments were subsequently received; however, the report was not finalized until 1994. In finalizing this report, references or information gained after the report was drafted in April 1989 have not been incorporated to preserve the report`s historical perspective. This report makes use of criteria from Ridelle (1987) to establish formulation criteria. This document has since been superseded by a document prepared by Reibling and Fadeef (1991). However, the reference to Riddelle (1987) and any analysis based on its content have been maintained within this report. In addition, grout is no longer being considered as the waste form for disposal of Hanford`s low-level waste. However, grout disposal is being maintained as an option in case there is an emergency need to provide additional tank space. Current plans are to vitrify low-level wastes into a glass matrix.

  4. Toward Production From Gas Hydrates: Current Status, Assessment of Resources, and Simulation-Based Evaluationof Technology and Potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reagan, Matthew; Moridis, George J.; Collett, Timothy; Boswell, Ray; Kurihara, M.; Reagan, Matthew T.; Koh, Carolyn; Sloan, E. Dendy

    2008-02-12

    Gas hydrates are a vast energy resource with global distribution in the permafrost and in the oceans. Even if conservative estimates are considered and only a small fraction is recoverable, the sheer size of the resource is so large that it demands evaluation as a potential energy source. In this review paper, we discuss the distribution of natural gas hydrate accumulations, the status of the primary international R&D programs, and the remaining science and technological challenges facing commercialization of production. After a brief examination of gas hydrate accumulations that are well characterized and appear to be models for future development and gas production, we analyze the role of numerical simulation in the assessment of the hydrate production potential, identify the data needs for reliable predictions, evaluate the status of knowledge with regard to these needs, discuss knowledge gaps and their impact, and reach the conclusion that the numerical simulation capabilities are quite advanced and that the related gaps are either not significant or are being addressed. We review the current body of literature relevant to potential productivity from different types of gas hydrate deposits, and determine that there are consistent indications of a large production potential at high rates over long periods from a wide variety of hydrate deposits. Finally, we identify (a) features, conditions, geology and techniques that are desirable in potential production targets, (b) methods to maximize production, and (c) some of the conditions and characteristics that render certain gas hydrate deposits undesirable for production.

  5. Comparison of inclusive particle production in 14.6 GeV/c proton-nucleus collisions with simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaffe, D.E.; Lo, K.H.; Comfort, J.R.; Sivertz, M.

    2006-01-01

    Inclusive charged pion, kaon, proton and deuteron production in 14.6 GeV/c proton-nucleus collisions measured by BNL experiment E802 is compared with results from the GEANT3, GEANT4 and FLUKA simulation packages. The FLUKA package is found to have the best overall agreement

  6. Simulation of top quark production for the ATLAS experiment at sqrt(s) = 13 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    This note summarises the Monte Carlo simulation setup for the pair and single production of top quarks for the ATLAS experiment at the LHC for sqrt(s)=13 TeV. In addition to the settings available and recommended for analyses using the 2015 dataset, the anticipated setup for 2016 analysis is also discussed.

  7. Technological progress and effects of (supra) regional innovation and production collaboration. An agent-based model simulation study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, B.; Pyka, A.; Serguieva, A.; Maringer, D.; Palade, V.; Almeida, R.J.

    2014-01-01

    We provide a novel technology development model in which economic agents search for transformations to build artifacts. Using this technology development model, we conduct an agent-based model simulation study on the effect of (supra-)regional collaboration in production and innovation on

  8. Monitoring of the data processing and simulated production at CMS with a web-based service: the Production Monitoring Platform (pMp)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzoni, G.; Norkus, A.; Pol, A. A.; Srimanobhas, N.; Walker, J.

    2017-10-01

    Physics analysis at the Compact Muon Solenoid requires both the production of simulated events and processing of the data collected by the experiment. Since the end of the LHC Run-I in 2012, CMS has produced over 20 billion simulated events, from 75 thousand processing requests organised in one hundred different campaigns. These campaigns emulate different configurations of collision events, the detector, and LHC running conditions. In the same time span, sixteen data processing campaigns have taken place to reconstruct different portions of the Run-I and Run-II data with ever improving algorithms and calibrations. The scale and complexity of the events simulation and processing, and the requirement that multiple campaigns must proceed in parallel, demand that a comprehensive, frequently updated and easily accessible monitoring be made available. The monitoring must serve both the analysts, who want to know which and when datasets will become available, and the central production teams in charge of submitting, prioritizing, and running the requests across the distributed computing infrastructure. The Production Monitoring Platform (pMp) web-based service, has been developed in 2015 to address those needs. It aggregates information from multiple services used to define, organize, and run the processing requests. Information is updated hourly using a dedicated elastic database and the monitoring provides multiple configurable views to assess the status of single datasets as well as entire production campaigns. This contribution will describe the pMp development, the evolution of its functionalities, and one and half year of operational experience.

  9. Asymptotic normalization coefficients (nuclear vertex constants) for the p+7Be→8B and the 7Be(p, γ)8B astrophysical S-factors at solar energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igamov, S.B.; Yarmukhamedov, R.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The 7 Be(p,γ) 8 B reaction rate given by in terms of the zero-energy astrophysical S-factor S(0) is one of the main input data in the solar neutrino problem because the high energy neutrinos are produced via the decay 8 B→ 7 Be+e + + n e . This quantity is determined by both extrapolating the measured absolute cross sections σexp (E) (or equivalently its experimental S-factors S exp (E) ) to solar energies (≅ 25 keV) and the theoretical predictions. Despite the steady and impressive progress in our understanding of this reaction have been made in last years in measurements S exp (E) at extremely low energies and the theoretical predictions S(E) at solar energies (E≤25 keV), ambiguities (up to about 35%) associated with prediction for S(0) however still exist, and it may considerably influence the predictions of the standard solar model. In this work the modified two - body potential approach is applied for a new analysis of the highly precise experimental astrophysical S-factors for the direct capture 7 Be(p, γ) 8 B reaction at E≤400 keV and 1000≤E≤1200 keV to obtain 'indirectly measured' values both of the asymptotic normalization coefficient (ANC) for the p+ 7 Be→ 8 B and of S(E) at E≤115 keV, including E=0. In this approach S(E) is expressed in the terms of ANC C Aα;lj 2 but not in the terms of the usual spectroscopic factor Z Aα;lj , which is related to the ANC C Aα;l. j as Z aα;lj =C Aα;lj 2 /b lj 2 , where b lj is the single-particle ANC for the wave function of the bound 8 B( 7 Be+p) state calculated within the shell model using the phenomenological Woods-Saxon potential with the geometric parameters (a radius r o and a diffuseness a). The approach allows one to remove the model dependence of the calculated direct on S(E) on the geometric parameters r o and a both for the two-body bound ( 7 Be+p) state and the p 7 Be- scattering state in minimum. The analysis of the experimental S exp (E) is performed by verifying values of

  10. Extending the benchmark simulation model no2 with processes for nitrous oxide production and side-stream nitrogen removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boiocchi, Riccardo; Sin, Gürkan; Gernaey, Krist V.

    2015-01-01

    In this work the Benchmark Simulation Model No.2 is extended with processes for nitrous oxide production and for side-stream partial nitritation/Anammox (PN/A) treatment. For these extensions the Activated Sludge Model for Greenhouse gases No.1 was used to describe the main waterline, whereas...... the Complete Autotrophic Nitrogen Removal (CANR) model was used to describe the side-stream (PN/A) treatment. Comprehensive simulations were performed to assess the extended model. Steady-state simulation results revealed the following: (i) the implementation of a continuous CANR side-stream reactor has...... increased the total nitrogen removal by 10%; (ii) reduced the aeration demand by 16% compared to the base case, and (iii) the activity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria is most influencing nitrous oxide emissions. The extended model provides a simulation platform to generate, test and compare novel control...

  11. Leaf chlorophyll constraint on model simulated gross primary productivity in agricultural systems

    KAUST Repository

    Houborg, Rasmus

    2015-05-05

    Leaf chlorophyll content (Chll) may serve as an observational proxy for the maximum rate of carboxylation (Vmax), which describes leaf photosynthetic capacity and represents the single most important control on modeled leaf photosynthesis within most Terrestrial Biosphere Models (TBMs). The parameterization of Vmax is associated with great uncertainty as it can vary significantly between plants and in response to changes in leaf nitrogen (N) availability, plant phenology and environmental conditions. Houborg et al. (2013) outlined a semi-mechanistic relationship between V max 25 (Vmax normalized to 25 °C) and Chll based on inter-linkages between V max 25 , Rubisco enzyme kinetics, N and Chll. Here, these relationships are parameterized for a wider range of important agricultural crops and embedded within the leaf photosynthesis-conductance scheme of the Community Land Model (CLM), bypassing the questionable use of temporally invariant and broadly defined plant functional type (PFT) specific V max 25 values. In this study, the new Chll constrained version of CLM is refined with an updated parameterization scheme for specific application to soybean and maize. The benefit of using in-situ measured and satellite retrieved Chll for constraining model simulations of Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) is evaluated over fields in central Nebraska, U.S.A between 2001 and 2005. Landsat-based Chll time-series records derived from the Regularized Canopy Reflectance model (REGFLEC) are used as forcing to the CLM. Validation of simulated GPP against 15 site-years of flux tower observations demonstrate the utility of Chll as a model constraint, with the coefficient of efficiency increasing from 0.91 to 0.94 and from 0.87 to 0.91 for maize and soybean, respectively. Model performances particularly improve during the late reproductive and senescence stage, where the largest temporal variations in Chll (averaging 35–55 μg cm−2 for maize and 20–35 μg cm−2 for soybean) are

  12. A Timed Colored Petri Net Simulation-Based Self-Adaptive Collaboration Method for Production-Logistics Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengang Guo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Complex and customized manufacturing requires a high level of collaboration between production and logistics in a flexible production system. With the widespread use of Internet of Things technology in manufacturing, a great amount of real-time and multi-source manufacturing data and logistics data is created, that can be used to perform production-logistics collaboration. To solve the aforementioned problems, this paper proposes a timed colored Petri net simulation-based self-adaptive collaboration method for Internet of Things-enabled production-logistics systems. The method combines the schedule of token sequences in the timed colored Petri net with real-time status of key production and logistics equipment. The key equipment is made ‘smart’ to actively publish or request logistics tasks. An integrated framework based on a cloud service platform is introduced to provide the basis for self-adaptive collaboration of production-logistics systems. A simulation experiment is conducted by using colored Petri nets (CPN Tools to validate the performance and applicability of the proposed method. Computational experiments demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms the event-driven method in terms of reductions of waiting time, makespan, and electricity consumption. This proposed method is also applicable to other manufacturing systems to implement production-logistics collaboration.

  13. Modeling and Monitoring Terrestrial Primary Production in a Changing Global Environment: Toward a Multiscale Synthesis of Observation and Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shufen Pan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a critical need to monitor and predict terrestrial primary production, the key indicator of ecosystem functioning, in a changing global environment. Here we provide a brief review of three major approaches to monitoring and predicting terrestrial primary production: (1 ground-based field measurements, (2 satellite-based observations, and (3 process-based ecosystem modelling. Much uncertainty exists in the multi-approach estimations of terrestrial gross primary production (GPP and net primary production (NPP. To improve the capacity of model simulation and prediction, it is essential to evaluate ecosystem models against ground and satellite-based measurements and observations. As a case, we have shown the performance of the dynamic land ecosystem model (DLEM at various scales from site to region to global. We also discuss how terrestrial primary production might respond to climate change and increasing atmospheric CO2 and uncertainties associated with model and data. Further progress in monitoring and predicting terrestrial primary production requires a multiscale synthesis of observations and model simulations. In the Anthropocene era in which human activity has indeed changed the Earth’s biosphere, therefore, it is essential to incorporate the socioeconomic component into terrestrial ecosystem models for accurately estimating and predicting terrestrial primary production in a changing global environment.

  14. Asymmetric Responses of Primary Productivity to Altered Precipitation Simulated by Land Surface Models across Three Long-term Grassland Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, D.; Ciais, P.; Viovy, N.; Knapp, A.; Wilcox, K.; Bahn, M.; Smith, M. D.; Ito, A.; Arneth, A.; Harper, A. B.; Ukkola, A.; Paschalis, A.; Poulter, B.; Peng, C.; Reick, C. H.; Hayes, D. J.; Ricciuto, D. M.; Reinthaler, D.; Chen, G.; Tian, H.; Helene, G.; Zscheischler, J.; Mao, J.; Ingrisch, J.; Nabel, J.; Pongratz, J.; Boysen, L.; Kautz, M.; Schmitt, M.; Krohn, M.; Zeng, N.; Meir, P.; Zhang, Q.; Zhu, Q.; Hasibeder, R.; Vicca, S.; Sippel, S.; Dangal, S. R. S.; Fatichi, S.; Sitch, S.; Shi, X.; Wang, Y.; Luo, Y.; Liu, Y.; Piao, S.

    2017-12-01

    Changes in precipitation variability including the occurrence of extreme events strongly influence plant growth in grasslands. Field measurements of aboveground net primary production (ANPP) in temperate grasslands suggest a positive asymmetric response with wet years resulting in ANPP gains larger than ANPP declines in dry years. Whether land surface models used for historical simulations and future projections of the coupled carbon-water system in grasslands are capable to simulate such non-symmetrical ANPP responses remains an important open research question. In this study, we evaluate the simulated responses of grassland primary productivity to altered precipitation with fourteen land surface models at the three sites of Colorado Shortgrass Steppe (SGS), Konza prairie (KNZ) and Stubai Valley meadow (STU) along a rainfall gradient from dry to wet. Our results suggest that: (i) Gross primary production (GPP), NPP, ANPP and belowground NPP (BNPP) show nonlinear response curves (concave-down) in all the models, but with different curvatures and mean values. In contrast across the sites, primary production increases and then saturates along increasing precipitation with a flattening at the wetter site. (ii) Slopes of spatial relationships between modeled primary production and precipitation are steeper than the temporal slopes (obtained from inter-annual variations). (iii) Asymmetric responses under nominal precipitation range with modeled inter-annual primary production show large uncertainties, and model-ensemble median generally suggests negative asymmetry (greater declines in dry years than increases in wet years) across the three sites. (iv) Primary production at the drier site is predicted to more sensitive to precipitation compared to wetter site, and median sensitivity consistently indicates greater negative impacts of reduced precipitation than positive effects of increased precipitation under extreme conditions. This study implies that most models

  15. Monte Carlo molecular simulation of phase-coexistence for oil production and processing

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jun

    2011-01-01

    The Gibbs-NVT ensemble Monte Carlo method is used to simulate the liquid-vapor coexistence diagram and the simulation results of methane agree well with the experimental data in a wide range of temperatures. For systems with two components, the Gibbs-NPT ensemble Monte Carlo method is employed in the simulation while the mole fraction of each component in each phase is modeled as a Leonard-Jones fluid. As the results of Monte Carlo simulations usually contain huge statistical error, the blocking method is used to estimate the variance of the simulation results. Additionally, in order to improve the simulation efficiency, the step sizes of different trial moves is adjusted automatically so that their acceptance probabilities can approach to the preset values.

  16. Long-term product consistency test of simulated 90-19/Nd HLW glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gan, X.Y.; Zhang, Z.T.; Yuan, W.Y.; Wang, L.; Bai, Y.; Ma, H.

    2011-01-01

    Chemical durability of 90-19/Nd glass, a simulated high-level waste (HLW) glass in contact with the groundwater was investigated with a long-term product consistency test (PCT). Generally, it is difficult to observe the long term property of HLW glass due to the slow corrosion rate in a mild condition. In order to overcome this problem, increased contacting surface (S/V = 6000 m -1 ) and elevated temperature (150 o C) were employed to accelerate the glass corrosion evolution. The micro-morphological characteristics of the glass surface and the secondary minerals formed after the glass alteration were analyzed by SEM-EDS and XRD, and concentrations of elements in the leaching solution were determined by ICP-AES. In our experiments, two types of minerals, which have great impact on glass dissolution, were found to form on 90-19/Nd HLW glass surface when it was subjected to a long-term leaching in the groundwater. One is Mg-Fe-rich phyllosilicates with honeycomb structure; the other is aluminosilicates (zeolites). Mg and Fe in the leaching solution participated in the formation of phyllosilicates. The main components of phyllosilicates in alteration products of 90-19/Nd HLW glass are nontronite (Na 0.3 Fe 2 Si 4 O 10 (OH) 2 .4H 2 O) and montmorillonite (Ca 0.2 (Al,Mg) 2 Si 4 O 10 (OH) 2 .4H 2 O), and those of aluminosilicates are mordenite ((Na 2 ,K 2 ,Ca)Al 2 Si 10 O 24 .7H 2 O)) and clinoptilolite ((Na,K,Ca) 5 Al 6 Si 30 O 72 .18H 2 O). Minerals like Ca(Mg)SO 4 and CaCO 3 with low solubility limits are prone to form precipitant on the glass surface. Appearance of the phyllosilicates and aluminosilicates result in the dissolution rate of 90-19/Nd HLW glass resumed, which is increased by several times over the stable rate. As further dissolution of the glass, both B and Na in the glass were found to leach out in borax form.

  17. An ensemble-based dynamic Bayesian averaging approach for discharge simulations using multiple global precipitation products and hydrological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Wei; Liu, Junguo; Yang, Hong; Sweetapple, Chris

    2018-03-01

    Global precipitation products are very important datasets in flow simulations, especially in poorly gauged regions. Uncertainties resulting from precipitation products, hydrological models and their combinations vary with time and data magnitude, and undermine their application to flow simulations. However, previous studies have not quantified these uncertainties individually and explicitly. This study developed an ensemble-based dynamic Bayesian averaging approach (e-Bay) for deterministic discharge simulations using multiple global precipitation products and hydrological models. In this approach, the joint probability of precipitation products and hydrological models being correct is quantified based on uncertainties in maximum and mean estimation, posterior probability is quantified as functions of the magnitude and timing of discharges, and the law of total probability is implemented to calculate expected discharges. Six global fine-resolution precipitation products and two hydrological models of different complexities are included in an illustrative application. e-Bay can effectively quantify uncertainties and therefore generate better deterministic discharges than traditional approaches (weighted average methods with equal and varying weights and maximum likelihood approach). The mean Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency values of e-Bay are up to 0.97 and 0.85 in training and validation periods respectively, which are at least 0.06 and 0.13 higher than traditional approaches. In addition, with increased training data, assessment criteria values of e-Bay show smaller fluctuations than traditional approaches and its performance becomes outstanding. The proposed e-Bay approach bridges the gap between global precipitation products and their pragmatic applications to discharge simulations, and is beneficial to water resources management in ungauged or poorly gauged regions across the world.

  18. Sensitivity of a carbon and productivity model to climatic, water, terrain, and biophysical parameters in a Rocky Mountain watershed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, S.; Peddle, D.R.; Coburn, C.A.; Kienzle, S. [Univ. of Lethbridge, Dept. of Geography, Lethbridge, Alberta (Canada)

    2008-06-15

    Net primary productivity (NPP) is a key component of the terrestrial carbon cycle and is important in ecological, watershed, and forest management studies, and more broadly in global climate change research. Determining the relative importance and magnitude of uncertainty of NPP model inputs is important for proper carbon reporting over larger areas and time periods. This paper presents a systematic evaluation of the boreal ecosystem productivity simulator (BEPS) model in mountainous terrain using an established montane forest test site in Kananaskis, Alberta, in the Canadian Rocky Mountains. Model runs were based on forest (land cover, leaf area index (LAI), biomass) and climate-water inputs (solar radiation, temperature, precipitation, humidity, soil water holding capacity) derived from digital elevation model (DEM) derivatives, climate data, geographical information system (GIS) functions, and topographically corrected satellite imagery. Four sensitivity analyses were conducted as a controlled series of experiments involving (i) NPP individual parameter sensitivity for a full growing season, (ii) NPP independent variation tests (parameter {mu} {+-} 1{sigma}), (iii) factorial analyses to assess more complex multiple-factor interactions, and (iv) topographic correction. The results, validated against field measurements, showed that modeled NPP was sensitive to most inputs measured in the study area, with LAI and forest type the most important forest input, and solar radiation the most important climate input. Soil available water holding capacity expressed as a function of wetness index was only significant in conjunction with precipitation when both parameters represented a moisture-deficit situation. NPP uncertainty resulting from topographic influence was equivalent to 140 kg C ha{sup -1}{center_dot}year{sup -1}. This suggested that topographic correction of model inputs is important for accurate NPP estimation. The BEPS model, designed originally for flat

  19. Sensitivity of a carbon and productivity model to climatic, water, terrain, and biophysical parameters in a Rocky Mountain watershed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, S.; Peddle, D.R.; Coburn, C.A.; Kienzle, S.

    2008-01-01

    Net primary productivity (NPP) is a key component of the terrestrial carbon cycle and is important in ecological, watershed, and forest management studies, and more broadly in global climate change research. Determining the relative importance and magnitude of uncertainty of NPP model inputs is important for proper carbon reporting over larger areas and time periods. This paper presents a systematic evaluation of the boreal ecosystem productivity simulator (BEPS) model in mountainous terrain using an established montane forest test site in Kananaskis, Alberta, in the Canadian Rocky Mountains. Model runs were based on forest (land cover, leaf area index (LAI), biomass) and climate-water inputs (solar radiation, temperature, precipitation, humidity, soil water holding capacity) derived from digital elevation model (DEM) derivatives, climate data, geographical information system (GIS) functions, and topographically corrected satellite imagery. Four sensitivity analyses were conducted as a controlled series of experiments involving (i) NPP individual parameter sensitivity for a full growing season, (ii) NPP independent variation tests (parameter μ ± 1σ), (iii) factorial analyses to assess more complex multiple-factor interactions, and (iv) topographic correction. The results, validated against field measurements, showed that modeled NPP was sensitive to most inputs measured in the study area, with LAI and forest type the most important forest input, and solar radiation the most important climate input. Soil available water holding capacity expressed as a function of wetness index was only significant in conjunction with precipitation when both parameters represented a moisture-deficit situation. NPP uncertainty resulting from topographic influence was equivalent to 140 kg C ha -1 ·year -1 . This suggested that topographic correction of model inputs is important for accurate NPP estimation. The BEPS model, designed originally for flat boreal forests, was shown to be

  20. Application of computer virtual simulation technology in 3D animation production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Can

    2017-11-01

    In the continuous development of computer technology, the application system of virtual simulation technology has been further optimized and improved. It also has been widely used in various fields of social development, such as city construction, interior design, industrial simulation and tourism teaching etc. This paper mainly introduces the virtual simulation technology used in 3D animation. Based on analyzing the characteristics of virtual simulation technology, the application ways and means of this technology in 3D animation are researched. The purpose is to provide certain reference for the 3D effect promotion days after.

  1. Spatially explicit simulation of hydrologically controlled carbon and nitrogen cycles and associated feedback mechanisms in a boreal ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govind, Ajit; Chen, Jing Ming; Ju, Weimin

    2009-06-01

    Ecosystem models that simulate biogeochemical processes usually ignore hydrological controls that govern them. It is quite possible that topographically driven water fluxes significantly influence the spatial distribution of C sources and sinks because of their large contribution to the local water balance. To investigate this, we simulated biogeochemical processes along with the associated feedback mechanisms in a boreal ecosystem using a spatially explicit hydroecological model, boreal ecosystem productivity simulator (BEPS)-TerrainLab V2.0, that has a tight coupling of ecophysiological, hydrological, and biogeochemical processes. First, the simulated dynamics of snowpack, soil temperature, net ecosystem productivity (NEP), and total ecosystem respiration (TER) were validated with high-frequency measurements for 2 years. The model was able to explain 80% of the variability in NEP and 84% of the variability in TER. Further, we investigated the influence of topographically driven subsurface base flow on soil C and N cycling and on the spatiotemporal patterns of C sources and sinks using three hydrological modeling scenarios that differed in hydrological conceptualizations. In general, the scenarios that had nonexplicit hydrological representation overestimated NEP, as opposed to the scenario that had an explicit (realistic) representation. The key processes controlling the NEP differences were attributed to the combined effects of variations in photosynthesis (due to changes in stomatal conductance and nitrogen (N) availability), heterotrophic respiration, and autotrophic respiration, all of which occur simultaneously affecting NEP. Feedback relationships were also found to exacerbate the differences. We identified six types of NEP differences (biases), of which the most commonly found was due to an underestimation of the existing C sources, highlighting the vulnerability of regional-scale ecosystem models that ignore hydrological processes.

  2. Monte Carlo molecular simulation of phase-coexistence for oil production and processing

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jun; Sun, Shuyu; Calo, Victor M.

    2011-01-01

    The Gibbs-NVT ensemble Monte Carlo method is used to simulate the liquid-vapor coexistence diagram and the simulation results of methane agree well with the experimental data in a wide range of temperatures. For systems with two components

  3. Real-time image-based B-mode ultrasound image simulation of needles using tensor-product interpolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mengchen; Salcudean, Septimiu E

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, we propose an interpolation-based method for simulating rigid needles in B-mode ultrasound images in real time. We parameterize the needle B-mode image as a function of needle position and orientation. We collect needle images under various spatial configurations in a water-tank using a needle guidance robot. Then we use multidimensional tensor-product interpolation to simulate images of needles with arbitrary poses and positions using collected images. After further processing, the interpolated needle and seed images are superimposed on top of phantom or tissue image backgrounds. The similarity between the simulated and the real images is measured using a correlation metric. A comparison is also performed with in vivo images obtained during prostate brachytherapy. Our results, carried out for both the convex (transverse plane) and linear (sagittal/para-sagittal plane) arrays of a trans-rectal transducer indicate that our interpolation method produces good results while requiring modest computing resources. The needle simulation method we present can be extended to the simulation of ultrasound images of other wire-like objects. In particular, we have shown that the proposed approach can be used to simulate brachytherapy seeds.

  4. Simulation of rumen fermentation kinetics of by-products from the biodiesel industry with in vitro gas production technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Lopes da Silva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the rumen fermentation kinetics of 18 by-products from the biodiesel industry exhibiting potential for use in the feeding of ruminants via the in vitro gas production technique. The following feeds were investigated: cottonseed, canudo de pito, crambe, sunflower, castor seed (detoxified with lime and soybean meals and cottonseed, peanut, babassu, crambe, palm kernel, sunflower, licuri nut, macaúba, forage radish and jatropha cakes. The evaluated parameters were total gas production (VfT, gas production from fibrous carbohydrates (VfFC, gas production from non-fibrous carbohydrates (VfNFC, the degradation rate of fibrous carbohydrates (kdFC, the degradation rate of non-fibrous carbohydrates (kdNFC and lag time (lag. The feeds were grouped into six different groups according to rumen fermentation kinetic parameters and adopting an R2 of 0.8. Forage radish cake and the meals of cottonseed, soybean, crambe and sunflower composed the first group, while the cakes of babassu and sunflower formed the second group. Canudo de pito and castor seed meals and the cakes of cottonseed, licuri and jatropha I and II formed the third group. The fourth group was composed by the cakes of crambe, palm kernel and peanut I. The fifth group was formed by peanut cake II, while macauba fruit cake formed the sixth group. The VfNFC and VfFC varied from 16.72 to 200.07 mL and from 53.09 to 242.12 mL, respectively. The mean kdFC and kdNFC values varied from 0.002 to 0.039% h-1and from 0.022 to 0.430% h-1, respectively. The mean lag and VfT varied from 0.0001 to 5.2029 hours and 136.94 to 301.44 mL, respectively. A number of the products exhibited the potential to replace soybean meal, especially the forage radish cake and cottonseed, crambe and sunflower meals.

  5. Computer Aided Product Service Systems Design : Service CAD and Its integration with Life Cycle Simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komoto, H.

    2009-01-01

    Integration of product design into service design, or vice versa, is considered to bring more efficient and effective value addition. Besides EcoDesign tools and methods, a methodology to design such an integration of products and services from a systemic perspective, or product-service systems

  6. Monte Carlo FLUKA code simulation for study of {sup 68}Ga production by direct proton-induced reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokhtari Oranj, Leila; Kakavand, Tayeb [Physics Faculty, Zanjan University, P.O. Box 451-313, Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadeghi, Mahdi, E-mail: msadeghi@nrcam.org [Agricultural, Medical and Industrial Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, P.O. Box 31485-498, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Aboudzadeh Rovias, Mohammadreza [Agricultural, Medical and Industrial Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, P.O. Box 31485-498, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-06-11

    {sup 68}Ga is an important radionuclide for positron emission tomography. {sup 68}Ga can be produced by the {sup 68}Zn(p,n){sup 68}Ga reaction in a common biomedical cyclotrons. To facilitate optimization of target design and study activation of materials, Monte Carlo code can be used to simulate the irradiation of the target materials with charged hadrons. In this paper, FLUKA code simulation was employed to prototype a Zn target for the production of {sup 68}Ga by proton irradiation. Furthermore, the experimental data were compared with the estimated values for the thick target yield produced in the irradiation time according to FLUKA code. In conclusion, FLUKA code can be used for estimation of the production yield.

  7. A randomized phase III study comparing standard dose BEP with sequential high-dose cisplatin, etoposide, and ifosfamide (VIP) plus stem-cell support in males with poor-prognosis germ-cell cancer. An intergroup study of EORTC, GTCSG, and Grupo Germinal (EORTC 30974)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, G; Skoneczna, I; Aass, N

    2011-01-01

    To compare the efficacy of one cycle of standard dose cisplatin, etoposide, and ifosfamide (VIP) plus three cycles of high-dose VIP followed by stem-cell infusion [high-dose chemotherapy (HD-CT arm)] to four cycles of standard cisplatin, etoposide, and bleomycin (BEP) in patients with poor-progno...

  8. Computational simulation of reactive species production by methane-air DBD at high pressure and high temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takana, H.; Tanaka, Y.; Nishiyama, H.

    2012-01-01

    Computational simulations of a single streamer in DBD in lean methane-air mixture at pressure of 1 and 3 atm and temperature of 300 and 500 K were conducted for plasma-enhanced chemical reactions in a closed system. The effects of surrounding pressure and temperature are characterized for reactive species production by a DBD discharge. The results show that the production characteristics of reactive species are strongly influenced by the total gas number density and the higher concentration of reactive species are produced at higher pressure and lower gas temperature for a given initial reduced electric field.

  9. Optimizing cropland cover for stable food production in Sub-Saharan Africa using simulated yield and Modern Portfolio Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodin, P.; Olin, S.; Pugh, T. A. M.; Arneth, A.

    2014-12-01

    Food security can be defined as stable access to food of good nutritional quality. In Sub Saharan Africa access to food is strongly linked to local food production and the capacity to generate enough calories to sustain the local population. Therefore it is important in these regions to generate not only sufficiently high yields but also to reduce interannual variability in food production. Traditionally, climate impact simulation studies have focused on factors that underlie maximum productivity ignoring the variability in yield. By using Modern Portfolio Theory, a method stemming from economics, we here calculate optimum current and future crop selection that maintain current yield while minimizing variance, vs. maintaining variance while maximizing yield. Based on simulated yield using the LPJ-GUESS dynamic vegetation model, the results show that current cropland distribution for many crops is close to these optimum distributions. Even so, the optimizations displayed substantial potential to either increase food production and/or to decrease its variance regionally. Our approach can also be seen as a method to create future scenarios for the sown areas of crops in regions where local food production is important for food security.

  10. Toward production from gas hydrates: Current status, assessment of resources, and simulation-based evaluation of technology and potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moridis, G.J.; Collett, T.S.; Boswell, R.; Kurihara, M.; Reagan, M.T.; Koh, C.; Sloan, E.D.

    2009-01-01

    Gas hydrates (GHs) are a vast energy resource with global distribution in the permafrost and in the oceans. Even if conservative estimates are considered and only a small fraction is recoverable, the sheer size of the resource is so large that it demands evaluation as a potential energy source. In this review paper, we discuss the distribution of natural GH accumulations, the status of the primary international research and development (R&D) programs, and the remaining science and technological challenges facing the commercialization of production. After a brief examination of GH accumulations that are well characterized and appear to be models for future development and gas production, we analyze the role of numerical simulation in the assessment of the hydrate-production potential, identify the data needs for reliable predictions, evaluate the status of knowledge with regard to these needs, discuss knowledge gaps and their impact, and reach the conclusion that the numerical-simulation capabilities are quite advanced and that the related gaps either are not significant or are being addressed. We review the current body of literature relevant to potential productivity from different types of GH deposits and determine that there are consistent indications of a large production potential at high rates across long periods from a wide variety of hydrate deposits. Finally, we identify (a) features, conditions, geology and techniques that are desirable in potential production targets; (b) methods to maximize production; and (c) some of the conditions and characteristics that render certain GH deposits undesirable for production. Copyright ?? 2009 Society of Petroleum Engineers.

  11. European-wide simulations of present cropland phenology, productivity and carbon fluxes using an improved terrestrial biosphere model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, P. C.; Ciais, P.; de Noblet, N.; Peylin, P.; Viovy, N.; Bondeau, A.

    2009-04-01

    Aiming at producing improved estimates of carbon source/sink spatial and interannual patterns across Europe (35% croplands), this work combines the terrestrial biosphere model ORCHIDEE (for vegetation productivity, water balance, soil carbon dynamics) and the generic crop model STICS (for phenology, irrigation, nitrogen balance, harvest). The ORCHIDEE-STICS model, relying on three plant functional types for the representation of temperate agriculture, is evaluated over the last few decades at various spatial and temporal resolutions. The simulated Leaf Area Index seasonal cycle is largely improved relative to the original ORCHIDEE simulating grasslands, and compares favourably with remote-sensing observations (the Figure of Merit in Time doubles over Europe). Crop yield is derived from annual Net Primary Productivity and compared with wheat and grain maize harvest data for five European countries. Discrepancies between 30-year mean simulated and reported yields remain large in Mediterranean countries. Interannual variability amplitude expressed relative to the mean is reduced towards the observed variability (~10%) when using ORCHIDEE-STICS. The simulated 2003 anomalous carbon source from European ecosystems to the atmosphere due to the 2003 summer heat wave is in good agreement with atmospheric inversions (~0.2 GtC, from May to October). The anomaly is twice as large in the ORCHIDEE alone simulation, owing to the unrealistically high exposure of herbaceous plants to the extreme summer conditions. Overall, this study highlights the importance of accounting for the specific phonologies of crops sown both in winter and in spring and for irrigation applied to summer crops in regional/global models of the terrestrial carbon cycle. Limitations suggest accounting for temporal and spatial variability in agricultural practices for further simulation improvement.

  12. SIMULATION AS A MEANS OF ACTIVITY STREAMLINING OF CONTINUOUSLY AND DISCRETE PRODUCTION IN SPECIFIC ENTERPRISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Straka

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The advantage of simulation is that it works with a model of real system, so it do not influence the system straight. The provision of quality simulation is also quality model, which has almost the same parameters as the real system. The goal of the project is to create a model and to try its different states, real or hypothetic. A system analysis is used for analysing and to reach of modelled system specifications. The base of synthesis is to create the simulation model. Described simulation model is the result of these steps. Description consists of the functional principle, importance and item setup. The section of variation calculations consists of several measured states of the system. At the output of every calculation, there lies summary of defined differences, their influence of gravure printing process in the technological and the economic aspects.

  13. Evolving a Simulation Model Product Line Software Architecture from Heterogeneous Model Representations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Greaney, Kevin

    2003-01-01

    .... Many of these large-scale, software-intensive simulation systems were autonomously developed over time, and subject to varying degrees of funding, maintenance, and life-cycle management practices...

  14. Open source Matrix Product States: Opening ways to simulate entangled many-body quantum systems in one dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaschke, Daniel; Wall, Michael L.; Carr, Lincoln D.

    2018-04-01

    Numerical simulations are a powerful tool to study quantum systems beyond exactly solvable systems lacking an analytic expression. For one-dimensional entangled quantum systems, tensor network methods, amongst them Matrix Product States (MPSs), have attracted interest from different fields of quantum physics ranging from solid state systems to quantum simulators and quantum computing. Our open source MPS code provides the community with a toolset to analyze the statics and dynamics of one-dimensional quantum systems. Here, we present our open source library, Open Source Matrix Product States (OSMPS), of MPS methods implemented in Python and Fortran2003. The library includes tools for ground state calculation and excited states via the variational ansatz. We also support ground states for infinite systems with translational invariance. Dynamics are simulated with different algorithms, including three algorithms with support for long-range interactions. Convenient features include built-in support for fermionic systems and number conservation with rotational U(1) and discrete Z2 symmetries for finite systems, as well as data parallelism with MPI. We explain the principles and techniques used in this library along with examples of how to efficiently use the general interfaces to analyze the Ising and Bose-Hubbard models. This description includes the preparation of simulations as well as dispatching and post-processing of them.

  15. FEM simulation of the die compaction of pharmaceutical products: influence of visco-elastic phenomena and comparison with experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diarra, Harona; Mazel, Vincent; Busignies, Virginie; Tchoreloff, Pierre

    2013-09-10

    This work studies the influence of visco-elastic behavior in the finite element method (FEM) modeling of die compaction of pharmaceutical products and how such a visco-elastic behavior may improve the agreement between experimental and simulated compression curves. The modeling of the process was conducted on a pharmaceutical excipient, microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), by using Drucker-Prager cap model coupled with creep behavior in Abaqus(®) software. The experimental data were obtained on a compaction simulator (STYLCAM 200R). The elastic deformation of the press was determined by performing experimental tests on a calibration disk and was introduced in the simulation. Numerical optimization was performed to characterize creep parameters. The use of creep behavior in the simulations clearly improved the agreement between the numerical and experimental compression curves (stresses, thickness), mainly during the unloading part of the compaction cycle. For the first time, it was possible to reproduce numerically the fact that the minimum tablet thickness is not obtained at the maximum compression stress. This study proves that creep behavior must be taken into account when modeling the compaction of pharmaceutical products using FEM methods. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Physical robustness of canopy temperature models for crop heat stress simulation across environments and production conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Webber, Heidi; White, Jeffrey W; Kimball, Bruce

    2018-01-01

    to simulate Tc. Model performance in predicting Tc was evaluated for two experiments in continental North America with various water, nitrogen and CO2 treatments. An empirical model fit to one dataset had the best performance, followed by the EBSC models. Stability conditions explained much of the differences...... between modeling approaches. More accurate simulation of heat stress will likely require use of energy balance approaches that consider atmospheric stability conditions....

  17. Topographical effects of climate dataset and their impacts on the estimation of regional net primary productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, L. Qing; Feng, Feng X.

    2014-11-01

    In this study, we first built and compared two different climate datasets for Wuling mountainous area in 2010, one of which considered topographical effects during the ANUSPLIN interpolation was referred as terrain-based climate dataset, while the other one did not was called ordinary climate dataset. Then, we quantified the topographical effects of climatic inputs on NPP estimation by inputting two different climate datasets to the same ecosystem model, the Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS), to evaluate the importance of considering relief when estimating NPP. Finally, we found the primary contributing variables to the topographical effects through a series of experiments given an overall accuracy of the model output for NPP. The results showed that: (1) The terrain-based climate dataset presented more reliable topographic information and had closer agreements with the station dataset than the ordinary climate dataset at successive time series of 365 days in terms of the daily mean values. (2) On average, ordinary climate dataset underestimated NPP by 12.5% compared with terrain-based climate dataset over the whole study area. (3) The primary climate variables contributing to the topographical effects of climatic inputs for Wuling mountainous area were temperatures, which suggest that it is necessary to correct temperature differences for estimating NPP accurately in such a complex terrain.

  18. [Parameter sensitivity of simulating net primary productivity of Larix olgensis forest based on BIOME-BGC model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Li-hong; Wang, Hai-yan; Lei, Xiang-dong

    2016-02-01

    Model based on vegetation ecophysiological process contains many parameters, and reasonable parameter values will greatly improve simulation ability. Sensitivity analysis, as an important method to screen out the sensitive parameters, can comprehensively analyze how model parameters affect the simulation results. In this paper, we conducted parameter sensitivity analysis of BIOME-BGC model with a case study of simulating net primary productivity (NPP) of Larix olgensis forest in Wangqing, Jilin Province. First, with the contrastive analysis between field measurement data and the simulation results, we tested the BIOME-BGC model' s capability of simulating the NPP of L. olgensis forest. Then, Morris and EFAST sensitivity methods were used to screen the sensitive parameters that had strong influence on NPP. On this basis, we also quantitatively estimated the sensitivity of the screened parameters, and calculated the global, the first-order and the second-order sensitivity indices. The results showed that the BIOME-BGC model could well simulate the NPP of L. olgensis forest in the sample plot. The Morris sensitivity method provided a reliable parameter sensitivity analysis result under the condition of a relatively small sample size. The EFAST sensitivity method could quantitatively measure the impact of simulation result of a single parameter as well as the interaction between the parameters in BIOME-BGC model. The influential sensitive parameters for L. olgensis forest NPP were new stem carbon to new leaf carbon allocation and leaf carbon to nitrogen ratio, the effect of their interaction was significantly greater than the other parameter' teraction effect.

  19. Direct Dynamics Simulation of the Thermal 3CH2 + 3O2 Reaction. Rate Constant and Product Branching Ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmanan, Sandhiya; Pratihar, Subha; Machado, Francisco Bolivar Correto; Hase, William Louis

    2018-04-26

    The reaction of 3CH2 with 3O2 is of fundamental importance in combustion and the reaction is complex as a result of multiple extremely exothermic product channels. In the present study, direct dynamics simulations were performed to study the reaction on both the singlet and triplet potential energy surfaces (PESs). The simulations were performed at the UM06/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory. Trajectories were calculated at a temperature of 300 K and all reactive trajectories proceeded through the carbonyl oxide Criegee intermediate, CH2OO, on both the singlet and triplet PESs. The triplet surface leads to only one product channel, H2CO + O(3P), while the singlet surface leads to 8 product channels with their relative importance as: CO + H2O > CO + OH + H ~ H2CO + O(1D) > HCO + OH ~ CO2 + H2 ~ CO + H2 + O(1D) > CO2 + H + H > HCO + O(1D) + H. Reaction on the singlet PES is barrierless, consistent with experiment and the total rate constant on the singlet surface is 0.93 ± 0.22 x 10-12 cm3molecule-1s-1 in comparison to the recommended experimental rate constant of 3.3 x 10-12 cm3molecule-1s-1. The simulation product yields for the singlet PES are compared with experiment and the most significant differences are for H, CO2, and H2O. Reaction on the triplet surface is also barrierless, inconsistent with experiment. A discussion is given of the need for future calculations to address the: (1) barrier on the triplet PES for 3CH2 + 3O2 → 3CH2OO; (2) temperature dependence of the 3CH2 + 3O2 reaction rate constant and product branching ratios; and (3) possible non-RRKM dynamics of the 1CH2OO Criegee intermediate.

  20. A stochastic simulator of a blood product donation environment with demand spikes and supply shocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ming-Wen; Reich, Nicholas G; Crawford, Stephen O; Brookmeyer, Ron; Louis, Thomas A; Nelson, Kenrad E

    2011-01-01

    The availability of an adequate blood supply is a critical public health need. An influenza epidemic or another crisis affecting population mobility could create a critical donor shortage, which could profoundly impact blood availability. We developed a simulation model for the blood supply environment in the United States to assess the likely impact on blood availability of factors such as an epidemic. We developed a simulator of a multi-state model with transitions among states. Weekly numbers of blood units donated and needed were generated by negative binomial stochastic processes. The simulator allows exploration of the blood system under certain conditions of supply and demand rates, and can be used for planning purposes to prepare for sudden changes in the public's health. The simulator incorporates three donor groups (first-time, sporadic, and regular), immigration and emigration, deferral period, and adjustment factors for recruitment. We illustrate possible uses of the simulator by specifying input values for an 8-week flu epidemic, resulting in a moderate supply shock and demand spike (for example, from postponed elective surgeries), and different recruitment strategies. The input values are based in part on data from a regional blood center of the American Red Cross during 1996-2005. Our results from these scenarios suggest that the key to alleviating deficit effects of a system shock may be appropriate timing and duration of recruitment efforts, in turn depending critically on anticipating shocks and rapidly implementing recruitment efforts.

  1. Simulated Leaching (Migration) Study for a Model Container-Closure System Applicable to Parenteral and Ophthalmic Drug Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenke, Dennis; Egert, Thomas; Hendricker, Alan; Castner, James; Feinberg, Tom; Houston, Christopher; Hunt, Desmond G; Lynch, Michael; Nicholas, Kumudini; Norwood, Daniel L; Paskiet, Diane; Ruberto, Michael; Smith, Edward J; Holcomb, Frank; Markovic, Ingrid

    2017-01-01

    A simulating leaching (migration) study was performed on a model container-closure system relevant to parenteral and ophthalmic drug products. This container-closure system consisted of a linear low-density polyethylene bottle (primary container), a polypropylene cap and an elastomeric cap liner (closure), an adhesive label (labeling), and a foil overpouch (secondary container). The bottles were filled with simulating solvents (aqueous salt/acid mixture at pH 2.5, aqueous buffer at pH 9.5, and 1/1 v/v isopropanol/water), a label was affixed to the filled and capped bottles, the filled bottles were placed into the foil overpouch, and the filled and pouched units were stored either upright or inverted for up to 6 months at 40 °C. After storage, the leaching solutions were tested for leached substances using multiple complementary analytical techniques to address volatile, semi-volatile, and non-volatile organic and inorganic extractables as potential leachables.The leaching data generated supported several conclusions, including that (1) the extractables (leachables) profile revealed by a simulating leaching study can qualitatively be correlated with compositional information for materials of construction, (2) the chemical nature of both the extracting medium and the individual extractables (leachables) can markedly affect the resulting profile, and (3) while direct contact between a drug product and a system's material of construction may exacerbate the leaching of substances from that material by the drug product, direct contact is not a prerequisite for migration and leaching to occur. LAY ABSTRACT: The migration of container-related extractables from a model pharmaceutical container-closure system and into simulated drug product solutions was studied, focusing on circumstances relevant to parenteral and ophthalmic drug products. The model system was constructed specifically to address the migration of extractables from labels applied to the outside of the

  2. Reduced dimer production in solar-simulator-pumped continuous wave iodine lasers based on model simulations and scaling and pumping studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costen, Robert C.; Heinbockel, John H.; Miner, Gilda A.; Meador, Willard E., Jr.; Tabibi, Bagher M.; Lee, Ja H.; Williams, Michael D.

    1995-01-01

    A numerical rate equation model for a continuous wave iodine laser with longitudinally flowing gaseous lasant is validated by approximating two experiments that compare the perfluoroalkyl iodine lasants n-C3F7I and t-C4F9I. The salient feature of the simulations is that the production rate of the dimer (C4F9)2 is reduced by one order of magnitude relative to the dimer (C3F7)2. The model is then used to investigate the kinetic effects of this reduced dimer production, especially how it improves output power. Related parametric and scaling studies are also presented. When dimer production is reduced, more monomer radicals (t-C4F9) are available to combine with iodine ions, thus enhancing depletion of the laser lower level and reducing buildup of the principal quencher, molecular iodine. Fewer iodine molecules result in fewer downward transitions from quenching and more transitions from stimulated emission of lasing photons. Enhanced depletion of the lower level reduces the absorption of lasing photons. The combined result is more lasing photons and proportionally increased output power.

  3. Simulation of time variation of Uranium, Plutonium and fission product hold up in mixer settler contactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dionisi, M.; D'Agostino, F.; Remetti, R.

    1990-01-01

    A simulation model of PUREX process extraction phase for a contactors (mixer-settlers) battery has been developed. This model has been implemented in a FORTRAN code tailored both for mainframe and PC. The main goal of the code is to determine Uranium and Plutonium hold-ups vs.time within contactors in order to implement a NRTA project for a reprocessing plant. These results are extremely important for a complete analysis of NRTA system perfomance particularly to overcome the difficulty of executing physical inventory within liquid-liquid contactors of extraction lines. The chemical process simulation has been carried out conventional theoretical models with the exeption of hydrodynamic simulation which has been developed utilizing a model based on experimental results

  4. How do Analogizing and Mental Simulation Influence Team Dynamics in Innovative Product Design?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casakin, Hernan; Ball, Linden J.; Christensen, Bo T.

    2015-01-01

    association with team cohesion, whereas solution generation and function finding had a stronger association with team collaboration. We propose that analogizing and mental simulations are strategies that serve valuable functions in engendering enhanced cohesion and collaboration, which might be expected...... and team collaboration. Analogies were coded for “analogical distance” (i.e., within domain or between domain) and “analogical purpose” (i.e., problem identification, function finding, solution generation, and explanation). The results indicated that the presence of either analogizing or mental simulation...... was related to team cohesion and team collaboration, with mental simulation having an especially marked association with team collaboration. Within-domain analogizing was found to enhance team collaboration, but it did not influence team cohesion. Furthermore, all types of analogical purpose showed a similar...

  5. PIC simulations of magnetic field production by cosmic rays drifting upstream of SNR shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohl, M.

    2008-01-01

    Turbulent magnetic-field amplification appears to operate near the forward shocks of young shell-type SNR. I review the observational constraints on the spatial distribution and amplitude of amplified magnetic field in this environment. I also present new PIC simulations of magnetic-field growth due to streaming cosmic rays. While the nature of the initial linear instability is largely determined by the choice of simulation parameters, the saturation always involves changing the bulk motion of cosmic rays and background plasma, which limits the field growth to amplitudes of a few times that of the homogeneous magnetic field. (author)

  6. MONTE CARLO SIMULATION: IMPORTANT MANAGEMENT TOOL IN EVALUATING DECISIONS UNDER RISK. CASE STUDY: LAUNCH A NEW PRODUCT OF SHOES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veres Vincentiu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Decisions are a result of choices made between several alternatives and will affect all participants in the decision-making process. In this paper we analyze the Monte Carlo simulation as an important management tool in evaluating decisions under risk. The method is particularly useful in simulating decision problems. For example, the profit that could be achieved if a company launches a new product may depend on a number of factors (market share, advertising, production costs, launch costs, the lifetime of the product, etc. The company manager should identify all factors that could affect profit and then to consider the large number of ways in which these factors may interrelate. In such situations it is recommended company manager to divide the problem into smaller parts, asking him to estimate the probability distribution for market share, for advertising, for the cost of launch. Once they were obtained it can be determined their combined effect in order to obtain the probability distribution of profit. Through computer can generate a large number of possible combinations of situations where you choose a particular course of action. Upon completion of the simulation possible combination will be generated mostly while the least possible combination will be generated less frequently. For exemplification we selected a company producing shoes in Cluj market who wants to launch a new model for autumn-winter 2013-2014. In the current period the company has limited production capacity, has a number of additional contracts honored and general economic crisis situation makes money availability to be extremely limited. Accordingly, the company will have to choose a single product to be launched next season. The company will have to decide which of the two new products to be launched on the market: a model of boots for men in business class or a new model of women\\'s boots of the same class business. The company is not sure either production costs or

  7. Climate-simulated raceway pond culturing: quantifying the maximum achievable annual biomass productivity of Chlorella sorokiniana in the contiguous USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huesemann, M.; Chavis, A.; Edmundson, S.; Rye, D.; Hobbs, S.; Sun, N.; Wigmosta, M.

    2017-09-13

    Chlorella sorokiniana (DOE 1412) emerged as one of the most promising microalgae strains from the NAABB consortium project, with a remarkable doubling time under optimal conditions of 2.57 hr-1. However, its maximum achievable annual biomass productivity in outdoor ponds in the contiguous United States remained unknown. In order to address this knowledge gap, this alga was cultured in indoor LED-lighted and temperature-controlled raceways in nutrient replete freshwater (BG-11) medium at pH 7 under conditions simulating the daily sunlight intensity and water temperature fluctuations during three seasons in Southern Florida, an optimal outdoor pond culture location for this organism identified by biomass growth modeling. Prior strain characterization indicated that the average maximum specific growth rate (µmax) at 36 ºC declined continuously with pH, with µmax corresponding to 5.92, 5.83, 4.89, and 4.21 day-1 at pH 6, 7, 8, and 9, respectively. In addition, the maximum specific growth rate declined nearly linearly with increasing salinity until no growth was observed above 35 g/L NaCl. In the climate-simulated culturing studies, the volumetric ash-free dry weight-based biomass productivities during the linear growth phase were 57, 69, and 97 mg/L-day for 30-year average light and temperature simulations for January (winter), March (spring), and July (summer), respectively, which corresponds to average areal productivities of 11.6, 14.1, and 19.9 g/m2-day at a constant pond depth of 20.5 cm. The photosynthetic efficiencies (PAR) in the three climate-simulated pond culturing experiments ranged from 4.1 to 5.1%. The annual biomass productivity was estimated as ca. 15 g/m2-day, nearly double the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) 2015 State of Technology annual cultivation productivity of 8.5 g/m2-day, but this is still significantly below the projected 2022 target of ca. 25 g/m2-day (U.S. DOE, 2016) for economic microalgal biofuel production, indicating the need for

  8. DETERMINATION OF THE FOREST ROAD NETWORK INFLUENCE ON THE SUPPLY CHAIN FOR FIREWOOD PRODUCTION BY DISCRETE EVENT SIMULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Cavalli

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study a Discrete-event simulation (D-es has been developed to analyze the wood supply chain for firewood production in a mountain area in North-eastern Italy. The D-es is applied in the modeling of extraction (Full Tree System, processing of roundwood into wood assortments (cross-cut and sorting, offroad and on-road transport. In order to estimate the productivity functions and parameters, field studies were conducted to gather data about the different operations linked in the model. Also a GIS network analysis was developed to integrate the spatial information onthe covered distance to the D-es model for each of the supposed Scenarios. The results indicats that an increment of 5 m ha-1 of the forest road network could significantly increase the productivity of the wood supply chain up to 2%.

  9. Hydration products and mechanical properties of hydroceramics solidified waste for simulated Non-alpha low and intermediate level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jin; Hong Ming; Wang Junxia; Li Yuxiang; Teng Yuancheng; Wu Xiuling

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, simulated non-alpha low and intermediate level radioactive wastes was handled as curing object and that of 'alkali-slag-coal fly ash-metakaolin' hydroceramics waste forms were prepared by hydrothermal synthesis method. The hydration products were analyzed by X ray diffraction. The composition of hydrates and the compressive strength of waste forms were determined and measured. The results indicate that the main crystalline phase of hydration products were analcite when the temperature was 150 to 180 degree C and the salt content ratio was 0.10 to 0.30. Analcite diffraction peaks in hydration products is increasing when the temperature was raised and the reaction time prolonged. Strength test results show that the solidified waste forms have superior compressive strength. The compressive strength gradually decreased with the increase in salt content ratio in waste forms. (authors)

  10. Simulation of N-atom production in dielectric-barrier discharge in nitrogen at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsyganov, Dmitry; Pancheshnyi, Sergey

    2012-01-01

    A plasma-chemical model of atomic nitrogen production in a Townsend dielectric-barrier discharge in nitrogen at atmospheric pressure is presented. On the basis of the comparison with measured densities, a significant discrepancy between the calculated and the measured production rate of nitrogen atoms is observed and discussed. (paper)

  11. The rise and fall of product innovation strategy : a simulation model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walrave, B.; Oorschot, van K.E.; Romme, A.G.L.

    2009-01-01

    The benefits of a strategically balanced product portfolio, as a key driver of long-term business success, are well documented. In this respect, many firms have been unable to achieve a balanced product portfolio. An important cause is the failure to develop dynamic capabilities, that is, the

  12. Simulation-based production planning for engineer-to-order systems with random yield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akcay, Alp; Martagan, Tugce

    2018-01-01

    We consider an engineer-to-order production system with unknown yield. We model the yield as a random variable which represents the percentage output obtained from one unit of production quantity. We develop a beta-regression model in which the mean value of the yield depends on the unique

  13. Experimental simulation of irradiation effects on thermomechanical behaviour of UO2 fuel: Impact of solid and gaseous fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balland, J.

    2007-12-01

    Predictive simulation of thermomechanical behaviour of nuclear fuel has to take into account irradiation effects. Fission Products (FP) can modify the thermomechanical behaviour of UO 2 . During this thesis, differentiation was made between fission products which create a solid solution with UO 2 and gaseous products, generating pressurized bubbles. SIMFUELS containing gadolinium oxide and pressurized argon bubbles were manufactured, respectively by conventional process and by Gas Pressure Sintering. Brittle and ductile behaviour of UO 2 was investigated, under experimental conditions representative of Pellet-Cladding Interaction (PCI), respectively with 3 points bending tests and compressive creep tests. Investigation of brittle behaviour of UO 2 showed that fracture is mainly controlled by natural defects, like porosities, acting like starting points for cracks propagation. Addition of simulates fission products increase the brittle-to-ductile transition temperature of UO 2 , up to 400-500 C regarding FP in solid solution, and up to 200 C for gaseous products. Fission products although reduce fracture stresses, by a factor between 1.5 and 4, respectively for gas bubbles and solid solutions. Decrease of fracture stress is linked to an increase of microstructural defects due the solid solution and to pressurized bubbles located at grain boundaries. Pellets were tested under compressive solicitation at high temperatures. Experimental results of creep tests are well represented by Norton laws. Creep controlling mechanisms are evidenced by microstructural analysis performed on pellets at different strains. On the basis of calculations made for fuels having the same microstructures than the SIMFUELs, a creep factor is determined. It revealed a strong hardening effect of the solid solution, due to the fact that the added elements anchor the dislocations, whereas pressurized bubbles showed a coupling between hardening and softening effects. (author)

  14. Simulating wall and corner fire tests on wood products with the OSU room fire model

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. C. Tran

    1994-01-01

    This work demonstrates the complexity of modeling wall and corner fires in a compartment. The model chosen for this purpose is the Ohio State University (OSU) room fire model. This model was designed to simulate fire growth on walls in a compartment and therefore lends itself to direct comparison with standard room test results. The model input were bench-scale data...

  15. Design, simulation, and prototype production of a through the road parallel hybrid electric motorcycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asaei, Behzad; Habibidoost, Mahdi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Design, simulation, and manufacturing of a hybrid electric motorcycle are explained. • The electric machine is mounted in the front wheel hub of an ordinary motorcycle. • Two different energy control strategy are implemented. • The simulation results show that the motorcycle performance is improved. • The acceleration is improved and the fuel consumption and pollutions are decreased. - Abstract: In this paper, design, simulation, and conversion of a normal motorcycle to a Hybrid Electric Motorcycle (HEM) is described. At first, a simple model designed and simulated using ADVISOR2002. Then, the controller schematic and its optimized control strategy are described. A 125 cc ICE motorcycle is selected and converted into a HEM. A brushless DC (BLDC) motor assembled in the front wheel and a normal internal combustion engine in the rear wheel propel the motorcycle. The nominal powers are 6.6 kW and 500 W for the ICE and BLDC respectively. The original motorcycle has a Continuous Variable Transmission (CVT) that is the best choice for a HEM power transmission because it can operate in the automatic handling mode and has high efficiency. Moreover, by using the CVT, the ICE can be started while motorcycle is running. Finally, three operating modes of HEM, two implemented energy control strategies, and HEM engine control system by servomotors, and LCD display are explained

  16. Simulation modelling for food supply chain redesign; integrated decision making on product quality, sustainability and logistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vorst, J.G.A.J.; Tromp, S.O.; van der Zee, D.J.

    2009-01-01

    Food supply chains are confronted with increased consumer demands on food quality and sustainability. When redesigning these chains the analysis of food quality change and environmental load of new scenarios is as important as the analysis of efficiency and responsiveness requirements. Simulation

  17. Friction modelling in sheet metal forming simulations: application and validation on an U-Bend product

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sigvant, Mats; Hol, Johan; Chezan, Toni; van den Boogaard, Ton; Hora, P.

    2015-01-01

    The accuracy of sheet metal forming simulations strongly depends on, amongst others, friction modelling. The industrial standard is to use the Coulomb friction model with a constant coefficient of friction. However, it is known that the true friction conditions are dependent on the tribology system,

  18. Process Simulation of enzymatic biodiesel production -at what cost can biodiesel be made with enzymes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjerbæk Søtoft, Lene; Christensen, Knud Villy; Rong, Benguang

    as well as environmental impacts of the alternative process must be evaluated towards the conventional process. With process simulation tools, an evaluation will be carried out looking at what it will cost to produce biodiesel with enzymes. Different scenarios will be taken into account with variations...... in raw material prices, process designs and enzyme cost and performance....

  19. Simulation of Food Folate Digestion and Bioavailability of an Oxidation Product of 5-Methyltetrahydrofolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringling, Christiane; Rychlik, Michael

    2017-09-01

    Generating bioavailability data from in vivo studies is time-consuming and expensive. In vitro simulation can help to investigate factors influencing bioavailability or facilitate quantifying the impact of such factors. For folates, an efficient deconjugation of polyglutamates to the corresponding monoglutamates is crucial for bioavailability and highly dependent on the food matrix. Therefore, the bioaccessibility of folates of different foodstuffs was examined using a simulated digestion model with respect to folate stability and the efficiency of deconjugation. For realistic simulated deconjugation, porcine brush border membrane was used during the phase of the simulated digestion in the small intestine. For a better understanding of folate behaviour during digestion, single folate monoglutamates were also investigated with this in vitro digestion model. The results for bioaccessibility were compared with data from a human bioavailability study. They support the idea that both stability and deconjugation have an influence on bioaccessibility and thus on bioavailability. Tetrahydrofolate is probably lost completely or at least to a high extent and the stability of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate depends on the food matrix. Additionally, 5-methyltetrahydrofolate can be oxidised to a pyrazino-s-triazine (MeFox), whose absorption in the human intestinal tract was shown tentatively.

  20. Hydrogen production from natural gas using an iron-based chemical looping technology: Thermodynamic simulations and process system analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kathe, Mandar V.; Empfield, Abbey; Na, Jing; Blair, Elena; Fan, Liang-Shih

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Design of iron-based chemical looping process using moving bed for H_2 from CH_4. • Auto-thermal operation design using thermodynamic rationale for 90% carbon capture. • Cold gas efficiency: 5% points higher than Steam Methane Reforming baseline case. • Net thermal efficiency: 6% points higher than Steam Methane Reforming baseline case. • Sensitivity analysis: Energy recovery scheme, operating pressure, no carbon capture. - Abstract: Hydrogen (H_2) is a secondary fuel derived from natural gas. Currently, H_2 serves as an important component in refining operations, fertilizer production, and is experiencing increased utilization in the transportation industry as a clean combustion fuel. In recent years, industry and academia have focused on developing technology that reduces carbon emissions. As a result, there has been an increase in the technological developments for producing H_2 from natural gas. These technologies aim to minimize the cost increment associated with clean energy production. The natural gas processing chemical looping technology, developed at The Ohio State University (OSU), employs an iron-based oxygen carrier and a novel gas–solid counter-current moving bed reactor for H_2 production. Specifically, this study examines the theoretical thermodynamic limits for full conversion of natural gas through iron-based oxygen carrier reactions with methane (CH_4), by utilizing simulations generated with ASPEN modeling software. This study initially investigates the reducer and the oxidizer thermodynamic phase diagrams then derives an optimal auto-thermal operating condition for the complete loop simulation. This complete loop simulation is initially normalized for analysis on the basis of one mole of carbon input from natural gas. The H_2 production rate is then scaled to match that of the baseline study, using a full-scale ASPEN simulation for computing cooling loads, water requirements and net parasitic energy consumption. The