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Sample records for productivity gradients electronic

  1. Educational gradients in the use of electronic cigarettes and heat-not-burn tobacco products in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Yuki; Tabuchi, Takahiro

    2018-01-01

    In addition to electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), tobacco companies have recently begun to sell heat-not-burn tobacco products, Ploom and iQOS in Japan. Previous research has reported an inverse association between combustible cigarette smoking and educational attainment, but little is known about the association for e-cigarettes, especially heat-not-burn tobacco products. Our objective was to analyze the relationship between educational attainment and e-cigarette and heat-not-burn tobacco use. An internet survey (randomly sampled research agency panelists) in Japan. A total of 7338 respondents aged 18-69 years in 2015 (3632 men and 3706women). Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of educational attainment for current smoking (combustible cigarettes), e-cigarette ever-use, and heat-not-burn ever-use were calculated by multivariable logistic regression models using covariates including socio-demographic factors. Stratified analyses according to smoking status (combustible cigarettes) were additionally performed for e-cigarette ever-use and heat-not-burn tobacco product ever-use. Associations between educational attainment and e-cigarette ever-use or heat-not-burn tobacco ever-use are not straightforward, although these associations are not statistically significant except for one cell. For example, using "graduate school" education as a reference category, adjusted ORs for "high school" were 1.44 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.85-2.44) for e-cigarettes ever-use and 0.75 (95% CI:0.19-2.97) for heat-not-burn tobacco product ever-use. Among current smokers, compared with "graduate school" (reference), those with lower educational attainment showed 0.6 to 0.7 ORs for e-cigarette ever-use: e.g.,"4-year university"(OR = 0.54, 95% CI:0.24-1.24) and "high school" (OR = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.30-1.60). Among former smokers, lower education indicated higher ORs for both e-cigarettes and heat-not-burn tobacco ever-use. This study provides baseline information on educational gradients of e

  2. Educational gradients in the use of electronic cigarettes and heat-not-burn tobacco products in Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Miyazaki

    Full Text Available In addition to electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes, tobacco companies have recently begun to sell heat-not-burn tobacco products, Ploom and iQOS in Japan. Previous research has reported an inverse association between combustible cigarette smoking and educational attainment, but little is known about the association for e-cigarettes, especially heat-not-burn tobacco products. Our objective was to analyze the relationship between educational attainment and e-cigarette and heat-not-burn tobacco use.An internet survey (randomly sampled research agency panelists in Japan.A total of 7338 respondents aged 18-69 years in 2015 (3632 men and 3706women.Adjusted odds ratios (ORs of educational attainment for current smoking (combustible cigarettes, e-cigarette ever-use, and heat-not-burn ever-use were calculated by multivariable logistic regression models using covariates including socio-demographic factors. Stratified analyses according to smoking status (combustible cigarettes were additionally performed for e-cigarette ever-use and heat-not-burn tobacco product ever-use.Associations between educational attainment and e-cigarette ever-use or heat-not-burn tobacco ever-use are not straightforward, although these associations are not statistically significant except for one cell. For example, using "graduate school" education as a reference category, adjusted ORs for "high school" were 1.44 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.85-2.44 for e-cigarettes ever-use and 0.75 (95% CI:0.19-2.97 for heat-not-burn tobacco product ever-use. Among current smokers, compared with "graduate school" (reference, those with lower educational attainment showed 0.6 to 0.7 ORs for e-cigarette ever-use: e.g.,"4-year university"(OR = 0.54, 95% CI:0.24-1.24 and "high school" (OR = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.30-1.60. Among former smokers, lower education indicated higher ORs for both e-cigarettes and heat-not-burn tobacco ever-use.This study provides baseline information on educational gradients

  3. Educational gradients in the use of electronic cigarettes and heat-not-burn tobacco products in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Yuki

    2018-01-01

    Objectives In addition to electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), tobacco companies have recently begun to sell heat-not-burn tobacco products, Ploom and iQOS in Japan. Previous research has reported an inverse association between combustible cigarette smoking and educational attainment, but little is known about the association for e-cigarettes, especially heat-not-burn tobacco products. Our objective was to analyze the relationship between educational attainment and e-cigarette and heat-not-burn tobacco use. Setting An internet survey (randomly sampled research agency panelists) in Japan. Participants A total of 7338 respondents aged 18–69 years in 2015 (3632 men and 3706women). Primary measures Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of educational attainment for current smoking (combustible cigarettes), e-cigarette ever-use, and heat-not-burn ever-use were calculated by multivariable logistic regression models using covariates including socio-demographic factors. Stratified analyses according to smoking status (combustible cigarettes) were additionally performed for e-cigarette ever-use and heat-not-burn tobacco product ever-use. Results Associations between educational attainment and e-cigarette ever-use or heat-not-burn tobacco ever-use are not straightforward, although these associations are not statistically significant except for one cell. For example, using "graduate school" education as a reference category, adjusted ORs for "high school" were 1.44 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.85–2.44) for e-cigarettes ever-use and 0.75 (95% CI:0.19–2.97) for heat-not-burn tobacco product ever-use. Among current smokers, compared with “graduate school” (reference), those with lower educational attainment showed 0.6 to 0.7 ORs for e-cigarette ever-use: e.g.,"4-year university"(OR = 0.54, 95% CI:0.24–1.24) and "high school" (OR = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.30–1.60). Among former smokers, lower education indicated higher ORs for both e-cigarettes and heat-not-burn tobacco ever

  4. Density Gradient Stabilization of Electron Temperature Gradient Driven Turbulence in a Spherical Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Y.; Kaye, S.M.; Mazzucato, E.; Guttenfelder, W.; Bell, R.E.; Domier, C.W.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Lee, K.C.; Luhmann, N.C. Jr.; Smith, D.R.; Yuh, H.

    2011-01-01

    In this letter we report the first clear experimental observation of density gradient stabilization of electron temperature gradient driven turbulence in a fusion plasma. It is observed that longer wavelength modes, k (perpendicular) ρ s ∼< 10, are most stabilized by density gradient, and the stabilization is accompanied by about a factor of two decrease in the plasma effective thermal diffusivity.

  5. Rank gradient and p-gradient of amalgamated free products and HNN extensions

    OpenAIRE

    Pappas, Nathaniel

    2013-01-01

    We calculate the rank gradient and p-gradient of free products, free products with amalgamation over an amenable subgroup, and HNN extensions with an amenable associated subgroup. The notion of cost is used to compute the rank gradient of amalgamated free products and HNN extensions. For the p-gradient the Kurosh subgroup theorems for amalgamated free products and HNN extensions will be used.

  6. Gradient Dynamics and Entropy Production Maximization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janečka, Adam; Pavelka, Michal

    2018-01-01

    We compare two methods for modeling dissipative processes, namely gradient dynamics and entropy production maximization. Both methods require similar physical inputs-how energy (or entropy) is stored and how it is dissipated. Gradient dynamics describes irreversible evolution by means of dissipation potential and entropy, it automatically satisfies Onsager reciprocal relations as well as their nonlinear generalization (Maxwell-Onsager relations), and it has statistical interpretation. Entropy production maximization is based on knowledge of free energy (or another thermodynamic potential) and entropy production. It also leads to the linear Onsager reciprocal relations and it has proven successful in thermodynamics of complex materials. Both methods are thermodynamically sound as they ensure approach to equilibrium, and we compare them and discuss their advantages and shortcomings. In particular, conditions under which the two approaches coincide and are capable of providing the same constitutive relations are identified. Besides, a commonly used but not often mentioned step in the entropy production maximization is pinpointed and the condition of incompressibility is incorporated into gradient dynamics.

  7. Coupled ion temperature gradient and trapped electron mode to electron temperature gradient mode gyrokinetic simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waltz, R. E.; Candy, J.; Fahey, M.

    2007-01-01

    Electron temperature gradient (ETG) transport is conventionally defined as the electron energy transport at high wave number (high-k) where ions are adiabatic and there can be no ion energy or plasma transport. Previous gyrokinetic simulations have assumed adiabatic ions (ETG-ai) and work on the small electron gyroradius scale. However such ETG-ai simulations with trapped electrons often do not have well behaved nonlinear saturation unless fully kinetic ions (ki) and proper ion scale zonal flow modes are included. Electron energy transport is separated into ETG-ki at high-k and ion temperature gradient-trapped electron mode (ITG/TEM) at low-k. Expensive (more computer-intensive), high-resolution, large-ion-scale flux-tube simulations coupling ITG/TEM and ETG-ki turbulence are presented. These require a high effective Reynolds number R≡[k(max)/k(min)] 2 =μ 2 , where μ=[ρ si /ρ si ] is the ratio of ion to electron gyroradii. Compute times scale faster than μ 3 . By comparing the coupled expensive simulations with (1) much cheaper (less compute-intensive), uncoupled, high-resolution, small, flux-tube ETG-ki and with (2) uncoupled low-resolution, large, flux-tube ITG/TEM simulations, and also by artificially turning ''off'' the low-k or high-k drives, it appears that ITG/TEM and ETG-ki transport are not strongly coupled so long as ETG-ki can access some nonadiabatic ion scale zonal flows and both high-k and low-k are linearly unstable. However expensive coupled simulations are required for physically accurate k-spectra of the transport and turbulence. Simulations with μ≥30 appear to represent the physical range μ>40. ETG-ki transport measured in ion gyro-Bohm units is weakly dependent on μ. For the mid-radius core tokamak plasma parameters studied, ETG-ki is about 10% of the electron energy transport, which in turn is about 30% of the total energy transport (with negligible ExB shear). However at large ExB shear sufficient to quench the low-k ITG

  8. High-gradient electron accelerator powered by a relativisitic klystron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, M.A.; Boyd, J.K.; Callin, R.S.; Deruyter, H.; Eppley, K.R.; Fant, K.S.; Fowkes, W.R.; Haimson, J.; Hoag, H.A.; Hopkins, D.B.; Houck, T.; Koontz, R.F.; Lavine, T.L.; Loew, G.A.; Mecklenburg, B.; Miller, R.H.; Ruth, R.D.; Ryne, R.D.; Sessler, A.M.; Vlieks, A.E.; Wang, J.W.; Westenskow, G.A.; Yu, S.S.

    1989-01-01

    We have used relativistic klystron technology to extract 290 MW of peak power at 11.4 GHz from an induction linac beam, and to power a short 11.4-GHz high-gradient accelerator. We have measured rf phase stability, field emission, and the momentum spectrum of an accelerated electron beam. An average accelerating gradient of 84 MV/m has been achieved with 80 MW of relativistic klystron power

  9. Competition along productivity gradients: news from heathlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delerue, Florian; Gonzalez, Maya; Achat, David L; Puzos, Luc; Augusto, Laurent

    2018-05-01

    The importance of competition in low productive habitats is still debated. Studies which simultaneously evaluate preemption of resources and consequences for population dynamics are needed for a comprehensive view of competitive outcomes. We cultivated two emblematic species of European heathlands (Calluna vulgaris and Molinia caerulea) in a nursery for 2 years at two fertility levels, reproducing the productivity gradient found in phosphorus (P)-depleted heathlands in southwest France. The second year, we planted Ulex europaeus seedlings, a ubiquitous heathland species, under the cover of the two species to evaluate its ability to regenerate. Half of the seedlings were placed in tubes for exclusion of competitor roots. We measured the development of the competitors aboveground and belowground and their interception of resources (light, water, inorganic P). Ulex seedlings' growth and survival were also measured. Our results on resources interception were consistent with species distribution in heathlands. Molinia, which dominates rich heathlands, was the strongest competitor for light and water in the rich soil. Calluna, which dominates poor heathlands, increased its root allocation in the poor soil, decreasing water and inorganic P availability. However, the impact of total competition and root competition on Ulex seedlings decreased in the poor soil. Other mechanisms, especially decrease of water stress under neighbouring plant cover, appeared to have more influence on the seedlings' response. We found no formal contradiction between Tilman and Grime's theories. Root competition has a primary role in acquisition of soil resources in poor habitats. However, the importance of competition decreases with decreasing fertility.

  10. Minimizing inner product data dependencies in conjugate gradient iteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanrosendale, J.

    1983-01-01

    The amount of concurrency available in conjugate gradient iteration is limited by the summations required in the inner product computations. The inner product of two vectors of length N requires time c log(N), if N or more processors are available. This paper describes an algebraic restructuring of the conjugate gradient algorithm which minimizes data dependencies due to inner product calculations. After an initial start up, the new algorithm can perform a conjugate gradient iteration in time c*log(log(N)).

  11. Temperature gradient driven electron transport in NSTX and Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, W.; Wong, H.V.; Morrison, P.J.; Wurm, A.; Kim, J.H.; Perez, J.C.; Pratt, J.; Hoang, G.T.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Ball, R.

    2005-01-01

    Electron thermal fluxes are derived from the power balance for Tore Supra (TS) and NSTX discharges with centrally deposited fast wave electron heating. Measurements of the electron temperature and density profiles, combined with ray tracing computations of the power absorption profiles, allow detailed interpretation of the thermal flux versus temperature gradient. Evidence supporting the occurrence of electron temperature gradient turbulent transport in the two confinement devices is found. With control of the magnetic rotational transform profile and the heating power, internal transport barriers are created in TS and NSTX discharges. These partial transport barriers are argued to be a universal feature of transport equations in the presence of invariant tori that are intrinsic to non-monotonic rotational transforms in dynamical systems

  12. Anomalous plasma transport due to electron temperature gradient instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokuda, Sinji; Ito, Hiroshi; Kamimura, Tetsuo.

    1979-01-01

    The collisionless drift wave instability driven by an electron temperature inhomogeneity (electron temperature gradient instability) and the enhanced transport processes associated with it are studied using a two-and-a-half dimensional particle simulation code. The simulation results show that quasilinear diffusion in phase space is an important mechanism for the saturation of the electron temperature gradient instability. Also, the instability yields particle fluxes toward the hot plasma regions. The heat conductivity of the electron temperature perpendicular to the magnetic field, T sub(e'), is not reduced by magnetic shear but remains high, whereas the heat conductivity of the parallel temperature, T sub(e''), is effectively reduced, and the instability stabilized. (author)

  13. Stabilization of electron-scale turbulence by electron density gradient in national spherical torus experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz Ruiz, J.; White, A. E. [MIT-Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Ren, Y.; Guttenfelder, W.; Kaye, S. M.; Leblanc, B. P.; Mazzucato, E. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Lee, K. C. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Domier, C. W. [University of California at Davis, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Smith, D. R. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Yuh, H. [Nova Photonics, Inc., Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Theory and experiments have shown that electron temperature gradient (ETG) turbulence on the electron gyro-scale, k{sub ⊥}ρ{sub e} ≲ 1, can be responsible for anomalous electron thermal transport in NSTX. Electron scale (high-k) turbulence is diagnosed in NSTX with a high-k microwave scattering system [D. R. Smith et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 123501 (2008)]. Here we report on stabilization effects of the electron density gradient on electron-scale density fluctuations in a set of neutral beam injection heated H-mode plasmas. We found that the absence of high-k density fluctuations from measurements is correlated with large equilibrium density gradient, which is shown to be consistent with linear stabilization of ETG modes due to the density gradient using the analytical ETG linear threshold in F. Jenko et al. [Phys. Plasmas 8, 4096 (2001)] and linear gyrokinetic simulations with GS2 [M. Kotschenreuther et al., Comput. Phys. Commun. 88, 128 (1995)]. We also found that the observed power of electron-scale turbulence (when it exists) is anti-correlated with the equilibrium density gradient, suggesting density gradient as a nonlinear stabilizing mechanism. Higher density gradients give rise to lower values of the plasma frame frequency, calculated based on the Doppler shift of the measured density fluctuations. Linear gyrokinetic simulations show that higher values of the electron density gradient reduce the value of the real frequency, in agreement with experimental observation. Nonlinear electron-scale gyrokinetic simulations show that high electron density gradient reduces electron heat flux and stiffness, and increases the ETG nonlinear threshold, consistent with experimental observations.

  14. Effects of Spatial Gradients on Electron Runaway Acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNeice, Peter; Ljepojevic, N. N.

    1996-01-01

    The runaway process is known to accelerate electrons in many laboratory plasmas and has been suggested as an acceleration mechanism in some astrophysical plasmas, including solar flares. Current calculations of the electron velocity distributions resulting from the runaway process are greatly restricted because they impose spatial homogeneity on the distribution. We have computed runaway distributions which include consistent development of spatial gradients in the energetic tail. Our solution for the electron velocity distribution is presented as a function of distance along a finite length acceleration region, and is compared with the equivalent distribution for the infinitely long homogenous system (i.e., no spatial gradients), as considered in the existing literature. All these results are for the weak field regime. We also discuss the severe restrictiveness of this weak field assumption.

  15. The LLNL/UCLA high gradient inverse free electron laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moody, J. T.; Musumeci, P.; Anderson, G.; Anderson, S.; Betts, S.; Fisher, S.; Gibson, D.; Tremaine, A.; Wu, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, Los Angeles California, 90095 (United States); Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (United States)

    2012-12-21

    We describe the Inverse Free Electron Accelerator currently under construction at Lawrence Livermore National Lab. Upon completion of this accelerator, high brightness electrons generated in the photoinjector blowout regime and accelerated to 50 MeV by S-band accelerating sections will interact with > 4 TW peak power Ti:Sapphire laser in a highly tapered 50 cm undulator and experience an acceleration gradient of > 200 MeV/m. We present the final design of the accelerator as well as the results of start-to-end simulations investigating preservation of beam quality and tolerances involved with this accelerator.

  16. Electron temperature gradient driven instability in the tokamak boundary plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, X.Q.; Rosenbluth, M.N.; Diamond, P.H.

    1992-01-01

    A general method is developed for calculating boundary plasma fluctuations across a magnetic separatrix in a tokamak with a divertor or a limiter. The slab model, which assumes a periodic plasma in the edge reaching the divertor or limiter plate in the scrape-off layer(SOL), should provide a good estimate, if the radial extent of the fluctuation quantities across the separatrix to the edge is small compared to that given by finite particle banana orbit. The Laplace transform is used for solving the initial value problem. The electron temperature gradient(ETG) driven instability is found to grow like t -1/2 e γmt

  17. Instability and transport driven by an electron temperature gradient close to critical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, J.Q.; Jian, G.D.; Wang, A.K.; Sanuki, H.; Itoh, K.

    2003-01-01

    Electron temperature gradient (ETG) driven instability in toroidal plasmas is studied with gyrokinetic theory. The full electron kinetics is considered. The upgraded numerical scheme for solving the integral eigenvalue equations allows the study of both growing and damping modes, and thus direct calculation of critical gradient. Algebraic formulas for the critical gradient with respect to ratio of electron temperature over ion temperature and to toroidicity are given. An estimation for turbulence induced transport is presented. (author)

  18. Gradient-based methods for production optimization of oil reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suwartadi, Eka

    2012-07-01

    Production optimization for water flooding in the secondary phase of oil recovery is the main topic in this thesis. The emphasis has been on numerical optimization algorithms, tested on case examples using simple hypothetical oil reservoirs. Gradientbased optimization, which utilizes adjoint-based gradient computation, is used to solve the optimization problems. The first contribution of this thesis is to address output constraint problems. These kinds of constraints are natural in production optimization. Limiting total water production and water cut at producer wells are examples of such constraints. To maintain the feasibility of an optimization solution, a Lagrangian barrier method is proposed to handle the output constraints. This method incorporates the output constraints into the objective function, thus avoiding additional computations for the constraints gradient (Jacobian) which may be detrimental to the efficiency of the adjoint method. The second contribution is the study of the use of second-order adjoint-gradient information for production optimization. In order to speedup convergence rate in the optimization, one usually uses quasi-Newton approaches such as BFGS and SR1 methods. These methods compute an approximation of the inverse of the Hessian matrix given the first-order gradient from the adjoint method. The methods may not give significant speedup if the Hessian is ill-conditioned. We have developed and implemented the Hessian matrix computation using the adjoint method. Due to high computational cost of the Newton method itself, we instead compute the Hessian-timesvector product which is used in a conjugate gradient algorithm. Finally, the last contribution of this thesis is on surrogate optimization for water flooding in the presence of the output constraints. Two kinds of model order reduction techniques are applied to build surrogate models. These are proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) and the discrete empirical interpolation method (DEIM

  19. Regulation of electron temperature gradient turbulence by zonal flows driven by trapped electron modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asahi, Y.; Ishizawa, A.; Watanabe, T.-H.; Tsutsui, H.; Tsuji-Iio, S.

    2014-05-01

    Turbulent transport caused by electron temperature gradient (ETG) modes was investigated by means of gyrokinetic simulations. It was found that the ETG turbulence can be regulated by meso-scale zonal flows driven by trapped electron modes (TEMs), which are excited with much smaller growth rates than those of ETG modes. The zonal flows of which radial wavelengths are in between the ion and the electron banana widths are not shielded by trapped ions nor electrons, and hence they are effectively driven by the TEMs. It was also shown that an E × B shearing rate of the TEM-driven zonal flows is larger than or comparable to the growth rates of long-wavelength ETG modes and TEMs, which make a main contribution to the turbulent transport before excitation of the zonal flows.

  20. Average electron content gradients and nighttime electron fluxes in the mid-latitude ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebel, A.; Schmidt, G.; Tauriainen, A.

    1976-01-01

    Observations of the total electron content (TEC) made at Lindau (52 0 N, 10 0 E) by means of low orbiting satellites during the period March 1970 to December 1972 enabled evaluation of the meridional component of the TEC gradient over the station. The behaviour of this component is investigated in connection with the temporal TEC changes using the medians of both quantities. The gradient reflects well known seasonal changes in the ionosphere such as the semiannual anomaly around noon which leads to relatively strong TEC increases towards the south (up to 9 x 10 15 m -2 degree -1 ). For the time shortly after midnight, a second semiannual variation of the gradient shows up with enhanced southward TEC increases. Regular northward ionization increases are found near sunrise in summer. Average TEC increases or markedly reduced decreases during the night were obtained for almost every month during the observation period. This special phenomenon of the nighttime ionosphere is discussed with respect to maximum input fluxes of different kinds, which would be necessary to produce the observed effects. Under normal nighttime conditions, the TEC gradients can lead to changes in the ionization of up to 3 x 10 12 m -2 s -1 due to horizontal plasma transport, when electric fields of reasonable strength (approximately 2 mV/m) are present. (author)

  1. Radioisotope production with electron accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brinkman, G.A.

    1978-01-01

    The production of radio isotopes with electron accelerators proceeds mainly by secondary photons (bremsstrahlung), produced in an interaction between the electrons and the Coulomb field of the nuclei of a converter. The production yields depend on: the initial electron energy, the Z and thickness of the bremsstrahlung-converter, the Z, A and the thickness of the target, the geometric set up and the cross section for a particular reaction. In this article the production is only considered for thin bremsstrahlung converters in combination with an electron 'sweep' magnet. Simple formulae are given for the calculations of production yields under standard conditions with only sigmasub(q) (the cross section per equivalent quantum) and f (the fraction of the photons that hit the target) as variables and for the calculations of the dose rate at the production point. The units in which the yields are expressed in the literature (units of sigmasub(q) dose, electron beam intensity, monitor response) are discussed. (Auth.)

  2. Setting MEPS for electronic products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siderius, Hans-Paul

    2014-01-01

    When analysing price, performance and efficiency data for 15 consumer electronic and information and communication technology products, we found that in general price did not relate to the efficiency of the product. Prices of electronic products with comparable performance decreased over time. For products where the data allowed fitting the relationship, we found an exponential decrease in price with an average time constant of −0.30 [1/year], meaning that every year the product became 26% cheaper on average. The results imply that the classical approach of setting minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) by means of life cycle cost calculations cannot be applied to electronic products. Therefore, an alternative approach based on the improvement of efficiency over time and the variation in efficiency of products on the market, is presented. The concept of a policy action window can provide guidance for the decision on whether setting MEPS for a certain product is appropriate. If the (formal) procedure for setting MEPS takes longer than the policy action window, this means that the efficiency improvement will also be achieved without setting MEPS. We found short, i.e. less than three years, policy action windows for graphic cards, network attached storage products, network switches and televisions. - Highlights: • For electronic consumer products price does not relate to efficiency. • Average price decrease of selected electronic products is 26 % per year. • We give an alternative approach to life cycle cost calculations for setting MEPS. • The policy action window indicates whether setting MEPS is appropriate

  3. Electron-temperature-gradient-driven drift waves and anomalous electron energy transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, P.K.; Murtaza, G.; Weiland, J.

    1990-01-01

    By means of a kinetic description for ions and Braginskii's fluid model for electrons, three coupled nonlinear equations governing the dynamics of low-frequency short-wavelength electrostatic waves in the presence of equilibrium density temperature and magnetic-field gradients in a two-component magnetized plasma are derived. In the linear limit a dispersion relation that admits new instabilities of drift waves is presented. An estimate of the anomalous electron energy transport due to non-thermal drift waves is obtained by making use of the saturated wave potential, which is deduced from the mixing-length hypothesis. Stationary solutions of the nonlinear equations governing the interaction of linearly unstable drift waves are also presented. The relevance of this investigation to wave phenomena in space and laboratory plasmas is pointed out. (author)

  4. Longitudinal wake field for an electron beam accelerated through a ultra-high field gradient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geloni, G.; Saldin, E.; Schneidmiller, E.; Yurkov, M.

    2006-12-15

    Electron accelerators with higher and higher longitudinal field gradients are desirable, as they allow for the production of high energy beams by means of compact and cheap setups. The new laser-plasma acceleration technique appears to constitute the more promising breakthrough in this direction, delivering unprecedent field gradients up to TV/m. In this article we give a quantitative description of the impact of longitudinal wake fields on the electron beam. Our paper is based on the solution of Maxwell's equations for the longitudinal field. Our conclusions are valid when the acceleration distance is much smaller than the the overtaking length, that is the length that electrons travel as a light signal from the tail of the bunch overtakes the head of the bunch. This condition is well verified for laser-plasma devices. We calculate a closed expression for the impedance and the wake function that may be evaluated numerically. It is shown that the rate of energy loss in the bunch due to radiative interaction is equal to the energy emitted through coherent radiation in the far-zone. Furthermore, an expression is found for the asymptotic limit of a large distance of the electron beam from the accelerator compared with the overtaking length. Such expression allows us to calculate analytical solutions for a Gaussian transverse and longitudinal bunch shape. Finally, we study the feasibility of Table-Top Free-Electron Lasers in the Vacuum Ultra-Violet (TT-VUV FEL) and X-ray range (TT-XFEL), respectively based on 100 MeV and 1 GeV laser-plasma accelerator drivers. Numerical estimations presented in this paper indicate that the effects of the time-dependent energy change induced by the longitudinal wake pose a serious threat to the operation of these devices. (orig.)

  5. Carbon footprinting of electronic products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasan, Arvind; Sood, Bhanu; Pecht, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Challenges in adopting existing CF standards for electronic products are discussed. • Carbon footprint of electronic products is underestimated using existing standards. • Multipronged approach is presented to overcome the identified challenges. • Multipronged approach demonstrated on commercial and military grade DC–DC converter system. - Abstract: In order to mitigate the effects of global warming, companies are being compelled by governments, investors, and customers to control their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Similar to the European Union’s legislation on the airline industry, legislation is expected to require the electronics industry to assess their product’s carbon footprint before sale or use, as the electronics industry’s contribution to global GHG emissions is comparable to the airline industry’s contribution. Thus, it is necessary for members of the electronics industry to assess their current GHG emission rates and identify methods to reduce environmental impacts. Organizations use Carbon Footprint (CF) analysis methods to identify and quantify the GHG emissions associated with the life cycle stages of their product or services. This paper discusses the prevailing methods used by organizations to estimate the CF of their electronics products and identifies the challenges faced by the electronics industry when adopting these methods in an environment of decreasing product development cycles with complex and diffuse supply chains. We find that, as a result of the inconsistencies arising from the system boundary selection methods and databases, the use of outdated LCA approaches, and the lack of supplier’s emissions-related data, the CFs of electronic products are typically underestimated. To address these challenges, we present a comprehensive approach to the carbon footprinting of electronic products that involves the use of product-group-oriented standards, hybrid life cycle assessment techniques, and the

  6. Dynamics of electrons in gradient nanostructures (exactly solvable model)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shvartsburg, A. B.; Kuzmiak, Vladimír; Petite, G.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 72, č. 1 (2009), s. 77-88 ISSN 1434-6028 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20670512 Keywords : wave propagation * tunneling * electronic transport Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.466, year: 2009

  7. Saturation mechanism of decaying ion temperature gradient driven turbulence with kinetic electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idomura, Yasuhiro

    2016-01-01

    We present full-f gyrokinetic simulations of the ion temperature gradient driven (ITG) turbulence including kinetic electrons. By comparing decaying ITG turbulence simulations with adiabatic and kinetic electron models, an impact of kinetic electrons on the ITG turbulence is investigated. It is found that significant electron transport occurs even in the ITG turbulence, and both ion and electron temperature profiles are relaxed. In steady states, both cases show upshifts of nonlinear critical ion temperature gradients from linear ones, while their saturation mechanisms are qualitatively different. In the adiabatic electron case, the ITG mode is stabilized by turbulence driven zonal flows. On the other hand, in the kinetic electron case, passing electrons transport shows fine resonant structures at mode rational surfaces, which generate corrugated density profiles. Such corrugated density profiles lead to fine radial electric fields following the neoclassical force balance relation. The resulting E × B shearing rate greatly exceeds the linear growth rate of the ITG mode. (author)

  8. The impact of edge gradients in the pressure, density, ion temperature, and electron temperature on edge-localized modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleva, Robert G.; Guzdar, Parvez N.

    2011-01-01

    The magnitude of the energy and particle fluxes in simulations of edge-localized modes (ELMs) is determined by the edge gradients in the pressure, density, ion temperature, and electron temperature. The total edge pressure gradient is the dominant influence on ELMs by far. An increase (decrease) of merely 2% in the pressure gradient results in an increase (decrease) of more than a factor of ten in the size of the ELM bursts. At a fixed pressure gradient, the size of the ELM bursts decreases as the density gradient increases, while the size of the bursts increases as the electron temperature gradient or, especially, the ion temperature gradient increases.

  9. Product differentiation during continuous-flow thermal gradient PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crews, Niel; Wittwer, Carl; Palais, Robert; Gale, Bruce

    2008-06-01

    A continuous-flow PCR microfluidic device was developed in which the target DNA product can be detected and identified during its amplification. This in situ characterization potentially eliminates the requirement for further post-PCR analysis. Multiple small targets have been amplified from human genomic DNA, having sizes of 108, 122, and 134 bp. With a DNA dye in the PCR mixture, the amplification and unique melting behavior of each sample is observed from a single fluorescent image. The melting behavior of the amplifying DNA, which depends on its molecular composition, occurs spatially in the thermal gradient PCR device, and can be observed with an optical resolution of 0.1 degrees C pixel(-1). Since many PCR cycles are within the field of view of the CCD camera, melting analysis can be performed at any cycle that contains a significant quantity of amplicon, thereby eliminating the cycle-selection challenges typically associated with continuous-flow PCR microfluidics.

  10. Observation of 690 MV m-1 Electron Accelerating Gradient with a Laser-Driven Dielectric Microstructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wootton, K.P.; Wu, Z.; /SLAC; Cowan, B.M.; /Tech-X, Boulder; Hanuka, A.; /SLAC /Technion; Makasyuk, I.V.; /SLAC; Peralta, E.A.; Soong, K.; Byer, R.L.; /Stanford U.; England, R.J.; /SLAC

    2016-06-27

    Acceleration of electrons using laser-driven dielectric microstructures is a promising technology for the miniaturization of particle accelerators. In this work, experimental results are presented of relativistic electron acceleration with 690±100 MVm-1 gradient. This is a record-high accelerating gradient for a dielectric microstructure accelerator, nearly doubling the previous record gradient. To reach higher acceleration gradients the present experiment employs 90 fs duration laser pulses.

  11. Effects of finite electron temperature on gradient drift instabilities in partially magnetized plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhin, V. P.; Ilgisonis, V. I.; Smolyakov, A. I.; Sorokina, E. A.; Marusov, N. A.

    2018-01-01

    The gradient-drift instabilities of partially magnetized plasmas in plasma devices with crossed electric and magnetic fields are investigated in the framework of the two-fluid model with finite electron temperature in an inhomogeneous magnetic field. The finite electron Larmor radius (FLR) effects are also included via the gyroviscosity tensor taking into account the magnetic field gradient. This model correctly describes the electron dynamics for k⊥ρe>1 in the sense of Padé approximants (here, k⊥ and ρe are the wavenumber perpendicular to the magnetic field and the electron Larmor radius, respectively). The local dispersion relation for electrostatic plasma perturbations with the frequency in the range between the ion and electron cyclotron frequencies and propagating strictly perpendicular to the magnetic field is derived. The dispersion relation includes the effects of the equilibrium E ×B electron current, finite ion velocity, electron inertia, electron FLR, magnetic field gradients, and Debye length effects. The necessary and sufficient condition of stability is derived, and the stability boundary is found. It is shown that, in general, the electron inertia and FLR effects stabilize the short-wavelength perturbations. In some cases, such effects completely suppress the high-frequency short-wavelength modes so that only the long-wavelength low-frequency (with respect to the lower-hybrid frequency) modes remain unstable.

  12. Laser pulse propagation and enhanced energy coupling to fast electrons in dense plasma gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, R J; Carroll, D C; Yuan, X H; Brenner, C M; Coury, M; Quinn, M N; Tresca, O; McKenna, P; Burza, M; Wahlström, C-G; Lancaster, K L; Neely, D; Lin, X X; Li, Y T

    2014-01-01

    Laser energy absorption to fast electrons during the interaction of an ultra-intense (10 20 W cm −2 ), picosecond laser pulse with a solid is investigated, experimentally and numerically, as a function of the plasma density scale length at the irradiated surface. It is shown that there is an optimum density gradient for efficient energy coupling to electrons and that this arises due to strong self-focusing and channeling driving energy absorption over an extended length in the preformed plasma. At longer density gradients the laser filaments, resulting in significantly lower overall energy coupling. As the scale length is further increased, a transition to a second laser energy absorption process is observed experimentally via multiple diagnostics. The results demonstrate that it is possible to significantly enhance laser energy absorption and coupling to fast electrons by dynamically controlling the plasma density gradient. (paper)

  13. Experimental observation of electron-temperature-gradient turbulence in a laboratory plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattoo, S K; Singh, S K; Awasthi, L M; Singh, R; Kaw, P K

    2012-06-22

    We report the observation of electron-temperature-gradient (ETG) driven turbulence in the laboratory plasma of a large volume plasma device. The removal of unutilized primary ionizing and nonthermal electrons from uniform density plasma and the imposition and control of the gradient in the electron temperature (T[Symbol: see text] T(e)) are all achieved by placing a large (2 m diameter) magnetic electron energy filter in the middle of the device. In the dressed plasma, the observed ETG turbulence in the lower hybrid range of frequencies ν = (1-80 kHz) is characterized by a broadband with a power law. The mean wave number k perpendicular ρ(e) = (0.1-0.2) satisfies the condition k perpendicular ρ(e) ≤ 1, where ρ(e) is the electron Larmor radius.

  14. Optimization of flexible substrate by gradient elastic modulus design for performance improvement of flexible electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Minggang; Liang, Chunping; Hu, Ruixue; Cheng, Zhaofang; Liu, Shiru; Zhang, Shengli

    2018-05-01

    It is imperative and highly desirable to buffer the stress in flexible electronic devices. In this study, we designed and fabricated lamellate poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) samples with gradient elastic moduli, motivated by the protection of the pomelo pulp by its skin, followed by the measurements of their elastic moduli. We demonstrated that the electrical and fatigue performances of a Ag-nanowire thin film device on the PDMS substrate with a gradient elastic modulus are significantly better than those of a device on a substrate with a monolayer PDMS. This study provides a robust scheme to effectively protect flexible electronic devices.

  15. Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication of Titanium Alloy Gradient Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brice, Craig A.; Newman, John A.; Bird, Richard Keith; Shenoy, Ravi N.; Baughman, James M.; Gupta, Vipul K.

    2014-01-01

    Historically, the structural optimization of aerospace components has been done through geometric methods. A monolithic material is chosen based on the best compromise between the competing design limiting criteria. Then the structure is geometrically optimized to give the best overall performance using the single material chosen. Functionally graded materials offer the potential to further improve structural efficiency by allowing the material composition and/or microstructural features to spatially vary within a single structure. Thus, local properties could be tailored to the local design limiting criteria. Additive manufacturing techniques enable the fabrication of such graded materials and structures. This paper presents the results of a graded material study using two titanium alloys processed using electron beam freeform fabrication, an additive manufacturing process. The results show that the two alloys uniformly mix at various ratios and the resultant static tensile properties of the mixed alloys behave according to rule-of-mixtures. Additionally, the crack growth behavior across an abrupt change from one alloy to the other shows no discontinuity and the crack smoothly transitions from one crack growth regime into another.

  16. The chirped-pulse inverse free-electron laser: A high-gradient vacuum laser accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartemann, F.V.; Landahl, E.C.; Troha, A.L.; Van Meter, J.R.; Baldis, H.A.; Freeman, R.R.; Luhmann, N.C. Jr.; Song, L.; Kerman, A.K.; Yu, D.U.

    1999-01-01

    The inverse free-electron laser (IFEL) interaction is studied theoretically and computationally in the case where the drive laser intensity approaches the relativistic regime, and the pulse duration is only a few optical cycles long. The IFEL concept has been demonstrated as a viable vacuum laser acceleration process; it is shown here that by using an ultrashort, ultrahigh-intensity drive laser pulse, the IFEL interaction bandwidth and accelerating gradient are increased considerably, thus yielding large energy gains. Using a chirped pulse and negative dispersion focusing optics allows one to take further advantage of the laser optical bandwidth and produce a chromatic line focus maximizing the gradient. The combination of these novel ideas results in a compact vacuum laser accelerator capable of accelerating picosecond electron bunches with a high gradient (GeV/m) and very low energy spread. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  17. Focusing of relativistic electrons in dense plasma using a resistivity-gradient-generated magnetic switchyard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, A P L; Key, M H; Tabak, M

    2012-03-23

    A method for producing a self-generated magnetic focussing structure for a beam of laser-generated relativistic electrons using a complex array of resistivity gradients is proposed and demonstrated using numerical simulations. The array of resistivity gradients is created by using a target consisting of alternating layers of different Z material. This new scheme is capable of effectively focussing the fast electrons even when the source is highly divergent. The application of this technique to cone-guided fast ignition inertial confinement fusion is considered, and it is shown that it may be possible to deposit over 25% of the fast electron energy into a hot spot even when the fast electron divergence angle is very large (e.g., 70° half-angle).

  18. The electron temperature gradient instability in presence of a limiter with tilted plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farina, D.; Pozzoli, R.; Ryutov, D.

    1994-01-01

    The analysis of the electron temperature gradient instability in the scrape-off layer is generalized to the case of non-orthogonal intersections of the magnetic field with the wall surface, a situation which is most typical for a tokamak with a limiter. (orig.)

  19. The effect of electron thermal conduction on plasma pressure gradient during reconnection of magnetic field lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, T.K.

    1987-12-01

    The interplay of electron cross-field thermal conduction and the reconnection of magnetic field lines around an m = 1 magnetic island prior to a sawtooth crash can generate a large pressure gradient in a boundary layer adjacent to the reconnecting surface, leading to an enhanced gradient of poloidal beta to satisfy the threshold condition for ideal MHD modes. This narrow boundary layer and the short onset time of a sawtooth crash can be supported by fine-grained turbulent processes in a tokamak plasma. 11 refs

  20. Temperature gradient scale length measurement: A high accuracy application of electron cyclotron emission without calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houshmandyar, S., E-mail: houshmandyar@austin.utexas.edu; Phillips, P. E.; Rowan, W. L. [Institute for Fusion Studies, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Yang, Z. J. [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Hubbard, A. E.; Rice, J. E.; Hughes, J. W.; Wolfe, S. M. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02129 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Calibration is a crucial procedure in electron temperature (T{sub e}) inference from a typical electron cyclotron emission (ECE) diagnostic on tokamaks. Although the calibration provides an important multiplying factor for an individual ECE channel, the parameter ΔT{sub e}/T{sub e} is independent of any calibration. Since an ECE channel measures the cyclotron emission for a particular flux surface, a non-perturbing change in toroidal magnetic field changes the view of that channel. Hence the calibration-free parameter is a measure of T{sub e} gradient. B{sub T}-jog technique is presented here which employs the parameter and the raw ECE signals for direct measurement of electron temperature gradient scale length.

  1. Nonlinear theory of trapped electron temperature gradient driven turbulence in flat density H-mode plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahm, T.S.

    1990-12-01

    Ion temperature gradient turbulence based transport models have difficulties reconciling the recent DIII-D H-mode results where the density profile is flat, but χ e > χ i in the core region. In this work, a nonlinear theory is developed for recently discovered ion temperature gradient trapped electron modes propagating in the electron diamagnetic direction. This instability is predicted to be linearly unstable for L Ti /R approx-lt κ θ ρ s approx-lt (L Ti /R) 1/4 . They are also found to be strongly dispersive even at these long wavelengths, thereby suggesting the importance of the wave-particle-wave interactions in the nonlinear saturation phase. The fluctuation spectrum and anomalous fluxes are calculated. In accordance with the trends observed in DIII-D, the predicted electron thermal diffusivity can be larger than the ion thermal diffusivity. 17 refs., 3 figs

  2. Electronic Animal Drug Product Listing Directory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Electronic Animal Drug Product Listing Directory is a directory of all animal drug products that have been listed electronically since June 1, 2009, to comply...

  3. WDM production with intense relativistic electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Josh; Andrews, Heather; Klasky, Mark; Colgan, James; Burris-Mog, Trevor; Creveling, Dan; Miller, Craig; Welch, Dale; Berninger, Mike

    2016-10-01

    The production of warm dense matter (WDM) through collisional heating with intense relativistic electrons is underway. A 100-ns-long monochromatic bunch of electrons with energies of 19.1-19.8 MeV and currents of 0.2-1.7 kA is used to heat 100- μm-thick foils with Z measuring the equation of state with particle beams and benchmark numerical models. Measurements indicate the formation of a warm dense plasma near the end of the pulse, which is on the order of the beam size. These plasmas expand 5 mm in the first microsecond and slow down to 1018 cm-3. At these densities our plasma is collisionally dominated making it possible to spectrally model the density and temperature in LTE. Preliminary density gradient measurements will also be presented indicating the spatial extent of the solid density cutoff. This work was supported by the National Nuclear Se- curity Administration of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC52-06NA25396.

  4. Role of Density Gradient Driven Trapped Electron Modes in the H-Mode Inner Core with Electron Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, D.

    2015-11-01

    We present new experiments and nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations showing that density gradient driven TEM (DGTEM) turbulence dominates the inner core of H-Mode plasmas during strong electron heating. Thus α-heating may degrade inner core confinement in H-Mode plasmas with moderate density peaking. These DIII-D low torque quiescent H-mode experiments were designed to study DGTEM turbulence. Gyrokinetic simulations using GYRO (and GENE) closely match not only particle, energy, and momentum fluxes, but also density fluctuation spectra, with and without ECH. Adding 3.4 MW ECH doubles Te /Ti from 0.5 to 1.0, which halves the linear TEM critical density gradient, locally flattening the density profile. Density fluctuations from Doppler backscattering (DBS) intensify near ρ = 0.3 during ECH, displaying a band of coherent fluctuations with adjacent toroidal mode numbers. GYRO closely reproduces the DBS spectrum and its change in shape and intensity with ECH, identifying these as coherent TEMs. Prior to ECH, parallel flow shear lowers the effective nonlinear DGTEM critical density gradient 50%, but is negligible during ECH, when transport displays extreme stiffness in the density gradient. GS2 predictions show the DGTEM can be suppressed, to avoid degradation with electron heating, by broadening the current density profile to attain q0 >qmin > 1 . A related experiment in the same regime varied the electron temperature gradient in the outer half-radius (ρ ~ 0 . 65) using ECH, revealing spatially coherent 2D mode structures in the Te fluctuations measured by ECE imaging. Fourier analysis with modulated ECH finds a threshold in Te profile stiffness. Supported by the US DOE under DE-FC02-08ER54966 and DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  5. Effects of bunch density gradient in high-gain free-electron lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Z.; Kim, K.-J.

    1999-01-01

    The authors investigate effects of the bunch density gradient in self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE), including the role of coherent spontaneous emission (CSE) in the evolution of the free-electron laser (FEL) process. In the exponential gain regime, the authors solve the coupled Maxwell-Vlasov equations and extend the linear theory to a bunched beam with energy spread. A time-dependent, nonlinear simulation algorithm is used to study the CSE effect and the nonlinear evolution of the radiation pulse

  6. High frequency electric field spikes formed by electron beam-plasma interaction in plasma density gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunell, H.; Loefgren, T.

    1997-02-01

    In the electron beam-plasma interaction at an electric double layer the beam density is much higher than in the classical beam-plasma experiments. The wave propagation takes place along the density gradient, that is present at the high potential side of the double layer. Such a case is studied experimentally by injecting the electron beam from a plane cathode, without any grids suppressing the gradient, and by particle simulations. The high frequency field concentrates in a sharp 'spike' with a half width of the order of one wavelength. The spike is found to be a standing wave surrounded by regions dominated by propagating waves. It forms at a position where its frequency is close to the local plasma frequency. The spike forms also when the electric field is well below the threshold for modulational instability, and long before a density cavity is formed in the simulations. Particle simulations reveal that, at the spike, there is a backward travelling wave that, when it is strongly damped, accelerates electrons back towards the cathode. In a simulation of a homogeneous plasma without the density gradient no spike is seen, and the wave is purely travelling instead of standing. 9 refs

  7. Electric field spikes formed by electron beam endash plasma interaction in plasma density gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunell, H.; Loefgren, T.

    1997-01-01

    In the electron beam endash plasma interaction at an electric double layer the beam density is much higher than in the classical beam endash plasma experiments. The wave propagation takes place along the density gradient that is present at the high potential side of the double layer. Such a case is studied experimentally by injecting the electron beam from a plane cathode, without any grids suppressing the gradient, and by particle simulations. The high frequency field concentrates in a sharp open-quotes spikeclose quotes with a half width of the order of one wavelength. The spike is found to be a standing wave surrounded by regions dominated by propagating waves. It forms at a position where its frequency is close to the local plasma frequency. The spike forms also when the electric field is well below the threshold for modulational instability, and long before a density cavity is formed in the simulations. Particle simulations reveal that, at the spike, there is a backward traveling wave that, when it is strongly damped, accelerates electrons back towards the cathode. In a simulation of a homogeneous plasma without the density gradient no spike is seen, and the wave is purely travelling instead of standing. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  8. Electron thermal energy transport research based on dynamical relationship between heat flux and temperature gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notake, Takashi; Inagaki, Shigeru; Tamura, Naoki

    2008-01-01

    In the nuclear fusion plasmas, both of thermal energy and particle transport governed by turbulent flow are anomalously enhanced more than neoclassical levels. Thus, to clarify a relationship between the turbulent flow and the anomalous transports has been the most worthwhile work. There are experimental results that the turbulent flow induces various phenomena on transport processes such as non-linearity, transition, hysteresis, multi-branches and non-locality. We are approaching these complicated problems by analyzing not conventional power balance but these phenomena directly. They are recognized as dynamical trajectories in the flux and gradient space and must be a clue to comprehend a physical mechanism of arcane anomalous transport. Especially, to elucidate the mechanism for electron thermal energy transport is critical in the fusion plasma researches because the burning plasmas will be sustained by alpha-particle heating. In large helical device, the dynamical relationships between electron thermal energy fluxes and electron temperature gradients are investigated by using modulated electron cyclotron resonance heating and modern electron cyclotron emission diagnostic systems. Some trajectories such as hysteresis loop or line segments with steep slope which represent non-linear property are observed in the experiment. (author)

  9. Properties of ion temperature gradient and trapped electron modes in tokamak plasmas with inverted density profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Huarong; Jhang, Hogun; Hahm, T. S.; Dong, J. Q.; Wang, Z. X.

    2017-12-01

    We perform a numerical study of linear stability of the ion temperature gradient (ITG) mode and the trapped electron mode (TEM) in tokamak plasmas with inverted density profiles. A local gyrokinetic integral equation is applied for this study. From comprehensive parametric scans, we obtain stability diagrams for ITG modes and TEMs in terms of density and temperature gradient scale lengths. The results show that, for the inverted density profile, there exists a normalized threshold temperature gradient above which the ITG mode and the TEM are either separately or simultaneously unstable. The instability threshold of the TEM for the inverted density profile is substantially different from that for normal and flat density profiles. In addition, deviations are found on the ITG threshold from an early analytic theory in sheared slab geometry with the adiabatic electron response [T. S. Hahm and W. M. Tang, Phys. Fluids B 1, 1185 (1989)]. A possible implication of this work on particle transport in pellet fueled tokamak plasmas is discussed.

  10. Experimental study of electron temperature gradient influence on impurity turbulent transport in fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villegas, D.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding impurity transport is a key to an optimal regime for a future fusion device. In this thesis, the theoretical and experimental influence of the electron temperature gradient R/L Te on heavy impurity transport is analyzed both in Tore Supra and ASDEX Upgrade. The electron temperature profile is modified locally by heating the plasma with little ECRH power deposited at two different radii. Experimental results have been obtained with the impurity transport code (ITC) which has been completed with a genetic algorithm allowing to determine the transport coefficient profiles with more accuracy. Transport coefficient profiles obtained by a quasilinear gyrokinetic code named QuaLiKiz are consistent with the experimental ones despite experimental uncertainties on gradients. In the core dominated by electron modes, the lower R/L Te the lower the nickel diffusion coefficient. The latter tends linearly to the neoclassical level when the instability threshold is approached. The experimental threshold is in agreement with the one computed by QuaLiKiz. Further out, where the plasma is dominated by ITG, which are independent of R/L Te , both experimental and simulated results show no modification in the diffusion coefficient profile. Furthermore, the convection velocity profile is not modified. This is attributed to a very small contribution of the thermodiffusion (1/Z dependence) in the total convection. On ASDEX, the preliminary results, very different from the Tore Supra ones, show a internal transport barrier for impurities located at the same radius as the strong ECRH power deposit. (author) [fr

  11. US-Total Electron Content Product (USTEC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The US Total Electron Content (US-TEC) product is designed to specify TEC over the Continental US (CONUS) in near real-time. The product uses a Kalman Filter data...

  12. Nonlinear features of the electron temperature gradient mode and electron thermal transport in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaw, P.K.; Singh, R.; Weiland, J.G.

    2001-01-01

    Analytical investigations of several linear and nonlinear features of ETG turbulence are reported. The linear theory includes effects such as finite beta induced electromagnetic shielding, coupling to electron magnetohydrodynamic modes like whistlers etc. It is argued that nonlinearly, turbulence and transport are dominated by radially extended modes called 'streamers'. A nonlinear mechanism generating streamers based on a modulational instability theory of the ETG turbulence is also presented. The saturation levels of the streamers using a Kelvin Helmholtz secondary instability mechanism are calculated and levels of the electron thermal transport due to streamers are estimated. (author)

  13. Electronic structure and electric fields gradients of crystalline Sn(II) and Sn(IV) compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terra, J.; Guenzburger, D.

    1991-01-01

    The electronic structures of clusters representing crystalline compounds of Sn(II) and Sn(IV) were investigated, employing the first-principles Discrete Variational method and Local Density theory. Densities of states and related parameters were obtained and compared with experimental measurements and with results from band structure calculations. Effects of cluster size and of cluster truncated bonds are discussed. Electric field gradients at the Sn nucleus were calculated; results are analysed in terms of charge distribution and chemical bonding in the crystals. (author)

  14. Electron critical gradient scale length measurements of ICRF heated L-mode plasmas at Alcator C-Mod tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houshmandyar, S.; Hatch, D. R.; Horton, C. W.; Liao, K. T.; Phillips, P. E.; Rowan, W. L.; Zhao, B.; Cao, N. M.; Ernst, D. R.; Greenwald, M.; Howard, N. T.; Hubbard, A. E.; Hughes, J. W.; Rice, J. E.

    2018-04-01

    A profile for the critical gradient scale length (Lc) has been measured in L-mode discharges at the Alcator C-Mod tokamak, where electrons were heated by an ion cyclotron range of frequency through minority heating with the intention of simultaneously varying the heat flux and changing the local gradient. The electron temperature gradient scale length (LTe-1 = |∇Te|/Te) profile was measured via the BT-jog technique [Houshmandyar et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87, 11E101 (2016)] and it was compared with electron heat flux from power balance (TRANSP) analysis. The Te profiles were found to be very stiff and already above the critical values, however, the stiffness was found to be reduced near the q = 3/2 surface. The measured Lc profile is in agreement with electron temperature gradient (ETG) models which predict the dependence of Lc-1 on local Zeff, Te/Ti, and the ratio of the magnetic shear to the safety factor. The results from linear Gene gyrokinetic simulations suggest ETG to be the dominant mode of turbulence in the electron scale (k⊥ρs > 1), and ion temperature gradient/trapped electron mode modes in the ion scale (k⊥ρs < 1). The measured Lc profile is in agreement with the profile of ETG critical gradients deduced from Gene simulations.

  15. The potentially neglected culprit of DC surface flashover: electron migration under temperature gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuanyang; Hu, Jun; Lin, Chuanjie; He, Jinliang

    2017-06-12

    This report intends to reveal the role of electron migration and its effects in triggering direct current (DC) surface flashover under temperature gradient conditions when using epoxy-based insulating composites. The surface potential and the surface flashover voltage are both measured using insulators that are bridged between two thermo-regulated electrodes. The space charge injection and migration properties under different temperature are detected. The results show that the surface potential rises significantly because of electron migration near the high voltage (HV) electrode under high temperature conditions, thus creating an "analogous ineffective region". The expansion of this "analogous ineffective region" results in most of the voltage drop occurring near the ground electrode, which serves as an important factor triggering positive streamers across the insulation surface. This work is helpful in understanding of DC surface flashover mechanism from a new perspective and also has important significance in design of a suitable DC insulator to avoid surface flashover problem.

  16. Gradient ascent pulse engineering approach to CNOT gates in donor electron spin quantum computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, D.-B.; Goan, H.-S.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate how gradient ascent pulse engineering (GRAPE) optimal control methods can be implemented on donor electron spin qubits in semiconductors with an architecture complementary to the original Kane's proposal. We focus on the high fidelity controlled-NOT (CNOT) gate and we explicitly find the digitized control sequences for a controlled-NOT gate by optimizing its fidelity using the effective, reduced donor electron spin Hamiltonian with external controls over the hyperfine A and exchange J interactions. We then simulate the CNOT-gate sequence with the full spin Hamiltonian and find that it has an error of 10 -6 that is below the error threshold of 10 -4 required for fault-tolerant quantum computation. Also the CNOT gate operation time of 100 ns is 3 times faster than 297 ns of the proposed global control scheme.

  17. Linear and nonlinear dynamics of electron temperature gradient mode in non-Maxwellian plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakir, U.; Qamar, A. [Institute of Physics and Electronics, University of Peshawar, Peshawar (Pakistan); Haque, Q. [Theoretical Plasma Physics Division, PINSTECH, Islamabad (Pakistan); National Centre for Physics, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2013-05-15

    The effect of non-Maxwellian distributed ions on electron temperature gradient mode is investigated. The linear dispersion relation of η{sub e}−mode is obtained which shows that the behavior of this mode changes in the presence of superthermal ions. The growth rate of η{sub e}−mode driven linear instability is found and is observed to modify due to nonthermal ions. However, it is found that this leaves the electron energy transport coefficient unchanged. In the nonlinear regime, a dipolar vortex solution is derived which indicates that the dynamic behavior of the vortices changes with the inclusion of kappa distributed ions. The importance of present study with respect to space and laboratory plasmas is also pointed out.

  18. Free-electron laser as a power source for a high-gradient accelerating structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sessler, A.M.

    1982-02-01

    A two beam colliding linac accelerator is proposed in which one beam is intense (approx. = 1KA), of low energy (approx. = MeV), and long (approx. = 100 ns) and provides power at 1 cm wavelength through a free-electron-laser-mechanism to the second beam of a few electrons (approx. = 10 11 ), which gain energy at the rate of 250 MeV/m in a high-gradient accelerating structure and hence reach 375 GeV in 1.5 km. The intense beam is given energy by induction units and gains, and losses by radiation, 250 keV/m thus supplying 25 J/m to the accelerating structure. The luminosity, L, of two such linacs would be, at a repetition rate of 1 kHz, L = 4. x 10 32 cm -2 s -1

  19. Direct Measurements of Oxygen Gradients in Spheroid Culture System Using Electron Parametric Resonance Oximetry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M Langan

    Full Text Available Advanced in vitro culture from tissues of different origin includes three-dimensional (3D organoid micro structures that may mimic conditions in vivo. One example of simple 3D culture is spheroids; ball shaped structures typically used as liver and tumour models. Oxygen is critically important in physiological processes, but is difficult to quantify in 3D culture: and the question arises, how small does a spheroid have to be to have minimal micro-environment formation? This question is of particular importance in the growing field of 3D based models for toxicological assessment. Here, we describe a simple non-invasive approach modified for the quantitative measurement and subsequent evaluation of oxygen gradients in spheroids developed from a non-malignant fish cell line (i.e. RTG-2 cells using Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR oximetry. Sonication of the paramagnetic probe Lithium phthalocyanine (LiPc allows for incorporation of probe particulates into spheroid during its formation. Spectra signal strength after incorporation of probe into spheroid indicated that a volume of 20 μl of probe (stock solution: 0.10 mg/mL is sufficient to provide a strong spectra across a range of spheroid sizes. The addition of non-toxic probes (that do not produce or consume oxygen report on oxygen diffusion throughout the spheroid as a function of size. We provide evidence supporting the use of this model over a range of initial cell seeding densities and spheroid sizes with the production of oxygen distribution as a function of these parameters. In our spheroid model, lower cell seeding densities (∼2,500 cells/spheroid and absolute size (118±32 μm allow control of factors such as pre-existing stresses (e.g. ∼ 2% normoxic/hypoxic interface for more accurate measurement of treatment response. The applied methodology provides an elegant, widely applicable approach to directly characterize spheroid (and other organoid cultures in biomedical and

  20. Green electronics manufacturing creating environmental sensible products

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, John X

    2012-01-01

    Going ""green"" is becoming a major component of the mission for electronics manufacturers worldwide. While this goal seems simplistic, it poses daunting dilemmas. Yet, to compete effectively in the global economy, manufacturers must take the initiative to drive this crucial movement. Green Electronics Manufacturing: Creating Environmental Sensible Products provides you with a complete reference to design, develop, build, and install an electronic product with special consideration for the product's environmental impacts during its whole life cycle. The author discusses how to integrate the st

  1. Electric dipole moment planning with a resurrected BNL Alternating Gradient Synchrotron electron analog ring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard M. Talman

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available There has been much recent interest in directly measuring the electric dipole moments (EDM of the proton and the electron, because of their possible importance in the present day observed matter/antimatter imbalance in the Universe. Such a measurement will require storing a polarized beam of “frozen spin” particles, 15 MeV electrons or 230 MeV protons, in an all-electric storage ring. Only one such relativistic electric accelerator has ever been built—the 10 MeV “electron analog” ring at Brookhaven National Laboratory in 1954; it can also be referred to as the “AGS analog” ring to make clear it was a prototype for the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS proton ring under construction at that time at BNL. (Its purpose was to investigate nonlinear resonances as well as passage through “transition” with the newly invented alternating gradient proton ring design. By chance this electron ring, long since dismantled and its engineering drawings disappeared, would have been appropriate both for measuring the electron EDM and to serve as an inexpensive prototype for the arguably more promising, but 10 times more expensive, proton EDM measurement. Today it is cheaper yet to “resurrect” the electron analog ring by simulating its performance computationally. This is one purpose for the present paper. Most existing accelerator simulation codes cannot be used for this purpose because they implicitly assume magnetic bending. The new ual/eteapot code, described in detail in an accompanying paper, has been developed for modeling storage ring performance, including spin evolution, in electric rings. Illustrating its use, comparing its predictions with the old observations, and describing new expectations concerning spin evolution and code performance, are other goals of the paper. To set up some of these calculations has required a kind of “archeological physics” to reconstitute the detailed electron analog lattice design from a

  2. Transport through dissipative trapped electron mode and toroidal ion temperature gradient mode in TEXTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogister, A.; Hasselberg, G.; Waelbroeck, F.; Weiland, J.

    1987-12-01

    A self-consistent transport code is used to evaluate how plasma confinement in tokamaks is influenced by the microturbulent fields which are excited by the dissipative trapped electron (DTE) instability. As shown previously, the saturation theory on which the code is based has been developed from first principles. The toroidal coupling resulting from the ion magnetic drifts is neglected; arguments are presented to justify this approximation. The numerical results reproduce well the neo-Alcator scaling law observed experimentally - e.g. in TEXTOR - in non detached ohmic discharges, the confinement degradation which results when auxiliary heating is applied, as well as a large number of other experimental observations. We also assess the possible impact of the toroidal ion temperature gradient mode on energy confinement by estimating the ion thermal flux with the help of the mixing length approximation. (orig./GG)

  3. Electronic and Optical Properties of TiS_2 Determined from Generalized Gradient Approximation Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Kouch, Hamza; Farh, Larbi El; Sayah, Jamal; Challioui, Allal

    2015-01-01

    The electronic and optical properties of TiS_2 are studied by using an ab-initio calculation within the frame of density functional theory. A linearized and augmented plane wave basis set with the generalized gradient approximation as proposed by Perdew et al. is used for the energy exchange-correlation determination. The results show a metallic character of TiS_2, and the plots of total and partial densities of states of TiS_2 show the metallic character of the bonds and a strong hybridization between the states d of Ti and p of S below the Fermi energy. The optical properties of the material such as real and imaginary parts of dielectric constant (ϵ(ω) = ϵ_1(ω) + iϵ_2(ω)), refractive index n(ω), optical reflectivity R(ω), for E//x and E//z are performed for the energy range of 0–14 eV. (paper)

  4. Shrubland primary production and soil respiration diverge along European climate gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinsch, Sabine; Koller, Eva; Sowerby, Alwyn

    2017-01-01

    uncertain. Here we show the responses of ecosystem C to 8-12 years of experimental drought and night-time warming across an aridity gradient spanning seven European shrublands using indices of C assimilation (aboveground net primary production: aNPP) and soil C efflux (soil respiration: Rs). The changes...

  5. Modelling the population dynamics of root hemiparasitic plants along a productivity gradient

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fibich, P.; Lepš, J.; Berec, Luděk

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 4 (2010), s. 425-442 ISSN 1211-9520 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD206/08/H044 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : hemiparasites * light competition * productivity gradient Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.229, year: 2010

  6. Climate controls on forest productivity along the climate gradient of the western Sierra Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, A. E.; Goulden, M. L.

    2010-12-01

    The broad climate gradient of the slopes of the western Sierra Nevada mountains supports ecosystems spanning extremes of productivity, biomass, and function. We are using this natural environmental gradient to understand how climate controls NPP, aboveground biomass, species' range limits, and phenology. Our experimental approach combines eddy covariance, sap flow, dendrometer, and litterfall measurements in combination with soil and hydrological data from the Southern Sierra Critical Zone Observatory (SSCZO). We have found that above about 2500 m, forest productivity is limited by winter cold, while below 1200 m, productivity is likely limited by summer drought. The sweet spot between these elevations has a nearly year-long growing season despite a snowpack that persists for as long as six months. Our results show that small differences in temperature can markedly alter the water balance and productivity of mixed conifer forests.

  7. Nonlinear structure formation in ion-temperature-gradient driven drift waves in pair-ion plasma with nonthermal electron distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzaq, Javaria; Haque, Q.; Khan, Majid; Bhatti, Adnan Mehmood; Kamran, M.; Mirza, Arshad M.

    2018-02-01

    Nonlinear structure formation in ion-temperature-gradient (ITG) driven waves is investigated in pair-ion plasma comprising ions and nonthermal electrons (kappa, Cairns). By using the transport equations of the Braginskii model, a new set of nonlinear equations are derived. A linear dispersion relation is obtained and discussed analytically as well as numerically. It is shown that the nonthermal population of electrons affects both the linear and nonlinear characteristics of the ITG mode in pair-ion plasma. This work will be useful in tokamaks and stellarators where non-Maxwellian population of electrons may exist due to resonant frequency heating, electron cyclotron heating, runaway electrons, etc.

  8. Effects of parallel dynamics on vortex structures in electron temperature gradient driven turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakata, M.; Watanabe, T.-H.; Sugama, H.; Horton, W.

    2011-01-01

    Vortex structures and related heat transport properties in slab electron temperature gradient (ETG) driven turbulence are comprehensively investigated by means of nonlinear gyrokinetic Vlasov simulations, with the aim of elucidating the underlying physical mechanisms of the transition from turbulent to coherent states. Numerical results show three different types of vortex structures, i.e., coherent vortex streets accompanied with the transport reduction, turbulent vortices with steady transport, and a zonal-flow-dominated state, depending on the relative magnitude of the parallel compression to the diamagnetic drift. In particular, the formation of coherent vortex streets is correlated with the strong generation of zonal flows for the cases with weak parallel compression, even though the maximum growth rate of linear ETG modes is relatively large. The zonal flow generation in the ETG turbulence is investigated by the modulational instability analysis with a truncated fluid model, where the parallel dynamics such as acoustic modes for electrons is incorporated. The modulational instability for zonal flows is found to be stabilized by the effect of the finite parallel compression. The theoretical analysis qualitatively agrees with secondary growth of zonal flows found in the slab ETG turbulence simulations, where the transition of vortex structures is observed.

  9. Global gradients in vertebrate diversity predicted by historical area-productivity dynamics and contemporary environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Jetz

    Full Text Available Broad-scale geographic gradients in species richness have now been extensively documented, but their historical underpinning is still not well understood. While the importance of productivity, temperature, and a scale dependence of the determinants of diversity is broadly acknowledged, we argue here that limitation to a single analysis scale and data pseudo-replication have impeded an integrated evolutionary and ecological understanding of diversity gradients. We develop and apply a hierarchical analysis framework for global diversity gradients that incorporates an explicit accounting of past environmental variation and provides an appropriate measurement of richness. Due to environmental niche conservatism, organisms generally reside in climatically defined bioregions, or "evolutionary arenas," characterized by in situ speciation and extinction. These bioregions differ in age and their total productivity and have varied over time in area and energy available for diversification. We show that, consistently across the four major terrestrial vertebrate groups, current-day species richness of the world's main 32 bioregions is best explained by a model that integrates area and productivity over geological time together with temperature. Adding finer scale variation in energy availability as an ecological predictor of within-bioregional patterns of richness explains much of the remaining global variation in richness at the 110 km grain. These results highlight the separate evolutionary and ecological effects of energy availability and provide a first conceptual and empirical integration of the key drivers of broad-scale richness gradients. Avoiding the pseudo-replication that hampers the evolutionary interpretation of non-hierarchical macroecological analyses, our findings integrate evolutionary and ecological mechanisms at their most relevant scales and offer a new synthesis regarding global diversity gradients.

  10. Production of radioactivity in local soil at AGS [Alternating Gradient Synchrotron] fast neutrino beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gollon, P.J.; Rohrig, N.; Hauptmann, M.G.; McIntyre, K.; Miltenberger, R.; Naidu, J.

    1989-10-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has constructed a new neutrino production target station at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS). A study has been conducted in the vicinity of the old target area to determine the radiological consequences of operating this experimental facility. Results from all areas of the study are presented along with estimates of the potential environmental impact of the old and new facilities. 12 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs

  11. Electronic cigarettes: product characterisation and design considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Christopher J; Cheng, James M

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review the available evidence regarding electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) product characterisation and design features in order to understand their potential impact on individual users and on public health. Methods Systematic literature searches in 10 reference databases were conducted through October 2013. A total of 14 articles and documents and 16 patents were included in this analysis. Results Numerous disposable and reusable e-cigarette product options exist, representing w...

  12. Thermoelectric properties of high electron concentration materials under large temperature gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulat, L.P.; Stefansky, V.A.

    1994-01-01

    Theoretical methods of investigating of transport properties in solids under large temperature gradients are grounded. The nonlinear and non-local expressions for current density and heat flow are obtained with degenerated of current carriers gas. A number of new effects with large temperature gradients have been tested. Use of large temperature gradients leads to the increasing of the thermoelectric figure of merit. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  13. Production of Medical Isotopes with Electron Linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotsch, D A; Alford, K.; Bailey, J. L.; Bowers, D. L.; Brossard, T.; Brown, M. A.; Chemerisov, S. D.; Ehst, D.; Greene, J.; Gromov, R. G.; Grudzinski, J.J.; Hafenrichter, L.; Hebden, A. S.; Henning, W.; Heltemes, T. A.; Jerden, J.; Jonah, C. D.; Kalensky, M.; Krebs, J. F.; Makarashvili, V.; Micklich, B.; Nolen, J.; Quigley, K. J.; Schneider, J. F.; Smith, N. A.; Stepinski, D. C.; Sun, Z.; Tkac, P.; Vandegrift, G. F.; Virgo, M J; Wesolowski, K. A.; Youker, A. J.

    2017-06-01

    Radioisotopes play important roles in numerous areas ranging from medical treatments to national security and basic research. Radionuclide production technology for medical applications has been pursued since the early 1900s both commercially and in nuclear science centers. Many medical isotopes are now in routine production and are used in day-to-day medical procedures. Despite these advancements, research is accelerating around the world to improve the existing production methodologies as well as to develop novel radionuclides for new medical appli-cations. Electron linear accelerators (linacs) represent a unique method for the production of radioisotopes. Even though the basic technology has been around for decades, only recently have electron linacs capable of producing photons with sufficient energy and flux for radioisotope production become available. Housed in Argonne Nation-al Laboratory’s Low Energy Accelerator Facility (LEAF) is a newly upgraded 55 MeV/25-kW electron linear ac-celerator, capable of producing a wide range of radioiso-topes. This talk will focus on the work being performed for the production of the medical isotopes 99Mo (99Mo/99mTc generator), 67Cu, and 47Sc.

  14. Electronic tagging and integrated product intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swerdlow, Martin; Weeks, Brian

    1996-03-01

    The advent of 'intelligent,' electronic data bearing tags is set to revolutionize the way industrial and retail products are identified and tracked throughout their life cycles. The dominant system for unique identification today is the bar code, which is based on printed symbology and regulated by the International Article Numbering Association. Bar codes provide users with significant operational advantages and generate considerable added value to packaging companies, product manufacturers, distributors and retailers, across supply chains in many different sectors, from retailing, to baggage handling and industrial components, e.g., for vehicles or aircraft. Electronic tags offer the potential to: (1) record and store more complex data about the product or any modifications which occur during its life cycle; (2) access (and up-date) stored data in real time in a way which does not involve contact with the product or article; (3) overcome the limitations imposed by systems which rely on line-of-sight access to stored data. Companies are now beginning to consider how electronic data tags can be used, not only to improve the efficiency of their supply chain processes, but also to revolutionize the way they do business. This paper reviews the applications and business opportunities for electronic tags and outlines CEST's strategy for achieving an 'open' standard which will ensure that tags from different vendors can co-exist on an international basis.

  15. The structure of the latidudinal total electron content (T.E.C.). Gradients over mid-latitude stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keroub, I.H.

    1976-01-01

    New results concerning the day gradients of Total Electron Contents (T.E.C.) in Haifa region were obtained by the method specific for the determination of TEC in the transverse zone. The latitudinal gradients thus obtained agree with the results obtained by topside sounding (Alouette 1 satellite). A quantitative explanation of the results yielded by the classical counting method is presented. Il implies that all day TEC data obtained by the counting methods in stations situated at middle geomagnetic latitudes such as Haifa, must be corrected

  16. Assessment of plasma impedance probe for measuring electron density and collision frequency in a plasma with spatial and temporal gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkins, Mark A.; King, Lyon B.

    2014-01-01

    Numerical simulations and experimental measurements were combined to determine the ability of a plasma impedance probe (PIP) to measure plasma density and electron collision frequency in a plasma containing spatial gradients as well as time-varying oscillations in the plasma density. A PIP is sensitive to collision frequency through the width of the parallel resonance in the Re[Z]-vs.-frequency characteristic, while also being sensitive to electron density through the zero-crossing of the Im[Z]-vs.-frequency characteristic at parallel resonance. Simulations of the probe characteristic in a linear plasma gradient indicated that the broadening of Re[Z] due to the spatial gradient obscured the broadening due to electron collision frequency, preventing a quantitative measurement of the absolute collision frequency for gradients considered in this study. Simulation results also showed that the PIP is sensitive to relative changes in electron collision frequency in a spatial density gradient, but a second broadening effect due to time-varying oscillations made collision frequency measurements impossible. The time-varying oscillations had the effect of causing multiple zero-crossings in Im[Z] at parallel resonance. Results of experiments and simulations indicated that the lowest-frequency zero-crossing represented the lowest plasma density in the oscillations and the highest-frequency zero-crossing represented the highest plasma density in the oscillations, thus the PIP probe was found to be an effective tool to measure both the average plasma density as well as the maximum and minimum densities due to temporal oscillations

  17. Net primary productivity and its partitioning in response to precipitation gradient in an alpine meadow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fangyue; Quan, Quan; Song, Bing; Sun, Jian; Chen, Youjun; Zhou, Qingping; Niu, Shuli

    2017-11-09

    The dynamics of net primary productivity (NPP) and its partitioning to the aboveground versus belowground are of fundamental importance to understand carbon cycling and its feedback to climate change. However, the responses of NPP and its partitioning to precipitation gradient are poorly understood. We conducted a manipulative field experiment with six precipitation treatments (1/12 P, 1/4 P, 1/2 P, 3/4 P, P, and 5/4 P, P is annual precipitation) in an alpine meadow to examine aboveground and belowground NPP (ANPP and BNPP) in response to precipitation gradient in 2015 and 2016. We found that changes in precipitation had no significant impact on ANPP or belowground biomass in 2015. Compared with control, only the extremely drought treatment (1/12 P) significantly reduced ANPP by 37.68% and increased BNPP at the depth of 20-40 cm by 80.59% in 2016. Across the gradient, ANPP showed a nonlinear response to precipitation amount in 2016. Neither BNPP nor NPP had significant relationship with precipitation changes. The variance in ANPP were mostly due to forbs production, which was ultimately caused by altering soil water content and soil inorganic nitrogen concentration. The nonlinear precipitation-ANPP relationship indicates that future precipitation changes especially extreme drought will dramatically decrease ANPP and push this ecosystem beyond threshold.

  18. 21 CFR 1003.2 - Defect in an electronic product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Defect in an electronic product. 1003.2 Section... electronic product. For the purpose of this part, an electronic product shall be considered to have a defect which relates to the safety of use by reason of the emission of electronic product radiation if: (a) It...

  19. Semi-local machine-learned kinetic energy density functional with third-order gradients of electron density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seino, Junji; Kageyama, Ryo; Fujinami, Mikito; Ikabata, Yasuhiro; Nakai, Hiromi

    2018-06-01

    A semi-local kinetic energy density functional (KEDF) was constructed based on machine learning (ML). The present scheme adopts electron densities and their gradients up to third-order as the explanatory variables for ML and the Kohn-Sham (KS) kinetic energy density as the response variable in atoms and molecules. Numerical assessments of the present scheme were performed in atomic and molecular systems, including first- and second-period elements. The results of 37 conventional KEDFs with explicit formulae were also compared with those of the ML KEDF with an implicit formula. The inclusion of the higher order gradients reduces the deviation of the total kinetic energies from the KS calculations in a stepwise manner. Furthermore, our scheme with the third-order gradient resulted in the closest kinetic energies to the KS calculations out of the presented functionals.

  20. Evaluation of extreme ionospheric total electron content gradient associated with plasma bubbles for GNSS Ground-Based Augmentation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, S.; Yoshihara, T.

    2017-08-01

    Associated with plasma bubbles, extreme spatial gradients in ionospheric total electron content (TEC) were observed on 8 April 2008 at Ishigaki (24.3°N, 124.2°E, +19.6° magnetic latitude), Japan. The largest gradient was 3.38 TECU km-1 (total electron content unit, 1 TECU = 1016 el m-2), which is equivalent to an ionospheric delay gradient of 540 mm km-1 at the GPS L1 frequency (1.57542 GHz). This value is confirmed by using multiple estimating methods. The observed value exceeds the maximum ionospheric gradient that has ever been observed (412 mm km-1 or 2.59 TECU km-1) to be associated with a severe magnetic storm. It also exceeds the assumed maximum value (500 mm km-1 or 3.08 TECU km-1) which was used to validate the draft international standard for Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Ground-Based Augmentation Systems (GBAS) to support Category II/III approaches and landings. The steepest part of this extreme gradient had a scale size of 5.3 km, and the front-normal velocities were estimated to be 71 m s-1 with a wavefront-normal direction of east-northeastward. The total width of the transition region from outside to inside the plasma bubble was estimated to be 35.3 km. The gradient of relatively small spatial scale size may fall between an aircraft and a GBAS ground subsystem and may be undetectable by both aircraft and ground.

  1. Net primary production of forest-forming species in climatic gradients of Eurasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Usoltsev

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available When using biomass and net primary production (NPP databases compiled by the authors for 6 forest-forming species in a number of 6694 and 2192 sample plots correspondingly, a system of regression models of their NPP is designed and some species-specific regularities of NPP distribution in two climatic gradients (natural zonality and climate continentality are stated. It is found that according to a zonal gradient, aboveground and total NPP in 2-needled pine and spruce-fir forests are monotonically increasing in the direction from the northern to the southern tip of the continent, while larch and birch have the maximum in the southern moderate, and aspen and poplar – in the northern moderate zone, but oak forests do not show any significant pattern. Within a single zonal belt, the aboveground and total NPP of coniferous and deciduous are monotonically decreasing in direction from the Atlantic and Pacific coasts to the continentality pole in Yakutia. The understory NPP of all the species, except oak, monotonically increase towards the subequatorial zone. For oak forests, any clear regularity is not revealed. Within a single zonal belt, when approaching continentality pole, Pinus and Quercus NPP monotonically decreases and in other species, increases. Species-specific patterns in changing the relative indices of NPP (forest stand underground NPP to aboveground one and forest understory NPP to total forest stand one in gradients of the natural zonality and climate continentality are established.

  2. Characterization of cocoa production, income diversification and shade tree management along a climate gradient in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jassogne, Laurence; Graefe, Sophie; Asare, Richard; Van Asten, Piet; Läderach, Peter; Vaast, Philippe

    2018-01-01

    Reduced climatic suitability due to climate change in cocoa growing regions of Ghana is expected in the coming decades. This threatens farmers’ livelihood and the cocoa sector. Climate change adaptation requires an improved understanding of existing cocoa production systems and farmers’ coping strategies. This study characterized current cocoa production, income diversification and shade tree management along a climate gradient within the cocoa belt of Ghana. The objectives were to 1) compare existing production and income diversification between dry, mid and wet climatic regions, and 2) identify shade trees in cocoa agroforestry systems and their distribution along the climatic gradient. Our results showed that current mean cocoa yield level of 288kg ha-1yr-1 in the dry region was significantly lower than in the mid and wet regions with mean yields of 712 and 849 kg ha-1 yr-1, respectively. In the dry region, farmers diversified their income sources with non-cocoa crops and off-farm activities while farmers at the mid and wet regions mainly depended on cocoa (over 80% of annual income). Two shade systems classified as medium and low shade cocoa agroforestry systems were identified across the studied regions. The medium shade system was more abundant in the dry region and associated to adaptation to marginal climatic conditions. The low shade system showed significantly higher yield in the wet region but no difference was observed between the mid and dry regions. This study highlights the need for optimum shade level recommendation to be climatic region specific. PMID:29659629

  3. Forest biomass, productivity and carbon cycling along a rainfall gradient in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Sam; Adu-Bredu, Stephen; Duah-Gyamfi, Akwasi; Addo-Danso, Shalom D; Ibrahim, Forzia; Mbou, Armel T; de Grandcourt, Agnès; Valentini, Riccardo; Nicolini, Giacomo; Djagbletey, Gloria; Owusu-Afriyie, Kennedy; Gvozdevaite, Agne; Oliveras, Imma; Ruiz-Jaen, Maria C; Malhi, Yadvinder

    2018-02-01

    Net Primary Productivity (NPP) is one of the most important parameters in describing the functioning of any ecosystem and yet it arguably remains a poorly quantified and understood component of carbon cycling in tropical forests, especially outside of the Americas. We provide the first comprehensive analysis of NPP and its carbon allocation to woody, canopy and root growth components at contrasting lowland West African forests spanning a rainfall gradient. Using a standardized methodology to study evergreen (EF), semi-deciduous (SDF), dry forests (DF) and woody savanna (WS), we find that (i) climate is more closely related with above and belowground C stocks than with NPP (ii) total NPP is highest in the SDF site, then the EF followed by the DF and WS and that (iii) different forest types have distinct carbon allocation patterns whereby SDF allocate in excess of 50% to canopy production and the DF and WS sites allocate 40%-50% to woody production. Furthermore, we find that (iv) compared with canopy and root growth rates the woody growth rate of these forests is a poor proxy for their overall productivity and that (v) residence time is the primary driver in the productivity-allocation-turnover chain for the observed spatial differences in woody, leaf and root biomass across the rainfall gradient. Through a systematic assessment of forest productivity we demonstrate the importance of directly measuring the main components of above and belowground NPP and encourage the establishment of more permanent carbon intensive monitoring plots across the tropics. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Spectral-Product Methods for Electronic Structure Calculations (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Langhoff, P. W; Mills, J. E; Boatz, J. A

    2006-01-01

    .... The spectral-product approach to molecular electronic structure avoids the repeated evaluations of the one- and two-electron integrals required in construction of polyatomic Hamiltonian matrices...

  5. Spectral-Product Methods for Electronic Structure Calculations (Postprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Langhoff, P. W; Hinde, R. J; Mills, J. D; Boatz, J. A

    2007-01-01

    .... The spectral-product approach to molecular electronic structure avoids the repeated evaluations of the one- and two-electron integrals required in construction of polyatomic Hamiltonian matrices...

  6. Electronic cigarettes: product characterisation and design considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christopher J; Cheng, James M

    2014-05-01

    To review the available evidence regarding electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) product characterisation and design features in order to understand their potential impact on individual users and on public health. Systematic literature searches in 10 reference databases were conducted through October 2013. A total of 14 articles and documents and 16 patents were included in this analysis. Numerous disposable and reusable e-cigarette product options exist, representing wide variation in product configuration and component functionality. Common e-cigarette components include an aerosol generator, a flow sensor, a battery and a nicotine-containing solution storage area. e-cigarettes currently include many interchangeable parts, enabling users to modify the character of the delivered aerosol and, therefore, the product's 'effectiveness' as a nicotine delivery product. Materials in e-cigarettes may include metals, rubber and ceramics. Some materials may be aerosolised and have adverse health effects. Several studies have described significant performance variability across and within e-cigarette brands. Patent applications include novel product features designed to influence aerosol properties and e-cigarette efficiency at delivering nicotine. Although e-cigarettes share a basic design, engineering variations and user modifications result in differences in nicotine delivery and potential product risks. e-cigarette aerosols may include harmful and potentially harmful constituents. Battery explosions and the risks of exposure to the e-liquid (especially for children) are also concerns. Additional research will enhance the current understanding of basic e-cigarette design and operation, aerosol production and processing, and functionality. A standardised e-cigarette testing regime should be developed to allow product comparisons.

  7. Benthic algal production across lake size gradients: interactions among morphometry, nutrients, and light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadeboncoeur, Yvonne; Peterson, Garry; Vander Zanden, M Jake; Kalff, Jacob

    2008-09-01

    Attached algae play a minor role in conceptual and empirical models of lake ecosystem function but paradoxically form the energetic base of food webs that support a wide variety of fishes. To explore the apparent mismatch between perceived limits on contributions of periphyton to whole-lake primary production and its importance to consumers, we modeled the contribution of periphyton to whole-ecosystem primary production across lake size, shape, and nutrient gradients. The distribution of available benthic habitat for periphyton is influenced by the ratio of mean depth to maximum depth (DR = z/ z(max)). We modeled total phytoplankton production from water-column nutrient availability, z, and light. Periphyton production was a function of light-saturated photosynthesis (BPmax) and light availability at depth. The model demonstrated that depth ratio (DR) and light attenuation strongly determined the maximum possible contribution of benthic algae to lake production, and the benthic proportion of whole-lake primary production (BPf) declined with increasing nutrients. Shallow lakes (z benthic or pelagic primary productivity depending on trophic status. Moderately deep oligotrophic lakes had substantial contributions by benthic primary productivity at low depth ratios and when maximum benthic photosynthesis was moderate or high. Extremely large, deep lakes always had low fractional contributions of benthic primary production. An analysis of the world's largest lakes showed that the shapes of natural lakes shift increasingly toward lower depth ratios with increasing depth, maximizing the potential importance of littoral primary production in large-lake food webs. The repeatedly demonstrated importance of periphyton to lake food webs may reflect the combination of low depth ratios and high light penetration characteristic of large, oligotrophic lakes that in turn lead to substantial contributions of periphyton to autochthonous production.

  8. Electron temperature gradient mode instability and stationary vortices with elliptic and circular boundary conditions in non-Maxwellian plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haque, Q. [Theoretical Physics Division, PINSTECH, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Zakir, U. [Department of Physics, University of Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtun Khwa 25000 (Pakistan); Department of Physics, University of Malakand, Khyber Pakhtun Khwa 18800 (Pakistan); Qamar, A. [Department of Physics, University of Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtun Khwa 25000 (Pakistan)

    2015-12-15

    Linear and nonlinear dynamics of electron temperature gradient mode along with parallel electron dynamics is investigated by considering hydrodynamic electrons and non-Maxwellian ions. It is noticed that the growth rate of η{sub e}-mode driven linear instability decreases by increasing the value of spectral index and increases by reducing the ion/electron temperature ratio along the magnetic field lines. The eigen mode dispersion relation is also found in the ballooning mode limit. Stationary solutions in the form of dipolar vortices are obtained for both circular and elliptic boundary conditions. It is shown that the dynamics of both circular and elliptic vortices changes with the inclusion of inhomogeneity and non-Maxwellian effects.

  9. Electron temperature gradient mode instability and stationary vortices with elliptic and circular boundary conditions in non-Maxwellian plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Q.; Zakir, U.; Qamar, A.

    2015-12-01

    Linear and nonlinear dynamics of electron temperature gradient mode along with parallel electron dynamics is investigated by considering hydrodynamic electrons and non-Maxwellian ions. It is noticed that the growth rate of ηe-mode driven linear instability decreases by increasing the value of spectral index and increases by reducing the ion/electron temperature ratio along the magnetic field lines. The eigen mode dispersion relation is also found in the ballooning mode limit. Stationary solutions in the form of dipolar vortices are obtained for both circular and elliptic boundary conditions. It is shown that the dynamics of both circular and elliptic vortices changes with the inclusion of inhomogeneity and non-Maxwellian effects.

  10. The effect of vocal fold vertical stiffness gradient on sound production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Biao; Xue, Qian; Zheng, Xudong

    2015-11-01

    It is observed in some experimental studies on canine vocal folds (VFs) that the inferior aspect of the vocal fold (VF) is much stiffer than the superior aspect under relatively large strain. Such vertical difference is supposed to promote the convergent-divergent shape during VF vibration and consequently facilitate the production of sound. In this study, we investigate the effect of vertical variation of VF stiffness on sound production using a numerical model. The vertical variation of stiffness is produced by linearly increasing the Young's modulus and shear modulus from the superior to inferior aspects in the cover layer, and its effect on phonation is examined in terms of aerodynamic and acoustic quantities such as flow rate, open quotient, skewness of flow wave form, sound intensity and vocal efficiency. The flow-induced vibration of the VF is solved with a finite element solver coupled with 1D Bernoulli equation, which is further coupled with a digital waveguide model. This study is designed to find out whether it's beneficial to artificially induce the vertical stiffness gradient by certain implanting material in VF restoring surgery, and if it is beneficial, what gradient is the most favorable.

  11. Methane Carbon Isotopic Composition Reveals Changing Production Pathways Across a Gradient of Permafrost Thaw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocci, K.; Burke, S. A.; Clariza, P.; Malhotra, A.; McCalley, C. K.; Verbeke, B. A.; Werner, S. L.; Roulet, N. T.; Varner, R. K.

    2017-12-01

    Methane (CH4) emission in areas of discontinuous permafrost may increase with warming temperatures resulting in a positive feedback to climate change. Characterizing the production pathways of CH4, which may be inferred by measuring carbon isotopes, can help determine underlying mechanistic changes. We studied CH4 flux and isotopic composition of porewater (δ13C-CH4) in a sub-arctic peatland in Abisko, Sweden to understand controls on these factors across a thaw gradient during four growing seasons. Methane chamber flux measurements and porewater samples were collected in July 2013, and over the growing seasons of 2014 to 2016. Samples were analyzed on a Gas Chromatograph with a Flame Ionization Detector for CH4 concentrations and a Quantum Cascade Laser for carbon isotopes. Increased emission rates and changing isotopic signatures were observed across the thaw gradient throughout the growing season. While CH4 flux increased with increases in temperature and shallower water table, δ13C-CH4 exhibited a seasonal pattern that did not correlate with measured environmental variables, suggesting dependence on other factors. The most significant controlling factor for both flux and isotopic signature was plant community composition, specifically, the presence of graminoid species. Graminoid cover increases with thaw stage so both CH4 emissions and δ13C-CH4 are likely to increase in a warmer world, suggesting a shift toward the acetoclastic pathway of methane production.

  12. Production of a monoenergetic electron bunch in a self-injected laser-wakefield accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, C.-L.; Hsieh, C.-T.; Ho, Y.-C.; Chen, Y.-S.; Lin, J.-Y.; Wang, J.; Chen, S.-Y.

    2007-01-01

    Production of a monoenergetic electron bunch in a self-injected laser-wakefield accelerator is investigated with a tomographic method which resolves the electron injection and acceleration processes. It is found that all the electrons in the monoenergetic electron bunch are injected at the same location in the plasma column and then accelerated with an acceleration gradient exceeding 2 GeV/cm. The injection position shifts with the position of pump-pulse focus, and no significant deceleration is observed for the monoenergetic electron bunch after it reaches the maximum energy. The results are consistent with the model of transverse wave breaking and beam loading for the injection of monoenergetic electrons. The tomographic method adds a crucial dimension to the whole array of existing diagnostics for laser beams, plasma waves, and electron beams. With this method the details of the underlying physical processes in laser-plasma interactions can be resolved and compared directly to particle-in-cell simulations

  13. Electron irradiation of dry food products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruenewald, Th.

    1983-01-01

    The interest of the industrial food producer is increasing in having the irradiation facility installed in the food processing chain. The throughput of the irradiator should be high and the residence time of the product in the facility should be short. These conditions can be accomplished by electron irradiators. To clarify the irradiation conditions spices taken out of the industrial process, food grade salt, sugar, and gums as models of dry food products were irradiated. With a radiation dose of 10 kGy microbial load can be reduced on 10**4 microorganisms/g. The sensory properties of the spices were not changed in an atypical way. For food grade salt and sugar changes of colour were observed which are due to lattice defects or initiated browning. The irradiation of several gums led only in some cases to an improvement of the thickness properties in the application below 50 deg C, in most cases the thickness effect was reduced. The products were packaged before irradiation. But it would be possible also to irradiate the products without packaging moving the product through the irradiation field in a closed conveyor system. (author)

  14. Electron irradiation of dry food products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruenewald, Th [Bundesbahn-Zentralamt, Minden (Germany, F.R.)

    1983-01-01

    The interest of the industrial food producer is increasing in having the irradiation facility installed in the food processing chain. The throughput of the irradiator should be high and the residence time of the product in the facility should be short. These conditions can be accomplished by electron irradiators. To clarify the irradiation conditions spices taken out of the industrial process, food grade salt, sugar, and gums as models of dry food products were irradiated. With a radiation dose of 10 kGy microbial load can be reduced on 10**4 microorganisms/g. The sensory properties of the spices were not changed in an atypical way. For food grade salt and sugar changes of colour were observed which are due to lattice defects or initiated browning. The irradiation of several gums led only in some cases to an improvement of the thickness properties in the application below 50 deg C, in most cases the thickness effect was reduced. The products were packaged before irradiation. But it would be possible also to irradiate the products without packaging moving the product through the irradiation field in a closed conveyor system.

  15. Digital HCAL Electronics: Status of Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drake, Gary; Repond, Jose, E-mail: drake@hep.anl.gov [Argonne National Laboratory (United States)

    2011-04-01

    This is a status report of the production of the readout electronics for the Digital Hadron Calorimeter (DHCAL) prototype. The prototype will be equipped with Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs), read out with 1 x 1 cm{sup 2} pads. The readout of each channel is simplified to provide a yes or no (digital readout) within a time bin of 100 ns. Each detector layer with an area of 96 x 96 cm{sup 2} contains close to 10,000 readout channels. The total channel count for the entire prototype calorimeter with 38 active layers is approximately 350,000.

  16. Temperate grassland songbird species accumulate incrementally along a gradient of primary productivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William L Harrower

    Full Text Available Global analyses of bird communities along elevation gradients suggest that bird diversity on arid mountains is primarily limited by water availability, not temperature or altitude. However, the mechanism by which water availability, and subsequently primary productivity, increases bird diversity is still unclear. Here we evaluate two possible mechanisms from species-energy theory. The more individuals hypothesis proposes that a higher availability of resources increases the total number of individuals that can be supported, and therefore the greater number of species that will be sampled. By contrast, the more specialization hypothesis proposes that increasing resource availability will permit specialists to exploit otherwise rare resources, thus increasing total diversity. We used 5 years of surveys of grassland songbird communities along an elevational gradient in British Columbia, Canada, to distinguish between these hypotheses. Vegetation changed markedly in composition along the gradient and contrary to the expectations of the more specialization hypothesis, bird community composition was remarkably constant. However, both total abundance and species richness of birds increased with increasing water availability to plants. When we used rarefaction to correct species richness for differences in total abundance, much of the increase in bird diversity was lost, consistent with the expectations of the more individuals hypothesis. Furthermore, high species richness was associated with reductions in territory size of common bird species, rather than the fine-scale spatial partitioning of the landscape. This suggests that bird diversity increases when greater resource availability allows higher densities rather than greater habitat specialization. These results help explain a pervasive global pattern in bird diversity on arid mountains, and suggest that in such landscapes conservation of grassland birds is strongly linked to climate and hydrology.

  17. Scalar electron production in e+e- annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, M.; Kobayashi, T.; Yamada, S.; Ishikawa, K.

    1983-05-01

    The single scalar electron production process e + e - -> esup(+-) + Photino + scalar electron (scalar electron -> esup(-+) + Photino), with the detection of e + as well as e - , provides a clean method to detect scalar electrons when their masses are not lighter than the beam energy. We made a complete calculation of the process and evaluated the production cross sections. (orig.)

  18. Looking for Guidelines for the Production of Electronic Textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landoni, M.; Wilson, R.; Gibb, F.

    2001-01-01

    Reports the results of two studies of electronic book production, including production on the World Wide Web, and explains EBONI (Electronic Books On-screen Interface) that focuses on the evaluation of electronic resources and compiling guidelines for publishing electronic materials on the Internet for the United Kingdom higher education…

  19. Semiautomated system for the production and analysis of sucrose density gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, C.S.; Liberman, D.F.

    1974-01-01

    A semiautomated system in DNA damage studies permitting considerable accuracy, speed, and reproducibility in the making and fractionation of sucrose density gradients is described. The system consists of a modified Beckman gradient forming device that makes six gradients simultaneously and delivers them into six 12.5 ml polyallomer centrifuge tubes in such a manner that new material is continuously added to the meniscus of the gradient. The gradients are fractionated three at a time and up to 100 fractions per gradient can be collected automatically directly into scintillation vials with a choice of drop counting or time mode with rinse and automatic addition of scintillation fluid to each vial. The system can process up to six gradients per hour but centrifugation time is usually the limiting factor. With neutral sucrose gradients, sharp, reproducible, monodisperse peaks containing up to 100 percent of the gradient radioactivity are usually obtained but a smaller monodisperse peak containing as little as 3.5 percent of the gradient radioactivity can be detected under conditions where some pairs of molecules might tangle or dimerize. The resolution and reproducibility of this system when used with neutral sucrose gradients is at least the equal if not superior to that commonly claimed for alkaline sucrose gradients. (U.S.)

  20. Scanning tunnelling microscope imaging of nanoscale electron density gradients on the surface of GaAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, B; Jacobs, J; Missous, M

    2003-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the scanning tunnelling microscope tunnelling conditions needed to produce constant current images dominated either by surface topology or by electronic effects. A model experimental structure was produced by cleaving a GaAs multiδ-doped layer in UHV and so projecting a spatially varying electron gas density onto the (110) surface. This cross sectional electron density varies on a nanometre scale in the [100] growth direction. The electronic structure and tunnelling properties of this system were modelled, and the tunnelling conditions favouring sensitivity to the surface electron gas density determined

  1. A high-gradient high-duty-factor Rf photo-cathode electron gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimmer, Robert A.; Hartman, Neal; Lidia, Steven M.; Wang, Shaoheng

    2002-01-01

    We describe the analysis and preliminary design of a high-gradient, high-duty factor RF photocathode gun. The gun is designed to operate at high repetition rate or CW, with high gradient on the cathode surface to minimize emittance growth due to space charge forces at high bunch charge. The gun may also be operated in a solenoidal magnetic field for emittance compensation. The design is intended for use in short-pulse, high-charge, and high-repetition rate applications such as linac based X-ray sources. We present and compare the results of gun simulations using different codes, as well as RF and thermal analysis of the structure

  2. A high-gradient high-duty-factor RF photo-cathode electron gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimmer, Robert; Hartman, N.; Lidia, S.; Wang, S.H.

    2002-01-01

    We describe the analysis and preliminary design of a high-gradient, high-duty factor RF photocathode gun. The gun is designed to operate at high repetition rate or CW, with high gradient on the cathode surface to minimize emittance growth due to space charge forces at high bunch charge. The gun may also be operated in a solenoidal magnetic field for emittance compensation. The design is intended for use in short-pulse, high-charge, and high-repetition rate applications such as linac based X-ray sources. We present and compare the results of gun simulations using different codes, as well as RF and thermal analysis of the structure

  3. Measurements of the temporal and spatial phase variations of a 33 GHz pulsed free electron laser amplifier and application to high gradient RF acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volfbeyn, P.; Bekefi, G. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    We report the results of temporal and spatial measurements of phase of a pulsed free electron laser amplifier (FEL) operating in combined wiggler and axial guide magnetic fields. The 33 GHz FEL is driven by a mildly relativistic electron beam (750 kV, 90-300 A, 30 ns) and generates 61 MW of radiation with a high power magnetron as the input source. The phase is measured by an interferometric technique from which frequency shifting is determined. The results are simulated with a computer code. Experimental studies on a CERN-CLIC 32.98 GHz 26-cell high gradient accelerating section (HGA) were carried out for input powers from 0.1 MW to 35 MW. The FEL served as the r.f. power source for the HGA. The maximum power in the transmitted pulse was measured to be 15 MW for an input pulse of 35 MW. The theoretically calculated shunt impedance of 116 M{Omega}/m predicts a field gradient of 65 MeV/m inside the HGA. For power levels >3MW the pulse transmitted through the HGA was observed to be shorter than the input pulse and pulse shortening became more serious with increasing power input. At the highest power levels the output pulse length (about 5 nsec) was about one quarter of the input pulse length. Various tests suggest that these undesirable effects occur in the input coupler to the HGA. Light and X-ray production inside the HGA have been observed.

  4. A benchmark study of electronic excitation energies, transition moments, and excited-state energy gradients on the nicotine molecule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egidi, Franco, E-mail: franco.egidi@sns.it; Segado, Mireia; Barone, Vincenzo, E-mail: vincenzo.barone@sns.it [Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza dei Cavalieri, 7 I-56126 Pisa (Italy); Koch, Henrik [Department of Chemistry, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7491 Trondheim (Norway); Cappelli, Chiara [Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Industriale, Università di Pisa, via G. Moruzzi, 3 I-56124 Pisa (Italy)

    2014-12-14

    In this work, we report a comparative study of computed excitation energies, oscillator strengths, and excited-state energy gradients of (S)-nicotine, chosen as a test case, using multireference methods, coupled cluster singles and doubles, and methods based on time-dependent density functional theory. This system was chosen because its apparent simplicity hides a complex electronic structure, as several different types of valence excitations are possible, including n-π{sup *}, π-π{sup *}, and charge-transfer states, and in order to simulate its spectrum it is necessary to describe all of them consistently well by the chosen method.

  5. Unified analytical treatment of multicentre electron attraction, electric field and electric field gradient integrals over Slater orbitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guseinov, I I

    2004-01-01

    The new central and noncentral potential functions (CPFs and NCPFs) of a molecule depending on the coordinates of the nuclei are introduced. Using complete orthonormal sets of Ψ α -exponential-type orbitals (Ψ α -ETOs) introduced by the author, the series expansion formulae for the multicentre electronic attraction (EA), electric field (EF) and electric field gradient (EFG) integrals over Slater-type orbitals (STOs) in terms of CPFs and NCPFs are derived. The relationships obtained are valid for the arbitrary location, quantum numbers and screening constants of STOs

  6. Molecular orbital calculations of the unpaired electron distribution and electric field gradients in divalent paramagnetic Ir complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogueira, S.R.; Vugman, N.V.; Guenzburger, D.

    1988-01-01

    Semi-empirical Molecular Orbital calculations were performed for the paramagnetic complex ions [Ir(CN) 5 ] 3- , [Ir(CN) 5 Cl] 4- and [Ir(CN) 4 Cl 2 ] 4- . Energy levels schemes and Mulliken-type populations were obtained. The distribution of the unpaired spin over the atoms in the complexes was derived, and compared to data obtained from Electron Paramagnetic Resonance spectra with the aid of a Ligand Field model. The electric field gradients at the Ir nucleus were calculated and compared to experiment. The results are discussed in terms of the chemical bonds formed by Ir and the ligands. (author) [pt

  7. Analytic energy gradient of excited electronic state within TDDFT/MMpol framework: Benchmark tests and parallel implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qiao; Liang, WanZhen

    2015-10-07

    The time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) has become the most popular method to calculate the electronic excitation energies, describe the excited-state properties, and perform the excited-state geometric optimization of medium and large-size molecules due to the implementation of analytic excited-state energy gradient and Hessian in many electronic structure software packages. To describe the molecules in condensed phase, one usually adopts the computationally efficient hybrid Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics (QM/MM) models. Here, we extend our previous work on the energy gradient of TDDFT/MM excited state to account for the mutual polarization effects between QM and MM regions, which is believed to hold a crucial position in the potential energy surface of molecular systems when the photoexcitation-induced charge rearrangement in the QM region is drastic. The implementation of a simple polarizable TDDFT/MM (TDDFT/MMpol) model in Q-Chem/CHARMM interface with both the linear response and the state-specific features has been realized. Several benchmark tests and preliminary applications are exhibited to confirm our implementation and assess the effects of different treatment of environmental polarization on the excited-state properties, and the efficiency of parallel implementation is demonstrated as well.

  8. Top predators, mesopredators and their prey: interference ecosystems along bioclimatic productivity gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmhagen, B; Ludwig, G; Rushton, S P; Helle, P; Lindén, H

    2010-07-01

    1. The Mesopredator Release Hypothesis (MRH) suggests that top predator suppression of mesopredators is a key ecosystem function with cascading impacts on herbivore prey, but it remains to be shown that this top-down cascade impacts the large-scale structure of ecosystems. 2. The Exploitation Ecosystems Hypothesis (EEH) predicts that regional ecosystem structures are determined by top-down exploitation and bottom-up productivity. In contrast to MRH, EEH assumes that interference among predators has a negligible impact on the structure of ecosystems with three trophic levels. 3. We use the recolonization of a top predator in a three-level boreal ecosystem as a natural experiment to test if large-scale biomass distributions and population trends support MRH. Inspired by EEH, we also test if top-down interference and bottom-up productivity impact regional ecosystem structures. 4. We use data from the Finnish Wildlife Triangle Scheme which has monitored top predator (lynx, Lynx lynx), mesopredator (red fox, Vulpes vulpes) and prey (mountain hare, Lepus timidus) abundance for 17 years in a 200 000 km(2) study area which covers a distinct productivity gradient. 5. Fox biomass was lower than expected from productivity where lynx biomass was high, whilst hare biomass was lower than expected from productivity where fox biomass was high. Hence, where interference controlled fox abundance, lynx had an indirect positive impact on hare abundance as predicted by MRH. The rates of change indicated that lynx expansion gradually suppressed fox biomass. 6. Lynx status caused shifts between ecosystem structures. In the 'interference ecosystem', lynx and hare biomass increased with productivity whilst fox biomass did not. In the 'mesopredator release ecosystem', fox biomass increased with productivity but hare biomass did not. Thus, biomass controlled top-down did not respond to changes in productivity. This fulfils a critical prediction of EEH. 7. We conclude that the cascade

  9. Vegetative biomass predicts inflorescence production along a CO2 concentration gradient in mesic grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, P. A.; Collins, H.; Polley, W.

    2016-12-01

    Atmospheric CO2 concentration will likely exceed 500 µL L-1 by 2050, often increasing plant community productivity in part by increasing abundance of species favored by increased CA . Whether increased abundance translates to increased inflorescence production is poorly understood, and is important because it indicates the potential effects of CO2 enrichment on genetic variability and the potential for evolutionary change in future generations. We examined whether the responses of inflorescence production to CO2 enrichment in four C4 grasses and a C3 forb were predicted their vegetative biomass, and by soil moisture, soil nitrogen, or light availability. Inflorescence production was studied in a long-term CO2 concentration gradient spanning pre-industrial to anticipated mid-21st century values (250 - 500 µL L-1) maintained on clay, silty clay and sandy loam soils common in the U.S. Southern Plains. We expected that CO2 enrichment would increase inflorescence production, and more so with higher water, nitrogen, or light availability. However, structural equation modeling revealed that vegetative biomass was the single consistent direct predictor of flowering for all species (p grass) and Solidago canadensis (C3 forb), direct CO2 effects on flowering were only weakly mediated by indirect effects of soil water content and soil NO3-N availability. For the decreasing species (Bouteloua curtipendula, C4 grass), the negative CO2-flowering relationship was cancelled (p = 0.39) by indirect effects of increased SWC and NO3-N on clay and silty clay soils. For the species with no CO2 response, inflorescence production was predicted only by direct water content (p grass) or vegetative biomass (p = 0.0009, Tridens albescens, C4 grass) effects. Light availability was unrelated to inflorescence production. Changes in inflorescence production are thus closely tied to direct and indirect effects of CO2 enrichment on vegetative biomass, and may either increase, decrease, or leave

  10. Natural gas production and anomalous geothermal gradients of the deep Tuscaloosa Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Lauri

    2011-01-01

    For the largest producing natural gas fields in the onshore Gulf of Mexico Basin, the relation between temperature versus depth was investigated. Prolific natural gas reservoirs with the highest temperatures were found in the Upper Cretaceous downdip Tuscaloosa trend in Louisiana. Temperature and production trends from the deepest field, Judge Digby field, in Pointe Coupe Parish, Louisiana, were investigated to characterize the environment of natural gas in the downdip Tuscaloosa trend. The average production depth in the Judge Digby field is approximately 22,000 ft. Temperatures as high as 400 degrees F are typically found at depth in Judge Digby field and are anomalously low when compared to temperature trends extrapolated to similar depths regionally. At 22,000 ft, the minimum and maximum temperatures for all reservoirs in Gulf Coast producing gas fields are 330 and 550 degrees F, respectively; the average temperature is 430 degrees F. The relatively depressed geothermal gradients in the Judge Digby field may be due to high rates of sediment preservation, which may have delayed the thermal equilibration of the sediment package with respect to the surrounding rock. Analyzing burial history and thermal maturation indicates that the deep Tuscaloosa trend in the Judge Digby field is currently in the gas generation window. Using temperature trends as an exploration tool may have important implications for undiscovered hydrocarbons at greater depths in currently producing reservoirs, and for settings that are geologically analogous to the Judge Digby fiel

  11. Fast-electron self-collimation in a plasma density gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, X. H.; Borghesi, M.; Robinson, A. P. L.

    2012-01-01

    A theoretical and numerical study of fast electron transport in solid and compressed fast ignition relevant targets is presented. The principal aim of the study is to assess how localized increases in the target density (e.g., by engineering of the density profile) can enhance magnetic field generation and thus pinching of the fast electron beam through reducing the rate of temperature rise. The extent to which this might benefit fast ignition is discussed.

  12. Electric field gradient and electronic structure of linear-bonded halide compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, D.E.; Guenzburger, D.J.R.; Jansen, H.B.

    1983-01-01

    The importance of covalent metal-ligand interactions in determining hyperfine fields and energy-level structure of MX 2 linear-bonded halide compounds has been studied, using the self-consistent local density molecular orbital approach. Results for FeCl 2 , FeBr 2 and EuCl 2 obtained using the Discrete Variational Method with numerical basis sets are presented. The high spin configuration for the iron compounds, first predicted by Berkowitz, et al., is verified; a successful comparison with gas phase photoelectron spectra is made. Variation of the predicted electric field gradient with bond length R is found to be rapid; the need for an EXAFS measurement of R for the matrix isolated species and experimental determination of the spin of the EFG is seen to be crucial for more accurate determinations of the sub(57) Fe quadrupole moment. (Author) [pt

  13. Sudden Intensity Increases and Radial Gradient Changes of Cosmic Ray Mev Electrons and Protons Observed at Voyager 1 Beyond 111 AU in the Heliosheath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, W. R.; Mcdonald, F. B.; Cummings, A. C.; Stone, E. C.; Heikkila, B.; Lal, N.

    2012-01-01

    Voyager 1 has entered regions of different propagation conditions for energetic cosmic rays in the outer heliosheathat a distance of about 111 AU from the Sun. The low energy 614 MeV galactic electron intensity increased by 20over a time period 10 days and the electron radial intensity gradient abruptly decreased from 19AU to 8AU at2009.7 at a radial distance of 111.2 AU. At about 2011.2 at a distance of 116.6 AU a second abrupt intensity increase of25 was observed for electrons. After the second sudden electron increase the radial intensity gradient increased to18AU. This large positive gradient and the 13 day periodic variations of 200 MeV particles observed near theend of 2011 indicate that V1 is still within the overall heliospheric modulating region. The implications of these resultsregarding the proximity of the heliopause are discussed.

  14. Electrical Field Guided Electrospray Deposition for Production of Gradient Particle Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wei-Cheng; Xie, Jingwei; Wang, Chi-Hwa

    2018-06-06

    Our previous work demonstrated the uniform particle pattern formation on the substrates using electrical field guided electrospray deposition. In this work, we reported for the first time the fabrication of gradient particle patterns on glass slides using an additional point, line, or bar electrode based on our previous electrospray deposition configuration. We also demonstrated that the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) coating could result in the formation of uniform particle patterns instead of gradient particle patterns on glass slides using the same experimental setup. Meanwhile, we investigated the effect of experimental configurations on the gradient particle pattern formation by computational simulation. The simulation results are in line with experimental observations. The formation of gradient particle patterns was ascribed to the gradient of electric field and the corresponding focusing effect. Cell patterns can be formed on the particle patterns deposited on PDMS-coated glass slides. The formed particle patterns hold great promise for high-throughput screening of biomaterial-cell interactions and sensing.

  15. Sea surface temperature control of taxon specific phytoplankton production along an oligotrophic gradient in the Mediterranean Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Poll, W.H.V.; Boute, P.G.; Rozema, P.D.; Buma, A.; Kulk, G.; Rijkenberg, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    The current study aimed to assess changes in phytoplankton composition and productivity along an oligotrophic gradient in relation to changes in sea surface temperature (SST). Phytoplankton pigments, nutrients, and physical water column properties were studied along a longitudinal transect in the

  16. Hydrogen, metals, bifurcating electrons, and proton gradients: the early evolution of biological energy conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, William F

    2012-03-09

    Life is a persistent, self-specified set of far from equilibrium chemical reactions. In modern microbes, core carbon and energy metabolism are what keep cells alive. In very early chemical evolution, the forerunners of carbon and energy metabolism were the processes of generating reduced carbon compounds from CO(2) and the mechanisms of harnessing energy as compounds capable of doing some chemical work. The process of serpentinization at alkaline hydrothermal vents holds promise as a model for the origin of early reducing power, because Fe(2+) in the Earth's crust reduces water to H(2) and inorganic carbon to methane. The overall geochemical process of serpentinization is similar to the biochemical process of methanogenesis, and methanogenesis is similar to acetogenesis in that both physiologies allow energy conservation from the reduction of CO(2) with electrons from H(2). Electron bifurcation is a newly recognized cytosolic process that anaerobes use generate low potential electrons, it plays an important role in some forms of methanogenesis and, via speculation, possibly in acetogenesis. Electron bifurcation likely figures into the early evolution of biological energy conservation. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Porous materials with gradient and biporous structure, methods of their production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilyuschenko, A.; Savich, V.; Pilinevich, L.; Rak, A.

    2001-01-01

    We have worked out the technology of production porous powder materials (PPMs) of bronze, nickel, corrosion resistant steel and titanium powders with gradient and (or) biporous structure: vibrating forming of metal powders (including in electromagnetic field); layer-by-layer forming of metal powders with pore-maker while different proportion of the latter in the layer; forming of powder polymer layer on the preliminary sintered metal PPM surface. We have worked out the technology of production biporous structure by the following methods: metal granules forming and sintering; forming and sintering of metal powder with granules (2-3 mm) and pores-forming powder (size of particles is 0,4-0,63 mm). The novelty is in creation of technological bases of pores sizes regulation from 5 mkm on one PPM surface to 120 mkm on the opposite PPM surface which thickness can be 2-6 mm. PPM porosity can be constant within 0,3-0,6 relative units. More effective are those PPM which pores sizes are changeable and also porosity (from 0,35 to 0,60) from one surface o the opposite one. Two-layer metal-polymer PPM have pores sizes of 20-40 mkm in polymer layer and porosity 0,4-0,5 and, correspondingly, in metal layer 80-100 mkm and 0,45-0,55. In biporous structures made of 2-3 mm metal granules the distance between granules is 300-600 mkm and in granules - 14-30 mkm. The integral porosity of such PPM is 0,55-0,70. The technology of forming and sintering metal powder with granules and pores-making powder (carbamide) enables to regulate the integral porosity within 0,7-0,8 and average pores sizes within 100-1000 mkm with average size of metal powder particles of 0,63-1,0 mm. (author)

  18. Electron velocity distribution function in a plasma with temperature gradient and in the presence of suprathermal electrons: application to incoherent-scatter plasma lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Guio

    Full Text Available The plasma dispersion function and the reduced velocity distribution function are calculated numerically for any arbitrary velocity distribution function with cylindrical symmetry along the magnetic field. The electron velocity distribution is separated into two distributions representing the distribution of the ambient electrons and the suprathermal electrons. The velocity distribution function of the ambient electrons is modelled by a near-Maxwellian distribution function in presence of a temperature gradient and a potential electric field. The velocity distribution function of the suprathermal electrons is derived from a numerical model of the angular energy flux spectrum obtained by solving the transport equation of electrons. The numerical method used to calculate the plasma dispersion function and the reduced velocity distribution is described. The numerical code is used with simulated data to evaluate the Doppler frequency asymmetry between the up- and downshifted plasma lines of the incoherent-scatter plasma lines at different wave vectors. It is shown that the observed Doppler asymmetry is more dependent on deviation from the Maxwellian through the thermal part for high-frequency radars, while for low-frequency radars the Doppler asymmetry depends more on the presence of a suprathermal population. It is also seen that the full evaluation of the plasma dispersion function gives larger Doppler asymmetry than the heat flow approximation for Langmuir waves with phase velocity about three to six times the mean thermal velocity. For such waves the moment expansion of the dispersion function is not fully valid and the full calculation of the dispersion function is needed.

    Key words. Non-Maxwellian electron velocity distribution · Incoherent scatter plasma lines · EISCAT · Dielectric response function

  19. Electron velocity distribution function in a plasma with temperature gradient and in the presence of suprathermal electrons: application to incoherent-scatter plasma lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Guio

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available The plasma dispersion function and the reduced velocity distribution function are calculated numerically for any arbitrary velocity distribution function with cylindrical symmetry along the magnetic field. The electron velocity distribution is separated into two distributions representing the distribution of the ambient electrons and the suprathermal electrons. The velocity distribution function of the ambient electrons is modelled by a near-Maxwellian distribution function in presence of a temperature gradient and a potential electric field. The velocity distribution function of the suprathermal electrons is derived from a numerical model of the angular energy flux spectrum obtained by solving the transport equation of electrons. The numerical method used to calculate the plasma dispersion function and the reduced velocity distribution is described. The numerical code is used with simulated data to evaluate the Doppler frequency asymmetry between the up- and downshifted plasma lines of the incoherent-scatter plasma lines at different wave vectors. It is shown that the observed Doppler asymmetry is more dependent on deviation from the Maxwellian through the thermal part for high-frequency radars, while for low-frequency radars the Doppler asymmetry depends more on the presence of a suprathermal population. It is also seen that the full evaluation of the plasma dispersion function gives larger Doppler asymmetry than the heat flow approximation for Langmuir waves with phase velocity about three to six times the mean thermal velocity. For such waves the moment expansion of the dispersion function is not fully valid and the full calculation of the dispersion function is needed.Key words. Non-Maxwellian electron velocity distribution · Incoherent scatter plasma lines · EISCAT · Dielectric response function

  20. Coupling of ion temperature gradient and trapped electron modes in the presence of impurities in tokamak plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Huarong; Wang, Zheng-Xiong; Dong, J. Q.; Liu, S. F.

    2014-05-01

    The coupling of ion temperature gradient (ITG or ηi) mode and trapped electron mode (TEM) in the presence of impurity ions is numerically investigated in toroidal collisionless plasmas, using the gyrokinetic integral eigenmode equation. A framework for excitations of the ITG modes and TEMs with respect to their driving sources is formulated first, and then the roles of impurity ions played in are analyzed comprehensively. In particular, the characteristics of the ITG and TEM instabilities in the presence of impurity ions are emphasized for both strong and weak coupling (hybrid and coexistent) cases. It is found that the impurity ions with inwardly (outwardly) peaked density profiles have stabilizing (destabilizing) effects on the hybrid (namely the TE-ITG) modes in consistence with previous works. A new finding of this work is that the impurity ions have stabilizing effects on TEMs in small ηi (ηi≤1) regime regardless of peaking directions of their density profiles whereas the impurity ions with density gradient Lez=Lne/Lnz>1 (LezTEMs in large ηi (ηi≥1) regime. In addition, the dependences of the growth rate, real frequency, eigenmode structure, and wave spectrum on charge concentration, charge number, and mass of impurity ions are analyzed in detail. The necessity for taking impurity ion effects on the features of turbulence into account in future transport experimental data analyses is also discussed.

  1. Magnetic quadrupole resonance of electron irradiated aluminium. Electric field gradients surrounding the vacancies and interstitials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreani, R.; Minier, M.; Minier, C.

    Some aluminium samples were irradiated at 20K with 3MeV electrons. The quadrupole absorption spectra have been obtained after irradiation and annealing, at 50K, 150K and 300K. Coupled conductivity measurements allowed the evolution in defect concentration to be studied. This new method makes it possible to characterize the presence of vacancies independently of the simultaneous existence of bivacancies, interstitials and clusters [fr

  2. Dramatic changes in ectomycorrhizal community composition, root tip abundance and mycelial production along a stand-scale nitrogen deposition gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjøller, Rasmus; Nilsson, Lars Ola; Hansen, Karin

    2012-01-01

    • Nitrogen (N) availability is known to influence ectomycorrhizal fungal components, such as fungal community composition, biomass of root tips and production of mycelia, but effects have never been demonstrated within the same forest. • We measured concurrently the abundance of ectomycorrhizal...... root tips and the production of external mycelia, and explored the changes in the ectomycorrhizal community composition, across a stand-scale N deposition gradient (from 27 to 43 kg N ha¿¹ yr¿¹) at the edge of a spruce forest. The N status was affected along the gradient as shown by a range of N...... availability indices. • Ectomycorrhizal root tip abundance and mycelial production decreased five and 10-fold, respectively, with increasing N deposition. In addition, the ectomycorrhizal fungal community changed and the species richness decreased. The changes were correlated with the measured indices of N...

  3. Production and Decay of Excited Electrons at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Cakir, O; Mehdiyev, R; Belyaev, A

    2004-01-01

    We study single production of excited electrons at the CERN LHC through contact interactions of fermions. Subsequent decays of excited electrons to ordinary electrons and light fermions via gauge and contact interactions are examined. The mass range accessible with the ATLAS detector is obtained.

  4. Primary productivity as a control over soil microbial diversity along environmental gradients in a polar desert ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin M. Geyer

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Primary production is the fundamental source of energy to foodwebs and ecosystems, and is thus an important constraint on soil communities. This coupling is particularly evident in polar terrestrial ecosystems where biological diversity and activity is tightly constrained by edaphic gradients of productivity (e.g., soil moisture, organic carbon availability and geochemical severity (e.g., pH, electrical conductivity. In the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica, environmental gradients determine numerous properties of soil communities and yet relatively few estimates of gross or net primary productivity (GPP, NPP exist for this region. Here we describe a survey utilizing pulse amplitude modulation (PAM fluorometry to estimate rates of GPP across a broad environmental gradient along with belowground microbial diversity and decomposition. PAM estimates of GPP ranged from an average of 0.27 μmol O2/m2/s in the most arid soils to an average of 6.97 μmol O2/m2/s in the most productive soils, the latter equivalent to 217 g C/m2/y in annual NPP assuming a 60 day growing season. A diversity index of four carbon-acquiring enzyme activities also increased with soil productivity, suggesting that the diversity of organic substrates in mesic environments may be an additional driver of microbial diversity. Overall, soil productivity was a stronger predictor of microbial diversity and enzymatic activity than any estimate of geochemical severity. These results highlight the fundamental role of environmental gradients to control community diversity and the dynamics of ecosystem-scale carbon pools in arid systems.

  5. Fine root productivity varies along nitrogen and phosphorus gradients in high-rainfall mangrove forests of Micronesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormier, Nicole; Twilley, Robert R.; Ewel, Katherine C.; Krauss, Ken W.

    2015-01-01

    Belowground biomass is thought to account for much of the total biomass in mangrove forests and may be related to soil fertility. The Yela River and the Sapwalap River, Federated States of Micronesia, contain a natural soil resource gradient defined by total phosphorus (P) density ranging from 0.05 to 0.42 mg cm−3 in different hydrogeomorphic settings. We used this fertility gradient to test the hypothesis that edaphic conditions constrain mangrove productivity through differential allocation of biomass to belowground roots. We removed sequential cores and implanted root ingrowth bags to measure in situ biomass and productivity, respectively. Belowground root biomass values ranged among sites from 0.448 ± 0.096 to 2.641 ± 0.534 kg m−2. Root productivity (roots ≤20 mm) did not vary significantly along the gradient (P = 0.3355) or with P fertilization after 6 months (P = 0.2968). Fine root productivity (roots ≤2 mm), however, did vary significantly among sites (P = 0.0363) and ranged from 45.88 ± 21.37 to 118.66 ± 38.05 g m−2 year−1. The distribution of total standing root biomass and fine root productivity followed patterns of N:P ratios as hypothesized, with larger root mass generally associated with lower relative P concentrations. Many of the processes of nutrient acquisition reported from nutrient-limited mangrove forests may also occur in forests of greater biomass and productivity when growing along soil nutrient gradients.

  6. Fine root dynamics in lodgepole pine and white spruce stands along productivity gradients in reclaimed oil sands sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamro, Ghulam Murtaza; Chang, Scott X; Naeth, M Anne; Duan, Min; House, Jason

    2015-10-01

    Open-pit mining activities in the oil sands region of Alberta, Canada, create disturbed lands that, by law, must be reclaimed to a land capability equivalent to that existed before the disturbance. Re-establishment of forest cover will be affected by the production and turnover rate of fine roots. However, the relationship between fine root dynamics and tree growth has not been studied in reclaimed oil sands sites. Fine root properties (root length density, mean surface area, total root biomass, and rates of root production, turnover, and decomposition) were assessed from May to October 2011 and 2012 using sequential coring and ingrowth core methods in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) and white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench.) Voss) stands. The pine and spruce stands were planted on peat mineral soil mix placed over tailings sand and overburden substrates, respectively, in reclaimed oil sands sites in Alberta. We selected stands that form a productivity gradient (low, medium, and high productivities) of each tree species based on differences in tree height and diameter at breast height (DBH) increments. In lodgepole pine stands, fine root length density and fine root production, and turnover rates were in the order of high > medium > low productivity sites and were positively correlated with tree height and DBH and negatively correlated with soil salinity (P < 0.05). In white spruce stands, fine root surface area was the only parameter that increased along the productivity gradient and was negatively correlated with soil compaction. In conclusion, fine root dynamics along the stand productivity gradients were closely linked to stand productivity and were affected by limiting soil properties related to the specific substrate used for reconstructing the reclaimed soil. Understanding the impact of soil properties on fine root dynamics and overall stand productivity will help improve land reclamation outcomes.

  7. Radiation-emitting Electronic Product Codes

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This database contains product names and associated information developed by the Center for all products, both medical and non-medical, which emit radiation. It...

  8. Electron beam production by a plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.R.; Luo, C.M.; Schneider, R.F.; Rhee, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    Operation of a plasma focus as a Compact Pulsed Accelerator (CPA) for ions has been previously reported. The CPA consists of: (1) a 15 μF, 3 kJ capacitor, (2) a triggered spark gap, (3) a coaxial transmission line, and (4) a Mather geometry plasma gun. Recently the authors have investigated application of the CPA as an accelerator for electrons. In the previously reported work using the standard Mather plasma gun geometry, ions were accelerated away from the plasma gun and were therefore conveniently extracted for analysis, but electrons were directed into the hollow anode where extraction is blocked by the coaxial transmission line. For investigation of accelerated electrons a new plasma gun design which allows extraction of electrons has been developed. Details of the new plasma gun design and further results of beam diagnostics are discussed

  9. Electron-temperature-gradient-induced instability in tokamak scrape-off layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berk, H.L.; Ryutov, D.D.; Tsidulko, Y.A.; Xu, X.Q.

    1992-08-01

    An electron temperature instability driven by the Kunkel-Guillory sheath impedance, has been applied to the scrape-off layer of tokamaks. The formalism has been generalized to more fully account for parallel wavelength dynamics, to differentiate between electromagnetic and electrostatic perturbations and to account for particle recycling effects. It is conjectured that this conducting wall instability leads to edge fluctuations in tokamaks that produce scrape-off widths of many ion Larmor radii ≅10. The predicted instability characteristics correlate somewhat with DIII-D edge fluctuation data, and the scrape-off layer width in the DIII-D experiment agrees with theoretical estimates that can be derived from mixing lenght theory

  10. Customer Buying Behavior : - Online shopping towards electronic product

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Dan; Yang, Liuzi

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Online shopping in EU has been shown to a good potential market. The electronic equipment takes a high percent of the individuals shopping. Compared with other goods, online shopping of electronic goods adds great convenience to the life of the people. Buying electronic gadgets online gives customers an opportunity to find a great variety of product online, and customers can review a wide selection of products and find special offers and discount with the best deals online. In the co...

  11. Exploring the Physics Limitations of Compact High Gradient Accelerating Structures Simulations of the Electron Current Spectrometer Setup in Geant4

    CERN Document Server

    Van Vliet, Philine Julia

    2017-01-01

    The high field gradient of 100 MV/m that will be applied to the accelerator cavities of the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC), gives rise to the problem of RF breakdowns. The field collapses and a plasma of electrons and ions is being formed in the cavity, preventing the RF field from penetrating the cavity. Electrons in the plasma are being accelerated and ejected out, resulting in a breakdown current up to a few Amp`eres, measured outside the cavities. These breakdowns lead to luminosity loss, so reducing their amount is of great importance. For this, a better understanding of the physics behind RF breakdowns is needed. To study these breakdowns, the XBox 2 test facility has a spectrometer setup installed after the RF cavity that is being conditioned. For this report, a simulation of this spectrometer setup has been made using Geant4. Once a detailed simulation of the RF field and cavity has been made, it can be connected to this simulation of the spectrometer setup and used to recreate the data that has b...

  12. Design study of high gradient, low impedance accelerating structures for the FERMI free electron laser linac upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafqat, N.; Di Mitri, S.; Serpico, C.; Nicastro, S.

    2017-09-01

    The FERMI free-electron laser (FEL) of Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste, Italy, is a user facility driven by a 1.5 GeV 10-50 Hz S-band radiofrequency linear accelerator (linac), and it is based on an external laser seeding scheme that allows lasing at the shortest fundamental wavelength of 4 nm. An increase of the beam energy to 1.8 GeV at a tolerable breakdown rate, and an improvement of the final beam quality is desired in order to allow either lasing at 4 nm with a higher flux, or lasing at shorter wavelengths. This article presents the impedance analysis of newly designed S-band accelerating structures, for replacement of the existing backward travelling wave structures (BTWS) in the last portion of the FERMI linac. The new structure design promises higher accelerating gradient and lower impedance than those of the existing BTWS. Particle tracking simulations show that, with the linac upgrade, the beam relative energy spread, its linear and nonlinear z-correlation internal to the bunch, and the beam transverse emittances can be made smaller than the ones in the present configuration, with expected advantage to the FEL performance. The repercussion of the upgrade on the linac quadrupole magnets setting, for a pre-determined electron beam optics, is also considered.

  13. Numerical Studies of Electron Acceleration Behind Self-Modulating Proton Beam in Plasma with a Density Gradient

    CERN Document Server

    Petrenko, A.; Sosedkin, A.

    2016-01-01

    Presently available high-energy proton beams in circular accelerators carry enough momentum to accelerate high-intensity electron and positron beams to the TeV energy scale over several hundred meters of the plasma with a density of about 1e15 1/cm^3. However, the plasma wavelength at this density is 100-1000 times shorter than the typical longitudinal size of the high-energy proton beam. Therefore the self-modulation instability (SMI) of a long (~10 cm) proton beam in the plasma should be used to create the train of micro-bunches which would then drive the plasma wake resonantly. Changing the plasma density profile offers a simple way to control the development of the SMI and the acceleration of particles during this process. We present simulations of the possible use of a plasma density gradient as a way to control the acceleration of the electron beam during the development of the SMI of a 400 GeV proton beam in a 10 m long plasma. This work is done in the context of the AWAKE project --- the proof-of-prin...

  14. Ion production and trapping in electron rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gluckstern, R.C.; Ruggiero, A.G.

    1979-08-01

    The electron beam in the VUV and X-ray rings of NSLS will ionize residual gas by collisions. Positive ions will be produced with low velocity, and will be attracted by the electron beam to the beam axis. If they are trapped in stable (transverse) orbits, they may accumulate, thereby increasing the ν/sub x,z/ of the individual electrons. Since the accumulated ions are unlikely to be of uniform density, a spread in ν/sub x,z/ will also occur. Should these effects be serious, it may be necessary to introduce clearing electrodes, although this may increase Z/n in the rings, thereby adding to longitudinal instability problems. The seriousness of the above effect for the VUV and X-ray rings is estimated

  15. The green alga Dictyosphaerium chlorelloides biomass and polysaccharides production determined using cultivation in crossed gradients of temperature and light

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kumar, D.; Kvíderová, J.; Kaštánek, P.; Lukavský, Jaromír

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 9 (2017), s. 1030-1038 ISSN 1618-0240 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TE01020080 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Dictyosphaerium chlorelloides * Biomass * Crossed gradients Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics OBOR OECD: Bioproducts (products that are manufactured using biological material as feedstock) biomaterials, bioplastics, biofuels, bioderived bulk and fine chemicals, bio-derived novel materials Impact factor: 1.698, year: 2016

  16. Electrochemical characterization of a supercapacitor flow cell for power production from salinity gradients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sales, B.B.; Liu, F.; Schaetzle, O.; Buisman, C.J.N.; Hamelers, H.V.M.

    2012-01-01

    Salinity gradients could be a great source of energy in the future. Capacitive energy extraction based on Donnan Potential (CDP) is a new technique to directly convert this energy into electricity. COP uses a supercapacitor-like device combining ion exchange membranes and capacitive materials to

  17. N, P and K budgets along nutrient availability-productivity gradients in wetlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olde Venterink, H.; Pieterse, N.M.; Belgers, J.D.M.; Wassen, M.J.; Ruiter, P.C. de

    2002-01-01

    Nutrient enrichment in Western Europe is an important cause of wetland deterioration and the concomitant loss of biodiversity. We quantified nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium budgets along biomass gradients in wet meadows and fens (44 field sites) to evaluate the importance of various nutrient

  18. Loop-driven graphical unitary group approach to the electron correlation problem, including configuration interaction energy gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, B.R.

    1979-09-01

    The Graphical Unitary Group Approach (GUGA) was cast into an extraordinarily powerful form by restructuring the Hamiltonian in terms of loop types. This restructuring allows the adoption of the loop-driven formulation which illuminates vast numbers of previously unappreciated relationships between otherwise distinct Hamiltonian matrix elements. The theoretical/methodological contributions made here include the development of the loop-driven formula generation algorithm, a solution of the upper walk problem used to develop a loop breakdown algorithm, the restriction of configuration space employed to the multireference interacting space, and the restructuring of the Hamiltonian in terms of loop types. Several other developments are presented and discussed. Among these developments are the use of new segment coefficients, improvements in the loop-driven algorithm, implicit generation of loops wholly within the external space adapted within the framework of the loop-driven methodology, and comparisons of the diagonalization tape method to the direct method. It is also shown how it is possible to implement the GUGA method without the time-consuming full (m 5 ) four-index transformation. A particularly promising new direction presented here involves the use of the GUGA methodology to obtain one-electron and two-electron density matrices. Once these are known, analytical gradients (first derivatives) of the CI potential energy are easily obtained. Several test calculations are examined in detail to illustrate the unique features of the method. Also included is a calculation on the asymmetric 2 1 A' state of SO 2 with 23,613 configurations to demonstrate methods for the diagonalization of very large matrices on a minicomputer. 6 figures, 6 tables

  19. Space Electron Density Gradient Studies using a 3D Embedded Reconfigurable Sounder and ESA/NASA CLUSTER Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekoulis, George

    2016-07-01

    This paper provides a direct comparison between data captured by a new embedded reconfigurable digital sounder, different ground-based ionospheric sounders spread around Europe and the ESA/NASA CLUSTER mission. The CLUSTER mission consists of four identical space probes flying in a formation that allows measurements of the electron density gradient in the local magnetic field. Both the ground-based and the spacecraft instrumentations assist in studying the motion, geometry and boundaries of the plasmasphere. The comparison results are in accordance to each other. Some slight deviations among the captured data were expected from the beginning of this investigation. These small discrepancies are reasonable and seriatim analyzed. The results of this research are significant, since the level of the plasma's ionization, which is related to the solar activity, dominates the propagation of electromagnetic waves through it. Similarly, unusually high solar activity presents serious hazards to orbiting satellites, spaceborne instrumentation, satellite communications and infrastructure located on the Earth's surface. Long-term collaborative study of the data is required to continue, in order to identify and determine the enhanced risk in advance. This would allow scientists to propose an immediate cure.

  20. Binary encounter electron production in ion-atom collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabbe, S.; Bhalla, C.P.; Shingal, R.

    1993-01-01

    The binary encounter electrons are produced by hard collisions between the target electrons and the energetic projectiles. Richard et al. found the measured double differential cross section for BEe production at zero degree laboratory scattering angle, in collisions of F q+ with H 2 and He targets, to increase as the charge state of the projectile was decreased. The binary encounter electron production has recently been a subject of detailed investigations. We have calculated the differential elastic scattering cross sections of electrons from several ions incorporating the exchange contribution of the continuum and the bound orbitals in addition to the static potential. The double differential binary encounter electron production cross sections are presented using the impulse approximation

  1. Exchange Standards for Electronic Product Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-01

    Implementation Stds Product Definition Stds Graphics Stds j- Image Archival Stds 3 VDMNAPLPS GKS Manipulation I Core PHIGS VDI Textual Stds [ - Simple...Douglas Astronautics 5301 Bolsa Avenue Huntington Beach, CA 92647- 2048 Mr. Siegfried Goldstein Siegfried Enterprises, Inc. P. 0. Box 2308 North

  2. Soil macroinvertebrate communities across a productivity gradient in deciduous forests of eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evelyn S. Wenk; Mac A. Callaham; Joseph O' Brien; Paul J. Hanson

    2016-01-01

    Within the temperate, deciduous forests of the eastern US, diverse soil-fauna communities are structured by a combination of environmental gradients and interactions with other biota. The introduction of non-native soil taxa has altered communities and soil processes, and adds another degree of variability to these systems. We sampled soil macroinvertebrate abundance...

  3. Production of slow-positron beams with an electron linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, R.H.; Alvarez, R.A.; Stanek, M.

    1982-01-01

    Intense, pulsed beams of low-energy positrons have been produced by a high-energy beam from an electron linac. The production efficiency for low-energy positrons has been determined for electrons with 60 to 120 MeV energy, low-energy positron beams from a linac can be of much higher intensity than those beams currently derived from radioactive sources

  4. Identification of Degradation Products of Lincomycin and Iopromide by Electron Beam Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Yongbyoung; Ham, Hyunsun; Myung, Seungwoon

    2013-01-01

    Lincomycin and Iopromide are major species among the Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (PPCPs) from four major rivers in Korea. The structure characterization of six lincomycin's and two iopromide's degradation products formed under the irradiation of electron beam was performed, and the degradation efficiency as a function of the various irradiation dose and sample concentration was investigated. Electron beam (10 MeV, 0.5 mA and 5 kW) experiments for the structural characterization of the degradation products, which is fortified with lincomycin, were performed at the dose of 10 kGy. The separation of its degradation products and lincomycin was carried by C18 column (2.1 Χ 100 mm, 3.5 μm), using gradient elution with 20 mM ammonium acetate and acetonitrile. The structures of degradation products of lincomycin and iopromide were proposed by interpretation of mass spectra and chromatograms by LC/MS/MS, and also the mass fragmentation pathways of mass spectra in tandem mass spectrometry were proposed. The experiments of the degradation efficiency as a function of the irradiation dose intensity and the initial concentration of lincomycin in aqueous environment were performed, and higher dose of electron beam and lower concentration was observed the increased degradation efficiency

  5. Capacitive mixing power production from salinity gradient energy enhanced through exoelectrogen-generated ionic currents

    KAUST Repository

    Hatzell, Marta C.; Cusick, Roland D.; Logan, Bruce E.

    2014-01-01

    Several approaches to generate electrical power directly from salinity gradient energy using capacitive electrodes have recently been developed, but power densities have remained low. By immersing the capacitive electrodes in ionic fields generated by exoelectrogenic microorganisms in bioelectrochemical reactors, we found that energy capture using synthetic river and seawater could be increased ∼65 times, and power generation ∼46 times. Favorable electrochemical reactions due to microbial oxidation of organic matter, coupled to oxygen reduction at the cathode, created an ionic flow field that enabled more effective passive charging of the capacitive electrodes and higher energy capture. This ionic-based approach is not limited to the use of river water-seawater solutions. It can also be applied in industrial settings, as demonstrated using thermolytic solutions that can be used to capture waste heat energy as salinity gradient energy. Forced charging of the capacitive electrodes, using energy generated by the bioelectrochemical system and a thermolytic solution, further increased the maximum power density to 7 W m -2 (capacitive electrode). © 2014 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  6. End-of-life resource recovery from emerging electronic products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parajuly, Keshav; Habib, Komal; Cimpan, Ciprian

    2016-01-01

    Integrating product design with appropriate end-of-life (EoL) processing is widely recognized to have huge potentials in improving resource recovery from electronic products. In this study, we investigate both the product characteristics and EoL processing of robotic vacuum cleaner (RVC), as a case...... of emerging electronic product, in order to understand the recovery fate of different materials and its linkage to product design. Ten different brands of RVC were dismantled and their material composition and design profiles were studied. Another 125 RVCs (349 kg) were used for an experimental trial...... at a conventional ‘shred-and-separate’ type preprocessing plant in Denmark. A detailed material flow analysis was performed throughout the recycling chain. The results show a mismatch between product design and EoL processing, and the lack of practical implementation of ‘Design for EoL’ thinking. In the best...

  7. A compact high-gradient 25 MeV 17 GHz RF linac for free-electron laser research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danly, B.G.; Chen, S.C.; Kreischer, K.E.

    1995-01-01

    A new compact high-gradient (60 MeV/m) high-frequency (17.136 GHz) RF linac is presently under construction by Haimson Research Corp. (HRC) for installation at the MIT Plasma Fusion Center in the High-Gradient Accelerator and High Power Microwave Laboratory. This accelerator will utilize an existing traveling-wave relativistic klystron (TWRK) which is now operation at MIT with 25 MW power, 67 dB gain, and 52% efficiency at 17.136 GHz

  8. Responses of Microbial Community Composition to Temperature Gradient and Carbon Steel Corrosion in Production Water of Petroleum Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Xiao Li

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil reservoir production systems are usually associated with a temperature gradient and oil production facilities frequently suffer from pipeline corrosion failures. Both bacteria and archaea potentially contribute to biocorrosion of the oil production equipment. Here the response of microbial populations from the petroleum reservoir to temperature gradient and corrosion of carbon steel coupons were investigated under laboratory condition. Carbon steel coupons were exposed to production water from a depth of 1809 m of Jiangsu petroleum reservoir (China and incubated for periods of 160 and 300 days. The incubation temperatures were set at 37, 55, and 65°C to monitoring mesophilic, thermophilic and hyperthermophilic microorganisms associated with anaerobic carbon steel corrosion. The results showed that corrosion rate at 55°C (0.162 ± 0.013 mm year-1 and 37°C (0.138 ± 0.008 mm year-1 were higher than that at 65°C (0.105 ± 0.007 mm year-1, and a dense biofilm was observed on the surface of coupons under all biotic incubations. The microbial community analysis suggests a high frequency of bacterial taxa associated with families Porphyromonadaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, and Spirochaetaceae at all three temperatures. While the majority of known sulfate-reducing bacteria, in particular Desulfotignum, Desulfobulbus and Desulfovibrio spp., were predominantly observed at 37°C; Desulfotomaculum spp., Thermotoga spp. and Thermanaeromonas spp. as well as archaeal members closely related to Thermococcus and Archaeoglobus spp. were substantially enriched at 65°C. Hydrogenotrophic methanogens of the family Methanobacteriaceae were dominant at both 37 and 55°C; acetoclastic Methanosaeta spp. and methyltrophic Methanolobus spp. were enriched at 37°C. These observations show that temperature changes significantly alter the microbial community structure in production fluids and also affected the biocorrosion of carbon steel under anaerobic conditions.

  9. Electric field gradient at nuclei on orthorhombic sites in CaF2 and SrCl2 : comparison with electronic zero-field splitting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ormondt, van D.; Andriessen, J.; Dam, J.A.M.; Ast, van M.A.; Hartog, den H.W.; Bijvank, E.J.

    1979-01-01

    The electric field gradients (EFG) Vzz and Vxx-Vyy at the nucleus of 157Gd3+ have been determined, using ENDOR, for CaF2:Gd3+M+(M+=Li,K+) and SrCl2:Gd3+Na+. The results are compared with the electronic zero-field splitting parameters of Gd3+, B20 and B22 for the same sites. A simple relation between

  10. First high-temperature electronics products survey 2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Normann, Randy Allen

    2006-04-01

    On April 4-5, 2005, a High-Temperature Electronics Products Workshop was held. This workshop engaged a number of governmental and private industry organizations sharing a common interest in the development of commercially available, high-temperature electronics. One of the outcomes of this meeting was an agreement to conduct an industry survey of high-temperature applications. This report covers the basic results of this survey.

  11. Influence of natural organic matter fouling and osmotic backwash on pressure retarded osmosis energy production from natural salinity gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Ngai Yin; Elimelech, Menachem

    2013-01-01

    Pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) has the potential to produce clean, renewable energy from natural salinity gradients. However, membrane fouling can lead to diminished water flux productivity, thus reducing the extractable energy. This study investigates organic fouling and osmotic backwash cleaning in PRO and the resulting impact on projected power generation. Fabricated thin-film composite membranes were fouled with model river water containing natural organic matter. The water permeation carried foulants from the feed river water into the membrane porous support layer and caused severe water flux decline of ∼46%. Analysis of the water flux behavior revealed three phases in membrane support layer fouling. Initial foulants of the first fouling phase quickly adsorbed at the active-support layer interface and caused a significantly greater increase in hydraulic resistance than the subsequent second and third phase foulants. The water permeability of the fouled membranes was lowered by ∼39%, causing ∼26% decrease in projected power density. A brief, chemical-free osmotic backwash was demonstrated to be effective in removing foulants from the porous support layer, achieving ∼44% recovery in projected power density. The substantial performance recovery after cleaning was attributed to the partial restoration of the membrane water permeability. This study shows that membrane fouling detrimentally impacts energy production, and highlights the potential strategies to mitigate fouling in PRO power generation with natural salinity gradients.

  12. Managing Product Usability: How companies deal with usability in the development of electronic consumer products

    OpenAIRE

    Van Kuijk, J.I.

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Even though there is a large amount of methods for user-centred design, the usability of electronic consumer products (e.g., portable music players, washing machines and mobile phones) is under pressure. Usability is the extent to which a product can be used by specified users to achieve specified goals with effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction in a specified context of use. That the usability of electronic consumer products is under pressure is attributed to an incre...

  13. Production processes of multiply charged ions by electron impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, Nobuo

    1980-02-01

    First, are compared the foil or gas stripper and the ion sources utilizing electron-atom ionizing collisions, which are practically used or are under development to produce multiply charged ions. A review is made of the fundamental physical parameters such as successive ionization potentials and various ionization cross sections by electron impact, as well as the primary processes in multiply charged ion production. Multiply charged ion production processes are described for the different existing ion sources such as high temperature plasma type, ion-trapping type and discharge type. (author)

  14. Commercial Plant Production and Consumption Still Follow the Latitudinal Gradient in Species Diversity despite Economic Globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Erik J; Helmus, Matthew R; Cavender-Bares, Jeannine; Polasky, Stephen; Lasky, Jesse R; Zanne, Amy E; Pearse, William D; Kraft, Nathan J B; Miteva, Daniela A; Fagan, William F

    2016-01-01

    Increasing trade between countries and gains in income have given consumers around the world access to a richer and more diverse set of commercial plant products (i.e., foods and fibers produced by farmers). According to the economic theory of comparative advantage, countries open to trade will be able to consume more-in terms of volume and diversity-if they concentrate production on commodities that they can most cost-effectively produce, while importing goods that are expensive to produce, relative to other countries. Here, we perform a global analysis of traded commercial plant products and find little evidence that increasing globalization has incentivized agricultural specialization. Instead, a country's plant production and consumption patterns are still largely determined by local evolutionary legacies of plant diversification. Because tropical countries harbor a greater diversity of lineages across the tree of life than temperate countries, tropical countries produce and consume a greater diversity of plant products than do temperate countries. In contrast, the richer and more economically advanced temperate countries have the capacity to produce and consume more plant species than the generally poorer tropical countries, yet this collection of plant species is drawn from fewer branches on the tree of life. Why have countries not increasingly specialized in plant production despite the theoretical financial incentive to do so? Potential explanations include the persistence of domestic agricultural subsidies that distort production decisions, cultural preferences for diverse local food production, and that diverse food production protects rural households in developing countries from food price shocks. Less specialized production patterns will make crop systems more resilient to zonal climatic and social perturbations, but this may come at the expense of global crop production efficiency, an important step in making the transition to a hotter and more

  15. Commercial Plant Production and Consumption Still Follow the Latitudinal Gradient in Species Diversity despite Economic Globalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Erik J.; Helmus, Matthew R.; Cavender-Bares, Jeannine; Polasky, Stephen; Lasky, Jesse R.; Zanne, Amy E.; Pearse, William D.; Kraft, Nathan J. B.; Miteva, Daniela A.; Fagan, William F.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing trade between countries and gains in income have given consumers around the world access to a richer and more diverse set of commercial plant products (i.e., foods and fibers produced by farmers). According to the economic theory of comparative advantage, countries open to trade will be able to consume more–in terms of volume and diversity–if they concentrate production on commodities that they can most cost-effectively produce, while importing goods that are expensive to produce, relative to other countries. Here, we perform a global analysis of traded commercial plant products and find little evidence that increasing globalization has incentivized agricultural specialization. Instead, a country’s plant production and consumption patterns are still largely determined by local evolutionary legacies of plant diversification. Because tropical countries harbor a greater diversity of lineages across the tree of life than temperate countries, tropical countries produce and consume a greater diversity of plant products than do temperate countries. In contrast, the richer and more economically advanced temperate countries have the capacity to produce and consume more plant species than the generally poorer tropical countries, yet this collection of plant species is drawn from fewer branches on the tree of life. Why have countries not increasingly specialized in plant production despite the theoretical financial incentive to do so? Potential explanations include the persistence of domestic agricultural subsidies that distort production decisions, cultural preferences for diverse local food production, and that diverse food production protects rural households in developing countries from food price shocks. Less specialized production patterns will make crop systems more resilient to zonal climatic and social perturbations, but this may come at the expense of global crop production efficiency, an important step in making the transition to a hotter and more

  16. Commercial Plant Production and Consumption Still Follow the Latitudinal Gradient in Species Diversity despite Economic Globalization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik J Nelson

    Full Text Available Increasing trade between countries and gains in income have given consumers around the world access to a richer and more diverse set of commercial plant products (i.e., foods and fibers produced by farmers. According to the economic theory of comparative advantage, countries open to trade will be able to consume more-in terms of volume and diversity-if they concentrate production on commodities that they can most cost-effectively produce, while importing goods that are expensive to produce, relative to other countries. Here, we perform a global analysis of traded commercial plant products and find little evidence that increasing globalization has incentivized agricultural specialization. Instead, a country's plant production and consumption patterns are still largely determined by local evolutionary legacies of plant diversification. Because tropical countries harbor a greater diversity of lineages across the tree of life than temperate countries, tropical countries produce and consume a greater diversity of plant products than do temperate countries. In contrast, the richer and more economically advanced temperate countries have the capacity to produce and consume more plant species than the generally poorer tropical countries, yet this collection of plant species is drawn from fewer branches on the tree of life. Why have countries not increasingly specialized in plant production despite the theoretical financial incentive to do so? Potential explanations include the persistence of domestic agricultural subsidies that distort production decisions, cultural preferences for diverse local food production, and that diverse food production protects rural households in developing countries from food price shocks. Less specialized production patterns will make crop systems more resilient to zonal climatic and social perturbations, but this may come at the expense of global crop production efficiency, an important step in making the transition to a

  17. Future opportunities in production of disposable optics and electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, Raimo

    2001-05-01

    The several production methods of paper processing chain can be used, by analogy, to generate novel ideas for production of optics and electronics. Paper processing is a very fast reel-to-reel process: In the beginning of the paper web production the process is running at the speed of over thousand meters per minute and the web width can be 10 meters, and still at the later stages the speed is several hundreds of meters per minute with the web width of a couple of meters. There are several potential reel-to-reel production methods like embossing, printing, laminating and different kinds of vacuum coating, for example evaporation and sputtering. End products are complex multi-layer composite structures. The benefits from this analogy for optics and electronics would be ideas for ultra fast production, paper-like disposable and recyclable products and the integration of optics and electronics into ordinary things like books, wallpapers, tissue papers and packages. Two experiments are presented to demonstrate the possibilities. In the first experiment optical patterns are embossed directly on paper. In the second one conductive polymers are printed on paper and plastic webs. In future, a wide network of cooperation will be needed to realize all the opportunities.

  18. Insect community composition and functional roles along a tropical agricultural production gradient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bellamy, Angelina Sanderson; Svensson, Ola; Den Brink, van Paul J.; Gunnarsson, Jonas; Tedengren, Michael

    2018-01-01

    High intensity agricultural production systems are problematic not only for human health and the surrounding environment, but can threaten the provision of ecosystem services on which farm productivity depends. This research investigates the effects of management practices in Costa Rica on on-farm

  19. Vegetative biomass predicts inflorescence production along a CO2 concentration gradient in mesic grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmospheric CO2 concentration will likely exceed 500 uL L-1 by 2050, often increasing plant community productivity in part by increasing abundance of species favored by increased CA. Whether increased abundance translates to increased inflorescence production is poorly understood, and is important ...

  20. Carbon and nitrogen distribution in oak-hickory forests distributed along a productivity gradient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reber, R.T.; Kaczmarek, D.J.; Pope, P.E.; Rodkey, K.S. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Biomass, carbon and nitrogen pools were determined for oak-hickory forests of varying productivity. Little information of this type is available for the central hardwood region. Six oak-hickory dominated forests were chosen to represent a range in potential site productivity as influenced by soil type, amount of recyclable nutrients and available water. Biomass, carbon and nitrogen storage were determined for the following components: above ground standing biomass, fine root biomass, forest floor organic layers and litterfall. As site sequestered at each site was dependent more on the amount of living biomass at each site Litterfall, to some extent, increased with increasing site productivity. As potential site productivity decreased, total fine root biomass increased. The data suggest that as site quality decreased fine root production and turnover may become as important in nutrient cycling as annual litterfall.

  1. Rational and Efficient Preparative Isolation of Natural Products by MPLC-UV-ELSD based on HPLC to MPLC Gradient Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challal, Soura; Queiroz, Emerson Ferreira; Debrus, Benjamin; Kloeti, Werner; Guillarme, Davy; Gupta, Mahabir Prashad; Wolfender, Jean-Luc

    2015-11-01

    In natural product research, the isolation of biomarkers or bioactive compounds from complex natural extracts represents an essential step for de novo identification and bioactivity assessment. When pure natural products have to be obtained in milligram quantities, the chromatographic steps are generally labourious and time-consuming. In this respect, an efficient method has been developed for the reversed-phase gradient transfer from high-performance liquid chromatography to medium-performance liquid chromatography for the isolation of pure natural products at the level of tens of milligrams from complex crude natural extracts. The proposed method provides a rational way to predict retention behaviour and resolution at the analytical scale prior to medium-performance liquid chromatography, and guarantees similar performances at both analytical and preparative scales. The optimisation of the high-performance liquid chromatography separation and system characterisation allows for the prediction of the gradient at the medium-performance liquid chromatography scale by using identical stationary phase chemistries. The samples were introduced in medium-performance liquid chromatography using a pressure-resistant aluminium dry load cell especially designed for this study to allow high sample loading while maintaining a maximum achievable flow rate for the separation. The method has been validated with a mixture of eight natural product standards. Ultraviolet and evaporative light scattering detections were used in parallel for a comprehensive monitoring. In addition, post-chromatographic mass spectrometry detection was provided by high-throughput ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry analyses of all fractions. The processing of all liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry data in the form of an medium-performance liquid chromatography x ultra high-performance liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry matrix enabled an

  2. Compensating the electron beam energy spread by the natural transverse gradient of laser undulator in all-optical x-ray light sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tong; Feng, Chao; Deng, Haixiao; Wang, Dong; Dai, Zhimin; Zhao, Zhentang

    2014-06-02

    All-optical ideas provide a potential to dramatically cut off the size and cost of x-ray light sources to the university-laboratory scale, with the combination of the laser-plasma accelerator and the laser undulator. However, the large longitudinal energy spread of the electron beam from laser-plasma accelerator may hinder the way to high brightness of these all-optical light sources. In this paper, the beam energy spread effect is proposed to be significantly compensated by the natural transverse gradient of a laser undulator when properly transverse-dispersing the electron beam. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulations on conventional laser-Compton scattering sources and high-gain all-optical x-ray free-electron lasers with the electron beams from laser-plasma accelerators are presented.

  3. Production of new particles in electron-positron annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilman, F.J.

    1977-02-01

    A number of areas are reviewed where there is important progress in the production of new particles in electron--positron annihilation, but of a more detailed quantitative nature. Charmonium states, charmed mesons, and evidence for a charged heavy lepton are covered. 50 references

  4. Microphytobenthic primary production along a non-tidal sandy beach gradient: an annual study from the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Urban-Malinga

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The microphytobenthic primary production and chlorophyll a content were studied over the annual cycle (May 1998 - May 1999 on a non-tidal Baltic sandy beach at three stations along the beach gradient: littoral, waterline and splash zone. The chlorophyll a concentrations varied between 0.88 and 12.18 µg cm-3. Net and gross primary production rates respectively lay within the ranges 0.1-31.4 mgC m-2 h-1 and 0.2-41.8 mgC m-2 h-1. The highest values of both Chl a content and primary production were noted at the littoral station, the lowest ones at the waterline. The mean annual P/B ratio was highest at the waterline. The differences in Chl a content between stations were statistically significant and may be related to water dynamics, resuspension and water content. Production rates were highly variable on monthly time scales, and the highest results at all the study locations were noted in July. The gross photosynthetic rates were significantly correlated with water temperature.

  5. How to reconcile wood production and biodiversity conservation? The Pan-European boreal forest history gradient as an "experiment".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumov, Vladimir; Manton, Michael; Elbakidze, Marine; Rendenieks, Zigmars; Priednieks, Janis; Uhlianets, Siarhei; Yamelynets, Taras; Zhivotov, Anton; Angelstam, Per

    2018-07-15

    There are currently competing demands on Europe's forests and the finite resources and services that they can offer. Forestry intensification that aims at mitigating climate change and biodiversity conservation is one example. Whether or not these two objectives compete can be evaluated by comparative studies of forest landscapes with different histories. We test the hypothesis that indicators of wood production and biodiversity conservation are inversely related in a gradient of long to short forestry intensification histories. Forest management data containing stand age, volume and tree species were used to model the opportunity for wood production and biodiversity conservation in five north European forest regions representing a gradient in landscape history from very long in the West and short in the East. Wood production indicators captured the supply of coniferous wood and total biomass, as well as current accessibility by transport infrastructure. Biodiversity conservation indicators were based on modelling habitat network functionality for focal bird species dependent on different combinations of stand age and tree species composition representing naturally dynamic forests. In each region we randomly sampled 25 individual 100-km 2 areas with contiguous forest cover. Regarding wood production, Sweden's Bergslagen region had the largest areas of coniferous wood, followed by Vitebsk in Belarus and Zemgale in Latvia. NW Russia's case study regions in Pskov and Komi had the lowest values, except for the biomass indicator. The addition of forest accessibility for transportation made the Belarusian and Swedish study region most suitable for wood and biomass production, followed by Latvia and two study regions in NW Russian. Regarding biodiversity conservation, the overall rank among regions was opposite. Mixed and deciduous habitats were functional in Russia, Belarus and Latvia. Old Scots pine and Norway spruce habitats were only functional in Komi. Thus

  6. Electric fields, electron production, and electron motion at the stripper foil in the Los Alamos Proton Storage Ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plum, M.

    1995-01-01

    The beam instability at the Los Alamos Proton Storage Ring (PSR) most likely involves coupled oscillations between electrons and protons. For this instability to occur, there must be a strong source of electrons. Investigation of the various sources of electrons in the PSR had begun. Copious electron production is expected in the injection section because this section contains the stripper foil. This foil is mounted near the center of the beam pipe, and both circulating and injected protons pass through it, thus allowing ample opportunity for electron production. This paper discusses various mechanisms for electron production, beam-induced electric fields, and electron motion in the vicinity of the foil

  7. Herbivory and competition slow down invasion of a tall grass along a productivity gradient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijper, DPJ; Nijhoff, DJ; Bakker, JP

    2004-01-01

    Competition models including competition for light predict that small plant species preferred by herbivores will be outshaded by taller unpreferred plant species with increasing productivity. When the tall plant species is little grazed by the herbivores, it can easily invade and dominate short

  8. Size- and food-dependent growth drives patterns of competitive dominance along productivity gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huss, Magnus; Gårdmark, Anna; Van Leeuwen, Anieke; de Roos, André M

    2012-04-01

    Patterns of coexistence among competing species exhibiting size- and food-dependent growth remain largely unexplored. Here we studied mechanisms behind coexistence and shifts in competitive dominance in a size-structured fish guild, representing sprat and herring stocks in the Baltic Sea, using a physiologically structured model of competing populations. The influence of degree of resource overlap and the possibility of undergoing ontogenetic diet shifts were studied as functions of zooplankton and zoobenthos productivity. By imposing different size-dependent mortalities, we could study the outcome of competition under contrasting environmental regimes representing poor and favorable growth conditions. We found that the identity of the dominant species shifted between low and high productivity. Adding a herring-exclusive benthos resource only provided a competitive advantage over sprat when size-dependent mortality was high enough to allow for rapid growth in the zooplankton niche. Hence, the importance of a bottom-up effect of varying productivity was dependent on a strong top-down effect. Although herring could depress shared resources to lower levels than could sprat and also could access an exclusive resource, the smaller size at maturation of sprat allowed it to coexist with herring and, in some cases, exclude it. Our model system, characterized by interactions among size cohorts, allowed for consumer coexistence even at full resource overlap at intermediate productivities when size-dependent mortality was low. Observed shifts in community patterns were crucially dependent on the explicit consideration of size- and food-dependent growth. Accordingly, we argue that accounting for food-dependent growth and size-dependent interactions is necessary to better predict changes in community structure and dynamics following changes in major ecosystem drivers such as resource productivity and mortality, which are fundamental for our ability to manage exploitation of

  9. Raman scattering and associated fast electron production. Final technical report, April 16, 1984-April 15, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, R.D.; Pietrzyk, Z.A.

    1985-08-01

    High energy electrons in plasmas have been attributed to various causes including trapping by electron plasma waves created by stimulated Raman scattering. A theory, consistent with experimental results, based on the acceleration of trapped electrons by such electron plasma waves as they propagate in the presence of a density gradient away from the region where they are created is presented. Single particle simulations show accelerating voltages as high as 20 GV/m

  10. Research of the internal electron-positron pair production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenyes, Tibor

    1985-01-01

    The phenomenon of internal electron-positron pair production by excited nuclei is briefly reviewed. The advantages of this phenomenon in nuclear structure investigations are pointed. The new Si(Li)-Si(Li) electron spectrometer with superconducting magnetic transporter (SMS) built at ATOMKI, Hungary, was tested for detection of internal electron-positron pair production events. Proton beam of a Van de Graaff accelerator of 5 MV was used to excite the target nuclei of sup(27)Al, sup(42)Ca and sup(19)F. The internal pair production coefficients were measured and compared with the data of literature. The detection efficiency of SMS is calculated to be (37+-7)%. The test proved that the SMS is suitable for nuclear structure investigations producing electron-positron pairs. The SMS of ATOMKI is recently the top instrument all over the world in this field: its detection efficiency, energy resolution and applicability for multipolarity identification are much better than these properties of other detectors. (D.Gy.)

  11. Managing Product Usability : How companies deal with usability in the development of electronic consumer products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Kuijk, J.I.

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Even though there is a large amount of methods for user-centred design, the usability of electronic consumer products (e.g., portable music players, washing machines and mobile phones) is under pressure. Usability is the extent to which a product can be used by specified users to

  12. Stimulated Raman scattering and hot-electron production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drake, R.P.; Turner, R.E.; Lasinski, B.F.; Estabrook, K.G.; Campbell, E.M.; Wang, C.L.; Phillion, D.W.; Williams, E.A.; Kruer, W.L.

    1985-01-01

    High-intensity laser light can excite parametric instabilities that scatter or absorb it. One instability that can arise when laser light penetrates a plasma is sub-quarter-critical stimulated Raman (SQSR) scattering. It occurs below the quarter-critical density of the incident light and involves the decay of the incident light wave into a scattered light wave and electron plasma wave. The scattered-light wavelength ranges from 1 to 2 times that of the incident light, depending on the plasma density and temperature. This article reports studies of SQSR scattering and hot-electron production in plasmas produced by irradiating thick gold targets with up to 4 kJ of 0.53-μm light in 1-ns (FWHM) pulses. These studies have important implications for laser fusion. Hot electrons attributed to the SQSR instability can increase the difficulty of achieving high-gain implosions by penetrating and preheating the fusion fuel

  13. Gradients in microbial methanol uptake: productive coastal upwelling waters to oligotrophic gyres in the Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Joanna L; Sargeant, Stephanie; Nightingale, Philip D; Colin Murrell, J

    2013-01-01

    Methanol biogeochemistry and its importance as a carbon source in seawater is relatively unexplored. We report the first microbial methanol carbon assimilation rates (k) in productive coastal upwelling waters of up to 0.117±0.002 d−1 (∼10 nmol l−1 d−1). On average, coastal upwelling waters were 11 times greater than open ocean northern temperate (NT) waters, eight times greater than gyre waters and four times greater than equatorial upwelling (EU) waters; suggesting that all upwelling waters upon reaching the surface (⩽20 m), contain a microbial population that uses a relatively high amount of carbon (0.3–10 nmol l−1 d−1), derived from methanol, to support their growth. In open ocean Atlantic regions, microbial uptake of methanol into biomass was significantly lower, ranging between 0.04–0.68 nmol l−1 d−1. Microbes in the Mauritanian coastal upwelling used up to 57% of the total methanol for assimilation of the carbon into cells, compared with an average of 12% in the EU, and 1% in NT and gyre waters. Several methylotrophic bacterial species were identified from open ocean Atlantic waters using PCR amplification of mxaF encoding methanol dehydrogenase, the key enzyme in bacterial methanol oxidation. These included Methylophaga sp., Burkholderiales sp., Methylococcaceae sp., Ancylobacter aquaticus, Paracoccus denitrificans, Methylophilus methylotrophus, Methylobacterium oryzae, Hyphomicrobium sp. and Methylosulfonomonas methylovora. Statistically significant correlations for upwelling waters between methanol uptake into cells and both chlorophyll a concentrations and methanol oxidation rates suggest that remotely sensed chlorophyll a images, in these productive areas, could be used to derive total methanol biological loss rates, a useful tool for atmospheric and marine climatically active gas modellers, and air–sea exchange scientists. PMID:23178665

  14. Investigation of 123I production using electron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avetisyan, Albert; Avagyan, Robert; Dallakyan, Ruben; Avdalyan, Gohar; Dobrovolsky, Nikolay; Gavalyan, Vasak; Kerobyan, Ivetta; Harutyunyan, Gevorg

    2017-01-01

    The possibility of 123 I isotope production with the help of the high-intensity bremsstrahlung photons produced by the electron beam of the LUE50 linear electron accelerator at the A.I. Alikhanyan National Science Laboratory (Yerevan Physics Institute [YerPhI]) is considered. The production method has been established and shown to be successful. The 124 Xe(γ,n) 123 Xe → 123 I nuclear reaction has been investigated and the cross-section was calculated by nuclear codes TALYS 1.6 and EMPIRE 3.2. The optimum parameter of the thickness of the target was determined by GEANT4 code. For the normalized yield of 123 I, the value of 143 Bq/(mg·μA·h) has been achieved.

  15. 75 FR 65293 - Draft Guidelines on Pharmacovigilance of Veterinary Medicinal Products: Electronic Standards for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-22

    ...] Draft Guidelines on Pharmacovigilance of Veterinary Medicinal Products: Electronic Standards for... Requirements for the Registration of Veterinary Medicinal Products (VICH) has developed a draft guideline titled ``Pharmacovigilance of Veterinary Medicinal Products: Electronic Standards for Transfer of Data...

  16. Comparison of Conjugate Gradient Density Matrix Search and Chebyshev Expansion Methods for Avoiding Diagonalization in Large-Scale Electronic Structure Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Kevin R.; Daniels, Andrew D.; Scuseria, Gustavo E.

    1998-01-01

    We report a comparison of two linear-scaling methods which avoid the diagonalization bottleneck of traditional electronic structure algorithms. The Chebyshev expansion method (CEM) is implemented for carbon tight-binding calculations of large systems and its memory and timing requirements compared to those of our previously implemented conjugate gradient density matrix search (CG-DMS). Benchmark calculations are carried out on icosahedral fullerenes from C60 to C8640 and the linear scaling memory and CPU requirements of the CEM demonstrated. We show that the CPU requisites of the CEM and CG-DMS are similar for calculations with comparable accuracy.

  17. Gradient flux measurements of sea–air DMS transfer during the Surface Ocean Aerosol Production (SOAP experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Smith

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Direct measurements of marine dimethylsulfide (DMS fluxes are sparse, particularly in the Southern Ocean. The Surface Ocean Aerosol Production (SOAP voyage in February–March 2012 examined the distribution and flux of DMS in a biologically active frontal system in the southwest Pacific Ocean. Three distinct phytoplankton blooms were studied with oceanic DMS concentrations as high as 25 nmol L−1. Measurements of DMS fluxes were made using two independent methods: the eddy covariance (EC technique using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization–mass spectrometry (API-CIMS and the gradient flux (GF technique from an autonomous catamaran platform. Catamaran flux measurements are relatively unaffected by airflow distortion and are made close to the water surface, where gas gradients are largest. Flux measurements were complemented by near-surface hydrographic measurements to elucidate physical factors influencing DMS emission. Individual DMS fluxes derived by EC showed significant scatter and, at times, consistent departures from the Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Response Experiment gas transfer algorithm (COAREG. A direct comparison between the two flux methods was carried out to separate instrumental effects from environmental effects and showed good agreement with a regression slope of 0.96 (r2 = 0.89. A period of abnormal downward atmospheric heat flux enhanced near-surface ocean stratification and reduced turbulent exchange, during which GF and EC transfer velocities showed good agreement but modelled COAREG values were significantly higher. The transfer velocity derived from near-surface ocean turbulence measurements on a spar buoy compared well with the COAREG model in general but showed less variation. This first direct comparison between EC and GF fluxes of DMS provides confidence in compilation of flux estimates from both techniques, as well as in the stable periods when the observations are not well predicted by the COAREG

  18. Gradient flux measurements of sea-air DMS transfer during the Surface Ocean Aerosol Production (SOAP) experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Murray J.; Walker, Carolyn F.; Bell, Thomas G.; Harvey, Mike J.; Saltzman, Eric S.; Law, Cliff S.

    2018-04-01

    Direct measurements of marine dimethylsulfide (DMS) fluxes are sparse, particularly in the Southern Ocean. The Surface Ocean Aerosol Production (SOAP) voyage in February-March 2012 examined the distribution and flux of DMS in a biologically active frontal system in the southwest Pacific Ocean. Three distinct phytoplankton blooms were studied with oceanic DMS concentrations as high as 25 nmol L-1. Measurements of DMS fluxes were made using two independent methods: the eddy covariance (EC) technique using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (API-CIMS) and the gradient flux (GF) technique from an autonomous catamaran platform. Catamaran flux measurements are relatively unaffected by airflow distortion and are made close to the water surface, where gas gradients are largest. Flux measurements were complemented by near-surface hydrographic measurements to elucidate physical factors influencing DMS emission. Individual DMS fluxes derived by EC showed significant scatter and, at times, consistent departures from the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment gas transfer algorithm (COAREG). A direct comparison between the two flux methods was carried out to separate instrumental effects from environmental effects and showed good agreement with a regression slope of 0.96 (r2 = 0.89). A period of abnormal downward atmospheric heat flux enhanced near-surface ocean stratification and reduced turbulent exchange, during which GF and EC transfer velocities showed good agreement but modelled COAREG values were significantly higher. The transfer velocity derived from near-surface ocean turbulence measurements on a spar buoy compared well with the COAREG model in general but showed less variation. This first direct comparison between EC and GF fluxes of DMS provides confidence in compilation of flux estimates from both techniques, as well as in the stable periods when the observations are not well predicted by the COAREG model.

  19. Possibility of some radionuclides production using high energy electron Bremsstrahlung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balzhinnyam, N.; Belov, A.G.; Gehrbish, Sh; Maslov, O.D.; Shvetsov, V.N.; Ganbold, G.

    2008-01-01

    The method of some radionuclides production using high energy Bremsstrahlung of electron accelerators and determination of photonuclear reaction yield and specific activities for some radionuclides is described. Photonuclear reaction yield and specific activities for some radionuclides are determined for 117m Sn, 111 In and 195m Pt. Based on the experimental data obtained at low energy (E e- e- = 75 MeV) of the IREN facility (FLNR, JINR) at irradiation of high purity platinum and tin metals

  20. Global change impacts on wheat production along an environmental gradient in south Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyenga, P J; Howden, S M; Meinke, H; Hall, W B

    2001-09-01

    Crop production is likely to change in the future as a result of global changes in CO2 levels in the atmosphere and climate. APSIM, a cropping system model, was used to investigate the potential impact of these changes on the distribution of cropping along an environmental transect in south Australia. The effects of several global change scenarios were studied, including: (1) historical climate and CO2 levels, (2) historic climate with elevated CO2 (700 ppm), (3) warmer climate (+2.4 degrees C) +700 ppm CO2, (4) drier climate (-15% summer, -20% winter rainfall) +2.4 degrees C +700 ppm CO2, (5) wetter climate (+10% summer rainfall) +2.4 degrees C +700 ppm CO2 and (6) most likely climate changes (+1.8 degrees C, -8% annual rainfall) +700 ppm CO2. Based on an analysis of the current cropping boundary, a criterion of 1 t/ha was used to assess potential changes in the boundary under global change. Under most scenarios, the cropping boundary moved northwards with a further 240,000 ha potentially being available for cropping. The exception was the reduced rainfall scenario (4), which resulted in a small retreat of cropping from its current extent. However, the impact of this scenario may only be small (in the order of 10,000-20,000 ha reduction in cropping area). Increases in CO2 levels over the current climate record have resulted in small but significant increases in simulated yields. Model limitations are discussed.

  1. Effects of diffusion and surface interactions on the line shape of electron paramagnetic resonances in the presence of a magnetic field gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaden, M.; Zhao, K. F.; Wu, Z.

    2007-01-01

    In an evanescent wave magnetometer the Zeeman polarization is probed at micrometer to submicrometer distances from the cell surface. The electron paramagnetic resonance lines of an evanescent wave magnetometer in the presence of a magnetic field gradient exhibit edge enhancement seen previously in nuclear magnetic resonance lines. We present a theoretical model that describes quantitatively the shape of the magnetic resonance lines of an evanescent wave magnetometer under a wide range of experimental conditions. It accounts for diffusion broadening in the presence of a magnetic field gradient as well as interactions of spin polarized Rb atoms with the coated Pyrex glass surfaces. Depending on the field gradient, cell thickness, and buffer gas pressure, the resonance line may have the form of a single asymmetric peak or two peaks localized near the front and back surfaces in frequency space. The double-peaked response depends on average characteristics of the surface interactions. Its shape is sensitive to the dwell time, relaxation probability, and average phase shift of adsorbed spin polarized Rb atoms

  2. Survey on neutron production by electron beam from high power CW electron linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyama, S.

    1999-04-01

    In Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute, the development of high current CW electron linear accelerator is in progress. It is possible for an accelerator to produce neutrons by means of a spallation and photo nuclear reactions. Application of neutron beam produced by bremsstrahlung is one of ways of the utilization for high current electron accelerator. It is actual that many electron linear accelerators which maximum energy is higher than a few hundreds MeV are used as neutron sources. In this report, an estimate of neutron production is evaluated for high current CW electron linear accelerator. The estimate is carried out by 10 MeV beam which is maximum energy limited from the regulation and rather low for neutron production. Therefore, the estimate is also done by 17 and 35 MeV beam which is possible to be accelerated. Beryllium is considered as a target for lower electron energy in addition to Lead target for higher energy, because Beryllium has low threshold energy for neutron production. The evaluation is carried out in account of the target thickness optimized by the radiation length and neutron cross section reducing the energy loss for both of electron and neutron, so as to get the maximum number of neutrons. The result of the calculations shows neutron numbers 1.9 x 10 10 , 6.1 x 10 13 and 4.8 x 10 13 (n/s), respectively, for 10, 17, and 35 MeV with low duty. The thermal removal from the target is one of critical points. The additional shielding and cooling system is necessary in order to endure radiation. A comparison with other facilities are also carried out. The estimate of neutron numbers suggests the possibility to be applied for neutron radiography and measurement of nuclear data by means of Lead spectrometer, for example. (author)

  3. Particle size distribution of selected electronic nicotine delivery system products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldham, Michael J; Zhang, Jingjie; Rusyniak, Mark J; Kane, David B; Gardner, William P

    2018-03-01

    Dosimetry models can be used to predict the dose of inhaled material, but they require several parameters including particle size distribution. The reported particle size distributions for aerosols from electronic nicotine delivery system (ENDS) products vary widely and don't always identify a specific product. A low-flow cascade impactor was used to determine the particle size distribution [mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD); geometric standard deviation (GSD)] from 20 different cartridge based ENDS products. To assess losses and vapor phase amount, collection efficiency of the system was measured by comparing the collected mass in the impactor to the difference in ENDS product mass. The levels of nicotine, glycerin, propylene glycol, water, and menthol in the formulations of each product were also measured. Regardless of the ENDS product formulation, the MMAD of all tested products was similar and ranged from 0.9 to 1.2 μm with a GSD ranging from 1.7 to 2.2. There was no consistent pattern of change in the MMAD and GSD as a function of number of puffs (cartridge life). The collection efficiency indicated that 9%-26% of the generated mass was deposited in the collection system or was in the vapor phase. The particle size distribution data are suitable for use in aerosol dosimetry programs. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. A search for single electron production in electron positron annihilation at E = 29 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steele, T.R.

    1989-09-01

    This thesis presents experimental results from the ASP detector which took data on e + e - interactions in the PEP storage ring at SLAC. Its design was particularly suitable for searching for production of supersymmetric particles. The motivations for and phenomenology of Supersymmetry are discussed. In particular, the production of a single supersymmetric electron (''selectron'', e) in combination with a supersymmetric photon (''photino'', γ) would result in events in which a single electron and no other particles are observed in the detector at an e + e - collider such as PEP, provided the masses of these particles are not too large. Such events would also result from the production of a single supersymmetric W-boson (''wino'', W) in combination with a supersymmetric neutrino (''sneutrino'', ν). These processes make it possible to search for electrons and winos with masses greater than the beam energy. Observation of these unusual events would distinctly indicate the production of new particles. The ASP detector was designed to be hermetic and to provide efficient event reconstruction for low multiplicity events. The detector is described and its performance is evaluated; it is found to be well-suited to this study. The data sample collected with the detector was thoroughly analyzed for evidence of single-electron events. The various possible background processes are considered and Monte Carlo calculations of the distributions from single selectron and single wino production are presented. Using this information an efficient off-line event selection process was developed, and it is described in detail. 82 refs., 41 figs., 4 tabs

  5. Nonlinear electronic excitations in crystalline solids using meta-generalized gradient approximation and hybrid functional in time-dependent density functional theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Shunsuke A. [Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305-8571 (Japan); Taniguchi, Yasutaka [Center for Computational Science, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305-8571 (Japan); Department of Medical and General Sciences, Nihon Institute of Medical Science, 1276 Shimogawara, Moroyama-Machi, Iruma-Gun, Saitama 350-0435 (Japan); Shinohara, Yasushi [Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics, 06120 Halle (Germany); Yabana, Kazuhiro [Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305-8571 (Japan); Center for Computational Science, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305-8571 (Japan)

    2015-12-14

    We develop methods to calculate electron dynamics in crystalline solids in real-time time-dependent density functional theory employing exchange-correlation potentials which reproduce band gap energies of dielectrics; a meta-generalized gradient approximation was proposed by Tran and Blaha [Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 226401 (2009)] (TBm-BJ) and a hybrid functional was proposed by Heyd, Scuseria, and Ernzerhof [J. Chem. Phys. 118, 8207 (2003)] (HSE). In time evolution calculations employing the TB-mBJ potential, we have found it necessary to adopt the predictor-corrector step for a stable time evolution. We have developed a method to evaluate electronic excitation energy without referring to the energy functional which is unknown for the TB-mBJ potential. For the HSE functional, we have developed a method for the operation of the Fock-like term in Fourier space to facilitate efficient use of massive parallel computers equipped with graphic processing units. We compare electronic excitations in silicon and germanium induced by femtosecond laser pulses using the TB-mBJ, HSE, and a simple local density approximation (LDA). At low laser intensities, electronic excitations are found to be sensitive to the band gap energy: they are close to each other using TB-mBJ and HSE and are much smaller in LDA. At high laser intensities close to the damage threshold, electronic excitation energies do not differ much among the three cases.

  6. Application of electron beam curing technology for paper products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaharu Miura

    1999-01-01

    The electron beam (EB) curing technology has rapidly advanced in recent years. However there were few examples applying this technology to paper products. One reason comes from the high price of EB equipment and the other comes from the difficulty of controlling the irradiation which gives damages to paper. In spite of these problems, the EB cured coating layer shows remarkable features, such as solvent-resistance, water-resistance, heat-resistance and high smoothness using the drum casting technique. Concentrating on application of this technology to paper, we have already developed some products. For example, paper for printings (Super Mirror PN) and for white boards (Super Mirror WB) have been manufactured. In this presentation, we are going to introduce this EB curing technique and the products

  7. Eucalyptus production and the supply, use and efficiency of use of water, light and nitrogen across a geographic gradient in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose Luiz Stape; Dan Binkley; Michael G. Ryan

    Millions of hectares of Eucalyptus are intensively managed for wood production in the tropics, but little is known about the physiological processes that control growth and their regulation. We examined the main environmental factors controlling growth and resource use across a geographic gradient with clonal E. grandis x urophylla in north-eastern Brazil. Rates of...

  8. Production of annular electron beams by foilless diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.B.; Prestwich, K.R.; Poukey, J.W.; Shope, S.L.

    1980-01-01

    A number of important aspects of the production of annular electron beams by foilless diodes are examined, both theoretically and experimentally. The theories of Ott, Antonsen, and Lovelace (OAL) and Chen and Lovelace (CL) are compared, and the CL theory is extended to include the effect of an axial gap in an approximate fashion. For the case of finite magnetic field strengths, Larmor orbits are examined and radial oscillations of the beam profile are predicted from a beam envelope analysis. Experimental results obtained with both low- and high-impedance sources have been compared with the theory, and based on such studies, the design and construction of an intense hollow beam generator are described. Experimental results obtained with the new diode compare favorably with both the analytic theory and the results of numerical simulations. The device currently produces 2-MeV electrons at beam currents of 65--70 kA

  9. Corrosion of ferritic steels by molten lithium: Influence of competing thermal gradient mass transfer and surface product reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tortorelli, P.F.

    1987-10-01

    An Fe-12Cr-1MoVW steel was exposed to thermally convective lithium for 6962 h. Results showed that the weight change profile of Fe-12Cr-1MoVW steel changed substantially as the maximum loop temperature was raised from 500 to 600 0 C. Furthermore, for a particular loop experiment, changes in the structure and composition of the exposed surfaces did not reflect typical thermal gradient mass transfer effects for all elements: the surface concentration of chromium was often a maximum at intermediate temperatures, while nickel (present at low concentrations in the starting material) tended to be transported to the coldest part of the loop. Such data were interpreted in terms of a qualitative model in which there are different dominant reactions or the various constituents of the ferritic steels (surface product formation involving nitrogen and/or carbon and solubility-driven elemental transport). This competition among different reactions is important in evaluating overall corrosion behavior and the effects of temperature. The overall corrosion rate of the 12Cr-1MoVW steel was relatively low when compared to that for austenitic stainless steel exposed under similar conditions

  10. Electron microscopy of hydrocarbon production in parthenium argentatum (guayule)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Thomas E. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1977-11-01

    The electron microscope was used to study the biological processes involved in hydrocarbon production. The little desert shrub Guayule (Parthenium argentatum) was selected for study. This shrub can produce hydrocarbons (rubber) in concentrations up to 1/4 of its dry weight. It grows on semi-arid land and has been extensively studied. The potential of Guayule is described in detail. Results of an investigation into the morphology of Guayule at the electron microscope level are given. Experiments, which would allow the biosynthesis of hydrocarbon in Guayule to be followed, were designed. In order to do this, knowledge of the biochemistry of rubber formation was used to select a tracer, mevalonic acid. Mevalonic acid is the precursor of all the terpenoids, a large class of hydrocarbons which includes rubber. It was found that when high enough concentrations of mevalonic acid are administered to seedling Guayule plants, build-ups of metabolized products are found within the chloroplasts of the seedlings. Also, tritium labeled mevalonic acid was used as a precursor, and its metabolic progress was followed by using the technique of electron microscope autoradiography. The results of these experiments also implicated chloroplasts of the Guayule plant in hydrocarbon production. The final task was the development of a system to produce three-dimensional stereo reconstructions of organelles suspected of involvement in hydrocarbon biosynthesis in Guayule. The techniques are designed to reconstruct an object from serial sections of that object. The techniques use stereo imaging both to abstract information for computer processing, and also in the computer produced reconstruction.

  11. Electron-positron pair production in inhomogeneous electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohlfürst, C.

    2015-01-01

    The process of electron-positron pair production is investigated within the phase-space Wigner formalism. The similarities between atomic ionization and pair production for homogeneous, but time-dependent linearly polarized electric fields are examined mainly in the regime of multiphoton absorption (field-dependent threshold, above-threshold pair production). Characteristic signatures in the particle spectra are identified (effective mass, channel closing). The non-monotonic dependence of the particle yield on the carrier frequency is discussed as well. The investigations are then extended to spatially inhomogeneous electric fields. New effects arising due to the spatial dependence of the effective mass are discussed in terms of a semi-classical interpretation. An increase in the normalized particle yield is found for various field configurations.Pair production in inhomogeneous electric and magnetic fields is also studied. The influence of a time-dependent spatially inhomogeneous magnetic field on the momentum spectrum and the particle yield is investigated. The Lorentz invariants are identified to be crucial in order to understand pair production by strong electric fields in the presence of strong magnetic fields. (author) [de

  12. Selectron production in quasi-elastic electron-proton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartels, J.; Hollik, W.

    1985-08-01

    We calculate the cross section for the production of selectrons in quasi-elastic electron proton scattering at HERA energies. In the region of very small momentum transfer the cross section turns out to be large: e.g. sigma=36 pb for a selectron mass of 60 GeV, tsub(min) 2 ), and photino mass small compared to the selectron mass. Together with the clean experimental signature, this large cross section makes the reaction e+P->e+γ tilde+P one of the most promising HERA-processes in connection with the search for supersymmetric particles. (orig.)

  13. Study of early laser-induced plasma dynamics: Transient electron density gradients via Thomson scattering and Stark Broadening, and the implications on laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diwakar, P.K.; Hahn, D.W.

    2008-01-01

    To further develop laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) as an analytical technique, it is necessary to better understand the fundamental processes and mechanisms taking place during the plasma evolution. This paper addresses the very early plasma dynamics (first 100 ns) using direct plasma imaging, light scattering, and transmission measurements from a synchronized 532-nm probe laser pulse. During the first 50 ns following breakdown, significant Thomson scattering was observed while the probe laser interacted with the laser-induced plasma. The Thomson scattering was observed to peak 15-25 ns following plasma initiation and then decay rapidly, thereby revealing the highly transient nature of the free electron density and plasma equilibrium immediately following breakdown. Such an intense free electron density gradient is suggestive of a non-equilibrium, free electron wave generated by the initial breakdown and growth processes. Additional probe beam transmission measurements and electron density measurements via Stark broadening of the 500.1-nm nitrogen ion line corroborate the Thomson scattering observations. In concert, the data support the finding of a highly transient plasma that deviates from local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) conditions during the first tens of nanoseconds of plasma lifetime. The implications of this early plasma transient behavior are discussed in the context of plasma-analyte interactions and the role on LIBS measurements

  14. Production of high power microwaves for particle acceleration with an FEL bunched electron beam

    CERN Document Server

    Gardelle, J; Marchese, G; Padois, M; Rullier, J L; Donohue, J T

    1999-01-01

    Among the studies in the framework of high gradient linear electron-positron collider research, the Two-Beam Accelerator (TBA) is a very promising concept, and two projects are in progress, the Compact Linear Collider project at CERN (W. Schnell, Report no. CERN SL/92-51 and CLIC note 184; K. Huebner, CERN/PS 92-43, CLIC note 176; S. Van der Meer, CERN/PS 89-50, CLIC note 97.) and the Relativistic Klystron-TBA project at LBNL (Technical Review Committee, International Linear Collider Technical Review Committee Report 1995, SLAC-R-95-471, 1995). In a TBA an extremely intense low-energy electron beam, called the drive beam, is bunched at the desired operating frequency, and upon passing through resonant cavities generates radio-frequency power for accelerating the main beam. Among the different approaches to the production of a suitable drive beam, the use of an FEL has been proposed and is under active study at CEA/CESTA.

  15. Electronic medical records and efficiency and productivity during office visits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Michael F

    2011-04-01

    To estimate the relationship between electronic medical record (EMR) use and efficiency of utilization and provider productivity during visits to US office-based physicians. Cross-sectional analysis of the 2006-2007 National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey. The sample included 62,710 patient visits to 2625 physicians. EMR systems included demographics, clinical notes, prescription orders, and laboratory and imaging results. Efficiency was measured as utilization of examinations, laboratory tests, radiology procedures, health education, nonmedication treatments, and medications. Productivity was measured as total services provided per 20-minute period. Survey-weighted regressions estimated association of EMR use with services provided, visit intensity/duration, and productivity. Marginal effects were estimated by averaging across all visits and by major reason for visit. EMR use was associated with higher probability of any examination (7.7%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.4%, 13.1%); any laboratory test (5.7%, 95% CI = 2.6%, 8.8%); any health education (4.9%, 95% CI = 0.2%, 9.6%); and fewer laboratory tests (-7.1%, 95% CI = -14.2%, -0.1%). During pre/post surgery visits, EMR use was associated with 7.3% (95% CI= -12.9%, -1.8%) fewer radiology procedures. EMR use was not associated with utilization of nonmedication treatments and medications, or visit duration. During routine visits for a chronic problem, EMR use was associated with 11.2% (95% CI = 5.7%, 16.8%) more diagnostic/screening services provided per 20-minute period. EMR use had a mixed association with efficiency and productivity during office visits. EMRs may improve provider productivity, especially during visits for a new problem and routine chronic care.

  16. Electron Production and Collective Field Generation in Intense Particle Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molvik, A W; Vay, J; Cohen, R; Friedman, A; Lee, E; Verboncoeur, J; Covo, M K

    2006-01-01

    Electron cloud effects (ECEs) are increasingly recognized as important, but incompletely understood, dynamical phenomena, which can severely limit the performance of present electron colliders, the next generation of high-intensity rings, such as PEP-II upgrade, LHC, and the SNS, the SIS 100/200, or future high-intensity heavy ion accelerators such as envisioned in Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion (HIF). Deleterious effects include ion-electron instabilities, emittance growth, particle loss, increase in vacuum pressure, added heat load at the vacuum chamber walls, and interference with certain beam diagnostics. Extrapolation of present experience to significantly higher beam intensities is uncertain given the present level of understanding. With coordinated LDRD projects at LLNL and LBNL, we undertook a comprehensive R and D program including experiments, theory and simulations to better understand the phenomena, establish the essential parameters, and develop mitigating mechanisms. This LDRD project laid the essential groundwork for such a program. We developed insights into the essential processes, modeled the relevant physics, and implemented these models in computational production tools that can be used for self-consistent study of the effect on ion beams. We validated the models and tools through comparison with experimental data, including data from new diagnostics that we developed as part of this work and validated on the High-Current Experiment (HCX) at LBNL. We applied these models to High-Energy Physics (HEP) and other advanced accelerators. This project was highly successful, as evidenced by the two paragraphs above, and six paragraphs following that are taken from our 2003 proposal with minor editing that mostly consisted of changing the tense. Further benchmarks of outstanding performance are: we had 13 publications with 8 of them in refereed journals, our work was recognized by the accelerator and plasma physics communities by 8 invited papers and we have

  17. Limitation on the accelerating gradient of a wakefield excited by an ultrarelativistic electron beam in rubidium plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Vafaei-Najafabadi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the viability of using plasmas formed by ionization of high Z, low ionization potential element rubidium (Rb for beam-driven plasma wakefield acceleration. The Rb vapor column confined by argon (Ar buffer gas was used to reduce the expected limitation on the beam propagation length due to head erosion that was observed previously when a lower Z but higher ionization potential lithium vapor was used. However, injection of electrons into the wakefield due to ionization of Ar buffer gas and nonuniform ionization of Rb^{1+} to Rb^{2+} was a possible concern. In this paper we describe experimental results and the supporting simulations which indicate that such ionization of Ar and Rb^{1+} in the presence of combined fields of the beam and the wakefield inside the wake does indeed occur. Some of this charge accumulates in the accelerating region of the wake leading to the reduction of the electric field—an effect known as beam loading. The beam-loading effect is quantified by determining the average transformer ratio ⟨R⟩ which is the maximum energy gained divided by the maximum energy lost by the electrons in the bunch used to produce the wake. ⟨R⟩ is shown to depend on the propagation length and the quantity of the accumulated charge, indicating that the distributed injection of secondary Rb electrons is the main cause of beam loading in this experiment. The average transformer ratio is reduced from 1.5 to less than 1 as the excess charge from secondary ionization increased from 100 to 700 pC. The simulations show that while the decelerating field remains constant, the accelerating field is reduced from its unloaded value of 82 to 46  GeV/m due to this distributed injection of dark current into the wake.

  18. Electron beam technology for production of preparations of immobilized enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonchar, A.M.; Auslender, V.L.; Polyakov, V.A.

    1995-01-01

    Possibility of electron beam usage for proteases immobilization on 1,4-polyalkylene oxide (1,4-PAO) was studied to obtain biologically active complex for multi-purpose usage. It is shown that immobilization of Bacillus Subtilis protease is done due to free-radical linking of enzyme and carrier with formation of mycelium-like structures. Immobilization improves heat resistance of enzyme up to 60 centigrade without substrate and up to 80 centigrade in presence of substrate, widens range pH activity in comparison with non-immobilized forms. Immobilized proteases does not contain peroxides and long-live radicals. Our results permitted to create technologies for production of medical and veterinary preparations, active components for wool washing agents and leather fabrication technology

  19. Electronic Nose for Microbiological Quality Control of Food Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Falasconi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Electronic noses (ENs have recently emerged as valuable candidates in various areas of food quality control and traceability, including microbial contamination diagnosis. In this paper, the EN technology for microbiological screening of food products is reviewed. Four paradigmatic and diverse case studies are presented: (a Alicyclobacillus spp. spoilage of fruit juices, (b early detection of microbial contamination in processed tomatoes, (c screening of fungal and fumonisin contamination of maize grains, and (d fungal contamination on green coffee beans. Despite many successful results, the high intrinsic variability of food samples together with persisting limits of the sensor technology still impairs ENs trustful applications at the industrial scale. Both advantages and drawbacks of sensor technology in food quality control are discussed. Finally, recent trends and future directions are illustrated.

  20. Novel production techniques of radioisotopes using electron accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Daniel Robert

    Non-traditional radioisotope production techniques using a compact, high power linear electron accelerator have been demonstrated and characterized for the production of 18F, 47Sc, 147 Pm, and 99mTc from a variety of target candidates. These isotopes are used extensively in the medical field as diagnostic and therapy radioisotopes, as well as the space industry as RTG's. Primary focus was placed on 99mTc as it constitutes approximately 80% of all diagnostic procedures in the medical community that use radioactive tracers. It was also the prime focus due to recent events at the Chalk River nuclear reactor, which caused global shortages of this isotope a few years ago. A Varian K15 LINAC was first used to show proof of principle in Las Vegas. Various samples were then taken to the Idaho Accelerator Center where they were activated using an electron LINAC capable of electron energies from 4 to 25 MeV at a beam power of approximately 1 kW. Production rates, cross sections, and viability studies were then performed and conducted to assess the effectiveness of the candidate target and the maximum production rate for each radioisotope. Production rates for 18F from lithium fluoride salts were shown to be ideal at 21MeV, namely 1.7 Ci per kg of LiF salt, per kW of beam current, per 10 hour irradiation time. As the typical hospital consumption of 18F is around 500 mCi per day, it is clear that a large amount of 18F can be made from a small (300 gram) sample of LiF salt. However, since there is no current separation process for 18F from 19F, the viability of this technique is limited until a separations technique is developed. Furthermore, the calculated cross section for this reaction is in good agreement with literature, which supports the techniques for the isotopes mentioned below. Production rates for 47Sc from vanadium oxide targets were shown to be a maximum at 25 MeV with a production rate of 2 mCi per day, assuming a 2 kW beam and a 10 kg target. While this

  1. Gyrokinetic particle-in-cell global simulations of ion-temperature-gradient and collisionless-trapped-electron-mode turbulence in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolliet, S.

    2009-02-01

    The goal of thermonuclear fusion research is to provide power plants, that will be able to produce one gigawatt of electricity. Among the different ways to achieve fusion, the tokamak, based on magnetic confinement, is the most promising one. A gas is heated up to hundreds of millions of degrees and becomes a plasma, which is maintained - or confined - in a toroidal vessel by helical magnetic field lines. Then, deuterium and tritium are injected and fuse to create an α particle and an energetic neutron. In order to have a favorable power balance, the power produced by fusion reactions must exceed the power needed to heat the plasma and the power losses. This can be cast in a very simple expression which stipulates that the product of the density, the temperature and the energy confinement time must exceed some given value. Unfortunately, present-days tokamaks are not able to reach this condition, mostly due to plasma turbulence. The latter phenomenon enhances the heat losses and degrades the energy confinement time, which cannot be predicted by analytical theories such as the so-called neoclassical theory in which the heat losses are caused by Coulomb collisions. Therefore, numerical simulations are being developed to model plasma turbulence, mainly caused by the Ion and Electron Temperature-Gradient and the Trapped-Electron-Mode (TEM) instabilities. The plasma is described by a distribution function which evolves according to the Vlasov equation. The electromagnetic fields created by the particles are self-consistently obtained through Maxwell’s equations. The resulting Vlasov-Maxwell system is greatly simplified by using the gyrokinetic theory, which consists, through an appropriate ordering, of eliminating the fast gyromotion (compared to the typical frequency of instabilities). Nevertheless, it is still extremely difficult to solve this system numerically due to the large range of time and spatial scales to be resolved. In this thesis, the Vlasov

  2. Product conveying system for 10 MeV electron beam accelerator for electron beam centre, Kharghar, Navi Mumbai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandi, L.N.; Lavale, D.S.; Sarma, K.S.S.; Khader, S.A.; Assadullah, M.; Sabharwal, S.

    2003-01-01

    In industrial radiation processing applications using accelerators, product conveying system plays a vital role in exposing the product to high energy electron beam for imparting specified dose to the product and delivering required through puts. The speed of the conveyor corresponds to a definite time of exposure of the product in the radiation zone. Design of suitable conveyor system for a variety of products with differing dose requirements call for a conveyor with wide speed range. This paper discusses the design features of a suitable under beam conveyor system for 10 MeV, 10 kW accelerator for processing a range of products including medical and food products

  3. Control of electron transfer in the cytochrome system of mitochondria by pH, transmembrane pH gradient and electrical potential. The cytochromes b-c segment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, S; Lorusso, M; Izzo, G; Capuano, F

    1981-02-15

    1. A study is presented of the effects of pH, transmembrane pH gradient and electrical potential on oxidoreductions of b and c cytochromes in ox heart mitochondria and 'inside-out' submitochondrial particles. 2. Kinetic analysis shows that, in mitochondria at neutral pH, there is a restraint on the aerobic oxidation of cytochrome b566 with respect to cytochrome b562. Valinomycin plus K+ accelerates cytochrome b566 oxidation and retards net oxidation of cytochrome b562. At alkaline pH the rate of cytochrome b566 oxidation approaches that of cytochrome b562 and the effects of valinomycin on b cytochromes are impaired. 3. At slightly acidic pH, oxygenation of antimycin-supplemented mitochondria causes rapid reduction of cytochrome b566 and small delayed reduction of cytochrome b562. Valinomycin or a pH increase in the medium promote reduction of cytochrome b562 and decrease net reduction of cytochrome b566. 4. Addition of valinomycin to mitochondria and submitochondrial particles in the respiring steady state causes, at pH values around neutrality, preferential oxidation of cytochrome b566 with respect to cytochrome b562. The differential effect of valinomycin on oxidation of cytochromes b566 and b562 is enhanced by substitution of 1H2O of the medium with 2H2O and tends to disappear as the pH of the medium is raised to alkaline values. 5. Nigericin addition in the aerobic steady state causes, both in mitochondria and submitochondrial particles, preferential oxidation of cytochrome b562 with respect to cytochrome b566. This is accompanied by c cytochrome oxidation in mitochondria but c cytochrome reduction in submitochondrial particles. 6. In mitochondria as well as in submitochondrial particles, the aerobic transmembrane potential (delta psi) does not change by raising the pH of the external medium from neutrality to alkalinity. The transmembrane pH gradient (delta pH) on the other hand, decrease slightly. 7. The results presented provide evidence that the delta psi

  4. 78 FR 52211 - Certain Electronic Devices Having Placeshifting or Display Replication and Products Containing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-22

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-878] Certain Electronic Devices Having Placeshifting or Display Replication and Products Containing Same; Commission Determination Not To Review an... States after importation of certain electronic devices having placeshifting or display replication...

  5. Electron beam treatment parameters for control of stored product insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleghorn, D.A.; Nablo, S.V.; Ferro, D.N.; Hagstrum, D.W.

    2002-01-01

    The fluidized bed process (EBFB) has been evaluated for the disinfestation of cereal grains. The various life stages from egg to adult have been studied on the 225 kV pilot as a function of surface dose. Three of the most common pests were selected: the rice weevil (S. oryzae), the lesser grain borer (R. dominica) and the red flour beetle (T. castaneum). The major challenge to this process lies in those 'protected' life-stages active deeply within the endosperm of the grain kernel. The rice weevil is such an internal feeder in which the larvae develop through several molts during several weeks before pupation and adult emergence. Product velocities up to 2000 m/min have been used for infested hard winter wheat at dose levels up to 1000 Gy. Detailed depth of penetration studies at three life stages of S. oryzae larvae were conducted at 225-700 kV and demonstrated effective mortality at 400 kVx200 Gy. Mortality data are also presented for the radiation labile eggs of these insects as well as the (sterile) adults, which typically lived for several weeks before death. These results are compared with earlier 60 Co gamma-ray studies on these same insects. Based upon these studies, the effectiveness of the fluidized bed process employing self-shielded electron beam equipment for insect control in wheat/rice at sub-kilogray dose levels has been demonstrated

  6. Production and Studies of Photocathodes for High Intensity Electron Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Chevallay, E; Legros, P; Suberlucq, Guy; Trautner, H

    2000-01-01

    For short, high-intensity electron bunches, alkali-tellurides have proved to be a reliable photo-cathode material. Measurements of lifetimes in an rf gun of the CLIC Test Facility II at field strengths greater than 100 MV/m are presented. Before and after using them in this gun, the spectral response of the CS-Te and Rb-Te cathodes were determined with the help of an optical parametric oscillator. The behaviour of both materials can be described by Spicer's 3-step model. Whereas during the use the threshold for photo-emission in Cs-Te was shifted to higher proton energies, that of Rb-Te did not change. Our latest investigations on the stoichiometric ratio of the components are shown. The preparation of the photo-cathodes was monitored with 320 nm wavelength light , with the aim of improving the measurement sensitivity. The latest results on the protection of Cs-Te cathode surfaces with CsBr against pollution are summarized. New investigations on high mean current production are presented.,

  7. Convoy electron production by heavy ions in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellin, I.A.

    1984-01-01

    The term convoy electron refers to those electrons ejected in fast ion-atom and ion-solid collisions closely matched in vector velocity to that of the incident heavy particles responsible for their ejection. Similarities and differences among electrons ejected into such states through binary electron capture to continuum and electron loss to continuum processes in single ion-atom encounters are compared and contrasted to more complex ejection processes occurring in solid targets. Puzzles posed by the apparent strong projectile Z dependence but weak emergent ion charge dependence of the yield in the case of solid targets are reviewed. Very recent progress in resolving these puzzles has been made by recent observations that the apparent mean free path for electron scattering out of the forward direction within the target is observed to be an order of magnitude greater than that for free electrons of equal velocity provided the projectile charge is high. 13 references, 2 figures, 1 table

  8. Response of the Fine Root Production, Phenology, and Turnover Rate of Six Shrub Species from a Subtropical Forest to a Soil Moisture Gradient and Shading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, X.; Dai, X.; Wang, H.

    2015-12-01

    Knowledge of the fine root dynamics of different life forms in forest ecosystems is critical to understanding how the overall belowground carbon cycling is affected by climate change. However, our current knowledge regarding how endogenous or exogenous factors regulate the root dynamics of understory vegetation is limited. We selected a suite of study sites representing different habitats with gradients of soil moisture and solar radiation (shading or no shading). We assessed the fine root production phenology, the total fine root production, and the turnover among six understory shrub species in a subtropical climate, and examined the responses of the fine root dynamics to gradients in the soil moisture and solar radiation. The shrubs included three evergreen species, Loropetalum chinense, Vaccinium bracteatum, and Adinandra millettii, and three deciduous species, Serissa serissoides, Rubus corchorifolius, and Lespedeza davidii. We observed that variations in the annual fine root production and turnover among species were significant in the deciduous group but not in the evergreen group. Notably, V. bracteatum and S. serissoides presented the greatest responses in terms of root phenology to gradients in the soil moisture and shading: high-moisture habitat led to a decrease and shade led to an increase in fine root production during spring. Species with smaller fine roots of the 1st+2nd-order diameter presented more sensitive responses in terms of fine root phenology to a soil moisture gradient. Species with a higher fine root nitrogen-to -carbon ratio exhibited more sensitive responses in terms of fine root annual production to shading. Soil moisture and shading did not change the annual fine root production as much as the turnover rate. The fine root dynamics of some understory shrubs varied significantly with soil moisture and solar radiation status and may be different from tree species. Our results emphasize the need to study the understory fine root dynamics

  9. Production of accelerated electrons near an electron source in the plasma resonance region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorov, V.A.

    1989-01-01

    Conditions of generation of plasma electrons accelerated and their characteristics in the vicinity of an electron source are determined. The electron source isolated electrically with infinitely conducting surface, being in unrestricted collisionless plasma ω 0 >>ν, where ω 0 - plasma frequency of nonperturbated plasma, ν - frequency of plasma electron collisions with other plasma particles, is considered. Spherically symmetric injection of electrons, which rates are simulated by ω frequency, occurs from the source surface. When describing phenomena in the vicinity of the electron source, one proceeds from the quasihydrodynamic equation set

  10. Vertical segregation among pathways mediating nitrogen loss (N2 and N2O production) across the oxygen gradient in a coastal upwelling ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán, Alexander; Thamdrup, Bo; Saldías, Gonzalo S.; Farías, Laura

    2017-10-01

    The upwelling system off central Chile (36.5° S) is seasonally subjected to oxygen (O2)-deficient waters, with a strong vertical gradient in O2 (from oxic to anoxic conditions) that spans a few metres (30-50 m interval) over the shelf. This condition inhibits and/or stimulates processes involved in nitrogen (N) removal (e.g. anammox, denitrification, and nitrification). During austral spring (September 2013) and summer (January 2014), the main pathways involved in N loss and its speciation, in the form of N2 and/or N2O, were studied using 15N-tracer incubations, inhibitor assays, and the natural abundance of nitrate isotopes along with hydrographic information. Incubations were developed using water retrieved from the oxycline (25 m depth) and bottom waters (85 m depth) over the continental shelf off Concepción, Chile. Results of 15N-labelled incubations revealed higher N removal activity during the austral summer, with denitrification as the dominant N2-producing pathway, which occurred together with anammox at all times. Interestingly, in both spring and summer maximum potential N removal rates were observed in the oxycline, where a greater availability of oxygen was observed (maximum O2 fluctuation between 270 and 40 µmol L-1) relative to the hypoxic bottom waters ( multiple N-cycling processes are modulating the isotopic nitrate composition over the shelf off central Chile during spring and summer. N removal processes in this coastal system appear to be related to the availability and distribution of oxygen and particles, which are a source of organic matter and the fuel for the production of other electron donors (i.e. ammonium) and acceptors (i.e. nitrate and nitrite) after its remineralization. These results highlight the links between several pathways involved in N loss. They also establish that different mechanisms supported by alternative N substrates are responsible for substantial accumulation of N2O, which are frequently observed as hotspots in the

  11. Production of runaway electrons by negative streamer discharges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chanrion, Olivier Arnaud; Neubert, Torsten

    2010-01-01

    thunderstorms, the so-called Terrestrial Gamma-Ray Flashes. The radiation is thought to be bremsstrahlung from energetic (MeV) electrons accelerated in a thunderstorm discharge. The observation goes against conventional wisdom that discharges in air are carried by electrons with energies below a few tens of e...... and the conditions on the electric field for the acceleration of electrons into the runaway regime. We use particle codes to describe the process of stochastic acceleration and introduce a novel technique that improves the statistics of the relatively few electrons that reach high energies. The calculation...

  12. Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    International Acer Incorporated, Hsin Chu, Taiwan Aerospace Industrial Development Corporation, Taichung, Taiwan American Institute of Taiwan, Taipei, Taiwan...Singapore and Malaysia .5 - 4 - The largest market for semiconductor products is the high technology consumer electronics industry that consumes up...Singapore, and Malaysia . A new semiconductor facility costs around $3 billion to build and takes about two years to become operational

  13. Orbital-optimized coupled-electron pair theory and its analytic gradients: Accurate equilibrium geometries, harmonic vibrational frequencies, and hydrogen transfer reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkaya, Uǧur; Sherrill, C. David

    2013-08-01

    Orbital-optimized coupled-electron pair theory [or simply "optimized CEPA(0)," OCEPA(0), for short] and its analytic energy gradients are presented. For variational optimization of the molecular orbitals for the OCEPA(0) method, a Lagrangian-based approach is used along with an orbital direct inversion of the iterative subspace algorithm. The cost of the method is comparable to that of CCSD [O(N6) scaling] for energy computations. However, for analytic gradient computations the OCEPA(0) method is only half as expensive as CCSD since there is no need to solve the λ2-amplitude equation for OCEPA(0). The performance of the OCEPA(0) method is compared with that of the canonical MP2, CEPA(0), CCSD, and CCSD(T) methods, for equilibrium geometries, harmonic vibrational frequencies, and hydrogen transfer reactions between radicals. For bond lengths of both closed and open-shell molecules, the OCEPA(0) method improves upon CEPA(0) and CCSD by 25%-43% and 38%-53%, respectively, with Dunning's cc-pCVQZ basis set. Especially for the open-shell test set, the performance of OCEPA(0) is comparable with that of CCSD(T) (ΔR is 0.0003 Å on average). For harmonic vibrational frequencies of closed-shell molecules, the OCEPA(0) method again outperforms CEPA(0) and CCSD by 33%-79% and 53%-79%, respectively. For harmonic vibrational frequencies of open-shell molecules, the mean absolute error (MAE) of the OCEPA(0) method (39 cm-1) is fortuitously even better than that of CCSD(T) (50 cm-1), while the MAEs of CEPA(0) (184 cm-1) and CCSD (84 cm-1) are considerably higher. For complete basis set estimates of hydrogen transfer reaction energies, the OCEPA(0) method again exhibits a substantially better performance than CEPA(0), providing a mean absolute error of 0.7 kcal mol-1, which is more than 6 times lower than that of CEPA(0) (4.6 kcal mol-1), and comparing to MP2 (7.7 kcal mol-1) there is a more than 10-fold reduction in errors. Whereas the MAE for the CCSD method is only 0.1 kcal

  14. Study of electron beam production by a plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.R.; Luo, C.M.; Rhee, M.J.; Schneider, R.F.

    1983-01-01

    A preliminary investigation of the electron beam produced by a plasma focus device using a current charged transmission line is described. Electron beam currents as high as 10 kA were measured. Interaction of the extracted beam and the filling gas was studied using open shutter photography

  15. Do low-mercury terrestrial resources subsidize low-mercury growth of stream fish? Differences between species along a productivity gradient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren M Ward

    Full Text Available Low productivity in aquatic ecosystems is associated with reduced individual growth of fish and increased concentrations of methylmercury (MeHg in fish and their prey. However, many stream-dwelling fish species can use terrestrially-derived food resources, potentially subsidizing growth at low-productivity sites, and, because terrestrial resources have lower MeHg concentrations than aquatic resources, preventing an increase in diet-borne MeHg accumulation. We used a large-scale field study to evaluate relationships among terrestrial subsidy use, growth, and MeHg concentrations in two stream-dwelling fish species across an in-stream productivity gradient. We sampled young-of-the-year brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar, potential competitors with similar foraging habits, from 20 study sites in streams in New Hampshire and Massachusetts that encompassed a wide range of aquatic prey biomass. Stable isotope analysis showed that brook trout used more terrestrial resources than Atlantic salmon. Over their first growing season, Atlantic salmon tended to grow larger than brook trout at sites with high aquatic prey biomass, but brook grew two-fold larger than Atlantic salmon at sites with low aquatic prey biomass. The MeHg concentrations of brook trout and Atlantic salmon were similar at sites with high aquatic prey biomass and the MeHg concentrations of both species increased at sites with low prey biomass and high MeHg in aquatic prey. However, brook trout had three-fold lower MeHg concentrations than Atlantic salmon at low-productivity, high-MeHg sites. These results suggest that differential use of terrestrial resource subsidies reversed the growth asymmetry between potential competitors across a productivity gradient and, for one species, moderated the effect of low in-stream productivity on MeHg accumulation.

  16. 76 FR 72439 - Certain Consumer Electronics and Display Devices and Products Containing Same; Receipt of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [DN 2858] Certain Consumer Electronics and Display Devices and.... International Trade Commission has received a complaint entitled In Re Certain Consumer Electronics and Display... importation of certain consumer electronics and display devices and products containing same. The complaint...

  17. 77 FR 14422 - Certain Consumer Electronics and Display Devices and Products Containing Same; Notice of Receipt...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [DN 2882] Certain Consumer Electronics and Display Devices and... the U.S. International Trade Commission has received a complaint entitled Certain Consumer Electronics... importation of certain consumer electronics and display devices and products containing same. The complaint...

  18. 77 FR 21584 - Certain Consumer Electronics and Display Devices and Products Containing Same; Institution of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Inv. No. 337-TA-836] Certain Consumer Electronics and Display... electronics and display devices and products containing same by reason of infringement of certain claims of U... importation, or the sale within the United States after importation of certain consumer electronics and...

  19. Direct electron production measurements by DELCO at SPEAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkby, J.; Stanford Univ., Calif.

    1977-01-01

    We have observed weakly-produced electrons in e + e - annihilations above Esub(c.m.) approximately 3.75 GeV. In the course of a scan through this threshold region we observed the 3 D 1 state of charmonium with a mass 3770+-6 MeV/c 2 , width GAMMA = 24+-5 MeV and partial width to electron pairs GAMMAsub(ee) = 180+-60 eV. This resonance (named PSI'(3770)) provides a value for the D semileptonic branching ratio of 11+-3%. On the assumption of the Cabibbo nature involved, the PSI' electron momentum spectrum indicates a substantial contribution from the mode D→Kev. A comparison of the events having only two visible prongs (of which only one is an electron) with the heavy lepton hypotheses shows no disagreement. Alternative hypotheses have not yet been investigated. (orig.) [de

  20. 78 FR 19182 - Electronic Filing of Import Inspection Applications for Meat, Poultry, and Egg Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ...] Electronic Filing of Import Inspection Applications for Meat, Poultry, and Egg Products: Availability of..., and egg products through the Automated Commercial Environment (ACE). ACE is the Web- based portal for... products (21 U.S.C. 620, 466). The Egg Products Inspection Act (EPIA) (21 U.S.C. 1031 et seq.) prohibits...

  1. 77 FR 31876 - Certain Consumer Electronics and Display Devices and Products Containing Same Determination Not...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-836] Certain Consumer Electronics and Display Devices and Products Containing Same Determination Not To Review Initial Determination To Amend... electronics and display devices and products containing the same by reason of infringement of U.S. Patent Nos...

  2. Supply chain implications of sustainable design strategies for electronics products

    OpenAIRE

    De Coster, R; Bateman, RJ; Plant, AVC

    2012-01-01

    Increasing legislative and consumer pressures on manufacturers to improve sustainability necessitates that manufacturers consider the overall life cycle and not be scope restricted in creating products. Product strategies to improve sustainability have design implications as many of the decisions made during the design stage will then determine the environmental performance of the final product. Coordination across the supply chain is potentially beneficial as products with improved energy ef...

  3. Plasma production for electron acceleration by resonant plasma wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anania, M.P.; Biagioni, A.; Chiadroni, E.; Cianchi, A.; Croia, M.; Curcio, A.; Di Giovenale, D.; Di Pirro, G.P.; Filippi, F.; Ghigo, A.; Lollo, V.; Pella, S.; Pompili, R.; Romeo, S.; Ferrario, M.

    2016-01-01

    Plasma wakefield acceleration is the most promising acceleration technique known nowadays, able to provide very high accelerating fields (10–100 GV/m), enabling acceleration of electrons to GeV energy in few centimeter. However, the quality of the electron bunches accelerated with this technique is still not comparable with that of conventional accelerators (large energy spread, low repetition rate, and large emittance); radiofrequency-based accelerators, in fact, are limited in accelerating field (10–100 MV/m) requiring therefore hundred of meters of distances to reach the GeV energies, but can provide very bright electron bunches. To combine high brightness electron bunches from conventional accelerators and high accelerating fields reachable with plasmas could be a good compromise allowing to further accelerate high brightness electron bunches coming from LINAC while preserving electron beam quality. Following the idea of plasma wave resonant excitation driven by a train of short bunches, we have started to study the requirements in terms of plasma for SPARC-LAB (Ferrario et al., 2013 [1]). In particular here we focus on hydrogen plasma discharge, and in particular on the theoretical and numerical estimates of the ionization process which are very useful to design the discharge circuit and to evaluate the current needed to be supplied to the gas in order to have full ionization. Eventually, the current supplied to the gas simulated will be compared to that measured experimentally.

  4. Plasma production for electron acceleration by resonant plasma wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anania, M.P., E-mail: maria.pia.anania@lnf.infn.it [INFN - LNF, via Enrico Fermi, 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Biagioni, A.; Chiadroni, E. [INFN - LNF, via Enrico Fermi, 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Cianchi, A. [University of Rome Tor Vergata - INFN, via della Ricerca Scientifica, 1, 00133 Roma (Italy); INFN, Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 1, 00133 Roma (Italy); Croia, M.; Curcio, A. [INFN - LNF, via Enrico Fermi, 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); University of Rome La Sapienza, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Di Giovenale, D.; Di Pirro, G.P. [INFN - LNF, via Enrico Fermi, 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Filippi, F. [University of Rome La Sapienza, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Ghigo, A.; Lollo, V.; Pella, S.; Pompili, R. [INFN - LNF, via Enrico Fermi, 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Romeo, S. [INFN - LNF, via Enrico Fermi, 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); University of Rome La Sapienza, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Ferrario, M. [INFN - LNF, via Enrico Fermi, 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy)

    2016-09-01

    Plasma wakefield acceleration is the most promising acceleration technique known nowadays, able to provide very high accelerating fields (10–100 GV/m), enabling acceleration of electrons to GeV energy in few centimeter. However, the quality of the electron bunches accelerated with this technique is still not comparable with that of conventional accelerators (large energy spread, low repetition rate, and large emittance); radiofrequency-based accelerators, in fact, are limited in accelerating field (10–100 MV/m) requiring therefore hundred of meters of distances to reach the GeV energies, but can provide very bright electron bunches. To combine high brightness electron bunches from conventional accelerators and high accelerating fields reachable with plasmas could be a good compromise allowing to further accelerate high brightness electron bunches coming from LINAC while preserving electron beam quality. Following the idea of plasma wave resonant excitation driven by a train of short bunches, we have started to study the requirements in terms of plasma for SPARC-LAB (Ferrario et al., 2013 [1]). In particular here we focus on hydrogen plasma discharge, and in particular on the theoretical and numerical estimates of the ionization process which are very useful to design the discharge circuit and to evaluate the current needed to be supplied to the gas in order to have full ionization. Eventually, the current supplied to the gas simulated will be compared to that measured experimentally.

  5. Experimental determination of the radial dose distribution in high gradient regions around 192Ir wires: Comparison of electron paramagnetic resonance imaging, films, and Monte Carlo simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolbun, N.; Leveque, Ph.; Abboud, F.; Bol, A.; Vynckier, S.; Gallez, B.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The experimental determination of doses at proximal distances from radioactive sources is difficult because of the steepness of the dose gradient. The goal of this study was to determine the relative radial dose distribution for a low dose rate 192 Ir wire source using electron paramagnetic resonance imaging (EPRI) and to compare the results to those obtained using Gafchromic EBT film dosimetry and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. Methods: Lithium formate and ammonium formate were chosen as the EPR dosimetric materials and were used to form cylindrical phantoms. The dose distribution of the stable radiation-induced free radicals in the lithium formate and ammonium formate phantoms was assessed by EPRI. EBT films were also inserted inside in ammonium formate phantoms for comparison. MC simulation was performed using the MCNP4C2 software code. Results: The radical signal in irradiated ammonium formate is contained in a single narrow EPR line, with an EPR peak-to-peak linewidth narrower than that of lithium formate (∼0.64 and 1.4 mT, respectively). The spatial resolution of EPR images was enhanced by a factor of 2.3 using ammonium formate compared to lithium formate because its linewidth is about 0.75 mT narrower than that of lithium formate. The EPRI results were consistent to within 1% with those of Gafchromic EBT films and MC simulations at distances from 1.0 to 2.9 mm. The radial dose values obtained by EPRI were about 4% lower at distances from 2.9 to 4.0 mm than those determined by MC simulation and EBT film dosimetry. Conclusions: Ammonium formate is a suitable material under certain conditions for use in brachytherapy dosimetry using EPRI. In this study, the authors demonstrated that the EPRI technique allows the estimation of the relative radial dose distribution at short distances for a 192 Ir wire source.

  6. Irradiance gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, G.J.; Heckbert, P.S.; Technische Hogeschool Delft

    1992-04-01

    A new method for improving the accuracy of a diffuse interreflection calculation is introduced in a ray tracing context. The information from a hemispherical sampling of the luminous environment is interpreted in a new way to predict the change in irradiance as a function of position and surface orientation. The additional computation involved is modest and the benefit is substantial. An improved interpolation of irradiance resulting from the gradient calculation produces smoother, more accurate renderings. This result is achieved through better utilization of ray samples rather than additional samples or alternate sampling strategies. Thus, the technique is applicable to a variety of global illumination algorithms that use hemicubes or Monte Carlo sampling techniques

  7. Aluminum and gallium nuclei as microscopic probes for pulsed electron-nuclear double resonance diagnostics of electric-field gradient and spin density in garnet ceramics doped with paramagnetic ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uspenskaya, Yu. A.; Mamin, G. V.; Babunts, R. A.; Badalyan, A. G.; Edinach, E. V.; Asatryan, H. R.; Romanov, N. G.; Orlinskii, S. B.; Khanin, V. M.; Wieczorek, H.; Ronda, C.; Baranov, P. G.

    2018-03-01

    The presence of aluminum and gallium isotopes with large nuclear magnetic and quadrupole moments in the nearest environment of impurity ions Mn2+ and Ce3+ in garnets made it possible to use hyperfine and quadrupole interactions with these ions to determine the spatial distribution of the unpaired electron and the gradient of the electric field at the sites of aluminum and gallium in the garnet lattice. High-frequency (94 GHz) electron spin echo detected electron paramagnetic resonance and electron-nuclear double resonance measurements have been performed. Large difference in the electric field gradient and quadrupole splitting at octahedral and tetrahedral sites allowed identifying the positions of aluminum and gallium ions in the garnet lattice and proving that gallium first fills tetrahedral positions in mixed aluminum-gallium garnets. This should be taken into account in the development of garnet-based scintillators and lasers. It is shown that the electric field gradient at aluminum nuclei near Mn2+ possessing an excess negative charge in the garnet lattice is ca. 2.5 times larger than on aluminum nuclei near Ce3+.

  8. Aboveground net primary productivity and rainfall use efficiency of grassland on three soils after two years of exposure to a subambient to superambient CO2 gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, P. A.; Polley, H. W.; Jin, V. L.

    2008-12-01

    Atmospheric CO2 concentrations (CA) have increased by about 100 μL L-1 over the last 250 years to ~ 380 μL L-1, the highest values in the last half-million years, and CA is expected to continue to increase to greater than 500 μL L-1 by 2100. CO2 enrichment has been shown to affect many ecosystem processes, but experiments typically examine only two or a few levels of CA, and are typically constrained to one soil type. However, soil hydrologic properties differ across the landscape. Therefore, variation in the impacts of increasing CA on ecosystem function on different soil types must be understood to model and forecast ecosystem function under future CA and climate scenarios. Here we evaluate the aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) of grassland plots receiving equal rainfall inputs (from irrigation) and exposed to a continuous gradient (250 to 500 μL L-1) of CA in the Lysimeter CO2 Gradient Experiment in central Texas, USA. Sixty intact soil monoliths (1 m2 x 1.5 m deep) taken from three soil types (Austin silty clay, Bastrop sandy loam, Houston clay) and planted to seven native tallgrass prairie grasses and forbs were exposed to the CA gradient beginning in 2006. Aboveground net primary productivity was assessed by end of season (November) harvest of each species in each monolith. Total ANPP of all species was 35 to 50% greater on Bastrop and Houston soils compared to Austin soils in both years (p Solidago canadensis strongly increased with increasing CA, with S. nutans responding more strongly on Bastrop and Houston soils (p = 0.053), indicating that increased greater rainfall use efficiency at high CA on these productive soils was associated with increased dominance by these species. In contrast, the grass Bouteloua curtipendula decreased in biomass with increasing CA, especially on Austin and Bastrop soils. The least productive species were the grass Tridens albescens, the legume Desmanthus illinoensis, and the forb Salvia azurea, and these showed

  9. Integrating Emotional Attachment and Sustainability in Electronic Product Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Lobos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Current models for Information and Communication Technology (ICT products encourage frequent product replacement with newer versions that offer only minor incremental improvements. This pattern, named planned obsolescence, diminishes user experience and shortens product lifespan. This paper presents the conceptual basis for a two-part integrated approach to combating planned obsolescence in ICT devices. First, design for emotional attachment, which creates products that users enjoy, value, and use for longer. Second, technological adaptability, which anticipates product upgrades and repairs as new technologies emerge. A model interdisciplinary design course in industrial design and sustainability, also described herein, trains students to apply this approach to create innovative ICT products with smaller environmental footprints.

  10. To the problem of electron beam production in plasma diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenev, S.A.

    1982-01-01

    The results of exprriments on electrOn beam generation from plasma emitting surfaces formed by incompleted charged over the dielectric surface, sliding charge over the dielectric surface covered with a layer of barium oxide, discharge due to explosion-emission effects. The experiments have shown that the formed plasma of sliding discharge and discharge in explosion-emission effects is rather homogeneous and the electron beam has the current density homogeneity in the transverse cross section of approximation 20%. At the diode voltage of 150-300 kV the density of electron current for diodes with cathode on the basis of the sliding charge is approximately 0.4-1.0 kA/cm 2 , while for diodes with cathode made of graphite with metallic grid it is approximately 0.5-1.3 kA/cm 2 . The average gap between anode and cathode is 1 cm for both cases

  11. Big data to optimise product strategy in electronic industry

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Nawaz; Lakshmi Sabih, Vijay; Georgiadou, Elli; Repanovich, Angela

    2016-01-01

    This research identifies the success factors for new product development and competitive advantage as well as argues how big data can expedite the process of launching a new product initiative. By combining the research findings and the patterns of background theories, an inquisitive framework for the new product development and competitive advantage is proposed. This model and framework is a prototype, which with the aid of scenario recommends the parsimonious and an unified way to elucidate...

  12. Study on Effects of Electron Donors on Phosphine Production from Anaerobic Activated Sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping Cao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different types and concentrations of electron donors (glucose, starch, methanol and sodium acetate on the formation of phosphine from anaerobic activated sludge that has been domesticated for a prolonged period were studied in small batch experiments. The results show that types and concentrations of electron donor have significant effects on the production of phosphine from anaerobic activated sludge. Among them, glucose was the most favourable electron donor, whereas sodium acetate was the least favourable electron donor for the removal of phosphorus and the production of phosphine. Higher concentrations of electron donors were more favourable for the reduction of phosphate into phosphine, and supplying more than nine times the amount of electron donor as theoretically required for the reduction of phosphate into phosphine was favourable for the production of phosphine.

  13. Counterfeit Electronic Cigarette Products with Mislabeled Nicotine Concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omaiye, Esther E; Cordova, Iliana; Davis, Barbara; Talbot, Prue

    2017-07-01

    We compared nicotine concentrations in one brand of refill fluids that were purchased in 4 countries and labeled 0 mg of nicotine/mL. We then identified counterfeit e-cigarette products from these countries. Overall, 125 e-cigarette refill fluids were purchased in Nigeria, the United States (US), England, and China. Nicotine concentrations were measured using high performance liquid chromatography and compared to labeled concentrations. Refill fluids were examined to identify physical differences and grouped into authentic and counterfeit products. Whereas nicotine was in 51.7% (15/29) of the Nigerian, 3.7% (1/27) of the Chinese and 1.6% (1/61) of the American refill fluids (range = 0.4 - 20.4 mg/mL), 8 British products did not contain nicotine. Products from China, the US, and Nigeria with trace amounts of nicotine (0.4 to 0.6 mg/mL) were authentic; however, all products from Nigeria with more than 3.7 mg/mL were counterfeit. We introduce 2 novel issues in the e-cigarette industry, the production of counterfeit refill fluids under a brandjacked label and inclusion of nicotine in 81.3% of the counterfeit products labeled 0 mg/mL. This study emphasizes the need for better control and monitoring of nicotine containing products and sales outlets.

  14. Green development within product families, Electronics goes green 2000+ conference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker; Willum, Ole; Frees, Niels

    2001-01-01

    , based on environ-mental and economical importance as well as the existence of several producers. Using this method, five families have been selected, namely mobile phones, vacuum cleaners, industrial valves with electronic controls, lighting and ventilation. Collaboration with 5 industrial companies has...

  15. Mechanisms for the production of harmonics in free electron lasers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elgin, J.N.; Penman, C.

    1991-01-01

    Harmonics in the radiation of a free electron laser are useful for extending the range of tuning, may originate in spontaneous or parametric processes, and can take part in stimulated emission or amplification. These mechanisms exhibit interesting analogies with those of nonlinear optics. Apart from

  16. Superparticle production in high-energy electron-proton collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boldyshev, V.F.; Rekalo, M.P.; Stoletnij, I.V.

    1987-01-01

    The analytical formulae for total and differential cross sections of the ep → e-tildeγ-tilde process, taking into account the polarization of both initial beams, are obtained. It is shown that the employment of longitudinally polarized initial beams provides a tool for varying relative contributions of left and right electrons superpartners and detecting their mass difference

  17. Deposition of mercury in forests across a montane elevation gradient: Elevational and seasonal patterns in methylmercury inputs and production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerson, Jacqueline R.; Driscoll, Charles T.; Demers, Jason D.; Sauer, Amy K.; Blackwell, Bradley D.; Montesdeoca, Mario R.; Shanley, James B.; Ross, Donald S.

    2017-08-01

    Global mercury contamination largely results from direct primary atmospheric and secondary legacy emissions, which can be deposited to ecosystems, converted to methylmercury, and bioaccumulated along food chains. We examined organic horizon soil samples collected across an elevational gradient on Whiteface Mountain in the Adirondack region of New York State, USA to determine spatial patterns in methylmercury concentrations across a forested montane landscape. We found that soil methylmercury concentrations were highest in the midelevation coniferous zone (0.39 ± 0.07 ng/g) compared to the higher elevation alpine zone (0.28 ± 0.04 ng/g) and particularly the lower elevation deciduous zone (0.17 ± 0.02 ng/g), while the percent of total mercury as methylmercury in soils decreased with elevation. We also found a seasonal pattern in soil methylmercury concentrations, with peak methylmercury values occurring in July. Given elevational patterns in temperature and bioavailable total mercury (derived from mineralization of soil organic matter), soil methylmercury concentrations appear to be driven by soil processing of ionic Hg, as opposed to atmospheric deposition of methylmercury. These methylmercury results are consistent with spatial patterns of mercury concentrations in songbird species observed from other studies, suggesting that future declines in mercury emissions could be important for reducing exposure of mercury to montane avian species.

  18. Deposition of mercury in forests across a montane elevation gradient: Elevational and seasonal patterns in methylmercury inputs and production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerson, Jacqueline R.; Driscoll, Charles T.; Demers, Jason D.; Sauer, Amy K.; Blackwell, Bradley D.; Montesdeoca, Mario R.; Shanley, James B.; Ross, Donald S.

    2017-01-01

    Global mercury contamination largely results from direct primary atmospheric and secondary legacy emissions, which can be deposited to ecosystems, converted to methylmercury, and bioaccumulated along food chains. We examined organic horizon soil samples collected across an elevational gradient on Whiteface Mountain in the Adirondack region of New York State, USA to determine spatial patterns in methylmercury concentrations across a forested montane landscape. We found that soil methylmercury concentrations were highest in the midelevation coniferous zone (0.39 ± 0.07 ng/g) compared to the higher elevation alpine zone (0.28 ± 0.04 ng/g) and particularly the lower elevation deciduous zone (0.17 ± 0.02 ng/g), while the percent of total mercury as methylmercury in soils decreased with elevation. We also found a seasonal pattern in soil methylmercury concentrations, with peak methylmercury values occurring in July. Given elevational patterns in temperature and bioavailable total mercury (derived from mineralization of soil organic matter), soil methylmercury concentrations appear to be driven by soil processing of ionic Hg, as opposed to atmospheric deposition of methylmercury. These methylmercury results are consistent with spatial patterns of mercury concentrations in songbird species observed from other studies, suggesting that future declines in mercury emissions could be important for reducing exposure of mercury to montane avian species.

  19. Assessment of swim-up and discontinuous density gradient in sperm sex preselection for bovine embryo production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C Lucio

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to associate the modified swim-up method with centrifugation in density gradient for the separation of X-bearing spermatozoa. Sperm viability and integrity were evaluated through the Trypan Blue/Giemsa staining method. Quality control of centrifuged spermatozoa was performed in in vitro produced embryos. The results were validated by the sex ratio of in vitro produced embryos using PCR by Y- specific sequences present in bovine male genomic DNA. After determining genetic sex of in vitro produced embryos, the results showed difference (P<0.05 in deviation of sex ratio when comparing the control group (45.2% females with the other spermatozoa selection procedures (60.6% females (P<0.05. The sperm selection methods are capable of selecting X-bearing spermatozoa without compromising the spermatozoa fertility (cleavage and blastocyst rates, 70% and 26%, respectively and were considered relevant methods to be introduced in bovine in vitro produced embryo programs.

  20. Temperature Gradient in Hall Thrusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staack, D.; Raitses, Y.; Fisch, N.J.

    2003-01-01

    Plasma potentials and electron temperatures were deduced from emissive and cold floating probe measurements in a 2 kW Hall thruster, operated in the discharge voltage range of 200-400 V. An almost linear dependence of the electron temperature on the plasma potential was observed in the acceleration region of the thruster both inside and outside the thruster. This result calls into question whether secondary electron emission from the ceramic channel walls plays a significant role in electron energy balance. The proportionality factor between the axial electron temperature gradient and the electric field is significantly smaller than might be expected by models employing Ohmic heating of electrons

  1. Anticipating Soft Problems with Consumer Electronic Products : How do soft problems interact with user characteristics and product properties?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, C.

    2012-01-01

    Over the last decade consumer electronic product industries have been confronted with an increase in consumer complaints. Interestingly about half of the reasons for product return are based on so called ‘soft problems’, consumer complaints that cannot be traced back to technical problems. Probably

  2. Cusp electron production in 75--300 keV He+ + Ar collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plano, V.L.; Sarkadi, L.; Zavodszky, P.; Berenyi, D.; Palinkas, J.; Gulyas, L.; Takacs, E.; Toth, L.; Tanis, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    Cusp-electron production has been investigated in collisions of 75--300 keV He + with Ar. The relative contributions from electron capture to the continuum (ECC), transfer ionization (TI), and electron loss to the continuum (ELC) to the total cusp electron production were measured. Over the energy range investigated, ECC was found to decrease from about 86% to 80%, TI decreased from about 12% to 1%, and ELC increased from about 2% to 20%. The present results are consistent with earlier work for He + and O q+ projectiles

  3. Effects of discharge cleaning on the production of runaway electrons in TORTUS tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, R C; Liu, J R; Giannone, L. (Sydney Univ. (Australia). School of Physics)

    1983-06-01

    Experimental results are presented on the production of runaway electrons as a function of wall cleanliness in the TORTUS tokamak. When the walls are clean, the production rate decreases as the filling pressure increases. When the walls are contaminated by oxygen, the production rate can increase when the filling pressure is increased, owing to the production of water vapour during tokamak discharges. These results resolve the differences reported in the literature on the production of runaways as a function of filling pressure. It is also observed that the runaway electron instability seen in other devices is suppressed when the walls are discharge-cleaned.

  4. Effects of discharge cleaning on the production of runaway electrons in TORTUS tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, R.C.; Liu, J.R.; Giannone, L.

    1983-01-01

    Experimental results are presented on the production of runaway electrons as a function of wall cleanliness in the TORTUS tokamak. When the walls are clean, the production rate decreases as the filling pressure increases. When the walls are contaminated by oxygen, the production rate can increase when the filling pressure is increased, owing to the production of water vapour during tokamak discharges. These results resolve the differences reported in the literature on the production of runaways as a function of filling pressure. It is also observed that the runaway electron instability seen in other devices is suppressed when the walls are discharge-cleaned. (author)

  5. Study of cerenkov radiation. Production of {gamma} rays by electron accelerators; Etude du rayonnement de freinage. Production de rayons {gamma} par des accelerateurs d'electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    This study is a critical comparison of the theories of Bremsstrahlung. Experimental results obtained by the production of {gamma} radiation with electron accelerators are compared to the theoretical results in order to estimate the extent to which the various theories are valid. (author) [French] Cette etude est une synthese des theories du rayonnement de freinage. Des resultats experimentaux, obtenus par la production de rayonnements {gamma} avec des accelerateurs d'electrons, sont compares aux resultats theoriques afin d'evaluer les domaines de validite des diverses theories. (auteur)

  6. Tearing modes with pressure gradient effect in pair plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Huishan; Li Ding; Zheng Jian

    2009-01-01

    The general dispersion relation of tearing mode with pressure gradient effect in pair plasmas is derived analytically. If the pressure gradients of positron and electron are not identical in pair plasmas, the pressure gradient has significant influence at tearing mode in both collisionless and collisional regimes. In collisionless regime, the effects of pressure gradient depend on its magnitude. For small pressure gradient, the growth rate of tearing mode is enhanced by pressure gradient. For large pressure gradient, the growth rate is reduced by pressure gradient. The tearing mode can even be stabilized if pressure gradient is large enough. In collisional regime, the growth rate of tearing mode is reduced by the pressure gradient. While the positron and electron have equal pressure gradient, tearing mode is not affected by pressure gradient in pair plasmas.

  7. Production of electronically excited NO via DEA to NO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gope, Krishnendu; Tadsare, Vishvesh; Prabhudesai, Vaibhav S.; Krishnakumar, E.

    2017-12-01

    Dissociative electron attachment (DEA) to NO2 in the 7-11 eV range is studied using velocity slice imaging technique. Two distinct channels are observed in the DEA corresponding to O- + NO(A 2Σ+) and O- + NO(C 2Π and/or D 2Σ+). While NO(A 2Σ+) is found to be formed only in very high vibrational levels, NO(C 2Π and/or D 2Σ+) is found to be formed with vibrational distribution starting from v = 0. From the angular distribution of the O- ions leading to the NO(C 2Π and/or D 2Σ+) channel, we obtain the symmetry of the negative ion resonance to be dominantly B1 with small contribution from B2. Contribution to the Topical Issue: "Low Energy Positron and Electron Interactions", edited by James Sullivan, Ron White, Michael Bromley, Ilya Fabrikant, and David Cassidy.

  8. Production of ion beam by conical pinched electron beam diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsukawa, Y.; Nakagawa, Y.

    1982-01-01

    Some properties of the ion beam produced by pinched electron beam diode having conical shape electrodes and organic insulator anode was studied. Ion energy is about 200keV and the peak diode current is about 30 kA. At 11cm from the diode apex, not the geometrical focus point, concentrated ion beam was obtained. Its density is more than 500A/cm 2 . The mean ion current density within the radius of 1.6cm around the axis from conical diode is two or three times that from an usual pinched electron beam diode with flat parallel electrodes of same dimension and impedance under the same conditions. (author)

  9. MESON AND DI-ELECTRON PRODUCTION WITH HADES

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frohlich, I.; Agakishiev, G.; Agodi, C.; Balanda, A.; Bellia, G.; Belver, D.; Belyaev, A.; Blanco, A.; Böhmer, M.; Boyard, J. L.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Cabanelas, P.; Castro, E.; Chernenko, S.; Christ, T.; Destefanis, M.; Díaz, J.; Dohrmann, F.; Dybczak, A.; Eberl, T.; Fabbietti, L.; Fateev, O.; Finocchiaro, P.; Fonte, P.; Friese, J.; Galatyuk, T.; Garzón, J.A.; Gernhäuser, R.; Gil, A.; Gilardi, C.; Golubeva, M.; Gonzalez-Diaz, D.; Grosse, E.; Guber, F.; Heilmann, M.; Hennino, T.; Holzmann, R.; Ierusalimov, A.; Iori, I.; Ivashkin, A.; Jurkovic, M.; Kämpfer, B.; Kanaki, K.; Karavicheva, T.; Kirschner, D.; Koenig, I.; Koenig, W.; Kolb, B.W.; Kotte, R.; Kozuch, A.; Krása, Antonín; Křížek, Filip; Krücken, R.; Kuhn, W.; Kugler, Andrej; Kurepin, A.; Lamas-Valverde, J.; Lang, S.; Lange, J.S.; Lapidus, K.; Lopes, L.; Maier, L.; Mangiarotti, A.; Marín, J.; Markert, J.; Metag, V.; Michalska, B.; Michel, J.; Mishra, D.; Moriniére, E.; Mousa, J.; Muntz, C.; Naumann, L.; Novotny, R.; Otwinowski, J.; Pachmayer, Y.C.; Palka, M.; Parpottas, Y.; Pechenov, V.; Pechenova, O.; Cavalcanti, T.P.; Pietraszko, J.; Przygoda, W.; Ramstein, B.; Reshetin, A.; Roy-Stephan, M.; Rustamov, A.; Sadovsky, A.; Sailer, B.; Salabura, P.; Schmah, A.; Simon, R. S.; Sobolev, Yuri, G.; Spataro, S.; Spruck, B.; Strobele, H.; Stroth, J.; Sturm, C.; Sudol, M.; Tarantola, A.; Teilab, K.; Tlustý, Pavel; Traxler, M.; Trebacz, R.; Tsertos, H.; Veretenkin, I.; Wagner, Vladimír; Wen, H.; Wisniowski, M.; Wojcik, T.; Wüstenfeld, J.; Yurevich, S.; Zanevsky, Yu.; Zhou, P.; Zumbruch, P.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 24, 2-3 (2009), s. 317-326 ISSN 0217-751X. [Conference MESON 2008. Jagiellonian Univ, Cracow, 06.06.2008-10.06.2008] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100480803; GA MŠk LC07050 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : Mesons * di-electrons * resonances Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 0.941, year: 2009

  10. Software product line engineering for consumer electronics : Keeping up with the speed of innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmann, Herman

    2015-01-01

    During the last decade consumer electronics products have changed radically. Traditionally these products were used for a few dedicated tasks, and were implemented through hardware. Nowadays, these products are used for a variety of tasks and are largely implemented through software. Furthermore

  11. Multi-Electron Production at High Transverse Momenta in ep Collisions at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Aktas, A.; Anthonis, T.; Asmone, A.; Babaev, A.; Backovic, S.; Bahr, J.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Baumgartner, S.; Becker, J.; Beckingham, M.; Behnke, O.; Behrendt, O.; Belousov, A.; Berger, C.; Berndt, T.; Bizot, J.C.; Bohme, J.; Boenig, M.O.; Boudry, V.; Bracinik, J.; Braunschweig, W.; Brisson, V.; Broker, H.B.; Brown, D.P.; Bruncko, D.; Busser, F.W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Caron, S.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Chekelian, V.; Clarke, D.; Collard, C.; Contreras, J.G.; Coppens, Y.R.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cousinou, M.C.; Cox, B.E.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Dau, W.D.; Daum, K.; Delcourt, B.; Delerue, N.; Demirchyan, R.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dingfelder, J.; Dodonov, V.; Dowell, J.D.; Dubak, A.; Duprel, C.; Eckerlin, Guenter; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Ellerbrock, M.; Elsen, E.; Erdmann, M.; Erdmann, W.; Faulkner, P.J.W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Ferencei, J.; Fleischer, M.; Fleischmann, P.; Fleming, Y.H.; Flucke, G.; Flugge, G.; Fomenko, A.; Foresti, I.; Formanek, J.; Franke, G.; Frising, G.; Gabathuler, E.; Gabathuler, K.; Garvey, J.; Gassner, J.; Gayler, Joerg; Gerhards, R.; Gerlich, C.; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Gorbounov, S.; Grab, C.; Grabski, V.; Grassler, H.; Greenshaw, T.; Gregori, M.; Grindhammer, Guenter; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Haller, J.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Henschel, H.; Henshaw, O.; Heremans, R.; Herrera, G.; Herynek, I.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hladky, J.; Hoting, P.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hovhannisyan, A.; Ibbotson, M.; Jacquet, M.; Janauschek, L.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jonsson, L.; Johnson, C.; Johnson, D.P.; Jung, H.; Kant, D.; Kapichine, M.; Karlsson, M.; Katzy, J.; Keil, F.; Keller, N.; Kennedy, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kiesling, Christian M.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Kluge, T.; Knies, G.; Koblitz, B.; Kolya, S.D.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Koutouev, R.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Kroseberg, J.; Kueckens, J.; Kuhr, T.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka, T.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Leissner, B.; Lemrani, R.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; List, B.; Lobodzinska, E.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lueders, H.; Luders, S.; Luke, D.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Malden, N.; Malinovski, E.; Mangano, S.; Marage, P.; Marks, J.; Marshall, R.; Martyn, H.U.; Martyniak, J.; Maxfield, S.J.; Meer, D.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Michine, S.; Mikocki, S.; Milstead, D.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Nagovizin, V.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, J.; Naumann, T.; Newman, Paul R.; Niebergall, F.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikitin, D.; Nowak, G.; Nozicka, M.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J.E.; Ozerov, D.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Peez, M.; Perez, E.; Petrukhin, A.; Pitzl, D.; Poschl, R.; Povh, B.; Raicevic, N.; Rauschenberger, J.; Reimer, P.; Reisert, B.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rusakov, S.; Rybicki, K.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sauvan, E.; Schatzel, S.; Scheins, J.; Schilling, F.P.; Schleper, P.; Schmidt, D.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schneider, M.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schroder, V.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Schwanenberger, C.; Sedlak, K.; Sefkow, F.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Sirois, Y.; Sloan, T.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, Arnd E.; Spitzer, H.; Stamen, R.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Strauch, I.; Straumann, U.; Thompson, Graham; Thompson, P.D.; Tomasz, F.; Traynor, D.; Truoel, Peter; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Turney, J.E.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Uraev, A.; Urban, Marcel; Usik, A.; Valkar, S.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vassiliev, S.; Vazdik, Y.; Veelken, C.; Vest, A.; Vichnevski, A.; Volchinski, V.; Wacker, K.; Wagner, J.; Waugh, B.; Weber, G.; Weber, R.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Werner, N.; Wessels, M.; Wessling, B.; Winde, M.; Winter, G.G.; Wissing, C.; Woehrling, E.E.; Wunsch, E.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zomer, F.; zur Nedden, M.

    2003-01-01

    Multi-electron production is studied at high electron transverse momentum in positron- and electron-proton collisions using the H1 detector at HERA. The data correspond to an integrated luminosity of 115 pb-1. Di-electron and tri-electron event yields are measured. Cross sections are derived in a restricted phase space region dominated by photon-photon collisions. In general good agreement is found with the Standard Model predictions. However, for electron pair invariant masses above 100 GeV, three di-electron events and three tri-electron events are observed, compared to Standard Model expectations of 0.30 pm 0.04 and 0.23 pm 0.04, respectively.

  12. [Advertising and promotion of tobacco products and electronic cigarettes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canevascini, Michela; Kuendig Hervé; Véron, Claudia; Pasche, Myriam

    2015-06-10

    Switzerland is one of the least restrictive countries in Europe in terms of tobacco advertising. A study conducted between 2013 and 2014 documented the presence of tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship in western Switzerland. The first part of this article presents the results of the observations realized in points of sale, in private events sponsored by the tobacco industry and during daily itineraries of young people. The results show that tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship are omnipresent and mainly target young people. The second part of the article analyses the presence of electronic cigarette advertising and promotion, observed in points of sale and on online stores.

  13. Sustainable transition of electronic products through waste policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Erik Hagelskjær; Jørgensen, Ulrik

    2010-01-01

    regimes are described and analyzed together with the underlying regulatory principle of extended producer responsibility, which has guided the design of the directive. Conflicting interpretations of sustainability, in combination with a simplistic understanding and agency introduced from the top-down, has...... eliminated waste minimization as the main outcome of the directive. The concluding discussions raise the issues of the role of sustainable niche initiatives in electronics compared to multi-regime interaction. Guiding visions may need to be supplemented with other alignment devices in order to support co...

  14. Gradients of intertidal primary productivity around the coast of South Africa and their relationships with consumer biomass

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bustamante, RH

    1995-05-01

    Full Text Available ( r 2 = 0 .580; p<0.01) / . . . . , . . . . i . . . . i . . . . ~ . . . . j . . . . j 10 20 30 40 50 60 Intertidal chlorophyll-a (~tg cm'2 mo "1) Fig. 10 Relationships between the intertidal productivity and a average grazer biomass...

  15. Accelerated electron beams for production of heat shrinkable polymeric products and PTFE wastes recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin, Gh; Marcuta, M [SC ICPE Electrostatica SA, Bucharest (Romania); Jipa, S [' Valahia' University, Targoviste (Romania)

    2001-07-01

    Radiation curing, i.e. curing under the action of ionizing radiation (predominantly electron beams) is one of the most important areas of radiation processing. There are many practical applications of electron beam processing. Our research activity was focused on two of them: radiation cross-linking of polymeric materials; recovery of PTFE wastes. For this purpose we have used: an industrial electron accelerator ILU-6 with 2.5 MeV electron energy and 40kW beam power; equipment for the transport of materials under the electron beam; and a technologic line with typical equipment for the expansion process.

  16. Accelerated electron beams for production of heat shrinkable polymeric products and PTFE wastes recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin, Gh.; Marcuta, M.; Jipa, S.

    2001-01-01

    Radiation curing, i.e. curing under the action of ionizing radiation (predominantly electron beams) is one of the most important areas of radiation processing. There are many practical applications of electron beam processing. Our research activity was focused on two of them: radiation cross-linking of polymeric materials; recovery of PTFE wastes. For this purpose we have used: an industrial electron accelerator ILU-6 with 2.5 MeV electron energy and 40kW beam power; equipment for the transport of materials under the electron beam; and a technologic line with typical equipment for the expansion process

  17. Optically pumped electron spin polarized targets for use in the production of polarized ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, L.W.

    1979-01-01

    The production of relatively dense electron spin polarized alkali metal vapor targets by optical pumping with intense cw dye lasers is discussed. The target density and electron spin polarization depend on the dye laser intensity and bandwidth, the magnetic field at the target, and the electron spin depolarization time. For example in a magnetic field of 1.5 x 10 3 G, and using 1 W dye laser with a bandwidth of 10 10 Hz one can construct an electron spin polarized Na vapor target with a target thickness of 1.6 x 10 13 atoms/cm 2 and an average electron spin polarization of about 90% even though the Na atoms are completely depolarized at every wall collision. Possible uses of the electron spin polarized targets for the production of intense beams of polarized H - or 3 He - ions are discussed. (orig.)

  18. Secondary-electron-production cross sections for electron-impact ionization of helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goruganthu, R.R.; Bonham, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    Measurements of the double-differential cross sections (DDCS) as a function of the ejected energy, angle, and primary energy for electron-impact ionization of helium are reported at incident energies of 200, 500, 1000, and 2000 eV. The ejection angle is varied from 30 0 to 150 0 in steps of 15 0 . The cross sections were obtained by use of a crossed-beam apparatus with an effusive gas source and a pulsed electron beam. Scattered and ejected electrons were energy analyzed by time-of-flight analysis from 2 eV to the primary energy as a function of the ejection angle. The relative measurements were normalized by matching the experimental elastic differential cross sections to absolute measurements at selected angles. Comparisons of the DDCS with available literature values revealed significant differences. At 2000 eV impact energy, first-Born-approximation calculations of the DDCS were found to be in agreement with the present data for ejected energies between 2 and 40 eV. At large angles and lower incident energies the Born calculation results are lower than the present DDCS. The DDCS were fitted with a Legendre-polynomial expansion as a function of ejection angle for fixed ejected and primary energies. The energy distributions of ejected electrons derived from these fits are presented and used to calculate the total ionization cross section

  19. Electron-positron pair production in ultrastrong laser fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bai Song Xie

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Electron–positron pair production due to the decay of vacuum in ultrastrong laser fields is an interesting topic which is revived recently because of the rapid development of current laser technology. The theoretical and numerical research progress of this challenging topic is reviewed. Many new findings are presented by different approaches such as the worldline instantons, the S-matrix theory, the kinetic method by solving the quantum Vlasov equation or/and the real-time Dirac–Heisenberg–Wigner formalism, the computational quantum field theory by solving the Dirac equation and so on. In particular, the effects of electric field polarizations on pair production are unveiled with different patterns of created momentum spectra. The effects of polarizations on the number density of created particles and the nonperturbative signatures of multiphoton process are also presented. The competitive interplay between the multiphoton process and nonperturbation process plays a key role in these new findings. These newly discovered phenomena are valuable to deepen the understanding of pair production in complex fields and even have an implication to the study of strong-field ionization. More recent studies on the pair production in complex fields as well as beyond laser fields are briefly presented in the view point of perspective future.

  20. Wintelism and Production Networks in the Electronics Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Gevel, A.J.W.

    1997-01-01

    This paper deals with two interrelated elements of globalization: Wintelism and cross national production networks which have been underexposed in discussions about globalization.Wintelism refers to the shift in competition away from final assembly and vertical control of markets by final assemblers

  1. Coupled C, N and P controls on photosynthesis, primary production and decomposition across a land use intensification gradient and implications for land atmosphere C exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinsch, Sabine; Glanville, Helen; Smart, Simon; Jones, Davey; Mercado, Lina; Blanes-Alberola, Mamen; Cosby, Jack; Emmett, Bridget

    2016-04-01

    The coupling of C, N and P cycles has rarely been studied through the air- land-water continuum. This is essential if we are to enhance land-atmosphere models to account for N and P limitations. It is also important for developing integrated catchment management solutions to deliver improved water quality combined with a wide range of other ecosystem functions and services. We present results from a project which is part of the interdisciplinary pan-UK NERC Macronutrient Cycles Programme (macronutrient-cycles.ouce.ox.ac.uk/). Our aim is to quantify how coupled C, N & P cycles change across a land use intensification gradient from arable to grass, woodland and bog ecosystems and identify the implications for land-atmosphere C exchange. We focus on three key processes; photosynthesis, annual net primary productivity and decomposition and explore their consequences for biodiversity. Other aspects of the project track delivery to, and transformations within, the freshwater and coastal systems. When we explore relationships between C, N and P, results indicate all habitat types fall on a single land use intensification gradient. Stoichiometry suggests plant productivity is primarily N limited. P limitation occurs rarely but at all levels of intensification. Soil priming shows our soils are primarily C limited and, surprisingly, soil acidity provides one of the most powerful single predictors of processes and ecosystem services perhaps as it is a good integrator of many soil properties. Incorporating this knowledge into the UK land-atmosphere model JULES will improve aNPP projections. These are then being used as inputs into a plant species model called MULTIMOVE to enable future scenarios of climate change, land use and air pollution on habitat suitability for > 1400 plant species to be explored. The enhanced Jules model will ensure both N and P limitations on C fluxes from above and below-ground are incorporated into future UK scenario applications.

  2. Integrated methodology for production related risk management of vehicle electronics (IMPROVE)

    OpenAIRE

    Geis, Stefan Rafael

    2006-01-01

    This scientific work is designated to provide an innovative and integrated conceptional approach to improve the assembly quality of automotive electronics. This is achieved by the reduction and elimination of production related risks of automotive electronics and the implementation of a sustainable solution process. The focus is the development and implementation of an integrated technical risk management approach for automotive electronics throughout the vehicle life cycle and the vehicle pr...

  3. Cross section formulae on single W and Z boson productions in electron-positron collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katuya, Mituaki

    1987-01-01

    The formulae are given for the transverse momentum distributions and total cross sections for the single W boson and Z boson productions in electron-positron collisions by using the equivalent photon approximation. (author)

  4. Writing argumentative texts: The effects of electronic outlining on students’ writing product and process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Smet, Milou; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Leijten, Mariëlle; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    De Smet, M. J. R., Brand-Gruwel, S., Leijten, M., & Kirschner, P. A. (2012, November). Writing argumentative texts: The effects of electronic outlining on students’ writing product and process. Paper presentation at ICO Fall School 2012, Girona, Spain.

  5. 2006 China Machinery and Electronical Products Trade Fair:Ample Fruits Shown

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ 2006 Malaysia China Machinery and Electronical Products Trade Fair, organized by China Council for the Promotion of International Trade(CCPIT), was held in August in Prince World Trade Center(PWTC), Kuala Lumpur.

  6. Printing versus coating - What will be the future production technology for printed electronics?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glawe, Andrea; Eggerath, Daniel; Schäfer, Frank [KROENERT GmbH and Co KG, Schuetzenstrasse 105, 22761 Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-02-17

    The market of Large Area Organic Printed Electronics is developing rapidly to increase efficiency and quality as well as to lower costs further. Applications for OPV, OLED, RFID and compact Printed Electronic systems are increasing. In order to make the final products more affordable, but at the same time highly accurate, Roll to Roll (R2R) production on flexible transparent polymer substrates is the way forward. There are numerous printing and coating technologies suitable depending on the design, the product application and the chemical process technology. Mainly the product design (size, pattern, repeatability) defines the application technology.

  7. Subsystem for control of isotope production with linear electron accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Karasyov, S P; Uvarov, V L

    2001-01-01

    In this report the high-current LINAC subsystem for diagnostic and monitoring the basic technological parameters of isotope production (energy flux of Bremsstrahlung photons and absorbed doze in the target,target activity, temperature and consumption of water cooling the converter and target) is described.T he parallel printer port (LPT) of the personal computer is proposed to use as an interface with the measurement channels.

  8. Subsystem for control of isotope production with linear electron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karasyov, S.P.; Pomatsalyuk, R.I.; Uvarov, V.L.

    2001-01-01

    In this report the high-current LINAC subsystem for diagnostic and monitoring the basic technological parameters of isotope production (energy flux of Bremsstrahlung photons and absorbed doze in the target,target activity, temperature and consumption of water cooling the converter and target) is described.T he parallel printer port (LPT) of the personal computer is proposed to use as an interface with the measurement channels

  9. Electronic Cigarette and Electronic Hookah: A Pilot Study Comparing Two Vaping Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanta R. Dube

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the introduction of e-cigarettes into the U.S. market, the number and variety of vaping products have proliferated. E-hookahs are long, pen-like vaping devices that debuted in U.S. markets in 2014. By applying the Host, Agent, Vector, Environment (HAVE model, the objective of this exploratory study was to assess differences between e-cigarettes and e-hookahs to help inform tobacco regulatory science and practice. In June–August 2014, a total of 54 unique manufactured e-cigarette and e-hookah products were identified at point of sales (POS around three college campuses in Southeast U.S. Documented characteristics included brand name, disposable, rechargeable, nicotine containing, packaging, and flavor type. Descriptive analyses were conducted October to November 2014 to assess frequency and percent of product type across POS and specific characteristics. Among 54 products, 70.4% was e-cigarettes and 29.6% was e-hookahs. Across POS, drug stores and grocery stores carried e-cigarettes exclusively, while gas stations carried the greatest proportion of e-hookahs. Compared to e-hookahs, a greater proportion of e-cigarettes were non-disposable and contained nicotine; a greater proportion of e-hookahs came in fruit and other types of flavors compared to e-cigarettes. The present study suggests that e-cigarettes and e-hookahs differ by specific product characteristics and by places where they are sold. Despite these differences, the products are used for similar purposes warranting careful monitoring of industry manufacturing and marketing, because the safety of both products is still undetermined. Additional research is needed to understand the uptake and continued use of these products.

  10. Electronic Cigarette and Electronic Hookah: A Pilot Study Comparing Two Vaping Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, Shanta R; Pathak, Sarita; Nyman, Amy L; Eriksen, Michael P

    Since the introduction of e-cigarettes into the U.S. market, the number and variety of vaping products has proliferated. E-hookahs are long, pen-like vaping devices that debuted in U.S. markets in 2014. By applying the Host, Agent, Vector, Environment (HAVE) Model, the objective of this exploratory study was to assess differences between e-cigarettes and e-hookahs to help inform tobacco regulatory science and practice. In June-August 2014, a total of 54 unique manufactured e-cigarette and e-hookah products were identified at point of sales (POS) around three college campuses in Southeast U.S. Documented characteristics included brand name, disposable, rechargeable, nicotine containing, packaging, and flavor type. Statistical analyses were conducted October to November 2014 to assess frequency and percent of product type across POS and specific characteristics. Among 54 products, 70.4% were e-cigarettes and 29.6% were e-hookahs. Across POS, drug stores and grocery stores carried e-cigarettes exclusively, while gas stations carried the greatest proportion of e-hookahs. Compared to e-hookahs, a greater proportion of e-cigarettes were non-disposable and contained nicotine; a greater proportion of e-hookahs came in fruit and other types of flavors compared to e-cigarettes. The present study suggests that e-cigarettes and e-hookahs differ by specific product characteristics and by places where they are sold. Despite these differences, the products are used for similar purposes warranting careful monitoring of industry manufacturing and marketing, because the safety of both products is still undetermined. Additional research is needed to understand the uptake and continued use of these products.

  11. Proton Gradient Regulation5-Like1-Mediated Cyclic Electron Flow Is Crucial for Acclimation to Anoxia and Complementary to Nonphotochemical Quenching in Stress Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kukuczka, Bernadeta; Magneschi, Leonardo; Petroutsos, Dimitris

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the functional importance of Proton Gradient Regulation5-Like1 (PGRL1) for photosynthetic performances in the moss Physcomitrella patens, we generated a pgrl1 knockout mutant. Functional analysis revealed diminished nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) as well as decreased capacity for...

  12. High Levels of Antibiotic Resistance but No Antibiotic Production Detected Along a Gypsum Gradient in Great Onyx Cave, KY, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Lavoie

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary study of antibiotic production and antibiotic resistance was conducted in Great Onyx Cave in Mammoth Cave National Park, KY, to determine if gypsum (CaSO4∙2H2O affects these bacterial activities. The cave crosses through the width of Flint Ridge, and passages under the sandstone caprock are dry with different amounts of gypsum. The Great Kentucky Desert hypothesis posits that gypsum limits the distribution of invertebrates in the central areas of Great Onyx Cave. Twenty-four bacterial isolates were cultivated from swabs and soils. Using three methods (soil crumb, soil crumb with indicator bacteria, and the cross-streak method using isolated bacteria we did not detect any production of antibiotics. Antibiotic resistance was widespread, with all 24 isolates resistant to a minimum of two antibiotics of seven tested, with three isolates resistant to all. Antibiotic resistance was high and not correlated with depth into the cave or the amount of gypsum. The Great Kentucky Desert hypothesis of the negative effects of gypsum seems to have no impact on bacterial activity.

  13. Measured and modelled leaf and stand-scale productivity across a soil moisture gradient and a severe drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, J K; Williams, M; Starr, G; McGee, J; Mitchell, R J

    2013-02-01

    Environmental controls on carbon dynamics operate at a range of interacting scales from the leaf to landscape. The key questions of this study addressed the influence of water and nitrogen (N) availability on Pinus palustris (Mill.) physiology and primary productivity across leaf and canopy scales, linking the soil-plant-atmosphere (SPA) model to leaf and stand-scale flux and leaf trait/canopy data. We present previously unreported ecophysiological parameters (e.g. V(cmax) and J(max)) for P. palustris and the first modelled estimates of its annual gross primary productivity (GPP) across xeric and mesic sites and under extreme drought. Annual mesic site P. palustris GPP was ∼23% greater than at the xeric site. However, at the leaf level, xeric trees had higher net photosynthetic rates, and water and light use efficiency. At the canopy scale, GPP was limited by light interception (canopy level), but co-limited by nitrogen and water at the leaf level. Contrary to expectations, the impacts of an intense growing season drought were greater at the mesic site. Modelling indicated a 10% greater decrease in mesic GPP compared with the xeric site. Xeric P. palustris trees exhibited drought-tolerant behaviour that contrasted with mesic trees' drought-avoidance behaviour. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Size structure of marine soft-bottom macrobenthic communities across natural habitat gradients: implications for productivity and ecosystem function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara A Macdonald

    Full Text Available Size distributions of biotic assemblages are important modifiers of productivity and function in marine sediments. We investigated the distribution of proportional organic biomass among logarithmic size classes (2(-6J to 2(16J in the soft-bottom macrofaunal communities of the Strait of Georgia, Salish Sea on the west coast of Canada. The study examines how size structure is influenced by 3 fundamental habitat descriptors: depth, sediment percent fines, and organic flux (modified by quality. These habitat variables are uncorrelated in this hydrographically diverse area, thus we examine their effects in combination and separately. Cluster analyses and cumulative biomass size spectra reveal clear and significant responses to each separate habitat variable. When combined, habitat factors result in three distinct assemblages: (1 communities with a high proportion of biomass in small organisms, typical of shallow areas (3 g C/m(2/yr/δ(15N from the Fraser River; and (3 communities with biomass dominated by moderately large organisms, but lacking the smallest and largest size classes, typical of deep, fine sediments experiencing low modified organic flux (<3.0 gC/m(2/yr/δ(15N. The remaining assemblages had intermediate habitat types and size structures. Sediment percent fines and flux appear to elicit threshold responses in size structure, whereas depth has the most linear influence on community size structure. The ecological implications of size structure in the Strait of Georgia relative to environmental conditions, secondary production and sediment bioturbation are discussed.

  15. Computer Tomography from Micro-Electronics to Assembled Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Bryant

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditional CT in our industry has been limited to Business card sized samples, due to the Cone Beam x-ray systems used by Electronics manufacturing companies. Inclined or Partial CT provides a slightly different solution showing layers or slices in 2D very well, but due to the partial nature of the scans does not produce very accurate 3D reconstructions. This seminar will look at more sophisticated x-ray systems, including dual tube units, which can image at sub-micron level and have the ability to build an accurate and detailed 3D image of a tablet or smart phone without any stitching or joining of images. With high quality reconstruction software, these images can easily be manipulated to allow key features or failure sites to be easily seen. These systems are being used in Failure Analysis but also in NPI and in the design and development process as CAD data can be overlaid and metrology is also possible with some systems.

  16. Secondary-electron-production cross sections for electron-impact ionization of molecular nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goruganthu, R.R.; Wilson, W.G.; Bonham, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements of the double-differential cross section (DDCS), as a function of the ejected energy, angle, and primary energy for electron-impact ionization of molecular nitrogen are reported at incident energies of 200, 500, 1000, and 2000 eV. The ejection angle was varied from 30 0 to 150 0 in steps of 15 0 . The cross sections were obtained by use of a crossed-beam apparatus with an effusive gas source and a pulsed electron beam. Scattered and ejected electrons were energy analyzed by time-of-flight analysis from below 2 eV to the primary energy. The relative measurements were placed on an absolute scale by matching the experimental elastic differential cross sections to absolute measurements at each primary energy. Comparisons of the DDCS with previous reported values revealed significant differences. The DDCS were fitted to a Legendre polynomial expansion as a function of the ejection angle. Platzman plot analysis was carried out on the energy distributions determined from the fit coefficients. The total ionization cross sections at these primary energies were deduced from this plot. An autoionization feature at 2.3 eV was observed for the first time in measurements of this nature and has been assigned as due to a Rydberg state converging to the B 2 Σ/sub u/ + ionic state which decays to the X 2 Σ/sub g/ + ground state of N 2 + . An analysis of the autoionization lines observed in the present work in the range 0.4--2.5 eV is also presented

  17. Transport equation theory of electron backscattering and x-ray production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fathers, D.J.; Rez, P.

    1978-02-01

    A transport equation theory of electron backscattering and x ray production is derived and applied to energy dissipation of 30-KeV electrons for copper as a function of depth and to the energy distribution of backscattered electrons for copper, aluminum, and gold. These results are plotted and compared with experiment. Plots for variations of backscattering with atomic number and with angle of incidence, and polar plots of backscattering for 30-keV electrons at normal incidence are also presented. 10 references, seven figures

  18. Electron cyclotron resonance discharge as a source for hydrogen and deuterium ions production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chacon Velasco, A.J. [Universidad de Pamplona, Pamplona (Colombia); Dougar-Jabon, V.D. [Universidad Industrial de Santander, Bucaramanga (Colombia)

    2004-07-01

    In this report, we describe characteristics of a ring-structure hydrogen plasma heated in electron cyclotron resonance conditions and confined in a mirror magnetic trap and discuss the relative efficiency of secondary electrons and thermo-electrons in negative hydrogen and deuterium ion production. The obtained data and calculations of the balance equations for possible reactions demonstrate that the negative ion production is realized in two stages. First, the hydrogen and deuterium molecules are excited in collisions with the plasma electrons to high-laying Rydberg or vibrational levels in the plasma volume. The second stage leads to the negative ion production through the process of dissociative attachment of low energy electrons. The low energy electrons are originated due to a bombardment of the plasma electrode by ions of one of the driven rings and thermo-emission from heated tungsten filaments. Experiments seem to indicate that the negative ion generation occurs predominantly in the limited volume filled with thermo-electrons. Estimation of the negative ion generation rate shows that the main channel of H{sup -} and D{sup -} ion production involves the process of high Rydberg state excitation. (authors)

  19. Electron cyclotron resonance discharge as a source for hydrogen and deuterium ions production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chacon Velasco, A.J.; Dougar-Jabon, V.D.

    2004-01-01

    In this report, we describe characteristics of a ring-structure hydrogen plasma heated in electron cyclotron resonance conditions and confined in a mirror magnetic trap and discuss the relative efficiency of secondary electrons and thermo-electrons in negative hydrogen and deuterium ion production. The obtained data and calculations of the balance equations for possible reactions demonstrate that the negative ion production is realized in two stages. First, the hydrogen and deuterium molecules are excited in collisions with the plasma electrons to high-laying Rydberg or vibrational levels in the plasma volume. The second stage leads to the negative ion production through the process of dissociative attachment of low energy electrons. The low energy electrons are originated due to a bombardment of the plasma electrode by ions of one of the driven rings and thermo-emission from heated tungsten filaments. Experiments seem to indicate that the negative ion generation occurs predominantly in the limited volume filled with thermo-electrons. Estimation of the negative ion generation rate shows that the main channel of H - and D - ion production involves the process of high Rydberg state excitation. (authors)

  20. Laser-powered dielectric-structures for the production of high-brightness electron and x-ray beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travish, Gil; Yoder, Rodney B.

    2011-05-01

    Laser powered accelerators have been under intensive study for the past decade due to their promise of high gradients and leveraging of rapid technological progress in photonics. Of the various acceleration schemes under examination, those based on dielectric structures may enable the production of relativistic electron beams in breadbox sized systems. When combined with undulators having optical-wavelength periods, these systems could produce high brilliance x-rays which find application in, for instance, medical and industrial imaging. These beams also may open the way for table-top atto-second sciences. Development and testing of these dielectric structures faces a number of challenges including complex beam dynamics, new demands on lasers and optical coupling, beam injection schemes, and fabrication. We describe one approach being pursued at UCLA-the Micro Accelerator Platform (MAP). A structure similar to the MAP has also been designed which produces periodic deflections and acts as an undulator for radiation production, and the prospects for this device will be considered. The lessons learned from the multi-year effort to realize these devices will be presented. Challenges remain with acceleration of sub-relativistic beams, focusing, beam phase stability and extension of these devices to higher beam energies. Our progress in addressing these hurdles will be summarized. Finally, the demands on laser technology and optical coupling will be detailed.

  1. Characterizing the production and retention of dissolved iron as Fe(II) across a natural gradient in chlorophyll concentrations in the Southern Drake Passage - Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katherine Barbeau

    2007-04-10

    Recent mesoscale iron fertilization studies in the Southern Ocean (e.g. SOIREE, EisenEx, SOFeX) have demonstrated the importance of iron as a limiting factor for phytoplankton growth in these high nutrient, low-chlorophyll (HNLC) waters. Results of these experiments have demonstrated that factors which influence the biological availability of the iron supplied to phytoplankton are crucial in bloom development, longevity, and generation of carbon export flux. These findings have important implications for the future development of iron fertilization protocols to enhance carbon sequestration in high-latitude oceans. In particular, processes which lead to the mobilization and retention of iron in dissolved form in the upper ocean are important in promoting continued biological availability of iron. Such processes can include photochemical redox cycling, which leads to the formation of soluble reduced iron, Fe(II), within iron-enriched waters. Creation of effective fertilization schemes will thus require more information about Fe(II) photoproduction in Southern Ocean waters as a means to retain new iron within the euphotic zone. To contribute to our knowledge base in this area, this project was funded by DOE with a goal of characterizing the production and retention of dissolved Fe as Fe(II) in an area of the southern Drake Passage near the Shackleton Transverse Ridge, a region with a strong recurrent chlorophyll gradient which is believed to be a site of natural iron enrichment in the Southern Ocean. This area was the focus of a multidisciplinary NSF/OPP-funded investigation in February 2004 (OPP02-30443, lead PI Greg Mitchell, SIO/UCSD) to determine the influence of mesoscale circulation and iron transport with regard to the observed patterns in sea surface chlorophyll in the region near the Shackleton Transverse Ridge. A number of parameters were assessed across this gradient in order to reveal interactions between plankton community structure and iron distributions

  2. Measurements of Pair Production and Electron Capture from the Continuum in Heavy Particle Collisions

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Large transient Coulomb fields, which are generated in collisions of high-Z systems at sufficiently high energies, lead to copious production of electron-positron pairs. It has been suggested that these lepton pairs might mask signals arising from plasma phase interaction. Pair-production cross sections have been calculated by several authors with results which differ significantly from each other. Some of the electrons produced may be captured into bound states of the ion, thereby, reducing its charge state by one unit. This process which has been termed ``Electron Capture from Pair Production``, represents the only electron capture pro which increases with energy, and as such, will dominate all others in the ultrarelativistic energy regime. Ions having undergone this process would be lost from storage-type accelerators. The absolute cross sections for capture have been calculated with results which differ by as much as an order of magnitude. If as large as some of the calculations predict, Relativistic Heav...

  3. Measurements of Pair Production and Electron Capture from the Continuum in Heavy Particle Collisions

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    % WA99 \\\\ \\\\ Large transient Coulomb fields, which are generated in collisions of high-Z systems at sufficiently high energies, lead to copious production of electron-positron pairs. It has been suggested that these lepton pairs might mask signals arising from plasma phase interaction. Pair-production cross-sections have been calculated by several authors with results that differ significantly from each other. For very heavy ions and high energies, multiple pairs are expected to be formed even in single peripheral collisions. Perturbative and nonperturbative treatments lead to various predictions for the fractions of multiple pair formation out of the total cross-sections. Some of the electrons produced will be captured into bound states of the ion, thereby, reducing its charge state by one unit. This process which has been termed $^{\\prime\\prime}$Electron Capture from Pair Production$^{\\prime\\prime}$, represents the only electron capture process which increases with energy, and as such, will dominate all oth...

  4. 12 CFR 7.5004 - Sale of excess electronic capacity and by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... bank's needs for banking purposes include: (1) Data processing services; (2) Production and... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sale of excess electronic capacity and by-products. 7.5004 Section 7.5004 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY...

  5. The commoditization of consumer electronics products and its influence on packaging design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wever, R.; Boks, C.; Stevels, A.

    2008-01-01

    The traditional purpose of packaging for consumer electronics (CE) products was to get them in one piece from the factory to the consumers home. It was purely focused on the physical distribution. In that time, buying a CE product could be considered a major family investment. However, times have

  6. Cross-field gradients: general concept, importance of multi-spacecraft measurements and study at 1 AU of the source intensity gradient for E > 30 keV solar event electrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Chaizy

    Full Text Available Three main physical processes (and associated properties are currently used to describe the flux and anisotropy time profiles of solar energetic par- ticle events, called SEP profiles. They are (1 the particle scattering (due to magnetic waves, (2 the particle focusing (due to the decrease of the amplitude of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF with the radial distance to the Sun and (3 the finite injection profile at the source. If their features change from one field line to another, i.e. if there is a cross IMF gradient (CFG, then the shape of the SEP profiles will depend, at onset time, on the relative position of the spacecraft to the IMF and might vary significantly on small distance scale (e.g. 106 km. One type of CFG is studied here. It is called intensity CFG and considers variations, at the solar surface, only of the intensity of the event. It is shown here that drops of about two orders of magnitude over distances of ~104 km at the Sun (1° of angular distance can influence dramatically the SEP profiles at 1 AU. This CFG can lead to either an under or overestimation of both the parallel mean free path and of the injection parameters by factor up to, at least, ~2-3 and 18, respectively. Multi-spacecraft analysis can be used to identify CFG. Three basic requirements are proposed to identify, from the observation, the type of the CFG being measured.

    Key words: Solar physics, astrophysics, and astronomy (energetic particles; flares and mass ejections - Space plasma physics (transport processes

  7. Atomic spectral-product representations of molecular electronic structure: metric matrices and atomic-product composition of molecular eigenfunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Nun, M; Mills, J D; Hinde, R J; Winstead, C L; Boatz, J A; Gallup, G A; Langhoff, P W

    2009-07-02

    Recent progress is reported in development of ab initio computational methods for the electronic structures of molecules employing the many-electron eigenstates of constituent atoms in spectral-product forms. The approach provides a universal atomic-product description of the electronic structure of matter as an alternative to more commonly employed valence-bond- or molecular-orbital-based representations. The Hamiltonian matrix in this representation is seen to comprise a sum over atomic energies and a pairwise sum over Coulombic interaction terms that depend only on the separations of the individual atomic pairs. Overall electron antisymmetry can be enforced by unitary transformation when appropriate, rather than as a possibly encumbering or unnecessary global constraint. The matrix representative of the antisymmetrizer in the spectral-product basis, which is equivalent to the metric matrix of the corresponding explicitly antisymmetric basis, provides the required transformation to antisymmetric or linearly independent states after Hamiltonian evaluation. Particular attention is focused in the present report on properties of the metric matrix and on the atomic-product compositions of molecular eigenstates as described in the spectral-product representations. Illustrative calculations are reported for simple but prototypically important diatomic (H(2), CH) and triatomic (H(3), CH(2)) molecules employing algorithms and computer codes devised recently for this purpose. This particular implementation of the approach combines Slater-orbital-based one- and two-electron integral evaluations, valence-bond constructions of standard tableau functions and matrices, and transformations to atomic eigenstate-product representations. The calculated metric matrices and corresponding potential energy surfaces obtained in this way elucidate a number of aspects of the spectral-product development, including the nature of closure in the representation, the general redundancy or

  8. Thermal conduction down steep temperature gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, A.R.; Evans, R.G.; Nicholas, D.J.

    1980-08-01

    The Fokker-Planck equation has been solved numerically in one spatial and two velocity dimensions in order to study thermal conduction in large temperature gradients. An initially cold plasma is heated at one end of the spatial grid producing temperature gradients with scale lengths of a few times the electron mean free path. The heat flow is an order of magnitude smaller than that predicted by the classical theory which is valid in the limit of small temperature gradients. (author)

  9. Production of an electron-positron plasma in a pulsar magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurevich, A.V.; Istomin, Y.N.

    1985-01-01

    A study is made of the production of electron-positron plasma in the vacuum state (''breakdown'' of the vacuum) in the presence of an inhomogeneous electric field and a strong curvilinear magnetic field. Such conditions are encountered in the magnetosphere of a rotating neutron star. A general system of kinetic equations is derived for the electrons, positrons, and γ photons in the curvilinear magnetic field with allowance for the production of electron-positron pairs and the emission of curvature and synchrotron photons. The conditions of occurrence of ''breakdown'' are determined, and the threshold value of the jump in the value of the electric field at the surface of the star is found. The process of multiplication of particles in the magnetosphere is investigated, and the distribution functions of the electrons, positrons, and photons are found. The extinction limit of pulsars is determined. It is shown that the theory is in agreement with observational data

  10. Selectron and sneutrino production in electron-proton and electron-positron collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salati, P.; Wallet, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    We present a complete calculation of the total cross sections for selectron and sneutrino production in the following processes: e - + p -> se - + gaugino 0 + X, e - + p -> sv + gaugino 0 + X. We find, if the mass of the gaugino is less than 30 GeV, a detectable number of these 'super-particles' will be produced at HERA. In particular, from O(0.5) (msub(selectron)=60 GeV) to O(20) (msub(selectron)=20 GeV) selectrons and photinos will be produced per day. We also give estimates of the total cross section for the processes: e - + e + -> se - + gaugino 0 + e + , e - + e + -> sv + gaugino 0 + e + . It appears that one of the predictions of Fayet's model about the mass of the selectron (msub(selectron) < O(40) GeV), will be testable at LEP. (orig.)

  11. Use of electron beams for the production of radioactive nuclei through photo-fission; Utilisation de faisceaux d'electrons pour la production des noyaux radioactifs par photo-fission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M' garrech, Slah

    2004-09-01

    The IPN (institute of nuclear physics) of Orsay decided to build a linear accelerator in order to produce an electron beam of 50 MeV energy and of 10 {mu}A average intensity. It is the ALTO project (Linear Accelerator near the Tandem of Orsay). This project will be dedicated to the production of the radioactive ions using the photo-fission process. The central topic of this thesis is the study of the beam dynamics of the ALTO facility. The first part presents studies concerning the injector. The simulations made with the simulation code PARMELA allowed the optimization of the characteristics of pre-buncher (dephasing HF, accelerating field peak...) to obtain a good bunching factor at the entrance of the buncher and at the entrance of the accelerating section according to the distance separating the two systems. The second part of this thesis is related to measurements of transverse emittance of the beam at the buncher exit. The three gradients method has been selected and the optical system used is a solenoid. The results obtained are in good agreement with former measurements. Finally a calculation of the beam line was carried out to optimize the transport of the beam to the PARRNe target without degrading its characteristics. The calculation codes that have been used are BETA and TRACE-WIN. (author)

  12. Pair production with electron capture in peripheral collisions of relativistic heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertulani, C.A.C.A. E-mail: bertu@if.ufrj.br; Dolci, D.D. E-mail: dolci@if.ufrj.br

    2001-02-26

    The production of electron-positron pairs with the capture of the electron in an atomic orbital is investigated for the conditions of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Dirac wave functions for the leptons are used, taking corrections to orders of Z{alpha} into account. The dependence on the transverse momentum transfer is studied and the accuracy of the equivalent photon approximation is discussed as a function of the nuclear charge.

  13. Defect production and annihilation in metals through electronic excitation by energetic heavy ion bombardment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwase, Akihiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    Defect production, radiation annealing and defect recovery are studied in Ni and Cu irradiated with low-energy ({approx}1-MeV) and high-energy ({approx}100-MeV) ions. Irradiation of Ni with {approx}100-MeV ions causes an anomalous reduction, or even a complete disappearance of the stage-I recovery. This result shows that the energy transferred from excited electrons to lattice atoms through the electron-lattice interaction contributes to the annihilation of the stage-I interstitials. This effect is also observed in Ni as a large radiation annealing during 100-MeV heavy ion irradiation. On the other hand, in Cu thin foils, we find the defect production process strongly associated with electron excitation, where the defect production cross section is nearly proportional to S{sub e}{sup 2}. (author)

  14. Excited-atom production by electron and ion bombardment of alkali halides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walkup, R.E.; Avouris, P.; Ghosh, A.P.

    1987-01-01

    We present experimental results on the production of excited atoms by electron and ion bombardment of alkali halides. For the case of electron bombardment, Doppler shift measurements show that the electronically excited atoms have a thermal velocity distribution in equilibrium with the surface temperature. Measurements of the absolute yield of excited atoms, the distribution of population among the excited states, and the systematic dependence on incident electron current and sample temperature support a model in which the excited atoms are produced by gas-phase collisions between desorbed ground-state atoms and secondary electrons. In contrast, for the case of ion bombardment, the excited atoms are directly sputtered from the surface, with velocity distributions characteristic of a collision cascade, and with typical energies of --10 eV

  15. Electron reconstruction and calibration with single Z and W production in CMS at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Rovelli, Chiara

    2006-01-01

    The CMS experiment at the LHC is building an electromagnetic calorimeter with high performance. Preserving high reconstruction efficiency and best four momentum measurements for electrons is a necessity for optimal discovery prospects in the ZZ(*) and WW(*) Higgs boson decay channels. This is challenging in view of the material budget in front of ECAL and of the presence of a strong magnetic field. A new reconstruction strategy for electrons in CMS is described. The usage of electrons from single Z and W production for the ECAL calibration strategy is also discussed.

  16. Introduction to electronic engineering I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Bong Ryeol; Park, Han Gue; Lee, Tae Won; Choi, Gap Seok

    1979-09-01

    It deals with basic element of electronic engineering, which are an electric network such as alternating current voltage, distributed self, energy and power of an AC circuit, matrix, Tie-set and Cut-set, Fourier Transform and Laplace Transform, electromagnetics with vector theory, dot product and cross product, gradient, divergence static electricity, dielectric substance and capacity, boundary condition, resistance, magnetic field, magnetic circuit and electromagnetic field, electronic circuit including power circuit, amplification circuit, modulation and digital circuit, physical electronic engineering about movement of electron, semiconductor and integrated circuit.

  17. Product Innovation in High-tech SMEs: A Case Study of Weili Electronics Co.,Ltd

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Zheng; LI Shi-ming

    2006-01-01

    Product innovation is an important strategy for high-tech firms, especially for small and medium enterprises. This paper proposes that the technological strategies for SMEs are dynamic and during different phase, there is different innovation strategy which leads to various market performances. In particular, through the case study of Weili Electronics Co., Ltd, we find that organizational learning abilities play a fundamental role in strategic decision. In addition, the frameworks for the determinants of technological strategies in three stages are established to illustrate the evolutionary processes of product innovation in Weili Electronics Co., Ltd.

  18. Electron-positron pair production in a hot accretion plasma around a massive black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahara, Fumio; Kusunose, Masaaki.

    1985-01-01

    We investigate the electron-positron pair production in a hot accretion plasma around a supermassive black hole in connection with active galactic nuclei. Assuming that an optically thin two-temperature plasma is produced in the vicinity of the central black hole, we examine the condition for the significant pair production by comparing relevant time scales. Since the pair production is dominated by collisions between hard photons, the conditions for significant pair production depend on the production rate of hard photons. We examine the case where the unsaturated Comptonization of soft photons produces hard photons as well as that of bremsstrahlung. We show that significant pair production occurs for a moderately high accretion rate with relatively slow accretion flow as compared to the free fall velocity in both cases. Possible consequences of pair production are briefly discussed. (author)

  19. Two tools for environmentally conscious designers and product developers of electrical & electronic equipment (EEE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poll, Christian; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents the two tools 1)"Product families - short cuts to environmental knowledge" and 2)"Eco-conscious design of electrical & electronic equipment (EEE)". Tool 1) comes in form of a handbook. The purpose of this handbook is to ease the work with developing more environmentally sound...... products, thus giving guidelines for development of new products without the companies themselves having to perform an LCA. The handbook describes 5 productfamilies: mobile phones, vacuum cleaners, industrial valves with electronic controls, lighting, ventilation. Tool 2) comes in form of a software tool...... with built in training, guidance, references, calculator and database. The tool provides the basic understanding of how EEE-products in general interact with the environment. The tool gives an overview of the tasks and responsibilities involved in Eco-Desing, and examples of how to choose and quantify...

  20. Application of electron-chemical curing in the production of thin composite materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopetchenov, V.; Shik, V.; Konev, V.; Kurapov, A.; Misin, I.; Gavrilov, V.; Malik, V. (Polyrad Research and Production Co., Moscow (Russian Federation))

    Thousands of tons of various thin composite materials in rolls for electrotechnical and domestic application including a whole range of electrical insulating materials, such as varnished and polymer fabrics, glass-micatapes, prepregs, thin laminated plastics and clad laminates, materials for decorative and domestic purposes - pressure sensitive adhesive tape and laminates, covering and finishing compositions based on fabrics, films and papers are produced. An important advantage of the electron-chemical processing in the production of composite materials is an essential energy saving (reduction of energy consumption 3-5 times). Absence of the organic diluents in binders decreases fire and explosion hazards of the production and sufficiently decreases danger for the environment of the technology used. Research and Production Company ''Polyrad'' is engaged in the development of technologies and equipment for the production of thin composite materials by the Electron-Chemical Method. (author).

  1. Application of electron-chemical curing in the production of thin composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopetchenov, V.; Shik, V.; Konev, V.; Kurapov, A.; Misin, I.; Gavrilov, V.; Malik, V.

    1993-01-01

    Thousands of tons of various thin composite materials in rolls for electrotechnical and domestic application including a whole range of electrical insulating materials, such as varnished and polymer fabrics, glass-micatapes, prepregs, thin laminated plastics and clad laminates, materials for decorative and domestic purposes - pressure sensitive adhesive tape and laminates, covering and finishing compositions based on fabrics, films and papers are produced. An important advantage of the electron-chemical processing in the production of composite materials is an essential energy saving (reduction of energy consumption 3-5 times). Absence of the organic diluents in binders decreases fire and explosion hazards of the production and sufficiently decreases danger for the environment of the technology used. Research and Production Company ''Polyrad'' is engaged in the development of technologies and equipment for the production of thin composite materials by the Electron-Chemical Method. (author)

  2. Thermal Management of Software Changes in Product Lifecycle of Consumer Electronics

    OpenAIRE

    Muraoka , Yoshio; Seki , Kenichi; Nishimura , Hidekazu

    2014-01-01

    Part 6: Industry and Consumer Products; International audience; Because the power consumption of consumer electronic products varies according to processor execution, which depends on software, thermal risk may be increased by software changes, including software updates or the installation of new applications, even after hardware development has been completed. In this paper, we first introduce a typical system-level thermal simulation model, coupling the activities within modules related to...

  3. Guide for preparing annual reports on radiation-safety testing of electronic products (general)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-10-01

    For manufacturers of electronic products other than those for which a specific guide has been issued, the guide replaces the Guide for the Filing of Annual Reports (21 CFR Subchapter J, Section 1002.11), HHS Publication FDA 82-8127. The electronic product (general) annual reporting guide is applicable to the following products: products intended to produce x radiation (accelerators, analytical devices, therapy x-ray machines); microwave diathermy machines; cold-cathode discharge tubes; and vacuum switches and tubes operating at or above 15,000 volts. To carry out its responsibilities under Public Law 90-602, the Food and Drug Administration's Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) has issued a series of regulations contained in Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). Part 1002 of 21 CFR deals with records and reports. Section 1002.61 categorizes electronic products into Groups A through C. Section 1002.30 requires manufacturers of products in Groups B and C to establish and maintain certain records, while Section 1002.11 requires such manufacturers to submit an Annual Report summarizing the contents of the required records. Section 1002.7 requires that reports conform to reporting guides issued by CDRH unless an acceptable justification for an alternate format is provided

  4. Writing argumentative texts: The effects of electronic outlining on students’ writing product and process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Smet, Milou; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Leijten, Mariëlle; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    De Smet, M. J. R., Brand-Gruwel, S., Leijten, M., & Kirschner, P. A. (2012, July). Writing argumentative texts: The effects of electronic outlining on students’ writing product and process. Paper presented at the meeting of EARLI SIG Writing, Porto, Portugal.

  5. Coupled channel calculations for electron-positron pair production in collisions of heavy ions

    CERN Document Server

    Gail, M; Scheid, W

    2003-01-01

    Coupled channel calculations are performed for electron-positron pair production in relativistic collisions of heavy ions. For this purpose the wavefunction is expanded into different types of basis sets consisting of atomic wavefunctions centred around the projectile ion only and around both of the colliding nuclei. The results are compared with experimental data from Belkacem et al (1997 Phys. Rev. A 56 2807).

  6. 78 FR 18234 - Service of Process on Manufacturers; Manufacturers Importing Electronic Products Into the United...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 1005 [Docket No. FDA-2007-N-0091; (formerly 2007N-0104)] Service of Process on Manufacturers; Manufacturers Importing Electronic Products Into the United States; Agent Designation; Change of Address AGENCY: Food and Drug...

  7. Relativistic total and differential cross section proton--proton electron--positron pair production calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubinstein, J.E.

    1976-01-01

    Circle Feynman diagrams for a specific permutation of variables along with their corresponding algebraic expressions are presented to evaluate [H] 2 for proton-proton electron-positron pair production. A Monte Carlo integration technique is introduced and is used to set up the multiple integral expression for the total pair production cross section. The technique is first applied to the Compton scattering problem and then to an arbitrary multiple integral. The relativistic total cross section for proton-proton electron-positron pair production was calculated for eight different values of incident proton energy. A variety of differential cross sections were calculated for the above energies. Angular differential cross section distributions are presented for the electron, positron, and proton. Invariant mass differential cross section distributions are done both with and without the presence of [H] 2 . Both WGHT and log 10 (TOTAL) distributions were also obtained. The general behavioral trends of the total and differential cross sections for proton-proton electron-positron pair production are presented. The range of validity for this calculation is from 0 to about 200 MeV

  8. Sustainable packaging design for consumer electronics products : Balancing marketing, logistics and environmental requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wever, R.; Boks, C.B.; Pratama, I.; Stevels, A.L.N.

    2007-01-01

    Packaging design for consumer electronic products is a challenge because contradictory demands from a distribution perspective and a marketing perspective have to be balanced. With several company departments involved and powerful external stakeholders this is a complicated matter. As the level of

  9. Electronic outlining as a writing strategy: Effects on students' writing products, mental effort and writing process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Smet, Milou; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Leijten, Mariëlle; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2018-01-01

    This study addresses to what extent and how electronic outlining enhances students' writing performance. To this end, the focus of this study is not only on students' final writing products but also on the organisation of the writing process (i.e., planning, translating, and reviewing) and perceived

  10. Potential to Improve the Competitiveness of China's Electronic and Mechanical Products Exports

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Hao; Wang Xi; Wang Luxi

    2010-01-01

    @@ Since launching the reform and opening policy,and particularly since the mid-1990s with accelerating industrialization processes and further policy changes,the electronics and mechanical industry in China has made huge strides in production and foreign trade value,now accounting for approximately half of total exports from China and becoming a pillar industry of China's foreign trade.

  11. Measures for Administration of the Import of Mechanical and Electronic Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The Measures for the Administration of the Import of Mechanical and Electronic Products co-formulated by the Ministry of Commerce,the General Administration of Customs and the General Administration of Quality Supervision,Inspection and Quarantine,was hereby promul-gated,which entered into force as of May 1,2008.

  12. Inclusive production of electrons and muons in multihadronic events at PETRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Agostini, G.; Apel, W.D.; Engler, J.; Fluegge, G.; Fries, D.C.; Fues, W.; Gamerdinger, K.; Hopp, G.; Kuester, H.; Mueller, H.; Randoll, H.; Schmidt, G.; Schneider, H.; De Boer, W.; Buschhorn, G.; Grindhammer, G.; Grosse-Wiesmann, P.; Gunderson, B.; Kiesling, C.; Kotthaus, R.; Kruse, U.; Lierl, H.; Lueers, D.; Oberlack, H.; Schacht, P.; Colas, P.; Cordier, A.; Davier, M.; Fournier, D.; Grivaz, J.F.; Haissinski, J.; Journe, V.; Laplanche, F.; Mallik, U.; Veillet, J.J.; Behrend, H.J.; Fenner, H.; Schachter, M.J.; Schroeder, V.; Sindt, H.

    1983-05-01

    The production of prompt leptons at PETRA has been measured for c.m. energies of 14, 22 and 34 GeV. The rate of prompt electrons and muons is presented, including a determination of the semileptonic branching ratio of the c and b quarks. Systematic effects due to changes in fragmentation and other model parameters have been studied. (orig./HSI)

  13. Balancing Environmental Performance with Sales Functionalities in Packaging for Consumer Electronic Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wever, R.; Boks, C.; Stevels, A.

    2006-01-01

    Two major changes are currently taking place in the world of Consumer Electronics. They are, first, the relocation of production to low-wage countries, in particularly China. This results in longer distribution distances, which lead to a higher relative importance of this phase in the entire life

  14. 78 FR 34393 - Electronic Submission of Tobacco Product Applications and Other Information; Public Workshop...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-07

    .... Contact Person: Karen M. Templeton-Somers, Office of Science, Center for Tobacco Products, Food and Drug... stakeholders and interested parties, including, but not limited to, large and small pharmaceutical..., large and small pharmaceutical manufacturers with experience in electronic submissions; vendors of...

  15. 77 FR 20416 - Used Electronic Products: An Examination of U.S. Exports; Proposed Information Collection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ...: Direct all written comments to Laura Bloodgood, Project Leader, U.S. International Trade Commission, 500... leader Laura Bloodgood ( [email protected] or 202-708-4726) or deputy project leader Andrea Boron..., volume, and value of, and foreign markets of significance for, exports of used electronic products from...

  16. Optimal Consumer Electronics Product Take-Back Time with Consideration of Consumer Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Tse Fang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Rapid economic growth in recent years has transformed our lifestyle to massively produce, consume, and dispose of products, especially for consumer electronics. This change has put great threat to our environment and caused natural resource depletion. Moreover, short product life cycles and quick replacements of consumer electronics create enormous electronic wastes (e-wastes. Without proper waste management, immense environmental damage is expected. In this empirical study, we notice that lots of valuable materials that can still be recycled from these used consumer electronics are left unused at home instead of being recycled at the appropriate time, which causes a low collection rate and a decrease in residual value for the used products. Therefore, it is important for the government and the recyclers to handle them efficiently by increasing the used product take-back rate. Our study develops an assessment model for customer value based on the idea of value engineering and the perspective of product life cycle. We also explore the relationship between product value and the total cost of ownership with an evaluation of their time variation, considering different usage modes for various consumer groups and different recycling award schemes (fixed and variable recycling awards. Proper take-back management is likely to create a win-win situation both for consumers and environmental protection. This study regards the notebook computer as an example to determine the optimal time for recycling laptops based on usage patterns and provides consumers a reference for when to replace their used product. The results from our modeling firstly clearly indicate that consumers with higher frequency of usage have shorter take back times and higher maximum consumer value. Secondly, a variable recycling award scheme with higher maximum consumer value is more practical than a fixed recycling award scheme.

  17. The effect of flavin electron shuttles in microbial fuel cells current production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velasquez-Orta, Sharon B. [Newcastle Univ., Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom). School of Civil Engineering and Geosciences; Newcastle Univ., Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom). School of Chemical Engineering and Advanced Materials; Head, Ian M.; Curtis, Thomas P. [Newcastle Univ., Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom). School of Civil Engineering and Geosciences; Scott, Keith [Newcastle Univ., Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom). School of Chemical Engineering and Advanced Materials; Lloyd, Jonathan R.; Canstein, Harald von [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences

    2010-02-15

    The effect of electron shuttles on electron transfer to microbial fuel cell (MFC) anodes was studied in systems where direct contact with the anode was precluded. MFCs were inoculated with Shewanella cells, and flavins used as the electron shuttling compound. In MFCs with no added electron shuttles, flavin concentrations monitored in the MFCs' bulk liquid increased continuously with FMN as the predominant flavin. The maximum concentrations were 0.6 {mu}M for flavin mononucleotide and 0.2 {mu}M for riboflavin. In MFCs with added flavins, micro-molar concentrations were shown to increase current and power output. The peak current was at least four times higher in MFCs with high concentrations of flavins (4.5-5.5 {mu}M) than in MFCs with low concentrations (0.2-0.6 {mu}M). Although high power outputs (around 150 mW/m{sup 2}) were achieved in MFCs with high concentrations of flavins, a Clostridium-like bacterium along with other reactor limitations affected overall coulombic efficiencies (CE) obtained, achieving a maximum CE of 13%. Electron shuttle compounds (flavins) permitted bacteria to utilise a remote electron acceptor (anode) that was not accessible to the cells allowing current production until the electron donor (lactate) was consumed. (orig.)

  18. A spherical electron cloud hopping model for studying product branching ratios of dissociative recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hua-Gen

    2008-05-21

    A spherical electron cloud hopping (SECH) model is proposed to study the product branching ratios of dissociative recombination (DR) of polyatomic systems. In this model, the fast electron-captured process is treated as an instantaneous hopping of a cloud of uniform spherical fractional point charges onto a target M+q ion (or molecule). The sum of point charges (-1) simulates the incident electron. The sphere radius is determined by a critical distance (Rc eM) between the incoming electron (e-) and the target, at which the potential energy of the e(-)-M+q system is equal to that of the electron-captured molecule M+q(-1) in a symmetry-allowed electronic state with the same structure as M(+q). During the hopping procedure, the excess energies of electron association reaction are dispersed in the kinetic energies of M+q(-1) atoms to conserve total energy. The kinetic energies are adjusted by linearly adding atomic momenta in the direction of driving forces induced by the scattering electron. The nuclear dynamics of the resultant M+q(-1) molecule are studied by using a direct ab initio dynamics method on the adiabatic potential energy surface of M+q(-1), or together with extra adiabatic surface(s) of M+q(-1). For the latter case, the "fewest switches" surface hopping algorithm of Tully was adapted to deal with the nonadiabaticity in trajectory propagations. The SECH model has been applied to study the DR of both CH+ and H3O+(H2O)2. The theoretical results are consistent with the experiment. It was found that water molecules play an important role in determining the product branching ratios of the molecular cluster ion.

  19. Bio-Nano ECRIS: An electron cyclotron resonance ion source for new materials production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchida, T. [Bio-Nano Electronics Research Centre, Toyo University, 2100, Kujirai, Kawagoe, Saitama 350-8585 (Japan); Minezaki, H. [Graduate School of Engineering, Toyo University, 2100, Kujirai, Kawagoe, Saitama 350-8585 (Japan); Tanaka, K.; Asaji, T. [Tateyama Machine Co., Ltd., 30 Shimonoban, Toyama, Toyama 930-1305 (Japan); Muramatsu, M.; Kitagawa, A. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Kato, Y. [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Biri, S. [Institute of Nuclear Research (ATOMKI), H-4026 Debrecen, Bem Ter 18/c (Hungary); Yoshida, Y. [Bio-Nano Electronics Research Centre, Toyo University, 2100, Kujirai, Kawagoe, Saitama 350-8585 (Japan); Graduate School of Engineering, Toyo University, 2100, Kujirai, Kawagoe, Saitama 350-8585 (Japan)

    2010-02-15

    We developed an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) for new materials production on nanoscale. Our main target is the endohedral fullerenes, which have potential in medical care, biotechnology, and nanotechnology. In particular, iron-encapsulated fullerene can be applied as a contrast material for magnetic resonance imaging or microwave heat therapy. Thus, our new ECRIS is named the Bio-Nano ECRIS. In this article, the recent progress of the development of the Bio-Nano ECRIS is reported: (i) iron ion beam production using induction heating oven and (ii) optimization of singly charged C{sub 60} ion beam production.

  20. Optimized collection of EoL electronic products for Circular economy: A techno-economic assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angouria-Tsorochidou, Elisavet; Cimpan, Ciprian; Parajuly, Keshav

    2018-01-01

    The relevance of a circular model is widely accepted for the lifecycle management of electrical and electronic products (e-products), given the low recovery rates of valuable resources in current end-of-life (EoL) practices focused on recycling. However, missing insight into the technical...... and business potential for alternative EoL options (reuse, repair and remanufacturing) holds stakeholders from implementing circular strategies. In this context, our study first mapped by means of material flow analysis (MFA) the life cycle stages of e-products in Denmark and then performed a preliminary...

  1. Single Production of Excited Neutrino at Clic based Electron Photon Colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirca, Z.

    2004-01-01

    The discovery of excited quarks and leptons, as predicted by composite models, would supply convincing evidence for substructure of fermions. Electron-photon interactions at very high energies provide ideal conditions to look for excited states of first generations offermions. In particular, in magnetic- transition coupling the electron to a gauge bo son would allow for single production of excited neutrinos (ν * ) through t-channel W boson exchange. In this work, (ν * ) production followed by the electroweak radiative decays ν * →νγ, ν * →eW, ν * →νZ is presented. The production cross sections and P T distributions of excited neutrino are studied for CLlC

  2. Consumer Innovativeness Model of Indonesian Young People in Adopting Electronic Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Ashari Nasution

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available It is important for marketers to understand how innovators respond to the introduction of new products. This paper investigates consumer innovativeness (CI from meta-analysis study as suggested by Nasution and Garnida [2011] and examines the simultaneous impacts of CI on new product adoption. Nasution and Garnida [2010] proposed three different perspectives in conceptualizing the CI model. First, the generalist stream that represents a generalized personality trait that engenders consumers to adopt new product. Second, the particularist stream that focuses on product adoption behavior within a specific domain of interest. Third, the integrator perspective that proposes to integrate these two streams by putting domain-specific innovativeness as a mediating factor in relationship between general innovativeness trait and new product adoption.A structural equation model is used to test hypotheses using empirical data from 607 respondents in electronic products adoption. The result shows that the integrator perspective provides the best model in representing the empirical data. The finding of the integrator perspective reveals that domain specific CI mediates the relationship between general innovativeness trait and new product adoption. Specifically, subjective knowledge and hedonic idea shopping enhances the actuality of new products.The findings provide an explanation to the less than consistent relationship between consumer innovativeness and new product adoption. However, a single research context of electronic products and student sample may become one of the limitations and future studies needed to replicate the perspective of CI in different research contexts for greater generalizability and the use of non-student sample. The findings have implications for the innovation adoption theory, for managers involved in the introduction of new products, and for future research on innovation adoption.

  3. Shallow irradiation of vienna sausage by electron beams in preventation of the slime production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Hiroshi; Kume, Tamikazu; Ito, Hitoshi; Aoki, Shohei; Sato, Tomotaro

    1975-01-01

    Vienna sausages get spoiled by slime production or putrefaction due to the propagation of microorganisms when stored for 3 to 5 days at 10 deg C. The radiation pasteurization of vienna sausages has mainly been studied with gamma irradiation. The slime of sausages is believed to be microorganisms themselves growing on the surface of the sausages. Pasteurization of the surface of vienna sausages with electron irradiation was thus investigated. The results obtained are as follows: The vienna sausages irradiated with a dose of 0.8 to approximately 1.0 Mrad by 0.5 MeV electrons could be stored without slime production or putrefaction for more than a week at 11 deg C. The effect of pasteurization increased with energy and dose of electrons. However, the changes in the organoleptic qualities of vienna sausages were detected when irradiated with a dose of over 0.7 Mrad by 2.0 MeV electrons. Consequently, the irradiation with a dose of 1.0 Mrad by 1.0 MeV electrons was effectual in lengthening their shelf-life without deterioration of the organoleptic qualities. (author)

  4. Yields of primary products from chloroethylenes in air under electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakoda, Teruyuki; Hashimoto, Shoji; Kojima, Takuji

    2003-01-01

    The quantitative analysis of toxic primary irradiation products was carried out for the development of the purification technology of chloroethylenes/air mixtures using an electron beam (EB). Degradation of chloroethylenes in humid air proceeded through the formation of primary products retaining a carbon-carbon (C-C) bond such as chloroacetyl chlorides and chloroacetyl aldehyde as well as that of primary products of COCl 2 and HCOCl through C-C bond cleavage. Chloroethylenes having one carbon bonded to two Cl atoms was decomposed into the primary products retaining a C-C bond prior to breaking a C-C bond. The number of Cl atoms of a chloroethylene molecule enhanced the formation ratio of primary products retaining a C-C bond. On the other hand, chloroethylene having two carbons bonded to one Cl atom was degraded thought the scission of a C-C bond predominantly C-C bond maintenance. (author)

  5. Production and Detection of Spin-Entangled Electrons in Mesoscopic Conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkard, Guido

    2006-03-01

    Electron spins are an extremely versatile form of quantum bits. When localized in quantum dots, they can form a register for quantum computation. Moreover, being attached to a charge in a mesoscopic conductor allows the electron spin to play the role of a mobile carrier of quantum information similarly to photons in optical quantum communication. Since entanglement is a basic resource in quantum communication, the production and detection of spin-entangled Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) pairs of electrons are of great interest. Besides the practical importance, it is of fundamental interest to test quantum non-locality for electrons. I review the theoretical schemes for the entanglement production in superconductor-normal junctions [1] and other systems. The electron spin entanglement can be detected and quantified from measurements of the fluctuations (shot noise) of the charge current after the electrons have passed through an electronic beam splitter [2,3]. This two-particle interference effect is related to the Hanbury-Brown and Twiss experiment and leads to a doubling of the shot noise SI=φ=0 for spin-entangled states, allowing their differentiation from unentangled pairs. I report on the role of spin-orbit coupling (Rashba and Dresselhaus) in a complete characterization of the spin entanglement [4]. Finally, I address the effects of a discrete level spectrum in the mesoscopic leads and of backscattering and decoherence.[1] P. Recher, E. V. Sukhorukov, D. Loss, Phys. Rev. B 63, 165314 (2001)[2] G. Burkard, D. Loss, E. V. Sukhorukov, Phys. Rev. B 61, R16303 (2000)[3] G. Burkard and D. Loss, Phys. Rev. Lett.91, 087903 (2003)[4] J. C. Egues, G. Burkard, D. Saraga, J. Schliemann, D. Loss, cond-mat/0509038, to appear in Phys.Rev.B (2005).

  6. Radiative corrections to chargino production in electron-positron collisions with polarized beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, Marco A.; King, Stephen F.; Ross, Douglas A.

    2001-01-01

    We study radiative corrections to chargino production at linear colliders with polarized electron beams. We calculate the one-loop corrected cross sections for polarized electon beams due to three families of quarks and squarks, working in the {ovr MS} scheme, extending our previous calculation of the unpolarized cross section with one-loop corrections due to the third family of quarks and squarks. In some cases we find rather large corrections to the tree-level cross sections. For example, for the case of right-handed polarized electrons and large tanβ the corrections can be of order 30%, allowing sensitivity to the squark mass parameters

  7. Production and applications of quasi-monoenergetic electron bunches in laser-plasma based accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glinec, Y.; Faure, J.; Ewald, F.; Lifschitz, A.; Malka, V.

    2006-01-01

    Plasmas are attractive media for the next generation of compact particle accelerators because they can sustain electric fields larger than those in conventional accelerators by three orders of magnitude. However, until now, plasma-based accelerators have produced relatively poor quality electron beams even though for most practical applications, high quality beams are required. In particular, beams from laser plasma-based accelerators tend to have a large divergence and very large energy spreads, meaning that different particles travel at different speeds. The combination of these two problems makes it difficult to utilize these beams. Here, we demonstrate the production of high quality and high energy electron beams from laser-plasma interaction: in a distance of 3 mm, a very collimated and quasi-monoenergetic electron beam is emitted with a 0.5 nanocoulomb charge at 170 ± 20 MeV. In this regime, we have observed very nonlinear phenomena, such as self-focusing and temporal self-shortenning down to 10 fs durations. Both phenomena increase the excitation of the wakefield. The laser pulse drives a highly nonlinear wakefield, able to trap and accelerate plasma background electrons to a single energy. We will review the different regimes of electron acceleration and we will show how enhanced performances can be reached with state-of-the-art ultrashort laser systems. Applications such as gamma radiography of such electron beams will also be discussed

  8. Photo-production of (99)Mo/(99m)Tc with electron linear accelerator beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avagyan, R; Avetisyan, A; Kerobyan, I; Dallakyan, R

    2014-09-01

    We report on the development of a relatively new method for the production of (99)Mo/(99m)Tc. The method involves the irradiation of natural molybdenum using high-intensity bremsstrahlung photons from the electron beam of the LUE50 linear electron accelerator located at the Yerevan Physics Institute (YerPhi). The production method has been developed and shown to be successful. The linear electron accelerator at YerPhi was upgraded to allow for significant increases of the beam intensity and spatial density. The LUE50 was also instrumented by a remote control system for ease of operation. We have developed and tested the (99m)Tc extraction from the irradiation of natural MoO3. This paper reports on the optimal conditions of our method of (99)Mo production. We show the success of this method with the production and separation of the first usable amounts of (99m)Tc. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Hydrogen production by using Rhodobacter capsulatus mutants with genetically modified electron transfer chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OEztuerk, Yavuz; Yuecel, Meral; Guenduez, Ufuk [Department of Biology, Middle East Technical University, Ankara (Turkey); Daldal, Fevzi [Department of Biology, Plant Science Institute, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6018 (United States); Mandaci, Sevnur [TUEBITAK Research Institute for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Gebze Kocaeli 41470 (Turkey); Tuerker, Lemi [Department of Chemistry, Middle East Technical University, Ankara (Turkey); Eroglu, Inci [Department of Chemical Engineering, Middle East Technical University, Ankara (Turkey)

    2006-09-15

    In Rhodobacter capsulatus excess reducing equivalents generated by organic acid oxidation is consumed to reduce protons into hydrogen by the activity of nitrogenase. Nitrogenase serves as a redox-balancing tool and is activated by the RegB/RegA global regulatory system during photosynthetic growth. The terminal cytochrome cbb{sub 3} oxidase and the redox state of the cyclic photosynthetic electron transfer chain serve redox signaling to the RegB/RegA regulatory systems in Rhodobacter. In this study, hydrogen production of various R. capsulatus strains harboring the genetically modified electron carrier cytochromes or lacking the cyt cbb{sub 3} oxidase or the quinol oxidase were compared with the wild type. The results indicated that hydrogen production of mutant strains with modified electron carrier cytochromes decreased 3- to 4-fold, but the rate of hydrogen production increased significantly in a cbb{sub 3}{sup -} mutant. Moreover, hydrogen production efficiency of various R. capsulatus strains further increased by inactivation of uptake hydrogenase genes. (author)

  10. Production of Mg and Al Auger electrons by noble gas ion bombardment of Mg and Al surfaces. [3 KeV, electron promotion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrante, J; Pepper, S V [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cleveland, Ohio (USA). Lewis Research Center

    1976-08-01

    In this letter the relative production efficiency of Mg and Al Auger electrons by He, Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe ion bombardment as a function of ion energy (<=3 keV) is reported. Some comments on the interpretation of the results in terms of electron promotion are also given.

  11. Sales of Nicotine-Containing Electronic Cigarette Products: United States, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marynak, Kristy L; Gammon, Doris G; Rogers, Todd; Coats, Ellen M; Singh, Tushar; King, Brian A

    2017-05-01

    To assess the proportion of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) products sold in the United States that contain nicotine according to retail scanner data. We obtained unit sales data from January 11, 2015, to December 12, 2015, from The Nielsen Company for convenience stores; supermarkets; mass merchandisers; drug, club, and dollar stores; and Department of Defense commissaries. The data did not include purchases from tobacco specialty shops, "vape shops," or online sources. Nicotine content was assessed by product type (disposables, rechargeables, and refills), region, and flavor status based on nicotine strength listed in the Universal Product Codes. For the 36.7% of entries lacking nicotine content information, we conducted Internet searches by brand, product, and flavor. In 2015, 99.0% of e-cigarette products sold contained nicotine, including 99.0% of disposables, 99.7% of rechargeables, and 98.8% of refills. Overall, 98.7% of flavored e-cigarette products and 99.4% of nonflavored e-cigarette products contained nicotine. In 2015, almost all e-cigarette products sold in US convenience stores and other assessed channels contained nicotine. Public Health Implications. Findings reinforce the importance of warning labels for nicotine-containing products, ingredient reporting, and restrictions on sales to minors.

  12. The Electronic Structures and Optical Properties of Alkaline-Earth Metals Doped Anatase TiO2: A Comparative Study of Screened Hybrid Functional and Generalized Gradient Approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jin-Gang; Zhang, Cai-Rong; Gong, Ji-Jun; Wu, You-Zhi; Kou, Sheng-Zhong; Yang, Hua; Chen, Yu-Hong; Liu, Zi-Jiang; Chen, Hong-Shan

    2015-08-24

    Alkaline-earth metallic dopant can improve the performance of anatase TiO2 in photocatalysis and solar cells. Aiming to understand doping mechanisms, the dopant formation energies, electronic structures, and optical properties for Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, and Ba doped anatase TiO2 are investigated by using density functional theory calculations with the HSE06 and PBE functionals. By combining our results with those of previous studies, the HSE06 functional provides a better description of electronic structures. The calculated formation energies indicate that the substitution of a lattice Ti with an AEM atom is energetically favorable under O-rich growth conditions. The electronic structures suggest that, AEM dopants shift the valence bands (VBs) to higher energy, and the dopant-state energies for the cases of Ca, Sr, and Ba are quite higher than Fermi levels, while the Be and Mg dopants result into the spin polarized gap states near the top of VBs. The components of VBs and dopant-states support that the AEM dopants are active in inter-band transitions with lower energy excitations. As to optical properties, Ca/Sr/Ba are more effective than Be/Mg to enhance absorbance in visible region, but the Be/Mg are superior to Ca/Sr/Ba for the absorbance improvement in near-IR region.

  13. The Electronic Structures and Optical Properties of Alkaline-Earth Metals Doped Anatase TiO2: A Comparative Study of Screened Hybrid Functional and Generalized Gradient Approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Gang Ma

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Alkaline-earth metallic dopant can improve the performance of anatase TiO2 in photocatalysis and solar cells. Aiming to understand doping mechanisms, the dopant formation energies, electronic structures, and optical properties for Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, and Ba doped anatase TiO2 are investigated by using density functional theory calculations with the HSE06 and PBE functionals. By combining our results with those of previous studies, the HSE06 functional provides a better description of electronic structures. The calculated formation energies indicate that the substitution of a lattice Ti with an AEM atom is energetically favorable under O-rich growth conditions. The electronic structures suggest that, AEM dopants shift the valence bands (VBs to higher energy, and the dopant-state energies for the cases of Ca, Sr, and Ba are quite higher than Fermi levels, while the Be and Mg dopants result into the spin polarized gap states near the top of VBs. The components of VBs and dopant-states support that the AEM dopants are active in inter-band transitions with lower energy excitations. As to optical properties, Ca/Sr/Ba are more effective than Be/Mg to enhance absorbance in visible region, but the Be/Mg are superior to Ca/Sr/Ba for the absorbance improvement in near-IR region.

  14. 78 FR 27303 - Irradiation in the Production, Processing, and Handling of Animal Feed and Pet Food; Electron...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    ...-0178] Irradiation in the Production, Processing, and Handling of Animal Feed and Pet Food; Electron... electron beam and x-ray sources for irradiation of poultry feed and poultry feed ingredients. This action... CFR part 579) to provide for the safe use of electron beam and x-ray sources for irradiation of...

  15. Beauty production in pp collisions at s=2.76 TeV measured via semi-electronic decays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abelev, B.; Adam, J.; Adamová, D.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Agnello, M.; Agostinelli, A.; Agrawal, N.; Ahammed, Z.; Ahmad, N.; Ahmed, I.; Ahn, S. U.; Ahn, S. A.; Aimo, I.; Aiola, S.; Ajaz, M.; Akindinov, A.; Alam, S. N.; Aleksandrov, D.; Alessandro, B.; Alexandre, D.; Alici, A.; Alkin, A.; Alme, J.; Alt, T.; Altinpinar, S.; Altsybeev, I.; Alves Garcia Prado, C.; Andrei, C.; Andronic, A.; Anguelov, V.; Anielski, J.; Anticic, T.; Antinori, F.; Antonioli, P.; Aphecetche, L.; Appelshäuser, H.; Arcelli, S.; Armesto, N.; Arnaldi, R.; Aronsson, T.; Arsene, I. C.; Arslandok, M.; Augustinus, A.; Averbeck, R.; Awes, T. C.; Azmi, M. D.; Bach, M.; Badalà, A.; Baek, Y. W.; Bagnasco, S.; Bailhache, R.; Bala, R.; Baldisseri, A.; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F.; Baral, R. C.; Barbera, R.; Barile, F.; Barnaföldi, G. G.; Barnby, L. S.; Barret, V.; Bartke, J.; Basile, M.; Bastid, N.; Basu, S.; Bathen, B.; Batigne, G.; Batista Camejo, A.; Batyunya, B.; Batzing, P. C.; Baumann, C.; Bearden, I. G.; Beck, H.; Bedda, C.; Behera, N. K.; Belikov, I.; Bellini, F.; Bellwied, R.; Belmont-Moreno, E.; Belmont, R.; Belyaev, V.; Bencedi, G.; Beole, S.; Berceanu, I.; Bercuci, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Berenyi, D.; Berger, M. E.; Bertens, R. A.; Berzano, D.; Betev, L.; Bhasin, A.; Bhat, I. R.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattacharjee, B.; Bhom, J.; Bianchi, L.; Bianchi, N.; Bianchin, C.; Bielcík, J.; Bielcíková, J.; Bilandzic, A.; Bjelogrlic, S.; Blanco, F.; Blau, D.; Blume, C.; Bock, F.; Bogdanov, A.; Bøggild, H.; Bogolyubsky, M.; Böhmer, F. V.; Boldizsár, L.; Bombara, M.; Book, J.; Borel, H.; Borissov, A.; Bossú, F.; Botje, M.; Botta, E.; Böttger, S.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Bregant, M.; Breitner, T.; Broker, T. A.; Browning, T. A.; Broz, M.; Bruna, E.; Bruno, G. E.; Budnikov, D.; Buesching, H.; Bufalino, S.; Buncic, P.; Busch, O.; Buthelezi, Z.; Caffarri, D.; Cai, X.; Caines, H.; Calero Diaz, L.; Caliva, A.; Calvo Villar, E.; Camerini, P.; Carena, F.; Carena, W.; Castillo Castellanos, J.; Casula, E. A R; Catanescu, V.; Cavicchioli, C.; Ceballos Sanchez, C.; Cepila, J.; Cerello, P.; Chang, B.; Chapeland, S.; Charvet, J. L.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chelnokov, V.; Cherney, M.; Cheshkov, C.; Cheynis, B.; Chibante Barroso, V.; Chinellato, D. D.; Chochula, P.; Chojnacki, M.; Choudhury, S.; Christakoglou, P.; Christensen, C. H.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, S. U.; Cicalo, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Cleymans, J.; Colamaria, F.; Colella, D.; Collu, A.; Colocci, M.; Conesa Balbastre, G.; Conesa del Valle, Z.; Connors, M. E.; Contreras, J. G.; Cormier, T. M.; Corrales Morales, Y.; Cortese, P.; Cortés Maldonado, I.; Cosentino, M. R.; Costa, F.; Crochet, P.; Cruz Albino, R.; Cuautle, E.; Cunqueiro, L.; Dainese, A.; Dang, R.; Danu, A.; Das, D.; Das, I.; Das, K.; Das, S.; Dash, A.; Dash, S.; De, S.; Delagrange, H.; Deloff, A.; Dénes, E.; D'Erasmo, G.; De Caro, A.; de Cataldo, G.; de Cuveland, J.; De Falco, A.; De Gruttola, D.; De Marco, N.; De Pasquale, S.; de Rooij, R.; Diaz Corchero, M. A.; Dietel, T.; Dillenseger, P.; Divià, R.; Di Bari, D.; Di Liberto, S.; Di Mauro, A.; Di Nezza, P.; Djuvsland, O.; Dobrin, A.; Dobrowolski, T.; Domenicis Gimenez, D.; Dönigus, B.; Dordic, O.; Dørheim, S.; Dubey, A. K.; Dubla, A.; Ducroux, L.; Dupieux, P.; Dutta Majumdar, A. K.; Hilden, T. E.; Ehlers, R. J.; Elia, D.; Engel, H.; Erazmus, B.; Erdal, H. A.; Eschweiler, D.; Espagnon, B.; Esposito, M.; Estienne, M.; Esumi, S.; Evans, D.; Evdokimov, S.; Fabris, D.; Faivre, J.; Falchieri, D.; Fantoni, A.; Fasel, M.; Fehlker, D.; Feldkamp, L.; Felea, D.; Feliciello, A.; Feofilov, G.; Ferencei, J.; Fernández Téllez, A.; Ferreiro, E. G.; Ferretti, A.; Festanti, A.; Figiel, J.; Figueredo, M. A S; Filchagin, S.; Finogeev, D.; Fionda, F. M.; Fiore, E. M.; Floratos, E.; Floris, M.; Foertsch, S.; Foka, P.; Fokin, S.; Fragiacomo, E.; Francescon, A.; Frankenfeld, U.; Fuchs, U.; Furget, C.; Fusco Girard, M.; Gaardhøje, J. J.; Gagliardi, M.; Gago, A. M.; Gallio, M.; Gangadharan, D. R.; Ganoti, P.; Gao, C.; Garabatos, C.; Garcia-Solis, E.; Gargiulo, C.; Garishvili, I.; Gerhard, J.; Germain, M.; Gheata, A.; Gheata, M.; Ghidini, B.; Ghosh, P.; Ghosh, S. K.; Gianotti, P.; Giubellino, P.; Gladysz-Dziadus, E.; Glässel, P.; Gomez Ramirez, A.; González-Zamora, P.; Gorbunov, S.; Görlich, L.; Gotovac, S.; Graczykowski, L. K.; Grelli, A.; Grigoras, A.; Grigoras, C.; Grigoriev, V.; Grigoryan, A.; Grigoryan, S.; Grinyov, B.; Grion, N.; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J. F.; Grossiord, J. Y.; Grosso, R.; Guber, F.; Guernane, R.; Guerzoni, B.; Guilbaud, M.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gulkanyan, H.; Gumbo, M.; Gunji, T.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, R.; Khan, K. H.; Haake, R.; Haaland, O.; Hadjidakis, C.; Haiduc, M.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamar, G.; Hanratty, L. D.; Hansen, A.; Harris, J. W.; Hartmann, H.; Harton, A.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hayashi, S.; Heckel, S. T.; Heide, M.; Helstrup, H.; Herghelegiu, A.; Herrera Corral, G.; Hess, B. A.; Hetland, K. F.; Hippolyte, B.; Hladky, J.; Hristov, P.; Huang, M.; Humanic, T. J.; Hussain, N.; Hutter, D.; Hwang, D. S.; Ilkaev, R.; Ilkiv, I.; Inaba, M.; Innocenti, G. M.; Ionita, C.; Ippolitov, M.; Irfan, M.; Ivanov, M.; Ivanov, V.; Jacholkowski, A.; Jacobs, P. M.; Jahnke, C.; Jang, H. J.; Janik, M. A.; Jayarathna, P. H S Y; Jena, C.; Jena, S.; Jimenez Bustamante, R. T.; Jones, P. G.; Jung, H.; Jusko, A.; Kadyshevskiy, V.; Kalcher, S.; Kalinak, P.; Kalweit, A.; Kamin, J.; Kang, J. H.; Kaplin, V.; Kar, S.; Karasu Uysal, A.; Karavichev, O.; Karavicheva, T.; Karpechev, E.; Kebschull, U.; Keidel, R.; Keijdener, D. L D; Khan, M. M.; Khan, P.; Khan, S. A.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kharlov, Y.; Kileng, B.; Kim, B.; Kim, D. W.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, M.; Kim, M.; Kim, S.; Kim, T.; Kirsch, S.; Kisel, I.; Kiselev, S.; Kisiel, A.; Kiss, G.; Klay, J. L.; Klein, J.; Klein-Bösing, C.; Kluge, A.; Knichel, M. L.; Knospe, A. G.; Kobdaj, C.; Kofarago, M.; Köhler, M. K.; Kollegger, T.; Kolojvari, A.; Kondratiev, V.; Kondratyeva, N.; Konevskikh, A.; Kovalenko, V.; Kowalski, M.; Kox, S.; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, G.; Kral, J.; Králik, I.; Kravcáková, A.; Krelina, M.; Kretz, M.; Krivda, M.; Krizek, F.; Kryshen, E.; Krzewicki, M.; Kucera, V.; Kucheriaev, Y.; Kugathasan, T.; Kuhn, C.; Kuijer, P. G.; Kulakov, I.; Kumar, J.; Kurashvili, P.; Kurepin, A.; Kurepin, A. B.; Kuryakin, A.; Kushpil, S.; Kweon, M. J.; Kwon, Y.; Ladron de Guevara, P.; Lagana Fernandes, C.; Lakomov, I.; Langoy, R.; Lara, C.; Lardeux, A.; Lattuca, A.; La Pointe, S. L.; La Rocca, P.; Lea, R.; Leardini, L.; Lee, G. R.; Legrand, I.; Lehnert, J.; Lemmon, R. C.; Lenti, V.; Leogrande, E.; Leoncino, M.; León Monzón, I.; Lévai, P.; Li, S.; Lien, J.; Lietava, R.; Lindal, S.; Lindenstruth, V.; Lippmann, C.; Lisa, M. A.; Ljunggren, H. M.; Lodato, D. F.; Loenne, P. I.; Loggins, V. R.; Loginov, V.; Lohner, D.; Loizides, C.; Lopez, X.; López Torres, E.; Lu, X. G.; Luettig, P.; Lunardon, M.; Luparello, G.; Ma, R.; Maevskaya, A.; Mager, M.; Mahapatra, D. P.; Mahmood, S. M.; Maire, A.; Majka, R. D.; Malaev, M.; Maldonado Cervantes, I.; Malinina, L.; Mal'Kevich, D.; Malzacher, P.; Mamonov, A.; Manceau, L.; Manko, V.; Manso, F.; Manzari, V.; Marchisone, M.; Mareš, J.; Margagliotti, G. V.; Margotti, A.; Marín, A.; Markert, C.; Marquard, M.; Martashvili, I.; Martin, N. A.; Martinengo, P.; Martínez, M. I.; Martínez García, G.; Martin Blanco, J.; Martynov, Y.; Mas, A.; Masciocchi, S.; Masera, M.; Masoni, A.; Massacrier, L.; Mastroserio, A.; Matyja, A.; Mayer, C.; Mazer, J.; Mazzoni, M. A.; Meddi, F.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Mercado Pérez, J.; Meres, M.; Miake, Y.; Mikhaylov, K.; Milano, L.; Milosevic, J.; Mischke, A.; Mishra, A. N.; Miskowiec, D.; Mitra, J.; Mitu, C. M.; Mlynarz, J.; Mohammadi, N.; Mohanty, B.; Molnar, L.; Montaño Zetina, L.; Montes, E.; Morando, M.; Moreira De Godoy, D. A.; Moretto, S.; Morreale, A.; Morsch, A.; Muccifora, V.; Mudnic, E.; Mühlheim, D.; Muhuri, S.; Mukherjee, M.; Müller, H.; Munhoz, M. G.; Murray, S.; Musa, L.; Musinsky, J.; Nandi, B. K.; Nania, R.; Nappi, E.; Nattrass, C.; Nayak, K.; Nayak, T. K.; Nazarenko, S.; Nedosekin, A.; Nicassio, M.; Niculescu, M.; Nielsen, B. S.; Nikolaev, S.; Nikulin, S.; Nikulin, V.; Nilsen, B. S.; Noferini, F.; Nomokonov, P.; Nooren, G.; Norman, J.; Nyanin, A.; Nystrand, J.; Oeschler, H.; Oh, S.; Oh, S. K.; Okatan, A.; Olah, L.; Oleniacz, J.; Oliveira Da Silva, A. C.; Onderwaater, J.; Oppedisano, C.; Ortiz Velasquez, A.; Oskarsson, A.; Otwinowski, J.; Oyama, K.; Ozdemir, M.; Sahoo, P.; Pachmayer, Y.; Pachr, M.; Pagano, P.; Paic, G.; Painke, F.; Pajares, C.; Pal, S. K.; Palmeri, A.; Pant, D.; Papikyan, V.; Pappalardo, G. S.; Pareek, P.; Park, W. J.; Parmar, S.; Passfeld, A.; Patalakha, D. I.; Paticchio, V.; Paul, B.; Pawlak, T.; Peitzmann, T.; Pereira Da Costa, H.; Pereira De Oliveira Filho, E.; Peresunko, D.; Pérez Lara, C. E.; Pesci, A.; Peskov, V.; Pestov, Y.; Petrácek, V.; Petran, M.; Petris, M.; Petrovici, M.; Petta, C.; Piano, S.; Pikna, M.; Pillot, P.; Pinazza, O.; Pinsky, L.; Piyarathna, D. B.; Ploskon, M.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Pochybova, S.; Podesta-Lerma, P. L M; Poghosyan, M. G.; Pohjoisaho, E. H O; Polichtchouk, B.; Poljak, N.; Pop, A.; Porteboeuf-Houssais, S.; Porter, J.; Potukuchi, B.; Prasad, S. K.; Preghenella, R.; Prino, F.; Pruneau, C. A.; Pshenichnov, I.; Puddu, G.; Pujahari, P.; Punin, V.; Putschke, J.; Qvigstad, H.; Rachevski, A.; Raha, S.; Rak, J.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Ramello, L.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Räsänen, S. S.; Rascanu, B. T.; Rathee, D.; Rauf, A. W.; Razazi, V.; Read, K. F.; Real, J. S.; Redlich, K.; Reed, R. J.; Rehman, A.; Reichelt, P.; Reicher, M.; Reidt, F.; Renfordt, R.; Reolon, A. R.; Reshetin, A.; Rettig, F.; Revol, J. P.; Reygers, K.; Riabov, V.; Ricci, R. A.; Richert, T.; Richter, M.; Riedler, P.; Riegler, W.; Riggi, F.; Rivetti, A.; Rocco, E.; Rodríguez Cahuantzi, M.; Rodriguez Manso, A.; Røed, K.; Rogochaya, E.; Rohni, S.; Rohr, D.; Röhrich, D.; Romita, R.; Ronchetti, F.; Ronflette, L.; Rosnet, P.; Rossi, A.; Roukoutakis, F.; Roy, A.; Roy, C.; Roy, P.; Rubio Montero, A. J.; Rui, R.; Russo, R.; Ryabinkin, E.; Ryabov, Y.; Rybicki, A.; Sadovsky, S.; Šafarík, K.; Sahlmuller, B.; Sahoo, R.; Sahu, P. K.; Saini, J.; Sakai, S.; Salgado, C. A.; Salzwedel, J.; Sambyal, S.; Samsonov, V.; Sanchez Castro, X.; Sánchez Rodríguez, F. J.; Šándor, L.; Sandoval, A.; Sano, M.; Santagati, G.; Sarkar, D.; Scapparone, E.; Scarlassara, F.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schiaua, C.; Schicker, R.; Schmidt, C.; Schmidt, H. R.; Schuchmann, S.; Schukraft, J.; Schulc, M.; Schuster, T.; Schutz, Y.; Schwarz, K.; Schweda, K.; Scioli, G.; Scomparin, E.; Scott, R.; Segato, G.; Seger, J. E.; Sekiguchi, Y.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Seo, J.; Serradilla, E.; Sevcenco, A.; Shabetai, A.; Shabratova, G.; Shahoyan, R.; Shangaraev, A.; Sharma, N.; Sharma, S.; Shigaki, K.; Shtejer, K.; Sibiriak, Y.; Siddhanta, S.; Siemiarczuk, T.; Silvermyr, D.; Silvestre, C.; Simatovic, G.; Singaraju, R.; Singh, R.; Singha, S.; Singhal, V.; Sinha, B. C.; Sinha, T.; Sitar, B.; Sitta, M.; Skaali, T. B.; Skjerdal, K.; Slupecki, M.; Smirnov, N.; Snellings, R. J M; Søgaard, C.; Soltz, R.; Song, J.; Song, M.; Soramel, F.; Sorensen, S.; Spacek, M.; Spiriti, E.; Sputowska, I.; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, M.; Srivastava, B. K.; Stachel, J.; Stan, I.; Stefanek, G.; Steinpreis, M.; Stenlund, E.; Steyn, G.; Stiller, J. H.; Stocco, D.; Stolpovskiy, M.; Strmen, P.; Suaide, A. A P; Sugitate, T.; Suire, C.; Suleymanov, M.; Sultanov, R.; Šumbera, M.; Susa, T.; Symons, T. J M; Szabo, A.; Szanto de Toledo, A.; Szarka, I.; Szczepankiewicz, A.; Szymanski, M.; Takahashi, J.; Tangaro, M. A.; Tapia Takaki, J. D.; Tarantola Peloni, A.; Tarazona Martinez, A.; Tarzila, M. G.; Tauro, A.; Tejeda Muñoz, G.; Telesca, A.; Terrevoli, C.; Thäder, J.; Thomas, D.; Tieulent, R.; Timmins, A. R.; Toia, A.; Trubnikov, V.; Trzaska, W. H.; Tsuji, T.; Tumkin, A.; Turrisi, R.; Tveter, T. S.; Ullaland, K.; Uras, A.; Usai, G. L.; Vajzer, M.; Vala, M.; Valencia Palomo, L.; Vallero, S.; Vande Vyvre, P.; Van Der Maarel, J.; Van Hoorne, J. W.; van Leeuwen, M.; Vargas, A.; Vargyas, M.; Varma, R.; Vasileiou, M.; Vasiliev, A.; Vechernin, V.; Veldhoen, M.; Velure, A.; Venaruzzo, M.; Vercellin, E.; Vergara Limón, S.; Vernet, R.; Verweij, M.; Vickovic, L.; Viesti, G.; Viinikainen, J.; Vilakazi, Z.; Villalobos Baillie, O.; Vinogradov, A.; Vinogradov, L.; Vinogradov, Y.; Virgili, T.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vodopyanov, A.; Völkl, M. A.; Voloshin, K.; Voloshin, S. A.; Volpe, G.; von Haller, B.; Vorobyev, I.; Vranic, D.; Vrláková, J.; Vulpescu, B.; Vyushin, A.; Wagner, B.; Wagner, J.; Wagner, V.; Wang, M.; Wang, Y.; Watanabe, D.; Weber, M.; Wessels, J. P.; Westerhoff, U.; Wiechula, J.; Wikne, J.; Wilde, M.; Wilk, G.; Wilkinson, J.; Williams, M. C S; Windelband, B.; Winn, M.; Yaldo, C. G.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yang, H.; Yang, P.; Yang, S.; Yano, S.; Yasnopolskiy, S.; Yi, J.; Yin, Z.; Yoo, I. K.; Yushmanov, I.; Zaccolo, V.; Zach, C.; Zaman, A.; Zampolli, C.; Zaporozhets, S.; Zarochentsev, A.; Závada, P.; Zaviyalov, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zgura, I. S.; Zhalov, M.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhigareva, N.; Zhou, D.; Zhou, F.; Zhou, Y.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, X.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, A.; Zimmermann, M. B.; Zinovjev, G.; Zoccarato, Y.; Zyzak, M.

    2014-01-01

    The ALICE Collaboration at the LHC reports measurement of the inclusive production cross section of electrons from semi-leptonic decays of beauty hadrons with rapidity |y|<0.8 and transverse momentum 1Electrons not originating from semi-electronic decay

  16. Electron beam production and characterization for the PLEIADES Thomson X-ray source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, W.J.; Hartemann, F.V.; Tremaine, A.M.; Springer, P.T.; Le Sage, G.P.; Barty, C.P.J.; Crane, J.K.; Cross, R.R.; Fittinghoff, D.N.; Slaughter, D.R.; Rosenzweig, J.B.; Anderson, S.; Gibson, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    We report on the performance of an S-band RF photocathode electron gun and accelerator for operation with the PLEIADES Thomson x-ray source at LLNL. Simulations of beam production, transport, and focus are presented. It is shown that a 1 ps, 500 pC electron bunch with a normalized emittance of less than 5 πmm-mrad can be delivered to the interaction point. Initial electron measurements are presented. Calculations of expected x-ray flux are also performed, demonstrating an expected peak spectral brightness of 1020 photons/s/mm2/mrad2/0.1% bandwidth. Effects of RF phase jitter are also presented, and planned phase measurements and control methods are discussed

  17. Electron-positron pair production in Coulomb collisions at ultrarelativistic energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vane, C.R.; Datz, S.; Dittner, P.F.; Krause, H.F.; Bottcher, C.; Strayer, M.; Schuch, R.; Gao, H.; Hutton, R.

    1993-01-01

    We have measured angular and momentum distributions for electrons and positrons created as pairs in peripheral collisions of 6.4 TeV bare sulfur ions with fixed targets of Al, Pd, and Au. Singly- and doubly-differential cross sections have been determined for 1--17 MeV/c electrons and positrons detected independently and in coincidence as pairs. Integrated yields for pair production are found to vary as the square of the target nuclear charge. Relative angular and momentum differential cross sections are effectively target independent. Probability distributions for the pair total momentum, the positron fraction of the pair momentum, and the pair traverse momentum have been derived from the coincident electron-positron data

  18. New electron-ion-plasma equipment for modification of materials and products surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koval', N.N.

    2013-01-01

    Electron-ion-plasma treatment of materials and products, including surface clearing and activation, formation surface layers with changed chemical and phase structure, increased hardness and corrosion resistance; deposition of various functional coatings, has received a wide distribution in a science and industry. Widespread methods of ion-plasma modification of material and product surfaces are ion etching and activation, ion-plasma nitriding, arc or magnetron deposition of functional coatings, including nanostructured. The combination of above methods of surface modification allows essentially to improve exploitation properties of treated products and to optimize the characteristics of modified surfaces for concrete final requirements. For the purpose of a combination of various methods of ion-plasma treatment in a single work cycle at Institute of High Current Electronics of SB RAS (IHCE SB RAS) specialized technological equipment 'DUET', 'TRIO' and 'QUADRO' and 'KVINTA' have been developed. This equipment allow generating uniform low-temperature gas plasma at pressures of (0.1-1) Pa with concentration of (10 9 -10 11 ) cm -3 in volume of (0.1-1) m 3 . In the installations consistent realization of several various operations of materials and products treatment in a single work cycle is possible. The operations are preliminary heating and degassing, ion clearing, etching and activation of materials and products surface by plasma of arc discharges; chemicothermal treatment (nitriding) for formation of diffusion layer on a surface of treated sample using plasma of nonself-sustained low-pressure arc discharge; deposition of single- or multilayered superhard (≥40 GPa) nanocrystalline coatings on the basis of pure metals or their compounds (nitrides, carbides, carbonitrides) by the arc plasma-assisted method. For realization of the modes all installations are equipped by original sources of gas and metal plasma. Besides, in

  19. 75 FR 38127 - Visteon Systems, LLC North Penn Plant Electronics Products Group Including On-Site Leased Workers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., North Penn Plant, Electronics Products Group to be covered by this certification. The intent of the... North Penn Plant Electronics Products Group Including On-Site Leased Workers From Ryder Integrated... Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance and Alternative Trade Adjustment...

  20. Reactive Oxygen Species Production by Forward and Reverse Electron Fluxes in the Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selivanov, Vitaly A.; Votyakova, Tatyana V.; Pivtoraiko, Violetta N.; Zeak, Jennifer; Sukhomlin, Tatiana; Trucco, Massimo; Roca, Josep; Cascante, Marta

    2011-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced in the mitochondrial respiratory chain (RC) are primary signals that modulate cellular adaptation to environment, and are also destructive factors that damage cells under the conditions of hypoxia/reoxygenation relevant for various systemic diseases or transplantation. The important role of ROS in cell survival requires detailed investigation of mechanism and determinants of ROS production. To perform such an investigation we extended our rule-based model of complex III in order to account for electron transport in the whole RC coupled to proton translocation, transmembrane electrochemical potential generation, TCA cycle reactions, and substrate transport to mitochondria. It fits respiratory electron fluxes measured in rat brain mitochondria fueled by succinate or pyruvate and malate, and the dynamics of NAD+ reduction by reverse electron transport from succinate through complex I. The fitting of measured characteristics gave an insight into the mechanism of underlying processes governing the formation of free radicals that can transfer an unpaired electron to oxygen-producing superoxide and thus can initiate the generation of ROS. Our analysis revealed an association of ROS production with levels of specific radicals of individual electron transporters and their combinations in species of complexes I and III. It was found that the phenomenon of bistability, revealed previously as a property of complex III, remains valid for the whole RC. The conditions for switching to a state with a high content of free radicals in complex III were predicted based on theoretical analysis and were confirmed experimentally. These findings provide a new insight into the mechanisms of ROS production in RC. PMID:21483483

  1. Multiple electromagnetic electron-positron pair production in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alscher, A.; Hencken, K.; Trautmann, D.; Baur, G.

    1997-01-01

    We calculate the cross sections for the production of one and more electron-positron pairs due to the strong electromagnetic fields in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. We derive the N-pair amplitude using the generating functional of fermions in an external field and the path-integral formalism. The N-pair production probability is found to be an approximate Poisson distribution. We calculate total cross sections for the production of one pair in lowest order, including corrections from the Poisson distribution up to third order. Furthermore, we calculate cross sections for the production of up to five pairs including corrections from the Poisson distribution. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  2. Use of a MS-electronic nose for prediction of early fungal spoilage of bakery products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín, S; Vinaixa, M; Brezmes, J; Llobet, E; Vilanova, X; Correig, X; Ramos, A J; Sanchis, V

    2007-02-28

    A MS-based electronic nose was used to detect fungal spoilage (measured as ergosterol concentration) in samples of bakery products. Bakery products were inoculated with different Eurotium, Aspergillus and Penicillium species, incubated in sealed vials and their headspace sampled after 2, 4 and 7 days. Once the headspace was sampled, ergosterol content was determined in each sample. Different electronic nose signals were recorded depending on incubation time. Both the e-nose signals and ergosterol levels were used to build models for prediction of ergosterol content using e-nose measurements. Accuracy on prediction of those models was between 87 and 96%, except for samples inoculated with Penicillium corylophilum where the best predictions only reached 46%.

  3. Heterogeneous semiconductor photocatalysts for hydrogen production from aqueous solutions of electron donors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlova, E. A.; Parmon, V. N.

    2017-09-01

    Current views on heterogeneous photocatalysts for visible- and near-UV-light-driven production of molecular hydrogen from water and aqueous solutions of inorganic and organic electron donors are analyzed and summarized. Main types of such photocatalysts and methods for their preparation are considered. Particular attention is paid to semiconductor photocatalysts based on sulfides that are known to be sensitive to visible light. The known methods for increasing the quantum efficiency of the target process are discussed, including design of the structure, composition and texture of semiconductor photocatalysts and variation of the medium pH and the substrate and photocatalyst concentrations. Some important aspects of the activation and deactivation of sulfide photocatalysts and the evolution of their properties in the course of hydrogen production processes in the presence of various types of electron donors are analyzed. The bibliography includes 276 references.

  4. Production of iodine-123 radiobiological specimen on 25 MeV electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oganesyan, Yu.Ts.; Starodub, G.Ya.; Buklanov, G.V.; Korotkin, Yu.S.; Belov, A.G.

    1988-01-01

    The technique is described and experimental results are presented for production of radioactive specimen-iodine-123 for medical biological investigations. It is shown that in ten hour irradiation of 124 Xe enriched target of 10 g weight by the 25 MeV electron beam at MT-25 microtron short lived 123 I with activity of about 200 mCl can be accumulated. The procedure was developed for extraction of radioactive atoms and preparing the solution that permits to obtain during 1-1.5 h after the end of irradiation the specimen which satisfies all pharmacopeia requirements. It follows from the results that using small-size electron accelerators with the beam energy up to 25 MeV permits to organize economical and large-scale production of high quality radioactive specimen of 123 I for servicing a large region of this country. 14 refs.; 4 figs.; 1 tab

  5. Polarized electrode enhances biological direct interspecies electron transfer for methane production in upflow anaerobic bioelectrochemical reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Qing; Song, Young-Chae; Yoo, Kyuseon; Kuppanan, Nanthakumar; Subudhi, Sanjukta; Lal, Banwari

    2018-08-01

    The influence of polarized electrodes on the methane production, which depends on the sludge concentration, was investigated in upflow anaerobic bioelectrochemical (UABE) reactor. When the polarized electrode was placed in the bottom zone with a high sludge concentration, the methane production was 5.34 L/L.d, which was 53% higher than upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. However, the methane production was reduced to 4.34 L/L.d by placing the electrode in the upper zone of the UABE reactor with lower sludge concentration. In the UABE reactor, the methane production was mainly improved by the enhanced biological direct interspecies electron transfer (bDIET) pathway, and the methane production via the electrode was a minor fraction of less than 4% of total methane production. The polarized electrodes that placed in the bottom zone with a high sludge concentration enhance the bDIET for methane production in the UABE reactor and greatly improve the methane production. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. New electron beam facility for R and D and production at acsion industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopata, V.J.; Barnard, J.W.; Saunders, C.B.; Stepanik, T.M. E-mail: stepanik@acsion.com

    2003-08-01

    Since its incorporation in 1998, Acsion Industries Inc. has been working with clients to develop industrial uses of electron processing for improving products and manufacturing processes. Acsion has promoted this technology for sterilizing medical devices and pharmaceuticals, for treating wood pulp in the viscose/rayon process, for reducing pathogens in food and animal feed, and for curing advanced composites for the aerospace industry. As a result of significant developments in its composite curing programs, Acsion has recently made major modifications to its facility to increase its production and R and D capabilities. These modifications are described in this paper.

  7. Reestimation of the production spectra of cosmic ray secondary positrons and electrons in the ISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, C. M.; Ng, L. K.

    1985-01-01

    A detailed calculation of the production spectra of charged hadrons produced by interactions of cosmic rays in the interstellar medium is presented along with a thorough treatment of pion and muon decays. Newly parameterized inclusive cross sections of hadrons were used and exact kinematic limitations were taken into account. Single parametrized expressions for the production spectra of both secondary positrons and electrons in the energy range .1 to 100 GeV are presented. The results are compared with other authors' predictions. Equilibrium spectra using various models are also presented.

  8. New electron beam facility for R&D and production at acsion industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopata, V. J.; Barnard, J. W.; Saunders, C. B.; Stepanik, T. M.

    2003-08-01

    Since its incorporation in 1998, Acsion Industries Inc. has been working with clients to develop industrial uses of electron processing for improving products and manufacturing processes. Acsion has promoted this technology for sterilizing medical devices and pharmaceuticals, for treating wood pulp in the viscose/rayon process, for reducing pathogens in food and animal feed, and for curing advanced composites for the aerospace industry. As a result of significant developments in its composite curing programs, Acsion has recently made major modifications to its facility to increase its production and R&D capabilities. These modifications are described in this paper.

  9. Neutron production in the interaction of electrons with a dispersing lamella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto B, T. G.; Baltazar R, A.; Medina C, D.; Vega C, H. R.

    2017-10-01

    When a Linac for radiotherapy operates with acceleration voltages greater than 8 MV, neutrons are produced as secondary radiation. They deposit an undesirable and not negligible dose in the patient. Depending on the type of tumor, its location in the body and the characteristics of the patient, cancer treatment with a Linac is done with photon or electron beams, which produce neutrons through reactions (γ, n) and e, e n) respectively. Because the effective section of the reaction (n, γ) is 137 times greater than the reaction (e, e n), most studies have focused on photo neutrons. When a Linac operates with electron beams, the beam that leaves the magnetic baffle is incised in the dispersion foil in order to cause quasi-elastic interactions and expand the spatial distribution of the electrons; in their interaction with the lamella the electrons produce photons and these in turn produce neutrons. Due to the radiobiological efficiency of neutrons and the ways in which they interact with matter, is important to determine the neutrons production in Linacs operating in electron mode. The objective of this work is to determine the characteristics of photons and neutrons that occur when a beam of mono-energetic electrons of 2 mm in diameter (pencil beam) is made to impinge on a tungsten lamella of 1 cm in diameter and 0.5 mm thick located in the center of a 10 cm thick tungsten shell, used to represent the accelerator head. The study was carried out using the Monte Carlo method with the MCNP6 code for electron beams of 12 and 18 MeV. The spectra of photons and neutrons were estimated in 6 point detectors, four were placed in different points equidistant from the center of the lamella and the other two were located at 50 cm and 1 m from the electron beam, simulating the totally closed head. In this work it was found that when a Linac operates with an electron beam of 12 or 18 MeV there is neutron production mainly in the head and in the direction of the beam. (Author)

  10. A study of success and failure in product innovation with specific reference to the South African electronics industry

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    M.Com. (Business Management) The innovation and marketing of new products has become increasingly important for the profitability of companies. Developing new products is a risky endeavour. Research shows that new product development often fails. As such, it is very important that product development managers are aware of the factors that can cause product failure. This research studied the product innovation process in the South African electronics industry. The objective of the study was...

  11. Defect production and subsequent effects induced by electronic energy loss of swift heavy ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Mingdong; Liu Jie; Sun Youmei; Yin Jingmin; Yao Huijun; Duan Jinglai; Mo Dan; Zhang Ling; Chen Yanfeng; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing

    2008-01-01

    Swift heavy ion in matter is one of forfront fields of nuclear physics in the world. A series of new phenomena were discovered in recent years. The history and sta- tus on the development of this field were reviewed. Electronic energy loss effects induced by swift heavy ion irradiation, such as defect production and evolution, ion latent track formation, phase transformation and anisotropy plastic deformation were introduced emphatically. A trend of future investigation was explored. (authors)

  12. Managing innovation in SMEs product development in small Irish electronics firms

    CERN Document Server

    Ledwith, Ann; Bessant, John

    2009-01-01

    Innovating and developing new products is critical for the survival and growth of any small firm but particularly for technology based firms. This study of NPD at small Irish electronics firms makes two main contributions to knowledge. Firstly, the management of NPD at small firms is found to be different from that at large firms in several respects including; NPD resources and expenditure, organising for NPD, NPD process proficiency, marketing and technical skills and proficiency, R&D/marke...

  13. Study of electron pair production below the Z mass at the CERN anti pp collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alitti, J.; Ambrosini, G.; Ansari, R.; Autiero, D.; Bareyre, P.; Bertram, I.A.; Blaylock, G.; Bonamy, P.; Borer, K.; Bourliaud, M.; Buskulic, D.; Carboni, G.; Cavalli, D.; Cavasinni, V.; Cenci, P.; Chollet, J.C.; Conta, C.; Costa, G.; Costantini, F.; Cozzi, L.; Cravero, A.; Curatolo, M.; Dell'Acqua, A.; DelPrete, T.; DeWolf, R.S.; DiLella, L.; Ducros, Y.; Egan, G.F.; Einsweiler, K.F.; Esposito, B.; Fayard, L.; Federspiel, A.; Ferrari, R.; Fraternali, M.; Froidevaux, D.; Fumagalli, G.; Gaillard, J.M.; Gianotti, F.; Gildemeister, O.; Goessling, C.; Goggi, V.G.; Gruenendahl, S.; Hara, K.; Hellman, S.; Hrivnac, J.; Hufnagel, H.; Hugentobler, E.; Hultqvist, K.; Iacopini, E.; Incandela, J.; Jakobs, K.; Jenni, P.; Kluge, E.E.; Kurz, N.; Lami, S.; Lariccia, P.; Lefebvre, M.; Linssen, L.; Livan, M.; Lubrano, P.; Magneville, C.; Mandelli, L.; Mapelli, L.; Mazzanti, M.; Meier, K.; Merkel, B.; Meyer, J.P.; Moniez, M.; Moning, R.; Morganti, M.; Mueller, L.; Munday, D.J.; Nessi, M.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Onions, C.; Pal, T.; Parker, M.A.; Parrour, G.; Pastore, F.; Pennacchio, E.; Pentney, J.; Pepe, M.; Perini, L.; Petridou, C.; Petroff, P.; Plothow-Besch, H.; Polesello, G.; Poppleton, A.; Pretzl, K.; Primavera, M.; Punturo, M.; Repellin, J.P.; Rimoldi, A.; Sacchi, M.; Scampoli, P.; Schacher, J.; Schmidt, B.; Simak, V.; Singh, S.L.; Sondermann, V.; Spiwoks, R.; Stapnes, S.; Talamonti, C.; Tondini, F.; Tovey, S.N.; Tsesmelis, E.; Unal, G.; Valdata-Nappi, M.; Vercesi, V.; Weidberg, A.R.; Wells, P.S.; White, T.O.; Wood, D.R.; Wotton, S.A.; Zaccone, H.; Zylberstein, A.

    1992-01-01

    Results on the cross section for the production of electron pairs in anti pp collisions at √s=630 GeV are presented. The measured value is σ=405±51 (syst.)±84(syst.) pb, in the variant mass interval 10 s 2 ) QCD contributions. The comparison of these data with those of lower energy experiments show approximate scaling as a function of the variable √τ=m/√s. (orig.)

  14. Production of the Ne Auger electrons by Ne/sup +/ bombardment of Mg and Al surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrante, J; Pepper, S V [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cleveland, Ohio (USA). Lewis Research Center

    1976-07-01

    The authors have bombarded Mg and Al surfaces with Ne/sup +/ ions and in this letter present evidence for the production of an inner shell vacancy in the Ne by the asymmetric Ne-Mg and Ne-Al collision. In addition, autoionization states of neutral Ne have been observed. These states are to be distinguished from the more usual case in Auger electron spectroscopy of de-excitation of an ion with a core vacancy.

  15. Gamma and electron radiation effects on agricultural by-products with high fibre content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonhardt, J.W.; Baer, M.; Nehring, K.

    1983-01-01

    Gamma and electron radiation effects on wheat straw, oat straw, barley straw, rye straw and dried green fodder are reported. In vitro and in vivo studies show that the digestibility of these agricultural by-products with high fibre content can be increased up to 80% and more at high doses. The increase of the digestibility is connected with a depolymerization of the cellulose and hemicellulose. (author)

  16. Measurement of beauty production in deep inelastic scattering at HERA using decays into electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shehzadi, Ramoona

    2011-01-01

    The production of beauty quarks in ep interactions has been studied with the ZEUS detector at HERA for exchanged four-momentum squared Q 2 >10 GeV 2 , using an integrated luminosity of 363 pb -1 . The beauty events were identified using electrons from semileptonic b decays with a transverse momentum 0.9 T e e 2 was extracted from the double-differential cross section as a function of Bjorken-x and Q 2 . (orig.)

  17. Sustainable packaging design for consumer electronics products: Balancing marketing, logistics and environmental requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Wever, R.; Boks, C.B.; Pratama, I.; Stevels, A.L.N.

    2007-01-01

    Packaging design for consumer electronic products is a challenge because contradictory demands from a distribution perspective and a marketing perspective have to be balanced. With several company departments involved and powerful external stakeholders this is a complicated matter. As the level of sophistication of data concerning a packagings marketing performance is limited, decisions are often strongly based on beliefs. This is reflected in inconsistencies in packaging that is currently in...

  18. Analysis about the development of mobile electronic commerce: An application of production possibility frontier model

    OpenAIRE

    Uesugi, Shiro; Okada, Hitoshi

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to further develop our previous research on production possibility frontier model (PPFM). An application of model to provide analysis on the mobile commerce survey for which data was collected in Japan und Thailand is presented. PPFM looks into the consumer behaviors as the results form the perception on the relationship between Convenience and Privacy Concerns of certain electronic commerce services. From the data of consumer surveys, PPFM is expected to provide practical sol...

  19. Measurement of beauty production in deep inelastic scattering at HERA using decays into electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramowicz, H.; Gueta, O.; Ingbir, R.; Kananov, S.; Levy, A.; Stern, A.

    2011-01-01

    The production of beauty quarks in ep interactions has been studied with the ZEUS detector at HERA for exchanged four-momentum squared Q 2 >10 GeV 2 , using an integrated luminosity of 363 pb -1 . The beauty events were identified using electrons from semileptonic b decays with a transverse momentum 0.9 T e e vertical stroke 2 was extracted from the double-differential cross section as a function of Bjorken-x and Q 2 . (orig.)

  20. Electron-positron pair production by two identical photons in the nuclear field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, A.I.

    1977-01-01

    In the Born approximation of the perturbation theory considered is a nonlinear effect of the electron-positron pair production by two identical photons in the Coulomb field of an atomic nucleus. The kinematic version of identical photons is studied. All the particles are considered to be nonpolarized. The calculation of the differential probability of the effect has been carried out earlier by the Feynman method. The total probability of the effect in limiting energy ranges is determined by integrating the formulas of the pair component distribution over energies. The probabilities of the electron-positron pair production and fusion of two photons into one in the nucleus field have been compared for the case of identical quanta. From the comparison of the results of analyzing both the nonlinear effects it follows that in the high-energy range the electron-positron pair production by two identical photons in the nucleus field extremely predominates over the fusion of two photons into one photon in the same field

  1. Correlation analysis of electronic products with myopia in preschool and school aged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Li Sun

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To explore the influence of electronic products on myopia in preschool and school aged children, and the development regularities of myopia, to formulate reasonable guidelines for using eyes healthily, and lay a solid foundation for the prevention and control work. METHODS: This retrospective analysis enrolled 900 3~12 years old children from outpatients department, and all of them were established individualized archives, recording: uncorrected visual acuity, optometry, slit lamp, ophthalmoscopy, strabismus inspection results; recording eye usage condition on TVs, computers, mobile phones, iPad, homework, extra-curricular books. Statistical analyze the refractive status of each age group, the use of electronic products of different age groups and their correlation with refractive status. RESULTS: The number of preschool children with normal uncorrected visual acuity was more than that of early school-age children, and the difference was statistically significant(PP>0.05; the number of children aged 7~12(early school aged childrenwith myopia was more than that of children aged 3~6(preschool childrenand the difference was statistically significant(PCONCLUSION: For preschool children, it is necessary to conduct early screening, health guidance, the establishment of personalized medical records and one-to-one personalized guidance; it is also needed to avoid the arduous learning task with the stacking usage of eyes, to fight for myopia and to control the development of myopia. Therefore, to reduce the use of electronic products has become a topic worthy of further study.

  2. Production of hydrogen and deuterium negative ions in an electron cyclotron resonance driven plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dougar-Jabon, V.D. [Industrial Univ. of Santander, Bucaramanga (Colombia)

    2001-04-01

    An electron cyclotron resonance source with driven plasma rings for hydrogen isotope ion production is studied. Extracted currents of positive and negative ions depending on gas pressure, microwave power value and extraction voltage are obtained. The study shows that the negative ion yield is an order of magnitude higher than the yield of positive particles when a driven ring is in contact with the surface of the plasma electrode. The production of negative ions of deuterium, D{sup -}, is close to the production of negative ions of light hydrogen isotope, H{sup -}. The comparison of the experimental data with the calculated ones shows that the most probable process of the H{sup -} and D{sup -} ion formation in the electron cyclotron driven plasma is dissociative attachment of electrons to molecules in high Rydberg states. For hydrogen ions and ions of deuterium, the negative current at a microwave power of 200 W through a 3-mm aperture and 8 kV extraction voltage are 4.7 mA and 3.1 mA respectively. (orig.)

  3. Production of hydrogen and deuterium negative ions in an electron cyclotron resonance driven plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dougar-Jabon, V.D.

    2001-01-01

    An electron cyclotron resonance source with driven plasma rings for hydrogen isotope ion production is studied. Extracted currents of positive and negative ions depending on gas pressure, microwave power value and extraction voltage are obtained. The study shows that the negative ion yield is an order of magnitude higher than the yield of positive particles when a driven ring is in contact with the surface of the plasma electrode. The production of negative ions of deuterium, D - , is close to the production of negative ions of light hydrogen isotope, H - . The comparison of the experimental data with the calculated ones shows that the most probable process of the H - and D - ion formation in the electron cyclotron driven plasma is dissociative attachment of electrons to molecules in high Rydberg states. For hydrogen ions and ions of deuterium, the negative current at a microwave power of 200 W through a 3-mm aperture and 8 kV extraction voltage are 4.7 mA and 3.1 mA respectively. (orig.)

  4. Neutrons production during the interaction of monoenergetic electrons with a thin tungsten target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto B, T. G.; Medina C, D.; Baltazar R, A.; Vega C, H. R.

    2016-10-01

    When a linear accelerator for radiotherapy operates with acceleration voltages higher than 8 MV, neutrons are produced, as secondary radiation which deposits an undesirable and undesirable dose in the patient. Depending on the type of tumor, its location in the body and the characteristics of the patient, the cancer treatment with a Linac is performed with photon or electron beams, which produce neutrons through reactions (γ, n) and (e, e n) respectively. Because the effective section for the neutrons production by reactions (γ, n) is approximately two orders of magnitude larger than the effective section of the reactions (e, e n), studies on the effects of this secondary radiation have focused on photo neutrons. en a Linac operates with electron beams, the beam coming out of the magnetic deflector is impinged on the dispersion lamella in order to cause quasi-elastic interactions and to expand the spatial distribution of the electrons; the objective of this work is to determine the characteristics of the photons and neutrons that occur when a mono-energetic electron beam of 2 mm in diameter (pencil beam) is made to impinge on a tungsten lamella of 1 cm in diameter and 0.5 mm of thickness. The study was done using Monte Carlo methods with code MCNP6 for electron beams of 8, 10, 12, 15 and 18 MeV. The spectra of photons and neutrons were estimated in 4 point detectors placed at different equidistant points from the center of the lamella. (Author)

  5. Charmed and strange baryon production in 29-GeV electron positron collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, S.R.

    1988-01-01

    Baryon production is one of the least understood areas of hadron production in electron positron collisions. Early models of hadronization predicted that very few baryons should be produced. However, experiments have shown a very substantial rate of baryon production, and many different models have been proposed to explain this. One way to test these models, and to further probe the hadronization process is to measure the production rates of different types of baryons. This dissertation presents measurements of the production rates of baryons with different strangeness and spin. The analyses presented here use data taken with the Mark II detector at the PEP storage ring, operating at a center of mass energy of 29 GeV. The Ξ - production rate is measured to be 0.017 ± 0.004 ± 0.004 per hadronic event, Ω - production is measured to be 0.014 ± 0.006 ± 0.004 per hadronic event, and Ξ *0 production is less than 0.006 per hadronic event at a 90% confidence level. These measurements place strong constraints on models of baryon production. In particular, the unexpectedly high rate of Ω - production is difficult to explain in any disquark based model. Semileptonic Λ c + decays have also been observed, with σ(e + e - → Λ c X) * Br(Λ c → eΛX) = 0.0031 ± 0.0012 ± 0.0010 per hadronic event, and σ(e + e - → Λ c X) * Br(Λ c → μΛX) = 0.0024 ± 0.0024 ± 0.0007 per hadronic event. Because neither the branching ratios nor the production rate are well known, it is difficult to interpret these results

  6. Prospects for utilization of Electron Beam Accelerators (EBAs) for processing of food products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarma, K.S.

    2014-01-01

    Radiation processing using gamma radiation and high energy electron beams has been in practice for more than three decades in the industry. Since gamma radiation has the ability of higher penetration in the material, large scale irradiators (mainly based on mega curies of 60 Co radioactive source) are successfully employed for treating bulk products in sterilization and food preservation applications. Electron beam, due to its low penetration, has been exploited exclusively for applications involving polymer modifications to irradiate thin finished end products like electrical cable insulations, heat shrinkable sheets, tubes, automobile tyres etc using high power EBAs (energies 0.5 MeV-4 MeV and powers around ∼100 kW). Out of around 2500 industrial EB units currently employed worldwide (with total installed power above 150 MWL 90% are in the low to medium energy range (0.5 MeV to 4 MeV) being used for polymer modifications. However, recent technological advances in the manufacturing sector of industrial high energy EBAs and product handling systems resulted in widening utilization of EB technology for applications involving bulk product irradiation

  7. A New View at the Planning Marketing Popular Products: Exploratory Study Electronics Sector with Companies in Brazil.

    OpenAIRE

    Evange Elias Assis; Francisco Antonio Serralvo; Karen Perrotta Lopes de Almeida Prado

    2015-01-01

    The increased consumption of appliance and electronic products by lower-income population represented a growth opportunity for companies in the sector. The overall objective of this paper is to investigate how appliance and electronic product manufacturers draw up their marketing planning for low-end products. An exploratory approach was taken in this study, comprising the literature review and the empirical research which was conducted in two stages by combining the qualitative and quantitat...

  8. Electronics Come of Age: A Taxonomy for Miscellaneous and LowPower Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordman, Bruce; Sanchez, Marla C.

    2006-08-01

    Most energy end uses such as space conditioning or waterheating are apparently well-defined in what is included, and haveterminology that derives from the professionals who work in the relevantfield. The topic of miscellaneous consumption lacks such clarity forhistorical and practical reasons. As this end use grows in size andinterest for the energy community, the confusion and ambiguity around thetopic is an increasing barrier to progress. This paper providesdefinitions for key terms and concepts with the intent that that futurework can be more correctly and consistently reported and interpreted. Inaddition, it provides a taxonomy of product types and categories, whichcovers both residential and commercial miscellaneous consumption. A keyelement is identification of "electronics" as a distinct energy end use.Finally, products are identified as to whether they commonly have alow-power mode, and product types that have such modes within thetraditional end uses are also listed.

  9. Forward electron production in heavy ion-atom and ion-solid collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellin, I.A.

    1984-01-01

    A sharp cusp in the velocity spectrum of electrons, ejected in ion-atom and ion-solid collisions, is observed when the ejected electron velocity vector v/sub e/ matches that of the emergent ion vector v/sub p/ in both speed and direction. In ion-atom collisions, the electrons originate from capture to low-lying, projectile-centered continuum states (ECC) for fast bare or nearly bare projectiles, and from loss to those low-lying continuum states (ELC) when loosely bound projectile electrons are available. Most investigators now agree that ECC cusps are strongly skewed toward lower velocities, and exhibit full widths half maxima roughly proportional to v/sub p/ (neglecting target-shell effects, which are sometimes strong). A close examination of recent ELC data shows that ELC cusps are instead nearly symmetric, with widths nearly independent on v/sub p/ in the velocity range 6 to 18 a.u., a result only recently predicted by theory. Convoy electron cusps produced in heavy ion-solid collisions at MeV/u energies exhibit approximately velocity-independent widths very similar to ELC cusp widths. While the shape of the convoy peaks is approximately independent of projectile Z, velocity, and of target material, it is found that the yields in polycrystalline targets exhibit a strong dependence on projectile Z and velocity. While attempts have been made to link convoy electron production to binary ECC or ELC processes, sometimes at the last layer, or alternatively to a solid-state wake-riding model, our measured dependences of cusp shape and yield on projectile charge state and energy are inconsistent with the predictions of available theories. 10 references, 8 figures, 1 table

  10. Electron beam processing technology for modification of different types of cellulose pulps for production of derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iller, E.; Kukielka, A.; Mikolajczyk, W.; Starostka, P.; Stupinska, H.

    2002-01-01

    Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Pulp and Paper Research Institute and Institute of Chemical Fibers carry out a joint research project in order to develop the radiation methods modification of cellulose pulps for production of cellulose derivatives such as carbamate (CC), carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and methylcellulose (MC). Three different types of textile pulps: Alicell (A); Borregaard (B), Ketchikan (K) and Kraft softwood (PSS) and hardwood (PSB) pulps have been irradiated with 10 MeV electron beam from LAE 13/9 linear accelerator with doses of 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 50 kGy. After electron beam treatment the samples of cellulose pulps have been examined by using of structural and physico-chemical methods. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR), gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and infrared spectroscopy (IRS) were applied for determination of structural changes in irradiated cellulose pulps. By means of analytical methods, such parameters as: viscosity, average degree of polymerization (DP) and α-cellulose contents were evaluated. Based on EPR and GPC investigations the relationship between concentrations of free radicals and decreasing polymerization degrees in electron beam treatment pulps has been confirmed. The carboxymethylcellulose, methylcellulose and cellulose carbamate were prepared using the raw material of radiation modified pulps. Positive results of investigations will allow for determination of optimum conditions for electron beam modification of selected cellulose paper and textile pulps. Such procedure leads to limit the amounts of chemical activators used in methods for preparation cellulose derivatives. The proposed electron beam technology is new approaches in technical solution and economic of process of cellulose derivatives preparation. (author)

  11. Electron Microscopic Analysis of Surface Inorganic Substances on Oral and Combustible Tobacco Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halstead, Mary M; Watson, Clifford H; Pappas, R Steven

    2015-01-01

    Although quantitative trace toxic metal analyses have been performed on tobacco products, little has been published on inorganic particulate constituents on and inside the products. We analyzed these constituents using scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). The nature of SEM-EDS instrumentation makes it an ideal choice for inorganic particulate analyses and yields relevant information to potential exposures during consumption of oral tobacco products, and possibly as a consequence of smoking. Aluminum silicates, silica and calcium compounds were common inorganic particulate constituents of tobacco products. Aluminum silicates and silica from soil were found on external leaf surfaces. Phytolithic silica, found in the lumen of the plant leaf, is of biogenic origin. Calcium oxalate was also apparently of biogenic origin. Small mineral deposits on tobacco could have health implications. Minerals found on the surfaces of smokeless tobacco products could possibly abrade the oral mucosa and contribute to the oral inflammatory responses observed with smokeless tobacco product use. If micron and sub-micron size calcium particles on cigarette filler were transported in mainstream smoke, they could potentially induce a pulmonary irritant inflammation when inhaled. The transport of aluminum silicate and silica in smoke could potentially also contribute to chronic inflammatory disease. Published by Oxford University Press 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  12. An empirical determination of the production efficiency for auroral 6300 AA emmission by energetic electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winningham, J.D.; Bunn, F.E.; Thirkettle, F.W.; Shepherd, G.G.

    1979-06-01

    Auroral data from the Soft Particle Spectrometer and the Red Line Photometer on the ISIS-2 spacecraft have been selected to form an electron energy flux and optical auroral emission data base. The energy fluxes are stored as integrated fluxes over four energy bands, and the corresponding stored optical emission rates are corrected for airglow and for albedo. Because of the variety of electron energy spectra represented in the data base it was possible to perform a regression analysis that yielded the production efficiency for the production of emission for each of the four bands. While the results of this analysis are interesting to compare with theoretical predictions of 6300 AA excitation processes, these statistical results are not as precise as the comparisons of individual experiments where all parameters, such as the atmospheric composition and temperature profiles are measured. The significance of this approach is that it permits a multiparameter description of an electron energy spectrum, and its relationship to a specific optical emission, by purely empirical means. This is particularly useful in the interpretation of ISIS-2 data from the instruments which provided the results, but should find further application in optical-particle auroral studies. (author)

  13. Purification of coal fired boiler flue gas and fertilizer production by using electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maezawa, Akihiko

    1996-01-01

    Electron beam irradiation technology which is applied in electron accelerators is used in a variety of fields, including industry, medicine and etc.. In collaboration with the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Ebara Corporation has developed a novel flue-gas treatment process by making use of the electron beam for the purification of flue gas emitted from industrial plant such as thermal power station. The E-beam flue gas treatment process (EBA Process) is applied to clean flue gas generated in the combustion of coal containing sulfur oxides (SOx) and nitrogen oxides (NOx), which are chemical pollutants responsible for acid rain. As a by-product of this process, ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate mixture is obtained. This mixture can be recovered from the process as a valuable fertilizer to promote the growth of agricultural produce. The EBA process thus serves two important purposes at the same time: It helps prevent environmental pollution and produces a fertilizer that is vitally important for increasing food production to meet the world's future population growth. (J.P.N.)

  14. Integrating Hazardous Materials Characterization and Assessment Tools to Guide Pollution Prevention in Electronic Products and Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Carl

    Due to technology proliferation, the environmental burden attributed to the production, use, and disposal of hazardous materials in electronics have become a worldwide concern. The major theme of this dissertation is to develop and apply hazardous materials assessment tools to systematically guide pollution prevention opportunities in the context of electronic product design, manufacturing and end-of-life waste management. To this extent, a comprehensive review is first provided on describing hazard traits and current assessment methods to evaluate hazardous materials. As a case study at the manufacturing level, life cycle impact assessment (LCIA)-based and risk-based screening methods are used to quantify chemical and geographic environmental impacts in the U.S. printed wiring board (PWB) industry. Results from this industrial assessment clarify priority waste streams and States to most effectively mitigate impact. With further knowledge of PWB manufacturing processes, select alternative chemical processes (e.g., spent copper etchant recovery) and material options (e.g., lead-free etch resist) are discussed. In addition, an investigation on technology transition effects for computers and televisions in the U.S. market is performed by linking dynamic materials flow and environmental assessment models. The analysis forecasts quantities of waste units generated and maps shifts in environmental impact potentials associated with metal composition changes due to product substitutions. This insight is important to understand the timing and waste quantities expected and the emerging toxic elements needed to be addressed as a consequence of technology transition. At the product level, electronic utility meter devices are evaluated to eliminate hazardous materials within product components. Development and application of a component Toxic Potential Indicator (TPI) assessment methodology highlights priority components requiring material alternatives. Alternative

  15. Evaluation of the effect of tooth and dental restoration material on electron dose distribution and production of photon contamination in electron beam radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahreyni Toossi, Mohammad Taghi; Ghorbani, Mahdi; Akbari, Fatemeh; Mehrpouyan, Mohammad; Sobhkhiz Sabet, Leila

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of tooth and dental restoration materials on electron dose distribution and photon contamination production in electron beams of a medical linac. This evaluation was performed on 8, 12 and 14 MeV electron beams of a Siemens Primus linac. MCNPX Monte Carlo code was utilized and a 10 × 10 cm(2) applicator was simulated in the cases of tooth and combinations of tooth and Ceramco C3 ceramic veneer, tooth and Eclipse alloy and tooth and amalgam restoration materials in a soft tissue phantom. The relative electron and photon contamination doses were calculated for these materials. The presence of tooth and dental restoration material changed the electron dose distribution and photon contamination in phantom, depending on the type of the restoration material and electron beam's energy. The maximum relative electron dose was 1.07 in the presence of tooth including amalgam for 14 MeV electron beam. When 100.00 cGy was prescribed for the reference point, the maximum absolute electron dose was 105.10 cGy in the presence of amalgam for 12 MeV electron beam and the maximum absolute photon contamination dose was 376.67 μGy for tooth in 14 MeV electron beam. The change in electron dose distribution should be considered in treatment planning, when teeth are irradiated in electron beam radiotherapy. If treatment planning can be performed in such a way that the teeth are excluded from primary irradiation, the potential errors in dose delivery to the tumour and normal tissues can be avoided.

  16. Evaluation of the effect of tooth and dental restoration material on electron dose distribution and production of photon contamination in electron beam radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahreyni Toossi, M.T.; Ghorbani, Mahdi; Akbari, Fatemah; Sabet, Leila S.; Mehrpouyan, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of tooth and dental restoration materials on electron dose distribution and photon contamination production in electron beams of a medical linac. This evaluation was performed on 8, 12 and 14 MeV electron beams of a Siemens Primus linac. MCNPX Monte Carlo code was utilized and a 10 × 10 cm 2 applicator was simulated in the cases of tooth and combinations of tooth and Ceramco C3 ceramic veneer, tooth and Eclipse alloy and tooth and amalgam restoration materials in a soft tissue phantom. The relative electron and photon contamination doses were calculated for these materials. The presence of tooth and dental restoration material changed the electron dose distribution and photon contamination in phantom, depending on the type of the restoration material and electron beam’s energy. The maximum relative electron dose was 1.07 in the presence of tooth including amalgam for 14 MeV electron beam. When 100.00 cGy was prescribed for the reference point, the maximum absolute electron dose was 105.10 cGy in the presence of amalgam for 12 MeV electron beam and the maximum absolute photon contamination dose was 376.67 μGy for tooth in 14 MeV electron beam. The change in electron dose distribution should be considered in treatment planning, when teeth are irradiated in electron beam radiotherapy. If treatment planning can be performed in such a way that the teeth are excluded from primary irradiation, the potential errors in dose delivery to the tumour and normal tissues can be avoided.

  17. Production of charm and beauty in e+e- with polarized electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, D.

    1995-09-01

    The test of the Standard Model through the measurements of Z 0 to fermion couplings can benefit from much enhanced sensitivity by using longitudinally polarized electron beams. This report reviews preliminary electroweak measurements from SLD on heavy quark production at the Z 0 , using 150,000 hadronic Z 0 decays accumulated during the 93-95 runs with high electron beam polarization. The parity violating parameters A b and A c of the Zbb and Zcc couplings are measured directly from the left-right forward-backward asymmetries. A measurement of R b with a lifetime double tag and a summary of the preliminary measurement of A LR from the 93-95 SLD data are also included in this report

  18. A high-compression electron gun for C6+ production: concept, simulations and mechanical design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertzig, Robert; Breitenfeldt, M.; Mathot, S.; Pitters, J.; Shornikov, A.; Wenander, F.

    2017-07-01

    In this paper we report on simulations and the mechanical design of a high-compression electron gun for an Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) dedicated for production of high intensity and high repetition rate pulses of bare carbon ions for injection into linac-based hadron therapy facilities. The gun is presently under construction at CERN to be retrofitted into the TwinEBIS test bench for experimental studies. We describe the design constraints, show results of numeric simulations and report on the mechanical design featuring several novel ideas. The reported design makes use of combined-function units with reduced number of mechanical joints that were carefully controlled and tuned during the manufacturing phase. The simulations addressed a wide range of topics including the influence of thermal effects, focusing optics, symmetry-breaking misalignments and injection into a full 5 T field.

  19. $L_{0}$ Gradient Projection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Shunsuke

    2017-04-01

    Minimizing L 0 gradient, the number of the non-zero gradients of an image, together with a quadratic data-fidelity to an input image has been recognized as a powerful edge-preserving filtering method. However, the L 0 gradient minimization has an inherent difficulty: a user-given parameter controlling the degree of flatness does not have a physical meaning since the parameter just balances the relative importance of the L 0 gradient term to the quadratic data-fidelity term. As a result, the setting of the parameter is a troublesome work in the L 0 gradient minimization. To circumvent the difficulty, we propose a new edge-preserving filtering method with a novel use of the L 0 gradient. Our method is formulated as the minimization of the quadratic data-fidelity subject to the hard constraint that the L 0 gradient is less than a user-given parameter α . This strategy is much more intuitive than the L 0 gradient minimization because the parameter α has a clear meaning: the L 0 gradient value of the output image itself, so that one can directly impose a desired degree of flatness by α . We also provide an efficient algorithm based on the so-called alternating direction method of multipliers for computing an approximate solution of the nonconvex problem, where we decompose it into two subproblems and derive closed-form solutions to them. The advantages of our method are demonstrated through extensive experiments.

  20. Initial Assessment of Electron and X-Ray Production and Charge Exchange in the NDCX-II Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, R.H.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this note is to provide initial assessments of some atomic physics effects for the accelerator section of NDCX-II. There are several effects we address: the production of electrons associated with loss of beam ions to the walls, the production of electrons associated with ionization of background gas, the possibly resultant production of X-rays when these electrons hit bounding surfaces, and charge exchange of beam ions on background gas. The results presented here are based on a number of caveats that will be stated below, which we will attempt to remove in the near future.

  1. Perceived quality, perceived risk and customer trust affecting customer loyalty of environmentally friendly electronics products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalinthorn Marakanon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, industrial business competition causes producers to be aware of quality, price, and variety in developing new products to meet the consumers' needs. This research reviewed the literature on green marketing and proposes a new conceptual framework of customer loyalty. It uses four constructs—perceived quality, perceived risk, customer trust, and customer loyalty—in the context of environmentally friendly electronics products in Thailand. This research employed an empirical study using the questionnaire survey method to verify the hypotheses. Data were obtained from 420 consumers who bought and used environmentally friendly electronic products, particularly mobile phones, computers, and laptops using a purposive sampling method. The data were analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA and structural equation modeling (SEM. The results showed that perceived risk and customer trust had a direct effect on customer loyalty while perceived quality had an indirect effect on customer loyalty via customer trust. Furthermore, perceived quality had direct effects on perceived risk and customer trust. The results from the final SEM model were used to confirm the proposed relationships among the variables.

  2. Global sale of tobacco products and electronic nicotine delivery systems in community pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudmon, Karen Suchanek; Elkhadragy, Nervana; Kusynová, Zuzana; Besançon, Luc; Brock, Tina Penick; Corelli, Robin L

    2017-12-01

    To estimate the proportion of countries/territories that allow sales of tobacco products and electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) in community pharmacies. International Pharmaceutical Federation (FIP) member organisations were contacted by email and asked to respond to a two-item survey assessing whether their country/territory allowed sales of (a) tobacco products and (b) ENDS in community pharmacies. Of 95 countries/territories contacted, responses were received from 60 (63.2%). Seven countries (11.7%) reported that tobacco products were sold in community pharmacies, and 11 countries (18.3%) reported that ENDS were sold in community pharmacies. Among the FIP member organisations, there are few countries that allow the sale of tobacco products and ENDS in community pharmacies, with ENDS being more likely than tobacco products to be sold. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. Regulated production of free radicals by the mitochondrial electron transport chain: Cardiac ischemic preconditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Satoshi; Szweda, Pamela A; Szweda, Luke I; Humphries, Kenneth M

    2009-11-30

    Excessive production of free radicals by mitochondria is associated with, and likely contributes to, the progression of numerous pathological conditions. Nevertheless, the production of free radicals by the mitochondria may have important biological functions under normal or stressed conditions by activating or modulating redox-sensitive cellular signaling pathways. This raises the intriguing possibility that regulated mitochondrial free radical production occurs via mechanisms that are distinct from pathologies associated with oxidative damage. Indeed, the capacity of mitochondria to produce free radicals in a limited manner may play a role in ischemic preconditioning, the phenomenon whereby short bouts of ischemia protect from subsequent prolonged ischemia and reperfusion. Ischemic preconditioning can thus serve as an important model system for defining regulatory mechanisms that allow for transient, signal-inducing, production of free radicals by mitochondria. Defining how these mechanism(s) occur will provide insight into therapeutic approaches that minimize oxidative damage without altering normal cellular redox biology. The aim of this review is to present and discuss evidence for the regulated production of superoxide by the electron transport chain within the ischemic preconditioning paradigm of redox regulation.

  4. Inclusive prompt photon production in electron-nucleus scattering at small x

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Kaushik; Venugopalan, Raju

    2018-05-01

    We compute the differential cross-section for inclusive prompt photon production in deeply inelastic scattering (DIS) of electrons on nuclei at small x in the framework of the Color Glass Condensate (CGC) effective theory. The leading order (LO) computation in this framework resums leading logarithms in x as well as power corrections to all orders in Q s, A 2 / Q 2, where Q s, A ( x) is the nuclear saturation scale. This LO result is proportional to universal dipole and quadrupole Wilson line correlators in the nucleus. In the soft photon limit, the Low-Burnett-Kroll theorem allows us to recover existing results on inclusive DIS dijet production. The k ⊥ and collinearly factorized expressions for prompt photon production in DIS are also recovered in a leading twist approximation to our result. In the latter case, our result corresponds to the dominant next-to-leading order (NLO) perturbative QCD contribution at small x. We next discuss the computation of the NLO corrections to inclusive prompt photon production in the CGC framework. In particular, we emphasize the advantages for higher order computations in inclusive photon production, and for fully inclusive DIS, arising from the simple momentum space structure of the dressed quark and gluon "shock wave" propagators in the "wrong" light cone gauge A - = 0 for a nucleus moving with P N + → ∞.

  5. Hydrogen production by Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: an elaborate interplay of electron sources and sinks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemschemeier, A; Happe, T.; Fouchard, S; Cournac, L; Peltier, G.

    2008-01-01

    The unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii possesses a [FeFe]-hydrogenase HydA1 (EC 1.12.7.2), which is coupled to the photosynthetic electron transport chain. Large amounts of H 2 are produced in a light-dependent reaction for several days when C. reinhardtii cells are deprived of sulfur. Under these conditions, the cells drastically change their physiology from aerobic photosynthetic growth to an anaerobic resting state. The understanding of the underlying physiological processes is not only important for getting further insights into the adaptability of photosynthesis, but will help to optimize the biotechnological application of algae as H 2 producers. Two of the still most disputed questions regarding H 2 generation by C. reinhardtii concern the electron source for H 2 evolution and the competition of the hydrogenase with alternative electron sinks. We analyzed the H 2 metabolism of S-depleted C. reinhardtii cultures utilizing a special mass spectrometer setup and investigated the influence of photosystem II (PSII)- or ribulose-bisphosphate-carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco)-deficiency. We show that electrons for H 2 -production are provided both by PSII activity and by a non-photochemical plastoquinone reduction pathway, which is dependent on previous PSII activity. In a Rubisco-deficient strain, which produces H 2 also in the presence of sulfur, H 2 generation seems to be the only significant electron sink for PSII activity and rescues this strain at least partially from a light-sensitive phenotype.The latter indicates that the down-regulation of assimilatory pathways in S-deprived C. reinhardtii cells is one of the important prerequisites for a sustained H 2 evolution. (authors)

  6. Polarization effects in the reaction of charm baryon production on colliding electron-positron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rekalo, M.P.; Korzh, A.P.; Barannik, V.P.

    1980-01-01

    To calculate energy and angular distributions of various decay products of charm baAyons, which are prodUced in reactions on colliding e + e - beams, it is necessary to know the differential cross sections of the e + e - → C+anti C process which correspond to different polarized states of produced C and anti C (C - charm baryon). These differential cross sections are calculated for a single-photon mechanism with respect to the contribution of the anapole and electric dipole form factors of C-baryon. Polarizations of colliding electron-positron beams are taken into account in a full volume

  7. Effects of gradient disorder on electronic transport in quasi-one-dimensional nanowires%准一维纳米线电子输运的梯度无序效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段玲; 胡飞; 丁建文

    2011-01-01

    考虑实际体系的梯度无序和结散射,发展格林函数矩阵分解消元方法,研究了准一维纳米线的电子输运性质.结果表明,由于结散射,电导随能量呈现振荡行为,无序的引入破坏了电子相干性,在低无序度区平均电导呈现异常增加,呈现一个新的电导峰.当表面存在无序但无梯度衰减时,体系的平均电导随无序度增强先减后增,出现类局域—退局域性转变.当表面无序线性衰减时,平均电导在强无序区稍有增加,而当表面无序高斯型衰减时,平均电导指数衰减,类局域—退局域性转变消失,不同于以前的理论预言.研究结果对准一维纳米线电子器件的结构设计和应用有指导作用.%Considering both the gradient decay of the real disorder and the contact scattering,we investigate the electronic transport in quasi-one-dimensional nanowires by developing a decomposition elimination method for Green's function matrix.In the presence the contact scattering,the conductance oscillates with energy.For some energies of incident electrons,an abnormal enhancement is obtained in the average conductance due to the destroyed coherence by the introduction of much low disorder,showing that there appears a new conductance peak.In the absence of disorder gradient,the average conductance firstly decreases then increases with disorder strength,indicating that there exists a localization-delocalization transition.In the presence of linearly decaying disorder,the average conductance increases slightly in a strong disorder region.In the case of the Gaussian-type decaying disorder,the average conductance decreases exponentially and the localization-delocalization transition disappears,which is different from previous thereotical result.The results are helpful for the design and the application of quasi-one-dimensional nanowires device.

  8. Exclusive ρ0 production in deep inelastic electron-proton scattering at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derrick, M.; Krakauer, D.; Magill, S.

    1995-07-01

    The exclusive production of ρ 0 mesons in deep inelastic electron-proton scattering has been studied using the ZEUS detector. Cross sections have been measured in the range 7 2 2 for γ*p centre of mass (c.m.) energies from 40 to 130 GeV. The γ*p→ρ 0 p cross section exhibits a Q -(4.2±0.8 -0.5 +1.4 ) dependence and both longitudinally and transversely polarised ρ 0 's are observed. The γ*p→ρ 0 p0 cross section rises strongly with increasing c.m. energy, when compared with NMC data at lower energy, which cannot be explained by production through soft pomeron exchange. The data are compared with perturbative QCD calculations where the rise in the cross section reflects the increase in the gluon density at low x. (orig.)

  9. Measurement of beauty production in deep inelastic scattering at HERA using decays into electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shehzadi, Ramoona

    2011-01-15

    The production of beauty quarks in ep interactions has been studied with the ZEUS detector at HERA for exchanged four-momentum squared Q{sup 2}>10 GeV{sup 2}, using an integrated luminosity of 363 pb{sup -1}. The beauty events were identified using electrons from semileptonic b decays with a transverse momentum 0.9production were measured and compared with next-to-leading-order QCD calculations. The beauty contribution to the proton structure function F{sub 2} was extracted from the double-differential cross section as a function of Bjorken-x and Q{sup 2}. (orig.)

  10. Disinfection by-products/precursor control using an innovative treatment process -- high energy electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawal, K.; Millington, B.; Slifker, R.A.; Cooper, W.J.; Nickelsen, M.G.; Kurucz, C.N.; Waite, T.D.

    1993-01-01

    When waters containing naturally occurring humic substances, precursors, are chlorinated, reaction (disinfection) by-products (DBPs) that may compromise the chemical water quality of the drinking water are formed. Two options exist for the treatment of THMs and other DBPs, removal of precursor material prior to chlorination, or destruction of the by-products once they are formed. The authors have initiated a study using an innovative process, high energy electron beam irradiation, as an alternative treatment for the destruction of toxic organic compounds. Preliminary studies indicated that the process would also be effective in the removal of precursors. An added advantage of this process is that is would serve as a primary disinfectant, destroying any toxic compounds in the source water and may assist in the removal of algae and cyanobacteria toxins. This paper discusses studies in precursor removal and control of THMs

  11. Measurement of beauty production in deep inelastic scattering at HERA using decays into electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramowicz, H. [Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel). School of Physics; Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Abt, I. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Adamczyk, L. [AGH-Univ. of Science and Technology, Cracow (PL). Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science] (and others)

    2011-01-15

    The production of beauty quarks in ep interactions has been studied with the ZEUS detector at HERA for exchanged four-momentum squared Q{sup 2}>10 GeV{sup 2}, using an integrated luminosity of 363 pb{sup -1}. The beauty events were identified using electrons from semileptonic b decays with a transverse momentum 0.9 production were measured and compared with next-to-leading-order QCD calculations. The beauty contribution to the proton structure function F{sub 2} was extracted from the double-differential cross section as a function of Bjorken-x and Q{sup 2}. (orig.)

  12. Quantifying the potential export flows of used electronic products in Macau: a case study of PCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Danfeng; Song, Qingbin; Wang, Zhishi; Li, Jinhui; Duan, Huabo; Wang, Jinben; Wang, Chao; Wang, Xu

    2017-12-01

    The used electronic product (UEP) has attracted the worldwide attentions because part of e-waste may be exported from developed countries to developing countries in the name of UEP. On the basis of large foreign trade data of electronic products (e-products), this study adopted the trade data approach (TDA) to quantify the potential exports of UEP in Macau, taking a case study of personal computers (PCs). The results show that the desktop mainframes, LCD monitors, and CRT monitors have more low-unit-value trades with higher trade volumes in the past 10 years, while the laptop and tablet PCs, as the newer technologies, owned the higher ratios of the high-unit-value trades. During the period of 2005-2015, the total mean exports for used laptop and tablet PCs, desktop mainframes, and LCD monitors were approximately 18,592, 79,957, and 43,177 units, respectively, while the possible export volume of used CRT monitors was higher, up to 430,098 units in 2000-2010. Noticed that these potential export volumes could be the lower bound because not all used PCs may be shipped using the PC trade code. For all the four kinds of used PCs, the majority (61.6-98.82%) of the export volumes have gone to Hong Kong, followed by Mainland China and Taiwan. Since 2011, there was no CRT monitor export; however, the other kinds of used PC exports will still exist in Macau in the future. The outcomes are helpful to understand and manage the current export situations of used products in Macau, and can also provide a reference for other countries and regions.

  13. Approximate error conjugation gradient minimization methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallman, Jeffrey S

    2013-05-21

    In one embodiment, a method includes selecting a subset of rays from a set of all rays to use in an error calculation for a constrained conjugate gradient minimization problem, calculating an approximate error using the subset of rays, and calculating a minimum in a conjugate gradient direction based on the approximate error. In another embodiment, a system includes a processor for executing logic, logic for selecting a subset of rays from a set of all rays to use in an error calculation for a constrained conjugate gradient minimization problem, logic for calculating an approximate error using the subset of rays, and logic for calculating a minimum in a conjugate gradient direction based on the approximate error. In other embodiments, computer program products, methods, and systems are described capable of using approximate error in constrained conjugate gradient minimization problems.

  14. Protein gradient films of fibroin and gelatine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claussen, Kai U; Lintz, Eileen S; Giesa, Reiner; Schmidt, Hans-Werner; Scheibel, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    Gradients are a natural design principle in biological systems that are used to diminish stress concentration where materials of differing mechanical properties connect. An interesting example of a natural gradient material is byssus, which anchors mussels to rocks and other hard substrata. Building upon previous work with synthetic polymers and inspired by byssal threads, protein gradient films are cast using glycerine-plasticized gelatine and fibroin exhibiting a highly reproducible and smooth mechanical gradient, which encompasses a large range of modulus from 160 to 550 MPa. The reproducible production of biocompatible gradient films represents a first step towards medical applications. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. 77 FR 5275 - Used Electronic Products: An Examination of U.S. Exports; Institution of Investigation and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-02

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 332-528] Used Electronic Products: An... itself, and (4) disposed of by the exporter itself; and The factors affecting trade in used electronic... International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of investigation and scheduling of public hearing. SUMMARY...

  16. Matrix-product-state method with local basis optimization for nonequilibrium electron-phonon systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidrich-Meisner, Fabian; Brockt, Christoph; Dorfner, Florian; Vidmar, Lev; Jeckelmann, Eric

    We present a method for simulating the time evolution of quasi-one-dimensional correlated systems with strongly fluctuating bosonic degrees of freedom (e.g., phonons) using matrix product states. For this purpose we combine the time-evolving block decimation (TEBD) algorithm with a local basis optimization (LBO) approach. We discuss the performance of our approach in comparison to TEBD with a bare boson basis, exact diagonalization, and diagonalization in a limited functional space. TEBD with LBO can reduce the computational cost by orders of magnitude when boson fluctuations are large and thus it allows one to investigate problems that are out of reach of other approaches. First, we test our method on the non-equilibrium dynamics of a Holstein polaron and show that it allows us to study the regime of strong electron-phonon coupling. Second, the method is applied to the scattering of an electronic wave packet off a region with electron-phonon coupling. Our study reveals a rich physics including transient self-trapping and dissipation. Supported by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) via FOR 1807.

  17. Direct electron-pair production by high energy heavy charged particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Y.; Gregory, J. C.; Hayashi, T.; Dong, B. L.

    1989-01-01

    Direct electron pain production via virtual photons by moving charged particles is a unique electro-magnetic process having a substantial dependence on energy. Most electro-magnetic processes, including transition radiation, cease to be sensitive to the incident energy above 10 TeV/AMU. Thus, it is expected, that upon establishment of cross section and detection efficiency of this process, it may provide a new energy measuring technique above 10 TeV/AMU. Three accelerator exposures of emulsion chambers designed for measurements of direct electron-pains were performed. The objectives of the investigation were to provide the fundamental cross-section data in emulsion stacks to find the best-fit theoretical model, and to provide a calibration of measurements of direct electron-pairs in emulsion chamber configurations. This paper reports the design of the emulsion chambers, accelerator experiments, microscope measurements, and related considerations for future improvements of the measurements, and for possible applications to high energy cosmic ray experiments. Also discussed are the results from scanning 56m of emulsion tracks at 1200x magnification so that scanning efficiency is optimized. Measurements of the delta-ray range spectrum were also performed for much shorter track lengths, but with sufficiently large statistics in the number of measured delta-rays.

  18. Production of excited nitrogen atoms and ions by electron impact on nitrogen molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rall, D.L.A.; Anderson, L.W.; Lin, C.C.; Sharpton, F.A.

    1984-01-01

    Emission lines of the N atoms and N ions are produced by electron-beam dissociative excitation of N 2 molecules. The ns→3 /sub p/ (n=5 to 9), np→3s (n=3 to 7), nd→3 /sub p/ (n=4 to 8), nf→3d (n=4,5) transitions of N and the 3 /sub p/ →3s, 3d→3p, 4s→3p, 4p→3d, 4f→3d transitions of N + have been observed and optical emission cross sections at various incident electron energies have been measured. The energy dependence of the cross sections of the N emission lines is similar to that of the N + lines at high incident electron energies, but the low-energy behaviors are quite different. These features are explained by the mechanisms involved in the production of the excited N atoms and N + ions. Absolute optical emission cross sections for the N and N + lines are presented

  19. Resource conservation approached with an appropriate collection and upgrade-remanufacturing for used electronic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlamparet, Gabriel I; Tan, Quanyin; Stevels, A B; Li, Jinhui

    2018-03-01

    This comparative research represents an example for a better conservation of resources by reducing the amount of waste (kg) and providing it more value under the umbrella of remanufacturing. The three discussed cases will expose three issues already addressed separately in the literature. The generation of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) interacts with the environmental depletion. In this article, we gave the examples of addressed issues under the concept of remanufacturing. Online collection opportunity eliminating classical collection, a business to business (B2B) implementation for remanufactured servers and medical devices. The material reuse (recycling), component sustainability, reuse (part harvesting), product reuse (after repair/remanufacturing) indicates the recovery potential using remanufacturing tool for a better conservation of resources adding more value to the products. Our findings can provide an overview of new system organization for the general collection, market potential and the technological advantages using remanufacturing instead of recycling of WEEE or used electrical and electronic equipment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Ion temperature gradient instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Anomalous ion thermal conductivity remains an open physics issue for the present generation of high temperature Tokamaks. It is generally believed to be due to Ion Temperature Gradient Instability (η i mode). However, it has been difficult, if not impossible to identify this instability and study the anomalous transport due to it, directly. Therefore the production and identification of the mode is pursued in the simpler and experimentally convenient configuration of the Columbia Linear Machine (CLM). CLM is a steady state machine which already has all the appropriate parameters, except η i . This parameter is being increased to the appropriate value of the order of 1 by 'feathering' a tungsten screen located between the plasma source and the experimental cell to flatten the density profile and appropriate redesign of heating antennas to steepen the ion temperature profile. Once the instability is produced and identified, a thorough study of the characteristics of the mode can be done via a wide range of variation of all the critical parameters: η i , parallel wavelength, etc

  1. Elemental gradients in macrophytes from a reactor effluent gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grace, J.B.; Tilly, L.J.

    1978-01-01

    The tissues of submersed macrophtes from along the thermal gradient were analyzed for phosphorus to determine whether any pattern correspondent to standing crop distributions could be detected. Although water concentrations of phosphorus showed no detectable relationship to the thermal effluent, tissue concentrations of this element in submersed macrophytes declined with distance from the effluent entry point. The occurrence of this concentration pattern suggests that phosphorus availability is greater near the discharge. Because phosphorus is the element most often determined to limit aquatic productivity, its greater availability may partially account for the apparent enhancement of macrophte growth near the thermal discharge. A patter of macrophyte abundance which indicated enchancement related to the discharge gradient in the reactor-cooling reservoir, Par Pond is reported. Correlative data tended to implicate light and temperature as important in influencing the differential abundance pattern

  2. Gravity gradient preprocessing at the GOCE HPF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouman, J.; Rispens, S.; Gruber, T.; Schrama, E.; Visser, P.; Tscherning, C. C.; Veicherts, M.

    2009-04-01

    One of the products derived from the GOCE observations are the gravity gradients. These gravity gradients are provided in the Gradiometer Reference Frame (GRF) and are calibrated in-flight using satellite shaking and star sensor data. In order to use these gravity gradients for application in Earth sciences and gravity field analysis, additional pre-processing needs to be done, including corrections for temporal gravity field signals to isolate the static gravity field part, screening for outliers, calibration by comparison with existing external gravity field information and error assessment. The temporal gravity gradient corrections consist of tidal and non-tidal corrections. These are all generally below the gravity gradient error level, which is predicted to show a 1/f behaviour for low frequencies. In the outlier detection the 1/f error is compensated for by subtracting a local median from the data, while the data error is assessed using the median absolute deviation. The local median acts as a high-pass filter and it is robust as is the median absolute deviation. Three different methods have been implemented for the calibration of the gravity gradients. All three methods use a high-pass filter to compensate for the 1/f gravity gradient error. The baseline method uses state-of-the-art global gravity field models and the most accurate results are obtained if star sensor misalignments are estimated along with the calibration parameters. A second calibration method uses GOCE GPS data to estimate a low degree gravity field model as well as gravity gradient scale factors. Both methods allow to estimate gravity gradient scale factors down to the 10-3 level. The third calibration method uses high accurate terrestrial gravity data in selected regions to validate the gravity gradient scale factors, focussing on the measurement band. Gravity gradient scale factors may be estimated down to the 10-2 level with this method.

  3. Generalized Gradient Approximation Made Simple

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perdew, J.P.; Burke, K.; Ernzerhof, M.

    1996-01-01

    Generalized gradient approximations (GGA close-quote s) for the exchange-correlation energy improve upon the local spin density (LSD) description of atoms, molecules, and solids. We present a simple derivation of a simple GGA, in which all parameters (other than those in LSD) are fundamental constants. Only general features of the detailed construction underlying the Perdew-Wang 1991 (PW91) GGA are invoked. Improvements over PW91 include an accurate description of the linear response of the uniform electron gas, correct behavior under uniform scaling, and a smoother potential. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  4. Study on application of the physical detection methods for electron beam-irradiated agricultural products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Yong; Park, Yong Dae; Jin, Chang Hyun; Choi, Dae Seong; Jeong, Il Yun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Yook, Hong Sun [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-09-15

    Physical detection methods, photostimulated luminescence (PSL), thermoluminescence (TL) and electron spin resonance (ESR) were applied to detect electron beam-irradiated agricultural products, such as red pepper, black pepper, raisin, walnut, beef seasoning and pistachio. The absorbed irradiation doses for representative samples were controlled at 0, 1, 3, 5 and 10 kGy. PSL values for non-irradiated samples were <700 counts/60s (lower threshold, T{sub 1}) except beef seasoning, whereas those of irradiated samples were more than 5,000 photon counts, upper threshold (T{sub 2}) in black pepper, raisin, and beef seasoning and intermediates values of T{sub 1}-T{sub 2} in red pepper, walnut, and pistachio. Minerals separated from the samples for TL measurement showed that non-irradiated samples except pistachio (TL ratio, 0.12) were characterized by no glow curves situated at temperature range of 50 {approx} 400 .deg. C with TL ratio (0.01 {approx} 0.08), while irradiated samples except pistachio at only 1 kGy (TL ratio, 0.08) indicated glow curve at about 150 {approx} 250 .deg. C with TL ratio (0.28 {approx} 3.10). ESR measurements of irradiated samples any specific signals to irradiation. The samples of both red pepper ad pistachio were produced specific signals derived from cellulose radicals as well as single line signals for black pepper and walnut, and multiple signals derived from crystalline sugar radicals for raisin and beef seasoning. In conclusion, The ESR methods can apply for detection of pistachio exposed to electron beam but PSL and TL are not suitable methods. Furthermore, TL and ESR suggested that both techniques were more useful detection method than PSL to confirm whether red pepper, walnut and beef seasoning samples have been exposed to electron beam.

  5. Study on application of the physical detection methods for electron beam-irradiated agricultural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Yong; Park, Yong Dae; Jin, Chang Hyun; Choi, Dae Seong; Jeong, Il Yun; Yook, Hong Sun

    2010-01-01

    Physical detection methods, photostimulated luminescence (PSL), thermoluminescence (TL) and electron spin resonance (ESR) were applied to detect electron beam-irradiated agricultural products, such as red pepper, black pepper, raisin, walnut, beef seasoning and pistachio. The absorbed irradiation doses for representative samples were controlled at 0, 1, 3, 5 and 10 kGy. PSL values for non-irradiated samples were 1 ) except beef seasoning, whereas those of irradiated samples were more than 5,000 photon counts, upper threshold (T 2 ) in black pepper, raisin, and beef seasoning and intermediates values of T 1 -T 2 in red pepper, walnut, and pistachio. Minerals separated from the samples for TL measurement showed that non-irradiated samples except pistachio (TL ratio, 0.12) were characterized by no glow curves situated at temperature range of 50 ∼ 400 .deg. C with TL ratio (0.01 ∼ 0.08), while irradiated samples except pistachio at only 1 kGy (TL ratio, 0.08) indicated glow curve at about 150 ∼ 250 .deg. C with TL ratio (0.28 ∼ 3.10). ESR measurements of irradiated samples any specific signals to irradiation. The samples of both red pepper ad pistachio were produced specific signals derived from cellulose radicals as well as single line signals for black pepper and walnut, and multiple signals derived from crystalline sugar radicals for raisin and beef seasoning. In conclusion, The ESR methods can apply for detection of pistachio exposed to electron beam but PSL and TL are not suitable methods. Furthermore, TL and ESR suggested that both techniques were more useful detection method than PSL to confirm whether red pepper, walnut and beef seasoning samples have been exposed to electron beam

  6. Radiological protection problems associated with parasitic X-ray emission from electronic products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amlinger, G.; Anger, K.; Billaudelle, H.; Ehlers, J.; Fendt, H.W.; Festag, J.G.; Haug, R.; Herrmann, K.H.; Klein, H.; Kossel, F.; Krebs, A.; Lauterbach, U.; Leibssle, H. Fa.; Lustig, H.; Maushart, R.; Milde, K.G.; Peter, F.; Ritter, J.; Riecke, W.D.; Rosenbaum, O.; Schiekel, M. Fa.; Schleich, F.; Schmidt, Th.; Speyer, K.; Teschke, L.; Tzschaschel, R.; Wagner, H.; Wehner, G.; Wendel, W.; Zehender, E.; Aiginoer, H.; Zakovsky, J.; Blom, G.; De backer, J.; Delhove, J.; Hublet, P.; Lejeune, P.; Misslin, A.; Nuyts, R.; Popovitch, I.; Hjardemaal, O.; Oehlenschlaeger, N.; Gonzalez Del Campo, R.; Becker, S.; Elder, R.L.; Matthews, J.D.; Sheldon, J.L.; Viitaniemi, T.J.; Aouizerate, H.; Aymeric, H.; Barthe, J.; Bermann, F.; Berthaud, Madeleine; Blanc, D.; Bory, P.; Bourrieau, J.; Bouville, A.; Bovagne, H.; Bresson, G.; Casanovas, J.; Cassanhiol, E.; Cassanhiol, E.; Chambragne, J.; Chanteur, J.; Choquet, R.; Cluchet, J.; Commanay, L.; Commanay, P.; Cros, J.L.; Dana, M.; Danna, J.; Decossas, J.L.; Delpla, M.; Destame, D.; Dieval, M.; Drouet, J.; Dubec, A.; Galy, J.; Garnier, A.; Gouerne, R.; Gras, M.; Grob, R.; Guelfucci, J.P.; Guevenoux, J.; Guichardiere, R.; Hamard, J.; Hardy, J.; Haym, J.P.; Hionette, J.; Jacob, G.; Lavie, J.M.; Levy, L.; Logre, P.; Manquene, J.; Martin, H.; Mathieu, J.; Odievre, Monique; Oustrin, J.; Palluel, P.; Patau, J.P.; Penotet, H.; Perrot, A.; Petel, M.; Peyrelavigne, A.; Peyrelavigne, Monique; Provincial, M.; Raedersdorff, J.; Renard, Cl.; Roche, L.; Roche, R.; Schaeffer, R.; Soubiran, J.; Soudain, G.; Stern, J.C.; Terrissol, M.; Tixier, M.; Vialettes, H.; Wauquier, J.M.; Casbolt, P.N.; Ciuciura, A.; Goodhew, E.G.; Jones, I.S.; O'riordan, M.C.; Speight, D.L.; Ward, P.R.; Williams, K.F.; Biro, T.; Vago, G.; Rosental, N.; Argiero, L.; Belli, M.; Boggio, M.; Carfi, N.; Garretti, S.; Loppa, A.; Parisi, A.; Susanna, A.; Ogawa, I.; Koren, K.; Aten, J.B.Th.; Barendsen, G.W.; Den Boer, A.M.; De Pijper, M.A.; Hekman, H.; Julius, H.W.; Strackee, L.; Van daatselaar, G.; Lorentzon, L.; Hadzi-Pealo, M.; Jeremio, M.; Stevanovio, Marija; Oosterkamp, W.J.; Shalmon, E.; Doyen, Diana; Goetschalkx, J.; Puel, R.

    1971-03-01

    During the past few decades there has been an increase in the production of many types of electronic devices such as rectifying tubes, thyratrons, klystrons, magnetrons, etc., containing elements capable of emitting undesirable X-radiation. These components are not only found in equipment used in industry and research laboratories, but also in devices of a more domestic nature, such as colour television sets, usually low in energy, this radiation may nevertheless constitute a health hazard for many users of such devices and may affect not only workers but even the population as a whole. The Commission of the European Communities (Euratom) felt it was desirable to review the state of the art with regard to problems of radiological protection arising in the manufacture, repair and use of such electronic equipment and to seek suitable technical and administrative solutions. In conjunction with the Centre Physique Atomique et Nucleaire of the Paul Sabatier University, the Commission held an International Symposium in Toulouse on 3-6 November 1970, which was attended by manufacturers of electronic equipment, officials of technical inspection bodies and representatives of public health and occupational safety authorities. The following items were discussed: classification and identification of sources of parasitic X-rays, methods of measuring soft X-rays, biological aspects of exposure to soft X-rays, performance standards and methods for testing and inspecting electronic equipment. The Symposium was followed attentively by 180 delegates from 21 countries and international organizations, and was concluded by a round table discussion at which the chairmen of the different sessions, assisted by experts, drew conclusions from their sessions and from the discussions, pointing up the problems which needed most urgently to be studied. This document contains the texts, in their original versions, of the papers presented at the meetings, together with the minutes of the

  7. A New View at the Planning Marketing Popular Products: Exploratory Study Electronics Sector with Companies in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evange Elias Assis

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The increased consumption of appliance and electronic products by lower-income population represented a growth opportunity for companies in the sector. The overall objective of this paper is to investigate how appliance and electronic product manufacturers draw up their marketing planning for low-end products. An exploratory approach was taken in this study, comprising the literature review and the empirical research which was conducted in two stages by combining the qualitative and quantitative approaches. The study group comprised companies affiliated with National Association of Appliance and Electronic Product Manufacturers (ELETROS. Results indicate that in 87.5% of cases the marketing planning focuses on the product. The companies are concerned to differentiate the low-end products on the market mainly by design (87.5% and innovation (62.5%. Within this context, it seems that the opportunity for growth of the appliance and electronic product companies can be boosted when implementing specific marketing planning for low-end products. Innovation is needed in all processes from project design of the product to its distribution. 

  8. Primordial vorticity and gradient expansion

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2012-01-01

    The evolution equations of the vorticities of the electrons, ions and photons in a pre-decoupling plasma are derived, in a fully inhomogeneous geometry, by combining the general relativistic gradient expansion and the drift approximation within the Adler-Misner-Deser decomposition. The vorticity transfer between the different species is discussed in this novel framework and a set of general conservation laws, connecting the vorticities of the three-component plasma with the magnetic field intensity, is derived. After demonstrating that a source of large-scale vorticity resides in the spatial gradients of the geometry and of the electromagnetic sources, the total vorticity is estimated to lowest order in the spatial gradients and by enforcing the validity of the momentum constraint. By acknowledging the current bounds on the tensor to scalar ratio in the (minimal) tensor extension of the $\\Lambda$CDM paradigm the maximal comoving magnetic field induced by the total vorticity turns out to be, at most, of the or...

  9. Advanced ponderomotive description of electron acceleration in ICRF discharge initiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wauters Tom

    2017-01-01

    An example for plasma production by the TOMAS ICRF system is given. Following the described conditions it can be derived that plasma production is (i most efficient close to the antenna straps (few cm's where the field gradient and amplitude are large, and (ii that the lower frequency field accelerates electrons more easily for a given antenna voltage.

  10. Other tobacco product and electronic cigarette use among homeless cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggett, Travis P; Campbell, Eric G; Chang, Yuchiao; Rigotti, Nancy A

    2016-09-01

    We determined the prevalence and correlates of other tobacco product and electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use in a clinic-based sample of homeless cigarette smokers. In April-July 2014, we used time-location sampling to conduct a cross-sectional, in-person survey of 306 currently homeless adult cigarette smokers recruited from 5 clinical sites at Boston Health Care for the Homeless Program. We assessed past-month use of large cigars, little cigars, smokeless tobacco, and e-cigarettes. Among those who had used e-cigarettes, we assessed the reasons for doing so. We used logistic regression analysis to identify the participant characteristics associated with the use of each product. Eighty-six percent of eligible individuals participated in the survey. In the past month, 37% of respondents used large cigars, 44% used little cigars, 8% used smokeless tobacco, 24% used an e-cigarette, and 68% used any of these products. Reasons for e-cigarette use included curiosity (85%) and to help quit conventional cigarettes (69%). In multivariable regression analyses, homeless smokers with greater subsistence difficulties were more likely to use little cigars (p=0.01) and less likely to use e-cigarettes (p=0.001). Non-Hispanic black (p=0.01), Hispanic (pcigars. Readiness to quit was not associated with other tobacco product use but was significantly associated with e-cigarette use to help quit smoking (p=0.02). Health care providers who serve homeless people should consider routine screening for the use of other tobacco products and e-cigarettes to help guide smoking cessation discussions and tobacco treatment planning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Production of microbunched beams of very highly charged ions with an electron beam ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoeckli, M.P.

    1998-01-01

    Electron beam ion sources produce very highly charged ions most efficiently in a batch mode as the confinement time can be directly optimized for the production of the desired charge state. If, after confinement, the voltage of the ion-confining downstream dam is lowered rapidly, all ions escape and form an ion beam pulse with a length of a few tens of μs. Raising the main trap voltage while maintaining a constant dam voltage in a open-quotes spill-over expulsionclose quotes reduces the energy spread of the expelled ions. The longer time periods of open-quotes slow-,close quotes open-quotes leaky batch mode-,close quotes and open-quotes direct current (dc) batch mode-close quotes expulsions allow for increasing the ion beam duty cycle. Combining the rapid expulsion with one of the latter methods allows for the expulsion of the ions of a single batch in many small microbunches with variable intervals, maintaining the low energy spread and the increased duty cycle of slow expulsions. Combining the open-quotes microbunchingclose quotes with open-quotes dc batch mode productionclose quotes and a multitrap operation will eventually allow for the production of equally intense ion bunches over a wide range of frequencies without any deadtime, and with minimal compromise on the most efficient production parameters. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  12. Electron-positron pair production and bremsstrahlung at intermediate energies in the field of heavy atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, R.N.; Milstein, A.I.; Strakhovenko, V.M.; Schwartz, O.Ya.

    2006-01-01

    The Coulomb corrections (CC) to the processes of bremsstrahlung and pair production are investigated. The next-to-leading term in the high-energy asymptotics is found. This term becomes very essential in the region of intermediate energies. The influence of screening for CC is small for differential cross section, spectrum, and the total cross section of pair production. The same is true for the spectrum of bremsstrahlung, but not for the differential cross section, where the influence of screening can be very large. The corresponding screening corrections as well as the modification of the differential cross section of bremsstrahlung are found. A comparison of our results for the total cross section of pair production with the experimental data available is performed. This comparison has justified our analytical results and allowed to elaborate a simple ansatz for the next-to-leading correction. The influence of the electron beam shape on CC for bremsstrahlung is investigated. It turns out that the differential cross section is very sensitive to this shape

  13. Effects of an applied voltage on direct interspecies electron transfer via conductive materials for methane production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Yeol; Park, Jeong-Hoon; Park, Hee-Deung

    2017-10-01

    Direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) between exoelectrogenic bacteria and methanogenic archaea via conductive materials is reported as an efficient method to produce methane in anaerobic organic waste digestion. A voltage can be applied to the conductive materials to accelerate the DIET between two groups of microorganisms to produce methane. To evaluate this hypothesis, two sets of anaerobic serum bottles with and without applied voltage were used with a pair of graphite rods as conductive materials to facilitate DIET. Initially, the methane production rate was similar between the two sets of serum bottles, and later the serum bottles with an applied voltage of 0.39V showed a 168% higher methane production rate than serum bottles without an applied voltage. In cyclic voltammograms, the characteristic redox peaks for hydrogen and acetate oxidation were identified in the serum bottles with an applied voltage. In the microbial community analyses, hydrogenotrophic methanogens (e.g. Methanobacterium) were observed to be abundant in serum bottles with an applied voltage, while methanogens utilizing carbon dioxide (e.g., Methanosaeta and Methanosarcina) were dominant in serum bottles without an applied voltage. Taken together, the applied voltage on conductive materials might not be effective to promote DIET in methane production. Instead, it appeared to generate a condition for hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Travelling gradient thermocouple calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broomfield, G.H.

    1975-01-01

    A short discussion of the origins of the thermocouple EMF is used to re-introduce the idea that the Peltier and Thompson effects are indistinguishable from one another. Thermocouples may be viewed as devices which generate an EMF at junctions or as integrators of EMF's developed in thermal gradients. The thermal gradient view is considered the more appropriate, because of its better accord with theory and behaviour, the correct approach to calibration, and investigation of service effects is immediately obvious. Inhomogeneities arise in thermocouples during manufacture and in service. The results of travelling gradient measurements are used to show that such effects are revealed with a resolution which depends on the length of the gradient although they may be masked during simple immersion calibration. Proposed tests on thermocouples irradiated in a nuclear reactor are discussed

  15. Measurements of absolute M-subshell X-ray production cross sections of Th by electron impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moy, A., E-mail: aurelien.moy@cea.fr [GM, CNRS, Université de Montpellier II, Place E. Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier (France); CEA, DEN, DTEC, SGCS, LMAC, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France); Merlet, C. [GM, CNRS, Université de Montpellier II, Place E. Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier (France); Dugne, O. [CEA, DEN, DTEC, SGCS, LMAC, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France)

    2014-08-31

    Highlights: • The M X-ray production cross sections of Th were measured by electron impact. • The M-subshell ionization cross sections of Th were determined from 3 to 38 keV. • Theoretical ionization cross-sections are in agreement with our experimental results. - Abstract: Measurements of absolute M-subshell X-ray production cross sections for element Th were made by electron impact for energies ranging from the ionization threshold up to 38 keV. Experimental data were obtained by measuring the X-ray intensity emitted from ultrathin Th films deposited onto self-supporting C backing films. The measurements were conducted with an electron microprobe using high-resolution wavelength dispersive spectrometers. Recorded intensities were converted into absolute X-ray production cross sections by means of atomic data and estimation of the number of primary electrons, target thickness, and detector efficiency. Our experimental X-ray production cross sections, the first to be reported for the M subshells of Th, are compared with X-ray production cross sections calculated with the mean of ionization cross sections obtained from the distorted-wave Born approximation. The Mα X-ray production cross section calculated is in excellent agreement with the measurements, allowing future use for standardless quantification in electron probe microanalysis.

  16. Quaternion Gradient and Hessian

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Dongpo; Mandic, Danilo P.

    2014-01-01

    The optimization of real scalar functions of quaternion variables, such as the mean square error or array output power, underpins many practical applications. Solutions typically require the calculation of the gradient and Hessian. However, real functions of quaternion variables are essentially nonanalytic, which are prohibitive to the development of quaternion-valued learning systems. To address this issue, we propose new definitions of quaternion gradient and Hessian, based on the novel gen...

  17. Production of electronic grade lunar silicon by disproportionation of silicon difluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosto, William N.

    1993-01-01

    Waldron has proposed to extract lunar silicon by sodium reduction of sodium fluorosilicate derived from reacting sodium fluoride with lunar silicon tetrafluoride. Silicon tetrafluoride is obtained by the action of hydrofluoric acid on lunar silicates. While these reactions are well understood, the resulting lunar silicon is not likely to meet electronic specifications of 5 nines purity. Dale and Margrave have shown that silicon difluoride can be obtained by the action of silicon tetrafluoride on elemental silicon at elevated temperatures (1100-1200 C) and low pressures (1-2 torr). The resulting silicon difluoride will then spontaneously disproportionate into hyperpure silicon and silicon tetrafluoride in vacuum at approximately 400 C. On its own merits, silicon difluoride polymerizes into a tough waxy solid in the temperature range from liquid nitrogen to about 100 C. It is the silicon analog of teflon. Silicon difluoride ignites in moist air but is stable under lunar surface conditions and may prove to be a valuable industrial material that is largely lunar derived for lunar surface applications. The most effective driver for lunar industrialization may be the prospects for industrial space solar power systems in orbit or on the moon that are built with lunar materials. Such systems would require large quantities of electronic grade silicon or compound semiconductors for photovoltaics and electronic controls. Since silicon is the most abundant semimetal in the silicate portion of any solar system rock (approximately 20 wt percent), lunar silicon production is bound to be an important process in such a solar power project. The lunar silicon extraction process is discussed.

  18. Electron accelerator-based production of molybdenum-99: Bremsstrahlung and photoneutron generation from molybdenum vs. tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsechanski, A. [Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Department of Nuclear Engineering, P.O. Box 653, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Bielajew, A.F. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, The University of Michigan, 2355 Bonisteel Boulevard, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Archambault, J.P.; Mainegra-Hing, E. [National Research Council of Canada, Ionizing Radiation Standards Laboratory, Ottawa, ON K1A 0R6 (Canada)

    2016-01-01

    A new “one-stage” approach for production of {sup 99}Mo and other radioisotopes by means of an electron linear accelerator is described. It is based on using a molybdenum target both as a bremsstrahlung converter and as a radioisotope producing target for the production of {sup 99}Mo via the photoneutron reaction {sup 100}Mo(γ,n){sup 99}Mo. Bremsstrahlung characteristics, such as bremsstrahlung efficiency, angular distribution, and energy deposition for molybdenum targets were obtained by means of the EGSnrc Monte Carlo simulation code system. As a result of our simulations, it is concluded that a 60 MeV electron beam incident on a thick Mo target will have greater bremsstrahlung efficiency than the same thickness (in units of r{sub 0}) W target, for target thickness z > 1.84r{sub 0}, where r{sub 0} is the electron range. A 50 MeV electron beam incident on a Mo target will result in greater bremsstrahlung efficiency than the same thickness W target (in units of r{sub 0}) for target thickness case: z ⩾ 2.0r{sub 0}. It is shown for the one-stage approach with thicknesses of (1.84–2.0)r{sub 0}, that the {sup 99}Mo-production bremsstrahlung efficiency of a molybdenum target is greater by ∼100% at 30 MeV and by ∼70% at 60 MeV compared to the values for tungsten of the same thickness (in units of the appropriate r{sub 0}) in the traditional two-stage approach (W converter and separate {sup 99}Mo producing target). This advantage of the one-stage approach arises from the fact that the bremsstrahlung produced is attenuated only once from attenuation in the molybdenum converter/target. In the traditional, two-stage approach, the bremsstrahlung generated in the W-converter/target is attenuated both in the converter in the {sup 99}Mo-producing molybdenum target. The photoneutron production yield of molybdenum and tantalum (as a substitute for tungsten) target was calculated by means of the MCNP5 transport code. On the basis of these data, the specific activity

  19. The Level of Brand Awareness in Consumer Electronic Products: The Example of Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kutay Oktay

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Brand awareness which is considered as one of the most important factor affecting the consumer purchasing preferences has been investigated by both academics and practitioners in the field of marketing in recent years. The current study investigated brand awareness in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan regarding consumer electronic products, such as laptop computers, tablet computers, and cell phones. To determine brand awareness, data were obtained by using suitable market analysis methods, andthen analyzed by using the Spearman correlation and the chi-square test for independence.Based on the study results, it was observed that the level brand awareness was high for laptop computers and cell phones, while being comparatively lower for tablet computers.

  20. The factors affecting the green brand equity of electronic products: Green marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Delafrooz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is intentionally functional, and, from the data collection aspect, is a descriptive survey. The statistical data for the present study includes low-power electronic and electric products in Guilan Province. A total of 384 consumers were chosen using the random cluster sampling method. We have used confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling to analyze the given data. The findings show that there is a significant relationship among brand-perceived quality, green brand image, (GBI and brand value, but not with the green brand-perceived value (GBPV. In addition, the results of the study show that brand credibility has a significant relationship with the GBPV and GBI, but not with the GBPV and GBI, each of which are associated with the green brand in a different way. At the end of this survey, you will read about the intermediate variables, all of which are acceptable, except the intermediate variables of brand credibility and GBI.

  1. Modelling and Simulation of National Electronic Product Code Network Demonstrator Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, John P. T.

    The National Electronic Product Code (EPC) Network Demonstrator Project (NDP) was the first large scale consumer goods track and trace investigation in the world using full EPC protocol system for applying RFID technology in supply chains. The NDP demonstrated the methods of sharing information securely using EPC Network, providing authentication to interacting parties, and enhancing the ability to track and trace movement of goods within the entire supply chain involving transactions among multiple enterprise. Due to project constraints, the actual run of the NDP was 3 months only and was unable to consolidate with quantitative results. This paper discusses the modelling and simulation of activities in the NDP in a discrete event simulation environment and provides an estimation of the potential benefits that can be derived from the NDP if it was continued for one whole year.

  2. Observation of exclusive electron-positron production in hadron-hadron collisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abulencia, A; Adelman, J; Affolder, T; Akimoto, T; Albrow, M G; Ambrose, D; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Anikeev, K; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Aoki, M; Apollinari, G; Arguin, J-F; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Ashmanskas, W; Attal, A; Azfar, F; Azzi-Bacchetta, P; Azzurri, P; Bacchetta, N; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Baroiant, S; Bartsch, V; Bauer, G; Bedeschi, F; Behari, S; Belforte, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Belloni, A; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Beringer, J; Berry, T; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Blair, R E; Blocker, C; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Boisvert, V; Bolla, G; Bolshov, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brau, B; Brigliadori, L; Bromberg, C; Brubaker, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Budd, S; Budroni, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Byrum, K L; Cabrera, S; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Carillo, S; Carlsmith, D; Caron, B; Carosi, R; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chang, S H; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, I; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Choudalakis, G; Chuang, S H; Chung, K; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Ciljak, M; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clark, D; Coca, M; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Cooper, B; Copic, K; Cordelli, M; Cortiana, G; Crescioli, F; Almenar, C Cuenca; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Cully, J C; Cyr, D; Daronco, S; D'Auria, S; Davies, T; D'Onofrio, M; Dagenhart, D; de Barbaro, P; Cecco, S De; Deisher, A; Lentdecker, G De; Dell'orso, M; Paoli, F Delli; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; Pedis, D De; Derwent, P F; Giovanni, G P Di; Dionisi, C; Ruzza, B Di; Dittmann, J R; Dituro, P; Dörr, C; Donati, S; Donega, M; Dong, P; Donini, J; Dorigo, T; Dube, S; Efron, J; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Fedorko, I; Fedorko, W T; Feild, R G; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Foland, A; Forrester, S; Foster, G W; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; Garcia, J E; Garberson, F; Garfinkel, A F; Gay, C; Gerberich, H; Gerdes, D; Giagu, S; Giannetti, P; Gibson, A; Gibson, K; Gimmell, J L; Ginsburg, C; Giokaris, N; Giordani, M; Giromini, P; Giunta, M; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldschmidt, N; Goldstein, J; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Gresele, A; Griffiths, M; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Grundler, U; da Costa, J Guimaraes; Gunay-Unalan, Z; Haber, C; Hahn, K; Hahn, S R; Halkiadakis, E; Hamilton, A; Han, B-Y; Han, J Y; Handler, R; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, M; Harper, S; Harr, R F; Harris, R M; Hartz, M; Hatakeyama, K; Hauser, J; Heijboer, A; Heinemann, B; Heinrich, J; Henderson, C; Herndon, M; Heuser, J; Hidas, D; Hill, C S; Hirschbuehl, D; Hocker, A; Holloway, A; Hou, S; Houlden, M; Hsu, S-C; Huffman, B T; Hughes, R E; Husemann, U; Huston, J; Incandela, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ishizawa, Y; Ivanov, A; Iyutin, B; James, E; Jang, D; Jayatilaka, B; Jeans, D; Jensen, H; Jeon, E J; Jindariani, S; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Jung, J E; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Karchin, P E; Kato, Y; Kemp, Y; Kephart, R; Kerzel, U; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Kirsch, L; Klimenko, S; Klute, M; Knuteson, B; Ko, B R; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotwal, A V; Kovalev, A; Kraan, A C; Kraus, J; Kravchenko, I; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Krumnack, N; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kubo, T; Kuhlmann, S E; Kuhr, T; Kusakabe, Y; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lai, S; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lazzizzera, I; Lecompte, T; Lee, J; Lee, J; Lee, Y J; Lee, S W; Lefèvre, R; Leonardo, N; Leone, S; Levy, S; Lewis, J D; Lin, C; Lin, C S; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, T; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Loreti, M; Loverre, P; Lu, R-S; Lucchesi, D; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lyons, L; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Lytken, E; Mack, P; Macqueen, D; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Makhoul, K; Maki, T; Maksimovic, P; Malde, S; Manca, G; Margaroli, F; Marginean, R; Marino, C; Marino, C P; Martin, A; Martin, M; Martin, V; Martínez, M; Maruyama, T; Mastrandrea, P; Masubuchi, T; Matsunaga, H; Mattson, M E; Mazini, R; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Menzemer, S; Menzione, A; Merkel, P; Mesropian, C; Messina, A; Miao, T; Miladinovic, N; Miles, J; Miller, R; Mills, C; Milnik, M; Mitra, A; Mitselmakher, G; Miyamoto, A; Moed, S; Moggi, N; Mohr, B; Moore, R; Morello, M; Fernandez, P Movilla; Mülmenstädt, J; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Mumford, R; Murat, P; Nachtman, J; Nagano, A; Naganoma, J; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Necula, V; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Nielsen, J; Nigmanov, T; Nodulman, L; Norniella, O; Nurse, E; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Oldeman, R; Orava, R; Osterberg, K; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Papadimitriou, V; Paramonov, A A; Parks, B; Pashapour, S; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Pellett, D E; Penzo, A; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Piedra, J; Pinera, L; Pinfold, J; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Portell, X; Poukhov, O; Pounder, N; Prakoshyn, F; Pronko, A; Proudfoot, J; Ptohos, F; Punzi, G; Pursley, J; Rademacker, J; Rahaman, A; Ranjan, N; Rappoccio, S; Reisert, B; Rekovic, V; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Richter, S; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Rossi, M; Rossin, R; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Saarikko, H; Sabik, S; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Salamanna, G; Saltó, O; Saltzberg, D; Sánchez, C; Santi, L; Sarkar, S; Sartori, L; Sato, K; Savard, P; Savoy-Navarro, A; Scheidle, T; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scott, A L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Sedov, A; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Sexton-Kennedy, L; Sfyrla, A; Shapiro, M D; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Sherman, D; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M; Shon, Y; Shreyber, I; Sidoti, A; Sinervo, P; Sisakyan, A; Sjolin, J; Slaughter, A J; Slaunwhite, J; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Snihur, R; Soderberg, M; Soha, A; Somalwar, S; Sorin, V; Spalding, J; Spinella, F; Spreitzer, T; Squillacioti, P; Stanitzki, M; Staveris-Polykalas, A; Denis, R St; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Stuart, D; Suh, J S; Sukhanov, A; Sun, H; Suzuki, T; Taffard, A; Takashima, R; Takeuchi, Y; Takikawa, K; Tanaka, M; Tanaka, R; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Terashi, K; Thom, J; Thompson, A S; Thomson, E; Tipton, P; Tiwari, V; Tkaczyk, S; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Tourneur, S; Trischuk, W; Tsuchiya, R; Tsuno, S; Turini, N; Ukegawa, F; Unverhau, T; Uozumi, S; Usynin, D; Vallecorsa, S; van Remortel, N; Varganov, A; Vataga, E; Vázquez, F; Velev, G; Veramendi, G; Veszpremi, V; Vidal, R; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Vine, T; Vollrath, I; Volobouev, I; Volpi, G; Würthwein, F; Wagner, P; Wagner, R G; Wagner, R L; Wagner, J; Wagner, W; Wallny, R; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Waschke, S; Waters, D; Wester, W C; Whitehouse, B; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Williams, G; Williams, H H; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, C; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wynne, S M; Yagil, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamaoka, J; Yamashita, T; Yang, C; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W M; Yeh, G P; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Yu, S S; Yun, J C; Zanello, L; Zanetti, A; Zaw, I; Zhang, X; Zhou, J; Zucchelli, S

    2007-03-16

    We present the first observation of exclusive e(+)e(-) production in hadron-hadron collisions, using pp[over] collision data at (square root) s = 1.96 TeV taken by the run II Collider Detector at Fermilab, and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 532 pb(-1). We require the absence of any particle signatures in the detector except for an electron and a positron candidate, each with transverse energy E(T) > 5 GeV and pseudorapidity |eta| p + e(+)e(-) + p[over] through two-photon exchange. The measured cross section is 1.6(-0.3)(+0.5)(stat) +/- 0.3(syst) pb. This agrees with the theoretical prediction of 1.71+/-0.01 pb.

  3. Production of heavy neutral MSSM Higgs boson in photon-electron colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, I.S.H.

    2004-01-01

    The production of heavy neutral Higgs boson has been studied through all the possible three out states processes by using the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) in the photon - electron colliders. The Feynman diagrams have been drawing for each possible mode of the interaction. The total cross section as a function of center of mass energy has been calculated for each process. It has been found that, the most dominant process occurs when the heavy neutral Higgs boson (Hο) produces with e-neutrino (v e ) and the negative charged Higgs boson (H - ) at centre of mass energy -√s≡ 1430 GeV at a value of the order ≅ 1.0 x 10 -4 pbarn

  4. Review of highly charged heavy ion production with electron cyclotron resonance ion source (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, T.

    2014-01-01

    The electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) plays an important role in the advancement of heavy ion accelerators and other ion beam applications worldwide, thanks to its remarkable ability to produce a great variety of intense highly charged heavy ion beams. Great efforts over the past decade have led to significant ECRIS performance improvements in both the beam intensity and quality. A number of high-performance ECRISs have been built and are in daily operation or are under construction to meet the continuously increasing demand. In addition, comprehension of the detailed and complex physical processes in high-charge-state ECR plasmas has been enhanced experimentally and theoretically. This review covers and discusses the key components, leading-edge developments, and enhanced ECRIS performance in the production of highly charged heavy ion beams

  5. Electron beam processing in wire and cables and heat shrinkable products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tikku, V.K.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper in a general manner the commercially successful E-beam crosslinking in wire and cable and heat shrinkable products being manufactured first time in India are illustrated. We at NICCO in India have established first industrial electron accelerator of 150 kW power with 3 MeV beam energy and 50 mA beam current, near Calcutta; the facility is likely to be commissioned by January, 2002. This facility was conceived and the developmental work was carried out with the active support of our R and D partners at Rubber Technology Centre, IIT, Kharagpur and Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai. The polymeric compound developments, its extrusion on to the cable samples and radiation crosslinking were successfully achieved in this joint R and D efforts. We have already executed the developmental order with the know-how developed indigenously with our research partners and using the 2 MeV electron accelerator facility at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai. (author)

  6. Measurement of the left-right asymmetry in Z boson production by electron-positron collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elia, R.D.

    1994-04-01

    We present the first measurement of the left-right cross-section asymmetry (A LR ) in Z boson production at the SLAC Linear Collider. The left-right asymmetry provides a direct measurement of the e - -Z coupling and thus of the effective weak mixing angle; in addition, A LR is sensitive to the unknown top-quark and Higgs-boson masses. In 1992 the SLD detector recorded 10224 Z events produced by the collision of longitudinally polarized electrons with an unpolarized positron beam at a center-of-mass energy of 91.55 GeV. The average electron beam polarization during the run was (22.4 ± 0.6)%. We measure A LR to be 0.101 ± 0.044 (stat.) ± 0.004 (syst.), which determines the effective weak mixing angle to be sin 2 θeff/W = 0.2377 ± 0.0056 (stat.) ± 0.0005 (syst.). This measurement of A LR is in agreement with comparable measurements and is consistent with Standard-Model predictions for allowed top and Higgs masses

  7. Study of electron pair production in hadron and nuclear collisions at the CERN SPS

    CERN Multimedia

    Liebold, H-P; Sako, H; Belaga, V; Bielcikova, J; Stachel, J

    2002-01-01

    The NA45/CERES experiment investigates primarily the production of electron-positron pairs and of direct photons in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions. For electron-positron pairs the experiment studies the continuum in the mass region of about 0.05 to 2 GeV/c$^2$ and the vector mesons $\\varrho ,~ \\omega$, and, $\\phi$. Since for electromagnetic probes final state interactions are practically negligible these observables are unique for studying the evolution and dynamics of ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions from the hot and dense early stage where a quark-gluon plasma is expected to be formed to the final freeze-out stage when hadrons decouple.\\\\ \\\\ The experiment also studies the spectral distributions of charged particles, their distribution relative to the reaction plane, and identified high momentum pions. Another topic of investigation are QED pairs produced in peripheral nuclear collisions.\\\\ \\\\ The first phase of the experiment, NA45, has been concluded with two main results: i) There is...

  8. Slow positron beam production by a 14 MeV C.W. electron accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begemann, M.; Gräff, G.; Herminghaus, H.; Kalinowsky, H.; Ley, R.

    1982-10-01

    A 14 MeV c.w. electron accelerator is used for pair production in a tungsten target of 0.7 radiation lengths thickness. A small fraction of the positrons is thermalized and diffuses out of the surface ofsurface of a well annealed tungsten foil coated with MgO which is positioned immediately behind the target. The slow positrons are extracted from the target region and magnetically guided over a distance of 10 m onto a channelplate multiplier at the end of an S-shaped solenoid. The positrons are identified by their annihilation radiation using two NaI-detectors. The intensity of the slow positrons is proportional to the accelerator electron beam current. The maximum intensity of 2.2 × 10 5 slow positrons per second reaching thedetector at an accelerator current of 15 μA was limited by the power deposited in the uncooled target. The energy of the positrons is concentrated in a small region at about 1 eV and clearly demonstrates the emission of thermal positrons.

  9. Slow positron beam production by a 14 MeV c.w. electron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begemann, M.; Graeff, G.; Herminghaus, H.; Kalinowsky, H.; Ley, R.

    1982-01-01

    A 14 MeV c.w. electron accelerator is used for pair production in a tungsten target of 0.7 radiation lengths thickness. A small fraction of the positrons is thermalized and diffuses out of the surface of a well annealed tungsten foil coated with MgO which is positioned immediately behind the target. The slow positrons are extracted from the target region and magnetically guided over a distance of 10 m onto a channelplate multiplier at the end of an S-shaped solenoid. The positrons are identified by their annihilation radiation using two Nal-detectors. The intensity of the slow positrons is proportional to the accelerator electron beam current. The maximum intensity of 2.2 x 10 5 slow positrons per second reaching the detector at an accelerator current of 15 μA was limited by the power deposited in the uncooled target. The energy of the positrons is concentrated in a small region at about 1 eV and clearly demonstrates the emission of thermal positrons. (orig.)

  10. Production of highly charged ion beams from electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Z.Q.

    1998-01-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) development has progressed with multiple-frequency plasma heating, higher mirror magnetic fields, and better technique to provide extra cold electrons. Such techniques greatly enhance the production of highly charged ions from ECRISs. So far at continuous wave (CW) mode operation, up to 300 eμA of O 7+ and 1.15 emA of O 6+ , more than 100 eμA of intermediate heavy ions for charge states up to Ar 13+ , Ca 13+ , Fe 13+ , Co 14+ , and Kr 18+ , and tens of eμA of heavy ions with charge states to Kr 26+ , Xe 28+ , Au 35+ , Bi 34+ , and U 34+ were produced from ECRISs. At an intensity of at least 1 eμA, the maximum charge state available for the heavy ions are Xe 36+ , Au 46+ , Bi 47+ , and U 48+ . An order of magnitude enhancement for fully stripped argon ions (I≥60enA) were also achieved. This article will review the ECR ion source progress and discuss key requirement for ECRISs to produce the highly charged ion beams. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  11. Electronic Cigarette Marketing Online: a Multi-Site, Multi-Product Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Kar-Hai; Sidhu, Anupreet K; Valente, Thomas W

    2015-01-01

    Electronic cigarette awareness and use has been increasing rapidly. E-cigarette brands have utilized social networking sites to promote their products, as the growth of the e-cigarette industry has paralleled that of Web 2.0. These online platforms are cost-effective and have unique technological features and user demographics that can be attractive for selective marketing. The popularity of multiple sites also poses a risk of exposure to social networks where e-cigarette brands might not have a presence. To examine the marketing strategies of leading e-cigarette brands on multiple social networking sites, and to identify how affordances of the digital media are used to their advantage. Secondary analyses include determining if any brands are benefitting from site demographics, and exploring cross-site diffusion of marketing content through multi-site users. We collected data from two e-cigarette brands from four social networking sites over approximately 2.5 years. Content analysis is used to search for themes, population targeting, marketing strategies, and cross-site spread of messages. Twitter appeared to be the most frequently used social networking site for interacting directly with product users. Facebook supported informational broadcasts, such as announcements regarding political legislation. E-cigarette brands also differed in their approaches to their users, from informal conversations to direct product marketing. E-cigarette makers use different strategies to market their product and engage their users. There was no evidence of direct targeting of vulnerable populations, but the affordances of the different sites are exploited to best broadcast context-specific messages. We developed a viable method to study cross-site diffusion, although additional refinement is needed to account for how different types of digital media are used.

  12. Intense highly charged ion beam production and operation with a superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. W. Zhao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source with advanced design in Lanzhou (SECRAL is a superconducting-magnet-based electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS for the production of intense highly charged heavy ion beams. It is one of the best performing ECRISs worldwide and the first superconducting ECRIS built with an innovative magnet to generate a high strength minimum-B field for operation with heating microwaves up to 24–28 GHz. Since its commissioning in 2005, SECRAL has so far produced a good number of continuous wave intensity records of highly charged ion beams, in which recently the beam intensities of ^{40}Ar^{12+} and ^{129}Xe^{26+} have, for the first time, exceeded 1 emA produced by an ion source. Routine operations commenced in 2007 with the Heavy Ion accelerator Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL, China. Up to June 2017, SECRAL has been providing more than 28,000 hours of highly charged heavy ion beams to the accelerator demonstrating its great capability and reliability. The great achievement of SECRAL is accumulation of numerous technical advancements, such as an innovative magnetic system and an efficient double-frequency (24+18  GHz heating with improved plasma stability. This article reviews the development of SECRAL and production of intense highly charged ion beams by SECRAL focusing on its unique magnet design, source commissioning, performance studies and enhancements, beam quality and long-term operation. SECRAL development and its performance studies representatively reflect the achievements and status of the present ECR ion source, as well as the ECRIS impacts on HIRFL.

  13. Intense highly charged ion beam production and operation with a superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H. W.; Sun, L. T.; Guo, J. W.; Lu, W.; Xie, D. Z.; Hitz, D.; Zhang, X. Z.; Yang, Y.

    2017-09-01

    The superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source with advanced design in Lanzhou (SECRAL) is a superconducting-magnet-based electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) for the production of intense highly charged heavy ion beams. It is one of the best performing ECRISs worldwide and the first superconducting ECRIS built with an innovative magnet to generate a high strength minimum-B field for operation with heating microwaves up to 24-28 GHz. Since its commissioning in 2005, SECRAL has so far produced a good number of continuous wave intensity records of highly charged ion beams, in which recently the beam intensities of 40Ar+ and 129Xe26+ have, for the first time, exceeded 1 emA produced by an ion source. Routine operations commenced in 2007 with the Heavy Ion accelerator Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL), China. Up to June 2017, SECRAL has been providing more than 28,000 hours of highly charged heavy ion beams to the accelerator demonstrating its great capability and reliability. The great achievement of SECRAL is accumulation of numerous technical advancements, such as an innovative magnetic system and an efficient double-frequency (24 +18 GHz ) heating with improved plasma stability. This article reviews the development of SECRAL and production of intense highly charged ion beams by SECRAL focusing on its unique magnet design, source commissioning, performance studies and enhancements, beam quality and long-term operation. SECRAL development and its performance studies representatively reflect the achievements and status of the present ECR ion source, as well as the ECRIS impacts on HIRFL.

  14. Gradient Alloy for Optical Packaging

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advances in additive manufacturing, such as Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS), enables the fabrication of compositionally gradient microstructures, i.e. gradient...

  15. Growth and yield of mixed versus pure stands of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) analysed along a productivity gradient through Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pretzsch, H.; Ammer, C.; Barbeito, I.; Mohren, G.M.J.; Ouden, den J.; Verheyen, K.

    2015-01-01

    Mixing of complementary tree species may increase stand productivity, mitigate the effects of drought and other risks, and pave the way to forest production systems which may be more resource-use efficient and stable in the face of climate change. However, systematic empirical studies on mixing

  16. Multiple tobacco product use among adults in the United States: cigarettes, cigars, electronic cigarettes, hookah, smokeless tobacco, and snus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youn O; Hebert, Christine J; Nonnemaker, James M; Kim, Annice E

    2014-05-01

    Noncigarette tobacco products are increasingly popular. Researchers need to understand multiple tobacco product use to assess the effects of these products on population health. We estimate national prevalence and examine risk factors for multiple product use. We calculated prevalence estimates of current use patterns involving cigarettes, cigars, electronic cigarettes, hookah, smokeless tobacco, and snus using data from the 2012 RTI National Adult Tobacco Survey (N=3627), a random-digit-dial telephone survey of adults aged 18 and over. Associations between use patterns (exclusive single product and multiple products) and demographic characteristics were examined using Pearson chi-square tests and logistic regression. 32.1% of adults currently use 1 or more tobacco products; 14.9% use cigarettes exclusively, and 6.6% use one noncigarette product exclusively, 6.9% use cigarettes with another product (dual use), 1.3% use two noncigarette products, and 2.4% use three or more products (polytobacco use). Smokers who are young adult, male, never married, reside in the West, and made prior quit attempts were at risk for multiple product use. Over 10% of U.S. adults use multiple tobacco products. A better understanding of multiple product use involving combustible products, like cigars and hookah, is needed. Multiple product use may be associated with past quit attempts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Perceived harm, addictiveness, and social acceptability of tobacco products and marijuana among young adults: marijuana, hookah, and electronic cigarettes win.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Carla J; Stratton, Erin; Schauer, Gillian L; Lewis, Michael; Wang, Yanwen; Windle, Michael; Kegler, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    There has been an increase in non-daily smoking, alternative tobacco product and marijuana use among young adults in recent years. This study examined perceptions of health risks, addictiveness, and social acceptability of cigarettes, cigar products, smokeless tobacco, hookah, electronic cigarettes, and marijuana among young adults and correlates of such perceptions. In Spring 2013, 10,000 students at two universities in the Southeastern United States were recruited to complete an online survey (2,002 respondents), assessing personal, parental, and peer use of each product; and perceptions of health risks, addictiveness, and social acceptability of each of these products. Marijuana was the most commonly used product in the past month (19.2%), with hookah being the second most commonly used (16.4%). The least commonly used were smokeless tobacco products (2.6%) and electronic cigarettes (4.5%). There were high rates of concurrent product use, particularly among electronic cigarette users. The most positively perceived was marijuana, with hookah and electronic cigarettes being second. While tobacco use and related social factors, related positively, influenced perceptions of marijuana, marijuana use and related social factors were not associated with perceptions of any tobacco product. Conclusions/Importance: Marketing efforts to promote electronic cigarettes and hookah to be safe and socially acceptable seem to be effective, while policy changes seem to be altering perceptions of marijuana and related social norms. Research is needed to document the health risks and addictive nature of emerging tobacco products and marijuana and evaluate efforts to communicate such risks to youth.

  18. Production of medical radioactive isotopes using KIPT electron driven subcritical facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talamo, Alberto; Gohar, Yousry

    2008-01-01

    Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT) of Ukraine in collaboration with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has a plan to construct an electron accelerator driven subcritical assembly. One of the facility objectives is the production of medical radioactive isotopes. This paper presents the ANL collaborative work performed for characterizing the facility performance for producing medical radioactive isotopes. First, a preliminary assessment was performed without including the self-shielding effect of the irradiated samples. Then, more detailed investigation was carried out including the self-shielding effect, which defined the sample size and location for producing each medical isotope. In the first part, the reaction rates were calculated as the multiplication of the cross section with the unperturbed neutron flux of the facility. Over fifty isotopes have been considered and all transmutation channels are used including (n, γ), (n, 2n), (n, p), and (γ, n). In the second part, the parent isotopes with high reaction rate were explicitly modeled in the calculations. Four irradiation locations were considered in the analyses to study the medical isotope production rate. The results show the self-shielding effect not only reduces the specific activity but it also changes the irradiation location that maximizes the specific activity. The axial and radial distributions of the parent capture rates have been examined to define the irradiation sample size of each parent isotope

  19. Production of medical radioactive isotopes using KIPT electron driven subcritical facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talamo, Alberto [Nuclear Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)], E-mail: alby@anl.gov; Gohar, Yousry [Nuclear Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2008-05-15

    Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT) of Ukraine in collaboration with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has a plan to construct an electron accelerator driven subcritical assembly. One of the facility objectives is the production of medical radioactive isotopes. This paper presents the ANL collaborative work performed for characterizing the facility performance for producing medical radioactive isotopes. First, a preliminary assessment was performed without including the self-shielding effect of the irradiated samples. Then, more detailed investigation was carried out including the self-shielding effect, which defined the sample size and location for producing each medical isotope. In the first part, the reaction rates were calculated as the multiplication of the cross section with the unperturbed neutron flux of the facility. Over fifty isotopes have been considered and all transmutation channels are used including (n, {gamma}), (n, 2n), (n, p), and ({gamma}, n). In the second part, the parent isotopes with high reaction rate were explicitly modeled in the calculations. Four irradiation locations were considered in the analyses to study the medical isotope production rate. The results show the self-shielding effect not only reduces the specific activity but it also changes the irradiation location that maximizes the specific activity. The axial and radial distributions of the parent capture rates have been examined to define the irradiation sample size of each parent isotope.

  20. Production of medical radioactive isotopes using KIPT electron driven subcritical facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talamo, Alberto; Gohar, Yousry

    2008-05-01

    Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT) of Ukraine in collaboration with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has a plan to construct an electron accelerator driven subcritical assembly. One of the facility objectives is the production of medical radioactive isotopes. This paper presents the ANL collaborative work performed for characterizing the facility performance for producing medical radioactive isotopes. First, a preliminary assessment was performed without including the self-shielding effect of the irradiated samples. Then, more detailed investigation was carried out including the self-shielding effect, which defined the sample size and location for producing each medical isotope. In the first part, the reaction rates were calculated as the multiplication of the cross section with the unperturbed neutron flux of the facility. Over fifty isotopes have been considered and all transmutation channels are used including (n, gamma), (n, 2n), (n, p), and (gamma, n). In the second part, the parent isotopes with high reaction rate were explicitly modeled in the calculations. Four irradiation locations were considered in the analyses to study the medical isotope production rate. The results show the self-shielding effect not only reduces the specific activity but it also changes the irradiation location that maximizes the specific activity. The axial and radial distributions of the parent capture rates have been examined to define the irradiation sample size of each parent isotope.

  1. Electronic health record impact on productivity and efficiency in an academic pediatric ophthalmology practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redd, Travis K; Read-Brown, Sarah; Choi, Dongseok; Yackel, Thomas R; Tu, Daniel C; Chiang, Michael F

    2014-12-01

    To measure the effect of electronic health record (EHR) implementation on productivity and efficiency in the pediatric ophthalmology division at an academic medical center. Four established providers were selected from the pediatric ophthalmology division at the Oregon Health & Science University Casey Eye Institute. Clinical volume was compared before and after EHR implementation for each provider. Time elapsed from chart open to completion (OTC time) and the proportion of charts completed during business hours were monitored for 3 years following implementation. Overall there was an 11% decrease in clinical volume following EHR implementation, which was not statistically significant (P = 0.18). The mean OTC time ranged from 5.5 to 28.3 hours among providers in this study, and trends over time were variable among the four providers. Forty-four percent of all charts were closed outside normal business hours (30% on weekdays, 14% on weekends). EHR implementation was associated with a negative impact on productivity and efficiency in our pediatric ophthalmology division. Copyright © 2014 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Di-pion and di-electron production in quasi-free np reactions with HADES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuc, Hubert

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis, the exclusive di-pion and di-electron production channels in quasi-free n + p interactions at about E k = 1.25 GeV/u were presented. First the exclusive dπ + π - channel and new deuteron selection method named coplanarity have been discussed. Next, applying this new procedure to the existing inclusive e + e - results, the exclusive de + e - channel has been investigated. In general, analysis of the channels with deuteron in final state with HADES spectrometer are technical challenge due to d angular distributions. Presented results are divided to the two scenarios: in the rst case, the deuteron is detected in HADES and in the second case, it is detected in the FW detector. The two cases correspond to two very different kinematical situations, corresponding respectively to deuteron angles larger than 15 and smaller than 7 deg. In case of the deuteron detected inside HADES tracking system, the reaction phase-space is very limited however the data quality is very good. On the other hand, in case of detecting deuteron in Forward Wall detector the count rates are much bigger but the event selection requires much bigger effort and acquired data have much worse quality. The main goal of the quasi-free np → dπ + π - exclusive channel studies was to complement the studies of the π + π - production processes (i.e. double Δ(1232), N(1440), N(1520) excitations) which are performed with np → npπ + π - and pp → ppπ + π - analysis within HADES collaboration. Furthermore, recent WASA collaboration results indicated a big enhancement in ππ yield due to new di-baryon resonance. The HADES results in details described in sec. 4, indeed shows that conventional sources fail to reproduce both the ππ yield and the shape of the spectra within HADES acceptance. Our results are consistent with the WASA observations. On the other hand, presented results are not sensitive enough to give a satisfying proof for the di-baryon resonance existence. However, the

  3. X-ray induced production and yield kinetics of photo- and Auger Electrons in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peregudov, V.I.; Pashaev, Eh.M.

    1991-01-01

    The paper is dedicated to theoretical and experimental analysis of the mechanism of indirect excitation of soft Auger-electrons due to atom electron ionization using Ge crystal exposed to MoK α radiation as an example. Process of generation of these Auger-electrons is considered in detail, solution of kinetic equation for electrons, as well as, experimental data proving crucial role of indirect processes in generation of soft Auger-electrons are given

  4. Deletion of Proton Gradient Regulation 5 (PGR5) and PGR5-Like 1 (PGRL1) proteins promote sustainable light-driven hydrogen production in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii due to increased PSII activity under sulfur deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbeck, Janina; Nikolova, Denitsa; Weingarten, Robert; Johnson, Xenie; Richaud, Pierre; Peltier, Gilles; Hermann, Marita; Magneschi, Leonardo; Hippler, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Continuous hydrogen photo-production under sulfur deprivation was studied in the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii pgr5 pgrl1 double mutant and respective single mutants. Under medium light conditions, the pgr5 exhibited the highest performance and produced about eight times more hydrogen than the wild type, making pgr5 one of the most efficient hydrogen producer reported so far. The pgr5 pgrl1 double mutant showed an increased hydrogen burst at the beginning of sulfur deprivation under high light conditions, but in this case the overall amount of hydrogen produced by pgr5 pgrl1 as well as pgr5 was diminished due to photo-inhibition and increased degradation of PSI. In contrast, the pgrl1 was effective in hydrogen production in both high and low light. Blocking photosynthetic electron transfer by DCMU stopped hydrogen production almost completely in the mutant strains, indicating that the main pathway of electrons toward enhanced hydrogen production is via linear electron transport. Indeed, PSII remained more active and stable in the pgr mutant strains as compared to the wild type. Since transition to anaerobiosis was faster and could be maintained due to an increased oxygen consumption capacity, this likely preserves PSII from photo-oxidative damage in the pgr mutants. Hence, we conclude that increased hydrogen production under sulfur deprivation in the pgr5 and pgrl1 mutants is caused by an increased stability of PSII permitting sustainable light-driven hydrogen production in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

  5. High Gradient Accelerator Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temkin, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the MIT program of research on high gradient acceleration is the development of advanced acceleration concepts that lead to a practical and affordable next generation linear collider at the TeV energy level. Other applications, which are more near-term, include accelerators for materials processing; medicine; defense; mining; security; and inspection. The specific goals of the MIT program are: • Pioneering theoretical research on advanced structures for high gradient acceleration, including photonic structures and metamaterial structures; evaluation of the wakefields in these advanced structures • Experimental research to demonstrate the properties of advanced structures both in low-power microwave cold test and high-power, high-gradient test at megawatt power levels • Experimental research on microwave breakdown at high gradient including studies of breakdown phenomena induced by RF electric fields and RF magnetic fields; development of new diagnostics of the breakdown process • Theoretical research on the physics and engineering features of RF vacuum breakdown • Maintaining and improving the Haimson / MIT 17 GHz accelerator, the highest frequency operational accelerator in the world, a unique facility for accelerator research • Providing the Haimson / MIT 17 GHz accelerator facility as a facility for outside users • Active participation in the US DOE program of High Gradient Collaboration, including joint work with SLAC and with Los Alamos National Laboratory; participation of MIT students in research at the national laboratories • Training the next generation of Ph. D. students in the field of accelerator physics.

  6. Neutron production in the interaction of electrons with a dispersing lamella; Produccion de neutrones en la interaccion de electrones con una laminilla dispersora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto B, T. G.; Baltazar R, A.; Medina C, D.; Vega C, H. R., E-mail: tzinnia.soto@gmail.com [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98060 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico)

    2017-10-15

    When a Linac for radiotherapy operates with acceleration voltages greater than 8 MV, neutrons are produced as secondary radiation. They deposit an undesirable and not negligible dose in the patient. Depending on the type of tumor, its location in the body and the characteristics of the patient, cancer treatment with a Linac is done with photon or electron beams, which produce neutrons through reactions (γ, n) and e, e n) respectively. Because the effective section of the reaction (n, γ) is 137 times greater than the reaction (e, e n), most studies have focused on photo neutrons. When a Linac operates with electron beams, the beam that leaves the magnetic baffle is incised in the dispersion foil in order to cause quasi-elastic interactions and expand the spatial distribution of the electrons; in their interaction with the lamella the electrons produce photons and these in turn produce neutrons. Due to the radiobiological efficiency of neutrons and the ways in which they interact with matter, is important to determine the neutrons production in Linacs operating in electron mode. The objective of this work is to determine the characteristics of photons and neutrons that occur when a beam of mono-energetic electrons of 2 mm in diameter (pencil beam) is made to impinge on a tungsten lamella of 1 cm in diameter and 0.5 mm thick located in the center of a 10 cm thick tungsten shell, used to represent the accelerator head. The study was carried out using the Monte Carlo method with the MCNP6 code for electron beams of 12 and 18 MeV. The spectra of photons and neutrons were estimated in 6 point detectors, four were placed in different points equidistant from the center of the lamella and the other two were located at 50 cm and 1 m from the electron beam, simulating the totally closed head. In this work it was found that when a Linac operates with an electron beam of 12 or 18 MeV there is neutron production mainly in the head and in the direction of the beam. (Author)

  7. Association of Electronic Cigarette Use With Initiation of Combustible Tobacco Product Smoking in Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventhal, Adam M; Strong, David R; Kirkpatrick, Matthew G; Unger, Jennifer B; Sussman, Steve; Riggs, Nathaniel R; Stone, Matthew D; Khoddam, Rubin; Samet, Jonathan M; Audrain-McGovern, Janet

    2015-08-18

    Exposure to nicotine in electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) is becoming increasingly common among adolescents who report never having smoked combustible tobacco. To evaluate whether e-cigarette use among 14-year-old adolescents who have never tried combustible tobacco is associated with risk of initiating use of 3 combustible tobacco products (ie, cigarettes, cigars, and hookah). Longitudinal repeated assessment of a school-based cohort at baseline (fall 2013, 9th grade, mean age = 14.1 years) and at a 6-month follow-up (spring 2014, 9th grade) and a 12-month follow-up (fall 2014, 10th grade). Ten public high schools in Los Angeles, California, were recruited through convenience sampling. Participants were students who reported never using combustible tobacco at baseline and completed follow-up assessments at 6 or 12 months (N = 2530). At each time point, students completed self-report surveys during in-classroom data collections. Student self-report of whether he or she ever used e-cigarettes (yes or no) at baseline. Six- and 12-month follow-up reports on use of any of the following tobacco products within the prior 6 months: (1) any combustible tobacco product (yes or no); (2) combustible cigarettes (yes or no), (3) cigars (yes or no); (4) hookah (yes or no); and (5) number of combustible tobacco products (range: 0-3). Past 6-month use of any combustible tobacco product was more frequent in baseline e-cigarette ever users (n = 222) than never users (n = 2308) at the 6-month follow-up (30.7% vs 8.1%, respectively; difference between groups in prevalence rates, 22.7% [95% CI, 16.4%-28.9%]) and at the 12-month follow-up (25.2% vs 9.3%, respectively; difference between groups, 15.9% [95% CI, 10.0%-21.8%]). Baseline e-cigarette use was associated with greater likelihood of use of any combustible tobacco product averaged across the 2 follow-up periods in the unadjusted analyses (odds ratio [OR], 4.27 [95% CI, 3.19-5.71]) and in the analyses adjusted

  8. Experimental studies on the production and suppression mechanism of the hot electrons produced by short wavelength laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Lanying; Jiang Xiaohua; Zhao Xuewei; Li Sanwei; Zhang Wenhai; Li Chaoguang; Zheng Zhijian; Ding Yongkun

    1999-12-01

    The experiments on gold-disk and hohlraum and plastic hydrocarbon (CH) film targets irradiated by laser beams with wavelength 0.35 μm (Xingguang-II) and 0.53 μm (Shenguang-I) are performed. The characteristics of hot electrons are commonly deduced from spectrum of hard X-ray. Associated with the measurement of backward SRS and 3/2ω 0 , the production mechanism of hot electrons for different target type is analyzed in laser plasma with shorter wavelength. A effective way to suppress hot electrons has been found

  9. Wing coloration and pigment gradients in scales of pierid butterflies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giraldo, Marco A.; Stavenga, Doekele G.

    Depending on the species, the individual scales of butterfly wings have a longitudinal gradient in structure and reflectance properties, as shown by scanning electron microscopy and microspectrophotometry. White scales of the male Small White, Pieris rapae crucivora, show a strong gradient in both

  10. A Novel Method for the Discrimination of Semen Arecae and Its Processed Products by Using Computer Vision, Electronic Nose, and Electronic Tongue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Areca nut, commonly known locally as Semen Arecae (SA in China, has been used as an important Chinese herbal medicine for thousands of years. The raw SA (RAW is commonly processed by stir-baking to yellow (SBY, stir-baking to dark brown (SBD, and stir-baking to carbon dark (SBC for different clinical uses. In our present investigation, intelligent sensory technologies consisting of computer vision (CV, electronic nose (E-nose, and electronic tongue (E-tongue were employed in order to develop a novel and accurate method for discrimination of SA and its processed products. Firstly, the color parameters and electronic sensory responses of E-nose and E-tongue of the samples were determined, respectively. Then, indicative components including 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (5-HMF and arecoline (ARE were determined by HPLC. Finally, principal component analysis (PCA and discriminant factor analysis (DFA were performed. The results demonstrated that these three instruments can effectively discriminate SA and its processed products. 5-HMF and ARE can reflect the stir-baking degree of SA. Interestingly, the two components showed close correlations to the color parameters and sensory responses of E-nose and E-tongue. In conclusion, this novel method based on CV, E-nose, and E-tongue can be successfully used to discriminate SA and its processed products.

  11. Neutrons production during the interaction of monoenergetic electrons with a thin tungsten target; Produccion de neutrones durante la interaccion de electrones monoenergeticos con un blanco delgado de tungsteno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto B, T. G.; Medina C, D. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Programa de Doctorado en Ciencias Basicas, 98068 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico); Baltazar R, A. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Ingenieria Electrica, Programa de Doctorado en Ingenieria y Tecnologia Aplicada, 98068 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico); Vega C, H. R., E-mail: tzinnia.soto@gmail.com [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico)

    2016-10-15

    When a linear accelerator for radiotherapy operates with acceleration voltages higher than 8 MV, neutrons are produced, as secondary radiation which deposits an undesirable and undesirable dose in the patient. Depending on the type of tumor, its location in the body and the characteristics of the patient, the cancer treatment with a Linac is performed with photon or electron beams, which produce neutrons through reactions (γ, n) and (e, e n) respectively. Because the effective section for the neutrons production by reactions (γ, n) is approximately two orders of magnitude larger than the effective section of the reactions (e, e n), studies on the effects of this secondary radiation have focused on photo neutrons. en a Linac operates with electron beams, the beam coming out of the magnetic deflector is impinged on the dispersion lamella in order to cause quasi-elastic interactions and to expand the spatial distribution of the electrons; the objective of this work is to determine the characteristics of the photons and neutrons that occur when a mono-energetic electron beam of 2 mm in diameter (pencil beam) is made to impinge on a tungsten lamella of 1 cm in diameter and 0.5 mm of thickness. The study was done using Monte Carlo methods with code MCNP6 for electron beams of 8, 10, 12, 15 and 18 MeV. The spectra of photons and neutrons were estimated in 4 point detectors placed at different equidistant points from the center of the lamella. (Author)

  12. Limits on the production of large transverse momentum direct photons deduced from the measurement of low-mass electron pairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobb, J.H.; Iwata, S.; Palmer, R.B.; Rahm, D.C.; Rehak, P.; Stumer, I.; Fabjan, C.W.; Fowler, E.; Mannelli, I.; Mouzourakis, P.; Nakamura, K.; Nappi, A.; Willis, W.J.; Goldberg, M.; Horwitz, N.; Moneti, G.C.; Lankford, A.J.; Kourkoumelis, C.

    1978-01-01

    The hadronic production of electron pairs with masses between 200 and 500 MeV and large transverse momentum has been measured at the CERN Intersecting Storage Rings (ISR). The expected relation between low-mass electron pairs and real photons is used to determine the direct hadronic production of photons. Contrary to indications from some previous experiments, the observed spectrum is consistent with expectations from the decay of known mesons, and leads to a value for the ratio of direct photons to π 0 of γ/π 0 =(0.55+-0.92)% for 2 = 55 GeV. (Auth.)

  13. Uniform gradient expansions

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Cosmological singularities are often discussed by means of a gradient expansion that can also describe, during a quasi-de Sitter phase, the progressive suppression of curvature inhomogeneities. While the inflationary event horizon is being formed the two mentioned regimes coexist and a uniform expansion can be conceived and applied to the evolution of spatial gradients across the protoinflationary boundary. It is argued that conventional arguments addressing the preinflationary initial conditions are necessary but generally not sufficient to guarantee a homogeneous onset of the conventional inflationary stage.

  14. High gradient superconducting quadrupoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundy, R.A.; Brown, B.C.; Carson, J.A.; Fisk, H.E.; Hanft, R.H.; Mantsch, P.M.; McInturff, A.D.; Remsbottom, R.H.

    1987-07-01

    Prototype superconducting quadrupoles with a 5 cm aperture and gradient of 16 kG/cm have been built and tested as candidate magnets for the final focus at SLC. The magnets are made from NbTi Tevatron style cable with 10 inner and 14 outer turns per quadrant. Quench performance and multipole data are presented. Design and data for a low current, high gradient quadrupole, similar in cross section but wound with a cable consisting of five insulated conductors are also discussed

  15. Nicotine and Carbonyl Emissions From Popular Electronic Cigarette Products: Correlation to Liquid Composition and Design Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hellani, Ahmad; Salman, Rola; El-Hage, Rachel; Talih, Soha; Malek, Nathalie; Baalbaki, Rima; Karaoghlanian, Nareg; Nakkash, Rima; Shihadeh, Alan; Saliba, Najat A

    2018-01-05

    Available in hundreds of device designs and thousands of flavors, electronic cigarette (ECIG) may have differing toxicant emission characteristics. This study assesses nicotine and carbonyl yields in the most popular brands in the U.S. market. These products included disposable, prefilled cartridge, and tank-based ECIGs. Twenty-seven ECIG products of 10 brands were procured and their power outputs were measured. The e-liquids were characterized for pH, nicotine concentration, propylene glycol/vegetable glycerin (PG/VG) ratio, and water content. Aerosols were generated using a puffing machine and nicotine and carbonyls were, respectively, quantified using gas chromatograph and high-performance liquid chromatography. A multiregression model was used to interpret the data. Nicotine yields varied from 0.27 to 2.91 mg/15 puffs, a range corresponding to the nicotine yield of less than 1 to more than 3 combustible cigarettes. Nicotine yield was highly correlated with ECIG type and brand, liquid nicotine concentration, and PG/VG ratio, and to a lower significance with electrical power, but not with pH and water content. Carbonyls, including the carcinogen formaldehyde, were detected in all ECIG aerosols, with total carbonyl concentrations ranging from 3.72 to 48.85 µg/15 puffs. Unlike nicotine, carbonyl concentrations were mainly correlated with power. In 15 puffs, some ECIG devices emit nicotine quantities that exceed those of tobacco cigarettes. Nicotine emissions vary widely across products but carbonyl emissions showed little variations. In spite of that ECIG users are exposed to toxicologically significant levels of carbonyl compounds, especially formaldehyde. Regression analysis showed the importance of design and e-liquid characteristics as determinants of nicotine and carbonyl emissions. Periodic surveying of characteristics of ECIG products available in the marketplace is valuable for understanding population-wide changes in ECIG use patterns over time. © The

  16. Magnetic field of longitudinal gradient bend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiba, Masamitsu; Böge, Michael; Ehrlichman, Michael; Streun, Andreas

    2018-06-01

    The longitudinal gradient bend is an effective method for reducing the natural emittance in light sources. It is, however, not a common element. We have analyzed its magnetic field and derived a set of formulae. Based on the derivation, we discuss how to model the longitudinal gradient bend in accelerator codes that are used for designing electron storage rings. Strengths of multipole components can also be evaluated from the formulae, and we investigate the impact of higher order multipole components in a very low emittance lattice.

  17. Relativistic klystron research for high gradient accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, M.A.; Callin, R.S.; Deruyter, H.

    1988-06-01

    Relativistic klystrons are being developed as a power source for high gradient accelerator applications which include large linear electron--positron colliders, compact accelerators, and FEL sources. We have attained 200MW peak power at 11.4 GHz from a relativistic klystron, and 140 MV/m longitudinal gradient in a short 11.4 GHz accelerator section. We report here on the design of our first klystrons, the results of our experiments so far, and some of our plans for the near future. 5 refs., 7 figs

  18. Hydrogenation of organic matter as a terminal electron sink sustains high CO 2 :CH 4 production ratios during anaerobic decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Rachel M.; Tfaily, Malak M.; Rich, Virginia I.; Keller, Jason K.; Bridgham, Scott D.; Zalman, Cassandra Medvedeff; Meredith, Laura; Hanson, Paul J.; Hines, Mark; Pfeifer-Meister, Laurel; Saleska, Scott R.; Crill, Patrick; Cooper, William T.; Chanton, Jeff P.; Kostka, Joel E.

    2017-10-01

    Once inorganic electron acceptors are depleted, organic matter in anoxic environments decomposes by hydrolysis, fermentation, and methanogenesis, requiring syntrophic interactions between microorganisms to achieve energetic favorability. In this classic anaerobic food chain, methanogenesis represents the terminal electron accepting (TEA) process, ultimately producing equimolar CO2 and CH4 for each molecule of organic matter degraded. However, CO2:CH4 production in Sphagnum-derived, mineral-poor, cellulosic peat often substantially exceeds this 1:1 ratio, even in the absence of measureable inorganic TEAs. Since the oxidation state of C in both cellulose-derived organic matter and acetate is 0, and CO2 has an oxidation state of +4, if CH4 (oxidation state -4) is not produced in equal ratio, then some other compound(s) must balance CO2 production by receiving 4 electrons. Here we present evidence for ubiquitous hydrogenation of diverse unsaturated compounds that appear to serve as organic TEAs in peat, thereby providing the necessary electron balance to sustain CO2:CH4 >1. While organic electron acceptors have previously been proposed to drive microbial respiration of organic matter through the reversible reduction of quinone moieties, the hydrogenation mechanism that we propose, by contrast, reduces C-C double bonds in organic matter thereby serving as 1) a terminal electron sink, 2) a mechanism for degrading complex unsaturated organic molecules, 3) a potential mechanism to regenerate electron-accepting quinones, and, in some cases, 4) a means to alleviate the toxicity of unsaturated aromatic acids. This mechanism for CO2 generation without concomitant CH4 production has the potential to regulate the global warming potential of peatlands by elevating CO2:CH4 production ratios.

  19. Effects of crown architecture and stand structure on light absorption in mixed and monospecific Fagus sylvatica and Pinus sylvestris forests along a productivity and climate gradient through Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forrester, David Ian; Ammer, Christian; Annighöfer, Peter J.; Barbeito, Ignacio; Bielak, Kamil; Bravo-Oviedo, Andrés; Coll, Lluis; Río, del Miren; Drössler, Lars; Heym, Michael; Hurt, Václav; Löf, Magnus; Ouden, den Jan

    2018-01-01

    When tree-species mixtures are more productive than monocultures, higher light absorption is often suggested as a cause. However, few studies have quantified this effect and even fewer have examined which light-related interactions are most important, such as the effects of species interactions on

  20. Differential responses of production and respiration to temperature and moisture drive the carbon balance across a climatic gradient in New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristina J. Anderson-Teixeira; John P. Delong; Andrew M. Fox; Daniel A. Brese; Marcy E. Litvak

    2011-01-01

    Southwestern North America faces an imminent transition to a warmer, more arid climate, and it is critical to understand how these changes will affect the carbon balance of southwest ecosystems. In order to test our hypothesis that differential responses of production and respiration to temperature and moisture shape the carbon balance across a range of spatio-temporal...

  1. Vacuum Potentials for the Two Only Permanent Free Particles, Proton and Electron. Pair Productions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng-Johansson, J X

    2012-01-01

    The two only species of isolatable, smallest, or unit charges +e and −e present in nature interact with the universal vacuum in a polarisable dielectric representation through two uniquely defined vacuum potential functions. All of the non-composite subatomic particles containing one-unit charges, +e or −e, are therefore formed in terms of the IED model of the respective charges, of zero rest masses, oscillating in either of the two unique vacuum potential fields, together with the radiation waves of their own charges. In this paper we give a first principles treatment of the dynamics of charge in a dielectric vacuum, based on which, combined with solutions for the radiation waves obtained previously, we subsequently derive the vacuum potential function for a given charge q, which we show to be quadratic and consist each of quantised potential levels, giving therefore rise to quantised characteristic oscillation frequencies of the charge and accordingly quantised, sharply-defined masses of the IED particles. By further combining with relevant experimental properties as input information, we determine the IED particles built from the charges +e, −e at their first excited states in the respective vacuum potential wells to be the proton and the electron, the observationally two only stable (permanently lived) and 'free' particles containing one-unit charges. Their antiparticles as produced in pair productions can be accordingly determined. The characteristics of all of the other more energetic single-charged non-composite subatomic particles can also be recognised. We finally discuss the energy condition for pair production, which requires two successive energy supplies to (1) first disintegrate the bound pair of vaculeon charges +e, −e composing a vacuuon of the vacuum and (2) impart masses to the disintegrated charges.

  2. Disinfestation of agricultural products with electron beams and their radiation tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Toru

    1996-01-01

    Some agricultural products contaminated with insect pests are fumigated with methyl bromide for quarantine purposes. However, the use of methyl bromide is preferably restricted because of its ozone depleting effect. Therefore, establishing alternative quarantine techniques is highly desirable; one such technique is exposure to ionizing radiation. Few data are available on the effects of radiation on insect pests other than fruit flies and stored-product insects and on the radiation tolerance of host commodities. Radiation technology as an alternative to methyl bromide fumigation will be used to inactivate not only insects but also mites, spider mites, thrips, nematodes, scales, mealybugs and thrips contaminating fruits, grains, cut flowers, vegetables, timbers, seedlings and seeds. In order to collect data on the effects of irradiation on pests and host commodities, IAEA and FAO have conducted an international project, 'FAO/IAEA Coordinated Research Programme on Irradiation as a Quarantine Treatment of Mites, Nematodes and Insects other than Fruit Fly' since 1992. The project determines the minimum doses necessary to inactivate pests and the maximum doses host commodities tolerate. All pests except nematodes can be inactivated at doses 400Gy or lower. Various varieties of cut flowers and herbs are tolerant to 400Gy of radiation, although some flowers and herbs such as chrysanthemum, rose, lily, calla, anthurium, sweet pea, iris, dill, basil and arugula are intolerant to 200Gy of radiation. Japanese research project on treatment of cut flowers with electron beams carried out mainly by Yokohama Plant Protection Station greatly contributes to these conclusions. Aqueous solution (2%) of sucrose, glucose, fructose or maltose prevents radiation-induced detrimental effects of radiation on chrysanthemums. Sugars reduce radiation-induced physiological deterioration of chrysanthemums. (author)

  3. Effects of Electronic Information Resources Skills Training for Lecturers on Pedagogical Practices and Research Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhukuvhani, Crispen; Chiparausha, Blessing; Zuvalinyenga, Dorcas

    2012-01-01

    Lecturers use various electronic resources at different frequencies. The university library's information literacy skills workshops and seminars are the main sources of knowledge of accessing electronic resources. The use of electronic resources can be said to have positively affected lecturers' pedagogical practices and their work in general. The…

  4. Alternate charging and discharging of capacitor to enhance the electron production of bioelectrochemical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Peng; Wu, Wenlong; Wei, Jincheng; Yuan, Lulu; Xia, Xue; Huang, Xia

    2011-08-01

    A bioelectrochemical system (BES) can be operated in both "microbial fuel cell" (MFC) and "microbial electrolysis cell" (MEC) modes, in which power is delivered and invested respectively. To enhance the electric current production, a BES was operated in MFC mode first and a capacitor was used to collect power from the system. Then the charged capacitor discharged electrons to the system itself, switching into MEC mode. This alternate charging and discharging (ACD) mode helped the system produce 22-32% higher average current compared to an intermittent charging (IC) mode, in which the capacitor was first charged from an MFC and then discharged to a resistor, at 21.6 Ω external resistance, 3.3 F capacitance and 300 mV charging voltage. The effects of external resistance, capacitance and charging voltage on average current were studied. The average current reduced as the external resistance and charging voltage increased and was slightly affected by the capacitance. Acquisition of higher average current in the ACD mode was attributed to the shorter discharging time compared to the charging time, as well as a higher anode potential caused by discharging the capacitor. Results from circuit analysis and quantitatively calculation were consistent with the experimental observations.

  5. Assessment of a Standardized ROS Production Profile in Humans by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Mrakic-Sposta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the growing interest in the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS in health and disease, reliable quantitative noninvasive methods for the assessment of oxidative stress in humans are still lacking. EPR technique, coupled to a specific spin probe (CMH: 1-hydroxy-3-methoxycarbonyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethylpyrrolidine is here presented as the method of choice to gain a direct measurement of ROS in biological fluids and tissues. The study aimed at demonstrating that, differently from currently available “a posteriori” assays of ROS-induced damage by means of biomolecules (e.g., proteins and lipids spin-trapping EPR provides direct evidence of the “instantaneous” presence of radical species in the sample and, as signal areas are proportional to the number of excited electron spins, lead to absolute concentration levels. Using a recently developed bench top continuous wave system (e-scan EPR scanner, Bruker dealing with very low ROS concentration levels in small (50 μL samples, we successfully monitored rapid ROS production changes in peripheral blood of athletes after controlled exercise and sedentary subjects after antioxidant supplementation. The correlation between EPR results and data obtained by various enzymatic assays (e.g., protein carbonyls and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances was determined too. Synthetically, our method allows reliable, quick, noninvasive quantitative determination of ROS in human peripheral blood.

  6. Crystallography of waxes - an electron diffraction study of refined and natural products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorset, Douglas L.

    1997-02-01

    The crystal structure of four waxes has been investigated by electron crystallography. Two of these waxes, including a refined petroleum product (Gulfwax) and a material from lignite (montan wax), form well ordered crystals and their structure could be solved quantitatively from the observed 0022-3727/30/3/018/img1 diffraction patterns. As also found previously for simpler binary n-paraffin solid solutions, the average structure resembles that of a pure paraffin (e.g. n-0022-3727/30/3/018/img2) but with a Gaussian distribution of atomic occupancies near the chain ends to account for the statistical distribution of chain lengths within a lamella. Two other waxes from living organisms, South African bee honeycomb and the leaves of the Brazilian carnauba palm, are much less ordered, even though they share the same methylene subcell packing of the most crystalline parts of the previous materials. It appears that these waxes cannot fully separate into distinct lamellae, perhaps due to the presence of very long `tie' molecules, and are therefore `frustrated' crystal structures.

  7. Consumers’ Preferences for Electronic Nicotine Delivery System Product Features: A Structured Content Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine E. Kistler

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available To inform potential governmental regulations, we aimed to develop a list of electronic nicotine delivery system (ENDS product features important to U.S. consumers by age and gender. We employed qualitative data methods. Participants were eligible if they had used an ENDS at least once. Groups were selected by age and gender (young adult group aged 18–25, n = 11; middle-age group aged 26–64, n = 9; and women’s group aged 26–64, n = 9. We conducted five individual older adult interviews (aged 68–80. Participants discussed important ENDS features. We conducted a structured content analysis of the group and interview responses. Of 34 participants, 68% were white and 56% were female. Participants mentioned 12 important ENDS features, including: (1 user experience; (2 social acceptability; (3 cost; (4 health risks/benefits; (5 ease of use; (6 flavors; (7 smoking cessation aid; (8 nicotine content; (9 modifiability; (10 ENDS regulation; (11 bridge between tobacco cigarettes; (12 collectability. The most frequently mentioned ENDS feature was modifiability for young adults, user experience for middle-age and older adults, and flavor for the women’s group. This study identified multiple features important to ENDS consumers. Groups differed in how they viewed various features by age and gender. These results can inform ongoing regulatory efforts.

  8. Biomass production from electricity using ammonia as an electron carrier in a reverse microbial fuel cell.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendell O Khunjar

    Full Text Available The storage of renewable electrical energy within chemical bonds of biofuels and other chemicals is a route to decreasing petroleum usage. A critical challenge is the efficient transfer of electrons into a biological host that can covert this energy into high energy organic compounds. In this paper, we describe an approach whereby biomass is grown using energy obtained from a soluble mediator that is regenerated electrochemically. The net result is a separate-stage reverse microbial fuel cell (rMFC that fixes CO₂ into biomass using electrical energy. We selected ammonia as a low cost, abundant, safe, and soluble redox mediator that facilitated energy transfer to biomass. Nitrosomonas europaea, a chemolithoautotroph, was used as the biocatalyst due to its inherent capability to utilize ammonia as its sole energy source for growth. An electrochemical reactor was designed for the regeneration of ammonia from nitrite, and current efficiencies of 100% were achieved. Calculations indicated that overall bioproduction efficiency could approach 2.7±0.2% under optimal electrolysis conditions. The application of chemolithoautotrophy for industrial bioproduction has been largely unexplored, and results suggest that this and related rMFC platforms may enable biofuel and related biochemical production.

  9. Precision measurements of W and Z boson production and their decays to electrons at hadron colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Ehlers, Jans H Hermann; Pauss, Felicitas

    For many measurements at hadron colliders, such as cross sections and branching ratios, the uncertainty of the integratedluminosity is an important contributionto the error of the final result. In 1997, the ETH Zürich group proposeda new approach to determinethe integrated luminosity via a counting measurement of the W and Z bosons throughtheir decays to leptons. In this thesis this proposal has been applied on real data as well as on Simulation for a future experiment. The first part of this thesis describes a dedicated data analysis to precisely mea¬ sure the luminosity at the CDF experimentat the Tevatroncollider (USA) through the production of Z bosons and their decay to electrons. An integrated pp lumi¬ nosity of .Lcounting = 221.7 ± 2.8 (stat.) ± 11.2 (sys.) pb"1 has been measured for the data taking period from March 2002 to February 2004. This is in very good agreement with the traditional measurement at CDF of Lci.c ~ 222.2 ± 12.9 pb-1, using Cherenkov LuminosityCountersat large angles. Bothmea...

  10. Electron-pair production in Pb - Au collisions at 40 AGeV

    CERN Document Server

    Damjanovic, Sanja

    2002-01-01

    This thesis contains the first experimental results on electron-pair production from the CERES/NA45 experiment at the CERN SPS after the upgrade with a Time Projection Chamber (TPC). The data were taken in late 1999 with a Pb-beam on a Au-target at a beam energy of 40 AGeV. Out of about 8 Million events with a 30$$ centrality selection, 249$pm$28 $e^{+}e^{-}$ pairs for masses $le$0.2 GeV/c$^{2}$ with a S/B ratio of 1/1, and 185$pm$48 $e^{+}e^{-}$ pairs for masses $>$0.2 GeV/c$^{2}$ with a S/B ratio of 1/6 were reconstructed. The low-mass sample agrees with the expectation from hadronic decays. The high-mass sample shows an excess of a factor of 5.1$pm$1.3(stat)$pm$1.0(syst) above that expectation, considerably more than the values around 2.5-3.5 observed before at the higher beam energy of 160 AGeV. The excess yield is dominantly associated with pair transverse momenta $<$0.5 GeV/c, consistent with the findings at 160 AGeV. The theoretical relevance of the results is discussed in some detail. The dilepton ...

  11. The erosion and erosion products of tungsten and carbon based materials bombarded by high energy pulse electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiang; Zhang Fu; Xu Zengyu; Liu Yong; Yoshida, N.; Noda, N.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the erosion behaviors and erosion products of tungsten and some carbon based materials, such as graphite, C/C composite and B 4 C/Cu functionally graded material, were investigated by using a pulse electron beam to simulate the vertical displacement events (VDE) process. The authors will focus on the forms and differences of erosion products among these testing materials, and make clear to their erosion mechanisms

  12. Manipulating the Gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaze, Eric C.

    2005-01-01

    We introduce a cooperative learning, group lab for a Calculus III course to facilitate comprehension of the gradient vector and directional derivative concepts. The lab is a hands-on experience allowing students to manipulate a tangent plane and empirically measure the effect of partial derivatives on the direction of optimal ascent. (Contains 7…

  13. Destabilization of drift waves due to nonuniform density gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, A.; Ishihara, O.

    1985-01-01

    It is shown that the conventional mode differential equation for low frequency electrostatic waves in a tokamak does not contain full ion dynamics. Both electrons and ions contribute to the ballooning term, which is subject to finite ion Larmor radius effects. Also, both fluid ion approximation and kinetic ion model yield the same correction. Reexamined are the density gradient universal mode and ion temperature gradient instability employing the lowest order Pearlstein-Berk type radial eigenfunctions. No unstable, bounded, energy outgoing eigenfunctions have been found. In particular, a large ion temperature gradient (eta/sub i/) tends to further stabilize the temperature gradient driven mode

  14. On a method for high-energy electron beam production in proton synchrotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bessonov, E.G.; Vazdik, Ya.A.

    1979-01-01

    It is suggested to produce high-energy electron beams in such a way that the ultrarelativistic protons give an amount of their kinetic energy to the electrons of a thin target, placed inside the working volume of the proton synchrotron. The kinematics of the elastic scattering of relativistic protons on electrons at rest is treated. Evaluation of a number of elastically-scattered electrons by 1000 GeV and 3000 GeV proton beams is presented. The method under consideration is of certain practical interest and may appear to be preferable in a definite energy range of protons and electrons

  15. Production of a large diameter ECR plasma with low electron temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koga, Mayuko; Hishikawa, Yasuhiro; Tsuchiya, Hayato; Kawai, Yoshinobu

    2006-01-01

    A large diameter plasma over 300 mm in diameter is produced by electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) discharges using a cylindrical vacuum chamber of 400 mm in inner diameter. It is found that the plasma uniformity is improved by adding the nitrogen gas to pure Ar plasma. The electron temperature is decreased by adding the nitrogen gas. It is considered that the electron energy is absorbed in the vibrational energy of nitrogen molecules and the electron temperature decreases. Therefore, the adjunction of the nitrogen gas is considered to be effective for producing uniform and low electron temperature plasma

  16. Production of hot electrons in mirror systems associated with ECR heating with longitudinal input of microwaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhil'tsov, V.A.; Skovoroda, A.A.; Timofeev, A.V.; Kharitonov, K.Yu.; Shcherbakov, A.G.

    1991-01-01

    Almost all experiments on ECR plasma heating are accompanied by the formation of hot electrons (i.e., electrons with energy substantially greater than the average of the bulk population). In mirror systems these electrons may determine the basic energy content (β) of the plasma. In this paper, results are presented from experimental measurements of the hot electron population resulting from ECR heating of the plasma in OGRA-4. A theoretical model is developed which describes the hot electron dynamics and the propagation of electromagnetic oscillations in the plasma self-consistently. The results obtained with this model are in agreement with experimental data

  17. Production of high-quality electron bunches by dephasing and beam loading in channeled and unchanneled laser plasma accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geddes, C.G.R.; Toth, Cs.; Tilborg, J. van; Esarey, E.; Schroeder, C.B.; Bruhwiler, D.; Nieter, C.; Cary, J.; Leemans, W.P.

    2005-01-01

    High-quality electron beams, with a few 10 9 electrons within a few percent of the same energy above 80 MeV, were produced in a laser wakefield accelerator by matching the acceleration length to the length over which electrons were accelerated and outran (dephased from) the wake. A plasma channel guided the drive laser over long distances, resulting in production of the high-energy, high-quality beams. Unchanneled experiments varying the length of the target plasma indicated that the high-quality bunches are produced near the dephasing length and demonstrated that channel guiding was more stable and efficient than relativistic self-guiding. Consistent with these data, particle-in-cell simulations indicate production of high-quality electron beams when trapping of an initial bunch of electrons suppresses further injection by loading the wake. The injected electron bunch is then compressed in energy by dephasing, when the front of the bunch begins to decelerate while the tail is still accelerated

  18. Measurement of single electron production up to 45 GeV/c transverse momentum at the CERN ISR

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez, P; Clark, A G; Darriulat, Pierre; Eggert, K; Hungerbühler, V; Jenni, Peter; Modis, T; Smadja, G; Strauss, J S; Strolin, P; Tarnopolsky, G J; Teiger, J; Tur, C; Vialle, J P; Zaccone, Henri; Zallo, A; Zylberstejn, A

    1982-01-01

    The production of single electrons of transverse momentum between 1.8 and 4.5 GeV/c is measured in pp collisions at \\sqrt{s}=53 and 63 GeV. Contributions from rho , omega , phi , psi , Upsilon , DD and Drell-Yan pairs are deduced from measurements in the same apparatus.

  19. 77 FR 29360 - Used Electronic Products: An Examination of U.S. Exports Submission of Questionnaire for OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [INVESTIGATION NO. 332-528] Used Electronic Products: An... Trade Commission. ACTION: In accordance with the provisions of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (44 U.S.C. Chapter 35), the U.S. International Trade Commission (Commission) has submitted a request for...

  20. 41 CFR 101-26.605 - Items other than petroleum products and electronic items available from the Defense Logistics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... petroleum products and electronic items available from the Defense Logistics Agency. 101-26.605 Section 101... available from the Defense Logistics Agency. Agencies required to use GSA supply sources should also use... Logistics Agency, the catalog will contain only those items in Federal supply classification classes which...

  1. Nanofabrication Technology for Production of Quantum Nano-Electronic Devices Integrating Niobium Electrodes and Optically Transparent Gates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    TECHNICAL REPORT 3086 January 2018 Nanofabrication Technology for Production of Quantum Nano-electronic Devices Integrating Niobium Electrodes...work described in this report was performed for the by the Advanced Concepts and Applied Research Branch (Code 71730) and the Science and Technology ...Applied Sciences Division iii EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This technical report demonstrates nanofabrication technology for Niobium heterostructures and

  2. The Effect of Electronic Word of Mouth on Sales: A Meta-Analytic Review of Platform, Product, and Metric Factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Babic, A.; Sotgiu, Francesca; de Valck, K.; Bijmolt, T.H.A.

    2016-01-01

    The increasing amount of electronic word of mouth (eWOM) has significantly affected the way consumers make purchase decisions. Empirical studies have established an effect of eWOM on sales but disagree on which online platforms, products, and eWOM metrics moderate this effect. The authors conduct a

  3. Production of photons with a narrow energy spectrum, starting from high energy electrons; Production de photons de spectre etroit a partir d'electrons de grande energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzara, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    A method for the production of photons with a narrow spectrum and of variable energy, based on the properties of the annihilation in flight of positrons, is examined in detail. The spectra of the photons produced and the yield of the process are given for various conditions. (author) [French] Une methode de production de photons de spectre etroit et d'energie variable, basee sur les proprietes de l'annihilation en vol des positons, est examinee en detail. Le spectre des photons produits, le rendement du processus sont donnes pour diverses conditions. (auteur)

  4. A method for conversion of Hounsfield number to electron density and prediction of macroscopic pair production cross-sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoeoes, T.; Nilsson, M.; Ahlgren, L.

    1986-01-01

    A method for the determination of electron density using a narrow beam attenuation geometry is described. The method does not require that the elemental composition of the phantom materials is known. The Hounsfield numbers for the phantom materials used were determined using five different CT scanners. A relationship between Hounsfield number and electron density can thus be established, which is of considerable value in radiation therapy treatment planning procedures. Measurements of the ratio coherent/incoherent scattering of low energy photons in a certain geometry has proven valuable for determination of atomic number, which in its turn can be used for estimation of macroscopic pair production coefficients for high energy photons. The combination of knowledge of electron density with methods for determination of processes, dependent on atomic number, can form a base for adequate composition of phantom materials for purposes of testing dose calculation algorithms for photons and electrons. (orig.)

  5. Influence of the electron cyclotron resonance plasma confinement on reducing the bremsstrahlung production of an electron cyclotron resonance ion source with metal-dielectric structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachter, L; Stiebing, K E; Dobrescu, S

    2009-01-01

    The influence of metal-dielectric (MD) layers (MD structures) inserted into the plasma chamber of an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) onto the production of electron bremsstrahlung radiation has been studied in a series of dedicated experiments at the 14 GHz ECRIS of the Institut für Kernphysik der Universität Frankfurt. The IKF-ECRIS was equipped with a MD liner, covering the inner walls of the plasma chamber, and a MD electrode, covering the plasma-facing side of the extraction electrode. On the basis of similar extracted currents of highly charged ions, significantly reduced yields of bremsstrahlung radiation for the "MD source" as compared to the standard (stainless steel) source have been measured and can be explained by the significantly better plasma confinement in a MD source as compared to an "all stainless steel" ECRIS.

  6. Influence of the electron cyclotron resonance plasma confinement on reducing the bremsstrahlung production of an electron cyclotron resonance ion source with metal-dielectric structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schachter, L.; Dobrescu, S.; Stiebing, K. E.

    2009-01-01

    The influence of metal-dielectric (MD) layers (MD structures) inserted into the plasma chamber of an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) onto the production of electron bremsstrahlung radiation has been studied in a series of dedicated experiments at the 14 GHz ECRIS of the Institut fuer Kernphysik der Universitaet Frankfurt. The IKF-ECRIS was equipped with a MD liner, covering the inner walls of the plasma chamber, and a MD electrode, covering the plasma-facing side of the extraction electrode. On the basis of similar extracted currents of highly charged ions, significantly reduced yields of bremsstrahlung radiation for the 'MD source' as compared to the standard (stainless steel) source have been measured and can be explained by the significantly better plasma confinement in a MD source as compared to an ''all stainless steel'' ECRIS.

  7. 77 FR 70714 - Electronic Import Inspection Application and Certification of Imported Products and Foreign...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-27

    ... Import Inspection Application and Certification of Imported Products and Foreign Establishments..., the egg products import regulations provide for foreign country (not establishment) certification to... imported egg products at this time. The Agency will propose foreign establishment certification in a...

  8. Electron beam irradiation of poly(perfluoro ethers): Identification of gaseous products as a result of main chain scission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacansky, J.; Waltman, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    Several poly(perfluoro ethers) are exposed to electron beams to study the mechanism for main chain scission. Electron beam exposures were performed with the viscous poly(perfluoro ethers) under argon gas, and also at 9 K under vacuum, to determine mechanistic details for the chemical degradation. Here the authors report that, after main chain scission of the bulk poly(perfluoro ethers), sample weight loss is observed concomitant with evolution of gaseous products. Since this suggests that some unzipping of the polymer chain occurs, the products were identified and, most importantly, the efficiency for their formation was determined in terms of G values, and compared to known G values for main chain scission. The results show that COF 2 is the major gaseous product produced from unbranched ethers while CF 4 and COF 2 are the major products from branched polymers. The gaseous products were also exposed to the high-energy electron beam and the G values for decomposition are given

  9. Electron linac for medical isotope production with improved energy efficiency and isotope recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, John; Walters, Dean; Virgo, Matt; Lewellen, John

    2015-09-08

    A method and isotope linac system are provided for producing radio-isotopes and for recovering isotopes. The isotope linac is an energy recovery linac (ERL) with an electron beam being transmitted through an isotope-producing target. The electron beam energy is recollected and re-injected into an accelerating structure. The ERL provides improved efficiency with reduced power requirements and provides improved thermal management of an isotope target and an electron-to-x-ray converter.

  10. Experimental study on the production of high density electron bunches from a GaAs photocathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calabrese, R.; Masoli, F.; Gong, J.M.; Guidi, V.; Tecchio, L.

    1991-01-01

    In order to obtain a high charge, low emittance electron source, useful for FEL electron injector and for e + e - collider experiments, we performed a test experiment on a gallium arsenide photocathode, activated by negative electron affinity technique and illuminated with a 10 ns long laser pulse of 532 nm wavelength. We measured a maximum charge delivered, at relatively low potentials, of about 18 nC/bunch. The mean lifetime is greater than 60 h. (orig.)

  11. Accelerator based production of auger-electron-emitting isotopes for radionuclide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thisgaard, H.

    2008-08-01

    In this research project the focus has been on the identification and production of new, unconventional Auger-electron-emitting isotopes for targeted radionuclide therapy of cancer. Based on 1st principles dosimetry calculations on the subcellular level, the Auger-emitter 119Sb has been identified as a potent candidate for therapy. The corresponding imaging analogue 117Sb has been shown from planar scintigraphy and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) to be suitable for SPECT-based dosimetry of a future Sb-labeled radiopharmaceutical. The production method of these radioisotopes has been developed using a low-energy cyclotron via the nuclear reactions 119Sn(p,n)119Sb and 117Sn(p,n)117Sb including measurements of the excitation function for the former reaction. Moreover, a new high-yield radiochemical separation method has been developed to allow the subsequent separation of the produced 119Sb from the enriched 119Sn target material with high radionuclidic- and chemical purity. A method that also allows efficient recovery of the 119Sn for recycling. To demonstrate the ability of producing therapeutic quantities of 119Sb and other radioisotopes for therapy with a low-energy cyclotron, two new 'High Power' cyclotron targets were developed in this study. The target development was primarily based on theoretical thermal modeling calculations using finite-element-analysis software. With these targets, I have shown that it will be possible to produce several tens of GBq of therapeutics isotopes (e.g. 119Sb or 64Cu) using the PETtrace cyclotron commonly found at the larger PET-centers in the hospitals. Finally, research in a new method to measure the radiotoxicity of Auger-emitters invitro using cellular microinjection has been carried out. The purpose of this method is to be able to experimentally evaluate and compare the potency of the new and unconventional Auger-emitters (e.g. 119Sb). However, due to experimental complications, the development of this

  12. Accelerator based production of auger-electron-emitting isotopes for radionuclide therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thisgaard, H.

    2008-08-15

    In this research project the focus has been on the identification and production of new, unconventional Auger-electron-emitting isotopes for targeted radionuclide therapy of cancer. Based on 1st principles dosimetry calculations on the subcellular level, the Auger-emitter 119Sb has been identified as a potent candidate for therapy. The corresponding imaging analogue 117Sb has been shown from planar scintigraphy and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) to be suitable for SPECT-based dosimetry of a future Sb-labeled radiopharmaceutical. The production method of these radioisotopes has been developed using a low-energy cyclotron via the nuclear reactions 119Sn(p,n)119Sb and 117Sn(p,n)117Sb including measurements of the excitation function for the former reaction. Moreover, a new high-yield radiochemical separation method has been developed to allow the subsequent separation of the produced 119Sb from the enriched 119Sn target material with high radionuclidic- and chemical purity. A method that also allows efficient recovery of the 119Sn for recycling. To demonstrate the ability of producing therapeutic quantities of 119Sb and other radioisotopes for therapy with a low-energy cyclotron, two new 'High Power' cyclotron targets were developed in this study. The target development was primarily based on theoretical thermal modeling calculations using finite-element-analysis software. With these targets, I have shown that it will be possible to produce several tens of GBq of therapeutics isotopes (e.g. 119Sb or 64Cu) using the PETtrace cyclotron commonly found at the larger PET-centers in the hospitals. Finally, research in a new method to measure the radiotoxicity of Auger-emitters invitro using cellular microinjection has been carried out. The purpose of this method is to be able to experimentally evaluate and compare the potency of the new and unconventional Auger-emitters (e.g. 119Sb). However, due to experimental complications, the development

  13. Chemical state analysis of oxidation products on steel surface by conversion electron Moessbauer spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ujihira, Yusuke; Nomura, Kiyoshi

    1978-01-01

    The polished NT-70H steel (Fe: 95.97%, C: 0.56%, diameter: 5 cm, thickness: 0.5 cm) was immersed in deionized water or in solutions containing (0.25 -- 0.5) M of chloride, sulfate and nitrate ions. The chemical states of oxidation products of iron on the surface were identified through the analysis of conversion electron Moessbauer spectra (CEMS). CEMS of the steel surface, which had been dipped in deionized water, revealed that γ-FeOOH was formed on the surface. The thickness of γ-FeOOH layer increased with the increase of the duration of dipping. Dissolved oxygen in the solution played an essential role in the oxidation of iron to γ-FeOOH. Oxidation product of iron dipped in the 0.5 M sodium chloride solution was identified as γ-FeOOH. Amorphous paramagnetic iron (III) compound tended to form in the presence of hydrogen peroxide or ammonium ions in the solutions. The increase of alkalinity of the solution up to pH 12 suppressed the oxidation rate and assisted the formation of green rust, which was confirmed by the appearance of the quadrupole splitting peaks of the green rust. In the 0.25 M sodium sulfate solution, oxidation of the steel surface proceeded slowly and the quadrupole splitting peaks of Fe(OH) 2 were seen in the CEMS. The peak intensity of Fe(OH) 2 gradually decreased and that of γ-FeOOH increased by the extension of immersion of steel in the solution. Magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) layer was developed beneath the γ-FeOOH layer, when steel was dipped in 0.5 M sodium nitrate solution. However, the peaks of Fe 3 O 4 were not seen on CEMS of steel surface immersed in 0.5 M ammonium nitrate solution. Thus, applying the feasibility of CEMS for the characterization of oxidated compounds of iron on the steel surface formed by the immersion in solutions, the oxidation mechanism of the steel surface was discussed based upon the results of chemical state analyses. (author)

  14. Ne, Ar, Fe, and Cu Auger-electron production at National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.H.; Johnson, B.M.; Jones, K.W.; Guardala, N.A.; Price, J.L.; Stumborg, M.F.; Glass, G.A.

    1992-01-01

    Energetic K and L Auger electrons produced by focussed, filtered, broad-band synchrotron radiation have been measured at the x-ray ring of the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). The x-ray beam was used to study inner-shell photoionization of Ne and Ar gas and Fe and Cu solid film targets. The Auger electrons were analyzed by means of a semi-hemispherical electrostatic electron spectrometer at the energy resolution of ∼ 3 %. The electrons were detected at both 90 degree and 0 degree with respect to the photon beam direction. Broad distributions of the inner-shell photoelectrons were also observed, reflecting the incoming photon flux distribution. The Fe and Cu K Auger electron spectra were found to be very similar to the Ar K Auger electron spectra. This was expected, since deep inner-shell Auger processes are not affected by the outer valence electrons. Above 3 keV in electron energy, there have been few previous Auger electron measurements. 2 figs., 13 refs

  15. Production of Solar Cells in Space from Non Specific Ores by Utilization of Electronically Enhanced Sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curreri, Peter A.

    2009-01-01

    An ideal method of construction in space would utilize some form of the Universal Differentiator and Universal Constructor as described by Von Neumann (1). The Universal Differentiator is an idealized non ore specific extractive device which is capable of breaking any ore into its constituent elements, and the Universal Constructor can utilize these elements to build any device with controllability to the nanometer scale. During the Human Exploration Initiative program in the early 1990s a conceptual study was done (2) to understand whether such devices were feasible with near term technology for the utilization of space resources and energy. A candidate system was proposed which would utilize electronically enhanced sputtering as the differentiator. Highly ionized ions would be accelerated to a kinetic energy at which the interaction between them and the lattice elections in the ore would be at a maximum. Experiments have shown that the maximum disintegration of raw material occurs at an ion kinetic energy of about 5 MeV, regardless of the composition and structure of the raw material. Devices that could produce charged ion beams in this energy range in space were being tested in the early 1990s. At this energy, for example an ion in a beam of fluorine ions yields about 8 uranium ions from uranium fluoride, 1,400 hydrogen and oxygen atoms from ice, or 7,000 atoms from sulfur dioxide ice. The ions from the disintegrated ore would then be driven by an electrical field into a discriminator in the form of a mass spectrometer, where the magnetic field would divert the ions into collectors for future use or used directly in molecular beam construction techniques. The process would require 10-7 Torr vacuum which would be available in space or on the moon. If the process were used to make thin film silicon solar cells (ignoring any energy inefficiency for beam production), then energy break even for solar cells in space would occur after 14 days.

  16. Production of Sulfur Allotropes in Electron Irradiated Jupiter Trojans Ice Analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahjoub, Ahmed; Poston, Michael J.; Blacksberg, Jordana; Eiler, John M.; Brown, Michael E.; Ehlmann, Bethany L.; Hodyss, Robert; Hand, Kevin P.; Carlson, Robert; Choukroun, Mathieu

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we investigate sulfur chemistry in laboratory analogs of Jupiter Trojans and Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs). Electron irradiation experiments of CH3OH-NH3-H2O and H2S-CH3OH-NH3-H2O ices were conducted to better understand the chemical differences between primordial planetesimals inside and outside the sublimation line of H2S. The main goal of this work is to test the chemical plausibility of the hypothesis correlating the color bimodality in Jupiter Trojans with sulfur chemistry in the incipient solar system. Temperature programmed desorption (TPD) of the irradiated mixtures allows the detection of small sulfur allotropes (S3 and S4) after the irradiation of H2S containing ice mixtures. These small, red polymers are metastable and could polymerize further under thermal processing and irradiation, producing larger sulfur polymers (mainly S8) that are spectroscopically neutral at wavelengths above 500 nm. This transformation may affect the spectral reflectance of Jupiter Trojans in a different way compared to KBOs, thereby providing a useful framework for possibly differentiating and determining the formation and history of small bodies. Along with allotropes, we report the production of organo-sulfur molecules. Sulfur molecules produced in our experiment have been recently detected by Rosetta in the coma of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. The very weak absorption of sulfur polymers in the infrared range hampers their identification on Trojans and KBOs, but these allotropes strongly absorb light at UV and Visible wavelengths. This suggests that high signal-to-noise ratio UV-Vis spectra of these objects could provide new constraints on their presence.

  17. Perceptions of Harm to Children Exposed to Secondhand Aerosol From Electronic Vapor Products, Styles Survey, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Kimberly H; Tong, Van T; Marynak, Kristy; King, Brian A

    2017-05-25

    The US Surgeon General has concluded that e-cigarette aerosol is not harmless and can contain harmful and potentially harmful chemicals, including nicotine. We assessed factors associated with adults' perceptions of harm related to children's exposure to secondhand aerosol from electronic vapor products (EVPs). Data came from the 2015 Styles, an Internet panel survey of US adults aged 18 years or older (n = 4,127). Respondents were asked whether they believe aerosol from other people's EVPs causes children harm. Harm perceptions were assessed overall and by cigarette smoking, EVP use, and sociodemographic characteristics. Multinomial logistic regression was used to assess odds of perceived harm. Overall, 5.3% of adults responded that secondhand EVP exposure caused "no harm" to children, 39.9% responded "little harm" or "some harm," 21.5% responded "a lot of harm," and 33.3% responded "don't know." Odds of "no harm" response were greater among men than among women, current and former cigarette smokers than among never smokers, and current and former EVP users than among never users; odds were lower among non-Hispanic blacks, Hispanics, and non-Hispanic other races than among non-Hispanic whites. Odds of responding "don't know" were greater among men, current cigarette smokers, and current and former EVP users; odds were lower among those aged 45 to 64 years than those aged 18 to 24 years and lower among non-Hispanic other races and Hispanics than non-Hispanic whites. Two-fifths of US adults believe that children's exposure to secondhand EVP aerosol causes some or little harm, while one-third do not know whether it causes harm. Efforts are warranted to educate the public about the health risks of secondhand EVP aerosol, particularly for children.

  18. Production of Sulfur Allotropes in Electron Irradiated Jupiter Trojans Ice Analogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahjoub, Ahmed; Poston, Michael J.; Blacksberg, Jordana; Ehlmann, Bethany L.; Hodyss, Robert; Hand, Kevin P.; Carlson, Robert; Choukroun, Mathieu [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Eiler, John M.; Brown, Michael E., E-mail: Mahjoub.Ahmed@jpl.nasa.gov [California Institute of Technology, Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2017-09-10

    In this paper, we investigate sulfur chemistry in laboratory analogs of Jupiter Trojans and Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs). Electron irradiation experiments of CH{sub 3}OH–NH{sub 3}–H{sub 2}O and H{sub 2}S–CH{sub 3}OH–NH{sub 3}–H{sub 2}O ices were conducted to better understand the chemical differences between primordial planetesimals inside and outside the sublimation line of H{sub 2}S. The main goal of this work is to test the chemical plausibility of the hypothesis correlating the color bimodality in Jupiter Trojans with sulfur chemistry in the incipient solar system. Temperature programmed desorption (TPD) of the irradiated mixtures allows the detection of small sulfur allotropes (S{sub 3} and S{sub 4}) after the irradiation of H{sub 2}S containing ice mixtures. These small, red polymers are metastable and could polymerize further under thermal processing and irradiation, producing larger sulfur polymers (mainly S{sub 8}) that are spectroscopically neutral at wavelengths above 500 nm. This transformation may affect the spectral reflectance of Jupiter Trojans in a different way compared to KBOs, thereby providing a useful framework for possibly differentiating and determining the formation and history of small bodies. Along with allotropes, we report the production of organo-sulfur molecules. Sulfur molecules produced in our experiment have been recently detected by Rosetta in the coma of 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko. The very weak absorption of sulfur polymers in the infrared range hampers their identification on Trojans and KBOs, but these allotropes strongly absorb light at UV and Visible wavelengths. This suggests that high signal-to-noise ratio UV–Vis spectra of these objects could provide new constraints on their presence.

  19. Bigravity from gradient expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Yasuho; Tanaka, Takahiro

    2016-01-01

    We discuss how the ghost-free bigravity coupled with a single scalar field can be derived from a braneworld setup. We consider DGP two-brane model without radion stabilization. The bulk configuration is solved for given boundary metrics, and it is substituted back into the action to obtain the effective four-dimensional action. In order to obtain the ghost-free bigravity, we consider the gradient expansion in which the brane separation is supposed to be sufficiently small so that two boundary metrics are almost identical. The obtained effective theory is shown to be ghost free as expected, however, the interaction between two gravitons takes the Fierz-Pauli form at the leading order of the gradient expansion, even though we do not use the approximation of linear perturbation. We also find that the radion remains as a scalar field in the four-dimensional effective theory, but its coupling to the metrics is non-trivial.

  20. Gradient-Index Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    nonimaging design capabilities to incorporate 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 12-04-2011 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES The views, opinions...Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 15. SUBJECT TERMS Imaging Optics, Nonimaging Optics, Gradient Index Optics, Camera, Concentrator...imaging and nonimaging design capabilities to incorporate manufacturable GRIN lenses can provide imaging lens systems that are compact and