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Sample records for production willow clone-site

  1. Concentrations of Chemical Elements in Willow Biomass Depend on Clone, Site and Management in the Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Na; Jørgensen, Uffe; Lærke, Poul Erik

    2016-01-01

    Eight willow (Salix) clones (Inger, Klara, Linnea, Resolution, Stina, Terra Nova, Tora, Tordis) were planted on two soil types in Denmark. The biomass quality was evaluated after 3 years of growth by measuring differences in concentrations of 14 elements associated with ash behavior during combus...

  2. Willow wood production on radionuclide polluted areas

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    Rodkin Oleg I.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: One of the key environmental problems in Belarus is effective use of agricultural lands contaminated by radionuclide due to the Chernobyl disaster. The alternative method to traditional agricultural crops is fast growing willow cultivation. It is possible to use biomass of willow as renewable energy source. The goal of our investigation was the estimation of environmental aspects of willow wood production on polluted areas. The field study experiments (2007-2010 were conducted at Krichev district of Mogilev region in eastern Belarus. This region characterized by high level of Cs-137 contamination as well as high level of heavy metals pollution. In the first stage of experiments, the concentration of cesium-137 in different parts of willow biomass had been measured and transfer factor calculated. The measuring had been done for leaves, roots, and wood. To control cesium-137 accumulation in willow biomass we apply different types (nitrogen N, phosphorus P and potassium K and dose of fertilizer. The experiments show that potassium mineral fertilizer is the key factor for radionuclide accumulation control. The optimal dose of potassium is 90 kg per hectare. On the base of experimental results the model of cesium-137 accumulation in the wood for a 21 year has been developed. In accordance with calculation to the end of willow cultivation (21 year concentration of cesium-137 in wood will not be higher than permitted even with the level of cesium-137 contamination in the soil 1480 kBq/m2 (maximum 140 kqB/m2 with permitted level for firewood is 740 Bq/kg.. The concentration of cesium-137 in the roots increases gradually and get maximum in 21 year (3000 kqB/m2. Our results confirm that in the sum about 0.8 million hectares of radionuclide polluted arable lands partly excluded from agricultural practice in Belarus could be used for willow biomass production.

  3. Bioenergy from willow. 1995 Annual report, November 1987--December 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, E.H.; Abrahamson, L.P.

    1997-07-01

    Experiments were established at Tully, New York, by the State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry, in cooperation with the University of Toronto and the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, to assess the potential of willows for wood biomass production. Specific objectives included determining the effects of clone type, fertilization, spacing, cutting cycle, and irrigation on biomass production. Production was high, with willow clone SV1 yielding nearly 32 oven dry tons per acre (odt ac{sup -1}) with three-year harvest cycle, irrigation, and fertilization. Clone type, fertilization, spacing, cutting cycle, and irrigation all significantly affected biomass production. Willow clone-site trials planted at Massena, and Tully, NY in 1993 grew well during 1994 and 1995, but some clones in the Massena trial were severely damaged by deer browse. Several new cooperators joined the project, broadening the funding base, and enabling establishment of additional willow plantings. Willow clone-site trials were planted at Himrod, King Ferry, Somerset, and Tully, NY, during 1995. A willow cutting orchard was planted during 1995 at the NYS Department of Environmental Conservation Saratoga Tree Nursery in Saratoga, NY. Plans are to begin site preparation for a 100+ acre willow bioenergy demonstration farm in central New York, and additional clone-site trials, in 1996.

  4. Selection of Willows (Salix sp. for Biomass Production

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    Davorin Kajba

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Willows compared with other species are the most suitable for biomass production in short rotations because of their very abundant growth during the first years. Nowadays, in Croatia, a large number of selected and registered willow clones are available. The main objective of the research should be to find genotypes which, with minimum nutrients, will produce the maximum quantity of biomass. Material and Methods: Clonal test of the arborescent willows include the autochthonous White Willow (Salix alba, interracial hybrids of the autochthonous White Willow and the English ‘cricket’ Willow (S. alba var. calva, interspecies hybrids (S. matsudana × S. alba, as well as multispecies hybrids of willows. Average production of dry biomass (DM∙ha-1∙a-1 per hectare was estimated in regard to the clone, survival, spacing and the number of shoots per stump. Results: The highest biomass production as well as the best adaptedness and phenotypic stability on testing site was shown by clones (‘V 374’, ‘V 461’, ‘V 578’ from 15.2 - 25.0 t∙DM∙ha-1∙a-1 originated from backcross hybrid S. matsudana × (S. matsudana × S. alba and by one S. alba clone (‘V 95’, 23.1 - 25.7 t∙DM∙ha-1∙a-1. These clones are now at the stage of registration and these results indicate significant potential for further breeding aimed at biomass production in short rotations. Conclusions: Willow clones showed high biomass production on marginal sites and dry biomass could be considerably increased with the application of intensive silvicultural and agro technical measures. No nutrition or pest control measures were applied (a practice otherwise widely used in intensive cultivation system, while weed vegetation was regulated only at the earliest age.

  5. Biomass production in willows. What did we know before the energy crisis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perttu, K L [ed.

    1984-12-01

    The biological foundations of biomass with willows originate in the experiences from basket willow husbandry. This was an established discipline in Europe in the 18th century. Problems concerning site preparation, selection of clones, planting as cuttings, spacing, weed control, rotation time, harvesting and coppicing vigour with respect to the longevity of the stand, were practically solved at the research level and already in practice. The yield potential of basket willow and willows for hoop production as well as yield figures from field experiments were quite high also according to present-day biomass willow experiments. An explanation of this could be the much higher stand densities than has been customary in current willow experiments. Although many practical questions got their answers in basket willow husbandry, open questions still remain. The basket willow era gave only little experience on willow production in peatlands; actually peatsoils were almost avoided. Knowledge of nutrient require ments and fertilization was also rather elementary. These aspects must therefore be established for biomass production. Control of weeds in the establishment phase of the willow husbandry was solved by manual work. Since this is a labour intensive method which is no longer possible, a more modern weed control needs to be developed for current husbandry. As a whole it is a task for related research to attach proper optimization of cultural techniques to suitable willow clones in order to attain and maintain as high a production level as was the case in the old basket willow husbandry. With 25 refs.

  6. Cadmium in willow plantations - municipal waste products as fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasselgren, K.

    1995-07-01

    Plantations of willows (i.e. Salix spp) seem to absorb cadmium (Cd) from arable land to a greater extent than other plant cultivations. Thus, energy forestry, based upon cultivation of Salix, could possibly be used for biofuel production in combination with biological purification of arable land contaminated with Cd by atmospheric deposition and P fertilizers during the passed 100 years. Application of sewage sludge (5-7 ppm Cd of dry solids) up to 550 g Cd per hectare, or 140 g Cd hectare and year, resulted in clearly increased concentrations of Cd in the upper 10 cm layer of the soil. In deeper soil layers the differences compared with control plots were small. Lower rates of sludge application, corresponding to less than 70 g added per hectare and year, did not materially affect the Cd-content in the soil irrespective of layer. A general pattern was that the content of Cd in plant tissues decreased with increased stem diameter, increased age of stems and stands as well as increased biomass growth. Thus, concentrations of Cd in Salix material, in clones from some of the first generation of energy forest plants (S. viminalis, S. dasyclados and S. schwerinii). were fairly high in young stands. In general, 1-year-old shoots contained 5-6 ppm Cd of dry solids in stems and 10-15 ppm in leaves. In older shoots, up to three years, and older stands, up to six years, the Cd contents decreased to 1-2 ppm Cd and 2-4 ppm Cd of dry solids for stems and leaves, respectively. Abundant supplies of water and nutrients seem to stimulate the Cd uptake in Salix in terms of higher concentrations in plant tissues as well as higher plant growth levels compared with conventional energy forestry. Stands with older stems, not irrigated and not fully fertilized resulted in uptake rates in the range of 10-30 g Cd per hectare and year. 14 refs, 9 figs, 1 tab

  7. Impacts of paper sludge and manure on soil and biomass production of willow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quaye, Amos K.; Volk, Timothy A.; Hafner, Sasha; Leopold, Donald J.; Schirmer, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Land application of organic wastes to short rotation woody crops (SRWC) can reduce the environmental impacts associated with waste disposal and enhance the productivity of biomass production systems. Understanding the potential impacts of organic amendments however, requires the examination of changes in soil characteristics and plant productivity. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of paper sludge and dairy manure on biomass production of shrub willow (Salix dasyclados SV1) and to determine the impacts of these amendments on soil chemical properties. Treatments included urea, dairy manure and paper sludge separately and in combination, and a control. These materials were applied in the summer of 2005 to two fields of SV1 at different stages of growth: An old field with one year old shoots on a 10 year old root system and a young field which was beginning regrowth after being coppiced at the end of its first growing season. Foliar nutrient concentrations and soil chemical properties were analyzed at the end of the second growing season after treatment application to determine plant response to the fertilization regimes and to determine the effects of fertilization on soil characteristics. Fertilization did not increase biomass production in either field. However, application of the N-poor paper sludge did not reduce yield either. In general, fertilization did not influence soil or foliar chemistry, although there were some exceptions. The lack of response observed in this study is probably related to the nutrient status of the site or losses of applied nutrients. -- Highlights: → The fertilization treatments did not have any significant effect biomass production. → Application of paper sludge did not reduce willow biomass yield in both fields. → Foliar N concentration of willow crops in this study is in the range considered for optimal growth. → The limited response of foliar nutrients to fertilization indicates that the site was not limited by

  8. Production of Probiotic Drink Using Pussy willow and Echium amoenum Extracts

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    Mahbobeh Eksiri

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Nowadays, due to the lack of lactose and cholesterol, demand for consumption of non-dairy probiotic products is increasing. Probiotic drinks mixed with medicinal plant have great beneficial effect on human health. The main problems of non-dairy probiotic drinks are lack of nutrients for the growth of probiotics and bad taste of the product. The aim of this study was to produce a probiotic medicinal plant drink with favorable physicochemical, viability and sensory properties.Material and Methods: Probiotic drink prepared by Pussy willow and Echium amoenum extract (0.5 % w v-1, for each extract or together, Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus rhamnosus (108 CFU ml-1, individually and their combination. Glucose and whey powder (0.2% were used as a source of nutrition for the probiotics, and apple juice (20 and 30% was added to improve the taste of drink. The level of glucose was adjusted to reach the brix of 13 g100 g-1. Ascorbic acid (0.05% was used to improve micro-aerophilic conditions. The pH, acidity, glucose and viability of probiotic bacteria as well as the sensory properties of the prepared drink were investigated during 28 days at 4°C.Results and Conclusion: Based on the results, the treatment containing L. casei, Pussy willow, Echium amoenum and 30% apple juice due to the highest probiotic viability and the treatment containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Pussy willow, Echium amoenum and 30% apple juice because of higher total acceptance score, proper pH and acidity values were selected as the best treatments.Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

  9. Evaluation report. Willow; Evalueringsrapport. Pil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang Bilgaard, H. [AgroTech A/S, Skejby, Aarhus (Denmark); Eide, T.; Gertz, F. [Videncentret for Landbrug, Skejby, Aarhus (Denmark)] [and others

    2012-10-15

    This evaluation report brings together the main findings of willows activities in the BioM project in the period 2010-2012. The report contains sections relating to growing and cultivation conditions, energy production, environmental effects, landscape aspects, harvesting techniques, economics, and organization, marketing, and business effects, and a description of willow cultivation on a large scale in the project area in western Jutland, Denmark. The report concludes with an overall assessment of willow cultivation for the production of sustainable bioenergy. (LN)

  10. Willow Bark

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... willow bark extract, ginger root concentrate, boswellia extract, turmeric root extract, cayenne, and hyaluronic acid (Instaflex Joint ... Sensitivity to aspirin: People with ASTHMA, STOMACH ULCERS, DIABETES, GOUT, HEMOPHILIA, HYPOPROTHROMBINEMIA, or KIDNEY or LIVER DISEASE ...

  11. Black Willow

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. M. Krinard

    1980-01-01

    Black willow and other species of Salix together comprise a majority of the stocking. Cottonwood is the chief associate, particularly in the early stages, but green ash, sycamore, pecan, persimmon, waterlocust, American elm, baldcypress, red maple, sugarberry, box-elder, and in some areas, silver maple are invaders preceding the next successional stage.

  12. Effect of biomass pretreatment on the product distribution and composition resulting from the hydrothermal liquefaction of short rotation coppice willow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grigoras, Ionela; Stroe, Rodica-Elisabeta; Sintamarean, Iulia-Maria

    2017-01-01

    A major challenge for the implementation of hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) as a continuous process is the formulation of lignocellulosic feedstock, which is prone to phase separation into water and biomass parts when pressurized. One approach to remedy such phase separation is to reduce the dry...... from the HTL of willow and proposes short rotation coppice as an alternative biomass feedstock for biofuels production. Alkaline–thermal pretreatment, besides making high dry matter pumpable feedstock slurries, also led to an increase in the production of the bio-crude product with an oxygen content...

  13. Development of an applied black willow tree improvement program for biomass production in the south

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall J. Rousseau; Emile S. Gardiner; Theodor D. Leininger

    2012-01-01

    The development of rapidly growing biomass woody crops is imperative as the United States strives to meet renewable energy goals. The Department of Energy has indicated that biomass is a prime source for renewable energy for the southern United States. Black Willow (Salix nigra Marsh.) is a potential bioenergy/biofuels crop for dedicated short-...

  14. Phytoremediation of Metal Contaminated Soil Using Willow: Exploiting Plant-Associated Bacteria to Improve Biomass Production and Metal Uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Jolien; Weyens, Nele; Croes, Sarah; Beckers, Bram; Meiresonne, Linda; Van Peteghem, Pierre; Carleer, Robert; Vangronsveld, Jaco

    2015-01-01

    Short rotation coppice (SRC) of willow and poplar is proposed for economic valorization and concurrently as remediation strategy for metal contaminated land in northeast-Belgium. However, metal phytoextraction appears insufficient to effectuate rapid reduction of soil metal contents. To increase both biomass production and metal accumulation of SRC, two strategies are proposed: (i) in situ selection of the best performing clones and (ii) bioaugmentation of these clones with beneficial plant-associated bacteria. Based on field data, two experimental willow clones, a Salix viminalis and a Salix alba x alba clone, were selected. Compared to the best performing commercial clones, considerable increases in stem metal extraction were achieved (up to 74% for Cd and 91% for Zn). From the selected clones, plant-associated bacteria were isolated and identified. All strains were subsequently screened for their plant growth-promoting and metal uptake enhancing traits. Five strains were selected for a greenhouse inoculation experiment with the selected clones planted in Cd-Zn-Pb contaminated soil. Extraction potential tended to increase after inoculation of S. viminalis plants with a Rahnella sp. strain due to a significantly increased twig biomass. However, although bacterial strains showing beneficial traits in vitro were used for inoculation, increments in extraction potential were not always observed.

  15. Structural and productive-developmental characteristics of white willow plantations of different density on humogley in Donji Srem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrašev Siniša

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted in two plantations of white willow (Salix alba L. in Donji Srem on the humogley soil type (hydromorphic black soil, which belongs to a narrow-leaved ash forest with remote sedge (Carici remotae - Fraxinetum angustifoliae Jov. et Tom., 1979. The plantations are located in the same depression. The SP (sample plot-1 plantation is 21 years old with a 6×6 m planting spacing, and the SP-2 plantation is 27 years old with a 3×3m planting spacing. Elements of stem growth in the SP-1 plantation showed that with the white willow planting spacing of 6×6 m and a planned 25-year production cycle it is possible to obtain about 250 m3•ha-1 of timber volume, with an 80% net share of technical wood and a 20 % share of pulp wood. The plantation in SP-2 is at the age, which is well above the optimum age in terms of rational management, and the total volume at the age of 27 years is about 300 m3•ha-1, with a 53.7% net share of technical wood and a 46.3% share of pulpwood. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43007: Istraživanje klimatskih promena na životnu sredinu: praćenje uticaja, adaptacija i ublažavanje

  16. Enzymatic Saccharification of Shrub Willow Genotypes with Differing Biomass Composition for Biofuel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle J. Serapiglia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the conversion of woody biomass feedstocks into liquid fuel ethanol, the pretreatment process is the most critical and costly step. Variations in biomass composition based on genetic differences or environmental effects have a significant impact on the degree of accessibility accomplished by pretreatment and subsequent sugar release by enzymatic hydrolysis. To evaluate this, biomass from 10 genetically diverse, genotypes of shrub willow (Salix spp. was pretreated with a hot-water process at two levels of severity, hydrolyzed using a combination of two commercial enzyme cocktails, and the release of hexose and pentose monomers was quantified by HPLC. Among the genotypes selected for analysis, cellulose content ranged from 39 to 45% (w/w and lignin content ranged from 20 to 23% (w/w at harvest. Differences in the effectiveness of the pretreatment process were observed among the various willow genotypes. Correlations were identified between total sugar release and % cellulose and % lignin content. There was a significant effect of pretreatment severity on polysaccharide accessibility, but the response to pretreatments was different among the genotypes. At the high severity pretreatment ‘SV1’ was the least recalcitrant with sugar release representing as much as 60% of total biomass. These results suggest that structural, as well as chemical characteristics of the biomass may influence pretreatment and hydrolytic efficiency.

  17. How to manage co-product inputs in emergy accounting exemplified by willow production for bioenergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamp, Andreas; Østergård, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    Assessments of environmental performance are challenged by multifunctionality of production systems where impacts cannot be assigned to any one specific output. In the assessment method emergy accounting, all available energy used up for a process is summed up after being converted to solar...... equivalent Joules. In emergy accounting each output carries the resource use burden of all co-produced outputs. When comparing emergy indicators on a product-to-product basis (reference approach), products from single-output processes tend to be favoured. This constitutes a method bias. Building on emergy...

  18. Establishment and Early Growth of Willow at Different Levels of Weed Competition and Nitrogen Fertilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edelfeldt, Stina; Lundkvist, Anneli; Forkman, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of weed competition and nitrogen fertilization on the early growth performance of willow, cuttings of the clone Tora (Salix schwerinii x S. viminalis) were planted in buckets together with model weeds (spring barley or white mustard) sown 15, 26, and 30 days after willow...... gave higher willow biomass production in willow with weeds sown after 26 or 30 days. Type of model weed had no effect on willow performance. Weed biomass and maximum shoot height were higher in weeds planted without willows compared to the willow-weed mixtures. A high nitrogen level gave more weed...... biomass when planted without willows and in the willow-weed mixture with weeds sown after 15 days. We conclude that for the given high density of willow, competition from weeds emerging soon after willow planting had strong effect on early production. Furthermore, if there is a risk of weed infestation...

  19. The effect of water availability on stand-level productivity, transpiration, water use efficiency and radiation use efficiency of field-grown willow clones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linderson, Maj-Lena; Iritz, Z.; Lindroth, A.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of water availability on stand-level productivity, transpiration, water use efficiency (WUE) and radiation use efficiency (RUE) is evaluated for different willow clones at stand level. The measurements were made during the growing season 2000 in a 3-year-old plantation in Scania......, southernmost Sweden. Six willow clones were included in the study: L78183, SW Rapp, SW Jorunn, SW Jorr, SW Tora and SW Loden. All clones were exposed to two water treatments: rain-fed, non-irrigated treatment and reduced water availability by reduced soil water recharge. Field measurements of stem sap...... low compared to other results. Generally, all clones, except for Jorunn, seem to be better off concerning biomass production, WUE and RUE than the reference clone. Jorr, Jorunn and Loden also seem to be able to cope with the reduced water availability with increase in the water use efficiency. Tora...

  20. The effect of water availability on stand-level productivity, transpiration, water use efficiency and radiation use efficiency of field-grown willow clones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linderson, Maj-Lena; Iritz, Zinaida; Lindroth, Anders

    2007-01-01

    The effect of water availability on stand-level productivity, transpiration, water use efficiency (WUE) and radiation use efficiency (RUE) is evaluated for different willow clones at stand level. The measurements were made during the growing season 2000 in a 3-year-old plantation in Scania, southernmost Sweden. Six willow clones were included in the study: L78183, SW Rapp, SW Jorunn, SW Jorr, SW Tora and SW Loden. All clones were exposed to two water treatments: rain-fed, non-irrigated treatment and reduced water availability by reduced soil water recharge. Field measurements of stem sap-flow and biometry are up-scaled to stand transpiration and stand dry substance production and used to assess WUE. RUE is estimated from the ratio between the stand dry substance production and the accumulated absorbed photosynthetic active radiation over the growing season. The total stand transpiration rate for the 5 months lies between 100 and 325 mm, which is fairly low compared to the Penman-Monteith transpiration for willow, reaching 400-450 mm for the same period. Mean WUE of all clones and treatments is 5.3 g/kg, which is high compared to earlier studies, while average RUE is 0.31 g/mol, which is slightly low compared to other results. Generally, all clones, except for Jorunn, seem to be better off concerning biomass production, WUE and RUE than the reference clone. Jorr, Jorunn and Loden also seem to be able to cope with the reduced water availability with increase in the water use efficiency. Tora performs significantly better than the other clones concerning both growth and efficiency in light and water use, but the effect of the dry treatment on stem growth shows sensitivity to water availability. The reduced stem growth could be due to a change in allocation patterns

  1. Bottom-up factors influencing riparian willow recovery in Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tercek, M.T.; Stottlemyer, R.; Renkin, R.

    2010-01-01

    After the elimination of wolves (Canis lupis L.) in the 1920s, woody riparian plant communities on the northern range of Yellowstone National Park (YNP) declined an estimated 50%. After the reintroduction of wolves in 19951996, riparian willows (Salix spp.) on YNP's northern range showed significant growth for the first time since the 1920s. However, the pace of willow recovery has not been uniform. Some communities have exceeded 400 cm, while others are still at pre-1995 levels of 250 cm max. height) willow sites where willows had escaped elk (Cervus elaphus L.) browsing with "short" willow sites that could still be browsed. Unlike studies that manipulated willow height with fences and artificial dams, we examined sites that had natural growth differences in height since the reintroduction of wolves. Tall willow sites had greater water availability, more-rapid net soil nitrogen mineralization, greater snow depth, lower soil respiration rates, and cooler summer soil temperatures than nearby short willow sites. Most of these differences were measured both in herbaceous areas adjacent to the willow patches and in the willow patches themselves, suggesting that they were not effects of varying willow height recovery but were instead preexisting site differences that may have contributed to increased plant productivity. Our results agree with earlier studies in experimental plots which suggest that the varying pace of willow recovery has been influenced by abiotic limiting factors that interact with top-down reductions in willow browsing by elk. ?? 2010 Western North American Naturalist.

  2. The effects of first-year shoot cut back on willow biomass production during the first and second cutting cycle; Effekter av skottnedklippning efter etableringsaaret paa produktionen under foersta och andra omdrevet i salixodlingar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verwijst, Theo; Nordh, Nils-Erik

    2010-05-15

    During the early phase of commercialisation of willow short rotation forestry in Sweden it was considered to be important to cut down the shoots after the establishment year, and this practice still is maintained today. Several reasons then were put forward for cutting down. The primary goal was to stimulate sprouting of more shoots, thereby obtaining a rapidly closing stand which could compete with weeds. Another reason was that it would enable weed control during the second year. In some of the older clones, which exhibited bow-shaped shoots, cutting down was supposed to lead to more straight growing shoots which rendered less biomass loss at harvest. In the meantime, the practice of cutting down has been abandoned in Denmark, and there are reasons to scrutinise the effects of cutting down on available biomass production figures from Swedish field trials. The main goal with this project was to try to quantify the effects of cutting down on the biomass productivity of willow during the first and later cutting cycles. Thus far, efforts in this research topic have not led to a scientifically documented quantification on the effects, and therefore a scientific basis for hands-on recommendations to willow growers is lacking. The purpose of our work consequently was to generate practical recommendations with regard to the management measure of cutting down, and the audience targeted consisted of willow growers (farmers, land-owners and entrepreneurs) who are deciding about and perform the actual management of willow stands to obtain higher yields. This information also is of large relevance for all extension workers in willow growing. Data have been collected from a field trial which was planted in Flosta, Enkoeping, in 2005. As this was the only experiment on cutting down which ran during the project period, we searched the archives which contained material from another experiment which ran from 1992 to 1996 in Ultuna, Uppsala, and from which some date were collected

  3. A profile and analysis of willow growers in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenqvist, H.; Roos, A.; Ling, E.; Hektor, B.

    1999-01-01

    Willow plantations on Swedish farmland increased considerably between 1991 and 1996. The main driving forces behind this development were (1) the 1991 introduction of an agriculture deregulation policy in Sweden which created lower grain prices and simultaneously introduced compensation for set-aside land and subsidies for willow plantations on surplus arable land, (2) higher taxes on fossil fuels, and (3) the existence of a biofuel market in Sweden based on forest fuels. This paper presents a statistical study of 1,158 willow growers in southern and central-eastern Sweden. The resulting profile of growers will help policy makers and agents in the bioenergy business design information campaigns and marketing strategies. Willow growers are described according to geographical distribution, willow parcel sizes, farm sizes, and farm types. They are compared with the population of farmers who are not growing willow. Willow growers are more often between 50-65 years of age, and they have larger farms than non-willow growers. They are less often focused on animal and milk production and more often on cereal and food crop production than are other farmers. (author)

  4. Biomass production and control of nutrient leaching of willows using different planting methods with special emphasis on an appraisal of the electrical impedance for roots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Cao

    2011-07-01

    Willow reproduction can be achieved through vertically or horizontally planted cuttings. Conventionally, plantations are established by inserting cuttings vertically into the soil. There is, however, a lack of information about the biomass production and nutrient leaching of plantations established through horizontally planted cuttings. A greenhouse experiment and a field trial were carried out to investigate whether horizontally planted Salix schwerinii cuttings have a positive effect on stem yield, root distribution and nutrient leaching in comparison with vertically planted cuttings with different planting densities. The shoots' height of horizontally planted cuttings was significantly smaller than that of vertically planted cuttings during the first two weeks after planting in the pot experiment. Thereafter, no significant effect of planting orientation on the stem biomass was observed in the two conducted experiments. In both experiments the total stem biomass increased with the planting density. It was also found that the fine root biomass and the specific root length were not affected by the planting orientation or density, while the fine root surface area and the absorbing root surface area (ARSA) were affected only by the planting density. The planting orientation did not affect the nutrient concentrations in the soil leachate, apart from SO{sub 4}-S and PO{sub 4}-P in the pot experiment. The ARSA in the pot experiment was assessed by using the earth impedance method. The applicability of this method was evaluated in a hydroponic study of willow cuttings where root and stem were measured independently. Electrical resistance had a good correlation with the contact area of the roots with the solution. However, the resistance depended strongly on the contact area of the stem with the solution, which caused a bias in the evaluation of root surface area. A similar experimental set-up with electrical impedance spectroscopy was employed to study the

  5. Selection of ectomycorrhizal willow genotype in phytoextraction of heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrynkiewicz, Katarzyna; Baum, Christel

    2013-01-01

    Willow clones are used for the phytoextraction of heavy metals from contaminated soils and are usually mycorrhizal. The receptiveness of willow clones for mycorrhizal inoculum varies specific to genotype; however, it is unknown if this might have a significant impact on their efficiency in phytoextraction of heavy metals. Therefore, a model system with mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal willows of two different genotypes--one with usually stronger natural mycorrhizal colonization (Salix dasyclados), and one with lower natural mycorrhizal colonization (S. viminalis)--was investigated for its efficiency of phytoextraction of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn) from contaminated soil. Inoculation with the ectomycorrhizal fungus Amanita muscaria significantly decreased the biomass of leaves of both inoculated willow clones, and increased or had no effect on the biomass of trunks and roots of S. dasyclados and S. viminalis, respectively. The concentrations of heavy metals in the biomass of S. dasyclados were in general higher than in S. viminalis irrespective of inoculation with the ectomycorrhizal fungus. Inoculation with A. muscaria significantly decreased the concentration of Cu in the trunks of both Salix taxa, but did not affected the concentrations of other heavy metals in the biomass. In conclusion, stronger receptiveness of willow clones for mycorrhizal inoculum was correlated with an increased total extraction of heavy metals from contaminated soils. Therefore, this seems to be a suitable criterion for effective willow clone selection for phytoremediation. Increased biomass production with relatively constant metal concentrations seems to be a major advantage of mycorrhizal formation of willows in phytoremediation of contaminated soils.

  6. Willow vegetation filters: Principles, results and economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perttu, K.

    1996-01-01

    During recent years, it has become obvious that it is both environmentally and economically appropriate to use vegetation filters of different short rotation willows (Salix spp.) to purify water and soil. Swedish experiences of vegetation filter efficiencies have been demonstrated in several laboratory, field lysimeter, and full-scale experiments. However, there are still many questions to be answered, for example, how the uptake and allocation mechanisms of heavy metals and recalcitrant organic constituents function, or which maximum doses are possible in a particular situation without any risk of leachate losses. As far as plant nutrition is concerned, the past two decades of integrated research in Sweden have demonstrated that the willows have capacity for efficient uptake both of macro and micro nutrients, which is reflected in their high productivity. The purpose of this paper is to present some results on how vegetation filter stands of willow, irrigated with municipal wastewater, can function as purification plants, while at the same time producing fuelwood. This twofold utilization benefits both the environment and the economy. Treatment plants for wastewater purification using various types of vegetation filters have been tried in Sweden. The experiences consider both the nutrient and heavy metal uptake, and the whole process chain from establishment, cultivation and harvesting of the wastewater irrigated willow stands, to the utilization of the wood in heating plants. 33 refs, 5 tabs

  7. Parasitism, productivity, and population growth: response of Least Bell's Vireos (Vireo bellii pusillus) and Southwestern Willow Flycatchers (Empidonax traillii extimus) to cowbird (Molothrus spp.) control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kus, Barbara E.; Whitfield, Mary J.

    2005-01-01

    Cowbird (Molothrus spp.) control is a major focus of recovery-oriented management of two endangered riparian bird species,the Least Bell's Vireo (Vireo bellii pusillus) and Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus). During the past 20 years, annual trapping of cowbirds at Least Bell's Vireo and Southwestern Willow Flycatcher breeding sites has eliminated or reduced parasitism in comparison with pretrapping rates and, thereby, significantly increased seasonal productivity of nesting pairs. Enhanced productivity, in turn, has resulted in an 8-fold increase in numbers of Least Bell's Vireos; Southwestern Willow Flycatcher abundance, however, has changed little, and at some sites has declined despite cowbird control. Although generally successful by these short-term measures of host population response, cowbird control poses potential negative consequences for long-term recovery of endangered species. As currently employed, cowbird control lacks predetermined biological criteria to trigger an end to the control, making these species' dependence on human intervention open-ended. Prolonged reliance on cowbird control to manage endangered species can shift attention from identifying and managing other factors that limit populations--in particular, habitat availability. On the basis of our analysis of these long-term programs, we suggest that cowbird control be reserved for short-term crisis management and be replaced, when appropriate, by practices emphasizing restoration and maintenance of natural processes on which species depend. /// El manejo orientado hacia la recuperación de dos especies de aves ribereñas Vireo belli pusillus y Empidonax trailli extimus se ha focalizado principalmente en el control de los Molothrus spp parásitos. Durante los pasados 20 años, la captura anual de los Molothrus en las áreas de nidificación de Vireo belli pusillus y Empidonax trailli extimus ha eliminado o reducido el parasitismo en comparación con las tasas

  8. Wood biomass: The potential of willow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, E.H.; Abrahamson, L.P.

    1991-10-01

    Experiments were established in central New York State in spring, 1987, to evaluate the potential of Salix for wood biomass production using ultrashort-rotation intensive-culture techniques. Five selected willow clones and one hybrid poplar clone planted at 1 x 1 foot spacing were tested for biomass production with annual coppicing. This report presents results of this research as of December 31, 1990. (VC)

  9. Short-rotation forestry of birch, maple, poplar and willow in Flanders (Belgium) II. Energy production and CO2 emission reduction potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walle, Inge van de; Camp, Nancy van; Casteele, Liesbet van de; Verheyen, Kris; Lemeur, Raoul

    2007-01-01

    Belgium, being an EU country, has committed itself to a 7.5% reduction of greenhouse gas emissions during the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol. Within this framework, the Flemish government aims at reaching a share of 6% of renewable electricity in the total electricity production by 2010. In this work, the biomass production of birch, maple, poplar and willow in a short-rotation forestry (SRF) plantation after a 4-year growth period served as the base to calculate the amount of (electrical) energy that could be produced by this type of bioenergy crop in Flanders. The maximum amount of electricity that could be provided by SRF biomass was estimated at 72.9 GWh e year -1 , which only accounts for 0.16% of the total electricity production in this region. Although the energy output was rather low, the bioenergy production process under consideration appeared to be more energy efficient than energy production processes based on fossil fuels. The high efficiency of birch compared to the other species was mainly due to the high calorific value of the birch wood. The maximum CO 2 emission reduction potential of SRF plantations in Flanders was estimated at only 0.09% of the total annual CO 2 emission. The most interesting application of SRF in Flanders seemed to be the establishment of small-scale plantations, linked to a local combined heat and power plant. These plantations could be established on marginal arable soils or on polluted sites, and they could be of importance in the densely populated area of Flanders because of other environmental benefits, among which their function as (temporary) habitat for many species

  10. Short-rotation cultivation of fast-growing willows and plantations of Betula pendula, Roth on Hirvineva, a mire formerly used for peat production, in Liminka, Finland. Nopeakasvuisten pajujen (Salix spp. ) lyhytkiertoviljelystae ja rauduskoivun (Betula pendula) viljelystae turvetuotannosta poistuneella suolla, limingan Hirvinevalla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumme, I.; Kiukaanniemi, E.

    1987-01-01

    This report is concerned with afforestation experiments using fast-growing willows (Salix spp.) and silver birch (Betula pendula, Roth) conducted by the Northern Finland Research Institute of the University of Oulu at the site of a mire formerly used for peat production, Hirvineva in the commune of Liminka (62 deg C 45{sup '} N, 23 deg C 30{sup '} E). Experiments were carried out at the early stages of willow cultivation into the use of chemical fertilizers and peat ash, the liming requirement of the soil and the effects of tilling of the soil on growth. Since 1985 efforts have been concentrated on developing new willow clones. Research was also begun into the mycorhiza which develop when willows are cultivated on peat soils. The experiments with Betula pendula were devoted to examining the effects of plantation density and fertilization with peat ash on four-year old saplings.

  11. Fertilization of Willow Coppice Over Three Consecutive 2-Year Rotations—Effects on Biomass Production, Soil Nutrients and Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgiadis, Petros; Sevel, Lisbeth; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    production was determined at harvest, soil solution samples were collected monthly, water fluxes were modelled using CoupModel and nutrient budgets were calculated. The unfertilized control had a mean biomass production of 8.3, 8.3 and 9.5 odt ha−1 year−1, respectively, in the three rotations. This indicated...

  12. Willow coppice systems in short rotation forestry: effects of plant spacing, rotation length and clonal composition on biomass production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willebrand, E.; Ledin, S.; Verwijst, T. (Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Research)

    1993-01-01

    Above ground biomass production was determined for ten Salix clones grown in pure and mixed stands at a square spacing of 1 m and seven rotation periods (1 to 6 and 8 years), and of one clone grown at four square spacings (0.5, 0.6, 0.7 and 1 m), with rotation cycles of 1 to 5 years. Most clones reached a maximum mean annual increment (8 to 14 tons dry matter ha[sup -1] yr[sup -1]) under a rotation period of 4 to 5 years. Densely spaced stands exhibited a higher production than wider spacings during the first harvests under the shortest rotation periods. Neither in later harvests of short cycles (1 to 3 years) nor in any harvests of longer cycles (> 3 years) did spacing affect biomass production. Some clones suffered from leaf rust and grazing by roe deer. Clone mixtures showed a higher biomass production in the later stages due to the compensatory effect of the successful clones which, when growing in mixtures, could fill out the gaps left by individuals that suffered from impacts other than competition. We conclude that extremely short rotations (1 to 2 years) are unsuitable for Swedish conditions, and that 4- to 6-year rotations perform best. In such longer rotations, biomass production of stands with 2 x 10[sup 4] plants per hectare equals the production of denser stands. (Author)

  13. Fertilization of SRC willow. II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sevel, L; Ingerslev, Morten; Nord-Larsen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    impacts of different doses of mineral fertilizer, manure and sewage sludge in a commercially grown SRC willow stand. We examined macro nutrient and heavy metal leaching rates and calculated element balances to evaluate the environmental impact. Growth responses were reported in a former paper (Sevel et al...

  14. Evaluating growth effects from an imidacloprid treatment in black willow and eastern cottonwood cuttings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciano de Sene Fernandes; Ray A. Souter; Theodor D. Leininger

    2015-01-01

    Black willow (Salix nigra Marsh.) and eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides Bartram ex Marsh.), two species native in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley, have importance in short rotation woody crop (SRWC) systems for biomass production (Ruark 2006).

  15. Can energy willow (Salix sp.) remediate cadmium- and nickel-contaminated fish farm sludge?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marianne Bruus

    it meets the criteria. Phytoremediation by willow may combine accumulation of cadmium and nickel from the sludge with the production of an energy crop. The ability of eight selected willow clones to take up and tolerate cadmium and nickel was studied in pots under outdoor conditions. Fish farm sludge...

  16. Simulation modeling to understand how selective foraging by beaver can drive the structure and function of a willow community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peinetti, H.R.; Baker, B.W.; Coughenour, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    Beaver-willow (Castor-Salix) communities are a unique and vital component of healthy wetlands throughout the Holarctic region. Beaver selectively forage willow to provide fresh food, stored winter food, and construction material. The effects of this complex foraging behavior on the structure and function of willow communities is poorly understood. Simulation modeling may help ecologists understand these complex interactions. In this study, a modified version of the SAVANNA ecosystem model was developed to better understand how beaver foraging affects the structure and function of a willow community in a simulated riparian ecosystem in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado (RMNP). The model represents willow in terms of plant and stem dynamics and beaver foraging in terms of the quantity and quality of stems cut to meet the energetic and life history requirements of beaver. Given a site where all stems were equally available, the model suggested a simulated beaver family of 2 adults, 2 yearlings, and 2 kits required a minimum of 4 ha of willow (containing about10 stems m-2) to persist in a steady-state condition. Beaver created a willow community where the annual net primary productivity (ANPP) was 2 times higher and plant architecture was more diverse than the willow community without beaver. Beaver foraging created a plant architecture dominated by medium size willow plants, which likely explains how beaver can increase ANPP. Long-term simulations suggested that woody biomass stabilized at similar values even though availability differed greatly at initial condition. Simulations also suggested that willow ANPP increased across a range of beaver densities until beaver became food limited. Thus, selective foraging by beaver increased productivity, decreased biomass, and increased structural heterogeneity in a simulated willow community.

  17. Drying characteristics of willow chips and stems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gigler, J.K.; Loon, van W.K.P.; Seres, I.; Meerdink, G.; Coumans, W.J.

    2000-01-01

    In supply chains of willow (Salix viminalis) biomass to energy plants, drying is advisable in order to enable safe long-term storage, increase boiler efficiency and reduce gaseous emissions. To gain insight into the drying process, drying characteristics of willow chips and stems were investigated

  18. Characterising willows for biomass and phytoremediation: growth, nitrogen and water use of 14 willow clones under different irrigation and fertilisation regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weih, Martin; Nordh, N.-E.

    2002-01-01

    Fourteen clones of willow (Salix spp.) were characterised in terms of growth, nitrogen and water-use efficiency under different irrigation and fertilisation treatments. Cuttings of willow clones, some commercially introduced and others new material, were pot-grown outdoors in Central Sweden under four experimental treatments in a full-factorial design. The experiment covered the period from bud-break until leaf abscission and the experimental conditions included two irrigation and two fertilisation regimes. The growth of the clones was evaluated in terms of relative growth rate and total biomass production of whole plants and shoots. Nitrogen (N) economy was studied by means of N productivity, N accumulation and N losses by leaf abscission. Water economy was analysed with respect to intrinsic water-use efficiency (foliar carbon isotope ratio; δ 13 C) and the capacity of leaves to retain water (relative water content). Significant differences between clones were found in nearly all parameters measured and the clones varied in the responses to the experimental treatments (clone x factor interaction effects). Thus, clone ranking often changed depending on the experimental treatment. The results are discussed with respect to clone selection for different willow applications such as biomass production and phytoremediation, and willow growth performance under different water and nutrient availabilities. The growth-physiological characterisation of young willows in the short term (several months) is regarded as a suitable approach for pre-selection of promising clones prior to extensive field evaluation

  19. Life cycle assessment of a willow bioenergy cropping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, M.C.; Keoleian, G.A.; Volk, Timothy A.

    2003-01-01

    The environmental performance of willow biomass crop production systems in New York (NY) is analyzed using life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. The base-case, which represents current practices in NY, produces 55 units of biomass energy per unit of fossil energy consumed over the biomass crop's 23-year lifetime. Inorganic nitrogen fertilizer inputs have a strong influence on overall system performance, accounting for 37% of the non-renewable fossil energy input into the system. Net energy ratio varies from 58 to below 40 as a function of fertilizer application rate, but application rate also has implications on the system nutrient balance. Substituting inorganic N fertilizer with sewage sludge biosolids increases the net energy ratio of the willow biomass crop production system by more than 40%. While CO 2 emitted in combusting dedicated biomass is balanced by CO 2 adsorbed in the growing biomass, production processes contribute to the system's net global warming potential. Taking into account direct and indirect fuel use, N 2 O emissions from applied fertilizer and leaf litter, and carbon sequestration in below ground biomass and soil carbon, the net greenhouse gas emissions total 0.68 g CO 2 eq. MJ biomassproduced -1 . Site specific parameters such as soil carbon sequestration could easily offset these emissions resulting in a net reduction of greenhouse gases. Assuming reasonable biomass transportation distance and energy conversion efficiencies, this study implies that generating electricity from willow biomass crops could produce 11 units of electricity per unit of fossil energy consumed. Results form the LCA support the assertion that willow biomass crops are sustainable from an energy balance perspective and contribute additional environmental benefits

  20. COMPACTION STUDIES OF TORREFIED WILLOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Rejdak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of studies of torrefied willow (Salix viminalis L. compaction. Densification tests were performed using a hydraulic press with a maximum pressure of 216 MPa. The effect of basic parameters of the briquetting process (pressure and temperature on mechanical parameters of manufactured briquettes were determined. On the basis of the research, it was found that the increase in pressure and temperature of the densification process increases the density and strength of pressed briquettes. The positive effect of temperature is particularly noticeable at lower pressing pressures (36 MPa – 72 MPa. In the case of a temperature of 300 °C, the increase in a pressure from 144 MPa to 216 MPa resulted in the decrease in the density and strength of the briquette. It was also found that the briquettes manufactured at this temperature are characterized by lower density and strength than the briquettes obtained at a temperature of 200 °C.

  1. Willow Browse Survey 2016 : Biological Summary Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — Browse pressure by ungulate species, primarily elk, is known to have a negative impact on the health of willow stands. On Baca and Alamosa NWR’s, it has been noticed...

  2. Coastal Energy Corporation, Willow Springs, MO

    Science.gov (United States)

    notice of a proposed Administrative Penalty Assessment against Coastal Energy Corporation, located at 232 Burnham Road, Willow Springs, Missouri, for alleged violations at the facility located at or near that facility.

  3. Willow Browse Survey 2015 : Biological Summary Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — Browse pressure by ungulate species, primarily elk, is known to have a negative impact on the health of willow stands. On Baca and Alamosa NWR’s, it has been noticed...

  4. Willow trees from heavy metals phytoextraction as energy crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Šyc, Michal; Pohořelý, Michael; Kameníková, Petra; Habart, Jan; Svoboda, Karel; Punčochář, Miroslav

    2012-01-01

    Phytoextraction ability of some fast growing plant species leads to the idea of connecting biomass production with soil remediation of contaminated industrial zones and regions. This biomass will contain significant amount of heavy metals and its energetic utilization has to be considered carefully to minimize negative environmental impacts. This study was focused on potential disposal methods of willow trees contaminated by heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn) with the emphasis on energetic utilization of biomass. Composting seems to be suitable pre-treatment method resulting in decrease of heavy metals leachability and biomass weight reduction. The possibility of willow trees application for energetic purposes was investigated and consequently incineration tests of willow trees samples in fluidized bed reactor were realized. Distribution of selected heavy metals in different ash fractions and treatment methods of produced ashes were studied as well. -- Highlights: ► Composting is an appropriate pre-treatment method for phytoextraction crops. ► Fluidized bed combustion is suitable disposal method of phytoextraction crops. ► Ashes from phytoextraction crops combustion cannot be used as fertilizers.

  5. Environmental life cycle assessment of producing willow, alfalfa and straw from spring barley as feedstocks for bioenergy or biorefinery systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parajuli, Ranjan; Knudsen, Marie Trydeman; Djomo, Sylvestre Njakou

    2017-01-01

    The current study aimed at evaluating potential environmental impacts for the production of willow, alfalfa and straw from spring barley as feedstocks for bioenergy or biorefinery systems. A method of Life Cycle Assessment was used to evaluate based on the following impact categories: Global...... and land occupation. Environmental impacts for straw were economically allocated from the impacts obtained for spring barley. The results obtained per ton dry matter showed a lower carbon footprint for willow and alfalfa compared to straw. It was due to higher soil carbon sequestration and lower N2O...... emissions. Likewise, willow and alfalfa had lower EP than straw. Straw had lowest NRE use compared to other biomasses. PFWTox was lower in willow and alfalfa compared to straw. A critical negative effect on soil quality was found with the spring barley production and hence for straw. Based on the energy...

  6. Foraging intention affects whether willow tits call to attract members of mixed-species flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Toshitaka N; Kutsukake, Nobuyuki

    2017-06-01

    Understanding how individual behaviour influences the spatial and temporal distribution of other species is necessary to resolve the complex structure of species assemblages. Mixed-species bird flocks provide an ideal opportunity to investigate this issue, because members of the flocks are involved in a variety of behavioural interactions between species. Willow tits ( Poecile montanus ) often produce loud calls when visiting a new foraging patch to recruit other members of mixed-species flocks. The costs and benefits of flocking would differ with individual foraging behaviours (i.e. immediate consumption or caching); thus, willow tits may adjust the production of loud calls according to their foraging intention. In this study, we investigated the link between foraging decisions and calling behaviour in willow tits and tested its influence on the temporal cohesion with members of mixed-species flocks. Observations at experimental foraging patches showed that willow tits produced more calls when they consumed food items compared with when they cached them. Playback experiments revealed that these calls attracted flock members and helped to maintain their presence at foraging patches. Thus, willow tits adjusted calling behaviour according to their foraging intention, thereby coordinating the associations with members of mixed-species flocks. Our findings demonstrate the influence of individual decision-making on temporal cohesion with other species and highlight the importance of interspecific communication in mixed-species flocking dynamics.

  7. Yield and Water Quality Impacts of Field-Scale Integration of Willow into a Continuous Corn Rotation System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumpf, Colleen; Ssegane, Herbert; Negri, Maria Cristina; Campbell, Patty; Cacho, Julian

    2017-07-01

    Agricultural landscape design has gained recognition by the international environmental and development community as a strategy to address multiple goals in land, water, and ecosystem service management; however, field research is needed to quantify impacts on specific local environments. The production of bioenergy crops in specific landscape positions within a grain-crop field can serve the dual purpose of producing cellulosic biomass (nutrient recovery) while also providing regulating ecosystem services to improve water quality (nutrient reduction). The effectiveness of such a landscape design was evaluated by the strategic placement of a 0.8-ha short-rotation shrub willow ( Seemen) bioenergy buffer along marginal soils in a 6.5-ha corn ( L.) field in a 6-yr field study in central Illinois. The impact of willow integration on water quality (soil water, shallow groundwater leaching, and crop nutrient uptake) and quantity (soil moisture and transpiration) was monitored in comparison with corn in the willow's first cycle of growth. Willows significantly reduced nitrate leachate in shallow subsurface water by 88% while maintaining adequate nutrient and water usage. Results suggest that willows offer an efficient nutrient-reduction strategy and may provide additional ecosystem services and benefits, including enhanced soil health. However, low values for calculated willow biomass will need to be readdressed in the future as harvest data become available to understand contributing factors that affected productivity beyond nutrient availability. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  8. Environmental applications of poplars and willows

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.G. Isebrands; P. Aronsson; M. Carlson; R. Ceulemans; M. Coleman; N. Dickinson; J. Dimitriou; S. Doty; E. Gardiner; K. Heinsoo; J.D. Johnson; Y.B. Koo; J. Kort; J. Kuzovkina; L. Licht; A.R. McCracken; I. McIvor; P. Mertens; K. Perttu; D. Riddell-Black; B. Robins; G. Scarascia-Mugnozza; W.R. Schroeder; John Stanturf; T.A. Volk; M. Weih

    2014-01-01

    Poplars and willows have been planted for environmental purposes for millennia. There are reports that poplars were planted to improve the human environment 4000 years ago in the third dynasty of Ur, for streamside stabilization 2000 years ago in what is now the south-western USA by native North Americans and for urban amenities by the early Chinese dynasties (see...

  9. Erratum to: Fertilization of SRC Willow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sevel, L; Ingerslev, Morten; Nord-Larsen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    impacts of different doses of mineral fertilizer, manure and sewage sludge in a commercially grown SRC willow stand. We examined macro nutrient and heavy metal leaching rates and calculated element balances to evaluate the environmental impact. Growth responses were reported in a former paper (Sevel et al...

  10. The use of short rotation willows and poplars for the recycling of saline waste waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaconette Mirck; Ronald S. Jr. Zalesny; Ioannis Dimitriou; Jill A. Zalesny; Timothy A. Volk; Warren E. Mabee

    2009-01-01

    The production of high-salinity waste waters by landfills and other waste sites causes environmental concerns. This waste water often contains high concentrations of sodium and chloride, which may end up in local ground and surface waters. Vegetation filter systems comprised of willows and poplars can be used for the recycling of saline waste water. These vegetation...

  11. Irrigation water quality influences heavy metal uptake by willows in biosolids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidlaw, W Scott; Baker, Alan J M; Gregory, David; Arndt, Stefan K

    2015-05-15

    Phytoextraction is an effective method to remediate heavy metal contaminated landscapes but is often applied for single metal contaminants. Plants used for phytoextraction may not always be able to grow in drier environments without irrigation. This study investigated if willows (Salix x reichardtii A. Kerner) can be used for phytoextraction of multiple metals in biosolids, an end-product of the wastewater treatment process, and if irrigation with reclaimed and freshwater influences the extraction process. A plantation of willows was established directly onto a tilled stockpile of metal-contaminated biosolids and irrigated with slightly saline reclaimed water (EC ∼2 dS/cm) at a wastewater processing plant in Victoria, Australia. Biomass was harvested annually and analysed for heavy metal content. Phytoextraction of cadmium, copper, nickel and zinc was benchmarked against freshwater irrigated willows. The minimum irrigation rate of 700 mm per growing season was sufficient for willows to grow and extract metals. Increasing irrigation rates produced no differences in total biomass and also no differences in the extraction of heavy metals. The reclaimed water reduced both the salinity and the acidity of the biosolids significantly within the first 12 months after irrigation commenced and after three seasons the salinity of the biosolids had dropped to metal extraction. Reclaimed water irrigation reduced the biosolid pH and this was associated with reductions of the extraction of Ni and Zn, it did not influence the extraction of Cu and enhanced the phytoextraction of Cd, which was probably related to the high chloride content of the reclaimed water. Our results demonstrate that flood-irrigation with reclaimed water was a successful treatment to grow willows in a dry climate. However, the reclaimed water can also change biosolids properties, which will influence the effectiveness of willows to extract different metals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  12. Community outreach and education: key components of the Salix consortium's willow biomass project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volk, T.A.; Edick, S.; Brown, S.; Downing, M.

    1999-01-01

    This project facilitates the commercialization of willow biomass crops as a locally grown source of renewable energy. The challenge is to simultaneously optimize production and utilization technology, develop farmer interest and crop acreage, and establish stable and reliable markets. The participation of farmers and landowners, businesses, and local and regional governments in the process is essential for success. A three-phased approach elicits this participation: focused outreach and education, active involvement of potential producers of willow biomass crops, and the development of a user-friendly economic and business model that can be used by a variety of stakeholders. Barriers to commercialization have been identified, such as misconceptions about the production system and crop, assurances of a stable and reliable market for the material, and indications that the equipment and infrastructure to grow and process willow biomass crops are in place. Outreach efforts have specifically addressed these issues. As a result target audiences' responses have changed from passive observation to inquiries and suggestions for active participation. This shift represents a significant step towards the goal of making willow biomass crops a viable source of locally produced fuel. (author)

  13. Differential effects of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) on photosynthesis and chlorophyll metabolism in willow plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Marcelo Pedrosa; Le Manac'h, Sarah Gingras; Maccario, Sophie; Labrecque, Michel; Lucotte, Marc; Juneau, Philippe

    2016-06-01

    We used a willow species (Salix miyabeana cultivar SX64) to examine the differential secondary-effects of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), the principal glyphosate by-product, on chlorophyll metabolism and photosynthesis. Willow plants were treated with different concentrations of glyphosate (equivalent to 0, 1.4, 2.1 and 2.8kgha(-1)) and AMPA (equivalent to 0, 0.28, 1.4 and 2.8kgha(-1)) and evaluations of pigment contents, chlorophyll fluorescence, and oxidative stress markers (hydrogen peroxide content and antioxidant enzyme activities) in leaves were performed after 12h of exposure. We observed that AMPA and glyphosate trigger different mechanisms leading to decreases in chlorophyll content and photosynthesis rates in willow plants. Both chemicals induced ROS accumulation in willow leaves although only glyphosate-induced oxidative damage through lipid peroxidation. By disturbing chlorophyll biosynthesis, AMPA induced decreases in chlorophyll contents, with consequent effects on photosynthesis. With glyphosate, ROS increases were higher than the ROS-sensitive threshold, provoking chlorophyll degradation (as seen by pheophytin accumulation) and invariable decreases in photosynthesis. Peroxide accumulation in both AMPA and glyphosate-treated plants was due to the inhibition of antioxidant enzyme activities. The different effects of glyphosate on chlorophyll contents and photosynthesis as described in the literature may be due to various glyphosate:AMPA ratios in those plants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Phytotoxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to willow trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, R.S.; Trapp, Stefan

    2002-01-01

    The toxicity of PAH to willow trees (Salix alba, S. viminalis, S. viminalisx;schwerinii) was investigated. Willow cuttings were grown in PAH-saturated hydroponic solution (naphthalene NAP, phenanthrene PHEN and benzo(a)pyrene BaP). Toxicity was related to aqueous solubility and was highest for NAP...

  15. Adsorption Property and Mechanism of Oxytetracycline onto Willow Residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available To elucidate the adsorption property and the mechanism of plant residues to reduce oxytetracycline (OTC, the adsorption of OTC onto raw willow roots (WR-R, stems (WS-R, leaves (WL-R, and adsorption onto desugared willow roots (WR-D, stems (WS-D, and leaves (WL-D were investigated. The structural characterization was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectra, and an elemental analyzer. OTC adsorption onto the different tissues of willow residues was compared and correlated with their structures. The adsorption kinetics of OTC onto willow residues was found to follow the pseudo-first-order model. The isothermal adsorption process of OTC onto the different tissues of willow residues followed the Langmuir and Freundlich model and the process was also a spontaneous endothermic reaction, which was mainly physical adsorption. After the willow residues were desugared, the polarity decreased and the aromaticity increased, which explained why the adsorption amounts of the desugared willow residues were higher than those of the unmodified residues. These observations suggest that the raw and modified willow residues have great potential as adsorbents to remove organic pollutants.

  16. Status, ecology, and conservation of the southwestern willow flycatcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch; Scott H. Stoleson

    2000-01-01

    This publication was prepared in response to a need expressed by southwestern agencies and organizations for a comprehensive assessment of the population status, history, biology, ecology, habitats, threats, and conservation of the southwestern willow flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus). The southwestern willow flycatcher was federally listed as...

  17. Puente Willow Creek en Monterrey, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial, Equipo

    1965-09-01

    Full Text Available Of the 10 awards given every year by the Prestressed Concrete Institute for the most outstanding prestressed concrete projects, two have been awarded in California this year, one of them to the Willow Creek bridge, near Monterrey. The prestressed, double T girders of this bridge were made at a workshop, a great distance from the bridge site. These are 24 m long, 1.35 m high, and are stabilized by transversal diaphragms, 20 cm in thickness. The table deck is of reinforced concrete, being 8.85 m wide and 20 cm thick. The structure is straightforward, slender, and adapts itself pleasantly to the background. It has seven spans and crosses over a secondary road, in addition to bridging the Willow stream. The supporting piles are hollow, of rectangular cross section, and over them a cross beam carries the five girders and the deck itself. The end abutments consist of vertical reinforced concrete walls, and supporting, soil filled, structures. The above information was supplied by the California Road Department.De los diez premios que anualmente concede el Prestressed Concrete Institute para las obras de hormigón pretensado más notables, dos han correspondido a California y uno de ellos al puente de Willow Creek, situado en la región de Monterrey. Las vigas de hormigón pretensado, con sección en forma de doble T, se prefabricaron en un taller situado a gran distancia del puente. Tienen 24 m de longitud y 1,35 m de canto, estando arriostradas con diafragmas transversales de 20 cm de espesor. La losa del tablero, de hormigón armado, tiene 8,85 m de anchura y 20 cm de espesor. La estructura es sencilla, esbelta y armoniza perfectamente con el paisaje que la circunda. Tiene siete tramos y salva un paso inferior secundario y el arroyo Willow. Los soportes, se apoyan sobre pilotes, algunos de gran altura; son huecos, de sección rectangular y terminan en una cruceta que sirve de sostén a las cinco vigas que soportan la losa del tablero. Los estribos

  18. Wastewater purification in a willow plantation. The case study at Aarike

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuusemets, V.; Mauring, T.

    1996-01-01

    In order to combine wastewater purification and biomass production for energy purposes, a willow plantation for wastewater treatment was established in 1995 in Aarike, Southern Estonia. Wastewater from a dwelling house (25 person equivalents, pe) is treated in a combined free-water filter system consisting of three separate basins, isolated with clay and having filter beds of gravel and sand mixture. The beds were planted with Salix viminalis. At the end of the first growing season, the purification efficiency of the newly established treatment system was 65% for BOD 7 , 43% for nitrogen and 11% for phosphorus removal. At the end of the establishment year, the above ground production of willow stems (bark and wood) and leaves was 1.3 and 0.3 t ha -1 , respectively. The figures are about three to five times higher than those recorded in previously established energy forest plantations of comparable ages in Estonia. 15 refs, 2 figs

  19. The potential of willow and poplar plantations as carbon sinks in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rytter, Rose-Marie

    2012-01-01

    A large share, estimated at 12–25%, of the annual anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions is attributed to global deforestation. Increasing the forested areas therefore has a positive impact on carbon (C) sequestration and mitigation of high atmospheric CO 2 concentrations. Fast-growing species, such as willow and poplar, are of high interest as producers of biomass for fuel, but also as C sinks. The present study estimated the rate of C sequestration in biomass and soil in willow and poplar plantations. Calculations were based on above- and below-ground biomass production data from field experiments, including fine root turnover, litter decomposition rates, and production levels from commercial plantations. Accumulation of C in woody biomass, above and below ground, was estimated at 76.6–80.1 Mg C ha −1 and accumulation of C in the soil at 9.0–10.3 Mg C ha −1 over the first 20–22 years. The average rates of C sequestration were 3.5–4.0 Mg C ha −1 yr −1 in woody biomass, and 0.4–0.5 Mg C ha −1 yr −1 in the soil. If 400,000 ha of abandoned arable land in Sweden were planted with willow and poplar, about 1.5 Tg C would be sequestered annually in woody biomass and 0.2 Tg C in soils. This would be nearly one tenth of the annual anthropogenic emissions of C in Sweden today. These calculations show the potential of fast-growing plantations on arable land to mitigate the effect of high CO 2 concentrations over a short time span. Knowledge gaps were found during the calculation process and future research areas were suggested. -- Highlights: ► Poplars and willows as producers of biomass for fuel and as C sinks. ► Calculation of C sequestration rates in biomass and soil in willow and poplar plantations. ► Increasing forested areas has positive impact on high CO 2 levels. ► Willow and poplar plantations on arable land mitigate anthropogenic CO 2 emissions.

  20. Quality Testing of Short Rotation Coppice Willow Cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Heinsoo

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The production and feasibility of Short Rotation Coppice depend on cutting early performance. The shoot and root biomass production of Salix cuttings in hydroponic conditions was studied. The amount of sprouted biomass after four weeks of growth depended on cutting the diameter, but the original position of the cutting along the rod or number of visible buds was not in correlation with biomass produced. Application of mineral fertilizer or soil originating from the willow plantation did not increase the total production. On the contrary, the addition of soil tended to decrease biomass production and we assumed this was a result of a shortage of light. Under the influence of fertilization, plants allocated greater biomass to roots. Comparison of different clones revealed that those with S. dasyclados genes tended to allocate less biomass to roots and the poorest-performing clone in our experiment, also had the lowest wood production in the plantation. The number of visible buds on the cutting was also clone-specific.

  1. A phytotoxicity test using transpiration of willows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trapp, Stefan; Zambrano, Kim Cecilia; Kusk, Kresten Ole

    2000-01-01

    is expressed as % decrease after 48 and 72 h or longer compared to the initial transpiration, divided by the transpiration of control plants. More toxicity parameters are growth and water use efficiency of the plants. The sensitivity of the test was evaluated with 3,5-dichlorophenol. EC50 values between 5......A short-term acute toxicity assay for willow trees growing in contaminated solution or in polluted soil was developed and tested. The test apparatus consists of an Erlenmeyer flask with a prerooted tree cutting growing in it. Growth and reduction of transpiration are used to determine toxicity....... Transpiration is closely related to photosynthesis and growth, but is easier and faster to measure and can be measured without disturbance of the test system. Plants are grown for 24 h in uncontaminated nutrient solution before the toxicant is added to determine the initial transpiration. The loss of weight...

  2. 21st Session of the International Poplar Commission (IPC-2000): poplar and willow culture: meeting the needs of society and the environment; 200 September 24-28; Vancouver, WA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.G. Isebrands; J. Richardson

    2000-01-01

    Research results and ongoing research activities on poplar and willow breeding, diseases, insects, production, and utilization are described in 220 abstracts from the International Poplar Commission meeting in Vancouver, Washington, September 24-28, 2000.

  3. Predictive models of biomass for poplar and willow. Short rotation coppice in the United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brewer, A.C.; Morgan, G.W.; Poole, E.J.; Baldwin, M.E.; Tubby, I. (Biometrics, Surveys and Statistics Division, Forest Research, Farnham (United Kingdom))

    2007-07-01

    A series of forty-nine experimental trials on short rotation coppice (SRC) were conducted throughout the United Kingdom using a selection of varieties of poplar and willow with the aim of evaluating their performance for wood fuel production under a representative range of UK conditions. Observations on the crops and on a range of site and climatic conditions during the growth of the crops were taken over two three-year cutting cycles. These observations were used to develop a suite of empirical models for poplar and willow SRC growth and yield from which systems were constructed to provide a- priori predictions of biomass yield for any site in the UK with known characteristics (predictive yield models), and estimates of biomass yield from a standing crop (standing biomass models). The structure of the series of field trials and the consequent approach and methodology used in the construction of the suite of empirical models are described, and their use in predicting biomass yields of poplar and willow SRC is discussed. (orig.)

  4. Comparing predicted yield and yield stability of willow and Miscanthus across Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Søren; Jaiswal, Deepak; Bentsen, Niclas Scott

    2016-01-01

    was 12.1 Mg DM ha−1 yr−1 for willow and 10.2 Mg DM ha−1 yr−1 for Miscanthus. Coefficent of variation as a measure for yield stability was poorest on the sandy soils of northern and western Jutland and the year-to-year variation in yield was greatest on these soils. Willow was predicted to outyield...... Miscanthus on poor, sandy soils whereas Miscanthus was higher yielding on clay-rich soils. The major driver of yield in both crops was variation in soil moisture, with radiation and precipitation exerting less influence. This is the first time these two major feedstocks for northern Europe have been compared....... The semi-mechanistic crop model BioCro was used to simulate the production of both short rotation coppice (SRC) willow and Miscanthus across Denmark. Predictions were made from high spatial resolution soil data and weather records across this area for 1990-2010. The potential average, rain-fed mean yield...

  5. Environmental influence of willow coppice systems on farm land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledin, S.

    1997-01-01

    As for all cultivated crops, there are numerous environmental influences when growing willows. These influences are connected with additions to the soil, management measures and changes caused by the developing crop. As a perennial crop with good root penetration into the soil, high water use and efficient nutrient uptake over a long growing season, short rotation forests with willows have an influence on the environment that differs from the influence of annual farm crops. Also the landscape is affected differently by the dense willow stand with a height of seven meters before harvest. There is usually less use of herbicides in the perennial woody crop. Due to larger amounts of litter from the willow plantation and no tillage, there is with time an increase of the humus content in the soil. In relation to this, the soil fauna, using organic material for food, prosper in the short rotation forest. Considerably more cadmium is taken up by the willows than by conventional annual crops. This could be used to clean the soil of cadmium, but more knowledge is needed for the optimisation of this procedure. Willows are usually efficient in taking up nutrients, including nitrogen, but when used as vegetation filters it is important to assess the actual ability of a stand to take up N. This ability varies considerably with the development stage of the plantation and also with site conditions. (au) 30 refs

  6. Evaluating the impact of three incentive programs on the economics of cofiring willow biomass with coal in New York State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tharakan, P.J.; Volk, T.A.; Lindsey, C.A.; Abrahamson, L.P.; White, E.H.

    2005-01-01

    Plantations of fast-growing willow shrubs are being promoted as a source quality biomass feedstock for bioenergy and bioproducts in New York State (NY). In the near-term, cofiring of the feedstock--in combination with other woody biomass--with coal in existing utility power boilers is considered to be the most promising conversion method for energy generation. Despite the clear technological viability and associated environmental benefits, cofiring of willow has not been widely adopted. The relatively high production cost of the willow feedstock, which is over twice that of coal, is the primary reason for this lack of interest. Taxes that account for some of the social costs of using coal and/or incentives that appropriate value for some of the social benefits of using willow are essential for eliminating most or the entire current price differential. This paper presents an integrated analysis of the economics of power generation from cofiring willow biomass feedstock with coal, from the perspective of the grower, aggregator and the power plant. Emphasis is placed on analyzing the relative impact of a green premium price, a closed-loop biomass tax credit, and payments to growers under the proposed Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) harvesting exemption policy. The CRP payments reduced the delivered cost of willow by 36-35%, to $1.90 GJ -1 and $1.70 GJ -1 , under current and increased yield conditions, respectively. These prices are still high, relative to coal. Other incentives are required to ensure commercial viability. The required levels of green premium price (0.4-1.0 cents kWh -1 ) and biomass tax credit (0.75-2.4 cents kWh -1 ) vary depending on whether the incentives were being applied by themselves or in combination, and whether current yield or potential increased yields were being considered. In the near term, cofiring willow biomass and coal can be an economically viable option for power generation in NY if the expected overall beneficial effects

  7. Songbird response to increased willow (Salix spp.) growth in Yellowstone's northern range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baril, Lisa M; Hansen, Andrew J; Renkin, Roy; Lawrence, Rick

    2011-09-01

    After nearly a century of height suppression, willows (Salix spp.) in the northern range of Yellowstone National Park, U.S.A., are increasing in height growth as a possible consequence of wolf (Canis lupus) restoration, climate change, or other factors. Regardless of the drivers, the recent release of this rare but important habitat type could have significant implications for associated songbirds that are exhibiting declines in the region. Our objective was to evaluate bird response to releasing willows by comparing willow structure and bird community composition across three willow growth conditions: height suppressed, recently released, and previously tall (i.e., tall prior to the height increase of released willows). Released and previously tall willows exhibited high and similar vertical structure, but released willows were significantly lower in horizontal structure. Suppressed willows were significantly shorter and lower in horizontal cover than released or previously tall willows. Bird richness increased along a gradient from lowest in suppressed to highest in previously tall willows, but abundance and diversity were similar between released and previously tall willows, despite lower horizontal cover in the released condition. Common Yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas) and Lincoln's Sparrow (Melospiza lincolnii) were found in all three growth conditions; however, Yellow Warbler (Dendroica petechia), Warbling Vireo (Vireo gilvus), Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii), and Song Sparrow (Melospiza melodii) were present in released and previously tall willows only. Wilson's Warbler (Wilsonia pusilla) was found in previously tall willows only, appearing to specialize on tall, dense willows. The results of our a priori habitat models indicated that foliage height diversity was the primary driver of bird richness, abundance, and diversity. These results indicate that vertical structure was a more important driver of bird community variables than horizontal

  8. Climate impact and energy efficiency from electricity generation through anaerobic digestion or direct combustion of short rotation coppice willow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericsson, Niclas; Nordberg, Åke; Sundberg, Cecilia; Ahlgren, Serina; Hansson, Per-Anders

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Using LCA, CHP from willow use in biogas was compared with direct combustion. • Direct combustion was ninefold more energy-efficient. • Biogas had a much greater cooling effect on global mean surface temperature. • The effects of soil carbon changes on temperature over time differed. • Biogas had long-term temperature effects, direct combustion short-term effects. - Abstract: Short rotation coppice willow is an energy crop used in Sweden to produce electricity and heat in combined heat and power plants. Recent laboratory-scale experiments have shown that SRC willow can also be used for biogas production in anaerobic digestion processes. Here, life cycle assessment is used to compare the climate impact and energy efficiency of electricity and heat generated by these measures. All energy inputs and greenhouse gas emissions, including soil organic carbon fluxes were included in the life cycle assessment. The climate impact was determined using time-dependent life cycle assessment methodology. Both systems showed a positive net energy balance, but the direct combustion system delivered ninefold more energy than the biogas system. Both systems had a cooling effect on the global mean surface temperature change. The cooling impact per hectare from the biogas system was ninefold higher due to the carbon returned to soil with the digestate. Compensating the lower energy production of the biogas system with external energy sources had a large impact on the result, effectively determining whether the biogas scenario had a net warming or cooling contribution to the global mean temperature change per kWh of electricity. In all cases, the contribution to global warming was lowered by the inclusion of willow in the energy system. The use of time-dependent climate impact methodology shows that extended use of short rotation coppice willow can contribute to counteract global warming

  9. Phytotoxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to willow trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thygesen, R.S.; Trapp, S. [Environment and Resources DTU, Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark)

    2002-07-01

    The toxicity of PAH to willow trees (Salix alba, S. viminalis, S. viminalis x schwerinii) was investigated. Willow cuttings were grown in PAH-saturated hydroponic solution (naphthalene NAP, phenanthrene PHEN and benzo(a)pyrene BaP). Toxicity was related to aqueous solubility and was highest for NAP. PHEN did not show significant effects, except in one case. Exposure of trees to BaP showed no effect in two cases, but increased transpiration and growth in two others. High dosages of NAP were fatal for the trees, the lowest dosage significantly stimulated growth. Soil samples were taken from several PAH contaminated sites, among them gas works sites and a former sludge basin. The PAH contents ranged from 1.76 mg/kg to 1451 mg/kg. None of the soils was lethally toxic to the trees, and difference between growth in control soils and growth in PAH contaminated soils was not apparent. Growth and water use efficiency were positively, but not significantly correlated to the PAH content of the soils. Outdoor growth of willows and poplars on the former sludge basin in Valby was monitored, with willows growing faster than poplars (Populus trichocarpa). Phytotoxic effects could be observed at some willows at the Valby sludge basin, but it is not sure whether these effects can be contributed to PAH. (orig.)

  10. Competition favors elk over beaver in a riparian willow ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, B.W.; Peinetti, H.R.; Coughenour, M.C.; Johnson, T.L.

    2012-01-01

    Beaver (Castor spp.) conservation requires an understanding of their complex interactions with competing herbivores. Simulation modeling offers a controlled environment to examine long-term dynamics in ecosystems driven by uncontrollable variables. We used a new version of the SAVANNA ecosystem model to investigate beaver (C. Canadensis) and elk (Cervus elapses) competition for willow (Salix spp.). We initialized the model with field data from Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, USA, to simulate a 4-ha riparian ecosystem containing beaver, elk, and willow. We found beaver persisted indefinitely when elk density was or = 30 elk km_2. The loss of tall willow preceded rapid beaver declines, thus willow condition may predict beaver population trajectory in natural environments. Beaver were able to persist with slightly higher elk densities if beaver alternated their use of foraging sites in a rest-rotation pattern rather than maintained continuous use. Thus, we found asymmetrical competition for willow strongly favored elk over beaver in a simulated montane ecosystem. Finally, we discuss application of the SAVANNA model and mechanisms of competition relative to beaver persistence as metapopulations, ecological resistance and alternative state models, and ecosystem regulation.

  11. Above- and Belowground Development of a Fast-Growing Willow Planted in Acid-Generating Mine Technosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guittonny-Larchevêque, M; Lortie, S

    2017-11-01

    Surface metal mining produces large volumes of waste rocks. If they contain sulfide minerals, these rocks can generate a flow of acidic water from the mining site, known as acid mine drainage (AMD), which increases trace metals availability for plant roots. Adequate root development is crucial to decreasing planting stress and improving phytoremediation with woody species. However, techniques to improve revegetation success rarely take into account root development. An experiment was conducted at a gold mine in Quebec, Canada, to evaluate the establishment ability over 3 yr of a fast-growing willow ( Sx64) planted in acid-generating waste rocks. The main objective was to study root development in the soil profile and trace element accumulation in leaves among substrates varying in thickness (0, 20, and 40 cm of soil) and composition (organic carbon [OC] and alkaline AMD treatment sludge). Trees directly planted in waste rocks survived well (69%) but had the lowest productivity (lowest growth in height and diameter, aerial biomass, total leaf area, and root-system size). By contrast, the treatment richer in OC showed the greatest aerial biomass and total leaf area the first year; the thicker treatment resulted in the greatest growth in height and diameter, aboveground biomass, and root-system size in both the first and third years. Willow root development was restricted to soil layers during the first year, but this restriction was overcome in the third year after planting. Willow accumulation factors in leaves were below one for all investigated trace metals except for zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), and strontium. For Cd and Zn, concentrations increased with time in willow foliage, decreasing the potential of this willow species use for phytostabilization, despite its ability to rapidly develop extensive root systems in the mine Technosol. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  12. Uptake, metabolism, accumulation and toxicity of cyanide in willow trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten; Ucisik, Ahmed Süheyl; Trapp, Stefan

    2005-01-01

    Chemicals taken up into plants may be accumulated so leading to toxic effects. Uptake and phytotoxicity of free cyanide was determined with the willow-tree transpiration test. Willow sets were grown in sand and irrigated with varying levels of cyanide (CN). Toxicity was determined by measuring...... transpiration. At CN concentrations below 10 mg/L, no toxic effects were observed. At 20 mg/L, transpiration was reduced to approximately 50% after 96 h. With 30, 40 and 50 mg/L, the transpiration decreased with a similar rate to cyanide in plant...... tissue was observed at 40 and 50 mg/L. The kinetics of metabolism of cyanide by roots, stems and leaves of willows was determined by the closed-bottle metabolism test. The Michaelis−Menten parameters vmax and KM (maximal metabolic velocity and half-saturation constant, respectively) were determined...

  13. Development of short-rotation willow coppice systems for environmental purposes in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirck, Jaconette; Verwijst, Theo; Isebrands, J.G.; Ledin, Stig

    2005-01-01

    During the last three decades, driving forces behind the development of short-rotation willow coppice (SRWC) in Sweden have been changing from a primary focus on biomass production towards emphasis on environmental applications. In most cases, current commercial SRWC practice is geared towards a combination of biomass production for energy purposes and environmental goals. The latter goals range from decreasing the impact of specific contaminants in the environment to organic waste handling in a recycling system in urban and/or agricultural areas. Where biomass production and pollutant management overlap, the science of phytoremediation has its practical application. Through phytoremediation, waste products that previously have been a burden for society can be used as valuable resources to increase short-rotation willow biomass production. In this paper we will present the terminology and definitions of different types of phytoremediation. We also give an overview of five different cases of phytoremediation activities with a potential for large-scale implementation. Some of the types of activities are already commercially used in Sweden; others seem promising but still need further development. (Author)

  14. Biomass yield and fuel characteristics of short-rotation coppice (willow, poplar, empress tree)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, J.; Vetter, R. [Institute for Land Management Compatible to Environmental Requirements, Muellheim (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    In two pedo-climatic different regions in the state of Baden-Wuerttemberg three shortrotation coppices willow, poplar and empress tree were tested with regard to their biomass productivity on arable land and to their properties for energetic use. Between 8 and 13 tons of dry matter per hectare and year could be produced under extensive cultivation conditions, over 15 tons with irrigation. Due to their composition, it can be assumed that their use as solid fuel in a biomass combustor is just as unproblematic as with forest timber. (orig.)

  15. The silviculture, nutrition and economics of short rotation willow coppice in the uplands of mid-Wales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heaton, R J; Randerson, P F; Slater, F M

    2000-07-01

    The potential of short rotation coppice as a biomass crop on land over 250m (the uplands) of mid Wales was studied. The results found in this study indicate that growing short rotation coppice willow in the uplands is a viable proposition with regard to establishment success and yields. In the event of a secure wood chip market in Wales, returns to the grower would be comparable to those from sheep production. (author)

  16. Yield of tannin willows on ravine areas in the Central Forest Steppe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidorov, A I

    1981-01-01

    A note on the performance of 12 species of willow grown in a plantation on leached chernozem soils, to provide bark rich in tannins. The plantation was established by cuttings (25 cm long) at a spacing of 2.5 x 0.5 metres for the tree willows and 2.5 x 0.75 metres for the bush willows. Bark yields were determined at 7-8 years. The greatest yields were obtained from Salix smithiana, S. stipularis and S. acuminata: 12.0, 10.8 and 10.2 t/hectare respectively. Data on tannin yields are tabulated. Fellings for bark harvesting can be made every 5 years in plantations of bush willows and every 7 years in plantations of tree willows. The plantations can be used for 30 year with bush willows and for 50 years with tree willows.

  17. Radiocaesium uptake and cycling in willow short rotation coppice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gommers, A.

    2002-01-01

    The document is an abstract of a PhD thesis. The study investigates the uptake and cycling of radiocaesium in willow short rotation coppice. Different factors influencing the soil-to-wood transfer of radiocaesium were investigated, among others the type of minerals, supply of potassium and soil composition

  18. Willow on Yellowstone's northern range: evidence for a trophic cascade?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Hawthorne L; Merrill, Evelyn H; Varley, Nathan; Boyce, Mark S

    2007-09-01

    Reintroduction of wolves (Canis lupus) to Yellowstone National Park in 1995-1996 has been argued to promote a trophic cascade by altering elk (Cervus elaphus) density, habitat-selection patterns, and behavior that, in turn, could lead to changes within the plant communities used by elk. We sampled two species of willow (Salix boothii and S. geyeriana) on the northern winter range to determine whether (1) there was quantitative evidence of increased willow growth following wolf reintroduction, (2) browsing by elk affected willow growth, and (3) any increase in growth observed was greater than that expected by climatic and hydrological factors alone, thereby indicating a trophic cascade caused by wolves. Using stem sectioning techniques to quantify historical growth patterns we found an approximately twofold increase in stem growth-ring area following wolf reintroduction for both species of willow. This increase could not be explained by climate and hydrological factors alone; the presence of wolves on the landscape was a significant predictor of stem growth above and beyond these abiotic factors. Growth-ring area was positively correlated with the previous year's ring area and negatively correlated with the percentage of twigs browsed from the stem during the winter preceding growth, indicating that elk browse impeded stem growth. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis of a behaviorally mediated trophic cascade on Yellowstone's northern winter range following wolf reintroduction. We suggest that the community-altering effects of wolf restoration are an endorsement of ecological-process management in Yellowstone National Park.

  19. Wind in the Willows--Theatre Activity Packet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    Part of the New York City Board of Education's Early Stages program, and intended for elementary and secondary school teachers who wish to include a unit on theater in their classes, this guide offers suggestions for lessons and activities to accompany viewing a performance of "Wind in the Willows" at the Nederlander Theater. Part one of…

  20. "The Wind in the Willows" and the Style of Romance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, R. B.

    2012-01-01

    The style of Kenneth Grahame's "The Wind in the Willows" arises from an alternative vision and choice of values characteristic of romance. Romance seeks fulfillment beyond the consequences of everyday relationships and the constrictions of ordinary life. Causal relationships give way to lists of independent items, unmotivated outcomes, and…

  1. Storage and handling of willow from short rotation coppice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kofman, P. D.; Spinelli, R.

    1997-07-01

    During the project two main storage and drying trials were organised. The first trial in 1996 consisted of 14 piles of 6 different size material (whole shoots, via 200 mm chunk, 100 mm chunk, 50 mm chip, 28 mm chips, 25 mm chips) and six different methods of covering: Open air storage, storage under plastic cover, storage under top-cover, airtight storage, unventilated storage under roof, and intermittent ventilation (cooling) under roof. The drying trial in 1997 which consisted of four piles was established in Horsens in the same building as the ventilated trials the year before. Only Austoft 50 mm chips were used for this trial. The four piles were established in February and removed in May. Based on all the results of the trials the following conclusions can be drawn: Storage of willow from short rotation coppice is very difficult. Fine chips, such as producted by the two main harvesting machines Claas and Austoft are not suitable for storage over prolonged periods of time (more than 2 months); fine chips loose a large amount of dry matter and a lot of their lower heating value; fine chips also have a heavy infestation of micro-organisms which might cause working environment problems; short rotation coppice is best delivered straight into the heating plants during harvest; if short rotation coppice has to be stored, then this should be done as whole shoots or large chunk; if short rotation coppice has to be stored as chips for a longer period of time (more than two months), then these chips should be sealed airtight as silage. (EG) EFP-94; EFP-95; EFP-96. 10 refs.

  2. Transcriptomic Response of Purple Willow (Salix purpurea to Arsenic Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aymeric Yanitch

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic (As is a toxic element for plants and one of the most common anthropogenic pollutants found at contaminated sites. Despite its severe effects on plant metabolism, several species can accumulate substantial amounts of arsenic and endure the associated stress. However, the genetic mechanisms involved in arsenic tolerance remains obscure in many model plant species used for land decontamination (phytoremediation, including willows. The present study assesses the potential of Salix purpurea cv. ‘Fish Creek’ for arsenic phytoextraction and reveals the genetic responses behind arsenic tolerance, phytoextraction and metabolism. Four weeks of hydroponic exposure to 0, 5, 30 and 100 mg/L revealed that plants were able to tolerate up to 5 mg/L arsenic. Concentrations of 0 and 5 mg/L of arsenic treatment were then used to compare alterations in gene expression of roots, stems and leaves using RNA sequencing. Differential gene expression revealed transcripts encoding proteins putatively involved in entry of arsenic into the roots, storage in vacuoles and potential transport through the plant as well as primary and secondary (indirect toxicity tolerance mechanisms. A major role for tannin as a compound used to relieve cellular toxicity is implicated as well as unexpected expression of the cadmium transporter CAX2, providing a potential means for internal arsenic mobility. These insights into the underpinning genetics of a successful phytoremediating species present novel opportunities for selection of dedicated arsenic tolerant crops as well as the potential to integrate such tolerances into a wider Salix ideotype alongside traits including biomass yield, biomass quality, low agricultural inputs and phytochemical production.

  3. Transcriptomic Response of Purple Willow (Salix purpurea) to Arsenic Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanitch, Aymeric; Brereton, Nicholas J. B.; Gonzalez, Emmanuel; Labrecque, Michel; Joly, Simon; Pitre, Frederic E.

    2017-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is a toxic element for plants and one of the most common anthropogenic pollutants found at contaminated sites. Despite its severe effects on plant metabolism, several species can accumulate substantial amounts of arsenic and endure the associated stress. However, the genetic mechanisms involved in arsenic tolerance remains obscure in many model plant species used for land decontamination (phytoremediation), including willows. The present study assesses the potential of Salix purpurea cv. ‘Fish Creek’ for arsenic phytoextraction and reveals the genetic responses behind arsenic tolerance, phytoextraction and metabolism. Four weeks of hydroponic exposure to 0, 5, 30 and 100 mg/L revealed that plants were able to tolerate up to 5 mg/L arsenic. Concentrations of 0 and 5 mg/L of arsenic treatment were then used to compare alterations in gene expression of roots, stems and leaves using RNA sequencing. Differential gene expression revealed transcripts encoding proteins putatively involved in entry of arsenic into the roots, storage in vacuoles and potential transport through the plant as well as primary and secondary (indirect) toxicity tolerance mechanisms. A major role for tannin as a compound used to relieve cellular toxicity is implicated as well as unexpected expression of the cadmium transporter CAX2, providing a potential means for internal arsenic mobility. These insights into the underpinning genetics of a successful phytoremediating species present novel opportunities for selection of dedicated arsenic tolerant crops as well as the potential to integrate such tolerances into a wider Salix ideotype alongside traits including biomass yield, biomass quality, low agricultural inputs and phytochemical production. PMID:28702037

  4. Conversion from cropland to short rotation coppice willow and poplar: Accumulation of soil organic carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiadis, Petros; Stupak, Inge; Vesterdal, Lars; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten

    2015-04-01

    Increased demand for bioenergy has intensified the production of Short Rotation Coppice (SRC) willow and poplar in temperate zones. We used a combined chronosequence and paired plot approach to study the potential of SRC willow and poplar stands to increase the soil carbon stock compared to stocks of the previous arable land-use. The study focused on well-drained soils. We sampled soil from 30 SRC stands in Denmark and southern Sweden including soils from their adjacent arable fields. The 18 willow and 12 poplar stands formed a chronosequence ranging between 4 and 29 years after conversion. The soil was sampled both with soil cores taken by fixed depths of 0-5, 5-10, 10-15, 15-25, and 25-40 cm and by genetic horizons from soil pits to 1m depth. The aim of the study was to estimate the difference and the ratio between soil carbon contents of the SRC and annual crop land and analyze the results as a chronosequence to examine the effect of age after conversion on the difference. Covariates such as soil type, fertilization type and harvest frequency were also taken into account. Preliminary results suggest an overall increase in carbon stocks over time with average accumulation rates ranging from 0.25 to 0.4 Mg ha-1 yr-1 in willow and poplar stands. Poplar stands had higher rates of C gain, probably due to less frequent harvesting. The differences in carbon between the SRC and the paired cropland were initially negative but changed to positive over time, implying loss of carbon after conversion and a later gain in soil carbon with stand age. Pairwise differences ranged from -25 Mg C ha-1 to 37 Mg C ha-1 for the top 40 cm. The carbon stock ratio of the SRC stand to the arable land was estimated to minimize the effect of site-related factors. The results of this analysis suggested that the ratio increased significantly with age after conversion for the top 10 cm of the soil, both for poplar and willow. A slight increase with age was also noticed at the deeper depths, but

  5. Test of aerobic TCE degradation by willows (Salix viminalis) and willows inoculated with TCE-cometabolizing strains of Burkholderia cepacia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lauge Peter Westergaard; Broholm, Mette Martina; Gosewinkel, Ulrich Bay

    2017-01-01

    . cepacia (301C, PR1-31 and VM1330-pTOM), using chloride formation as an indicator of dehalogenation. Willows were grown in non-sterile, hydroponic conditions for 3 weeks in chloride-free nutrient solution spiked with TCE. TCE was added weekly due to rapid loss by volatilization. Chloride and TCE...

  6. Annual variations in the solar energy conversion efficiency in a willow coppice stand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noronha-Sannervik, A.; Kowalik, P.

    2003-01-01

    Productivity of an experimental willow coppice forest located at Uppsala, Sweden, was monitored between 1985 and 1994. The 2.7 ha stand was planted in 1984 with a density of 20 000 cuttings per ha and was harvested three times. During the monitored period, the annual stem wood production and the cumulated values of total solar radiation during the growing season, were measured. The conversion of incoming solar radiation into stem biomass was evaluated and the results show that the solar energy conversion efficiency (ECE), for the first and fourth year of the cutting cycle, is, on average, 64% of the ECE for the second and third year of the cutting cycle. It is discussed that the low ECE of 1-year-old shoots is related to a delay in leaf canopy development at the beginning of the growing season and lack of weed control after harvest. For the 4-years-old shoots, the low ECE, is believed to be related to the increased shoot and stool mortality caused by the self-thinning process ongoing in the willow stand. It is recommended that the harvesting interval should be based on the specific development of the stand and more attention should be paid to weed control, especially in the first growing season after harvest

  7. 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase complementary deoxyribonucleic acid in rainbow trout: cloning, sites of expression, and seasonal changes in gonads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusakabe, Makoto; Nakamura, Ikumi; Young, Graham

    2003-06-01

    11beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (11beta-HSDs) are important steroidogenic enzymes for catalyzing the interconversion of active glucocorticoid (cortisol and corticosterone) and inert 11-keto forms (cortisone and 11-dehydrocorticosterone) in mammals. In teleosts, 11beta-HSD also plays a role in the production of the predominant androgen, 11-ketotestosterone, in male fish. In this study we cloned cDNAs encoding rainbow trout 11beta-HSD (rt11beta-HSD) from testes and head kidney. The predicted amino acid sequence, hydrophobicity analysis, and transient transfection assays with rt11beta-HSD in HEK293 cells showed that rt11beta-HSD is a homolog of mammalian 11beta-HSD type 2. rt11beta-HSD transcripts are present in steroidogenic tissues and in a number of other tissues. Strong in situ hybridization signals for rt11beta-HSD transcripts were found in Leydig cells of testes, in thecal cells of the early vitellogenic ovarian follicles, and in thecal and granulosa cells of the midvitellogenic and postovulatory follicles. Weaker signals were also found in head kidney interrenal cells from juvenile rainbow trout. Seasonal changes in rt11beta-HSD transcripts in testes showed a pattern similar to that of stress-induced serum cortisol levels, but not to serum androgen levels. High levels of rt11beta-HSD transcripts were found in ovarian follicles from late vitellogenesis through ovulation. These results raise the possibility of a role for rt11beta-HSD in the protection of developing gonads from the inhibitory effects of stress-induced cortisol.

  8. Sampling procedure in a willow plantation for chemical elements important for biomass combustion quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Na; Nielsen, Henrik Kofoed; Jørgensen, Uffe

    2015-01-01

    clone ‘Tordis’, and to reveal the relationship between sampling position, shoot diameters, and distribution of elements. Five Tordis willow shoots were cut into 10–50 cm sections from base to top. The ash content and concentration of twelve elements (Al, Ca, Cd, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Si, and Zn......Willow (Salix spp.) is expected to contribute significantly to the woody bioenergy system in the future, so more information on how to sample the quality of the willow biomass is needed. The objectives of this study were to investigate the spatial variation of elements within shoots of a willow......) in each section were determined. The results showed large spatial variation in the distribution of most elements along the length of the willow shoots. Concentrations of elements in 2-year old shoots of the willow clone Tordis were fairly stable within the range of 100–285 cm above ground and resembled...

  9. Willow yield is highly dependent on clone and site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ugilt Larsen, Søren; Jørgensen, Uffe; Lærke, Poul Erik

    2014-01-01

    Use of high-yielding genotypes is one of the means to achieve high yield and profitability in willow (Salix spp.) short rotation coppice. This study investigated the performance of eight willow clones (Inger, Klara, Linnea, Resolution, Stina, Terra Nova, Tora, Tordis) on five Danish sites......, differing considerably in soil type, climatic conditions and management. Compared to the best clone, the yield was up to 36 % lower for other clones across sites and up to 51 % lower within sites. Tordis was superior to other clones with dry matter yields between 5.2 and 10.2 Mg ha−1 year−1 during the first...... 3-year harvest rotation, and it consistently ranked as the highest yielding clone on four of the five sites and not significantly lower than the highest yielding clone on the fifth site. The ranking of the other clones was more dependent on site with significant interaction between clone and site...

  10. With willows and poplars against the heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaros, M.

    2002-01-01

    Special kinds of trees take out cadmium, lead and zinc from the soil, helping its rehabilitation in contaminated regions. A new method for soil rehabilitation (phytoremediation) based on plants is described. Special willows and poplars have the capability to extract as a sponge heavy metals from the soils and store them in their leaves. For example, they can uptake 700 times the amount of cadmium than the normal plants do. (nevyjel)

  11. Phytoextraction of risk elements by willow and poplar trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacálková, Lada; Tlustoš, Pavel; Száková, Jiřina

    2015-01-01

    To characterize the phytoextraction efficiency of two clones of willow trees (Salix x smithiana Willd., Salix rubens) and two clones of poplar trees (Populus nigra x maximowiczii, Populus nigra Wolterson) were planted in contaminated soil (0.4-2.0 mg Cd.kg(-1), 78-313 mg Zn.kg(-1), 21.3-118 mg Cu.kg(-1)). Field experiment was carried out in Czech Republic. The study investigated their ability to accumulate heavy metals (Cd, Zn, and Cu) in harvestable plant parts. The poplars produced higher amount of biomass than willows. Both Salix clones accumulated higher amount of Cd, Zn and Cu in their biomass (maximum 6.8 mg Cd.kg(-1), 909 mg Zn.kg(-1), and 17.7 mg Cu.kg(-1)) compared to Populus clones (maximum 2.06 mg Cd.kg(-1), 463 mg Zn.kg(-1), and 11.8 mg Cu.kg(-1)). There were no significant differences between clones of individual species. BCs for Cd and Zn were greater than 1 (the highest in willow leaves). BCs values of Cu were very low. These results indicate that Salix is more suitable plant for phytoextraction of Cd and Zn than Populus. The Cu phytoextraction potential of Salix and Populus trees was not confirmed in this experiment due to low soil availability of this element.

  12. Wolf presence and increased willow consumption by Yellowstone elk: implications for trophic cascades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creel, Scott; Christianson, David

    2009-09-01

    Recent increases in the height and growth ring width of willow (Salix spp.) and other woody plants in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) have been attributed to a behaviorally mediated trophic cascade from wolves (Canis lupus) to elk (Cervus elaphus) to willows. This hypothesis predicts that individual elk consume less willow in response to the presence of wolves, but this prediction has not been directly tested with data from elk. We collected 727 fecal samples from elk in the Gallatin Canyon portion of the GYE over three winters and used microhistological methods to quantify the proportion of willow in each sample. We then tested the effect of wolf presence on willow consumption by elk, controlling for the effects of snow conditions, sex, and habitat type. During the period of study, 8-17 wolves occupied the study area, and wolves were locally present on 49% of 260 sampling days, stratified at two-week intervals across three drainages. Over the three years combined, willow consumption was related to snow conditions, wolf presence, and a wolf X sex interaction. As expected, willow consumption increased with deeper and less penetrable snow, and this effect was strong. Contrary to expectation, willow consumption increased in the presence of wolves. As with other aspects of antipredator behavior, wolves had different effects on willow consumption by males and females. Finally, we aggregated the data to estimate winter-long mean willow consumption within each drainage; at this broader scale, willow consumption again increased as predation risk increased. In summary, willow consumption was more strongly affected by snow conditions than by the presence of wolves. Interactions between elk and willow were affected by wolves, but not as predicted by the hypothesis that wolf presence favors willow release through a reduction in the selection of willow by individual elk. If a trophic cascade is operating, our results suggest that a decline in the size of the elk

  13. Test of aerobic TCE degradation by willows (Salix viminalis) and willows inoculated with TCE-cometabolizing strains of Burkholderia cepacia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, Lauge Peter Westergaard; Broholm, Mette Martina; Gosewinkel, Ulrich; Trapp, Stefan

    2017-08-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a widespread soil and groundwater pollutant and clean-up is often problematic and expensive. Phytoremediation may be a cost-effective solution at some sites. This study investigates TCE degradation by willows (S. viminalis) and willows inoculated with three strains of B. cepacia (301C, PR1-31 and VM1330-pTOM), using chloride formation as an indicator of dehalogenation. Willows were grown in non-sterile, hydroponic conditions for 3 weeks in chloride-free nutrient solution spiked with TCE. TCE was added weekly due to rapid loss by volatilization. Chloride and TCE in solution were measured every 2-3 days and chloride and metabolite concentrations in plants were measured at test termination. Based on transpiration, no tree toxicity of TCE exposure was observed. However, trees grown in chloride-free solution showed severely inhibited transpiration. No or very little chloride was formed during the test, and levels of chloride in TCE-exposed trees were not elevated. Chloride concentrations in chloride containing TCE-free nutrient solution doubled within 23 days, indicating active exclusion of chloride by root cell membranes. Only traces of TCE-metabolites were detected in plant tissue. We conclude that TCE is not, or to a limited extent (less than 3%), aerobically degraded by the willow trees. The three strains of B. cepacia did not enhance TCE mineralization. Future successful application of rhizo- and phytodegradation of TCE requires measures to be taken to improve the degradation rates.

  14. Willow bioenergy plantation research in the Northeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, E.H.; Abrahamson, L.P.; Kopp, R.F. [SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY (United States); Nowak, C.A. [USDA Forest Service, Warren, PA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Experiments were established in Central New York in the spring of 1987 to evaluate the potential of Salix for biomass production in bioenergy plantations. Emphasis of the research was on developing and refining establishment, tending and maintenance techniques, with complimentary study of breeding, coppice physiology, pests, nutrient use and bioconversion to energy products. Current yields utilizing salix clones developed in cooperation with the University of Toronto in short-rotation intensive culture bioenergy plantations in the Northeast approximate 8 oven dry tons per acre per year with annual harvesting. Successful clones have been identified and culture techniques refined. The results are now being integrated to establish a 100 acre Salix large-scale bioenergy farm to demonstrate current successful biomass production technology and to provide plantations of sufficient size to test harvesters; adequately assess economics of the systems; and provide large quantities of uniform biomass for pilot-scale conversion facilities.

  15. Removal of 4-chlorobenzoic acid from spiked hydroponic solution by willow trees (Salix viminalis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deavers, K.; Macek, T.; Karlson, U.

    2010-01-01

    . Methods The removal of 4-CBA by willow trees was investigated with intact, septic willow trees growing in hydroponic solution and with sterile cell suspensions at concentrations of 5 mg/L and 50 mg/L 4-CBA. Nutrient solutions with different levels of ammonium and nitrate were prepared to achieve different...

  16. Conservation assessment for the autumn willow in the Black Hills National Forest, South Dakota and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Hope Hornbeck; Carolyn Hull Sieg; Deanna J. Reyher

    2003-01-01

    Autumn willow, Salix serissima (Bailey) Fern., is an obligate wetland shrub that occurs in fens and bogs in the northeastern United States and eastern Canada. Disjunct populations of autumn willow occur in the Black Hills of South Dakota. Only two populations occur on Black Hills National Forest lands: a large population at McIntosh Fen and a small...

  17. Greenhouse gas emissions from willow-based electricity: a scenario analysis for Portugal and The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rebelo de Mira, R.; Kroeze, C.

    2006-01-01

    This study focuses on greenhouse gas emissions from power plants using willow as fuel compared to those using fossil fuels. More specifically, we quantify emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) from soils on which willow is grown, and compare these to emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) from fossil

  18. The potential of willow for remediation of heavy metal polluted calcareous urban soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J K; Holm, P E; Nejrup, J

    2009-01-01

    Growth performance and heavy metal uptake by willow (Salix viminalis) from strongly and moderately polluted calcareous soils were investigated in field and growth chamber trials to assess the suitability of willow for phytoremediation. Field uptakes were 2-10 times higher than growth chamber...

  19. Phytoremediation prospects of willow stands on contaminated sediment : A field trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervaeke, P; Luyssaert, S.; Mertens, J.; Meers, E.; Tack, F. M.G.; Lust, N

    2003-01-01

    Establishing fast growing willow stands on land disposed contaminated dredged sediment can result in the revaluation of this material and opens possibilities for phytoremediation. A field trial was designed to assess the impact of planting a willow stand (Salix viminalis L. 'Orm') on the dissipation

  20. Arthropods of native and exotic vegetation and their association with willow flycatchers and Wilson's warblers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda S. DeLay; Deborah M. Finch; Sandra Brantley; Richard Fagerlund; Michael D. Means; Jeffrey F. Kelly

    1999-01-01

    We compared abundance of migrating Willow Flycatchers and Wilson's Warblers to the abundance of arthropods in exotic and native vegetation at Bosque del Apache National Wildlife Refuge. We trapped arthropods using glue-boards in 1996 and 1997 in the same cottonwood, saltcedar, and willow habitats where we mist-netted birds during spring and fall migration. There...

  1. Initial spacing of poplars and willows grown as arable coppice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, A.; Johns, C.

    1997-11-01

    Two clones of poplar and two clones of willow were grown at two sites, on a three year cutting cycle, at six different square spacings, between 0.8 metres and 1.5 metres. The two willow clones 'Bowles hybrid' and 'Dasyclados' were planted at both sites. The poplar clones Populus interamericana 'Beaupre' and Populus trichocarpa 'Columbia River'' were planted at Wishanger in Hampshire. The poplar clones Populus interamericana 'Boelare' and Populus trichocarpa 'Trichobel' were planted at Downham Market in Norfolk. The highest yield of 17.55 oven dry tonnes per hectare (odt/ha/annum) was obtained from 'Bowles hybrid', at the closest spacing, grown on a water meadow adjacent to the River Wey at Wishanger. The highest yield for all clones at both sites was achieved at the closest spacing (in this first rotation). There was a significant linear effect. One of the most interesting observations was that when comparing the gradient of the linear relationship, within species, the gradient was steeper for the higher yielding clone. This was particularly so for the willows. This would suggest that higher yielding clones are more tolerant of crowding, or, that upright Salix viminalis make better use of close space than the more spreading Salix dasyclados. The new Salix x Salix schwerinnii hybrids should therefore also be responsive to closer spacing. The same effect was observed for the poplars at Wishanger only, but the difference was not as dramatic. There was a suggestion from the highest yielding poplar plots that optimum yield may still be obtained at the currently recommended spacing of 1.0 metre x 1.0 metre. (author)

  2. Seismic modelling of coal bed methane strata, Willow Creek, Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, S.E.; Mayer, R.; Lawton, D.C.; Langenberg, W. [Consortium for Research in Elastic Wave Exploration Seismology, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    The purpose is to determine the feasibility of applying high- resolution reflection seismic surveying to coalbed methane (CBM) exploration and development. Numerical reflection seismic methods are examined for measuring the mapping continuity and coherence of coal zones. Numerical modelling of a coal zone in Upper Cretaceous sediments near Willow Creek, Alberta indicates that seismic data that is predominantly of 100 Hz is required to map the coal zone and lateral facies variations within the deposit. For resolution of individual coal seams, a central frequency >150 Hz would be needed. 26 refs., 17 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Woody plant willow in function of river water protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babincev Ljiljana M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Coastal area surrounding the river Ibar, in the area between cities of Kosovska Mitrovica and Leposavić in the north of Kosovo and Metohija, is occupied with seven industrial waste dumps. These dumps were all part of the exploitation and flotation refinement of raw mineral materials, metallurgic refinement of concentrates, chemical industry, industrial refinement and energetic facilities of Trepča industrial complex. The existing waste dumps, both active and inactive, are of heterogenic chemical composition. Its impact on the river water is shown by the content of heavy metals found in it. Removal of lead, cadmium and zinc would be economically unrewarding, regardless of the technology used. Wooden plant that prevails in this area is white willow. This work is focused on the removal of heavy metals (Pb, Cd and Zn from the water of the river Ibar using white willow. Roots of the willow are cultivated using the method of water cultures in an individual solution of heavy metals and river water sample. The preparation of the samples for analysis was performed by burning the herbal material and dissolving ashes in the appropriate acids. The concentrations of metals were determined by the stripping analysis. In the investigated heavy metal solutions the biomass increase is 25.6% in lead solution, 27.3% in cadmium and 30.7% in zinc solution. The increase of biomass in nutritional solution, without the heavy metals, is 32.4% and in river water sample 27.5%. The coefficient of bioaccumulation in solutions with heavy metals is 1.6% in lead solution, 1.9% in cadmium and 2.2% in zinc solution. Heavy metals accumulation is 18.74 μg of lead, 20.09 μg of cadmium and 22.89 μg of zinc. The coefficient of bioaccumulation of the water samples, that contained 44.83 μg/dm3 of lead, 29.21 μg/dm3 of cadmium and 434.00 μg/dm3 of zinc, during the period of 45 days, was 30.3% for lead, 53.4% for cadmium and 3.9% for zinc. The concentrations of accumulated metals

  4. Water tables constrain height recovery of willow on Yellowstone's northern range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilyeu, Danielle M; Cooper, David J; Hobbs, N Thompson

    2008-01-01

    Excessive levels of herbivory may disturb ecosystems in ways that persist even when herbivory is moderated. These persistent changes may complicate efforts to restore ecosystems affected by herbivores. Willow (Salix spp.) communities within the northern range in Yellowstone National Park have been eliminated or degraded in many riparian areas by excessive elk (Cervus elaphus L.) browsing. Elk browsing of riparian willows appears to have diminished following the reintroduction of wolves (Canis lupis L.), but it remains uncertain whether reduced herbivory will restore willow communities. The direct effects of elk browsing on willows have been accompanied by indirect effects from the loss of beaver (Castor canadensis Kuhl) activity, including incision of stream channels, erosion of fine sediments, and lower water tables near streams historically dammed by beaver. In areas where these changes have occurred, lowered water tables may suppress willow height even in the absence of elk browsing. We conducted a factorial field experiment to understand willow responses to browsing and to height of water tables. After four years of protection from elk browsing, willows with ambient water tables averaged only 106 cm in height, with negligible height gain in two of three study species during the last year of the experiment. Willows that were protected from browsing and had artificially elevated water tables averaged 147 cm in height and gained 19 cm in the last year of the experiment. In browsed plots, elevated water tables doubled height gain during a period of slightly reduced browsing pressure. We conclude that water availability mediates the rate of willow height gain and may determine whether willows grow tall enough to escape the browse zone of elk and gain resistance to future elk browsing. Consequently, in areas where long-term beaver absence has resulted in incised stream channels and low water tables, a reduction in elk browsing alone may not be sufficient for recovery

  5. Some environmental impacts of short rotation willow coppice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slater, F.M.; Hodson, R.W.; Randrson, P.F.; Lynn, S.F.

    1997-01-01

    Short rotation willow coppice is a relatively new crop in upland Britain, and particularly in Environmentally Sensitive Areas the conservation and environmental effect of biomass crops needs to be evaluated. Investigations of sewage-sludge-treated plots in mid-Wales show that, because weed control was inadequate, recovery of the flora to its semi-natural precultivated state was rapid within and between experimental plots. Soil invertebrates responded to temporal stimuli before all else. Foliar-feeding invertebrates were greater in plots which had added fertilizer. Following cultivation voles were generally lost from the ploughed areas but field mice remained. Birds were studied in more extensive areas of short rotation coppice in central England and the assemblage of species was found to be similar to those found in conventional coppice but with a foreshortened successional sequence. The conservation value of short rotation willow coppice lies mainly in the abundant foliar invertebrates that provide a rich source of food for small passerine birds, particularly summer migrants. It also provides good cover for game birds - and their predators. (author)

  6. Extracellular enzyme activity in a willow sewage treatment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzezinska, Maria Swiontek; Lalke-Porczyk, Elżbieta; Kalwasińska, Agnieszka

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents the results of studies on the activity of extra-cellular enzymes in soil-willow vegetation filter soil which is used in the post-treatment of household sewage in an onsite wastewater treatment system located in central Poland. Wastewater is discharged from the detached house by gravity into the onsite wastewater treatment system. It flows through a connecting pipe into a single-chamber septic tank and is directed by the connecting pipe to a control well to be further channelled in the soil-willow filter by means of a subsurface leaching system. Soil samples for the studies were collected from two depths of 5 cm and 1 m from three plots: close to the wastewater inflow, at mid-length of the plot and close to its terminal part. Soil samples were collected from May to October 2009. The activity of the extra-cellular enzymes was assayed by the fluorometric method using 4-methylumbelliferyl and 7-amido-4-methylcoumarin substrate. The ranking of potential activity of the assayed enzymes was the same at 5 cm and 1 m soil depths, i.e. esterase > phosphmomoesterase > leucine-aminopeptidase > β-glucosidase > α-glucosidase. The highest values of enzymatic activity were recorded in the surface layer of the soil at the wastewater inflow and decreased with increasing distance from that point.

  7. Genetic variation in the endangered Southwestern Willow Flycatcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Joseph; Miller, Mark P.; Paxton, E.H.; Sogge, M.K.; Keim, Paul

    2000-01-01

    The Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) is an endangered Neotropical migrant that breeds in isolated remnants of dense riparian habitat in the southwestern United States. We estimated genetic variation at 20 breeding sites of the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (290 individuals) using 38 amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs). Our results suggest that considerable genetic diversity exists within the subspecies and within local breeding sites. Statistical analyses of genetic variation revealed only slight, although significant, differentiation among breeding sites (Mantel's r = 0.0705, P UPGMA cluster analysis of the AFLP markers indicates that extensive gene flow has occurred among breeding sites. No one site stood out as being genetically unique or isolated. Therefore, the small level of genetic structure that we detected may not be biologically significant. Ongoing field studies are consistent with this conclusion. Of the banded birds that were resighted or recaptured in Arizona during the 1996 to 1998 breeding seasons, one-third moved between breeding sites and two-thirds were philopatric. Low differentiation may be the result of historically high rangewide diversity followed by recent geographic isolation of breeding sites, although observational data indicate that gene flow is a current phenomenon. Our data suggest that breeding groups of E. t. extimus act as a metapopulation.

  8. Uptake, accumulation and metabolic response of ferricyanide in weeping willows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao-Zhang; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2009-01-01

    The remediation potential and metabolic responses of plants to ferricyanide were investigated using pre-rooted weeping willows (Salix babylonica L.) grown hydroponically in growth chambers and treated with potassium ferricyanide. Positive responses were observed for the plants exposed to cyanide recovered in plant biomass was constant in all treatments, indicating that transport is a major limiting step for the uptake of ferricyanide by plants. The majority of the ferricyanide taken up from the growth media was possibly assimilated during transport through plants. The velocity of the removal processes can be described by Michaelis-Menten kinetics, and the half-saturation constant (K(M)) and the maximum removal capacity (v(max)) were estimated to be 228.1 mg CN L(-1) and 36.43 mg CN kg(-1) d(-1), respectively, using non-linear regression methods. These results suggest that weeping willows can take up, transport and assimilate ferricyanide; and phytoremediation is an option for cleaning up the environmental sites contaminated with cyanide complexes.

  9. Willow growing - Methods of calculation and profitability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenqvist, H.

    1997-01-01

    The calculation method presented here makes it possible to conduct profitability comparisons between annual and perennial crops and in addition take the planning situation into account. The method applied is a modified total step calculation. The difference between a traditional total step calculation and the modified version is the way in which payments and disbursements are taken into account over a period of several years. This is achieved by combining the present value method and the annuity method. The choice of interest rate has great bearing on the result in perennial calculations. The various components influencing the interest rate are analysed and factors relating to the establishment of the interest rate in different situations are described. The risk factor can be an important variable component of the interest rate calculation. Risk is also addressed from an approach in accordance with portfolio theory. The application of the methods sheds light on the profitability of Salix cultivation from the viewpoint of business economics, and also how different factors influence the profitability of Salix cultivation. Aspects studied are harvesting intervals, the importance of yield level, the competitiveness of Salix versus grain cultivation, the influence of income taxes on profitability etc. Methods for evaluation of activities concerning cultivation of a perennial crop are described and also involve the application of nitrogen fertilization to Salix cultivation. Studies have been performed using these methods to look into nitrogen fertilizer profitability in Salix cultivation during the first rotation period. Nitrogen fertilizer profitability has been investigated involving both production functions and cost calculations, taking the year fertilization into consideration. 72 refs., 2 figs., 52 tabs

  10. Willow and poplar for bioenergy on former cropland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgiadis, Petros

    and water demands of the trees. The water requirements of SRWCs are generally high, and high evapotranspiration rates in both SRC willow and SRF poplar decreased deep percolation, which along with low N concentrations led to low N leaching. Excessive N leaching was only observed when SRC was fertilized......Climate change is one of the 21st century’s greatest challenges and calls for immediate action through the implementation of mitigation strategies. A shift from fossil fuel to renewable energy is a key factor for reducing greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere, with bioenergy being...... the predominant sector of renewables in the current European and global energy markets. Dedicated energy crops, such as short rotation woody crops (SRWC), are promising bioenergy feedstock in southern Scandinavia due to their high yields. Such cropping systems have high demands for land, water, and nutrients...

  11. Use of willows in evapotranspirative systems for onsite wastewater management – theory and experiences from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Hans; Arias, Carlos Alberto

    2011-01-01

    aspects of ET systems is their ability to evapotranspire all of the sewage discharged into the systems and the rain falling onto the systems. On an annual basis the ET should equal the amount of wastewater discharged into the system plus the amount of precipitation falling onto the system. Part...... with clones of willow (Salix viminalis L.). The surface area of the systems depends on the amount and quality of the sewage to be treated and the local annual rainfall. A single household in Denmark typically requires between 120 and 300 m2. The annual precipitation at the site of construction is an important...... dimensioning parameter. Settled sewage is dispersed underground into the bed under pressure. The stems of the willows are harvested on a regular basis to stimulate the growth of the willows and to remove some nutrients and heavy metals. In this paper, the theory behind the operation of willow based ET systems...

  12. Organic Carbon Accumulation in Topsoil Following Afforestation with Willow: Emphasis on Leaf Litter Decomposition and Soil Organic Matter Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit Lafleur

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Short-rotation intensive cultures (SRICs of willows can potentially sequester carbon (C in soil. However, there is limited information regarding the factors governing soil organic C (Corg accumulation following afforestation. The objectives of this study were to: (i determine whether willow leads to Corg accumulation in the topsoil (0–10 cm two to six years after establishment in five SRICs located along a large climatic/productivity gradient in southern Quebec, and (ii assess the influence of leaf litter decomposition and soil organic matter (OM quality on Corg accumulation in the topsoil. Topsoil Corg concentrations and pools under SRICs were, on average, 25% greater than reference fields, and alkyls concentrations were higher under SRICs. On an annualized basis, Corg accumulation rates in the topsoil varied between 0.4 and 4.5 Mg ha−1 yr−1. Estimated annual litterfall C fluxes were in the same order of magnitude, suggesting that SRICs can accumulate Corg in the topsoil during early years due to high growth rates. Leaf litter decomposition was also related to Corg accumulation rates in the topsoil. It was positively correlated to growing season length, degree-days, and growing season average air and topsoil temperature (r > 0.70, and negatively correlated to topsoil volumetric water content (r = −0.55. Leaf litter decomposition likely occurred more quickly than that of plants in reference fields, and as it progressed, OM became more decay resistant, more stable and accumulated as Corg in the topsoil.

  13. Phytoremediation potential of poplar and willow species in small scale constructed wetland for boron removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldırım, Kubilay; Kasım, Gözde Çıtır

    2018-03-01

    Boron (B) pollution is an expanding environmental problem throughout the world due to intensive mining practices and extensive usage of B in agricultural chemicals and industrial products in recent years. The purpose of this study was to investigate B removal performance of four poplar and four willow species in small scale Constructed Wetland (CW). Rooted cuttings of tested species were treated with simulated wastewater having five elevated B concentrations (0.5, 5, 10, 20 and 40 ppm). All the tested species could resist up to 20 ppm wastewater B supply and could regrow from their roots in the soil having maximum 15 mg/kg B content. The result of the study indicated that 65% ± 5.3 of B was removed from the wastewater in 5 ppm B treatment while the same efficiency decreased to 45% ± 4.6 at 40 ppm B supply. The average effect of sediment on B removal was found to be approximately 20% for all B treatments while the remaining part of the loaded B was removed from the CW within effluent (35-54%). Therefore, actual effects of plant species on B removal was ranged from 45% to 25% between 5 and 40 ppm B treatments. Mass B removal within plant body (phytextraction) comprised the 13-10% of total loaded B in CW while the remaining part of the loaded B (31-15%) was stabilized into the sediment with the effects of poplar and willow roots. These results presented clear understanding of effective B purification mechanisms in CWs. Boron phytextraction capacity of a plant species was less effective than its phytstabilization efficiency which increase filtering capacity of the sediment and stabilization of more B around the rhizosphere. In terms of their B removal ability, P.nigra and S.anatolica had the highest B removal capacities with phytextraction (20-11%) while S.alba, P.alba and S.babylonica had more phytstabilizaiton performance (40-15%) in CW. Disposal of B loaded plant material create another environmental costs for CW applications. Therefore, B loaded

  14. SRC-willow (Salix viminalis) as a resource for flower-visiting insects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddersen, J. [National Environmental Research Institute, Ronde (Denmark). Dept. of Landscape Ecology

    2001-07-01

    The potential habitat value of commercial short rotation coppice (SRC)-willow plantations for flower-visiting insects was investigated. During 1998-2000, at a single typical intensive Danish farmland site, 11 Salix viminalis plantations were sampled by late April to quantify willow catkin abundance and flower sex. Mean plantation size was 1.1 ha and included one or more of clones: orm, rapp, ulv, jorr, christina and jorrun. Plot-year means of catkin abundance and of proportion of willows flowering were related to the coppicing cycle, i.e. the number of growth years since last harvest of plot ('year' 0-4). In 1998, the ground layer vegetation was sampled. Monitoring flower-visiting insects by means of line-transect counts failed due to the local scarcity of bees. At the plantation scale, flowering was discontinuous across the harvest cycle as it was totally absent in the year immediately following harvest. In successive years (1-4), individual willows flowered frequently and, occasionally, at high abundances, and catkin abundance increased with time. Within 3-4 year of harvest cycle, all plots flowered in most years with most plots exhibiting at least some flowering in any 1 year. Thus, willow catkin abundance was generally high in the total area due to: high frequency of flowering in plots, occasional high flowering abundance, plots not being harvested simultaneously and large total number of willows within plots and landscape. Similarly, flower sex ratio, and thus flower value, varied greatly between plots while variation was damped across plots. Alternative simultaneous flower resources in ground layer vegetation were few except for Dandelion. SRC willow may constitute an important resource for bees, even under the stress of the harvest cycle, and recommendations are given for improving this biodiversity aspect. (author)

  15. Willow Creek Wildlife Mitigation Project. Final Environmental Assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    Today`s notice announces BPA`s proposal to fund land acquisition or acquisition of a conservation easement and a wildlife management plan to protect and enhance wildlife habitat at the Willow Creek Natural Area in Eugene, Oregon. This action would provide partial mitigation for wildlife and wildlife habitat lost by the development of Federal hydroelectric projects in the Willamette River Basin. The project is consistent with BPA`s obligations under provisions of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980 as outlined by the Northwest Power Planning Council`s 1994 Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. BPA has prepared an environmental assessment (DOE/EA-1023) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required and BPA is issuing this FONSI.

  16. Willow Creek Wildlife Mitigation Project. Final environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    Today's notice announces BPA's proposal to fund land acquisition or acquisition of a conservation easement and a wildlife management plan to protect and enhance wildlife habitat at the Willow Creek Natural Area in Eugene, Oregon. This action would provide partial mitigation for wildlife and wildlife habitat lost by the development of Federal hydroelectric projects in the Willamette River Basin. The project is consistent with BPA's obligations under provisions of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980 as outlined by the Northwest Power Planning Council's 1994 Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. BPA has prepared an environmental assessment (DOE/EA-1023) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required and BPA is issuing this FONSI

  17. The potential of willow for remediation of heavy metal polluted calcareous urban soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, Julie K.; Holm, Peter E.; Nejrup, Jens; Larsen, Morten B.; Borggaard, Ole K.

    2009-01-01

    Growth performance and heavy metal uptake by willow (Salix viminalis) from strongly and moderately polluted calcareous soils were investigated in field and growth chamber trials to assess the suitability of willow for phytoremediation. Field uptakes were 2-10 times higher than growth chamber uptakes. Despite high concentrations of cadmium (≥80 mg/kg) and zinc (≥3000 mg/kg) in leaves of willow grown on strongly polluted soil with up to 18 mg Cd/kg, 1400 mg Cu/kg, 500 mg Pb/kg and 3300 mg Zn/kg, it is unsuited on strongly polluted soils because of poor growth. However, willow proved promising on moderately polluted soils (2.5 mg Cd/kg and 400 mg Zn/kg), where it extracted 0.13% of total Cd and 0.29% of the total Zn per year probably representing the most mobile fraction. Cu and Pb are strongly fixed in calcareous soils. - Willow is suited for remediation of moderately heavy metal polluted calcareous soils

  18. Improving the water use efficiency of short rotation coppice (SRC) willows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, W.; Bonneau, L.; Groves, S.; Armstrong, A.; Lindegard, K.

    2003-07-01

    On the premise that biofuels will make a significant contribution to the UK's renewable energy sources by the year 2010, willow short rotation coppicing is being studied. The high water requirement of willow is seen as a potential problem in the drier regions of the UK and increasing the water use efficiency and/or draught resistance would extend the areas where willow coppicing would be profitable. The first part of the project was to investigate the water use of a number of near-market varieties of willow and evaluate techniques for early drought tolerance screening in a breeding program and for this, field studies were conducted. This report gives some very early results from the preliminary study. Since DTI funding ceased before the one-season study of the three-year program was complete, the results should be regarded as tentative only. The next phase of the program will be funded by DEFRA and will include efforts to identify how a range of high-yielding willows respond to water stress.

  19. Available data support protection of the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher under the Endangered Species Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theimer, Tad C.; Smith, Aaron D.; Mahoney, Sean M.; Ironside, Kirsten E.

    2016-01-01

    Zink (2015) argued there was no evidence for genetic, morphological, or ecological differentiation between the federally endangered Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) and other Willow Flycatcher subspecies. Using the same data, we show there is a step-cline in both the frequency of a mtDNA haplotype and in plumage variation roughly concordant with the currently recognized boundary between E. t. extimus and E. t adastus, the subspecies with which it shares the longest common boundary. The geographical pattern of plumage variation is also concordant with previous song analyses differentiating those 2 subspecies and identified birds in one low-latitude, high-elevation site in Arizona as the northern subspecies. We also demonstrate that the ecological niche modeling approach used by Zink yields the same result whether applied to the 2 flycatcher subspecies or to 2 unrelated species, E. t. extimus and Yellow Warbler (Setophaga petechia). As a result, any interpretation of those results as evidence for lack of ecological niche differentiation among Willow Flycatcher subspecies would also indicate no differentiation among recognized species and would therefore be an inappropriate standard for delineating subspecies. We agree that many analytical techniques now available to examine genetic, morphological, and ecological differentiation would improve our understanding of the distinctness (or lack thereof) of Willow Flycatcher subspecies, but we argue that currently available evidence supports protection of the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher under the Endangered Species Act.

  20. Treatment of landfill leachate by irrigation of willow coppice - Plant response and treatment efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aronsson, Paer; Dahlin, Torleif; Dimitriou, Ioannis

    2010-01-01

    Landfill leachates usually need to be treated before discharged, and using soil-plant systems for this has gained substantial interest in Sweden and in the UK. A three-year field study was conducted in central Sweden to quantify plant response, treatment efficiency and impact on groundwater quality of landfill leachate irrigation of short-rotation willow coppice (Salix). Two willow varieties were tested and four irrigation regimes in sixteen 400-m 2 plots. The willow plants did not react negatively, despite very high annual loads of nitrogen (≤2160 kg N/ha), chloride (≤8600 kg Cl/ha) and other elements. Mean annual growth was 1.5, 9.8 and 12.6 tonnes DM/ha during years 1-3. For one of two willow varieties tested, relative leaf length accurately predicted growth rate. Irrigation resulted in elevated groundwater concentrations of all elements applied. Treatment efficiency varied considerably for different elements, but was adequate when moderate loads were applied. - Short-rotation willow coppice was successfully used for treating a strong landfill leachate in central Sweden over three years.

  1. Phytoremediation prospects of willow stands on contaminated sediment: a field trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vervaeke, P.; Luyssaert, S.; Mertens, J.; Meers, E.; Tack, F.M.G.; Lust, N.

    2003-01-01

    A field trial indicated increased degradation of mineral oil in sediments planted with willow. - Establishing fast growing willow stands on land disposed contaminated dredged sediment can result in the revaluation of this material and opens possibilities for phytoremediation. A field trial was designed to assess the impact of planting a willow stand (Salix viminalis L. 'Orm') on the dissipation of organic contaminants (mineral oil and PAHs) in dredged sediment. In addition, the accumulation of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) in the biomass was determined. After 1.5 years, a significant decrease of 57% in the mineral oil concentration in the sediment planted with willow was observed. Degradation of mineral oil in sediment which was left fallow, was only 15%. The mineral oil degradation under willow was most pronounced (79%) in the root zone of the stand. In the sediment which was left fallow there was a significant reduction of the total PAH content by 32% compared with a 23% reduction in the planted sediment. The moderate and selective metal uptake, measured in this study, limits the prospects for phytoextraction of metals from dredged sediment

  2. Phytoremediation prospects of willow stands on contaminated sediment: a field trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vervaeke, P.; Luyssaert, S.; Mertens, J.; Meers, E.; Tack, F.M.G.; Lust, N

    2003-11-01

    A field trial indicated increased degradation of mineral oil in sediments planted with willow. - Establishing fast growing willow stands on land disposed contaminated dredged sediment can result in the revaluation of this material and opens possibilities for phytoremediation. A field trial was designed to assess the impact of planting a willow stand (Salix viminalis L. 'Orm') on the dissipation of organic contaminants (mineral oil and PAHs) in dredged sediment. In addition, the accumulation of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) in the biomass was determined. After 1.5 years, a significant decrease of 57% in the mineral oil concentration in the sediment planted with willow was observed. Degradation of mineral oil in sediment which was left fallow, was only 15%. The mineral oil degradation under willow was most pronounced (79%) in the root zone of the stand. In the sediment which was left fallow there was a significant reduction of the total PAH content by 32% compared with a 23% reduction in the planted sediment. The moderate and selective metal uptake, measured in this study, limits the prospects for phytoextraction of metals from dredged sediment.

  3. SELECTIVE FORAGING ON WOODY SPECIES BY THE BEAVER CASTOR FIBER, AND ITS IMPACT ON A RIPARIAN WILLOW FOREST

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NOLET, BA; HOEKSTRA, A; OTTENHEIM, MM

    1994-01-01

    Beavers were re-introduced in the Biesbosch, The Netherlands, a wood dominated by willows Salix spp. Conservationists expected that herbivory by beavers would enhance succession to a mixed broad-leaved forest. Willows formed the staple food of the beavers, but they removed only 1.4% of the standing

  4. Willow as fuel for district heating. Experiences from test combustion; Energipil som braendsel til fjernvarme - Erfaringsindsamling fra testfyringer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, Joergen

    2012-10-15

    The project has been a study of the fuel characteristics of willow chips. The study was carried out on Trustrup-Lyngby Heating Plant and Assens District Heating Plant in the period 2011-12. Operating experiences were collected from the two plants. Furthermore, yield and crop data were collected from suppliers of willow chips to Assens District Heating Plant, and the analysis of particle size distribution of the willow chips is carried out. The collected data on yield and particle size distribution are compared with results from previous studies. The project has shown that willow chips generally are a suitable and attractive fuel in wood-fired heat and power plants. The plants are very aware of quality of willow chips and want chips with coarse structure. Furthermore, there is the wish that water content of willow chips are on par with the moisture content of wood chips, i.e. around 30-40%; woodchips are the vast majority of the chips used in the plants. Wood chips produced from fresh willow shoots with chopper will typically have a moisture content of 50-60 %. Such ''wet'' chips will of some plants be deselected during winter, where there is a requirement of safe and high boiler output. Other plants will simply mix the ''wet'' willow chips with other, drier types of chips and can use it almost all the year. If the willow shoots are harvested as branches, which subsequently are allowed to dry for a period before chipping, willow chips can be produced with a moisture content that is in line with what is typical in wood chips. Analysis of particle size distribution shows that willow chips harvested with a cutting machine usually can meet the requirements for quality classes ''fine'', ''medium'' and ''coarse''. An account of the harvested yields of willow among the growers who supplied willow chips to Assens Heating Plant, showed a relatively low yield of 5.1 tonnes dry

  5. Variation in copper and zinc tolerance and accumulation in 12 willow clones: implications for phytoextraction*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei-dong; Wang, Yu-yan; Zhao, Feng-liang; Ding, Zhe-li; Zhang, Xin-cheng; Zhu, Zhi-qiang; Yang, Xiao-e

    2014-01-01

    Willows (Salix spp.) have shown high potential for the phytoextraction of heavy metals. This study compares variations in copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) tolerance and accumulation potential among 12 willow clones grown in a nutrient solution treated with 50 μmol/L of Cu or Zn, respectively. The results showed differences in the tolerance and accumulation of Cu and Zn with respect to different species/clones. The biomass variation among clones in response to Cu or Zn exposure ranged from the stimulation of growth to inhibition, and all of the clones tested showed higher tolerance to Cu than to Zn. The clones exhibited less variation in Cu accumulation but larger variation in Zn accumulation. Based on translocation factors, it was found that most of the Cu was retained in the roots and that Zn was more mobile than Cu for all clones. It is concluded that most willow clones are good accumulators of Zn and Cu. PMID:25183033

  6. Genetics of phenotypic plasticity and biomass traits in hybrid willows across contrasting environments and years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Sofia; Hallingbäck, Henrik R; Beyer, Friderike; Nordh, Nils-Erik; Weih, Martin; Rönnberg-Wästljung, Ann-Christin

    2017-07-01

    Phenotypic plasticity can affect the geographical distribution of taxa and greatly impact the productivity of crops across contrasting and variable environments. The main objectives of this study were to identify genotype-phenotype associations in key biomass and phenology traits and the strength of phenotypic plasticity of these traits in a short-rotation coppice willow population across multiple years and contrasting environments to facilitate marker-assisted selection for these traits. A hybrid Salix viminalis  × ( S. viminalis × Salix schwerinii ) population with 463 individuals was clonally propagated and planted in three common garden experiments comprising one climatic contrast between Sweden and Italy and one water availability contrast in Italy. Several key phenotypic traits were measured and phenotypic plasticity was estimated as the trait value difference between experiments. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping analyses were conducted using a dense linkage map and phenotypic effects of S. schwerinii haplotypes derived from detected QTL were assessed. Across the climatic contrast, clone predictor correlations for biomass traits were low and few common biomass QTL were detected. This indicates that the genetic regulation of biomass traits was sensitive to environmental variation. Biomass QTL were, however, frequently shared across years and across the water availability contrast. Phenology QTL were generally shared between all experiments. Substantial phenotypic plasticity was found among the hybrid offspring, that to a large extent had a genetic origin. Individuals carrying influential S. schwerinii haplotypes generally performed well in Sweden but less well in Italy in terms of biomass production. The results indicate that specific genetic elements of S. schwerinii are more suited to Swedish conditions than to those of Italy. Therefore, selection should preferably be conducted separately for such environments in order to maximize biomass

  7. Environmental effects of energy forest (short rotation willow)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, K.

    1994-01-01

    This paper deals with environmental effects of producing and combusting energy forest fuel. Energy forest means short rotation willow (Salix). Supposed effects of sewage sludge application are discussed as well. Energy forestry on agricultural land implies both advantages and disadvantages for the environment. Leaf litter (humified leaves) increases the humus content in the top soil. The soil fauna is also positively affected. Until now performed studies about nitrogen leakage from fields cultivated with energy forest (Salix), have not given any distinct results. A retarded drainage within energy forest fields is on the other hand noticed. While the root system of Salix is active during a long period of the year, the nitrogen leakage become less compared to traditional cultivation. The content of plant nutrients and organic matter in sewage sludge make a resource that can be useful for agricultural purposes, especially for energy forest cultivation. The content of heavy metals and organic emissions contradicts sludge application to agricultural land. Sewage sludge with todays quality increases somewhat the content of heavy metals in the soil. This condition can be counteracted to a certain extent by growing energy forest. It has been established that Salix has high ability to heavy metal uptake, especially cadmium. Growing energy forest on drained farm land is connected with a risk for root penetration into the drainage system. With enough water and plant nutrients in the top soil the risk is reduced. Shallow depth of the pipes increases the risk. Combustion of wood chip from energy forests (and other types of biomass) gives especially two advantages. It does not give any net contribution of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. The sulphur discharge will be minimal since the sulphur content in wood fuels is low. Discharge of nitrogen oxide and hydrocarbons may give some problems. These can be reduced by technological measures when combusting. 27 refs, 4 tabs

  8. Environmental performance of gasified willow from different lands including land-use changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saez de Bikuna Salinas, Koldo; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Pilegaard, Kim

    2017-01-01

    A life-cycle assessment (LCA) of a low-input, short rotation coppice (SRC) willow grown on different Danish lands was performed. Woodchips are gasified, producer gas is used for co-generation of heat and power (CHP) and the ash-char output is applied as soil amendment in the field. A hybrid model...... for abandoned farmland, as a relative C stock loss compared to natural regeneration. ILUC results show that area related GHG emissions are dominant (93% of iLUCfood and 80% of iLUCfeed), transformation being more important (82% of iLUCfood) than occupation (11%) impacts. LCA results show that CHP from willow...

  9. An evaluation of harvesting machinery for short rotation coppice willow in Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kofman, P.D.; Spinelli, R.

    1997-12-31

    During the harvesting seasons 1994-1995 and 1995-1996 several harvesting trials were carried out within the EU project on harvesting and storage of Short Rotation Crops and within a national project. During this period the following machines were investigated: Diemelstadt poplar harvester, cut and chip; Claas forage harvester with SRF header, cut and chip; Austoft sugarcane harvester, adapted to SRF, cut and chip; Bender II, cut and chip; Hvidsted Energy Allrounder, whole shoot harvester; Dansalix whole shoot harvester. In the 1994-1995 season the intention was to harvest 300 tonnes of whole shoots, chunks and chips for a storage trial. The main conclusions of the 1994-1995 harvesting season must be that harvesting willow with the existing machines in wet winters without frozen ground is very difficult. The machines will have to be developed further and special interest should be given to developing shuttle vehicles with the same flotation as the tracked harvester. Several of the problems encountered with the machines in Denmark were confirmed by the experience in the other trials. Road transportation of chips from SRF plantations is just as expensive as transporting energy chips from the forest at about Dkr 50 per tonne over 48 km. Transporting whole shoots is very expensive due to the low bulk density. Transportation of whole shoots over 48 km costs on the average Dkr 133 per tonne fresh. A very short pilot study into chipping of whole shoots from a three metre high pile indicated that this comminution with a normal forest chipper has a low productivity (8.9 tonnes fresh per work place hour) and is very expensive at Dkr 157 per tonne. This productivity can be improved by equipping the chipper with a special feeding table and better feed rollers for the SRF crop. (EG)

  10. Willow clones with high biomass yield in short rotation coppice in the southern region of Tohoku district (Japan)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsui, Yu; Seto, Shoko; Nishio, Mari; Minato, Kazuya; Ishizawa, Kimiharu; Satoh, Shigeru

    2010-01-01

    The present study was conducted to select willow (Salix spp.) clones with a high potential for use as biomass energy crops in the southern region of Tohoku district in Japan. Cuttings of 8 willow clones were planted on an abandoned farmland near Sendai (av. annual temp., 10.9 o C) in March 2006, grown throughout the year and cut back in late December 2006 to resprout from the remaining stools in March 2007. The biomass yield in December 2007, after the first growing season, was highest in Salix pet-susu clone KKD, followed by Salix pseudolinearis clone FXM and Salix sachalinensis clone SEN. The biomass yield on December 2008, after the second growing season, was again highest in clone KKD followed by clone FXM, S. pet-susu clone HB471 and S. sachalinensis clone SEN; the average annual yield of dry mass after the second growing season being 3.09, 2.58, 2.17 and 1.85 kgDM plant -1 for the clones in this order. Plant growth form differed among the clones. Clones FXM and SEN had several shoots of almost uniform base diameter, whereas clones KKD and HB471 showed plagiotropic growth with one thick and several thin shoots. The calorific values of dried stem segments were similar among clones, ranging from 18.7 to 19.1 kJ g -1 . The dried stem segments contained 78.9-81.2 wt.% hollocellulose, 27.2-32.3 wt.% lignin and 2.1-4.0 wt.% extractives with ethanol-benzene, depending on clones. Based on these results, we could select four clones (KKD, FXM, HB471 and SEN) suitable for biomass production by SRWC in this area.

  11. Meta-transcriptomics indicates biotic cross-tolerance in willow trees cultivated on petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Emmanuel; Brereton, Nicholas J B; Marleau, Julie; Guidi Nissim, Werther; Labrecque, Michel; Pitre, Frederic E; Joly, Simon

    2015-10-12

    High concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC) pollution can be hazardous to human health and leave soils incapable of supporting agricultural crops. A cheap solution, which can help restore biodiversity and bring land back to productivity, is cultivation of high biomass yielding willow trees. However, the genetic mechanisms which allow these fast-growing trees to tolerate PHCs are as yet unclear. Salix purpurea 'Fish Creek' trees were pot-grown in soil from a former petroleum refinery, either lacking or enriched with C10-C50 PHCs. De novo assembled transcriptomes were compared between tree organs and impartially annotated without a priori constraint to any organism. Over 45% of differentially expressed genes originated from foreign organisms, the majority from the two-spotted spidermite, Tetranychus urticae. Over 99% of T. urticae transcripts were differentially expressed with greater abundance in non-contaminated trees. Plant transcripts involved in the polypropanoid pathway, including phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), had greater expression in contaminated trees whereas most resistance genes showed higher expression in non-contaminated trees. The impartial approach to annotation of the de novo transcriptomes, allowing for the possibility for multiple species identification, was essential for interpretation of the crop's response treatment. The meta-transcriptomic pattern of expression suggests a cross-tolerance mechanism whereby abiotic stress resistance systems provide improved biotic resistance. These findings highlight a valuable but complex biotic and abiotic stress response to real-world, multidimensional contamination which could, in part, help explain why crops such as willow can produce uniquely high biomass yields on challenging marginal land.

  12. Machinery management data for willow harvest with a bio-baler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savoie, P. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Hebert, P.L. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Dept. des sols et de genie agroalimentaire; Robert, F.S. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Sols et environnement

    2010-07-01

    Willow harvested in 2-to-3-year rotations has been touted as a reliable source of biomass. A newly designed harvester based on a round baler was developed in 2006. The third generation biobaler was evaluated in 2009 at 2 willow plantations in Quebec. The first site at Godmanchester was a three-year old regrowth with an estimated 52,000 stems/ha of large diameter willow. The biobaler with a flail cutter harvested three plots totalling 4,136 m{sup 2}. Total harvested biomass was 10.36 t DM in 42 bales. The harvest rate averaged 29 bale/h with an average bale size of 1.22 m wide by 1.30 m in diameter. Diesel fuel consumption averaged 0.81 L/bale. Measured losses averaged 11 per cent of the yield. The second site at Saint-Roch-del'Achigan was a two-year old growth with an estimated 49,000 stems/ha of large stem willow. The biobaler harvested seven plots totalling 15,740 m{sup 2}. Total harvest was 30.70 t DM in 148 bales. The first 14 bales were harvested with a saw blade header. All other bales were harvested with the flail cutter at a faster rate. Bale density averaged 129 kg DM/m{sup 3}. Fuel consumption averaged 0.72 L/bale. Losses averaged 20 per cent of the yield with the saw blade header.

  13. Effect of temperature on the uptake and metabolism of cyanide by weeping willows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, X.-Z.; Trapp, Stefan; Zhou, P.-H.

    2007-01-01

    Plants’ uptake and metabolism of cyanide in response to changes in temperature was investigated. Pre-rooted weeping willows (Salix babylonica L.) were exposed to hydroponic solution spiked with potassium cyanide for 2–3 d. Ten different temperatures were used, ranging from 11◦C to 32◦C. Cyanide...

  14. Phytotoxicity of Sodium Fluoride and Uptake of Fluoride in Willow Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lauge Peter Westergaard; Gosewinkel Karlson, Ulrich; Trapp, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The willow tree (Salix viminalis) toxicity test and a cress seed germination test (Lepidium sativum) were used to determine uptake and phytotoxicity of NaF. Concentrations in hydroponic solutions were 0-1000 mg F/L and 0-400 mg F/L in the preliminary and definitive test. A third test was done...

  15. Uptake, removal, accumulation, and phytotoxicity of 4-chlorophenol in willow trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ucisik, Ahmed Süheyl; Trapp, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    of implementing phytoremediation as a treatment method for 4-CP contamination was investigated. Willows were exposed to 4-CP levels ≤79.9 mg/L in hydroponic solution. The transpiration of the trees was used to determine toxic effects. Almost no inhibition of transpiration was detected at concentrations ≥15 mg...

  16. Phytoscreening and phytoextraction of heavy metals at Danish polluted sites using willow and poplar trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Algreen; Trapp, Stefan; Rein, Arno

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to determine typical concentrations of heavy metals (HM) in wood from willows and poplars, in order to test the feasibility of phytoscreening and phytoextraction of HM. Samples were taken from one strongly, one moderately, and one slightly polluted site and from...

  17. Phytotoxicity of fresh and weathered diesel and gasoline to willow and poplar trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trapp, Stefan; Köhler, A.; Larsen, L.C.

    2001-01-01

    The toxicity of fresh and weathered gasoline and diesel fuel to willow and poplar trees was studied using a tree transpiration toxicity test. Soils were taken from an abandoned filling station. Concentrations in the samples were measured as the sum of hydrocarbons from C5 to C10 (gasoline) and C1...

  18. Treatment of log yard run-off by irrigation of grass and willows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonsson, Maria; Dimitriou, Ioannis; Aronsson, Paer; Elowson, Torbjoern

    2006-01-01

    Log yard run-off is a potential environmental risk, among other things because it creates an oxygen deficiency in receiving watercourses. This study was conducted to investigate the purification efficiency of soil-plant systems with couchgrass (Elymus repens) and willows (Salix sp.) when intensively irrigated with run-off from an open sprinkling system at a Norway spruce (Picea abies) log yard. The purification efficiency was determined both at the field scale (couchgrass) and in 68-L lysimeters (couchgrass and willows). Groundwater in the field and drainage water from the lysimeters were analysed for Total Organic Carbon (TOC), distillable phenols, total P, and total N. Retention of TOC, phenols and P occurred but no difference between couchgrass and willows was observed. The system had better purification capacity at the field scale than in the lysimeters. -- By irrigating willow and couchgrass soil-plant systems with log yard run-off water, TOC, phenols, and phosphorus were reduced with 35% to 96% in the water

  19. Comparison of willow and sunflower for uranium phytoextraction induced by citric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jan Mihalik; National Radiation Protection Institute, Prague; CZU, FAPPZ, Prague; Pavel Tlustos; Jirina Szakova

    2010-01-01

    This study deals with an efficiency of a low dose of citric acid soil application on phytoextraction of uranium. Willow (Salix spp.) and sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) were tested in this experiment with contaminated soil. The enhancing of uranium bioaccumulation was confirmed, but in contrast to previous studies, the highest quantity of uranium was accumulated in leaves. After 5 weeks of citric acid treatment, willow was more efficient in the uptake and translocation of uranium than sunflower. The transfer coefficient calculated for leaves increased from 0.033 (control) to 0.74, or 0.56 after five doses of 5 mmol of citric acid per 1 kg of soil for willow or sunflower, respectively. The uptake characterized by the total U content achieved 88 and 108 mg kg -1 in relation to the above ground parts of sunflower and willow, respectively. Even though both plants accumulated U in their above ground parts in significant rate, they employed diverse ways to achieve it. At the end of the treatment, the physiological condition of the plants enabled us to continue this method. (author)

  20. Phytoscreening and phytoextraction of heavy metals at Danish polluted sites using willow and poplar trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algreen, Mette; Trapp, Stefan; Rein, Arno

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to determine typical concentrations of heavy metals (HM) in wood from willows and poplars, in order to test the feasibility of phytoscreening and phytoextraction of HM. Samples were taken from one strongly, one moderately, and one slightly polluted site and from three reference sites. Wood from both tree species had similar background concentrations at 0.5 mg kg(-1) for cadmium (Cd), 1.6 mg kg(-1) for copper (Cu), 0.3 mg kg(-1) for nickel (Ni), and 25 mg kg(-1) for zinc (Zn). Concentrations of chromium (Cr) and lead (Pb) were below or close to detection limit. Concentrations in wood from the highly polluted site were significantly elevated, compared to references, in particular for willow. The conclusion from these results is that tree coring could be used successfully to identify strongly heavy metal-polluted soil for Cd, Cu, Ni, Zn, and that willow trees were superior to poplars, except when screening for Ni. Phytoextraction of HMs was quantified from measured concentration in wood at the most polluted site. Extraction efficiencies were best for willows and Cd, but below 0.5% over 10 years, and below 1‰ in 10 years for all other HMs.

  1. A habitat overlap analysis derived from Maxent for Tamarisk and the South-western Willow Flycatcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia York; Paul Evangelista; Sunil Kumar; James Graham; Curtis Flather; Thomas Stohlgren

    2011-01-01

    Biologic control of the introduced and invasive, woody plant tamarisk (Tamarix spp, saltcedar) in south-western states is controversial because it affects habitat of the federally endangered South-western Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus). These songbirds sometimes nest in tamarisk where floodplain-level invasion replaces native habitats. Biologic control...

  2. Combustion quality of poplar and willow clones grown as SRC at four sites in Brandenburg, Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Na; Ugilt Larsen, Søren; Jørgensen, Uffe

    2017-01-01

    The fuel quality was assessed for nine poplar clones (AF2, Androscoggin, Max1, Max3, Max4, Monviso, Muhle-Larsen, NE42, Weser6) and one willow clone (Inger) grown as short rotation coppice (SRC) on four sites in the Brandenburg area in Germany. Fuel quality was analysed in 3-year old shoots in te...

  3. A genetic linkage map of willow (Salix viminalis) based on AFLP and microsatelite markers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanley, S.; Barker, J.H.A.; Ooijen, van J.W.; Aldam, C.; Harris, S.L.; Ahman, I.; Larsson, S.; Karp, A.

    2002-01-01

    The genus Salix (willow) contains a number of species of great value as biomass crops. Efforts to breed varieties with improved biomass yields and resistances to pests and diseases are limited by the lack of knowledge on the genetic basis of the traits. We have used AFLP and microsatellite markers

  4. Cd and Zn concentrations in small mammals and willow leaves on disposal facilities for dredged material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mertens, J.; Luyssaert, S.; Verbeeren, S.; Vervaeke, P; Lust, N

    2001-01-01

    Disposal sites for dredged material are often polluted with heavy metals. The uptake of Cd and Zn by small mammals and willow trees was assessed on three sites with a different pollution degree. Detailed soil sampling showed a huge variation in soil characteristics within the sites, typical for

  5. Southwestern willow flycatchers (Empidonax traillii extimus) in a grazed landscape: factors influencing brood parasitism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katherine M. Brodhead; Scott H. Stoleson; Deborah M. Finch

    2007-01-01

    Brood parasitism by Brown-headed Cowbirds (Molothrus ater; hereafter "cowbirds") is an important factor contributing to the endangered status of the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus, hereafter "flycatcher"). We report on factors that influence brood parasitism on the flycatcher using...

  6. Ecophysiology of riparian cottonwood and willow before, during, and after two years of soil water removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultine, K R; Bush, S E; Ehleringer, J R

    2010-03-01

    Riparian cottonwood/willow forest assemblages are highly valued in the southwestern United States for their wildlife habitat, biodiversity, and watershed protection. Yet these forests are under considerable threat from climate change impacts on water resources and land-use activities to support human enterprise. Stream diversions, groundwater pumping, and extended drought have resulted in the decline of cottonwood/willow forests along many riparian corridors in the Southwest and, in many cases, the replacement of these forests with less desirable invasive shrubs and trees. Nevertheless, ecophysiological responses of cottonwood and willow, along with associated ecohydrological feedbacks of soil water depletion, are not well understood. Ecophysiological processes of mature Fremont cottonwood and coyote willow stands were examined over four consecutive growing seasons (2004-2007) near Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. The tree stands occurred near the inlet of a reservoir that was drained in the spring of 2005 and remained empty until mid-summer of 2006, effectively removing the primary water source for most of two growing seasons. Stem sap flux density (Js) in cottonwood was highly correlated with volumetric soil moisture (theta) in the upper 60 cm and decreased sevenfold as soil moisture dropped from 12% to 7% after the reservoir was drained. Conversely, Js in willow was marginally correlated with 0 and decreased by only 25% during the same period. Opposite patterns emerged during the following growing season: willow had a lower whole-plant conductance (kt) in June and higher leaf carbon isotope ratios (delta13C) than cottonwood in August, whereas k(t) and delta13C were otherwise similar between species. Water relations in both species recovered quickly from soil water depletion, with the exception that sapwood area to stem area (As:Ast) was significantly lower in both species after the 2007 growing season compared to 2004. Results suggest that cottonwood has a greater

  7. Extreme drought alters frequency and reproductive success of floaters in Willow Flycatchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theimer, Tad; Sogge, Mark K.; Cardinal, Suzanne N.; Durst, Scott L.; Paxton, Eben H.

    2018-01-01

    Changes in habitat quality, including those caused by extreme events like droughts and floods, could alter costs and benefits of territoriality and thereby the prevalence and reproductive consequences for individuals capable of breeding that do not do so (floaters). We studied floating behavior in a population of Southwestern Willow Flycatchers (Empidonax traillii extimus) in central Arizona during one year of extreme drought, one year of lake inundation, and three years of near average precipitation. In all years, most floaters were second year (SY) males, and most subsequently settled outside of the patch where they were detected in the floating year, suggesting that floaters did not “queue” at high-quality territories in order to achieve higher reproductive success in subsequent years. Instead, cohorts that floated in non-drought years had lower apparent survival and lower reproductive success compared to territorial birds. In the extreme drought year, however, the number of floaters was 1.5 times greater than in all other years combined, more females floated, and apparent survival and mean annual productivity in subsequent years was higher for males that floated in that year than for those that were territorial. Inundation of habitat due to rising reservoir levels did not result in an increase in floaters because many birds nested in inundated areas where trees projected above the water so that the relative amount of available habitat was not reduced to the extent habitat models predicted. Overall, our results indicate that the prevalence and reproductive and demographic consequences of floating can change under extreme climatic events like severe drought.

  8. Physiological and morphological responses of pine and willow saplings to post-fire salvage logging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millions, E. L.; Letts, M. G.; Harvey, T.; Rood, S. B.

    2015-12-01

    With global warming, forest fires may be increasing in frequency, and post-fire salvage logging may become more common. The ecophysiological impacts of this practice on tree saplings remain poorly understood. In this study, we examined the physiological and morphological impacts of increased light intensity, due to post-fire salvage logging, on the conifer Pinus contorta (pine) and deciduous broadleaf Salix lucida (willow) tree and shrub species in the Crowsnest Pass region of southern Alberta. Photosynthetic gas-exchange and plant morphological measurements were taken throughout the summer of 2013 on approximately ten year-old saplings of both species. Neither species exhibited photoinhibition, but different strategies were observed to acclimate to increased light availability. Willow saplings were able to slightly elevate their light-saturated rate of net photosynthesis (Amax) when exposed to higher photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD), thus increasing their growth rate. Willow also exhibited increased leaf inclination angles and leaf mass per unit area (LMA), to decrease light interception in the salvage-logged plot. By contrast, pine, which exhibited lower Amax and transpiration (E), but higher water-use efficiency (WUE = Amax/E) than willow, increased the rate at which electrons were moved through and away from the photosynthetic apparatus in order to avoid photoinhibition. Acclimation indices were higher in willow saplings, consistent with the hypothesis that species with short-lived foliage exhibit greater acclimation. LMA was higher in pine saplings growing in the logged plot, but whole-plant and branch-level morphological acclimation was limited and more consistent with a response to decreased competition in the logged plot, which had much lower stand density.

  9. High yielding biomass genotypes of willow (Salix spp.) show differences in below ground biomass allocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunniff, Jennifer; Purdy, Sarah J.; Barraclough, Tim J.P.; Castle, March; Maddison, Anne L.; Jones, Laurence E.; Shield, Ian F.; Gregory, Andrew S.; Karp, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Willows (Salix spp.) grown as short rotation coppice (SRC) are viewed as a sustainable source of biomass with a positive greenhouse gas (GHG) balance due to their potential to fix and accumulate carbon (C) below ground. However, exploiting this potential has been limited by the paucity of data available on below ground biomass allocation and the extent to which it varies between genotypes. Furthermore, it is likely that allocation can be altered considerably by environment. To investigate the role of genotype and environment on allocation, four willow genotypes were grown at two replicated field sites in southeast England and west Wales, UK. Above and below ground biomass was intensively measured over two two-year rotations. Significant genotypic differences in biomass allocation were identified, with below ground allocation differing by up to 10% between genotypes. Importantly, the genotype with the highest below ground biomass also had the highest above ground yield. Furthermore, leaf area was found to be a good predictor of below ground biomass. Growth environment significantly impacted allocation; the willow genotypes grown in west Wales had up to 94% more biomass below ground by the end of the second rotation. A single investigation into fine roots showed the same pattern with double the volume of fine roots present. This greater below ground allocation may be attributed primarily to higher wind speeds, plus differences in humidity and soil characteristics. These results demonstrate that the capacity exists to breed plants with both high yields and high potential for C accumulation. - Highlights: • SRC willows are a source of biomass and act as carbon (C) sinks. • Biomass allocation was measured in 4 willow genotypes grown in two UK field sites. • The greatest yielding genotype had the greatest below ground biomass at both sites. • Below ground biomass allocation differed by up to 10% between genotypes and 94% between sites. • Environment e.g. wind

  10. White willow sexual regeneration capacity under estuarine conditions in times of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markus-Michalczyk, Heike; Hanelt, Dieter; Denstorf, Julian; Jensen, Kai

    2016-10-01

    Tidal wetlands provide both habitats for coastal populations and wildlife, and ecosystem services for human welfare. Building with nature regarding cost-effective coastal protection is of increasing interest. Much research has been carried out on plant reproduction capacities in mangroves and salt marshes, but less is known on this issue in tidal freshwater wetlands. Willows are being successfully used for bank stabilization in riverine habitats, however, today white willow softwood forests in tidal wetlands are highly fragmented, and restoration is required e.g. by the European Habitats Directive. Recently, tolerance to increasing salinity and tidal flooding was found for vegetative propagules of floodplain willows. However, the establishment of autochthonous sexual recruits is necessary to conserve the genetic diversity of local populations, and thus may be preferable in restoration. The germination and early seedling establishment of Salix alba (white willow) was experimentally studied under simulated estuarine conditions. The species tolerance to increasing salinity (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2) was tested in a climate chamber, and its tolerance to flooding at different tidal treatments (control, spring tide, daily tide 15 min and 2 h flooding) in the greenhouse. Germination was neither affected by increasing salinity nor by tidal flooding. Salix seedlings established up to salinity 1.5, but cotyledon performance and radicle growth was largely reduced at salinity 2. Under tidal flooding, seedling growth was similar in all treatments. However, in the treatments with daily tides seedling anchorage in the substrate took more than two weeks, and fewer seedlings reached a suitable length to approach the high water line. We assess S. alba sexual regeneration under estuarine conditions as generally possible. Further studies are needed on the effects of sedimentation-erosion processes on willow establishment in the field, especially on feedbacks between Salix survival and

  11. Short-rotation Willow Biomass Plantations Irrigated and Fertilised with Wastewaters. Results from a 4-year multidisciplinary field project in Sweden, France, Northern Ireland and Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Stig [Svaloef Weibull AB, Svaloef (Sweden); Cuingnet, Christian; Clause, Pierre [Association pour le Developpement des Culture Energetiques, Lille (France); Jakobsson, Ingvar [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden); Dawson, Malcolm [Queens Univ., Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Backlund, Arne [A and B Backlund ApS, Charlottenlund (Denmark); Mavrogianopoulus, George [Agricultural Univ. of Athens (Greece)

    2003-01-01

    This report summarises results and experiences gathered from field trials with recycling of pre-treated wastewater, diverted human urine mixed with water, and municipal sludge, within plantations of willow species specifically selected for biomass production. Experimental sites were established in Sweden (Roma), France (Orchies), Northern Ireland (Culmore) and Greece (Larissa). The project was carried out during a 4-year period with financial support from the EU FAIR Programme. The experimental sites were supplied with primary effluent from municipal treatment plants (Culmore and Larissa), stored industrial effluent from a chicory processing plant (Orchies), biologically treated and stored municipal wastewater (Roma) and human urine mixture from diverting low-flush toilets mixed with water (Roma). Application rates of the wastewaters or the urine mixture were equivalent to the calculated evapotranspiration rate at each site. Wastewaters were also applied up to three times this value to evaluate any possible negative effects. Estimations and evaluations were carried out mainly concerning: biomass growth, potential biological attacks of the plantations, plant water requirements, fertilisation effects of the wastewater, plant uptake of nutrients and heavy metals from applied wastewater, possible soil or groundwater impact, sanitary aspects, and potentials for removal in the soil-plant filter of nutrients and biodegradable organic material from applied wastewater. The results clearly indicated that biomass production in young willow plantations could be enhanced substantially after recycling of wastewater resources. The impact on soil and groundwater of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) and heavy metals (copper, zinc, lead and cadmium) was limited, even when the application of water and nutrients exceeded the plant requirements. Also, the soil-plant system seemed to function as a natural treatment filter for pre-treated (primary settled) wastewater, with a treatment

  12. A comparison of the suitability of different willow varieties to treat on-site wastewater effluent in an Irish climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curneen, S J; Gill, L W

    2014-01-15

    Short rotation coppiced willow trees can be used to treat on-site wastewater effluent with the advantage that, if planted in a sealed basin and sized correctly, they produce no effluent discharge. This paper has investigated the evapotranspiration rate of four different willow varieties while also monitoring the effects of three different effluent types on each variety. The willow varieties used are all cultivars of Salix viminalis. The effluents applied were primary (septic tank) effluent, secondary treated effluent and rain water (control). The results obtained showed that the addition of effluent had a positive effect on the evapotranspiration. The willows were also found to uptake a high proportion of the nitrogen and phosphorus from the primary and secondary treated effluents added during the first year. The effect of the different effluents on the evapotranspiration rate has been used to design ten full scale on-site treatment systems which are now being monitored. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Differential impacts of willow and mineral fertilizer on bacterial communities and biodegradation in diesel fuel oil-contaminated soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary-Cathrine C.E. Leewis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite decades of research there is limited understanding of how vegetation impacts the ability of microbial communities to process organic contaminants in soil. Using a combination of traditional and molecular assays, we examined how phytoremediation with willow and/or fertilization affected the microbial community present and active in the transformation of diesel contaminants. In a pot study, willow had a significant role in structuring the total bacterial community and resulted in significant decreases in diesel range organics (DRO. However, stable isotope probing (SIP indicated that fertilizer drove the differences seen in community structure and function. Finally, analysis of the total variance in both pot and SIP experiments indicated an interactive effect between willow and fertilizer on the bacterial communities. This study clearly demonstrates that a willow native to Alaska accelerates DRO degradation, and together with fertilizer, increased aromatic degradation by shifting microbial community structure and the identity of active naphthalene degraders.

  14. The development of short-rotation willow in the northeastern United States for bioenergy and bioproducts, agroforestry and phytoremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volk, T.A.; Abrahamson, L.P.; Nowak, C.A.; White, E.H.; Smart, L.B.; Tharakan, P.J.

    2006-01-01

    Research on willow (Salix spp.) as a locally produced, renewable feedstock for bioenergy and bioproducts began in New York in the mid-1980s in response to growing concerns about environmental impacts associated with fossil fuels and declining rural economies. Simultaneous and integrated activities-including research, large-scale demonstrations, outreach and education, and market development-were initiated in the mid-1990s to facilitate the commercialization of willow biomass crops. Despite technological viability and associated environmental and local economic benefits, the high price of willow biomass relative to coal has been a barrier to wide-scale deployment of this system. The cost of willow biomass is currently $3.00GJ -1 ($57.30odt -1 ) compared to $1.40-1.90GJ -1 for coal. Yield improvements from traditional breeding efforts and increases in harvesting efficiency that are currently being realized promise to reduce the price differential. Recent policy changes at the federal level, including the provision to harvest bioenergy crops from Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) land and a closed-loop biomass tax credit, and state-level initiatives such as Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS) will help to further reduce the difference and foster markets for willow biomass. Years of work on willow biomass crop research and demonstration projects have increased our understanding of the biology, ecophysiology and management of willow biomass crops. Using an adaptive management model, this information has led to the deployment of willow for other applications such as phytoremediation, living snow fences, and riparian buffers across the northeastern US. (author)

  15. Pathogenic and Ice-Nucleation Active (INA) Bacteria causing Dieback of Willows in Short Rotation Forestry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nejad, Pajand

    2005-03-01

    To find out whether bacteria isolated from diseased plant parts can be the main causal agent for the dieback appearing in Salix energy forestry plantations in Sweden during the last few years, and if the joint effects of bacteria and frost injury are synergistic, extensive sampling of shoots from diseased Salix plants was performed. We performed several laboratory and greenhouse investigations and used evaluation techniques on the functions of the Ice-Nucleation Active (INA) bacteria. We carried out a comparison between spring and autumn bacterial communities isolated from within (endophytically) and surface (epiphytically) plant tissues of Salix viminalis. Seasonal variation of bacteria in willow clones with different levels of frost sensitivity and symptoms of bacterial damage was also investigated. We further focussed on possible effect of fertilisation and nutrient availability on the bacterial community in relation to plant dieback in Estonian willow plantations. The identification and detection of INA bacteria which cause damage in combination with frost to willow (Salix spp) plants in late fall, winter and spring was performed using BIOLOG MicroPlate, biochemical tests, selective INA primers and 16S rDNA analysis. To distinguish the character for differentiation between these bacteria morphologically and with respect to growing ability different culture media were used. We studied the temperature, at which ice nucleation occurred for individual bacteria, estimated the population of INA bacteria, effect of growth limiting factors, and evaluated the effect of chemical and physical agents for disruption and possible inhibition of INA among individual bacterial strains. The concentration of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus on INA is discussed. We demonstrate that among the bacterial isolates recovered from the willow plantations, there were many that were capable of ice nucleation at temperatures between -2 and -10 deg C, many that were capable of inducing a

  16. Mortality of radio collared willow ptarmigan in Smoela wind-power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, Hans Chr.; Broeseth, Henrik; Nilsen, Erlend B.; Sandercock, Brett K.; Bevanger, Kjetil

    2011-07-01

    Full text: In the project Pre- and post-construction studies of conflicts between birds and wind turbines in coastal Norway (BirdWind), Smoela willow ptarmigan (Lagopus lagopus variegatus) has been one of the species studied. This sub-species represent gallinaceous birds, known to be bad flyers susceptible to collide with artificial structures, e.g. power lines. However, the possible impact of a wind-power plant on survival and behaviour in a willow ptarmigan population was unknown. The objectives of the study were therefore rather wide; to study direct and indirect effects of wind turbines on willow ptarmigan behaviour, habitat selection, reproduction and survival in areas where wind-power plants are established. To collect data on habitat selection, movements, collision risks, avoidance behaviour, survival and general population dynamic parameters, willow ptarmigan were radio-tagged in 2008-2010, using traditional VHF-transmitters (Holohill) with mortality switch, necklace mount, 12 g, lasting for approximately 24 months. Due to low population density and only occasional snow cover, a method using strong lights, dipnet and car was used to catch birds. In total, 34 willow ptarmigan were caught (19 males and 15 females). All birds were caught inside the wind-power plant area (WPA). The birds were radio-tracked at irregular intervals and almost all birds, when found, was located within the WPA. All carcasses of dead birds were examined. When possible, cause of death was determined as; predation (raptor), collision, unknown, other. In total, 28 of the radio-tagged birds have died since January 2008. A Kaplan-Meier analysis of cumulative survival rates, show an exceptionally low survival (<30%). Unlike other willow ptarmigan populations most of the mortality takes place during winter, from December throughout March. Although a thorough analysis of mortality causes has yet not been carried out, a majority of the birds have probably been killed by avian predators and to

  17. Phytoremediation capacity of poplar (Populus spp. and willow (Salix spp. clonesin relation to photosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajević Slobodanka

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Good photosynthetic features and a favorable water regimes of woody plants improve their survival and remediation potential under unfavorable ecological conditions. Accordingly, we here present results of testing plant tolerance of Pb, Cd, Ni, and diesel fuel based on gas exchange parameters and WUE of four poplar and two willow clones grown in a greenhouse on soil culture. Photosynthesis and transpiration of plants grown on soils with individually applied heavy metals decreased significantly, but this was less obvious in the case of Cd treatment. A heavy metal mixture in the soil induced significant reduction in photosynthesis (by more than 50%. Diesel fuel as the only pollutant in soil caused very strong and significant inhibition of photosynthesis and transpiration of willow clones. The results indicate genotypic specificity of all investigated physiological parameters and mark poplar clones as very useful in phytoextraction technology for the bio-cleaning of chemically polluted soils.

  18. The level of invasion of the willow-poplar floodplain forests of Danube lowland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botkova, K.; Petrasova, K.

    2015-01-01

    Invasions of neophyte plant species are considered as one of the major threats to the diversity of natural ecosystems including floodplain forests. The aims of our study were to find out if there is a significant increase in the number and cover of neophyte species in the willow-poplar floodplain forests of Danube lowland over time. The level of invasion of the willow-poplar floodplain forests was evaluated from 1950 to the present time using Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric ANOVA. According to the analysis results, along the time gradient there is a significant increase in the number and cover of neophytes among analysed periods. This result is not caused by increasing biodiversity, because the number of native species significantly decreased. Therefor it is necessary to look for reasons of this situation in deteriorating condition of floodplain biotopes. (authors)

  19. Microbial expression profiles in the rhizosphere of willows depend on soil contamination

    OpenAIRE

    Yergeau, Etienne; Sanschagrin, Sylvie; Maynard, Christine; St-Arnaud, Marc; Greer, Charles W

    2013-01-01

    The goal of phytoremediation is to use plants to immobilize, extract or degrade organic and inorganic pollutants. In the case of organic contaminants, plants essentially act indirectly through the stimulation of rhizosphere microorganisms. A detailed understanding of the effect plants have on the activities of rhizosphere microorganisms could help optimize phytoremediation systems and enhance their use. In this study, willows were planted in contaminated and non-contaminated soils in a greenh...

  20. Five willow varieties cultivated across diverse field environments reveal stem density variation associated with high tension wood abundance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas eBerthod

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable and inexpensive production of biomass is necessary to make biofuel production feasible, but represents a challenge. Five short rotation coppice (SRC willow cultivars, selected for high biomass yield, were cultivated on sites at four diverse regions of Quebec to determine their bioenergy potential in contrasting environments. Wood composition and anatomical traits were characterized. Tree height and stem diameter were measured to evaluate growth performance of the cultivars according to the diverse pedoclimatic conditions. Each cultivar showed very specific responses to its environment. While no significant variation in lignin content was observed between sites, there was variation between cultivars. Surprisingly, the pattern of substantial genotype variability in stem density was maintained across all sites. However, wood anatomy did differ between sites in a cultivar (producing high and low density wood, suggesting a probable response to an abiotic stress. Furthermore, twice as many cellulose-rich G-fibers, comprising over 50 % of secondary xylem, were also found in the high density wood, a finding with potential to bring higher value to the lignocellulosic bioethanol industry

  1. UTILIZATION OF ANIMAL MEAL FOR GROWING OF WILLOW DEDICATED FOR ENERGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Nogalska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of increased rates of meat and bone meal (MBM to the soil on biomass yield, nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P content, and their accumulation in above ground biomass Salix viminalis, as well as the content of mineral N and available P forms in the soil. A two-year pot experiment was conducted at Warmia and Mazury University in Olsztyn (north-eastern Poland. Average biomass yield from two seasons of the studies was three higher from MBM treatments comparing to unfertilized control. Higher rates of MBM particularly in the second year showed higher yielding potential compared with mineral fertilizers. Willow biomass harvested from MBM treatments generally showed lower content of studied nutrients than willow from control treatment. It was found that in relation to the control accumulation of N in willow above ground biomass was significantly lower for 0.5% MBM treatment and significantly higher for the treatment with the highest rate (2.0%. The higher accumulation of P was found in the second year after MBM application, except treatment with the lowest MBM rate. Correlation coefficients values indicated that there is a relation between MBM rate and content of mineral N and available P in soil.

  2. The Study of Interactions between Active Compounds of Coffee and Willow (Salix sp. Bark Water Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Durak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Coffee and willow are known as valuable sources of biologically active phytochemicals such as chlorogenic acid, caffeine, and salicin. The aim of the study was to determine the interactions between the active compounds contained in water extracts from coffee and bark of willow (Salix purpurea and Salix myrsinifolia. Raw materials and their mixtures were characterized by multidirectional antioxidant activities; however, bioactive constituents interacted with each other. Synergism was observed for ability of inhibition of lipid peroxidation and reducing power, whereas compounds able to scavenge ABTS radical cation acted antagonistically. Additionally, phytochemicals from willow bark possessed hydrophilic character and thermostability which justifies their potential use as an ingredient in coffee beverages. Proposed mixtures may be used in the prophylaxis or treatment of some civilization diseases linked with oxidative stress. Most importantly, strong synergism observed for phytochemicals able to prevent lipids against oxidation may suggest protective effect for cell membrane phospholipids. Obtained results indicate that extracts from bark tested Salix genotypes as an ingredient in coffee beverages can provide health promoting benefits to the consumers; however, this issue requires further study.

  3. Phytoextraction of heavy metals by willows growing in biosolids under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidlaw, W S; Arndt, S K; Huynh, T T; Gregory, D; Baker, A J M

    2012-01-01

    Biosolids produced by sewage treatment facilities can exceed guideline thresholds for contaminant elements. Phytoextraction is one technique with the potential to reduce these elements allowing reuse of the biosolids as a soil amendment. In this field trial, cuttings of seven species/cultivars of Salix(willows) were planted directly into soil and into biosolids to identify their suitability for decontaminating biosolids. Trees were irrigated and harvested each year for three consecutive years. Harvested biomass was weighed and analyzed for the contaminant elements: As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Hg, Pb, Ni, and Zn. All Salix cultivars, except S. chilensis, growing in soils produced 10 to 20 t ha(-1) of biomass, whereas most Salix cultivars growing in biosolids produced significantly less biomass (metals from biosolids, driven by superior biomass increases and not high tissue concentrations. The willows were effectual in extracting the most soluble/exchangeable metals (Cd, 0.18; Ni, 0.40; and Zn, 11.66 kg ha(-1)), whereas Cr and Cu were extracted to a lesser degree (0.02 and 0.11 kg ha(-1)). Low bioavailable elements, As, Hg, and Pb, were not detectable in any of the aboveground biomass of the willows. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  4. GIS-BASED location optimization of a biomass conversion plant on contaminated willow in the Campine region (Belgium)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voets, Thomas; Neven, An; Thewys, Theo; Kuppens, Tom

    2013-01-01

    The Campine region is diffusely contaminated with heavy metals like cadmium. Since traditional excavation techniques are too expensive, phytoremediation is preferred as a remediation technique. In a previous study, the biomass potential from phytoremediation of contaminated agricultural land in the Campine region in Belgium was assessed. Based on recently upgraded figures of willow potential from phytoremediation on agricultural land in the seven most contaminated municipalities of the Belgian Campine region, the current paper uses GIS-knowledge to investigate which of three previously identified locations is most suitable for a biomass plant, taking into account the spatial distribution of the contaminated willow supply and the total cost of willow transport. Biomass transport distance from the centroid of each contaminated agricultural parcel to each of the three potential biomass plant locations was determined following Euclidian distance calculations and distance calculations over the existing road network. A transport cost model consisting of distance fixed and distance dependent biomass transport costs was developed. Of the locations identified, the Overpelt Fabriek site results in the lowest biomass transport distance and costs. When willow allocation for each parcel occurs based on the nearest potential plant location, transport costs are on average 23% lower than when all biomass is transported to the single Overpelt Fabriek site location. Therefore, when only considering transport costs, installing a smaller plant at each of the three potential plant locations would be less expensive than when installing a single biomass plant at the Overpelt Fabriek site. -- Highlights: ► Overpelt Fabriek site most attractive for time frames considered. ► Average tortuosity factor in Campine region between 1.27 and 1.42. ► Share of willow transport costs in willow supply costs 21%. ► Optimal allocation of willow results in lower transport costs

  5. Phytoextraction of soil trace elements by willow during a phytoremediation trial in Southern Québec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courchesne, François; Turmel, Marie-Claude; Cloutier-Hurteau, Benoît; Constantineau, Simon; Munro, Lara; Labrecque, Michel

    2017-06-03

    The phytoextraction of the trace elements (TEs) As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn by willow cultivars (Fish Creek, SV1 and SX67) was measured during a 3-year field trial in a mildly contaminated soil. Biomass ranged from 2.8 to 4.4 Mg/ha/year at 30,000 plants/ha. Shoots (62%) were the main component followed by leaves (23%) and roots (15%). Biomass was positively linked to soluble soil dissolved organic carbon, K, and Mg, while TEs, not Cd and Zn, had a negative effect. The TE concentration ranking was: Zn > Cu > Cd > Ni, Pb > As, and distribution patterns were: (i) minima in shoots (As, Ni), (ii) maxima in leaves (Cd, Zn), or (iii) maxima in roots (Cu, Pb). Correlations between soil and plant TE were significant for the six TEs in roots. The amounts extracted were at a maximum for Zn, whereas Fish Creek and SV1 extracted more TE than SX67. More than 60% (91-94% for Cd and Zn) of the total TE was in the aboveground parts. Uptake increased with time because of higher biomass. Fertilization, the selection of cultivars, and the use of complementary plants are required to improve productivity and Cd and Zn uptake.

  6. DESIGNING AN OPPORTUNITY FUEL WITH BIOMASS AND TIRE-DERIVED FUEL FOR COFIRING AT WILLOW ISLAND GENERATING STATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K. Payette; D. Tillman

    2001-01-01

    During the period October 1, 2000 - December 31, 2000, Allegheny Energy Supply Co., LLC (Allegheny) executed a Cooperative Agreement with the National Energy Technology Laboratory to implement a major cofiring demonstration at the Willow Island Generating Station Boiler No.2. Willow Island Boiler No.2 is a cyclone boiler. Allegheny also will demonstrate separate injection cofiring at the Albright Generating Station Boiler No.3, a tangentially fired boiler. The Allegheny team includes Foster Wheeler as its primary subcontractor. Additional subcontractors are Cofiring Alternatives and N.S. Harding and Associates. This report summarizes the activities associated with the Designer Opportunity Fuel program, and demonstrations at Willow Island and Albright Generating Stations. The second quarter of the project involved completing the designs for each location. Further, geotechnical investigations proceeded at each site. Preparations were made to perform demolition on two small buildings at the Willow Island site. Fuels strategies were initiated for each site. Test planning commenced for each site. A groundbreaking ceremony was held at the Willow Island site on October 18, with Governor C. Underwood being the featured speaker

  7. Clonal variation in survival and growth of hybrid poplar and willow in an in situ trial on soils heavily contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald S., Jr. Zalesny; Edmund O. Bauer; Richard B. Hall; Jill A. Zalesny; Joshua Kunzman; Chris J. Rog; Don E. Riemenschneider

    2005-01-01

    Species and hybrids between species belonging to the genera Populus (poplar) and Salix (willow) have been used successfully for phytoremediation of contaminated soils. Our objectives were to: 1) evaluate the potential for establishing genotypes of poplar and willow on soils heavily contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons and 2)...

  8. The Development of improved willow clones for eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. F. Kopp; L. B. Smart; C. A. Maynard; J. G. Isebrands; G. A. Tuskan; L. P. Abrahamson

    2001-01-01

    Efforts aimed at genetic improvement of Salix are increasing in North America.Most of these are directed towards developing improved clones for biomass production, phytoremediation, nutrient filters, and stream bank stabilization in the Northeast and North-central United States. Native species are of primary interest, but a small number of clones containing non-native...

  9. Vegetative reproduction capacities of floodplain willows--cutting response to competition and biomass loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, A; Mosner, E; Leyer, I

    2012-03-01

    While several studies on regeneration in Salicaceae have focused on seedling recruitment, little is known about factors controlling their vegetative reproduction. In two greenhouse experiments, we studied the response of floodplain willows (Salix fragilis, S. viminalis, S. triandra) to competition with Poa trivialis, and to shoot and root removal when planted as vegetative cuttings. In the first experiment, growth performance variables were analysed in relation to full competition, shoot competition, root competition and control, taking into account two different water levels. After 9 weeks, shoots were removed and the resprouting capacity of the bare cuttings was recorded. In the second experiment, the cutting performance of the three floodplain and an additional two fen willow species (S. cinerea, S. aurita) was compared when grown in three different soil compositions and with two different water levels. After 9 weeks, shoot and root biomass was removed and the bare cuttings were replanted to test their ability to resprout. Cutting performance and secondary resprouting were negatively affected by full and shoot competition while root competition had no or weak effects. The floodplain species performed better than the fen species in all soil types and water levels. Secondary resprouting capacity was also higher in the floodplain species, which showed an additional strong positive response to the previous waterlogging treatment. The results contribute to understanding of the vegetative regeneration ecology of floodplain willows, and suggest that the use of vegetative plantings in restoration plantings could be an effective strategy for recovering floodplain forests. © 2011 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  10. A Natural History Summary and Survey Protocol for the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogge, Mark K.; ,; Ahlers, Darrell; ,; Sferra, Susan J.; ,

    2010-01-01

    The Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) has been the subject of substantial research, monitoring, and management activity since it was listed as an endangered species in 1995. When proposed for listing in 1993, relatively little was known about the flycatcher's natural history, and there were only 30 known breeding sites supporting an estimated 111 territories rangewide (Sogge and others, 2003a). Since that time, thousands of presence/absences surveys have been conducted throughout the historical range of the flycatcher, and many studies of its natural history and ecology have been completed. As a result, the ecology of the flycatcher is much better understood than it was just over a decade ago. In addition, we have learned that the current status of the flycatcher is better than originally thought: as of 2007, the population was estimated at approximately 1,300 territories distributed among approximately 280 breeding sites (Durst and others, 2008a). Concern about the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher on a rangewide scale was brought to focus by Unitt (1987), who described declines in flycatcher abundance and distribution throughout the Southwest. E. t. extimus populations declined during the 20th century, primarily because of habitat loss and modification from activities, such as dam construction and operation, groundwater pumping, water diversions, and flood control. In 1991, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) designated the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher as a candidate category 1 species (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1991). In July 1993, the USFWS proposed to list E. t. extimus as an endangered species and to designate critical habitat under the Act (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1993). A final rule listing E. t. extimus as endangered was published in February 1995 (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1995); critical habitat was designated in 1997 (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1997). The USFWS Service released a Recovery Plan for

  11. 3. Rethinking Borders in Empire and Nation at the Foot of the Willow Palisade

    OpenAIRE

    E.Bulag, Uradyn

    2015-01-01

    Prologue: stony wars at the foot of the willow palisade Every year, on the fifth day of the fifth lunar month, i.e. the traditional Duanwu Festival (also known as Dragon Boat Festival or Double Fifth Festival), people in Wangsiyingzi and the neighbouring village Sifangtai, just about one and half kilometres to the south, would climb atop a small mountain that lies between the two villages. Instead of racing dragon-headed boats as is the practice in south China, where the tradition first start...

  12. The influence of electrical charge and indolebutyric acid on rooting of willow cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Domański

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Willow cuttings were treated by direct electrical current (DEC, with a negative or a positive electrode inserted inside them, and with the other being outside. Both directions of DEC flow between electrodes stimulated rooting as actively as growth stimulators. The mung bean or oat coleoptile straight growth test showed that the cuttings released some growth promoters into the surrounding water. However, the simultaneous release of some undetected rooting inhibitors was not excluded. The experiment, shows the possibility of changing the chemical regulatory mechanisms of tissues by the use of weak, direct electrical current which causes, the migration of particular substance{s into or from a definite tissue or organ.

  13. Sampling procedure in a willow plantation for estimation of moisture content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Kofoed; Lærke, Poul Erik; Liu, Na

    2015-01-01

    Heating value and fuel quality of wood is closely connected to moisture content. In this work the variation of moisture content (MC) of short rotation coppice (SRC) willow shoots is described for five clones during one harvesting season. Subsequently an appropriate sampling procedure minimising...... labour costs and sampling uncertainty is proposed, where the MC of a single stem section with the length of 10–50 cm corresponds to the mean shoot moisture content (MSMC) with a bias of maximum 11 g kg−1. This bias can be reduced by selecting the stem section according to the particular clone...

  14. Porous Carbon with Willow-Leaf-Shaped Pores for High-Performance Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yanhong; Zhang, Linlin; Schon, Tyler B; Li, Huanhuan; Fan, Chaoying; Li, Xiaoying; Wang, Haifeng; Wu, Xinglong; Xie, Haiming; Sun, Haizhu; Seferos, Dwight S; Zhang, Jingping

    2017-12-13

    A novel kind of biomass-derived, high-oxygen-containing carbon material doped with nitrogen that has willow-leaf-shaped pores was synthesized. The obtained carbon material has an exotic hierarchical pore structure composed of bowl-shaped macropores, willow-leaf-shaped pores, and an abundance of micropores. This unique hierarchical porous structure provides an effective combination of high current densities and high capacitance because of a pseudocapacitive component that is afforded by the introduction of nitrogen and oxygen dopants. Our synthetic optimization allows further improvements in the performance of this hierarchical porous carbon (HPC) material by providing a high degree of control over the graphitization degree, specific surface area, and pore volume. As a result, a large specific surface area (1093 m 2 g -1 ) and pore volume (0.8379 cm 3 g -1 ) are obtained for HPC-650, which affords fast ion transport because of its short ion-diffusion pathways. HPC-650 exhibits a high specific capacitance of 312 F g -1 at 1 A g -1 , retaining 76.5% of its capacitance at 20 A g -1 . Moreover, it delivers an energy density of 50.2 W h kg -1 at a power density of 1.19 kW kg -1 , which is sufficient to power a yellow-light-emitting diode and operate a commercial scientific calculator.

  15. Fiber length and pulping characteristics of switchgrass, alfalfa stems, hybrid poplar and willow biomasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Jun; Tschirner, Ulrike

    2010-01-01

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), alfalfa stems (Medicago sativa), second year growth hybrid poplar (Populus) and willow (Salix spp.) were examined to determine fiber characteristics, pulping behavior and paper properties. Alfalfa stems and switchgrass both showed length weighted average fiber length (LWW) of 0.78 mm, a very narrow fiber length distribution and high fines content. Willow and hybrid poplar have lower fines content but a very low average fiber length (0.42 and 0.48 mm LWW). In addition, the four biomass species showed distinctly different chemical compositions. Switchgrass was defibered successfully using Soda and Soda Anthraquinone (AQ) pulping and demonstrated good paper properties. Both fast-growing wood species pulped well using the Kraft process, and showed acceptable tensile strength, but low tear strength. Alfalfa stems reacted very poorly to Soda and Soda AQ pulping but responded well to Kraft and Kraft AQ. Pulps with tensile and tear strength considerably higher than those found for commercial aspen pulps were observed for alfalfa. All four biomass species examined demonstrated low pulp yield. The highest yields were obtained with poplar and switchgrass (around 43%). Considering the short fibers and low yields, all four biomass types will likely only be used in paper manufacturing if they offer considerable economic advantage over traditional pulp wood.

  16. Microbial expression profiles in the rhizosphere of willows depend on soil contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yergeau, Etienne; Sanschagrin, Sylvie; Maynard, Christine; St-Arnaud, Marc; Greer, Charles W

    2014-01-01

    The goal of phytoremediation is to use plants to immobilize, extract or degrade organic and inorganic pollutants. In the case of organic contaminants, plants essentially act indirectly through the stimulation of rhizosphere microorganisms. A detailed understanding of the effect plants have on the activities of rhizosphere microorganisms could help optimize phytoremediation systems and enhance their use. In this study, willows were planted in contaminated and non-contaminated soils in a greenhouse, and the active microbial communities and the expression of functional genes in the rhizosphere and bulk soil were compared. Ion Torrent sequencing of 16S rRNA and Illumina sequencing of mRNA were performed. Genes related to carbon and amino-acid uptake and utilization were upregulated in the willow rhizosphere, providing indirect evidence of the compositional content of the root exudates. Related to this increased nutrient input, several microbial taxa showed a significant increase in activity in the rhizosphere. The extent of the rhizosphere stimulation varied markedly with soil contamination levels. The combined selective pressure of contaminants and rhizosphere resulted in higher expression of genes related to competition (antibiotic resistance and biofilm formation) in the contaminated rhizosphere. Genes related to hydrocarbon degradation were generally more expressed in contaminated soils, but the exact complement of genes induced was different for bulk and rhizosphere soils. Together, these results provide an unprecedented view of microbial gene expression in the plant rhizosphere during phytoremediation. PMID:24067257

  17. Integrated long-term responses of an arctic-alpine willow and associated ectomycorrhizal fungi to an altered environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Karina Engelbrecht; Michelsen, Anders

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated ectomycorrhizal (ECM) colonization and morphotype community composition together with growth response and biomass distribution in the arctic-alpine, prostrate willow Salix herbacea L. x Salix polaris Wahlenb. after 11 seasons of shading, warming, and fertilization at a fellfield...

  18. The Willow Microbiome is Influenced by Soil Petroleum-Hydrocarbon Concentration with Plant Compartment-Specific Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacie Tardif

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between plants and microorganisms, which is the driving force behind the decontamination of petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC contamination in phytoremediation technology, is poorly understood. Here, we aimed at characterizing the variations between plant compartments in the microbiome of two willow cultivars growing in contaminated soils. A field experiment was set-up at a former petrochemical plant in Canada and, after two growing seasons, bulk soil, rhizosphere soil, roots and stems samples of two willow cultivars (Salix purpurea cv. FishCreek and Salix miyabeana cv. SX67 growing at three PHC contamination concentrations were taken. DNA was extracted and bacterial 16S rRNA gene and fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS regions were amplified and sequenced using an Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine. Following multivariate statistical analyses, the level of PHC-contamination appeared as the primary factor influencing the willow microbiome with compartment-specific effects, with significant differences between the responses of bacterial and fungal communities. Increasing PHC contamination levels resulted in shifts in the microbiome composition, favoring putative hydrocarbon degraders and microorganisms previously reported as associated with plant health. These shifts were less drastic in the rhizosphere, root and stem tissues as compared to bulk soil, probably because the willows provided a more controlled environment and thus protected microbial communities against increasing contamination levels. Insights from this study will help to devise optimal plant microbiomes for increasing the efficiency of phytoremediation technology.

  19. Results from software based empirical models of and standing biomass for poplar and willow grown as short rotation coppice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, M.E.; Morgan, G.W.; Brewer, A.C. (Forest Research Biometrics, Surveys and Statistics Division, Forest Research, Wrecclesham (United Kingdom))

    2007-07-01

    Statistical analysis was used to create a model for estimating the quantity of biomass produced by crops of poplar and willow grown as short rotation coppice. This model was converted into a software system as described here. The software is currently available for scientific demonstration. (orig.)

  20. Evaluation of spectral light management on growth of container-grown willow oak, nuttall oak and summer red maple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant response to blue, red, gray or black shade cloth was evaluated with willow oak (Quercus phellos L.), Nuttall oak (Quercus nuttallii Palmer, Nuttall) and Summer Red maple (Acer rubrum L. ‘Summer Red’) liners. Light transmitted through the colored shade cloth had no influence on germination of ...

  1. Cadmium concentrations in tissues of willow ptarmigan (Lagopus lagopus) and rock ptarmigan (Lagopus muta) in Nunavik, Northern Quebec

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigue, Jean [Environment Canada, Service canadien de la faune, 1141 route de l' Eglise, Sainte-Foy, Quebec, G1V 4H5 (Canada)]. E-mail: jean.rodrigue@ec.gc.ca; Champoux, Louise [Environment Canada, Service canadien de la faune, 1141 route de l' Eglise, Sainte-Foy, Quebec, G1V 4H5 (Canada); Leclair, Daniel [Centre de recherche du Nunavik, Societe Makivik, C.P. 179, Kuujjuaq, Quebec, J0M 1C0 (Canada); Duchesne, Jean-Francois [Unite de recherche en sante publique du CHUQ, 945, avenue Wolfe, Sainte-Foy, Quebec, G1V 5B3 (Canada)

    2007-06-15

    Willow and rock ptarmigan were obtained from Northern Quebec. Willow ptarmigan were found to have mean cadmium concentrations of 179.7 {mu}g/g (dw) in the kidneys and 25.8 {mu}g/g (dw) in the liver; these levels were three times higher than those found in the rock ptarmigan. The cadmium levels in the ptarmigan were below the threshold above which adverse effects can be observed in birds. The difference between the two ptarmigan species in cadmium content is explained by the diet. A comparison of their diet showed that willow, which stores cadmium, is an important food resource for willow ptarmigan but not for rock ptarmigan. Because there is limited information available on the consumption of ptarmigan kidneys and liver by the Inuit, and the fact that this is a traditional way of life and provides nutritional benefits to the Inuit population, no consumption guidelines are proposed. - High levels of cadmium were found in ptarmigan in Northern Quebec. No consumption guidelines are proposed for the Inuit people.

  2. Cadmium concentrations in tissues of willow ptarmigan (Lagopus lagopus) and rock ptarmigan (Lagopus muta) in Nunavik, Northern Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigue, Jean; Champoux, Louise; Leclair, Daniel; Duchesne, Jean-Francois

    2007-01-01

    Willow and rock ptarmigan were obtained from Northern Quebec. Willow ptarmigan were found to have mean cadmium concentrations of 179.7 μg/g (dw) in the kidneys and 25.8 μg/g (dw) in the liver; these levels were three times higher than those found in the rock ptarmigan. The cadmium levels in the ptarmigan were below the threshold above which adverse effects can be observed in birds. The difference between the two ptarmigan species in cadmium content is explained by the diet. A comparison of their diet showed that willow, which stores cadmium, is an important food resource for willow ptarmigan but not for rock ptarmigan. Because there is limited information available on the consumption of ptarmigan kidneys and liver by the Inuit, and the fact that this is a traditional way of life and provides nutritional benefits to the Inuit population, no consumption guidelines are proposed. - High levels of cadmium were found in ptarmigan in Northern Quebec. No consumption guidelines are proposed for the Inuit people

  3. Sex- and habitat-specific responses of a high arctic willow, Salix arctica, to experimental climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, M.H.; Macdonald, S.E. [Univ. of Alberta, Dept. of Renewable Resources, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Henry, G.H.R. [Univ. of British Columbia, Dept. of Geography, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    1999-10-01

    Dioecious plant species and those occupying diverse habitats may present special analytical problems to researchers examining effects of climate change. Here we report the results from two complementary studies designed to determine the importance of sex and habitat on gas exchange and growth of male and female individuals of a dioecious, circumpolar willow, Salix arctica, in the Canadian High Arctic. In field studies, male and female willows from dry and wet habitats were subjected to passively enhanced summer temperature ({approx} to 1.3 deg C) using small open-top chambers over three years. Peak season gas exchange varied significantly by willow sex and habitat. Overall net assimilation was higher in the dry habitat than in the wet, and higher in females than in males. In the dry habitat, net assimilation of females was enhanced by experimental warming, but decreased in males. In the wet habitat, net assimilation of females was substantially depressed by experimental warming, while males showed an inconsistent response. Development and growth of male and female catkins were enhanced by elevated temperature more than leaf fascicles, but leaf fascicle development and growth varied more between the two habitats, particularly in males. In a controlled environment study, male and female willows from these same wet and dry habitats were grown in a 2x2 factorial experiment including 1 x or 2 x ambient [CO{sub 2}] and 5 or 12 deg. C. The sexes responded very differently to the experimental treatments, but we found no effect of original habitat. Net assimilation in males was affected by the interaction of temperature and CO{sub 2}, but in females by CO{sub 2} only. Our results demonstrate (a) significant intraspecific and intersexual differences in arctic willow physiology and growth, (b) that these differences are affected by environmental conditions expected to accompany global climate change, and (c) that sex- and habitat-specific responses should be explicitly

  4. Energy balance and evaporation of a short-rotation willow forest. Variation with season and stand development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iritz, Z.

    1996-10-01

    Energy balance and evaporation of a short-rotation willow (Salix viminalis L.) forest was studied in relation to season and stand development. The developmental stage of the forest stand considerably influenced how the energy, received as net radiation, was partitioned between the connective fluxes and the storage components. The main part of the available energy was utilised for evaporation during most of the season. Only at the beginning of the season did the willow forest supply heat to the atmosphere. Later in the season, energy was taken from air and utilised for evaporation, which resulted in negative sensible heat fluxes. Soil heat storage was also a significant term in the energy balance and also strongly depended on canopy development. Changes in energy partitioning relative to leaf area indices indicated the existence of a threshold value for leaf area index of the developing canopy. The analysis suggested that the canopy of the willow forest could be considered as closed at a leaf area index of 2. It was further found that evaporation from well-irrigated willow forest occurred also during night-time, particularly in windy and dry weather conditions. The sources of nocturnal evaporation were both the canopy, i.e. indicating non-closed stomata, and the soil surface. Partitioning of the total evaporation into components was investigated using a physically-based model with a two-layer aboveground representation and a two-layer soil module. The model estimates evaporation with respect to developmental stage of the willow stand and also takes into account the interaction between the fluxes from the canopy and the soil surface. Good performance of the model indicated that, after further testing in drier conditions, it could be used as a tool for analysing the prerequisites for energy-forest establishment, and practical management of energy forest stands. 37 refs, 9 figs

  5. DETERMINATION OF FLAVONOIDS OF WILLOW TRIANDRA (SALIX TRIANDRA L., GROWING IN THE NORTH CAUCASUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. Sannikova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants of willow genus are rich in various flavonoids. In 60-e years of the XX century the works of V. A. Kompantsev showed that leaves of willow triandra, growing in the North Caucasus, contain up to 5% of rutin. The method, which required long sample preparation (extraction of the raw material with TLC, chromatographic layer extraction with methanol, removal of the solvent, dissolution in ethanol, optical density measurements was used. Currently available and simple methods for the determination of rutin in plant material are described. Given that leaves of Salix triandra contain significant amounts of rutin and can be a potential raw material for the creation of medicines on their basis, it is essential to determine the amount of flavonoids in the leaves of Salix triandra and its branches.The purpose of this study is determination of the amount of flavonoids in the willow triandra, growing in the North Caucasus, depending on the place and time of collection.Methods. TLC and the method of differential spectrophotometry were used to study chemical reactions. Results. The presence of flavonoids in various vegetative plant organs was established using qualitative reactions (cyanidin test; boric-citric reaction; the reaction with solution of lead acetate and solution of ammonia. Rutin and quercetin flavonoids in the presence of standard samples were identified using TLC. the method of differential spectrophotometry, based on the reaction of flavonoids with aluminum chloride was used for the quantitative determination of the amount of flavonoids. It is shown that the greatest quantity of flavonoids amount accumulated in the leaves (up to 3.76%, its value in branches is slightly smaller (up to 3.26%. The branches without leaves have almost 10 times less flavonoids. It was established experimentally that the accumulation of flavonoids in raw material of Salix triandra is dependent on the place and time of

  6. New Rust Disease of Korean Willow (Salix koreensis) Caused by Melampsora yezoensis, Unrecorded Pathogen in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Yeo Hong; Ahn, Geum Ran; Yoon, Seong Kwon; Kim, Hoo Hyun; Son, Seung Yeol; Kim, Seong Hwan

    2016-12-01

    During the growing season of 2015, leaf specimens with yellow rust spots were collected from Salix koreensis Andersson, known as Korean willow, in riverine areas in Cheonan, Korea. The fungus on S. koreensis was identified as the rust species, Melampsora yezoensis , based on the morphology of urediniospores observed by light and scanning electron microscopy, and the molecular properties of the internal transcribed spacer rDNA region. Pathogenicity tests confirmed that the urediniospores are the causal agent of the rust symptoms on the leaves and young stems of S. koreensis . Here, we report a new rust disease of S. koreensis caused by the rust fungus, M. yezoensis , a previously unrecorded rust pathogen in Korea.

  7. Vegetation and flora of short-rotation willow stands from a conservation viewpoint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafsson, L.

    1986-01-01

    The energy forests were studied using random 0.5 x 0.5 m quadrats in which cover for field- and bottom-layer species was recorded in a percentage scale. The data were analysed using various multivariate methods. The vegetation and flora of twelve coppices in southern Sweden were investigated. Also the succession during the establishment phase on a meadow on the west coast and on a peat bog in the east-central part of the country was studied. Moreover, the impact on fen vegetation downstream of an energy forest on a peat bog was investigated. The flora and vegetation of energy forests is dominated by common ruderal species like Cirsium arvense, Galeopsis tetrahit and Urtica dioica. Uncommon species from woodland and fen habitats are only occasionally found. The field layer of energy forests shows a clear seasonality with maximal cover in July. The species number and the composition of vegetation vary greatly between the coppices and is largely determined by the management system. Intense cultivation including fertilization and the use of herbicides depletes the flora. Long rotation times decrease both species diversity and the field-layer cover. Uncommon species are mostly found in old coppices, which also often have a rich spring flora. A change in flora and vegetation occurs when an energy forest is established. The change is great and the time needed for stabilization of the energy forest flora is long when the original flora is dissimilar to the coppice flora. Willow coppices can increase habitat diversity in regions dominated by coniferous forests or in large-scale agricultural areas. Structural heterogeneity of a stand promotes diversity of the flora. Such heterogeneity can be created if a stand is composed of a variety of willow clones, if it is harvested at intervals, contains gaps, open ditches and is surrounded by edge zones of various types.

  8. Spatial distribution of arsenic and heavy metals in willow roots from a contaminated floodplain soil measured by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmer, Dana; Kruse, Jens; Baum, Christel; Borca, Camelia; Laue, Michael; Hause, Gerd; Meissner, Ralph; Leinweber, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Under changing redox conditions some plants create plaques at their root surface, which may affect the mobility and uptake of As and heavy metals but it is unknown to what extent this also holds true for willows in contaminated floodplain soils. Therefore, willow roots were sampled from a phytoremediation trial in the contaminated floodplain of the river Elbe (Germany), cryofixed, freeze-dried, and cross sections were mapped for the distribution of As, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Ni, S and Zn by synchrotron based X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. The elements Ca, Cu, Ni, S and Zn were concentrated in the aerenchymatic tissue, and not associated with Fe and Mn. Mixed Fe-Mn plaques covered the surface of the willow roots and As was accumulated in these plaques. The observed association pattern between As and Fe was explained by the different sorption/desorption properties of As(III) and As(V). The Cu and Zn intensities were not associated with the intensity of Fe in the plaque, which seems to be a willow-specific difference compared to other wetland plants. These results suggested that willows are especially suited to stabilize low-phytoextractable elements like Cu and As in their roots and rhizosphere. Thus, short rotation coppicing of willows may be a practical approach to mitigate the adverse effects of floodplain soil contamination. - Research highlights: → Elemental distributions were mapped on willow roots for the first time by synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence. → Ca, Cu, Ni, S and Zn were enriched in the aerenchyma but As, Fe and Mn formed root plaques. → The Cu and Zn enrichments in aerenchyma but absence in plaques appeared to be willow-specific. → In the plaques were three groups of pixels which strongly differed in the As to Fe and As to Mn ratios. → This indicated different species of these redox-sensitive elements.

  9. Spatial distribution of arsenic and heavy metals in willow roots from a contaminated floodplain soil measured by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmer, Dana, E-mail: dana.zimmer@uni-rostock.de [Soil Science, University of Rostock, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 6, D-18051 Rostock (Germany); Kruse, Jens; Baum, Christel [Soil Science, University of Rostock, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 6, D-18051 Rostock (Germany); Borca, Camelia [Paul Scherrer Institute, Swiss Light Source, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Laue, Michael [Electron Microscopy Centre, University of Rostock, Medical Faculty, Strempelstr. 14, D-18057 Rostock (Germany); Hause, Gerd [Microscopy Unit, Biocenter of the University of Halle, Weinbergweg 22, D-06120 Halle/Saale (Germany); Meissner, Ralph [UFZ-Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Soil Physics, Lysimeter Station, Dorfstrasse 55, D-39615 Falkenberg (Germany); Leinweber, Peter [Soil Science, University of Rostock, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 6, D-18051 Rostock (Germany)

    2011-09-01

    Under changing redox conditions some plants create plaques at their root surface, which may affect the mobility and uptake of As and heavy metals but it is unknown to what extent this also holds true for willows in contaminated floodplain soils. Therefore, willow roots were sampled from a phytoremediation trial in the contaminated floodplain of the river Elbe (Germany), cryofixed, freeze-dried, and cross sections were mapped for the distribution of As, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Ni, S and Zn by synchrotron based X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. The elements Ca, Cu, Ni, S and Zn were concentrated in the aerenchymatic tissue, and not associated with Fe and Mn. Mixed Fe-Mn plaques covered the surface of the willow roots and As was accumulated in these plaques. The observed association pattern between As and Fe was explained by the different sorption/desorption properties of As(III) and As(V). The Cu and Zn intensities were not associated with the intensity of Fe in the plaque, which seems to be a willow-specific difference compared to other wetland plants. These results suggested that willows are especially suited to stabilize low-phytoextractable elements like Cu and As in their roots and rhizosphere. Thus, short rotation coppicing of willows may be a practical approach to mitigate the adverse effects of floodplain soil contamination. - Research highlights: {yields} Elemental distributions were mapped on willow roots for the first time by synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence. {yields} Ca, Cu, Ni, S and Zn were enriched in the aerenchyma but As, Fe and Mn formed root plaques. {yields} The Cu and Zn enrichments in aerenchyma but absence in plaques appeared to be willow-specific. {yields} In the plaques were three groups of pixels which strongly differed in the As to Fe and As to Mn ratios. {yields} This indicated different species of these redox-sensitive elements.

  10. Carbon isotope variation in shrub willow (Salix spp.) ring-wood as an indicator of long-term water status, growth and survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schifman, Laura A.; Stella, John C.; Volk, Timothy A.; Teece, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Quantifying interannual change in water status of woody plants using stable carbon isotopes provides insight on long-term plant ecophysiology and potential success in variable environments, including under-utilized agricultural land for biomass production and highly disturbed sites for phytoremediation applications. We analyzed δ 13 C values in annual ring-wood of four shrub willow varieties used for biomass production and phytoremediation at three sites in central New York State (U.S.A). We tested a cost-effective sampling method for estimating whole-shrub water status by comparing δ 13 C values of the plant’s largest stem against a composite sample of all stems. The largest stem showed 0.3‰ 13 C enrichment (range −0.7–1.1‰) compared to the whole-plant, making it a more sensitive indicator of water status than the composite sample. Growing season precipitation exerted a strong negative influence on wood tissue chemistry, with an average 0.26‰ 13 C depletion per 100 mm increase in precipitation. An average annual 0.28‰ 13 C enrichment was also observed with increased plant age; this pattern was consistent among all four willow varieties and across sites. Finally, increased 13 C enrichment in wood tissue was positively associated with plant size at the individual plant level, and associated negatively and more variably survival at the plot scale. These results have important implications for the design and management of biomass production and phytoremediation systems. Increased sensitivity of older plants suggests that longer rotations may experience growth limitations and/or lower survival in low-precipitation years, resulting in reduced yields of biomass crops and loss of effectiveness in phytoremediation applications. -- Highlights: ► A 0.26‰ 13 C depletion in wood tissue occurred per 100 mm increase in precipitation. ► There was an average 13 C enrichment with plant age and size for all varieties. ► Greater 13 C enrichment often lead to

  11. Spatial distribution of arsenic and heavy metals in willow roots from a contaminated floodplain soil measured by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Dana; Kruse, Jens; Baum, Christel; Borca, Camelia; Laue, Michael; Hause, Gerd; Meissner, Ralph; Leinweber, Peter

    2011-09-01

    Under changing redox conditions some plants create plaques at their root surface, which may affect the mobility and uptake of As and heavy metals but it is unknown to what extent this also holds true for willows in contaminated floodplain soils. Therefore, willow roots were sampled from a phytoremediation trial in the contaminated floodplain of the river Elbe (Germany), cryofixed, freeze-dried, and cross sections were mapped for the distribution of As, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Ni, S and Zn by synchrotron based X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. The elements Ca, Cu, Ni, S and Zn were concentrated in the aerenchymatic tissue, and not associated with Fe and Mn. Mixed Fe-Mn plaques covered the surface of the willow roots and As was accumulated in these plaques. The observed association pattern between As and Fe was explained by the different sorption/desorption properties of As(III) and As(V). The Cu and Zn intensities were not associated with the intensity of Fe in the plaque, which seems to be a willow-specific difference compared to other wetland plants. These results suggested that willows are especially suited to stabilize low-phytoextractable elements like Cu and As in their roots and rhizosphere. Thus, short rotation coppicing of willows may be a practical approach to mitigate the adverse effects of floodplain soil contamination. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The neutral species of the weak base trimethoprim is more toxic to willow trees (Salix viminalis) than the cation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikes, O.; Trapp, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    The acute toxicity of the veterinary antibiotic trimethoprim (TMP) to willow trees was tested at three different pH levels in hydroponic solutions with TMP concentrations of 1, 10, 100 or 1000 mg/L. The pH variation was achieved by using ammonium (pH 4.3, low) or nitrate (pH 6.4, medium) as nitro......The acute toxicity of the veterinary antibiotic trimethoprim (TMP) to willow trees was tested at three different pH levels in hydroponic solutions with TMP concentrations of 1, 10, 100 or 1000 mg/L. The pH variation was achieved by using ammonium (pH 4.3, low) or nitrate (pH 6.4, medium...

  13. Investigation of Solid Energy Potential of Wood and Bark Obtained from Four Clones of a 2-Year Old Goat Willow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Sim-Hee; Shin, Soo-Jeong

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the solid raw material characteristics of willow (Salix caprea) bark and woody core, this study analyzed overall chemical composition, monosaccharide composition, ash content, and main ash composition of both tree components. Significant differences were observed between the two in terms of chemical composition, carbohydrate composition, ash content, and major inorganics. The ash content in bark was 3.8–4.7%, compared with 0.6–1.1% in the woody core. Polysaccharide content in the woody core was 62.8–70.6% but was as low as 44.1–47.6% in the bark. The main hemicelluloses consisting of monosaccharides were xylose in the case of the woody core, and xylose, galactose, and arabinose in the case of bark. Woody core biomass of willow provides superior solid fuel raw material, as compared with bark biomass, with higher heating values, less ash content, and less slagging-causing material.

  14. Investigation of Solid Energy Potential of Wood and Bark Obtained from Four Clones of a 2-Year Old Goat Willow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Sim-Hee [Department of Forest Genetic Resources, Korea Forest Research Institute, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Soo-Jeong, E-mail: soojshin@cbnu.ac.kr [Department of Wood and Paper Science, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-31

    To investigate the solid raw material characteristics of willow (Salix caprea) bark and woody core, this study analyzed overall chemical composition, monosaccharide composition, ash content, and main ash composition of both tree components. Significant differences were observed between the two in terms of chemical composition, carbohydrate composition, ash content, and major inorganics. The ash content in bark was 3.8–4.7%, compared with 0.6–1.1% in the woody core. Polysaccharide content in the woody core was 62.8–70.6% but was as low as 44.1–47.6% in the bark. The main hemicelluloses consisting of monosaccharides were xylose in the case of the woody core, and xylose, galactose, and arabinose in the case of bark. Woody core biomass of willow provides superior solid fuel raw material, as compared with bark biomass, with higher heating values, less ash content, and less slagging-causing material.

  15. Harvest and logistics for better profitability from small cultivations of Short Rotation Willow Coppice; Skoerdeteknik och logistik foer baettre loensamhet fraan smaa odlingar av Salix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baky, Andras; Forsberg, Maya; Rosenqvist, Haakan; Jonsson, Nils; Sundberg, Martin

    2010-06-15

    In Sweden, the political desire to increase the amount of short rotation willow coppice (Salix) plantations has been expressed. However, for various reasons interest from farmers has been low. The hypothesis of this study is that the total area of Salix cultivation can be increased by also cultivating fields smaller than those generally considered economic today. In order to lower production costs, machine systems adapted for harvest of smaller fields are required. The possibility of using farmers' existing tractors and more convenient machines, as well as achieving lower machine costs for smaller fields, may increase farmers' interest. The long-term objective is to achieve large-scale deliveries of willow with small-scale solutions at farm level, as an option and complement to today's more large-scale systems for harvesting willow. Costs, energy use and climatic impact (CO{sub 2} emissions) for two harvest and logistical chains suitable for small fields have been calculated from field to energy plant, and methods for minimizing these costs have been analyzed. Comparison is made with the direct chipping system, the most commonly used in Sweden today. The systems studied comprised: 1. Direct bundling harvest system with a tractor-towed harvester, collection of bundles in the field with a trailer-mounted crane, and storage in a pile before delivery. Chipping is performed at the energy plant. 2. Direct billeting with a tractor-towed harvester accompanied simultaneously by a tractor and trailer for collection, and storage in a pile before delivery. 3. Direct chipping with a self-propelled modified forage harvester accompanied simultaneously by a tractor and container for collection, and direct delivery to plant. Both the billet and bundle systems show higher costs than the direct chipping system, irrespective of field size. The analysis of different scenarios and conditions shows possibilities of lowering the costs through certain measures. Furthermore

  16. Water relations and gas exchange in poplar and willow under water stress and elevated atmospheric CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jon D; Tognetti, Roberto; Paris, Piero

    2002-05-01

    Predictions of shifts in rainfall patterns as atmospheric [CO2] increases could impact the growth of fast growing trees such as Populus spp. and Salix spp. and the interaction between elevated CO2 and water stress in these species is unknown. The objectives of this study were to characterize the responses to elevated CO2 and water stress in these two species, and to determine if elevated CO2 mitigated drought stress effects. Gas exchange, water potential components, whole plant transpiration and growth response to soil drying and recovery were assessed in hybrid poplar (clone 53-246) and willow (Salix sagitta) rooted cuttings growing in either ambient (350 &mgr;mol mol-1) or elevated (700 &mgr;mol mol-1) atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]). Predawn water potential decreased with increasing water stress while midday water potentials remained unchanged (isohydric response). Turgor potentials at both predawn and midday increased in elevated [CO2], indicative of osmotic adjustment. Gas exchange was reduced by water stress while elevated [CO2] increased photosynthetic rates, reduced leaf conductance and nearly doubled instantaneous transpiration efficiency in both species. Dark respiration decreased in elevated [CO2] and water stress reduced Rd in the trees growing in ambient [CO2]. Willow had 56% lower whole plant hydraulic conductivity than poplar, and showed a 14% increase in elevated [CO2] while poplar was unresponsive. The physiological responses exhibited by poplar and willow to elevated [CO2] and water stress, singly, suggest that these species respond like other tree species. The interaction of [CO2] and water stress suggests that elevated [CO2] did mitigate the effects of water stress in willow, but not in poplar.

  17. Screening of willow species for resistance to heavy metals: comparison of performance in a hydroponics system and field trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, C; Pulford, I D; Riddell-Black, D

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain whether metal resistance in willow (Salix) clones grown in a hydroponics screening test correlated with data from the same clones grown independently in a field trial. If so, results from a short-term, glasshouse-based system could be extrapolated to the field, allowing rapid identification of willows suitable for planting in metal-contaminated substrates without necessitating longterm field trials. Principal Components Analysis was used to show groups of clones and to assess the relative importance of the parameters measured in both the hydroponics system and the field; including plant response factors such as increase in stem height, as well as metal concentrations in plant tissues. The clones tested fell into two distinct groups. Salix viminalis clones and the basket willow Black Maul (S. triandra) were less resistant to elevated concentrations of heavy metals than a group of hardier clones, including S. burjatica 'Germany,' S.x dasyclados, S. candida and S. spaethii. The more resistant clones produced more biomass in the glasshouse and field, and had higher metal concentrations in the wood. The less resistant clones had greater concentrations of Cu and Ni in the bark, and produced less biomass in the glasshouse and field. Significant relationships were found between the response of the same clones grown the in short-term glasshouse hydroponics system and in the field.

  18. Positive impact of bio-stimulators on growth and physiological activity of willow in climate change conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Duda, Zdzisława

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the physiological activity and growth of willow (Salix viminalis L.) plants cultivated under the conditions of adverse temperature and soil moisture content, and to assess the effect of the foliar application of Biojodis (1.0%) and Asahi SL (0.03%) bio-stimulators, or a mixture of Microcistis aeruginosa MKR 0105 and Anabaena PCC 7120 cyanobacteria under such changing growth conditions. The obtained results showed different reactions to the applied constant or periodically changed temperature and soil moisture content. The plants which grew at periodically changed adverse temperature (from -5 to 40oC) or in scantily (20% m.c.) or excessively (60% m.c.) watered soils, grew slowly, in comparison with those growing at 20oC and in optimally moistened soil (30% m.c.). Foliar application of Biojodis and Asahi SL cyanobacteria increased the growth of willow at optimal and adverse temperature or in scantily and excessively moistened soil. The changes in plant growth were associated with the changes in electrolyte leakage, activity of acid or alkaline phosphatases, RNase, index of chlorophyll content in leaves and gas exchange. The above indicates that the foliar application of the studied cyanobacteria and bio-stimulators partly alleviates the harmful impact of adverse temperature and water stress on growth and physiological activity of willow plants

  19. Seasonal variation in radiocaesium concentration in willow ptarmigan and rock ptarmigan in central Norway after the Chernobyl fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, H.C.; Nyboe, S.; Varskog, P.

    1998-01-01

    Radioactive caesium (20-60 kBq m -2 ) was deposited after the Chernobyl accident in the mountains of central Norway. Two sympatric ptarmigan species, willow ptarmigan Lagopus lagopus and rock ptarmigan L. mutus, inhabit this alpine ecosystem and are important game species. In 1987 and 1988, a study was carried out to try to identify factors affecting radioactive caesium concentration in these birds. Juvenile willow ptarmigan contained more radiocaesium than adults, but the two sexes did not differ in radiocaesium concentration. The radiocaesium concentration of food plants correlated with radiocaesium concentration of rock ptarmigan, and a seasonal variation in radiocaesium concentration of both ptarmigan species was seen. Rock ptarmigan contained more radiocaesium than willow ptarmigan during winter, but not in summer. This difference was related to differences in diet. The bioconcentration factor was 0·4-0·6. The aggregated transfer coefficient was 0·003-0·009 m 2 kg -1 for both species. In spite of the high deposition, the radiocaesium concentration in muscle rarely exceeded the limit recommended for human food consumption (600 Bq kg -1 ). (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  20. Integrated carbon analysis of biomass production on fallow agricultural land and product substitution in Sweden - Preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dornburg, Veronika; Eggers, Thies; Gustavsson, Leif [Mid Sweden Univ., Oestersund (Sweden). Ecotechnology

    2006-07-15

    An important option in the Swedish context to reduce its net emissions of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) is the increased use of biomass for energy and material substitution. On fallow agricultural land additional production of biomass would be possible. We analyse biomass production systems based on Norway spruce, hybrid poplar and willow hybrids and the use of this biomass to replace fossil energy and energy intensive material systems. The highest biomass production potential is for willow in southern Sweden. Fertilisation management of spruce could shorten the rotation lengths by about 17%. The fertilised production of Norway spruce with use of harvested timber for construction and use of remaining woody biomass for heat and power production gives the largest reductions of carbon emissions per hectare under the assumptions made. The use of willow for heat and power and of fertilised spruce for a wood product mix lead to the highest fossil primary energy savings in our scenarios. Spruce cultivations can achieve considerable carbon emission reductions in the long term, but willow and poplar might be a good option when fossil energy savings and carbon emission reductions should be achieved in the short term.

  1. Comparing annual and perennial crops for bioenergy production - influence on nitrate leaching and energy balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pugesgaard, Siri; Schelde, Kirsten; Ugilt Larsen, Søren

    2015-01-01

    Production of energy crops is promoted as a means to mitigate global warming by decreasing dependency on fossil energy. However, agricultural production of bioenergy can have various environmental effects depending on the crop and production system. In a field trial initiated in 2008, nitrate...... concentration in soil water was measured below winter wheat, grass-clover and willow during three growing seasons. Crop water balances were modelled to estimate the amount of nitrate leached per hectare. In addition, dry matter yields and nitrogen (N) yields were measured, and N balances and energy balances...... was also measured in an old willow crop established in 1996 from which N leaching ranged from 6 to 27 kg ha−1 yr−1. Dry matter yields ranged between 5.9 and 14.8 Mg yr−1 with lowest yield in the newly established willow and the highest yield harvested in grass-clover. Grass-clover gave the highest net...

  2. Transpiration and metabolisation of TCE by willow plants - a pot experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöftner, Philipp; Watzinger, Andrea; Holzknecht, Philipp; Wimmer, Bernhard; Reichenauer, Thomas G

    2016-01-01

    Willows were grown in glass cylinders filled with compost above water-saturated quartz sand, to trace the fate of TCE in water and plant biomass. The experiment was repeated once with the same plants in two consecutive years. TCE was added in nominal concentrations of 0, 144, 288, and 721 mg l(-1). Unplanted cylinders were set-up and spiked with nominal concentrations of 721 mg l(-1) TCE in the second year. Additionally, (13)C-enriched TCE solution (δ(13)C = 110.3 ‰) was used. Periodically, TCE content and metabolites were analyzed in water and plant biomass. The presence of TCE-degrading microorganisms was monitored via the measurement of the isotopic ratio of carbon ((13)C/(12)C) in TCE, and the abundance of (13)C-labeled microbial PLFAs (phospholipid fatty acids). More than 98% of TCE was lost via evapotranspiration from the planted pots within one month after adding TCE. Transpiration accounted to 94 to 78% of the total evapotranspiration loss. Almost 1% of TCE was metabolized in the shoots, whereby trichloroacetic acid (TCAA) and dichloroacetic acid (DCAA) were dominant metabolites; less trichloroethanol (TCOH) and TCE accumulated in plant tissues. Microbial degradation was ruled out by δ(13)C measurements of water and PLFAs. TCE had no detected influence on plant stress status as determined by chlorophyll-fluorescence and gas exchange.

  3. Frost related dieback in Estonian energy plantations of willows in relation to fertilisation and pathogenic bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cambours, M.A.; Nejad, P. [Department of Forest Mycology and Pathology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 7026, 750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Heinsoo, K. [Institute of Zoology and Botany, Estonian Agricultural University, Riia 181, 51014 Tartu (Estonia); Granhall, U. [Department of Microbiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 7025, 750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2006-03-15

    Two 9-year old Estonian Salix plantations suffering from dieback were studied: one situated on poor mineral soil and divided into fertilised and unfertilised plots (Saare plantation) and another growing on a well-decomposed and nitrogen-rich organic soil, without fertiliser application (Kambja plantation). Bacteria from internal tissues of visually damaged shoots from seven clones were isolated in spring and autumn. The strains were subsequently biochemically characterised and tested for ice nucleation activity and pathogenicity on Salix. Some strains were also analysed with 16S rRNA. High numbers of culturable bacteria were found, belonging mainly to Erwinia, Sphingomonas, Pseudomonas and Xanthomonas spp. Fertilised plots were significantly more colonised by bacteria than unfertilised plots and also more extensively damaged, showing a lower density of living plants after 7 years of culture. More ice nucleation active (INA) strains were found in Saare fertilised plots and at Kambja than in Saare unfertilised plots. Likewise, most pathogenic strains were isolated from Saare fertilised plots and from Kambja. For some of the willow clones studied, dieback appeared to be related to both clonal frost sensitivity and abundance of INA and pathogenic bacteria. The plantations probably suffered from the presence of high amounts of pathogens and from frost related injuries aggravated by INA bacteria. Most probably the fertilisation at Saare and the nitrogen-rich soil at Kambja created a favourable environment for bacterial development and led to high dieback levels after the first harvest. (author)

  4. El Alzado de la Vivienda en Willow Road Ernö Goldfinger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Román Santiago

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl artículo propone aproximarse a la vivienda que el arquitecto húngaro Ernö Goldfinger construyó para sí mismo en 1939 en el barrio de Hampstead (Londres. El complejo y singular ejercicio en el que Goldfinger apoya gran parte de sus teorías se manifiesta en esta propuesta para Willow Road y se desvela especialmente en su fachada. Para el arquitecto es fundamental estudiar la experiencia humana del espacio arquitectónico relacionada con la envolvente del edificio y, en este sentido, sulegado teórico se expresa en los textos que escribió para la revista Architectural Review entre los años 1941 y 1942: The Sensation of Space, Urbanism and Spatial Order y Elements of Enclosed Space.Analizar este alzado enigmático provoca algunos interrogantes que son, en sí mismos, un auténtico manifi esto a favor de una arquitectura libre de toda adscripción estilística. Goldfinger actúa aquí en una mesa de laboratorio donde pone a prueba sus reflexiones sobre el orden espacial, la composición, la escala, el carácter y la construcción.De esta forma la propuesta para Willow Road no puede explicarse exclusivamente en términos funcionales ni mecanicistas, sino que precisa una visión fenomenológica y al mismo tiempo mirarlo con amplitud para empezar a descubrir sus claves. Este hogar, que puede entenderse como vivienda burguesa y también representa un ejercicio moderno, ofrece la oportunidad de desvelar un modo de hacer, muy particular, en el que algunos arquitectos desarraigados y liberados del imperante tradicionalismo inglés y de cualquier dogmatismo, dejan a un lado el itinerario que cabría esperar en aquel momento y 'contaminan' la arquitectura moderna inglesa, para producir un panorama de influencias difícil de reconocer en cualquier otra localización. La huella de esta modernidad revisada, de espíritu inequívocamente moderno pero filtrado desde una actitud clásica, influye en la siguiente generación de arquitectos ingleses

  5. Phytoremediation potential of willow tress for aquifers contaminated with ethanol-blended gasoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corseuil, H.X. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Sanitaria e Ambiental; Moreno, F.N. [Universidade do Sul de Santa Catarina, Palhoca (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias e das Engenharias

    2001-07-01

    Ethanol-blended gasoline has been used in Brazil for 20 years and, probably, is going to be more widely used in North America due to the MtBE environmental effects on groundwater. The potential impacts caused by the presence of ethanol in UST spills are related to the co-solvency effect and the preferential degradation of ethanol over the BTEX compounds. These interactions may increase the length of dissolved hydrocarbon plumes and the costs associated with site remediation. This study investigates the advantages of phytoremediation to overcome the problems associated with the presence of ethanol in groundwater contaminated with gasoline-ethanol mixtures. Experiments were performed under lab conditions with cuttings of Willow tree (Salix babylonica) cultivated hydroponically. Results showed that the cuttings were able to reduce ethanol and benzene concentrations by more than 99% in less than a week. The uptake of both contaminants was confirmed by blank controls and was significantly related to cuttings transpiration capacity. Sorption onto roots biomass also markedly affected the behavior of contaminants in solution. Experiments to evaluate plants' toxicity to ethanol indicated that plants were only affected when aqueous ethanol concentration reached 2000mgl{sup -1}. Results suggest that phytoremediation can be a good complement to intrinsic remediation in shallow aquifer sites contaminated with ethanol-blended gasoline spills. (Author)

  6. Food habits of the southwestern willow flycatcher during the nesting season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drost, Charles A.; Paxton, Eben H.; Sogge, Mark K.; Whitfield, Mary J.

    2003-01-01

    The food habits and prey base of the endangered Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) are not well known. We analyzed prey remains in 59 fecal samples from an intensively-studied population of this flycatcher at the Kern River Preserve in southern California. These samples were collected during the nesting season in 1996 and 1997 from adults caught in mist nets, and from nestlings temporarily removed from the nest for banding. A total of 379 prey individuals were identified in the samples. Dominant prey taxa, both in total numbers and in percent occurrence, were true bugs (Hemiptera), flies (Diptera), and beetles (Coleoptera). Leafhoppers (Homoptera: Cicadellidae), spiders (Araneae), bees and wasps (Hymenoptera), and dragonflies and damselflies (Odonata) were also common items. Diet composition was significantly different between years, due to a large difference in the numbers of spiders between 1996 and 1997. There was also a significant difference between the diet of young and adults, with the diet of young birds having significantly higher numbers of odonates and beetles. There was a trend toward diet differences between males and females, but this was not significant at the P = 0.05 level.

  7. Growth, physiological response and phytoremoval capability of two willow clones exposed to ibuprofen under hydroponic culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iori, Valentina; Zacchini, Massimo; Pietrini, Fabrizio

    2013-11-15

    Ibuprofen (IBU) is one of the most widespread pharmaceuticals in the aquatic ecosystem, despite the high removal rate that occurs in wastewater treatment plants. Phytoremediation represents a technology to improve the performance of existing wastewater treatment. This study was conducted under hydroponics to evaluate the ability of Salicaceae plants to tolerate and reduce IBU concentration in contaminated water. To this end, we combined growth, physiological and biochemical data to study the effects of different IBU concentrations on two clones of Salix alba L. Data demonstrated that clone SS5 was more tolerant and showed a higher ability to reduce IBU concentration in the solution than clone SP3. The high tolerance to IBU shown by SS5 was likely due to several mechanisms including the capacity to maintain an elevated photosynthetic activity and an efficient antioxidative defence. These results illustrate the remarkable potential of willow to phytoremediate IBU-contaminated waters in natural and constructed wetlands. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Combined production of free-range pigs and energy crops – animal behaviour and crop damages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsted, Klaus; Kongsted, Anne Grete; Jørgensen, Uffe

    2012-01-01

    Intensive free-range pig production on open grasslands has disadvantages in that it creates nutrient hotspots and little opportunity for pigs to seek shelter from the sun. Combining a perennial energy crop and pig production might benefit the environment and animal welfare because perennial energy...... crops like willow (Salix sp.) and Miscanthus offer the pigs protection from the sun while reducing nutrient leaching from pig excrements due to their deep rooting system. The objectives of this study were to evaluate how season and stocking density of pigs in a free-range system with zones of willow...

  9. Dry matter losses and quality changes during short rotation coppice willow storage in chip or rod form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Carly; Yates, Nicola E; Powers, Stephen J; Misselbrook, Tom; Shield, Ian

    2018-05-01

    This study compares dry matter losses and quality changes during the storage of SRC willow as chips and as rods. A wood chip stack consisting of approximately 74 tonnes of fresh biomass, or 31 tonnes dry matter (DM) was built after harvesting in the spring. Three weeks later, four smaller stacks of rods with an average weight of 0.8 tonnes, or 0.4 tonnes DM were built. During the course of the experiment temperature recorders placed in the stacks found that the wood chip pile reached 60 °C within 10 days of construction, but the piles of rods remained mostly at ambient temperatures. Dry matter losses were calculated by using pre-weighed independent samples within the stacks and by weighing the whole stack before and after storage. After 6 months the wood chip stack showed a DM loss of between 19.8 and 22.6%, and mean losses of 23.1% were measured from the 17 independent samples. In comparison, the rod stacks showed an average stack DM loss of between 0 and 9%, and between 1.4% and 10.6% loss from the independent samples. Analysis of the stored material suggests that storing willow in small piles of rods produces a higher quality fuel in terms of lower moisture and ash content; however, it has a higher fine content compared to storage in chip form. Therefore, according to the two storage methods tested here, there may be a compromise between maximising the net dry matter yield from SRC willow and the final fine content of the fuel.

  10. A habitat overlap analysis derived from maxent for tamarisk and the south-western willow flycatcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Patricia; Evangelista, Paul; Kumar, Sunil; Graham, James; Flather, Curtis; Stohlgren, Thomas

    2011-06-01

    Biologic control of the introduced and invasive, woody plant tamarisk ( Tamarix spp, saltcedar) in south-western states is controversial because it affects habitat of the federally endangered South-western Willow Flycatcher ( Empidonax traillii extimus). These songbirds sometimes nest in tamarisk where floodplain-level invasion replaces native habitats. Biologic control, with the saltcedar leaf beetle ( Diorhabda elongate), began along the Virgin River, Utah, in 2006, enhancing the need for comprehensive understanding of the tamarisk-flycatcher relationship. We used maximum entropy (Maxent) modeling to separately quantify the current extent of dense tamarisk habitat (>50% cover) and the potential extent of habitat available for E. traillii extimus within the studied watersheds. We used transformations of 2008 Landsat Thematic Mapper images and a digital elevation model as environmental input variables. Maxent models performed well for the flycatcher and tamarisk with Area Under the ROC Curve (AUC) values of 0.960 and 0.982, respectively. Classification of thresholds and comparison of the two Maxent outputs indicated moderate spatial overlap between predicted suitable habitat for E. traillii extimus and predicted locations with dense tamarisk stands, where flycatcher habitat will potentially change flycatcher habitats. Dense tamarisk habitat comprised 500 km2 within the study area, of which 11.4% was also modeled as potential habitat for E. traillii extimus. Potential habitat modeled for the flycatcher constituted 190 km2, of which 30.7% also contained dense tamarisk habitat. Results showed that both native vegetation and dense tamarisk habitats exist in the study area and that most tamarisk infestations do not contain characteristics that satisfy the habitat requirements of E. traillii extimus. Based on this study, effective biologic control of Tamarix spp. may, in the short term, reduce suitable habitat available to E. traillii extimus, but also has the potential

  11. Habitat and sex differences in physiological condition of breeding Southwestern Willow Flycatchers (Empidonax traillii extimus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, J.C.; Sogge, M.K.; Kern, M.D.

    2005-01-01

    The Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus; here- after “flycatcher”) is a federally listed endangered species that breeds in densely vegetated riparian habitats dominated by native and exotic plants, including introduced monotypic saltcedar (Tamarix ramosissima). Some workers have theorized that saltcedar is unsuitable habitat for the flycatcher, primarily because it generally supports a smaller and less diverse invertebrate community (the flycatcher's food base) than native habitats (e.g. Salix spp.). However, differences in insect communities between native and saltcedar habitats are not proof that saltcedar habitats are inferior. The only way to evaluate whether the habitats differ in dietary or energetic quality is to document actual food limitation or its manifestations. Measurements of an individual's body condition and metabolic state can serve as indicators of environmental stressors, such as food limitation and environmental extremes. We captured 130 flycatchers breeding in native and saltcedar habitats in Arizona and New Mexico and measured 12 variables of physiological condition. These variables included body mass, fat level, body condition index, hematocrit, plasma triglycerides, plasma free fatty acids and glycerol, plasma glucose and beta-hydroxybutyrate, plasma uric acid, total leukocyte count, and heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio. We found substantial sex-based differences in the condition of male and female flycatchers. Ten of the 12 measures of physiological condition differed significantly between the sexes. In all cases where male and female condition differed (except mass), the differences suggest that males were in poorer condition than females. We found few habitat-based differences in flycatcher condition. Only 3 of the 12 physiological condition indices differed significantly between habitats. Our data show that, at least in some parts of the flycatcher's range, there is no evidence that flycatchers breeding in

  12. Potential benefits of commercial willow Short Rotation Coppice (SRC) for farm-scale plant and invertebrate communities in the agri-environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowe, Rebecca L.; Hanley, Mick E.; Goulson, Dave; Clarke, Donna J.; Doncaster, C. Patrick; Taylor, Gail [University of Southampton, Faculty of Natural and Environmental Sciences, Life Sciences Building, Southampton, S017 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-15

    The cultivation of bioenergy crops (BECs) represents a significant land-use change in agri-environments, but their deployment has raised important issues globally regarding possible impacts on biodiversity. Few studies however, have systematically examined the effect of commercial scale bioenergy plantations on biodiversity in agri-ecosystems. In this study we investigate how the abundance and diversity of two key components of farmland biodiversity (ground flora and winged invertebrates) varied between mature willow Short Rotation Coppice (SRC) and two alternative land-use options (arable crops and set-aside land). Although the abundance of winged invertebrates was similar across all land-uses, taxonomic composition varied markedly. Hymenoptera and large Hemiptera (>5 mm) were more abundant in willow SRC than in arable or set-aside. Similarly although plant species richness was greater in set-aside, our data show that willow SRC supports a different plant community to the other land-uses, being dominated by competitive perennial species such as Elytrigia repens and Urtica dioica. Our results suggest that under current management practices a mixed farming system incorporating willow SRC can benefit native farm-scale biodiversity. In particular the reduced disturbance in willow SRC allows the persistence of perennial plant species, potentially providing a stable refuge and food sources for invertebrates. In addition, increased Hymenoptera abundance in willow SRC could potentially have concomitant effects on ecosystem processes, as many members of this Order are important pollinators of crop plants or otherwise fulfil an important beneficial role as predators or parasites of crop pests. (author)

  13. Translocation of Cd and Mn from Bark to Leaves in Willows on Contaminated Sediments: Delayed Budburst Is Related to High Mn Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart Vandecasteele

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the hydrology of sediments in tidal marshes or landfills may affect the uptake of metals in the vegetation. Leaf and stem samples of Salix cinerea (grey sallow were collected during four consecutive growing seasons at six contaminated plots on a polluted dredged sediment landfill and one plot on an uncontaminated reference site. The first three contaminated plots were already emerged in the first half of the first growing season, while the other three were submerged in the first year, but became increasingly dry over the study period. Foliar and stem cutting concentrations for Cd, Zn and Mn increased on the latter three plots over the four years. Willow bark contained high concentrations of Cd, Zn and Mn. In two consecutive greenhouse experiments with willow cuttings from different origins (uncontaminated and contaminated sites and grown under different soil conditions (uncontaminated and contaminated, we observed an important translocation of Mn from bark to shoots. In a third experiment with willow cuttings collected on soils with a range of heavy metal concentrations and, thus, with a broad range of Cd (4–67 mg/kg dry matter, Zn (247–660 mg/kg dry matter and Mn (38–524 mg/kg dry matter concentrations in the bark, high Mn concentrations in the bark were found to affect the budburst of willow cuttings, while no association of delayed budburst with Cd and Zn concentrations in the bark was found. We conclude that wood and, especially, bark are not a sink for metals in living willows. The high Mn concentrations in the bark directly or indirectly caused delayed or restricted budburst of the willow cuttings.

  14. High doses of ethylenediurea (EDU) as soil drenches did not increase leaf N content or cause phytotoxicity in willow grown in fertile soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agathokleous, Evgenios; Paoletti, Elena; Manning, William J; Kitao, Mitsutoshi; Saitanis, Costas J; Koike, Takayoshi

    2018-01-01

    Ground-level ozone (O 3 ) levels are nowadays elevated in wide regions of the Earth, causing significant effects on plants that finally lead to suppressed productivity and yield losses. Ethylenediurea (EDU) is a chemical compound which is widely used in research projects as phytoprotectant against O 3 injury. The EDU mode of action remains still unclear, while there are indications that EDU may contribute to plants with nitrogen (N) when the soil is poor in N and the plants have relatively small leaf area. To reveal whether the N content of EDU acts as a fertilizer to plants when the soil is not poor in N and the plants have relatively large total plant leaf area, willow plants (Salix sachalinensis Fr. Schm) were exposed to low ambient O 3 levels and treated ten times (9-day interval) with 200mL soil drench containing 0, 800 or 1600mg EDU L -1 . Fertilizer was added to a nutrient-poor soil, and the plants had an average plant leaf area of 9.1m 2 at the beginning of EDU treatments. Indications for EDU-induced hormesis in maximum electron transport rate (J max ) and ratio of intercellular to ambient CO 2 concentration (C i :C a ) were observed at the end of the experiment. No other EDU-induced effects on leaf greenness and N content, maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (F v /F m ), gas exchange, growth and matter production suggest that EDU did not act as N fertilizer and did not cause toxicity under these experimental conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Hydroponic screening for metal resistance and accumulation of cadmium and zinc in twenty clones of willows and poplars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos Utmazian, Maria Noel dos; Wieshammer, Gerlinde; Vega, Rosa; Wenzel, Walter W.

    2007-01-01

    We screened 20 different clones of willow and poplar species in hydroponic experiments for their metal resistance and accumulation properties. Plants were exposed for 4 weeks either to single additions of (μM) 4.45 Cd or 76.5 Zn, or a metal cocktail containing the same amounts of Cd and Zn along with 7.87 Cu and 24.1 Pb. Plant biomass, metal tolerance and metal accumulation pattern in roots and leaves varied greatly between clones. The leaf:root ratio of metal concentrations was clearly underestimated compared to soil experiments. The largest metal concentrations in leaves were detected in Salix dasyclados (315 mg Cd kg -1 d.m.) and a Salix smithiana clone (3180 mg Zn kg -1 d.m.) but these species showed low metal tolerance. In spite of smaller Cd and Zn concentrations, the metal-tolerant clones Salix matsudana, Salix fragilis-1, and Salix purpurea-1 hold promise for phytoextraction as they produced large biomass and metal contents in leaves. - Hydroponically grown willows and poplar clones accumulate up to (mg kg -1 d.w.) 315 Cd and 3180 Zn in leaves

  16. Expression of zinc and cadmium responsive genes in leaves of willow (Salix caprea L.) genotypes with different accumulation characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konlechner, Cornelia; Türktaş, Mine; Langer, Ingrid; Vaculík, Marek; Wenzel, Walter W.; Puschenreiter, Markus; Hauser, Marie-Theres

    2013-01-01

    Salix caprea is well suited for phytoextraction strategies. In a previous survey we showed that genetically distinct S. caprea plants isolated from metal-polluted and unpolluted sites differed in their zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) tolerance and accumulation abilities. To determine the molecular basis of this difference we examined putative homologues of genes involved in heavy metal responses and identified over 200 new candidates with a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) screen. Quantitative expression analyses of 20 genes in leaves revealed that some metallothioneins and cell wall modifying genes were induced irrespective of the genotype's origin and metal uptake capacity while a cysteine biosynthesis gene was expressed constitutively higher in the metallicolous genotype. The third and largest group of genes was only induced in the metallicolous genotype. These data demonstrate that naturally adapted woody non-model species can help to discover potential novel molecular mechanisms for metal accumulation and tolerance. -- Highlights: ► The transcriptional Zn/Cd response of the willow Salix caprea was quantified. ► Two genotypes from a highly contaminated and a control environment were compared. ► In addition to candidate genes an SSH library revealed over 200 metal induced genes. ► Constitutive upregulation and isolate-specific induction of genes were revealed. ► Willows adapt to environmental Zn/Cd contamination on the transcriptional level. -- Expression analyzes reveal different responses to Cd and Zn exposure of S. caprea genotypes with different heavy metal accumulation abilities

  17. Preliminary Risk Assessment of the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallegos, A.F.; Gonzales, G.J.; Bennett, K.D.; Mullen, M.A.; Foxx, T.S.

    1998-01-01

    The southwestern willow flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) is the fourth threatened or endangered species to undergo a preliminary assessment for estimating potential risk from environmental contaminants at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The assessments are being conducted as part of a three-year project to develop a habitat management plan for threatened and endangered species and species of concern at the Laboratory. For the preliminary assessment, estimated doses were compared against toxicity reference values to generate hazard indices (HIs). This assessment included a measure of cumulative effects from multiple contaminants (radionuclides, metals, and organic chemicals) to 100 simulated nest sites located within flycatcher potential habitat. Sources of contaminant values were 10,000-ft 2 grid cells within an Ecological Exposure Unit (EEU). This EEU was estimated around the potential habitat and was based on the maximum home range for the fly catcher identified in the scientific literature. The tools used included a custom FORTRAN program, ECORSK5, and a geographic information system. Food consumption and soil ingestion contaminant pathways were addressed in the assessment. Using a four-category risk evaluation, HI results indicate no appreciable impact is expected to the southwestern willow flycatcher. Information on risk by specific geographical location was generated, which can be used to manage contaminated areas, flycatcher habitat, facility siting, and/or facility operations in order to maintain low levels of risk from contaminants

  18. Preliminary Risk Assessment of the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallegos, A.F.; Gonzales, G.J.; Bennett, K.D.; Mullen, M.A.; Foxx, T.S.

    1998-10-01

    The southwestern willow flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) is the fourth threatened or endangered species to undergo a preliminary assessment for estimating potential risk from environmental contaminants at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The assessments are being conducted as part of a three-year project to develop a habitat management plan for threatened and endangered species and species of concern at the Laboratory. For the preliminary assessment, estimated doses were compared against toxicity reference values to generate hazard indices (HIs). This assessment included a measure of cumulative effects from multiple contaminants (radionuclides, metals, and organic chemicals) to 100 simulated nest sites located within flycatcher potential habitat. Sources of contaminant values were 10,000-ft{sup 2} grid cells within an Ecological Exposure Unit (EEU). This EEU was estimated around the potential habitat and was based on the maximum home range for the fly catcher identified in the scientific literature. The tools used included a custom FORTRAN program, ECORSK5, and a geographic information system. Food consumption and soil ingestion contaminant pathways were addressed in the assessment. Using a four-category risk evaluation, HI results indicate no appreciable impact is expected to the southwestern willow flycatcher. Information on risk by specific geographical location was generated, which can be used to manage contaminated areas, flycatcher habitat, facility siting, and/or facility operations in order to maintain low levels of risk from contaminants.

  19. Hydroponic screening for metal resistance and accumulation of cadmium and zinc in twenty clones of willows and poplars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos Utmazian, Maria Noel dos [Department of Forest- and Soil Sciences, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna, Peter-Jordan-Strasse 82, A-1190 Vienna (Austria); Wieshammer, Gerlinde [Department of Forest- and Soil Sciences, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna, Peter-Jordan-Strasse 82, A-1190 Vienna (Austria); Vega, Rosa [Department of Forest- and Soil Sciences, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna, Peter-Jordan-Strasse 82, A-1190 Vienna (Austria); Wenzel, Walter W. [Department of Forest- and Soil Sciences, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna, Peter-Jordan-Strasse 82, A-1190 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: walter.wenzel@boku.ac.at

    2007-07-15

    We screened 20 different clones of willow and poplar species in hydroponic experiments for their metal resistance and accumulation properties. Plants were exposed for 4 weeks either to single additions of ({mu}M) 4.45 Cd or 76.5 Zn, or a metal cocktail containing the same amounts of Cd and Zn along with 7.87 Cu and 24.1 Pb. Plant biomass, metal tolerance and metal accumulation pattern in roots and leaves varied greatly between clones. The leaf:root ratio of metal concentrations was clearly underestimated compared to soil experiments. The largest metal concentrations in leaves were detected in Salix dasyclados (315 mg Cd kg{sup -1} d.m.) and a Salix smithiana clone (3180 mg Zn kg{sup -1} d.m.) but these species showed low metal tolerance. In spite of smaller Cd and Zn concentrations, the metal-tolerant clones Salix matsudana, Salix fragilis-1, and Salix purpurea-1 hold promise for phytoextraction as they produced large biomass and metal contents in leaves. - Hydroponically grown willows and poplar clones accumulate up to (mg kg{sup -1} d.w.) 315 Cd and 3180 Zn in leaves.

  20. Synthesis of carbon nanospheres using fallen willow leaves and adsorption of Rhodamine B and heavy metals by them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Jiao; Zhang, Qian; Xia, Yunsheng; Cong, Qiao; Luo, Chunqiu

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the synthesis of carbon nanospheres (CNSs) using fallen willow leaves as a low-cost precursor. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image demonstrated that the structure of synthesized CNSs was spherical, with a diameter of 100 nm. The crystal structure and chemical information were characterized by Raman spectrum and energy-dispersive spectrum (EDS), respectively. BET results showed that the CNSs had a larger specific surface area of 294.32 m(2) g(-1), which makes it a potentially superior adsorbent. Rh-B and heavy metal ions such as Cu(2+), Zn(2+), and Cr(6+) were used as targets to investigate the adsorption capacity of the CNSs. The effects of adsorption parameters such as adsorption equilibrium time, dose of CNSs, adsorption kinetics, and effect factors were also studied. These findings not only established a cost-effective method of synthesizing CNSs using fallen willow leaves but also broadened the potential application range of these CNSs.

  1. Dry Matter Losses and Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Outside Storage of Short Rotation Coppice Willow Chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Carly; Yates, Nicola E; Powers, Stephen J; Misselbrook, Tom; Shield, Ian

    This study examined the dry matter losses and the greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations within two short rotation coppice (SRC) willow wood chip storage heaps. One heap was built on a grassland area (East Midlands) and the other (Rothamsted) on a concrete hard standing. A series of 1- and 3-m probes were embedded in the heaps in order to retrieve gas samples for analysis, and pre-weighed net bags were positioned in the core of the heap to detect dry matter losses. The bagged samples showed dry matter losses of 18 and 19 % in the East Midlands and Rothamsted heaps after 210 and 97 days storage, respectively. The Rothamsted heap showed a whole-heap dry matter loss of 21 %. During this time, the wood chips dried from 54 to 39 % moisture content in the East Midlands heap and 50 to 43 % at Rothamsted. The results from analysing the whole Rothamsted heap indicated an overall loss of 1.5 GJ per tonne stored, although measurements from bagged samples in the core suggested that the chips dried sufficiently to have a minimal energy loss from storage. The process of mixing the heap, however, led to incorporation of wet outer layers and hence the average moisture content was higher in an average sample of chip. After establishment of the heaps, the temperature rose rapidly and this correlated with a peak in carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) concentration within the heap. A peak in methane (CH 4 ) concentration was also detected in both heaps, though more noticeably in the East Midlands heap after around 55 days. In both instances, the peak CH 4 concentration occurred as CO 2 concentrations dropped, suggesting that after an active period of aerobic decomposition in the first 2 months of storage, the conditions in the heap became anaerobic. The results from this study suggest that outside wood chip storage is not an efficient method of storing biomass, though this may be location-specific as there are some studies showing lower dry matter losses. It is necessary to explore other

  2. An experimental test of fitness variation across a hydrologic gradient predicts willow and poplar species distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaojing; Savage, Jessica A; Riggs, Charlotte E; Cavender-Bares, Jeannine

    2017-05-01

    Environmental filtering is an important community assembly process influencing species distributions. Contrasting species abundance patterns along environmental gradients are commonly used to provide evidence for environmental filtering. However, the same abundance patterns may result from alternative or concurrent assembly processes. Experimental tests are an important means to decipher whether species fitness varies with environment, in the absence of dispersal constraints and biotic interactions, and to draw conclusions about the importance of environmental filtering in community assembly. We performed an experimental test of environmental filtering in 14 closely related willow and poplar species (family Salicaceae) by transplanting cuttings of each species into 40 common gardens established along a natural hydrologic gradient in the field, where competition was minimized and herbivory was controlled. We analyzed species fitness responses to the hydrologic environment based on cumulative growth and survival over two years using aster fitness models. We also examined variation in nine drought and flooding tolerance traits expected to contribute to performance based on a priori understanding of plant function in relation to water availability and stress. We found substantial evidence that environmental filtering along the hydrologic gradient played a critical role in determining species distributions. Fitness variation of each species in the field experiment was used to model their water table depth optima. These optima predicted 68% of the variation in species realized hydrologic niches based on peak abundance in naturally assembled communities in the surrounding region. Multiple traits associated with water transport efficiency and water stress tolerance were correlated with species hydrologic niches, but they did not necessarily covary with each other. As a consequence, species occupying similar hydrologic niches had different combinations of trait values

  3. Paleoseismology of the Nephi Segment of the Wasatch Fault Zone, Juab County, Utah - Preliminary Results From Two Large Exploratory Trenches at Willow Creek

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machette, Michael N.; Crone, Anthony J.; Personius, Stephen F.; Mahan, Shannon; Dart, Richard L.; Lidke, David J.; Olig, Susan S.

    2007-01-01

    In 2004, we identified a small parcel of U.S. Forest Service land at the mouth of Willow Creek (about 5 km west of Mona, Utah) that was suitable for trenching. At the Willow Creek site, which is near the middle of the southern strand of the Nephi segment, the WFZ has vertically displaced alluvial-fan deposits >6-7 m, forming large, steep, multiple-event scarps. In May 2005, we dug two 4- to 5-m-deep backhoe trenches at the Willow Creek site, identified three colluvial wedges in each trench, and collected samples of charcoal and A-horizon organic material for AMS (acceleration mass spectrometry) radiocarbon dating, and sampled fine-grained eolian and colluvial sediment for luminescence dating. The trenches yielded a stratigraphic assemblage composed of moderately coarse-grained fluvial and debris-flow deposits and discrete colluvial wedges associated with three faulting events (P1, P2, and P3). About one-half of the net vertical displacement is accommodated by monoclinal tilting of fan deposits on the hanging-wall block, possibly related to massive ductile landslide deposits that are present beneath the Willow Creek fan. The timing of the three surface-faulting events is bracketed by radiocarbon dates and results in a much different fault chronology and higher slip rates than previously considered for this segment of the Wasatch fault zone.

  4. Fungal community structure under goat willows (Salix caprea L.) growing at metal polluted site: the potential of screening in a model phytostabilisation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjana Regvar; Matevz Likar; Andrej Piltaver; Nives Kugonic; Jane E. Smith

    2010-01-01

    Goat willow (Salix caprea L.) was selected in a previous vegetation screening study as a potential candidate for the later-stage phytostabilisation efforts at a heavily metal polluted site in Slovenia. The aims of this study were to identify the fungi colonising roots of S. caprea along the gradient of vegetation succession and...

  5. De novo transcriptome and small RNA analysis of two Chinese willow cultivars reveals stress response genes in Salix matsudana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guodong Rao

    Full Text Available Salix matsudana Koidz. is a deciduous, rapidly growing, and drought resistant tree and is one of the most widely distributed and commonly cultivated willow species in China. Currently little transcriptomic and small RNAomic data are available to reveal the genes involve in the stress resistant in S. matsudana. Here, we report the RNA-seq analysis results of both transcriptome and small RNAome data using Illumina deep sequencing of shoot tips from two willow variants(Salix. matsudana and Salix matsudana Koidz. cultivar 'Tortuosa'. De novo gene assembly was used to generate the consensus transcriptome and small RNAome, which contained 106,403 unique transcripts with an average length of 944 bp and a total length of 100.45 MB, and 166 known miRNAs representing 35 miRNA families. Comparison of transcriptomes and small RNAomes combined with quantitative real-time PCR from the two Salix libraries revealed a total of 292 different expressed genes(DEGs and 36 different expressed miRNAs (DEMs. Among the DEGs and DEMs, 196 genes and 24 miRNAs were up regulated, 96 genes and 12 miRNA were down regulated in S. matsudana. Functional analysis of DEGs and miRNA targets showed that many genes were involved in stress resistance in S. matsudana. Our global gene expression profiling presents a comprehensive view of the transcriptome and small RNAome which provide valuable information and sequence resources for uncovering the stress response genes in S. matsudana. Moreover the transcriptome and small RNAome data provide a basis for future study of genetic resistance in Salix.

  6. Distribution of P, K, Ca, Mg, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn in wood and bark age classes of willows and poplars used for phytoextraction on soils contaminated by risk elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zárubová, Pavla; Hejcman, Michal; Vondráčková, Stanislava; Mrnka, Libor; Száková, Jiřina; Tlustoš, Pavel

    2015-12-01

    Fast-growing clones of Salix and Populus have been studied for remediation of soils contaminated by risk elements (RE) using short-rotation coppice plantations. Our aim was to assess biomass yield and distributions of elements in wood and bark of highly productive willow (S1--[Salix schwerinii × Salix viminalis] × S. viminalis, S2--Salix × smithiana clone S-218) and poplar (P1--Populus maximowiczii × Populus nigra, P2--P. nigra) clones with respect to aging. The field experiment was established in April 2008 on moderately Cd-, Pb- and Zn- contaminated soil. Shoots were harvested after four seasons (February 2012) and separated into annual classes of wood and bark. All tested clones grew on contaminated soils, with highest biomass production and lowest mortality exhibited by P1 and S2. Concentrations of elements, with exception of Ca and Pb, decreased with age and were higher in bark than in wood. The Salix clones were characterised by higher removal of Cd, Mn and Zn compared to the Populus clones. Despite generally higher RE content in young shoots, partly due to lower wood/bark ratios and higher RE concentrations in bark, the overall removal of RE was higher in older wood classes due to higher biomass yield. Thus, longer rotations seem to be more effective when phytoextraction strategy is considered. Of the four selected clones, S1 exhibited the best removal of Cd and Zn and is a good candidate for phytoextraction.

  7. On the irrigation requirements of cottonwood (Populus fremontii and Populus deltoides var. wislizenii) and willow (Salix gooddingii) grown in a desert environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwell, S.; Morino, K.; Nagler, P.L.; Glenn, E.P.

    2010-01-01

    Native tree plots have been established in river irrigation districts in the western U.S. to provide habitat for threatened and endangered birds. Information is needed on the effective irrigation requirements of the target species. Cottonwood (Populus spp.) and willow (Salix gooddingii) trees were grown for seven years in an outdoor plot in a desert environment in Tucson, Arizona. Plants were allowed to achieve a nearly complete canopy cover over the first four years, then were subjected to three daily summer irrigation schedules of 6.20??mm??d-1; 8.26??mm??d-1 and 15.7??mm??d-1. The lowest irrigation rate was sufficient to maintain growth and high leaf area index for cottonwoods over three years, while willows suffered considerable die-back on this rate in years six and seven. These irrigation rates were applied April 15-September 15, but only 0.88??mm??d-1 was applied during the dormant period of the year. Expressed as a fraction of reference crop evapotranspiration (ETo), recommended annual water applications plus precipitation (and including some deep drainage) were 0.83 ETo for cottonwood and 1.01 ETo for willow. Current practices tend to over-irrigate restoration plots, and this study can provide guidelines for more efficient water use. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Geographic variation in the song of Willow Flycatchers: Differentiation between Empidonax traillii adastus and E. t. extimus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedgwick, J.A.

    2001-01-01

    The vocal signatures of the primary song form (“fitz-bew”) of the endangered Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) and its northern counterpart, E. t. adastus, are distinctive. Songs of the extimus subspecies are longer (total song, note, internote) and frequencies at maximum amplitude are lower than those of adastus. I used vocal evidence to clarify the distributional limits of the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher and that of the geographically adjacent subspecies, E. t. adastus. Unweighted pair-group method using averaging (UPGMA) cluster analysis and canonical discriminant analysis revealed that (1) low elevation, southerly desert populations (Arizona, New Mexico, and southern Utah) have a unique vocal identity corresponding to populations in the range of E. t. extimus; (2) northerly song groups (Oregon, Colorado, and northern Utah) share a different song type corresponding to populations in the range of E. t. adastus; and (3) a departure from vocal and morphological congruence occurs for a population of high-elevation Arizona birds that, although in the currently accepted range of E. t. extimus, sings songs acoustically similar to more northern populations (E. t. adastus). Multiple regression of song distance on latitude and elevation, and a comparison of a matrix of song distances with a matrix of latitude and elevation dissimilarities, demonstrated that song populations sort out by both latitude and elevation: birds with the vocal identity of extimus occur as far north as 37°N if at low elevation, and those acoustically similar to adastus occur as far south as 33.7°N if at high elevation. The vocal background of northern New Mexico birds appears to be intermediate between that of extimus and adastus, suggesting that northern New Mexico is a zone of intermixing and intergradation between the subspecies. Pure forms of E. t. extimus apparently do not occur in Colorado because even the southernmost populations are acoustically similar to

  9. Trace Element Concentration and Speciation in Selected Mining-Contaminated Soils and Water in Willow Creek Floodplain, Colorado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Burt

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term mining activities in the mountains around Creede, Colorado have resulted in significant contamination in soils and water in the Willow Creek floodplain. Total major and trace were determined for soils and water and sequential chemical extraction for soils. Objectives were to determine concentrations and potential reactivity of trace elements and investigate their relationship with other soil and water properties. Water trace elements showed significant variability among sites, ranging from 347 to 12108 μg/L. Relative trend showed (Zn > Sr > Ba > (Mn > W > Cd > (Sn > V ≈ Ni ≈ Cu > Co > (Ag. Soil trace elements showed significant short-range spatial variability, ranging from 2819 to 19274 mg/kg. Relative trend showed (Pb ≈ Zn > Mn > Ba > P > (As > Cu > Sr > V > Cd > Sb ≈ Ag > (Co ≈ Cr > Mo ≈ Sn ≈ Ni > (Be ≈ W > Se ≈ Hg. Predominant fractions were oxide, specifically-sorbed/carbonate bound, and residual. Water soluble and exchangeable fractions showed (Zn ≈ Cd > Pb and Cd > Zn > Pb, respectively. Mobility factors for highly contaminated soils showed Cd ≈ Zn > Pb > Cu > As.

  10. Salicin from Willow Bark can Modulate Neurite Outgrowth in Human Neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wölfle, Ute; Haarhaus, Birgit; Kersten, Astrid; Fiebich, Bernd; Hug, Martin J; Schempp, Christoph M

    2015-10-01

    Salicin from willow bark has been used throughout centuries in China and Europe for the treatment of pain, headache, and inflammatory conditions. Recently, it could be demonstrated that salicin binds and activates the bitter taste receptor TAS2R16. Studies on rodent tissues showed the general expression of bitter taste receptors (TAS2Rs) in rodent brain. Here, we demonstrate the expression of hTAS2R16 in human neuronal tissues and the neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y. The functionality was analyzed in the neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y after stimulation with salicin, a known TAS2R16 agonist. In this setting salicin induced in SH-SY5Y cells phosphorylation of ERK and CREB, the key transcription factor of neuronal differentiation. PD98059, an inhibitor of the ERK pathway, as well as probenecid, a TAS2R16 antagonist, inhibited receptor phosphorylation as well as neurite outgrowth. These data show that salicin might modulate neurite outgrowth by bitter taste receptor activation. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. A comparative analysis of genetic differentiation across six shared willow host species in leaf- and bud-galling sawflies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanna A Leppänen

    Full Text Available Genetic divergence and speciation in plant-feeding insects could be driven by contrasting selection pressures imposed by different plant species and taxa. While numerous examples of host-associated differentiation (HAD have been found, the overall importance of HAD in insect diversification remains unclear, as few studies have investigated its frequency in relation to all speciation events. One promising way to infer the prevalence and repeatability of HAD is to estimate genetic differentiation in multiple insect taxa that use the same set of hosts. To this end, we measured and compared variation in mitochondrial COI and nuclear ITS2 sequences in population samples of leaf-galling Pontania and bud-galling Euura sawflies (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae collected from six Salix species in two replicate locations in northern Fennoscandia. We found evidence of frequent HAD in both species complexes, as individuals from the same willow species tended to cluster together on both mitochondrial and nuclear phylogenetic trees. Although few fixed differences among the putative species were found, hierarchical AMOVAs showed that most of the genetic variation in the samples was explained by host species rather than by sampling location. Nevertheless, the levels of HAD measured across specific pairs of host species were not correlated in the two focal galler groups. Hence, our results support the hypothesis of HAD as a central force in herbivore speciation, but also indicate that evolutionary trajectories are only weakly repeatable even in temporally overlapping radiations of related insect taxa.

  12. Insignificant acute toxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles to willow trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeger, Eva Mareike; Baun, Anders; Kästner, M.

    2009-01-01

    Manufactured nanoparticles (MNP) are expected to increase in production in near future. In response, their environmental fate and effects are intensively studied. Phytotoxicity of some types of nanoparticles has been observed for annual species in the seed germination and root elongation test. Ye...

  13. Using a remote sensing/GIS model to predict southwestern Willow Flycatcher breeding habitat along the Rio Grande, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatten, James R.; Sogge, Mark K.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus; hereafter SWFL) is a federally endangered bird (USFWS 1995) that breeds in riparian areas in portions of New Mexico, Arizona, southwestern Colorado, extreme southern Utah and Nevada, and southern California (USFWS 2002). Across this range, it uses a variety of plant species as nesting/breeding habitat, but in all cases prefers sites with dense vegetation, high canopy, and proximity to surface water or saturated soils (Sogge and Marshall 2000). As of 2005, the known rangewide breeding population of SWFLs was roughly 1,214 territories, with approximately 393 territories distributed among 36 sites in New Mexico (Durst et al. 2006), primarily along the Rio Grande. One of the key challenges facing the management and conservation of the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher is that riparian areas are dynamic, with individual habitat patches subject to cycles of creation, growth, and loss due to drought, flooding, fire, and other disturbances. Former breeding patches can lose suitability, and new habitat can develop within a matter of only a few years, especially in reservoir drawdown zones. Therefore, measuring and predicting flycatcher habitat - either to discover areas that might support SWFLs, or to identify areas that may develop into appropriate habitat - requires knowledge of recent/current habitat conditions and an understanding of the factors that determine flycatcher use of riparian breeding sites. In the past, much of the determination of whether a riparian site is likely to support breeding flycatchers has been based on qualitative criteria (for example, 'dense vegetation' or 'large patches'). These determinations often require on-the-ground field evaluations by local or regional SWFL experts. While this has proven valuable in locating many of the currently known breeding sites, it is difficult or impossible to apply this approach effectively over large geographic areas (for example, the

  14. Gender Relation in Willow Trees Don’t Weep Novel (2014 by Fadia Faqir: A Feminist Literary Criticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Rosida

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This  study  is  aimed  at  finding  gender  relations  between  male  and  female  character  as  they  are depicted  in  Willow  Trees  Don’t  ’Weep  (2014  novel  written  by  Fadia  Faqir.  This  study  employs descriptive qualitative method on feminist literary criticism as a theory to find and reveal gender issues. The text is analyzed by using feminist criticism “woman as reader” to give the evaluation and  interpretation  on  how  woman  writes  about  woman.  The  result  shows  that  there  are  three significant points in which gender relation in patriarchal culture is portrayed in the novel. They are male  domination,  discrimination  towards  women,  and  violence  against  women.  The  results  were evaluated  by  examining  female  character’s  condition  in  a  patriarchal  society  through  woman’s point of view based on her social life and experiences. Moreover, the country where women live is influenced the gender relation. Jordan in this case, has the strongest patriarchal system compared to Pakistan, Afghanistan, and London (the countries where Najwa lived while searching for her father.DOI: 10.15408/insaniyat.v2i1.6586

  15. Distribution and abundance of Least Bell’s Vireos (Vireo bellii pusillus) and Southwestern Willow Flycatchers (Empidonax traillii extimus) on the Middle San Luis Rey River, San Diego County, southern California—2017 data summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Lisa D.; Howell, Scarlett L.; Kus, Barbara E.

    2018-04-20

    We surveyed for Least Bell’s Vireos (LBVI) (Vireo bellii pusillus) and Southwestern Willow Flycatchers (SWFL) (Empidonax traillii extimus) along the San Luis Rey River, between College Boulevard in Oceanside and Interstate 15 in Fallbrook, California (middle San Luis Rey River), in 2017. Surveys were conducted from April 13 to July 11 (LBVI) and from May 16 to July 28 (SWFL). We found 146 LBVI territories, at least 107 of which were occupied by pairs. Five additional transient LBVIs were detected. LBVIs used five different habitat types in the survey area: mixed willow, willow-cottonwood, willow-sycamore, riparian scrub, and upland scrub. Forty-four percent of the LBVIs occurred in habitat characterized as mixed willow and 89 percent of the LBVI territories occurred in areas with greater than 50 percent native plant cover. Of 16 banded LBVIs detected in the survey area, 8 had been given full color-band combinations prior to 2017. Four other LBVIs with single (natal) federal bands were recaptured and banded in 2017. Three LBVIs with single dark blue federal bands indicating that they were banded as nestlings on the lower San Luis Rey River and one LBVI with a single gold federal band indicating that it was banded as a nestling on Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton (MCBCP) could not be recaptured for identification. One banded LBVI emigrated from the middle San Luis Rey River to the lower San Luis Rey River in 2017.One resident SWFL territory and one transient Willow Flycatcher of unknown subspecies (WIFL) were observed in the survey area in 2017. The resident SWFL territory, which was comprised of mixed willow habitat (5–50 percent native plant cover), was occupied by a single male from May 22 to June 21, 2017. No evidence of pairing or nesting activity was observed. The SWFL male was banded with a full color-combination indicating that he was originally banded as a nestling on the middle San Luis Rey River in 2014 and successfully bred in the survey area in 2016

  16. Ethyl lactate-EDTA composite system enhances the remediation of the cadmium-contaminated soil by Autochthonous Willow (Salix x aureo-pendula CL 'J1011') in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jiahua; Sun Yuanyuan; Yin Ying; Ji Rong; Wu Jichun; Wang Xiaorong; Guo Hongyan

    2010-01-01

    In order to explore a practical approach to the remediation of the cadmium (Cd)-contaminated soil in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, we evaluated the effects of a local willow (Salix x aureo-pendula CL 'J1011') of absorbing, accumulating, and translocating Cd; and assessed the potential of chelator ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) in combination with ethyl lactate for enhancing the efficiency of the willow in removing Cd in two water-culture growth chamber trials and a field one. The willow showed a high tolerance to Cd in growth chamber trial 1 where the Cd concentration in the medium reached up to 25 mg L -1 medium, and the bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) of the shoots for Cd rose from 3.8 to 7.4 as the Cd concentration in the medium was elevated from 5 to 25 mg L -1 medium. In growth chamber trial 2, the average Cd removal rates in two treatments with EDTA and ethyl lactate (molar ratios of EDTA to ethyl lactate = 68/39 and 53.5/53.5, respectively) reached 0.71 mg d -1 pot -1 for the duration of Day 5-8 and 0.59 mg d -1 pot -1 for that of Day 8-11, which were 5- and 4-fold of their counterparts in the control, respectively. In the field trial, for the remediational duration of 45 days, three treatments-willow alone, willow combined with EDTA, and willow combined with EDTA and ethyl lactate-led to decreases in the Cd concentration in soil by 5%, 20%, and 29%, respectively; increases in that in the leaves by 14.6%, 56.7%, and 146.5%, respectively; and increases in that in the stems by 15.6%, 41.2%, and 87.4%, respectively, compared to their counterparts on Day 0. These results indicate that EDTA combined with ethyl lactate significantly enhanced the efficiency of willow in removing Cd from the soil. Therefore, a phytoextration system consisting of the autochthonous willow, EDTA, and ethyl lactate has high potential for the remediation of the Cd-polluted soil in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River.

  17. Ethyl lactate-EDTA composite system enhances the remediation of the cadmium-contaminated soil by Autochthonous Willow (Salix x aureo-pendula CL 'J1011') in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Jiahua [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Sun Yuanyuan [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Department of Hydrosciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Yin Ying; Ji Rong [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Wu Jichun [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Department of Hydrosciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Wang Xiaorong [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Guo Hongyan, E-mail: hyguo@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2010-09-15

    In order to explore a practical approach to the remediation of the cadmium (Cd)-contaminated soil in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, we evaluated the effects of a local willow (Salix x aureo-pendula CL 'J1011') of absorbing, accumulating, and translocating Cd; and assessed the potential of chelator ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) in combination with ethyl lactate for enhancing the efficiency of the willow in removing Cd in two water-culture growth chamber trials and a field one. The willow showed a high tolerance to Cd in growth chamber trial 1 where the Cd concentration in the medium reached up to 25 mg L{sup -1} medium, and the bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) of the shoots for Cd rose from 3.8 to 7.4 as the Cd concentration in the medium was elevated from 5 to 25 mg L{sup -1} medium. In growth chamber trial 2, the average Cd removal rates in two treatments with EDTA and ethyl lactate (molar ratios of EDTA to ethyl lactate = 68/39 and 53.5/53.5, respectively) reached 0.71 mg d{sup -1}pot{sup -1} for the duration of Day 5-8 and 0.59 mg d{sup -1}pot{sup -1} for that of Day 8-11, which were 5- and 4-fold of their counterparts in the control, respectively. In the field trial, for the remediational duration of 45 days, three treatments-willow alone, willow combined with EDTA, and willow combined with EDTA and ethyl lactate-led to decreases in the Cd concentration in soil by 5%, 20%, and 29%, respectively; increases in that in the leaves by 14.6%, 56.7%, and 146.5%, respectively; and increases in that in the stems by 15.6%, 41.2%, and 87.4%, respectively, compared to their counterparts on Day 0. These results indicate that EDTA combined with ethyl lactate significantly enhanced the efficiency of willow in removing Cd from the soil. Therefore, a phytoextration system consisting of the autochthonous willow, EDTA, and ethyl lactate has high potential for the remediation of the Cd-polluted soil in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River.

  18. Ethyl lactate-EDTA composite system enhances the remediation of the cadmium-contaminated soil by autochthonous willow (Salix x aureo-pendula CL 'J1011') in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiahua; Sun, Yuanyuan; Yin, Ying; Ji, Rong; Wu, Jichun; Wang, Xiaorong; Guo, Hongyan

    2010-09-15

    In order to explore a practical approach to the remediation of the cadmium (Cd)-contaminated soil in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, we evaluated the effects of a local willow (Salix x aureo-pendula CL 'J1011') of absorbing, accumulating, and translocating Cd; and assessed the potential of chelator ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) in combination with ethyl lactate for enhancing the efficiency of the willow in removing Cd in two water-culture growth chamber trials and a field one. The willow showed a high tolerance to Cd in growth chamber trial 1 where the Cd concentration in the medium reached up to 25 mg L(-1) medium, and the bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) of the shoots for Cd rose from 3.8 to 7.4 as the Cd concentration in the medium was elevated from 5 to 25 mg L(-1) medium. In growth chamber trial 2, the average Cd removal rates in two treatments with EDTA and ethyl lactate (molar ratios of EDTA to ethyl lactate=68/39 and 53.5/53.5, respectively) reached 0.71 mg d(-1) pot(-1) for the duration of Day 5-8 and 0.59 mg d(-1) pot(-1) for that of Day 8-11, which were 5- and 4-fold of their counterparts in the control, respectively. In the field trial, for the remediational duration of 45 days, three treatments-willow alone, willow combined with EDTA, and willow combined with EDTA and ethyl lactate-led to decreases in the Cd concentration in soil by 5%, 20%, and 29%, respectively; increases in that in the leaves by 14.6%, 56.7%, and 146.5%, respectively; and increases in that in the stems by 15.6%, 41.2%, and 87.4%, respectively, compared to their counterparts on Day 0. These results indicate that EDTA combined with ethyl lactate significantly enhanced the efficiency of willow in removing Cd from the soil. Therefore, a phytoextration system consisting of the autochthonous willow, EDTA, and ethyl lactate has high potential for the remediation of the Cd-polluted soil in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  19. Influence of flooding and metal immobilising soil amendments on availability of metals for willows and earthworms in calcareous dredged sediment-derived soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandecasteele, Bart, E-mail: bart.vandecasteele@ilvo.vlaanderen.b [Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research (ILVO), Scientific Institute of the Flemish Government, Burg. Van Gansberghelaan 109, B-9820 Merelbeke (Belgium); Du Laing, Gijs [Ghent University, Department of Applied Analytical and Physical Chemistry, Coupure 653, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Lettens, Suzanna [Research Institute for Nature and Forest (INBO), Scientific Institute of the Flemish Government, Gaverstraat 4, B-9500 Geraardsbergen (Belgium); Jordaens, Kurt [Department of Biology, Evolutionary Biology Group, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Tack, Filip M.G. [Ghent University, Department of Applied Analytical and Physical Chemistry, Coupure 653, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2010-06-15

    Soil amendments previously shown to be effective in reducing metal bioavailability and/or mobility in calcareous metal-polluted soils were tested on a calcareous dredged sediment-derived soil with 26 mg Cd/kg dry soil, 2200 mg Cr/kg dry soil, 220 mg Pb/kg dry soil, and 3000 mg Zn/kg dry soil. The amendments were 5% modified aluminosilicate (AS), 10% w/w lignin, 1% w/w diammonium phosphate (DAP, (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}HPO{sub 4}), 1% w/w MnO, and 5% w/w CaSO{sub 4}. In an additional treatment, the contaminated soil was submerged. Endpoints were metal uptake in Salix cinerea and Lumbricus terrestris, and effect on oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) in submerged soils. Results illustrated that the selected soil amendments were not effective in reducing ecological risk to vegetation or soil inhabiting invertebrates, as metal uptake in willows and earthworms did not significantly decrease following their application. Flooding the polluted soil resulted in metal uptake in S. cinerea comparable with concentrations for an uncontaminated soil. - Some soil amendments resulted in higher metal uptake by earthworms and willows than when the polluted soil was not amended but submersion of the polluted soil resulted in reduced Cd and Zn uptake in Salix cinerea.

  20. DESIGNING AND OPPORTUNITY FUEL WITH BIOMASS AND TIRE-DERIVED FUEL FOR COFIRING AT WILLOW ISLAND GENERATING STATION AND COFIRING SAWDUST WITH COAL AT ALBRIGHT GENERATING STATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Payette; D. Tillman

    2004-06-01

    During the period July 1, 2000-March 31, 2004, Allegheny Energy Supply Co., LLC (Allegheny) conducted an extensive demonstration of woody biomass cofiring at its Willow Island and Albright Generating Stations. This demonstration, cofunded by USDOE and Allegheny, and supported by the Biomass Interest Group (BIG) of EPRI, evaluated the impacts of sawdust cofiring in both cyclone boilers and tangentially-fired pulverized coal boilers. The cofiring in the cyclone boiler--Willow Island Generating Station Unit No.2--evaluated the impacts of sawdust alone, and sawdust blended with tire-derived fuel. The biomass was blended with the coal on its way to the combustion system. The cofiring in the pulverized coal boiler--Albright Generating Station--evaluated the impact of cofiring on emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) when the sawdust was injected separately into the furnace. The demonstration of woody biomass cofiring involved design, construction, and testing at each site. The results addressed impacts associated with operational issues--capacity, efficiency, and operability--as well as formation and control of airborne emissions such as NO{sub x}, sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}2), opacity, and mercury. The results of this extensive program are detailed in this report.

  1. Nutrient Concentrations of Bush Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. Cultivated in Subarctic Soils Managed with Intercropping and Willow (Salix spp. Agroforestry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meaghan J. Wilton

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available To ease food insecurities in northern Canada, some remote communities started gardening initiatives to gain more access to locally grown foods. Bush beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L. were assessed for N, P, K, Mg, and Ca concentrations of foliage as indicators of plant nutrition in a calcareous silty loam soil of northern Ontario James Bay lowlands. Crops were grown in sole cropping and intercropping configurations, with comparisons made between an open field and an agroforestry site enclosed with willow (Salix spp. trees. Foliage chemical analysis of the sites revealed an abundance of Ca, adequacies for Mg and N, and deficiencies in P and K. Intercropping bean and potato did not show significant crop–crop facilitation for nutrients. The agroforestry site showed to be a superior management practice for the James Bay lowland region, specifically for P. The agroforestry site had significantly greater P for bean plant (p = 0.024 and potato foliage (p = 0.002 compared to the open site. It is suspected that the presence of willows improve plant available P to bean and potatoes by tree root—crop root interactions and microclimate enhancements.

  2. Monitoring the progress of NFFO-3 projects: short rotation willow coppice - agronomy and economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twemlow, R.K.M.

    1997-01-01

    The involvement of Sidney C. Banks p.l.c., and the subsidiary company Banks Agriculture, in fuel supply for biofuelled power stations started some 4 years ago. When identifying possible opportunities and crops it was apparent that, with the third tranche of Non-Fossil Fuel Obligations (NFFO3) coming up, there were companies looking at developing biofuelled power stations, using Short Rotation Coppice (SRC) and for this they needed to link with potential fuel suppliers. Sidney C. Banks p.l.c. linked with South Western Power (SWP) (a subsidiary of South Western Electricity p.l.c. (SWEB)) to act as their sole fuel supplier on projected biofuel wood power stations. Subsequently two wood fuelled power stations were awarded to SWP and Sidney C. Banks p.l.c. in the 3rd Tranche from NFFO, in December 1994. The objectives of this project were to: establish a network of SRC growers to produce fuel for a NFFO project; monitor the success of the enterprise; implement a programme of constant improvement to optimise the fuel supply strategy; and provide valuable information as to the performance of the SRC crop in large scale commercial production. (author)

  3. Production capacity of biomass of the floodpain community of Salix alba L. in southern Moravia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana López

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the study of the production capacity of biomass in the seven-year stand of Salix alba L. The communities originated in the process of primary succession in the area of the middle Nové Mlýny reservoir on a newly established island. Already since the first stages, the communities have been monitored. Results have shown that white willow behaves as an R-strategist with fast growth in youth. Moreover, the growth is supported by optimum environmental conditions (soils richly supplied with nutrients and water, long growing season. Accumulated phytomass amounted 102,7 t.ha−1 at the age of 7 years and the yield reached a mean annual increment of 15 t.ha−1.year−1. Communities of white willow rank among highly productive phytocoenoses capable of fixing considerable amounts of carbon and, at the same time fulfilling the function of habitat corridors.

  4. Prospects for arable farm uptake of Short Rotation Coppice willow and miscanthus in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glithero, Neryssa J; Wilson, Paul; Ramsden, Stephen J

    2013-07-01

    ha and 89,900 ha of SRC and miscanthus would, respectively, be grown on English arable farms. While farm business objectives were not identified as key determinants of DEC acceptance, enhanced information exchange through extension agents, providing market security and considering land reversion grants post-production are potential policy considerations.

  5. A Catskill Flora and Economic Botany, III: Apetalae. Including the Poplars, Willows, Hickories, Birches, Beeches, Oaks, Elms, Nettles, Sorrels, Docks, and Smartweeds. Bulletin No. 443, New York State Museum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Karl L.

    This compendium deals with the ecology and economic importance of the poplars, willows, hickories, birches, beeches, oaks, elms, nettles, sorrels, docks, and smartweeds growing in New York's Catskills. Provided are keys for identifying each plant to species by flowers, foliage, or winter buds. A line drawing accompanies a summary of basic data…

  6. Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spring, Martin; Johnes, Geraint; Hald, Kim Sundtoft

    Productivity is increasingly critical for developed economies. It has always been important: as Paul Krugman puts it, “Productivity isn’t everything, but in the long run it is almost everything. A country’s ability to improve its standard of living over time depends almost entirely on its ability...... to raise its output per worker”(Krugman, 1994). Analyses of productivity have, by and large, been the preserve of economists. Operations Management (OM) is rooted in a similar concern for the efficient use of scarce resources; Management Accounting (MA) is concerned with the institutionalised measurement...... and management of productivity. Yet the three perspectives are rarely connected. This paper is a sketch of a literature review seeking to identify, contrast and reconcile these three perspectives. In so doing, it aims to strengthen the connections between policy and managerial analyses of productivity....

  7. Biomass production potentials in Central and Eastern Europe under different scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dam, J. van; Faaij, A.P.C.; Lewandowski, I.; Fischer, G.

    2007-01-01

    A methodology for the assessment of biomass potentials was developed and applied to Central and Eastern European countries (CEEC). Biomass resources considered are agricultural residues, forestry residues, and wood from surplus forest and biomass from energy crops. Only land that is not needed for food and feed production is considered as available for the production of energy crops. Five scenarios were built to depict the influences of different factors on biomass potentials and costs. Scenarios, with a domination of current level of agricultural production or ecological production systems, show the smallest biomass potentials of 2-5.7 EJ for all CEEC. Highest potentials can reach up to 11.7 EJ (85% from energy crops, 12% from residues and 3% from surplus forest wood) when 44 million ha of agricultural land become available for energy crop production. This potential is, however, only realizable under high input production systems and most advanced production technology, best allocation of crop production over all CEEC and by choosing willow as energy crops. The production of lignocellulosic crops, and willow in particular, best combines high biomass production potentials and low biomass production costs. Production costs for willow biomass range from 1.6 to 8.0 EUR/GJ HHV in the scenario with the highest agricultural productivity and 1.0-4.5 EUR/GJ HHV in the scenario reflecting the current status of agricultural production. Generally the highest biomass production costs are experienced when ecological agriculture is prevailing and on land with lower quality. In most CEEC, the production potentials are larger than the current energy use in the more favourable scenarios. Bulk of the biomass potential can be produced at costs lower than 2 EUR/GJ. High potentials combined with the low cost levels gives CEEC major export opportunities. (author)

  8. Technique for compressed bundles for harvest of whole straw willow. Pilot study; Teknik foer komprimerande helskottsskoerd av salix i buntform. Foerstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Hans (Vaesteraeng Lantbruk AB (Sweden))

    2008-06-15

    and demand good and secure weather conditions. Heavy rain or snow is a big problem during harvest season. The proposal from Maelarenergi AB has been carefully analysed and they think this is a solution with high potential. It should mean lower costs than in compare to using a mobile fossil driven cutter. Chipped Salix on farmland is a 'hot' flowchart, with big demand on among other things the logistic in and around the system. The possibility to direct consumption with chipped Salix has a limited storage capability. Chipped Salix is not possible to transport long distance, maximum 30 - 35 km, if it should keep the capacity to pay the procedure. The costs of transport will be too big in comparison to production value. Another advantage is the costs for intermediate storage. For example the area of the intermediate storage station, can be reduced when smaller volumes with higher density are handled. An overall analysis over the project 'Salix Maelardalen' point out very obviously that an alternative to the today direct chipping system is necessary and that development work around harvest with compressing bundle technique is very important. Big positive effects on environment can also be shown. Questions around 'compressed whole straw harvest of Willow' can be answered by a pilot study. There are o lot of aspects to pay attention to and 'smooth the road' to the growing production of Salix and it's rising as fuel raw material. The pilot study is going to penetrate the development of new harvest technique and earlier systems for 'compressed whole shoot harvest' of Salix. Needs and potential of new technique will be analysed and the study will also give suggestions to a new specification of requirements. The study will also suggest future developing projects. One of the purposes with the pilot project is that it could be a platform for future technical and practical research and even to be as a base for coming

  9. Potent clones. Efficiency of phytoremediation by means of willow family on the status of heavy metals; Potente Klone. Wirkung der Phytoremediation mittels Weidengewaechsen auf den Schwermetallstatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fibian, Kurt D. [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Fachgebiet Pflanzenernaehrung; Gombler, Willy; Gruessing, Edgar; Janssen-Weets, Sybille; Schlaak, Michael [Fachhochschule Emden-Leer, Emden (Germany). Inst. fuer Umwelttechnik-EUTEC

    2010-11-15

    The contents of cadmium, copper and zinc in a polluted substrate (harbour silt) were determined by means of fractionated extraction. In a pot attempt, four willow clones were cultivated on this substrate. After a test period of three years the changes in the individual fractions of heavy metal were determined. At the same time, the remove capacity of the test pastures being relevant for the process of phytoextraction were determined by means of the content of heavy metals of the aboveground plant organs and its dry weight. The results show that two of the examined pasture clones clearly are better suitable than poplars and corn, in order to remove in particular cadmium and zinc from the soil by means of phytoremediation.

  10. Phytoremediation, a sustainable remediation technology? Conclusions from a case study. I: Energy production and carbon dioxide abatement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witters, N.; Mendelsohn, R.O.; Van Slycken, S.; Weyens, N.; Schreurs, E.; Meers, E.; Tack, F.; Carleer, R.; Vangronsveld, J.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the renewable energy production of crops used for phytoremediation. Our analysis is based on a case study in the Campine region (Belgium and The Netherlands), where agricultural soils are diffusely contaminated with cadmium, lead, and zinc, with an enhanced risk for uptake of these metals in crops and leaching to the groundwater. However, the area has such a large extent (700 km 2 ) that conventional remediation is not applicable. Cultivation of crops for energy purposes on such land offers the opportunity to come up with an approach that efficiently uses contaminated agricultural land and that can be beneficial for both farmer and society. Performing a Life Cycle Analysis (LCA), we examined the energy and CO 2 abatement potential of willow (Salix spp.), silage maize (Zea mays L.), and rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) originating from contaminated land. Taking into account the marginal impact of the metals in the biomass on the energy conversion efficiency and on the potential use of the biomass and its rest products after conversion, digestion of silage maize with combustion of the contaminated digestate shows the best energetic and CO 2 abating perspectives. The replacement of cokes based electricity by willow is more efficient in CO 2 abatement than willow used in a Combined Heat and Power (CHP) unit, despite lower net energy production in the former option. Willow reaches the same energy production and same CO 2 abatement per hectare per year as silage maize when its biomass yield is respectively 13 and 8.7 Mg dm ha −1 y −1 . -- Highlights: ► We study the energy potential of Salix, Zea mays and Brassica after phytoremediation. ► The case study contains agricultural soils that are contaminated with cadmium. ► We include the impact of metals on energy conversion efficiency and rest product use. ► Higher biomass yields for Salix would make it energetically competitive with Z. mays.

  11. Willow Short Rotation Coppice Trial in a Former Mining Area in Northern Spain: Effects of Clone, Fertilization and Planting Density on Yield after Five Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Castaño-Díaz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A willow short rotation coppice (SRC trial was conducted on former mining land in northern Spain over a period of five years, with the purpose of evaluating the effects on yield of two planting densities (9876 and 14,815 cuttings ha−1, three treatments (control, two levels of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium compound fertilizer (NPK plus weed control and three willow clones (Björn, Inger, Olof. The area was subsoiled, ploughed, harrowed and fertilized with NPK before trial establishment. A randomized block design was applied, with three replications of each treatment in a total of 54 plots, each of an area of 400 m2. The effects of the interactions between the various factors on yield and other growth parameters were also studied. The clone factor significantly affected the number of shoots per stool (greatest for the Inger clone and the Olof clone, which showed the lowest mortality rate and produced the largest trees and largest quantity of biomass. The combined application of fertilizer and herbicide also significantly increased the values of all response variables considered, except the mortality rate. The planting density did not significantly affect the response variables. Clone × treatment interactions were significant for the shoots per stool, height, diameter and biomass variables, and the Olof clone displayed the highest height and diameter growth and yield. The results obtained in the first rotation indicate that the Olof clone adapted well to the trial conditions and therefore would be appropriate for producing biomass in abandoned mine land in Asturias. These findings will help in the development of strategies for the establishment and management of SRC on marginal land.

  12. Drought-induced changes in the phenology, productivity and diversity of Spanish fungi

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Büntgen, Ulf; Egli, S.; Galván, J. D.; Diez, J. M.; Aldea, J.; Latorre, J.; Martinez-Pena, F.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 16, AUG (2015), s. 6-18 ISSN 1754-5048 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0248 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : pinus-sylvestris forests * climate-change * central pyrenees * ectomycorrhizal mushrooms * dermocybe-uliginosa * wild mushrooms * tree mortality * willow carr * scots pine * long-term * Dendroecology * Climate change * Ecosystem functioning and productivity * Edible mushrooms * Iberian Peninsula * Mediterranean drought * Non-wood forest products Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 2.631, year: 2015

  13. Shoot allometry and biomass productivity in poplar and willow varieties grown as short rotation coppice. Summary of results 1995-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, R.; Henshall, P.; Tubby, I.

    2003-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a 4 year study assessing shoot diameters and lengths using non-destructive measurements in order to establish allometric relationships between biomass and non-destructive measurements and also to provide estimates of increments for the development of a model of short rotation cultivation growth and yield. Details are given of the basic methodology and measurement conventions; the data preparation, quality assurance classification and storage; and shoot diameter and length assessments and allometry analyses.

  14. Eddy covariance N2O flux measurements at low flux rates: results from the InGOS campaign in a Danish willow field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrom, Andreas; Brümmer, Christian; Hensen, Arjan; van Asperen, Hella; Carter, Mette S.; Gasche, Rainer; Famulari, Daniela; Kutsch, Werner; Pilegaard, Kim; Ambus, Per

    2014-05-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes from soils are characterised by their high spatial and temporal variability. The fluxes depend on the availability of the substrates for nitrification and denitrification and soil physical and chemical conditions that control the metabolic microbial activity. The sporadic nature of the fluxes and their high sensitivity to alterations of the soil climate put very high demands on measurement approaches. Laser spectroscopy enables accurate and fast response detection of atmospheric N2O concentrations and is used for eddy covariance (EC) flux measurements. Alternatively N2O fluxes can be measured with chambers together with high precision analysers. Differences in the measurement approaches and system designs are expected to have a considerable influence on the accuracy of the flux estimation. This study investigates how three different eddy covariance systems perform in a situation of low N2O fluxes from a flat surface. Chamber flux measurements with differing chamber and analyser designs are used for comparison. In April 2013, the EU research infrastructure project InGOS (http://www.ingos-infrastructure.eu/) organised a campaign of N2O flux measurements in a willow plantation close to the Risø Campus of the Technical University of Denmark. The willow field was harvested in February 2013 and received mineral fertiliser equivalent to 120 kg N ha-1 before the campaign started. Three different eddy covariance systems took part in the campaign: two Aerodyne quantum cascade laser (QCL) based systems and one Los Gatos Research off-axis integrated-cavity-output spectroscopy (ICOS) system for N2O and CO. The sonic anemometers were all installed at 2 m height above the bare ground. Gill R3 type sonic anemometers were used with QCL systems and a Gil HS-50 with the ICOS system. The 10 Hz raw data were analysed with group specific softwares and procedures. The local conditions in the exceptionally cold and dry spring 2013 did not lead to large N2O flux

  15. Contrasting the community structure of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi from hydrocarbon-contaminated and uncontaminated soils following willow (Salix spp. L. planting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad El-Din Hassan

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation is a potentially inexpensive alternative to chemical treatment of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils, but its success depends heavily on identifying factors that govern the success of root-associated microorganisms involved in hydrocarbon degradation and plant growth stimulation. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF form symbioses with many terrestrial plants, and are known to stimulate plant growth, although both species identity and the environment influence this relationship. Although AMF are suspected to play a role in plant adaptation to hydrocarbon contamination, their distribution in hydrocarbon-contaminated soils is not well known. In this study, we examined how AMF communities were structured within the rhizosphere of 11 introduced willow cultivars as well as unplanted controls across uncontaminated and hydrocarbon-contaminated soils at the site of a former petrochemical plant. We obtained 69 282 AMF-specific 18S rDNA sequences using 454-pyrosequencing, representing 27 OTUs. Contaminant concentration was the major influence on AMF community structure, with different AMF families dominating at each contaminant level. The most abundant operational taxonomic unit in each sample represented a large proportion of the total community, and this proportion was positively associated with increasing contamination, and seemingly, by planting as well. The most contaminated soils were dominated by three phylotypes closely related to Rhizophagus irregularis, while these OTUs represented only a small proportion of sequences in uncontaminated and moderately contaminated soils. These results suggest that in situ inoculation of AMF strains could be an important component of phytoremediation treatments, but that strains should be selected from the narrow group that is both adapted to contaminant toxicity and able to compete with indigenous AMF species.

  16. Contrasting the community structure of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi from hydrocarbon-contaminated and uncontaminated soils following willow (Salix spp. L.) planting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Saad El-Din; Bell, Terrence H; Stefani, Franck O P; Denis, David; Hijri, Mohamed; St-Arnaud, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Phytoremediation is a potentially inexpensive alternative to chemical treatment of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils, but its success depends heavily on identifying factors that govern the success of root-associated microorganisms involved in hydrocarbon degradation and plant growth stimulation. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) form symbioses with many terrestrial plants, and are known to stimulate plant growth, although both species identity and the environment influence this relationship. Although AMF are suspected to play a role in plant adaptation to hydrocarbon contamination, their distribution in hydrocarbon-contaminated soils is not well known. In this study, we examined how AMF communities were structured within the rhizosphere of 11 introduced willow cultivars as well as unplanted controls across uncontaminated and hydrocarbon-contaminated soils at the site of a former petrochemical plant. We obtained 69 282 AMF-specific 18S rDNA sequences using 454-pyrosequencing, representing 27 OTUs. Contaminant concentration was the major influence on AMF community structure, with different AMF families dominating at each contaminant level. The most abundant operational taxonomic unit in each sample represented a large proportion of the total community, and this proportion was positively associated with increasing contamination, and seemingly, by planting as well. The most contaminated soils were dominated by three phylotypes closely related to Rhizophagus irregularis, while these OTUs represented only a small proportion of sequences in uncontaminated and moderately contaminated soils. These results suggest that in situ inoculation of AMF strains could be an important component of phytoremediation treatments, but that strains should be selected from the narrow group that is both adapted to contaminant toxicity and able to compete with indigenous AMF species.

  17. Resprout and survival of willows (Salix purpurea and S. incana), Poplars (Populus nigra) and Tamaris (Tamarix gallica) cuttings in marly gullies with Southern aspect in a mountainous and Mediterranean climate (Southern Alps, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Freddy; Labonne, Sophie; Dangla, Laure; Lavandier, Géraud

    2014-05-01

    In the Southern French Alps under a mountainous and Mediterranean climate, a current strategy of bioengineering is developed for trapping sediment in marly gullies with surface area less than 1 ha. It is based on the use of structures in the form of brush layers and brush mats of cuttings on deadwood microdams. Purple and white Willows (Salix purpurea and S. incana) are recommended here as they proved their efficiency to resprout and survive in such environment. However, these species installed in Southern gullies did not survive in previous experiments, due to the too harsh conditions of solar radiation and drought. We thus decided to test other species, namely black Poplar (Populus nigra) and Tamaris (Tamarix gallica), which proved their resistance to drought conditions in other experiments. To this view, bioengineering structures have been built in 2010 in eroded marly gullies in the Roubines and Fontaugier catchments (Southern Alps, France). We tested two installation modalities: one in spring and a second in autumn. Seventy-eight bioengineering structures (50 in spring and 28 in autumn), among which 32 made with Poplar cuttings and 28 with Tamaris cuttings, as well as 11 structures with purple Willow and 7 with white Willow as controls, were built in 6 experimental gullies. After 3 observation years for each modality (2010 to 2012, and 2011 to 2013, respectively), results first revealed that Willow species succeeded in surviving in gullies in Southern aspect (76 % for the cuttings installed in spring and 52 % for those installed in autumn), which is in contradiction with previous results. Second, Poplar showed a good ability to survive (62 % for the cuttings installed in spring and 33 % for those installed in autumn). Tamaris obtained the worst score with 26 % and 38 % of survival for the cuttings installed in spring and autumn, respectively. Globally, excepted for Tamaris, survival rates were better for the cuttings installed in spring. The bioengineering

  18. Feeding preferences of the willow sawfl y Nematus oligospilus (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae for commercial Salix clones Preferencias alimentarias de la avispa sierra de los sauces Nematus oligospilus (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae por clones de Salix comerciales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Loetti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Nematus oligospilus Förster (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae is a willow sawfly native to the Northern Hemisphere which became a serious defoliator in willow plantations (Salix spp. of the Southern Hemisphere after being introduced in the early 1980´s. Studies on host preferences provide useful information for the development of pest management strategies where the willow sawfly may produce tree damage and economic loss. Feeding preferences of N. oligospilus larvae were evaluated in laboratory trials by simultaneously offering leaves from four willow tree clones commonly used in commercial plantations in Argentina (Salix babylonica var sacramenta Hortus, Salix nigra Marsch., S. babylonica L. x Salix alba L. 131-27 and Salix matsudana Koidz. x S. alba L. 13-44. Larvae of N. oligospilus fed on leaves from the four clones. However, insects consumed a significantly higher proportion of S. babylonica var sacramenta leaves than of leaves from the other clones. Results indicate that all clones used in the trials were palatable to the insect, and that S. babylonica var sacramenta is the preferred host for larval herbivory.Nematus oligospilus Förster (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae, o la avispa sierra de los sauces, es nativa del Hemisferio Norte y se ha convertido en un serio defoliador en plantaciones de sauces (Salix spp. del Hemisferio Sur, después de su introducción a principios de 1980. Los estudios sobre las preferencias de hospedador aportan información útil para el desarrollo de estrategias, donde la avispa sierra puede producir daño a los árboles y pérdidas económicas. Se evaluó la preferencia alimentaria de las larvas de N. oligospilus, mediante ensayos de laboratorio; se ofrecieron en forma simultánea hojas de cuatro clones de sauce, usados comúnmente en plantaciones comerciales en Argentina (Salix babylonica var sacramenta Hortus, Salix nigra Marsch., S. babylonica L. x Salix alba L. 131-27 and Salix matsudana Koidz. x S. alba L. 13

  19. Ethanol production from lignocellulosic materials. Fermentation and on-line analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsson, L.

    1994-04-01

    The fermentation performance of bacteria, yeast and fungi was investigated in lignocellulosic hydrolysates with the aim of finding microorganisms which both withstand the inhibitors and that have the ability to ferment pentoses. Firstly, the performance of Saccharomyces cidri, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactococcus lactis ssp lactis, Escherichia coli and Zymomonas mobilis was investigated in spent sulphite liquor and enzymatic hydrolysate of steam-pretreated willow. Secondly, the performance of natural and recombinant E. coli, Pichia stipitis, recombinant S. cerevisiae, S. cerevisiae in combination with xylose isomerase and Fusarium oxysporum was investigated in a xylose-rich acid hydrolysate of corn cob. Recombinant E. coli was the best alternative for fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates, giving both high yields and productivities. The main drawback was that detoxification was necessary. The kinetics of the fermentation with recombinant E. coli KO11 was investigated in the condensate of steam-pretreated willow. A cost analysis of the ethanol production from willow was made, which predicted an ethanol production cost of 3.9 SEK/l for the pentose fermentation. The detoxification cost constituted 22% of this cost. The monitoring of three monosaccharides and ethanol in lignocellulosic hydro lysates is described. The monosaccharides were determined using immobilized pyranose oxidase in an on-line amperometric analyser. Immobilization and characterization of pyranose oxidase from Phanerochaete chrysosporium is also described. The ethanol was monitored on-line using a micro dialysis probe as an in situ sampling device. The dialysate components were then separated in a column liquid chromatographic system and the ethanol was selectively detected by an amperometric alcohol bio sensor. The determinations with on-line analysis methods agreed well with off-line methods. 248 refs, 4 figs, 12 tabs

  20. Choices of action and its influence on farmers' attitudes regarding willow and reed canary grass cultivation; Betydelsen av olika handlingsalternativ foer oekat intresse hos lantbrukare att odla salix och roerflen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonsson, Aasa; Paulrud, Susanne; Laitila, Thomas

    2010-02-15

    The contribution of energy crops from the agricultural sector is an example of a resource that has a potential to increase substantially in the near future. However, one problem is the lack of interest in cultivating energy crops within the agricultural Several studies have shown that there are a number of reasons for farmers not becoming involved in energy crops. Besides biological aspects, market potential and profitability the farmers are also affected by the available resources on the farm, the effect of the crops on the surroundings, work load, liquidity and the perceived risks. The overall aim with the present study is to increase the knowledge about how to change farmers' attitudes regarding energy crop cultivation, i.e. making them more interested. This study also shows that there is a large fraction of farmers that generally believe they have no or little knowledge of energy crops, such as willow, reed canary grass and hemp. The fraction of farmers considering there is a larger probability of future cultivation of these crops with increased knowledge is also quite large. Energy crop cultivation does not suit everybody. Generally, growing willow and reed canary grass is an alternative for farmers having another business besides agricultural business. Characteristics for these farms are working hours <1500 hours and that the machines are partly owned

  1. Cloning, Site-Directed Mutagenesis, and Functional Analysis of Active Residues in Lymantria dispar Chitinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiao-Jun; Yang, Chun; Zhang, Chang; Ren, Hui; Zhang, Jian-Dong

    2018-01-01

    Chitinases are glycosyl hydrolases that catalyze the hydrolysis of β-(1,4)-glycosidic bonds in chitin, the major structural polysaccharide presented in the cuticle and gut peritrophic matrix of insects. Two aspartate residues (D143, D145) and one tryptophan (W146) in the Lymantria dispar chitinase are highly conserved residues observed within the second conserved motif of the family 18 chitinase catalytic region. In this study, a chitinase cDNA, LdCht5, was cloned from L. dispar, and the roles of the three residues were investigated using site-directed mutagenesis and substituting them with three other amino acids. Seven mutant proteins, D143E, D145E, W146G, D143E/D145E, D143E/W146G, D145E/W146G, and D143E/D145E/W146G, as well as the wild-type enzyme, were produced using the baculovirus-insect cell line expression system. The enzymatic and kinetic properties of these mutant enzymes were measured using the oligosaccharide substrate MU-(GlcNAc) 3 . Among the seven mutants, the D145E, D143E/D145E, and D145E/W146G mutations kept some extant catalytic activity toward MU-(GlcNAc) 3 , while the D143E, W146G, D143E/W146G, and D143E/D145E/W146G mutant enzymes were inactivated. Compared with the mutant enzymes, the wild-type enzyme had higher values of k cat and k cat / K m . A study of the multiple point mutations in the second conserved catalytic region would help to elucidate the role of the critical residues and their relationships.

  2. Using Molecular Genetic Markers to Resolve a Subspecies Boundary: The Northern Boundary of the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher in the Four-Corner States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Eben H.; Sogge, Mark K.; Theimer, Tad C.; Girard, Jessica; Keim, Paul

    2008-01-01

    *Executive Summary* The northern boundary of the endangered Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) is currently approximated as running through southern Colorado and Utah, but the exact placement is uncertain because this subspecies shares a border with the more northern and non-endangered E. t. adastus. To help resolve this issue, we evaluated the geographic distribution of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA by sampling breeding sites across the four-corner states (Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah). We found that breeding sites clustered into two major groups generally consistent with the currently designated boundary, with the exception of three sites situated along the current boundary. However, delineating a precise boundary that would separate the two subspecies is made difficult because (1) we found evidence for a region of intergradation along the boundary area, suggesting the boundary is not discreet, and (2) the boundary region is sparsely populated, with too few extant breeding populations to precisely locate a boundary. The boundary region encompasses an area where elevation changes markedly over relatively short distances, with low elevation deserts to the south and more mesic, higher elevation habitats to the north. We hypothesized that latitudinal and elevational differences and their concomitant ecological effects could form an ecological barrier that inhibited gene flow between the subspecies, forming the basis for the subspecies boundary. We modeled changes in geographic patterns of genetic markers as a function of latitude and elevation finding significant support for this relationship. The model was brought into a GIS environment to create multiple subspecies boundaries, with the strength of each predicted boundary evaluated on the basis of how much genetic variation it explained. The candidate boundary that accounted for the most genetic variation was situated generally near the currently recognized subspecies boundary

  3. Herbal medicinal products in the treatment of pain as a symptom of osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksimović Zoran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbal medicinal products which are used perorally in the treatment of minor articular pain include those obtained from willow bark, Salicis cortex, devil's claw root, Harpagophyti radix, nettle leaf and herb, Urticae folium/herba, meadowsweet flower and herb, Filipendulae ulmariae flos/herba, ash leaf, Fraxini folium, and blackcurrant leaf, Ribis nigri folium. They can be in the form of a herbal tea or solid and liquid dosage forms. Anti-inflammatory and/or analgetic action form/s basis for their therapeutic usage. Among mentioned herbal drugs, only willow bark, Salicis cortex, is employed for producing herbal medicinal products with well-established use (dry standardised hydroethanolic extract in the solid dosage form intended for oral application. Furthermore, traditional herbal medicines prepared from arnica flower, Arnicae flos, which are intended for dermal application (liquid and semi-solid dosage forms are used for symptomatic relief of rheumatic complaints, also because of their anti-inflammatory and analgetic effects. Owing to rubefacient activity, herbal medicinal products with well-established use based on the soft extracts of capsicum, Capsici frustus, (medicated plasters and semi-solid dosage forms for cutaneous use, as well as traditional herbal medicines based on rosemary leaf and oil, Rosmarini folium/aetheroleum, juniper oil, Juniperi aetheroleum, and eucalyptus oil, Eucalypti aetheroleum (bath additives and/or liquid and semi-solid dosage forms for dermal application, are used to decrease pain.

  4. The Wind in the Willows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grahame, Kenneth

    2005-01-01

    When Mole tires of spring-cleaning his home, he takes a stroll to the riverbank. There he meets a new friend, Ratty, who introduces him to the delightful world of the river and all its residents. Beyond the river, which has now lured Mole away from home, lies the Wild Wood, where the reclusive

  5. Railway transport and terminal transhipment of Short Rotation Willow Crops. Pre-study; Taagtransport och terminal-hantering av Salix. Foerstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsberg, Maya

    2009-07-01

    The overall aim of this pre-study is to contribute to an increased co-handling of biomass from forest and field at terminal and railway transport, in order to find effective transport solutions with regard to costs and environment. The aim of the pre-study is also to get an overall picture of transport of biomass on railway. The objective is to draw conclusions of use for interested parties within the agricultural sector, on what possibilities there are to handle biomass from forestry and agriculture with the same logistical infrastructure. Conclusions are drawn especially with regard to Short Rotation Willow Crops (here Salix) handled as chips or bundles, but also briefly for other energy crops suitable for combustion. Furthermore, the study draws conclusions on how to design effective terminals and related costs. The pre-study is intended as a planning material for a more in-depth study of a mobile terminal solution, with active participation from interested players in the agricultural sector. When considering railway transport and terminal transhipment of large volumes of biomass, there is a clear economical benefit in designing large terminals and making investments in effective handling equipment, in order to get a high use of equipment and a high storage turnover. A more simple and temporary terminal solution may be suitable for smaller flows of biomass, such as agricultural fuels, which need to be collected in different areas according to availability. An intermodal solution, i.e. which involves the transportation of freight in the same type of carrier (a container for example) when changing modes of transportation, is suitable for this purpose. The solution should also build on standardised equipment, involve low terminal investments and flexible and temporary transhipment in different areas near the location of the biomass. For railway transport, the same handling equipment may be used for wood chips and Salix chips, i.e. standardised container systems

  6. Distribution and abundance of Least Bell’s Vireos (Vireo bellii pusillus) and Southwestern Willow Flycatchers (Empidonax traillii extimus) on the Middle San Luis Rey River, San Diego, southern California—2016 data summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Lisa D.; Howell, Scarlett L.; Kus, Barbara E.

    2017-09-29

    Executive SummaryWe surveyed for Least Bell’s Vireos (LBVI) (Vireo bellii pusillus) and Southwestern Willow Flycatchers (SWFL) (Empidonax traillii extimus) along the San Luis Rey River, between College Boulevard in Oceanside and Interstate 15 in Fallbrook, California (middle San Luis Rey River), in 2016. Surveys were done from March 30 to July 11 (LBVI) and from May 18 to July 30 (SWFL). We found 142 LBVI territories, at least 106 of which were occupied by pairs. Six additional transient LBVIs were detected. Of 20 banded LBVIs detected in the survey area, 9 had been given full color-band combinations prior to 2016, although we were unable to determine the exact color combination of 1 female LBVI. Seven other LBVIs with single (natal) federal bands were recaptured and banded in 2016. Four vireos with single dark blue federal bands indicating that they were banded as nestlings on the lower San Luis Rey River could not be recaptured for identification.Three SFWL territories were observed in the survey area in 2016. Two territories were occupied by pairs and one by a male of unknown breeding status. Both pairs attempted to nest at least once, and both pairs were successful, fledging three young each. Nesting began in early June and continued into July. Brown-Headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) eggs were not observed in either nest. An additional 12 transient Willow Flycatchers of unknown subspecies were detected in 2016.Two of the five resident SWFLs were originally banded as nestlings on Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton. One male and one female were banded as nestlings on Camp Pendleton in 2009 and 2011, respectively. One natal male of unknown breeding status, originally banded as a nestling on the middle San Luis Rey River in 2015, was recaptured and given a unique color combination in 2016. This male was later detected on Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton.

  7. Biogas Production from Energy Crops and Agriculture Residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Guangtao

    and wet explosion pretreated energy crops and agriculture residues with swine manure at various volatile solids (VS) ratio between crop and manure was carried out by batch tests and continuous experiments. The efficiency of the co-digestion experiment was evaluated based on (a) the methane potential......In this thesis, the feasibility of utilizing energy crops (willow and miscanthus) and agriculture residues (wheat straw and corn stalker) in an anaerobic digestion process for biogas production was evaluated. Potential energy crops and agriculture residues were screened according...... of perennial crops was tested as a storage method and pretreatment method for enhancement of the biodegradability of the crops. The efficiency of the silage process was evaluated based on (a) the amount of biomass loss during storage and (b) the effect of the silage on methane potential. Co-digestion of raw...

  8. Analytical inventory of process variables for sustainable development of a small business for integrated production of wood pellets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merticaru Vasile

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some theoretical considerations and the related deliverable results obtained within a research approach developed for analytically inventorying the process variables for a wood pellets micro-production activity integrated with self-providing crops of energetic willow. The study is part of a larger research approach intended to accurately define the appropriate specifications for developing a sustainable small business in this area. Within the particular research approach being discussed in the paper, some conceptual models have been structured and are proposed, based on process systematic analysis, as following: a model of the research general hypotheses; a model of the general conceptual research frame; a process flow model for the considered integrated processes, respectively wood pellets micro-production and energetic willow crops; a model for sustainability groups of indicators to be considered; two models for process variables inventorying and classification, one for each of the two considered integrated processes. After the research hypotheses are simplified by considering some particular implementing conditions, a final model of the investigated variables is submitted to discussion. Some adequate conclusions revealed by the research approach, together with some directions of further research development are finally identified and presented in the paper.

  9. Bioenergy production from perennial energy crops: a consequential LCA of 12 bioenergy scenarios including land use changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonini, Davide; Hamelin, Lorie; Wenzel, Henrik; Astrup, Thomas

    2012-12-18

    In the endeavor of optimizing the sustainability of bioenergy production in Denmark, this consequential life cycle assessment (LCA) evaluated the environmental impacts associated with the production of heat and electricity from one hectare of Danish arable land cultivated with three perennial crops: ryegrass (Lolium perenne), willow (Salix viminalis) and Miscanthus giganteus. For each, four conversion pathways were assessed against a fossil fuel reference: (I) anaerobic co-digestion with manure, (II) gasification, (III) combustion in small-to-medium scale biomass combined heat and power (CHP) plants and IV) co-firing in large scale coal-fired CHP plants. Soil carbon changes, direct and indirect land use changes as well as uncertainty analysis (sensitivity, MonteCarlo) were included in the LCA. Results showed that global warming was the bottleneck impact, where only two scenarios, namely willow and Miscanthus co-firing, allowed for an improvement as compared with the reference (-82 and -45 t CO₂-eq. ha⁻¹, respectively). The indirect land use changes impact was quantified as 310 ± 170 t CO₂-eq. ha⁻¹, representing a paramount average of 41% of the induced greenhouse gas emissions. The uncertainty analysis confirmed the results robustness and highlighted the indirect land use changes uncertainty as the only uncertainty that can significantly change the outcome of the LCA results.

  10. Botanical Extracts from Rosehip (Rosa canina), Willow Bark (Salix alba), and Nettle Leaf (Urtica dioica) Suppress IL-1β-Induced NF-κB Activation in Canine Articular Chondrocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakibaei, Mehdi; Allaway, David; Nebrich, Simone; Mobasheri, Ali

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the anti-inflammatory mode of action of botanical extracts from rosehip (Rosa canina), willow bark (Salix alba), and nettle leaf (Urtica dioica) in an in vitro model of primary canine articular chondrocytes. Methods. The biological effects of the botanical extracts were studied in chondrocytes treated with IL-1β for up to 72 h. Expression of collagen type II, cartilage-specific proteoglycan (CSPG), β1-integrin, SOX-9, COX-2, and MMP-9 and MMP-13 was examined by western blotting. Results. The botanical extracts suppressed IL-1β-induced NF-κB activation by inhibition of IκBα phosphorylation, IκBα degradation, p65 phosphorylation, and p65 nuclear translocation. These events correlated with downregulation of NF-κB targets including COX-2 and MMPs. The extracts also reversed the IL-1β-induced downregulation of collagen type II, CSPG, β1-integrin, and cartilage-specific transcription factor SOX-9 protein expression. In high-density cultures botanical extracts stimulated new cartilage formation even in the presence of IL-1β. Conclusions. Botanical extracts exerted anti-inflammatory and anabolic effects on chondrocytes. The observed reduction of IL-1β-induced NF-κB activation suggests that further studies are warranted to demonstrate the effectiveness of plant extracts in the treatment of OA and other conditions in which NF-κB plays pathophysiological roles. PMID:22474508

  11. Botanical Extracts from Rosehip (Rosa canina), Willow Bark (Salix alba), and Nettle Leaf (Urtica dioica) Suppress IL-1β-Induced NF-κB Activation in Canine Articular Chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakibaei, Mehdi; Allaway, David; Nebrich, Simone; Mobasheri, Ali

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the anti-inflammatory mode of action of botanical extracts from rosehip (Rosa canina), willow bark (Salix alba), and nettle leaf (Urtica dioica) in an in vitro model of primary canine articular chondrocytes. Methods. The biological effects of the botanical extracts were studied in chondrocytes treated with IL-1β for up to 72 h. Expression of collagen type II, cartilage-specific proteoglycan (CSPG), β1-integrin, SOX-9, COX-2, and MMP-9 and MMP-13 was examined by western blotting. Results. The botanical extracts suppressed IL-1β-induced NF-κB activation by inhibition of IκBα phosphorylation, IκBα degradation, p65 phosphorylation, and p65 nuclear translocation. These events correlated with downregulation of NF-κB targets including COX-2 and MMPs. The extracts also reversed the IL-1β-induced downregulation of collagen type II, CSPG, β1-integrin, and cartilage-specific transcription factor SOX-9 protein expression. In high-density cultures botanical extracts stimulated new cartilage formation even in the presence of IL-1β. Conclusions. Botanical extracts exerted anti-inflammatory and anabolic effects on chondrocytes. The observed reduction of IL-1β-induced NF-κB activation suggests that further studies are warranted to demonstrate the effectiveness of plant extracts in the treatment of OA and other conditions in which NF-κB plays pathophysiological roles.

  12. Botanical Extracts from Rosehip (Rosa canina, Willow Bark (Salix alba, and Nettle Leaf (Urtica dioica Suppress IL-1β-Induced NF-κB Activation in Canine Articular Chondrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Shakibaei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize the anti-inflammatory mode of action of botanical extracts from rosehip (Rosa canina, willow bark (Salix alba, and nettle leaf (Urtica dioica in an in vitro model of primary canine articular chondrocytes. Methods. The biological effects of the botanical extracts were studied in chondrocytes treated with IL-1β for up to 72 h. Expression of collagen type II, cartilage-specific proteoglycan (CSPG, β1-integrin, SOX-9, COX-2, and MMP-9 and MMP-13 was examined by western blotting. Results. The botanical extracts suppressed IL-1β-induced NF-κB activation by inhibition of IκBα phosphorylation, IκBα degradation, p65 phosphorylation, and p65 nuclear translocation. These events correlated with downregulation of NF-κB targets including COX-2 and MMPs. The extracts also reversed the IL-1β-induced downregulation of collagen type II, CSPG, β1-integrin, and cartilage-specific transcription factor SOX-9 protein expression. In high-density cultures botanical extracts stimulated new cartilage formation even in the presence of IL-1β. Conclusions. Botanical extracts exerted anti-inflammatory and anabolic effects on chondrocytes. The observed reduction of IL-1β-induced NF-κB activation suggests that further studies are warranted to demonstrate the effectiveness of plant extracts in the treatment of OA and other conditions in which NF-κB plays pathophysiological roles.

  13. Excision of foreign gene product with cathepsin D in chicken hepatoma cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Masaharu; Kawashima, Tsuyoshi; Aosasa, Masayoshi; Horiuchi, Hiroyuki; Furusawa, Shuichi; Matsuda, Haruo

    2005-01-01

    To easily and rapidly recover exogenous gene products from chicken egg yolk, we constructed pVTG-catD (VTG, vitellogenin; catD, cathepsin D), a vector cassette carrying two catD-recognition signal peptides (catD-RSPs) in addition to the cloning site. An enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP)-encoding DNA fragment was ligated into the pVTG-catD. When the resultant construct pVTG-EGFP-catD containing histidine- and myc-tags was transfected into the chicken hepatoma cell line LMH, EGFP-expression at 24 h post-cultivation was confirmed by fluorescence microscopy. Because a signal peptide (NTVLAEF) encoded in pVTG-EGFP-catD is recognized by catD, the VTG-EGFP fusion protein digested with catD was detectable by Western blotting. Digested exogenous gene product was recovered with nickel resin. These results indicate that catD-recognition sites bearing pVTG-catD and His-tags are functional in chicken LMH cells. Therefore, the system described here may be of use in making excision exogenous gene products in the chicken and in creating homozygous knock-in chickens

  14. Energy plants increasingly important. Scientific results and practical experiences on the production of biogas plants and short rotation coppices. Symposium; Energiepflanzen im Aufwind. Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse und praktische Erfahrungen zur Produktion von Biogaspflanzen und Feldholz. Fachtagung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiermann, M.; Scholz, V.; Foltan, H. (comps.)

    2007-05-15

    The conference proceedings contain 15 contributions on energy plants: energy plant production in Germany - developments and research activities; potentials and constraints of cultivating energy crops; environmental aspects of production and utilization of energy plants; costs of energy crop supply; crops for the biogas production in the territory of Brandenburg; mixed cropping systems on sandy soils - alternative cropping strategies; impact of ensiling process on biogas production - recent research results; solid state anaerobic digestion of renewable biomass sources - state of research and development; energy crops as feedstock in a biogas plant; proffer and demand of wood fuel in the State of Brandenburg; regulatory framework of growing short rotation coppice; mechanization of SRC production; 20 years of short rotation coppice; willow production and marketing in Denmark; short rotation coppice production in Italy.

  15. Assessment of suitability of tree species for the production of biomass on trace element contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evangelou, Michael W.H.; Deram, Annabelle; Gogos, Alexander; Studer, Björn; Schulin, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Birch: lowest metal concentrations in foliage, wood and bark. ► Bark proportion does not have to decline with increasing age of tree. ► Long harvest rotation (>25 y) reduces metal concentrations in stem. ► Birch: most suitable tree for BCL. - Abstract: To alleviate the demand on fertile agricultural land for production of bioenergy, we investigated the possibility of producing biomass for bioenergy on trace element (TE) contaminated land. Soil samples and plant tissues (leaves, wood and bark) of adult willow (Salix sp.), poplar (Populus sp.), and birch (Betula pendula) trees were collected from five contaminated sites in France and Germany and analysed for Zn, Cd, Pb, Cu, Ca, and K. Cadmium concentration in tree leaves were correlated with tree species, whereas Zn concentration in leaves was site correlated. Birch revealed significantly lower leaf Cd concentrations (1.2–8.9 mg kg −1 ) than willow and poplar (5–80 mg kg −1 ), thus posing the lowest risk for TE contamination of surrounding areas. Birch displayed the lowest bark concentrations for Ca (2300–6200 mg kg −1 ) and K (320–1250 mg kg −1 ), indicating that it would be the most suitable tree species for fuel production, as high concentrations of K and Ca decrease the ash melting point which results in a reduced plant lifetime. Due to higher TE concentrations in bark compared to wood a small bark proportion in relation to the trunk is desirable. In general the bark proportion was reduced with the tree age. In summary, birch was amongst the investigated species the most suitable for biomass production on TE contaminated land.

  16. Remediation of cyanide-contaminated industrial sites through woody biomass production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrova, Tsvetelina; Repmann, Frank; Freese, Dirk

    2017-04-01

    Due to the unfavourable chemical and physical soil quality parameters and the potential presence of contaminants, former industrial sites can hardly be utilized as arable land and can thus be classified as marginal areas. Still, as far as possible, they can effectively be used for the production of alternative energy, including the cultivation of fast growing trees. Apart from being a source of bioenergy, trees might facilitate the stabilization, remedation, contaminant extraction and degradation and, not on the last place, to enhance soil quality improvement on former industrial areas. This process is known as phytoremediation and has successfully been applied on industrial sites of various organic and inorganic contamination. The former manufactured gas plant site ( 2500 m2) "ehemalige Leuchtgasanstalt" Cottbus, contaminated, among others, with iron cyanides undergoes phytoremediation with simultaneous biomass production since 2011. The project "Biomass-Remediation" is fully financed by the German Railways JSC. A dense (23700 stems/ha), mixed cover of willow (Salix caprea), poplar (Populus maximowicii Henry x Populus trichocarpa Torr. et Gray (Hybrid 275)) and black locust (Robinia pseudoaccacia) trees has been planted on the site. Throughout the five years of remediation, a successful long-term stabilization of the site has been achieved as a result of the nearly outright established tree stock and the dense planting. Annual monitoring of the cyanide levels in the leaf tissue of the trees on the site and results from greenhouse experiments indicate the ability of all tree species to extract and transport the cyanide from the soil. Additonally, the greenhouse experiments suggest that the willows might be able, although not to a full extent, to detoxify the contaminant by splitting the CN moiety. The contaminated biomass material might easily be dealt with through regular harvests and subsequent incineration. Phytoremediation with simultaneous biomass production

  17. Biological nitrogen fixation in relation to energy forest production. Progress report, 1978-1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarholm, M; Granhall, U

    1981-01-01

    Different pasture legumes, Alnus incana and Myrica gale have been tested in pot experiments and field trials with respect to their use as biological N-fertilizers in relation to energy forest production. So far experiments have been mainly concerned with their establishemnts as on intercrop with Galix at a mire site with ombrotrophic peat and in two clayish arable soils. Laboratory experiments have been made to determine optimal conditions for growth and nitrogen fixation of wild and Alaska lupines in relation to varous soil amendments in the form of lime, ash, NPKMo, and Fe. A pilot experiment of the terrelations between willows and grey alder growing together in peat has been started at Uppsala.

  18. 25 CFR 309.12 - What are examples of basketry that are Indian products?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... to, birchbark, black ash, brown ash, red cedar, yellow cedar, alder, vine maple, willow, palmetto..., willow burden baskets, honeysuckle sewing baskets, black ash picnic baskets, cedar capes and dresses... containers, baleen baskets, rye grass dance fans, brown ash strawberry baskets, sumac wedding baskets, cedar...

  19. Land-use change to bioenergy production in Europe: implications for the greenhouse gas balance and soil carbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Don, Axel; Osborne, Bruce; Hastings, Astley

    2012-01-01

    for Miscanthus). However, there was no positive or even negative effects on the C balance if energy crops are established on former grassland. Increased bioenergy production may also result in direct and indirect land-use changes with potential high C losses when native vegetation is converted to annual crops......Bioenergy from crops is expected to make a considerable contribution to climate change mitigation. However, bioenergy is not necessarily carbon neutral because emissions of CO2, N2O and CH4 during crop production may reduce or completely counterbalance CO2 savings of the substituted fossil fuels...... of lower fertilizer requirements as well as a higher N-use efficiency, due to effective N-recycling. Perennial energy crops have the potential to sequester additional carbon in soil biomass if established on former cropland (0.44 Mg soil C ha 1 yr 1 for poplar and willow and 0.66 Mg soil C ha 1 yr 1...

  20. Biomass production as renewable energy resource at reclaimed Serbian lignite open-cast mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakovljević Milan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is the overview of the scope and dynamics of biomass production as a renewable energy source for substitution of coal in the production of electrical energy in the Kolubara coal basin. In order to successfully realize this goal, it was necessary to develop a dynamic model of the process of coal production, overburden dumping and re-cultivation of dumping sites by biomass planting. The results obtained by simulation of the dynamic model of biomass production in Kolubara mine basin until year 2045 show that 6870 hectares of overburden waste dumps will be re-cultivated by biomass plantations. Biomass production modeling point out the significant benefits of biomass production by planting the willow Salix viminalis cultivated for energy purposes. Under these conditions, a 0.6 % participation of biomass at the end of the period of intensive coal production, year 2037, is achieved. With the decrease of coal production to 15 million tons per year, this percentage steeply rises to 1.4 % in 2045. This amount of equivalent tons of coal from biomass can be used for coal substitution in the production of electrical energy. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 33039

  1. The role and significance of Salix plantations for energy in Swedish agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsse, L.S.; Ledin, S.; Johansson, H. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1993-12-31

    Fifteen years of research and development of energy forestry with Salix species has lead to a firm basis of knowledge concerning the basic biology, stand ecology and production systems of fast growing willows in Sweden. The biology research program continues to emphasize studies of plant biology and diseases as well as areas such as clone/site interactions, mixed clonal plantations and breeding. The technological research and development concentrates on functional and effective machinery for planting, harvesting, etc. Recently Salix plantations for energy production in Sweden have been commercialized. Plantations start with 18,000 cuttings of willow clones per hectare. During the first summer weed control is the most important treatment. Fertilizers are applied to keep a high production level. Crops are harvested during winter at 3--5 year intervals. The average annual production is about 10--12 tonnes DM per hectare. The life of Salix plantations is estimated as 25--30 years. An estimated potential of 300,000 hectares of Salix plantations would result 5% of the energy needs in Sweden. Wood fuel from the conventional forest equals 60 TWh today, with a potential of being doubled within 10--20 years. The economic outcome for the farmer of growing Salix mainly depends on the price of chips and the level of production. A fundamental requirement for establishing plantations is that there is a wood fuel market within a reasonable distance (about 50 km). In a calculation stretching over a period of 24 years with a production level of 12 tonnes DM per hectare and year, and at an interest rate of 6%, the net return is about 1,000--1,500 SEK/ha/yr (about 7 SEK/US$) if simultaneous chipping is used. With separate harvest and chipping and enterprise in this calculation breaks even. Interest in the utilization of sludge, ash, waste water and leakage water as nutrients for energy forests is increasing from local and regional authorities.

  2. Modelling impacts of second generation bioenergy production on Ecosystem Services in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henner, D. N.; Smith, P.; Davies, C.; McNamara, N. P.

    2016-12-01

    Bioenergy crops are an important source of renewable energy and likely to play a major role in transitioning to a lower CO2 energy system. There is, however, uncertainty about the impacts of the growth of bioenergy crops on broader sustainability encompassed by ecosystem services, further enhanced by ongoing climate change. The goal of this project is to develop a comprehensive model that covers ecosystem services at a continental scale including biodiversity and pollination, water and air security, erosion control and soil security, GHG emissions, soil C and cultural services like tourism value. The technical distribution potential and likely yield of second generation energy crops, such as Miscanthus, Short Rotation Coppice (SRC; willow and poplar) was modelled using ECOSSE, DayCent, SalixFor and MiscanFor models. In addition, methods like water footprint tools, tourism value maps and ecosystem valuation tools and models are utilised. We will present results for synergies and trade-offs between land use change and ecosystem services, impact on food security and land management. Further, we will show modelled yield maps for different cultivars of Miscanthus, willow and poplar in Europe and constraint/opportunity maps based on projected yield and other factors e.g. total economic value, technical potential, current land use, climate change and trade-offs and synergies. It will be essential to include multiple ecosystem services when assessing the potential for bioenergy production/expansion that does not impact other land uses or provisioning services. Considering that the soil GHG balance is dominated by change in soil organic carbon (SOC) and the difference among Miscanthus and SRC is largely determined by yield, an important target for management of perennial energy crops is to achieve the best possible yield using the most appropriate energy crop and cultivar for the local situation. This research could inform future policy decisions on bioenergy crops in

  3. Factors affecting water balance and percolate production for a landfill in operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Tjalfe G; Møoldrup, Per

    2005-02-01

    Percolate production and precipitation data for a full-scale landfill in operation measured over a 13-year period were used to evaluate the impact and importance of the hydrological conditions of landfill sections on the percolate production rates. Both active (open) and closed landfill sections were included in the evaluation. A simple top cover model requiring a minimum of input data was used to simulate the percolate production as a function of precipitation and landfill section hydrology. The results showed that changes over time in the hydrology of individual landfill sections (such as section closure or plantation of trees on top of closed sections) can change total landfill percolate production by more than 100%; thus, percolate production at an active landfill can be very different from percolate production at the same landfill after closure. Furthermore, plantation of willow on top of closed sections can increase the evapotranspiration rate thereby reducing percolate production rates by up to 47% compared to a grass cover. This process, however, depends upon the availability of water in the top layer, and so the evaporation rate will be less than optimal during the summer where soil-water contents in the top cover are low.

  4. Biogas production from energy crops and agriculture residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, G.

    2010-12-15

    In this thesis, the feasibility of utilizing energy crops (willow and miscanthus) and agriculture residues (wheat straw and corn stalker) in an anaerobic digestion process for biogas production was evaluated. Potential energy crops and agriculture residues were screened according to their suitability for biogas production. Moreover, pretreatment of these biomasses by using wet explosion method was studied and the effect of the wet explosion process was evaluated based on the increase of (a) sugar release and (b) methane potential when comparing the pretreated biomass and raw biomass. Ensiling of perennial crops was tested as a storage method and pretreatment method for enhancement of the biodegradability of the crops. The efficiency of the silage process was evaluated based on (a) the amount of biomass loss during storage and (b) the effect of the silage on methane potential. Co-digestion of raw and wet explosion pretreated energy crops and agriculture residues with swine manure at various volatile solids (VS) ratio between crop and manure was carried out by batch tests and continuous experiments. The efficiency of the co-digestion experiment was evaluated based on (a) the methane potential in term of ml CH4 produced per g of VS-added and (b) the amount of methane produced per m3 of reactor volume. (Author)

  5. Willow Flycatcher Range - CWHR [ds594

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  6. Willow Flycatcher Habitat Model Results [ds278

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This dataset was developed by Chris Stermer (CDFG - RAP Program). No original metadata were located, but the following is an abstract from a document describing the...

  7. Ethanol from wood. Cellulase enzyme production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szengyel, Zsolt

    2000-03-01

    Conversion of biomass to liquid fuels, such as ethanol, has been investigated during the past decades. First due to the oil crisis of the 1970s and lately because of concerns about greenhouse effect, ethanol has been found to be a suitable substitute for gasoline in transportation. Although ethanol is produced in large quantities from corn starch, the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol is rather problematic. However, cellulosic raw materials are important as they are available in large quantities from agriculture and forestry. One of the most extensively investigated processes is the enzymatic process, in which fungal cellulolytic enzymes are used to convert the cellulose content of the biomass to glucose, which is then fermented to ethanol. In order to make the raw material accessible to biological attack, it has to be pretreated first. The most successful method, which has been evaluated for various lignocellulosic materials, is the steam pretreatment. In this thesis the utilization of steam pretreated willow (hardwood) and spruce (softwood) was examined for enzyme production using a filamentous fungus T. reesei RUT C30. Various carbon sources originating from the steam pretreated materials have been investigated. The replacement of the solid carbon source with a liquid carbon source, as well as the effect of pH, was studied. The effect of toxic compounds generated during pretreatment was also examined. Comparative study of softwood and hardwood showed that steam pretreated hardwood is a better carbon source than softwood. The hydrolytic potential of enzyme solutions produced on wood derived carbon sources was better compared to commercial cellulases. Also enzyme solutions produced on steam pretreated spruce showed less sensitivity towards toxic compounds formed during steam pretreatment.

  8. Combustion and environmental performance of clean coal end products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skodras, G.; Sakellaropoulos, G. [Centre for Research and Technology, Hellas, Ptolemaidas-Kozanis, Ptolemaida (Greece). Inst. for Solid Fuel Technolgy and Applications]|[Aristotle Univ. of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki (Greece). Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Chemical Process Engineering Lab]|[Chemical Process Engineering Research Inst., Thessaloniki (Greece). Lab. of Solid Fuels and Environment; Someus, E. [Thermal Desorption Technology Group (Greece); Grammelis, P.; Amarantos, P.S. [Centre for Research and Technology, Hellas, Ptolemaidas-Kozanis, Ptolemaida (Greece). Inst. for Solid Fuel Technolgy and Applications; Palladas, A.; Basinas, P.; Natas, P.; Prokopidou, M.; Diamantopoulou, I.; Sakellaropoulos, G. [Aristotle Univ. of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki (Greece). Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Chemical Process Engineering Lab

    2006-07-01

    Clean and affordable power production is needed in order to achieve sustainable economic development. This paper focused on clean coal technologies in which coal-fired power plants are used in conjunction with large amounts of renewable energy sources to offer a high level of process safety and long term management of all residual operation streams. Thermal Desorption Recycle-Reduce-Reuse Technology (TDT-3R) was described as being a promising solid fuel pretreatment process for clean energy production up to 300 MWe capacities. TDT-3R is based on low temperature carbonisation fuel pre-treatment principles, which produce cleansed anthracite type fuels from coal and other carbonaceous material such as biomass and organic wastes. The combustion efficiency of such clean coals and the environmental performance of the TDT-3R process were investigated in this study via pilot scale tests of clean fuel production. Tests included flue gas emissions monitoring, raw fuel and product characterisation and thermogravimetric tests, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzo-furans, and heavy metals analyses, and toxicity tests. Raw material included coal and biomass, such as willow, straw and demolition wood. The fuels were heated in a rotary kiln operating at 550 degrees C under slightly vacuum conditions. Clean coals were tested either alone or in conjunction with biomass fuels in a pilot scale combustion facility at Dresden, Germany. The clean coal samples were shown to have higher fixed carbon and ash content and lower volatiles compared to the respective raw coal samples. The major advantage of the TDT-3R process is the production of fuels with much lower pollutants content. Low nitrogen, sulphur, chlorine and heavy metal contents result in produced fuels that have excellent environmental performance, allow boiler operation in higher temperatures and overall better efficiency. Moreover, the use of clean fuels reduces deposition problems in the combustion chamber due to the

  9. Assessment of abandoned agricultural land resource for bio-energy production in Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukk, Liia; Astover, Alar; Roostalu, Hugo; Suuster, Elsa; Noormets, Merrit; Sepp, Kalev (Estonian Univ. of Life Sciences, Inst. of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Tartu (Estonia)); Muiste, Peeter (Estonian Univ. of Life Sciences, Inst. of Forestry and Rural Engineering, Tartu (Estonia))

    2010-03-15

    The current study locates and quantifies abandoned agricultural areas using the Geographic Information System (GIS) and evaluates the suitability of abandoned fields for bio-energy production in Tartumaa (Tartu County) in Estonia. Soils of abandoned areas are generally of low quality and thereby limited suitability for crop production; as a result soil-crop suitability analyses could form the basis of knowledge-based bio-energy planning. The study estimated suitable areas for bio-energy production using willow (Salix sp), grey alder [Alnus incana (L.) Moench], hybrid aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.Populus tremula L.), reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea L.), and Caucasian goat's rue (Galega orientalis Lam.) in separate plantations. A combined land-use strategy is also presented as these crops are partially suitable to the same areas. Reed canary grass and grey alder have the highest energy potentials and each would re-use more than 80% of the available abandoned agricultural land. Energy grasses and short-rotation forestry in combined land-use strategy represents the opportunity of covering approximately a quarter of county's annual energy demand. The study estimates only agronomic potential, so further bio-energy analysis should take into account technical and economic limitations. Developed framework supports knowledge-based decision-making processes from field to regional scale to achieve sustainable bio-energy production

  10. Initial study - compilation and synthesis of knowledge about energy crops from field to energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Magnus; Bubholz, Monika; Forsberg, Maya; Myringer, Aase; Palm, Ola; Roennbaeck, Marie; Tullin, Claes

    2007-11-15

    Energy crops constitute an yet not fully utilised potential as fuel for heating and power production. As competition for biomass increases interest in agricultural fuels such as straw, energy grain, willow, reed canary grass and hemp is increasing. Exploiting the potential for energy crops as fuels will demand that cultivation and harvest be coordinated with transportation, storage and combustion of the crops. Together, Vaermeforsk and the Swedish Farmers' Foundation for Agricultural Research (SLF), have taken the initiative to a common research programme. The long-term aim of the programme is to increase production and utilisation of bioenergy from agriculture to combustion for heat and power production in Sweden. The vision is that during the course of the 2006 - 2009 programme, decisive steps will be taken towards a functioning market for biofuels for bioenergy from agriculture. This survey has compiled and synthesised available knowledge and experiences about energy crops from field to energy production. The aim has been to provide a snapshot of knowledge today, to identify knowledge gaps and to synthesise knowledge we have today into future research needs. A research plan proposal has been developed for the research programme

  11. Bicistronic expression plasmid for the rapid production of recombinant fused proteins in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yero, Daniel; Pajón, Rolando; Niebla, Olivia; Sardiñas, Gretel; Vivar, Isbel; Perera, Yasser; García, Darien; Delgado, Maité; Cobas, Karem

    2006-04-01

    In the post-genomic era, every aspect of the production of proteins must be accelerated. In this way, several vectors are currently exploited for rapid production of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli. N-terminal fusions to the first 47 amino acids of the LpdA (dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase A) protein of Neisseria meningitidis have been shown to increase the expression of recombinant proteins. Consequently, we have constructed a modified N-terminal LpdA fusion vector, introducing the blue/white colony selection by exploiting a bicistronic gene organization. In the new vector, the sequence encoding the first 47 amino acids of meningococcal LpdA and the alpha-peptide sequence of beta-galactosidase were connected via a ribosome-binding site, and two MCSs (multiple cloning sites) were located surrounding the latter, allowing efficient cloning by colour selection of recombinants. The vector was also improved with the addition of a C-terminal polyhistidine tag, and an EKS (enterokinase recognition sequence) immediately after the LpdA fusion sequence. The new plasmid was employed in the expression and purification of six different bacterial polypeptides. One of these recombinant proteins, P6 protein from Haemophilus influenzae, was used as a model and its N-terminal fusion sequence was totally removed from the recombinant version after incubation with the enterokinase protease, while the polyhistidine tail successfully allowed the purification of the unfused protein from the protease reaction. Two completely new neisserial vaccine candidates, NMB0088 and NMB1126 proteins, were cloned, expressed and purified using this system. To our knowledge, this constitutes the first report of the cloning and expression of these proteins in E. coli.

  12. A universal mini-vector and an annealing of PCR products (APP)-based cloning strategy for convenient molecular biological manipulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xia; Li, Tuoping; Hart, Darren J; Gao, Song; Wang, Hongling; Gao, Herui; Xu, Shumin; Zhang, Yifeng; Liu, Yifei; An, Yingfeng

    2018-03-18

    Currently, the most widely used strategies for molecular cloning are sticky-end ligation-based cloning, TA cloning, blunt-end ligation-based cloning and ligase-independent cloning. In this study we have developed a novel mini-vector pANY1 which can simultaneously meet the requirements of all these cloning strategies. In addition, the selection of appropriate restriction digestion sites is difficult in some cases because of the presence of internal sites. In this study, an annealing of PCR products (APP)-based sticky-end cloning strategy was introduced to avoid this issue. Additionally, false positives occur during molecular cloning, which increases the workload of isolating positive clones. The plasmid pANY1 contains a ccdB cassette between multiple cloning sites, which efficiently avoids these false positives. Therefore, this mini-vector should serve as a useful tool with wide applications in biosciences, agriculture, food technologies, etc. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Cloning of affecting pyruvate decarboxylase gene in the production bioethanol of agricultural waste in the E.coli bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masome Zeinali

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ethanol made by a biomass is one of the useful strategies in terms of economic and environmental and as a clean and safe energy to replace fossil fuels considered and examined. Materials and methods: In this study, key enzyme in the production of ethanol (Pyruvate decarboxylase from Zymomonas mobilis bacteria was isolated and cloned at E. coli bacteria by freeze and thaw method. For gene cloning, we used specific primers of pdc and PCR reaction and then pdc gene isolated and pET 28a plasmid double digested with (Sal I and Xho I enzymes. Digestion Products were ligated by T4 DNA ligase in 16 °C for 16 hours. Results: Results of bacteria culture showed that a few colonies containing pET 28a plasmid could grow. Result of colony pcr of pdc gene with specific primers revealed 1700 bp bands in 1% agarose gel electrophoresis. The results of PCR with T7 promotor forward primer and pdc revers primer have proved the accurate direction of integration of pdc gene into plasmid and revealed 1885 bp band. Double digestion of recombinant plasmid with SalI and XhoI enzymes revealed same bands. Finally, RT showed the expected band of 1700 bp that implies the desired gene expression in the samples. Discussion and conclusion: Due to the increased production of ethanol via pyruvate decarboxylase gene cloning in expression plasmids with a strong promoter upstream of the cloning site can conclude that, pyruvate decarboxylase cloning as a key gene would be useful and according to beneficial properties of E. coli bacteria, transfering the gene to bacteria appears to be reasonable.

  14. Multifunctional landscapes: Site characterization and field-scale design to incorporate biomass production into an agricultural system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ssegane, Herbert; Negri, M. Cristina; Quinn, John; Urgun-Demirtas, Meltem

    2015-01-01

    Current and future demand for food, feed, fiber, and energy require novel approaches to land management, which demands that multifunctional landscapes are created to integrate various ecosystem functions into a sustainable land use. We developed an approach to design such landscapes at a field scale to minimize concerns of land use change, water quality, and greenhouse gas emissions associated with production of food and bioenergy. This study leverages concepts of nutrient recovery and phytoremediation to place bioenergy crops on the landscape to recover nutrients released to watersheds by commodity crops. Crop placement is determined by evaluating spatial variability of: 1) soils, 2) surface flow pathways, 3) shallow groundwater flow gradients, 4) subsurface nitrate concentrations, and 5) primary crop yield. A 0.8 ha bioenergy buffer was designed within a 6.5 ha field to intercept concentrated surface flow, capture and use nitrate leachate, and minimize use of productive areas. Denitrification-Decomposition (DNDC) simulations show that on average, a switchgrass (Panicum Virgatum L.) or willow (Salix spp.) buffer within this catchment according to this design could reduce annual leached NO 3 by 61 or 59% and N 2 O emission by 5.5 or 10.8%, respectively, produce 8.7 or 9.7 Mg ha −1 of biomass respectively, and displace 6.7 Mg ha −1 of corn (Zea mays L.) grain. Therefore, placement of bioenergy crops has the potential to increase environmental sustainability when the pairing of location and crop type result in minimal disruption of current food production systems and provides additional environmental benefits. - Highlights: • Design of a multifunctional landscape by integrating cellulosic biofuel production into an existing agricultural system. • The design does not adversely offset current grain production for bioenergy crops. • Maps of concentrated flow paths, subsurface flow direction, NO 3 –N hotspots, and intra-field corn yield variability.

  15. Increasing the biomass production level of dedicated or semi-dedicated woody crops. Mains lessons learned from the SYLVABIOM project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastien, Jean-Charles; Bodineau, Guillaume; Gauvin, Jean; Berthelot, Alain; Maine, Patrice; Brignolas, Franck; Maury, Stephane; Le Jan, Isabelle; Delaunay, Alain; Charnet, Francois; Merzeau, Dominique; Marron, Nicolas; Dalle, Erwin; Toillon, Julien

    2015-01-01

    For three species (poplar, black locust and willow) cultivated as short or very short rotation coppices (SRC/ VSRC), the project relied on monitoring growth and efficiency with which trees use water and nitrogen in a network of four experimental sites, located in contrasting stations. The relevance of DNA methylation levels as an early marker of the level of productivity was also evaluated. For short-rotation plantations (SRP), the project was based on the collection of growth and biomass data in experimental networks, to build compartmented biomass yield tables (trunk, bark, branches and leaves) for forest species for which the literature is scarce. Significant differences appear, both in SRC and VSRC, between the three species, and between intraspecific genotypes for biomass production, its phenology, architecture, leaf structure, and resource use efficiency. The pedo-climatic conditions and the planting density modulated the complex relationships between these traits. Measurement of apex or leaf DNA methylation rate may be a good predictor for the growth potential in poplar. Mean annual biomass production ranging from 7 to 13 dry tons/ha can be expected at age 20 years with fast-growing conifers grown in SRP on site types other than those used for SRC and VSRC. Moreover, very significant genetic gains on biomass production in SRP are also offered by selection of efficient genotypes. (authors)

  16. Tobacco Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Exposure is High in Multiunit Housing Smokeless Products Electronic Cigarettes Youth Tobacco Prevention Tobacco Products Tobacco Ingredient ... Tweet Share Compartir Find Fact Sheets on Products (Cigars, Bidis and Betel Quid with Tobacco (Gutka) and ...

  17. Aquatic plant Azolla as the universal feedstock for biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Ana F; Biswas, Bijoy; Ramkumar, Narasimhan; Singh, Rawel; Kumar, Jitendra; James, Anton; Roddick, Felicity; Lal, Banwari; Subudhi, Sanjukta; Bhaskar, Thallada; Mouradov, Aidyn

    2016-01-01

    The quest for sustainable production of renewable and cheap biofuels has triggered an intensive search for domestication of the next generation of bioenergy crops. Aquatic plants which can rapidly colonize wetlands are attracting attention because of their ability to grow in wastewaters and produce large amounts of biomass. Representatives of Azolla species are some of the fastest growing plants, producing substantial biomass when growing in contaminated water and natural ecosystems. Together with their evolutional symbiont, the cyanobacterium Anabaena azollae, Azolla biomass has a unique chemical composition accumulating in each leaf including three major types of bioenergy molecules: cellulose/hemicellulose, starch and lipids, resembling combinations of terrestrial bioenergy crops and microalgae. The growth of Azolla filiculoides in synthetic wastewater led up to 25, 69, 24 and 40 % reduction of NH 4 -N, NO 3 -N, PO 4 -P and selenium, respectively, after 5 days of treatment. This led to a 2.6-fold reduction in toxicity of the treated wastewater to shrimps, common inhabitants of wetlands. Two Azolla species, Azolla filiculoides and Azolla pinnata, were used as feedstock for the production of a range of functional hydrocarbons through hydrothermal liquefaction, bio-hydrogen and bio-ethanol. Given the high annual productivity of Azolla, hydrothermal liquefaction can lead to the theoretical production of 20.2 t/ha-year of bio-oil and 48 t/ha-year of bio-char. The ethanol production from Azolla filiculoides, 11.7 × 10 3  L/ha-year, is close to that from corn stover (13.3 × 10 3  L/ha-year), but higher than from miscanthus (2.3 × 10 3  L/ha-year) and woody plants, such as willow (0.3 × 10 3  L/ha-year) and poplar (1.3 × 10 3  L/ha-year). With a high C/N ratio, fermentation of Azolla biomass generates 2.2 mol/mol glucose/xylose of hydrogen, making this species a competitive feedstock for hydrogen production compared with other bioenergy crops

  18. Biogas production from energy crops and crop residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtomaeki, A.

    2006-07-01

    the feedstock increased methane production per digester volume by 16-65% above that obtained from digestion of manure alone. In anaerobic digestion of energy crops in batch leach bed reactors, with and without a second stage methanogenic reactor, the highest methane yields were obtained in the two-stage process without pH adjustment. This process was well suited for anaerobic digestion of the highly degradable sugar beet and grass-clover silage, yielding 0.382-0.390 m3 CH{sub 4} kg-1 VS{sub added} within the 50-55 day solids retention time, corresponding to 85-105% of the methane potential in the substrates. With the more recalcitrant substrates, first year shoots of willow and clover-free grass silage, the methane yields in this process remained at 59-66% of the methane potential in substrates. Only 20% of the methane potential in grass silage was extracted in the one-stage leach bed process, while up to 98% of the total methane yield in the two-stage process originated from the second stage methanogenic reactor. Liquid and solid residues from digestion of grass-clover silage and sugar beet in two-stage leach bed - MF processes were suitable for incorporation to soil as fertiliser and soil-improvement media, whereas in the solid residue from digestion of willow, cadmium concentration exceeded the limit value for use of digestates as fertiliser in arable land. (orig.)

  19. Vegetation types and forest productivity, west part of Syncrude's Lease 17, Alberta. Environmental Research Monography 1977-6. [Tar sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, E B; Levinsohn, A G

    1977-01-01

    The vegetation that existed in August 1977 on the western half of Syncrude's Lease 17 near Fort McMurray, Alberta is described. Eight vegetation types were identified and are mapped at a scale if 1 : 24,000. Black Spruce--Labrador Tea was the dominant vegetation type, making up 35.0% of the 9250 hectare study area. The second most abundant vegetation type was Aspen--White Spruce (26.0%) and the third was White Spruce--Aspen (18.0%). The remaining 21.0% of the area was occupied by the Aspen--Birch vegetation type (7.5%), Balsam Poplar--Alder (6.0%) along the McKay River, Sedge--Reed Grass (4.0%) mainly around bodies of standing water created by beaver dams, Willow--Reed Grass (3.0%) along stream courses, and Black Spruce--Feathermoss (0.5%). The White Spruce--Aspen type is best developed in the southern part of the lease. It is the only vegetation type that contains some white spruce stands approaching the present lower limits of merchantable forest in Alberta. The Aspen--White Spruce type was less productive. In terms of mean annual increment and site index, the two vegetation types with the greatest potential for fibre production (White Spruce--Aspen and Aspen--White Spruce types) are average or below average productivity when compared to data from similar stands elsewhere in Alberta and Saskatchewan.

  20. Production of Modularised Product Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Peter

    2004-01-01

    but a solution. Modularisation is one tool used in designing the products. Designing and controlling a production system making customized products in an economical way is not an easy task. In order to fulfil the Lean and Agile manufacturing philosophies the production is often carried out in networks. Here...

  1. Product Customization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Lars; Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Riis, Jesper

    For the majority of industrial companies, customizing products and services is among the most critical means to deliver true customer value and achieve superior competitive advantage. The challenge is not to customize products and services in itself – but to do it in a profitable way...... from more than 40 product configuration projects in companies providing customer tailored products and services........ The implementation of a product configuration system is among the most powerful ways of achieving this in practice, offering a reduction of the lead time for products and quotations, faster and more qualified responses to customer inquiries, fewer transfers of responsibility and fewer specification mistakes...

  2. Microbial production host selection for converting second-generation feedstocks into bioproducts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Groenestijn Johan W

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasingly lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates are used as the feedstock for industrial fermentations. These biomass hydrolysates are complex mixtures of different fermentable sugars, but also inhibitors and salts that affect the performance of the microbial production host. The performance of six industrially relevant microorganisms, i.e. two bacteria (Escherichia coli and Corynebacterium glutamicum, two yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia stipitis and two fungi (Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma reesei were compared for their (i ability to utilize monosaccharides present in lignocellulosic hydrolysates, (ii resistance against inhibitors present in lignocellulosic hydrolysates, (iii their ability to utilize and grow on different feedstock hydrolysates (corn stover, wheat straw, sugar cane bagasse and willow wood. The feedstock hydrolysates were generated in two manners: (i thermal pretreatment under mild acid conditions followed by enzymatic hydrolysis and (ii a non-enzymatic method in which the lignocellulosic biomass is pretreated and hydrolyzed by concentrated sulfuric acid. Moreover, the ability of the selected hosts to utilize waste glycerol from the biodiesel industry was evaluated. Results Large differences in the performance of the six tested microbial production hosts were observed. Carbon source versatility and inhibitor resistance were the major discriminators between the performances of these microorganisms. Surprisingly all 6 organisms performed relatively well on pretreated crude feedstocks. P. stipitis and A. niger were found to give the overall best performance C. glutamicum and S. cerevisiae were shown to be the least adapted to renewable feedstocks. Conclusion Based on the results obtained we conclude that a substrate oriented instead of the more commonly used product oriented approach towards the selection of a microbial production host will avoid the requirement for extensive metabolic

  3. Workforce productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ruth

    2012-10-26

    Managers who are responsible for delivering the workforce productivity element of the Quality, Innovation, Productivity and Prevention (QIPP) programme can network and share best practice through a dedicated NHS Employers webpage.

  4. Primary productivity

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Verlecar, X.N.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Photosynthetic production in the oceans in relation to light, nutrients and mixing processes is discussed. Primary productivity in the estuarine region is reported to be high in comparison to coastal and oceanic waters. Upwelling phenomenon...

  5. A common multiple cloning site in a set of vectors for expression of eukaryotic genes in mammalian, insect and bacterial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallisgaard, N; Pedersen, FS; Birkelund, Svend

    1994-01-01

    a start Met codon was included in the same reading frame as in lambda gt11Sfi-Not to support expression of partial cDNA clones. Thus a cDNA insert of lambda gt11Sfi-Not could be shuttled among the new vectors for expression. The other set of vectors without a start codon were suitable for expression of c......DNA carrying their own start Met codon. By Western blot analysis and by transactivation of a reporter plasmid in co-transfections we show that cDNA is very efficiently expressed in NIH 3T3 cells under control of the elongation factor 1 alpha promoter....

  6. Bioenergy Crop Production in the United States. Potential Quantities, Land Use Changes, and Economic Impacts on the Agricultural Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, Marie E.; Torre Ugarte, D.G. de la; Shapouri, H.; Slinsky, S.P.

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Departments of Agriculture and Energy jointly analyzed the economic potential for, and impacts of, large-scale bioenergy crop production in the United States. An agricultural sector model (POLYSYS) was modified to include three potential bioenergy crops (switchgrass, hybrid poplar, and willow). At farmgate prices of US $2.44/GJ, an estimated 17 million hectares of bioenergy crops, annually yielding 171 million dry Mg of biomass, could potentially be produced at a profit greater than existing agricultural uses for the land. The estimate assumes high productivity management practices are permitted on Conservation Reserve Program lands. Traditional crops prices are estimated to increase 9 to 14 percent above baseline prices and farm income increases annually by US $6.0 billion above baseline. At farmgate prices of US $1.83/GJ, an estimated 7.9 million hectares of bioenergy crops, annually yielding 55 million dry Mg of biomass, could potentially be produced at a profit greater than existing agricultural uses for the land. The estimate assumes management practices intended to achieve high environmental benefits on Conservation Reserve Program lands. Traditional crops prices are estimated to increase 4 to 9 percent above baseline prices and farm income increases annually by US $2.8 billion above baseline

  7. Natural or Plant Products for the Treatment of Neurological Disorders: Current Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvez, Mohammad Khalid

    2018-01-01

    In recent decades, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has become very popular in the treatment of several chronic diseases. Natural products as one of the CAM modalities offer potential opportunities to discover lead compounds for novel drug development. The use of CAM or natural products in the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases is comparatively a newer area. A structured online literature search for peer-reviewed research articles was conducted on the PubMed, Europe PMC, Medline and Google Scholar portals, using phrases: natural products for neurologic disorders, phytomedicine for neurodegenerative diseases, natural therapeutics for neurological symptopms etc. Results: The retrieved data showed the natural therapeutics with anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory salutations evidently plays a crucial role in protecting neurons. Of these, the most promising are caffeine, trigonelline, shogaol, curcumin, resveratrol, baicalein, wogonin, ginsenosides, tanshinones, withanolides, picrosides, parthenolide, cannabinoids, Devil's claw and white willow bark, including Chinese formulations Renshen Shouwu and Shengmai San. Though several herbs and their active ingredients have been studied in laboratory and clinical settings, only a few have been investigated for their molecular mechanisms of action. Notably, despite the promising and safe therapeutic benefits of CAM/herbal medicines, there exists a possible risk when combining them with prescription drugs. As a result, many drugs have shown changes in blood pressure, hepatotoxicity, seizures etc. when combined with certain herbs. Certainly, extensive work is needed to make sure that patients should take a regimen of protective and restorative therapy under an experienced healthcare professional. This article updates on the current knowledge of promising natural products used in neurological disorders. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  8. Product (RED)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponte, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    ) and the consumers who buy iconic brand products to help ‘distant others’. While in many other forms of causumerism, labels or certification systems ‘prove’ that a product is just, in RED, aid celebrities provide the proof. From the consumer point of view both labels and celebrities provide a similar simplification...... of complex social, economic, and environmental processes. At the same time, we argue that there are important distinctions as well—labels and certifications are ultimately about improving the conditions of production, whereas RED is about accepting existing production and trade systems and donating......(PRODUCT)RED™ (hereafter RED) is a cobranding initiative launched in 2006 by the aid celebrity Bono to raise money from product sales to support The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. In this paper we argue that RED is shifting the boundaries of ‘causumerism’ (shopping...

  9. Generalized product

    OpenAIRE

    Greco, Salvatore; Mesiar, Radko; Rindone, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    Aggregation functions on [0,1] with annihilator 0 can be seen as a generalized product on [0,1]. We study the generalized product on the bipolar scale [–1,1], stressing the axiomatic point of view. Based on newly introduced bipolar properties, such as the bipolar increasingness, bipolar unit element, bipolar idempotent element, several kinds of generalized bipolar product are introduced and studied. A special stress is put on bipolar semicopulas, bipolar quasi-copulas and bipolar copulas.

  10. Swine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plain, Ronald L; Lawrence, John D

    2003-07-01

    The US swine industry is large and growing. The quantity of pork desired by consumers of US pork is growing at the rate of 1.5%/y. New production systems and new technology have enabled production per sow to grow at a rate of 4% annually in recent years. Consequently, the number of sows in the United States is declining. Because productivity growth is outpacing demand growth, the deflated price of hogs and pork is declining. Hog production and prices continue to exhibit strong seasonal and cyclic patterns. Pork production is usually lowest in the summer and highest in the fall. Production and prices tend to follow 4-year patterns. The US swine industry continues to evolve toward fewer and larger producers who rely on contracts for both hog production and marketing. In 2000, over half of the hogs marketed were from approximately 156 firms marketing more than 50,000 head annually. These producers finished 60% of their production in contract facilities. Over 90% of their marketings were under contract or were owned by a packer. These producers expressed a high level of satisfaction with hog production. Both they and their contract growers were satisfied with production contracts. These large producers were satisfied with their marketing contracts and planned to continue them in the future. The hog industry has changed a great deal in the last decade. There is little reason to believe this rapid rate of change will not continue. This swine industry is highly competitive and profit driven. Profit margins are too small to allow producers the luxury of ignoring new technology and innovative production systems. Consequently, hog production will continue its rapid evolution from traditional agriculture to typical industry.

  11. Antiproton production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allaby, J.V.

    1984-01-01

    The basic definitions used in the physics literature on particle production are reviewed. The data on anti p production are interpreted in order to provide an estimate of the yield of anti p's from typical target at the antiproton accumulator, including the effects of re-absorption in the target. (orig.)

  12. Expanding the biomass resource: sustainable oil production via fast pyrolysis of low input high diversity biomass and the potential integration of thermochemical and biological conversion routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corton, J; Donnison, I S; Patel, M; Bühle, L; Hodgson, E; Wachendorf, M; Bridgwater, A; Allison, G; Fraser, M D

    2016-09-01

    Waste biomass is generated during the conservation management of semi-natural habitats, and represents an unused resource and potential bioenergy feedstock that does not compete with food production. Thermogravimetric analysis was used to characterise a representative range of biomass generated during conservation management in Wales. Of the biomass types assessed, those dominated by rush ( Juncus effuses ) and bracken ( Pteridium aquilinum ) exhibited the highest and lowest volatile compositions respectively and were selected for bench scale conversion via fast pyrolysis. Each biomass type was ensiled and a sub-sample of silage was washed and pressed. Demineralization of conservation biomass through washing and pressing was associated with higher oil yields following fast pyrolysis. The oil yields were within the published range established for the dedicated energy crops miscanthus and willow. In order to examine the potential a multiple output energy system was developed with gross power production estimates following valorisation of the press fluid, char and oil. If used in multi fuel industrial burners the char and oil alone would displace 3.9 × 10 5  tonnes per year of No. 2 light oil using Welsh biomass from conservation management. Bioenergy and product development using these feedstocks could simultaneously support biodiversity management and displace fossil fuels, thereby reducing GHG emissions. Gross power generation predictions show good potential.

  13. Energy budget and greenhouse gas balance evaluation of sustainable coppice systems for electricity production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lettens, Suzanna; Muys, Bart; Ceulemans, Reinhart; Moons, Ellen; Garcia, Juan; Coppin, Pol

    2003-01-01

    The use of bio-energy crops for electricity production is considered an effective means to mitigate the greenhouse effect, mainly due to its ability to substitute fossil fuels. A whole range of crops qualify for bio-energy production and a rational choice is not readily made. This paper evaluates the energy and greenhouse gas balance of a mixed indigenous hardwood coppice as an extensive, low-input bio-energy crop. The impact on fossil energy use and greenhouse gas emission is calculated and discussed by comparing its life cycle (cultivation, processing and conversion into energy) with two conventional bio-energy crops (short rotation systems of willow and Miscanthus). For each life cycle process, the flows of fossil energy and greenhouse gas that are created for the production of one functional unit are calculated. The results show that low-input bio-energy crops use comparatively less fossil fuel and avoid more greenhouse gas emission per unit of produced energy than conventional bio-energy crops during the first 100 yr. Where the mixed coppice system avoids up till 0.13 t CO 2 eq./GJ, Miscanthus does not exceed 0.07 t CO 2 eq./GJ. After 100 yr their performances become comparable, amounting to 0.05 t CO 2 eq./ha/GJ. However, if the land surface itself is chosen as a functional unit, conventional crops perform better with respect to mitigating the greenhouse effect. Miscanthus avoids a maximum of 12.9 t CO 2 eq./ha/yr, while mixed coppice attains 9.5 t CO 2 eq./ha/yr at the most

  14. Lignocellulosic ethanol production from woody biomass: The impact of facility siting on competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephen, James D.; Mabee, Warren E.; Saddler, Jack N.

    2013-01-01

    Just as temperate region pulp and paper companies need to compete with Brazilian eucalyptus pulp producers, lignocellulosic biofuel producers in North America and Europe, in the absence of protectionist trade policies, will need to be competitive with tropical and sub-tropical biofuel producers. This work sought to determine the impact of lignocellulosic ethanol biorefinery siting on economic performance and minimum ethanol selling price (MESP) for both east and west coast North American fuel markets. Facility sites included the pine-dominated Pacific Northwest Interior, the mixed deciduous forest of Ontario and New York, and the Brazilian state of Espírito Santo. Feedstock scenarios included both plantation (poplar, willow, and eucalyptus, respectively) and managed forest harvest. Site specific variables in the techno-economic model included delivered feedstock cost, ethanol delivery cost, cost of capital, construction cost, labour cost, electricity revenues (and co-product credits), and taxes, insurance, and permits. Despite the long shipping distance from Brazil to North American east and west coast markets, the MESP for Brazilian-produced eucalyptus lignocellulosic ethanol, modelled at $0.74 L −1 , was notably lower than that of all North American-produced cases at $0.83–1.02 L −1 . - Highlights: • Lignocellulosic ethanol production costs vary notably by region. • Feedstock cost is the primary site-specific production cost variable. • Woody feedstocks in North America have a higher cost than those in Brazil. • Use of Brazilian eucalyptus resulted in the lowest MESP for considered feedstocks. • MESP ranged from −1 to >$1.00 L −1

  15. Radioisotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The trial production runs started in the previous report period were continued and have been extended to 67 Ga, 81 Rb/ 81m Kr and 111 In, the production of which will be taken over from the Pretoria cyclotron at the end of this year, when that machine is scheduled to be shut down. After commissioning of the target water cooling system and the helium cooling system for beam foil windows at the beginning of this year, these production runs could also be extended to high beam currents (up to 50 μA). Test consignments of a number of products have been supplied to various potential future users, and 123 I, in the form of Na 123 I capsules as well as 123 I-sodium hippurate, and 52 Fe-citrate have actually been used with success in trial diagnostic studies on patients. A procedure for labelling IPPA and 3-IPMPA with 123 I has been developed, while initial work has also been done on the radioiodination of monoclonal antifibrine antibodies. The last major facility needed for the commencement of the routine radioisotope production programme, namely the multiple-target facility, is now ready for installation in the production vault within the next few weeks, and routine production runs are expected to start in November 1988. 4 figs., 18 refs

  16. Ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolleurp, F; Daugulis, A J

    1985-05-01

    Extractive fermentation is a technique that can be used to reduce the effect of end-product inhibition through the use of a water-immiscible phase which removes fermentation products in situ. This has the beneficial effect of not only removing inhibitory products as they are formed (thus keeping reaction rates high) but also has the potential for reducing product recovery costs. We have chosen to examine the ethanol fermentation as a model system for end product inhibition and extractive fermentation, and have developed a computer model predicting the productivity enhancement possible with this technique. The model predicts an ethanol productivity of 82.6 g/L-h if a glucose feed of 750 g/L is fermented with a solvent having a distribution coefficient of 0.5 at a dilution rate of 5.0 h . This is more than 10 times higher than for a conventional chemostat fermentation of a 250 g/L glucose feed. In light of this, a systematic approach to extractive fermentation has been undertaken involving the screening of more than 1,000 solvents for their extractive properties. UNIFAC and UNIQUAC estimates of distribution coefficients and selectivities were compiled and ranked in a database, together with other important physical properties, such as density, surface tension and viscosity. Preliminary shake-flask and chemostat biocompatibility studies on the most promising solvents have been undertaken. The previous predictive, data base and experimental results are discussed.

  17. Product plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickham, Hadley; Hofmann, Heike

    2011-12-01

    We propose a new framework for visualising tables of counts, proportions and probabilities. We call our framework product plots, alluding to the computation of area as a product of height and width, and the statistical concept of generating a joint distribution from the product of conditional and marginal distributions. The framework, with extensions, is sufficient to encompass over 20 visualisations previously described in fields of statistical graphics and infovis, including bar charts, mosaic plots, treemaps, equal area plots and fluctuation diagrams. © 2011 IEEE

  18. Tanning Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... must obtain a signed, FDA-prescribed risk acknowledgement certification before use that states that they have been informed of the risks to health that may result from use of sunlamp products. Using tanning lamps, booths, or beds: If you ...

  19. Bc production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lusignoli, M.; Masetti, M.; Petrarca, S.

    1991-01-01

    The pseudoscalar meson B c is the simplest particle containing more than one heavy quark of different flavours. Its production cross sections at accelerators presently running or in project are estimated using the HERWIG parton shower Monte Carlo code. (orig.)

  20. Production models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Carsten

    2002-01-01

    The Project is co-financed with Nilpeter A/S and investigates the industrialization of build to order production. Project content: - Enterprise engineering - Specification processes - Mass Customization/ Build To Order - Knowledge/information management - Configuration - Supply Chain Management...

  1. Marketplace Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Office of Enterprise Data and Analytics, within the Centers for Medicare aqnd Medicaid Services (CMS), has developed a set of information products and analytics...

  2. Lean production

    OpenAIRE

    Veselková, Jana

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this Bachelor's Thesis is to describe the general principles of lean production and afterwards apply these principles in a particular company. Due to the changing conditions on the world market is among companies growing concern about such innovative business systems. The theoretical part of this work deals with the general characteristics of lean production, including their history and focus on Toyota, as the originator of most lean systems. Mentioned are also the economic aspect...

  3. Productive Gaming

    OpenAIRE

    Brandstätter , Ulrich; Sommerer , Christa

    2016-01-01

    Part 4: Short Papers; International audience; Video games can be appropriated for productive purposes. Commercial games and game engines are often used for video productions, and game development companies provide development kits and modding environments to gaming communities and independent developers. With gamification, game principles are deployed in non-game contexts for benefits beyond pure entertainment. Most approaches are more focused on using games and their design elements rather t...

  4. Biocidal Products and Borderline Products

    OpenAIRE

    Yılmaz, Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Biocidal product is defined as preparations sold in ready form to use that contains one or more active substances and has control effect, movement restriction or destruction against harmful organisms which has harmful effect on products that people use or produce or animals or environment. These substances which are composed mostly chemicals and ease our lifes are used in increasingly every areas of our life on the other hand they carry variety of risks and threaten our lives. In terms of env...

  5. Environmental products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    This volume in the series of directories of Quebec organizations doing research and development involving biomass-based products or processes focused on environmental products and services. The objective of this, and other directories in the series, was to stimulate interaction, and hence more aggressive development, of products and processes capable of being commercialized, to facilitate interaction between those who possess and those who could utilize biomass resources, and in general, to encourage the development of biomass-based industries. A total of 83 organizations were included in standardized format, describing areas of research interest, principal areas of technological expertise, major equipment, personnel and name and address of contact person. In this volume fields of research interest included environmental audits, waste treatment, biodegradation, composting, oxidation, photodegradation, disinfection and combustion. tabs

  6. Uranium production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spriggs, M.

    1980-01-01

    The balance between uranium supply and demand is examined. Should new resources become necessary, some unconventional sources which could be considered include low-grade extensions to conventional deposits, certain types of intrusive rock, tuffs, and lake and sea-bed sediments. In addition there are large but very low grade deposits in carbonaceous shales, granites, and seawater. The possibility of recovery is discussed. Programmes of research into the feasibility of extraction of uranium from seawater, as a by-product from phosphoric acid production, and from copper leach solutions, are briefly discussed. Other possible sources are coal, old mine dumps and tailings, the latter being successfully exploited commercially in South Africa. The greatest constraints on increased development of U from lower grade sources are economics and environmental impact. It is concluded that apart from U as a by-product from phosphate, other sources are unlikely to contribute much to world requirements in the foreseeable future. (U.K.)

  7. Bottom production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baines, J.; Baranov, S.P.; Bartalini, P.; Bay, A.; Bouhova, E.; Cacciari, M.; Caner, A.; Coadou, Y.; Corti, G.; Damet, J.; Dell-Orso, R.; De Mello Neto, J.R.T.; Domenech, J.L.; Drollinger, V.; Eerola, P.; Ellis, N.; Epp, B.; Frixione, S.; Gadomski, S.; Gavrilenko, I.; Gennai, S.; George, S.; Ghete, V.M.; Guy, L.; Hasegawa, Y.; Iengo, P.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jones, R.; Kharchilava, A.; Kneringer, E.; Koppenburg, P.; Korsmo, H.; Kramer, M.; Labanca, N.; Lehto, M.; Maltoni, F.; Mangano, M.L.; Mele, S.; Nairz, A.M.; Nakada, T.; Nikitin, N.; Nisati, A.; Norrbin, E.; Palla, F.; Rizatdinova, F.; Robins, S.; Rousseau, D.; Sanchis-Lozano, M.A.; Shapiro, M.; Sherwood, P.; Smirnova, L.; Smizanska, M.; Starodumov, A.; Stepanov, N.; Vogt, R.

    2000-01-01

    In the context of the LHC experiments, the physics of bottom flavoured hadrons enters in different contexts. It can be used for QCD tests, it affects the possibilities of B decays studies, and it is an important source of background for several processes of interest. The physics of b production at hadron colliders has a rather long story, dating back to its first observation in the UA1 experiment. Subsequently, b production has been studied at the Tevatron. Besides the transverse momentum spectrum of a single b, it has also become possible, in recent time, to study correlations in the production characteristics of the b and the b. At the LHC new opportunities will be offered by the high statistics and the high energy reach. One expects to be able to study the transverse momentum spectrum at higher transverse momenta, and also to exploit the large statistics to perform more accurate studies of correlations

  8. Bottom production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baines, J.; Baranov, S.P.; Bartalini, P.; Bay, A.; Bouhova, E.; Cacciari, M.; Caner, A.; Coadou, Y.; Corti, G.; Damet, J.; Dell-Orso, R.; De Mello Neto, J.R.T.; Domenech, J.L.; Drollinger, V.; Eerola, P.; Ellis, N.; Epp, B.; Frixione, S.; Gadomski, S.; Gavrilenko, I.; Gennai, S.; George, S.; Ghete, V.M.; Guy, L.; Hasegawa, Y.; Iengo, P.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jones, R.; Kharchilava, A.; Kneringer, E.; Koppenburg, P.; Korsmo, H.; Kramer, M.; Labanca, N.; Lehto, M.; Maltoni, F.; Mangano, M.L.; Mele, S.; Nairz, A.M.; Nakada, T.; Nikitin, N.; Nisati, A.; Norrbin, E.; Palla, F.; Rizatdinova, F.; Robins, S.; Rousseau, D.; Sanchis-Lozano, M.A.; Shapiro, M.; Sherwood, P.; Smirnova, L.; Smizanska, M.; Starodumov, A.; Stepanov, N.; Vogt, R.

    2000-03-15

    In the context of the LHC experiments, the physics of bottom flavoured hadrons enters in different contexts. It can be used for QCD tests, it affects the possibilities of B decays studies, and it is an important source of background for several processes of interest. The physics of b production at hadron colliders has a rather long story, dating back to its first observation in the UA1 experiment. Subsequently, b production has been studied at the Tevatron. Besides the transverse momentum spectrum of a single b, it has also become possible, in recent time, to study correlations in the production characteristics of the b and the b. At the LHC new opportunities will be offered by the high statistics and the high energy reach. One expects to be able to study the transverse momentum spectrum at higher transverse momenta, and also to exploit the large statistics to perform more accurate studies of correlations.

  9. Pre-study - compilation and synthesis of knowledge about energy crops from cultivation to energy production; Foerstudie - sammanstaellning och syntes av kunskap och erfarenheter om groedor fraan aaker till energiproduktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Magnus; Bubholz, Monika; Forsberg, Maya; Myringer, Aase; Palm, Ola; Roennbaeck, Marie; Tullin, Claes

    2007-06-15

    Energy crops constitute a yet not fully utilized potential as fuel for heating and power production. As competition for biomass hardens the interest for agricultural fuels such as straw, energy grain, willow, reed canary grass and hemp increases. Utilization of the potential for energy crops as fuels demands that cultivation and harvest are coordinated with transportation, storage and combustion of the crops. Together, Vaermeforsk and Swedish Farmers' Foundation for Agricultural Research (SLF), have taken the initiative to a common research programme. The long-term aim of the programme is to increase production and utilization of bioenergy from agriculture to combustion for heat and power production in Sweden. The vision is that during the programme, 2006 - 2009, decisive steps will be taken towards a working market for biofuels for bioenergy from agriculture. This survey has compiled and synthesized available knowledge and experiences about energy crops from the field to energy production. The aim has been to give a picture of knowledge today, to identify knowledge gaps and to synthesize knowledge of today into future research needs. A proposal of a research plan has been developed for the research programme.

  10. Phytosanitary products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    One of a series of directories of Quebec universities, industrial and governmental agencies in Quebec actively involved in research and development of phytosanitary products or services derived from or associated with biomass products. This directory contained standardized entries for 79 organizations from the agriculture, forestry and environmental sectors, active in fields ranging from genetic engineering, fertilizers, crop diseases and pest management, forestry management, harvesting methods and bioconversion. Each entry provided information about major fields of research interest, principal technologies utilized, major equipment, personnel, and name and address of person to be contacted for further information. tabs

  11. Aluminium production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, B.; Ayers, J.; Sammer, G.

    2001-01-01

    Aluminium is the most important non-ferrous metal by quantity. Aluminium is produced by electrolysis of aluminium oxide (also known as alumina). Alumina is produced by refining bauxite. The quantity of primary and secondary aluminium production in ECE-countries between 1992 and 1998 is shown. The European aluminium industry employs approximately 200 000 employees. The annual aluminium production in the European Union was 3.58 million tonnes in 1994, of which 44 % was secondary aluminium. In 1996 3.96 million tonnes of aluminium were produced in the EU, of which 44 % was secondary aluminium. (author)

  12. Wastewater sludge fertilization: Biomass productivity and heavy metal bioaccumulation in two Salix species grown in southern Quebec (Canada)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teodorescu, T.I.; Labrecque, M.; Daigle, S.; Poisson, G.

    1993-01-01

    More than other kind of trees, fast growing tree species, such as willows, can profit from sludge application. While sludges are good fertilizers, they may also contain heavy metals which could reduce productivity and cause risks to the environment. The main aims of the present research were to study: (1) the production capacity of Salix discolor and Salix viminalis when supplied with various amounts of dried and pelleted sludge; (2) the uptake, and accumulation of heavy metals. Unrooted cuttings were planted on sandy soil in large plastic pots and grown in outdoors for 20-week period. Five doses of sludge were applied: equivalent of 200 (T1), 160 (T2), 120 (T3), 80 (T4) and 40 (T5) kg N per ha. Trees which received the largest amount of sludge showed the best growth results. The stem-branch biomass was significantly higher for Salix viminalis. The relationship between the total yield biomass Y (t/ha) and the rate of fertilization X (kg N/ha) is linear. The regression equations of prediction biomass production were established as following: Salix discolor Y = 1.807 + 0.037X and Salix viminalis Y = 2.578 + 0.042X. For both species, greatest stems-branch biomass per gram of N applied were produced by treatments 1 and 2. The amount of nitrogen per leaf area (N/LA) and per leaf dry weight (N/LW), were higher for Salix viminalis which leads us believe that its photosynthetic activity was better. The transfer coefficient did not vary between the species but was significantly different for Cd and Zn. The plants were able to absorb Cd and Zn but less of Ni, Hg and Cu and Pb. It was concluded that the dried and pelleted sludge can be a good fertilizer. The treatment is beneficial when Salix discolor and particulary Salix viminalis are used as vegetation filters for wastewater sludge purification and production purposes

  13. Uranium production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, J.Q.

    1981-01-01

    The domestic uranium industry is in a state of stagflation. Costs continue to rise while the market for the product remains stagnant. During the last 12 months, curtailments and closures of mines and mills have eliminated over 5000 jobs in the industry, plus many more in those industries that furnish supplies and services. By January 1982, operations at four mills and the mines that furnish them ore will have been terminated. Other closures may follow, depending on cost trends, duration of current contracts, the degree to which mills have been amortized, the feasibility of placing mines on standby, the grade of the ore, and many other factors. Open-pit mines can be placed on standby without much difficulty, other than the possible cost of restoration before all the ore has been removed. There are a few small, dry, underground mines that could be mothballed; however, the major underground producers are wet sandstone mines that in most cases could not be reopened after a prolonged shutdown; mills can be mothballed for several years. Figure 8 shows the location of all the production centers in operation, as well as those that have operated or are on standby. Table 1 lists the same production centers plus those that have been deferred, showing nominal capacity of conventional mills in tons of ore per calendar day, and the industry production rate for those mills as of October 1, 1981

  14. Novolak Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiba, Hiroshi

    Novolak resins are produced by reacting formaldehyde (30-55% concentration) with phenol under acidic conditions, with oxalic acid as the preferred catalyst and in special conditions, sulfuric acid. Depending on the batch size, all raw material components can be introduced into the reactor, or when there is an increase in the batch size as well as in the reactor volume, the reaction exotherm is controlled by a gradual addition of formaldehyde. Modern novolak production facilities are automated and programmed for reduced operational cost. A flow diagram of a general production line for the manufacture of novolak is shown. Recovery of the novolak is accomplished by the removal of water and devolatilization of crude novolak to molten, low-free phenol novolak resin which can be isolated as flake or pastille or dissolved in appropriate solvents. Novolak is stored either in a solid flake or pastille form or in solution. Most production is conducted under atmospheric conditions, but there are some recent, novel activities such as pressure in a hermetically-closed reactor reaching 0.1-10 MPa by using the heat of reaction without reflux to shorten reaction time, accelerating dehydration time by flash distillation, and providing economic benefit in the cost of novolak production.

  15. Product Configuration Systems and Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jørgen Lindgaard; Edwards, Kasper

    2004-01-01

    Twelve companies have been interviewed with the purpose to get information about technical, economic and organisational matters in respect of Product Configuration Systems (PCS).Combinations of qualitative interviews and quantitative scoring have been used in ranking expected and realized results...

  16. Tequila production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedeño, M

    1995-01-01

    Tequila is obtained from the distillation of fermented juice of agave plant, Agave tequilana, to which up to 49% (w/v) of an adjunct sugar, mainly from cane or corn, could be added. Agave plants require from 8 to 12 years to mature and during all this time cleaning, pest control, and slacken of land are required to produce an initial raw material with the appropriate chemical composition for tequila production. Production process comprises four steps: cooking to hydrolyze inulin into fructose, milling to extract the sugars, fermentation with a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to convert the sugars into ethanol and organoleptic compounds, and, finally, a two-step distillation process. Maturation, if needed, is carried out in white oak barrels to obtain rested or aged tequila in 2 or 12 months, respectively.

  17. Lepton production

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This experiment aims to settle open questions in the hadronic production of electrons, muons and neutrinos. Prominent among these are $e/\\mu$ universality, the contribution of charm decay to lepton pair production, and the "anomalous" low mass pairs.\\\\ The experimental design aims to optimize the combination of:\\\\- electron identification\\\\ - muon identification \\\\ - missing energy measurement for neutrinos \\\\ - vertex identification (for $\\tau \\simeq \\tau_{charm}$). \\\\ \\\\ The major components of the apparatus are shown in the figure. In the vertex region a proton beam of transverse size $\\simeq 50 \\mu$ impinges on a beryllium target of diameter $50 \\mu$, and high precision tracking in the vertex region is achieved by silicon strip detectors. Charged particle momenta are measured using a dipole magnet and high resolution drift chambers. Electrons are identified by the combination of the transition radiation detector and the finely segmented front section of the Uranium/Liquid Argon calorimeter. Essentially t...

  18. Product customization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lueg, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    This case study deals with the extension, customization, and profitability of two new product lines of a bicycle manufacturer. It can serve both as a discussion basis in class as well as an exam for advanced Master students in management, marketing, and ccounting. The case illustrates how variance...... application of financial analysis can lead to dysfunctional decisions that run counter to a company’s business model....

  19. Isotope production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Dewi M.

    1995-07-15

    Some 2 0% of patients using radiopharmaceuticals receive injections of materials produced by cyclotrons. There are over 200 cyclotrons worldwide; around 35 are operated by commercial companies solely for the production of radio-pharmaceuticals with another 25 accelerators producing medically useful isotopes. These neutron-deficient isotopes are usually produced by proton bombardment. All commonly used medical isotopes can be generated by 'compact' cyclotrons with energies up to 40 MeV and beam intensities in the range 50 to 400 microamps. Specially designed target systems contain gram-quantities of highly enriched stable isotopes as starting materials. The targets can accommodate the high power densities of the proton beams and are designed for automated remote handling. The complete manufacturing cycle includes large-scale target production, isotope generation by cyclotron beam bombardment, radio-chemical extraction, pharmaceutical dispensing, raw material recovery, and labelling/packaging prior to the rapid delivery of these short-lived products. All these manufacturing steps adhere to the pharmaceutical industry standards of Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP). Unlike research accelerators, commercial cyclotrons are customized 'compact' machines usually supplied by specialist companies such as IBA (Belgium), EBCO (Canada) or Scanditronix (Sweden). The design criteria for these commercial cyclotrons are - small magnet dimensions, power-efficient operation of magnet and radiofrequency systems, high intensity extracted proton beams, well defined beam size and automated computer control. Performance requirements include rapid startup and shutdown, high reliability to support the daily production of short-lived isotopes and low maintenance to minimize the radiation dose to personnel. In 1987 a major step forward in meeting these exacting industrial requirements came when IBA, together with the University of Louvain-La-Neuve in Belgium, developed the Cyclone-30

  20. Diboson production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans D.L.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of diboson production cross sections in pp collisions at the LHC at a centre of mass energy √s = 7 and 8 TeV, and in pp̅ collisions at the Tevatron at √s = 1.96 TeV are reviewed and compared with standard model predictions. Limits on charged and neutral anomalous triple gauge couplings extracted from the selected diboson event samples are also compared.

  1. Product design - Molecules, devices, functional products, and formulated products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul; Ng, Ka M.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical product design is a multidisciplinary and diverse subject. This article provides an overview of product design while focusing on product conceptualization. Four product types are considered - molecular products, formulated products, devices and functional products. For molecular products......, computer-aided design tools are used to predict the physicochemical properties of single molecules and blends. For formulated products, an integrated experiment-modeling approach is used to generate the formula with the specified product attributes. For devices and functional products, conceptual product...... design is carried out by modeling the product based on thermodynamics, kinetics and transport processes, by performing experiments, and by decision making based on rule-based methods The results are product specifications in terms of the type of ingredients, composition, and the structure, form, shape...

  2. Multifunctional landscapes: Site characterization and field-scale design to incorporate biomass production into an agricultural system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ssegane, Herbert; Negri, M. Cristina; Quinn, John; Urgun-Demirtas, Meltem

    2015-09-01

    Current and future demand for food, feed, fiber, and energy require novel approaches to land management, which demands that multifunctional landscapes are created to integrate various ecosystem functions into a sustainable land use. We developed an approach to design such landscapes at a field scale to minimize concerns of land use change, water quality, and greenhouse gas emissions associated with production of food and bioenergy. This study leverages concepts of nutrient recovery and phytoremediation to place bioenergy crops on the landscape to recover nutrients released to watersheds by commodity crops. Crop placement is determined by evaluating spatial variability of: 1) soils, 2) surface flow pathways, 3) shallow groundwater flow gradients, 4) subsurface nitrate concentrations, and 5) primary crop yield. A 0.8 ha bioenergy buffer was designed within a 6.5 ha field to intercept concentrated surface flow, capture and use nitrate leachate, and minimize use of productive areas. Denitrification-Decomposition (DNDC) simulations show that on average, a switchgrass (Panicum Virgatum L.) or willow (Salix spp.) buffer within this catchment according to this design could reduce annual leached NO3 by 61 or 59% and N2O emission by 5.5 or 10.8%, respectively, produce 8.7 or 9.7 Mg ha-1 of biomass respectively, and displace 6.7 Mg ha-1 of corn (Zea mays L.) grain. Therefore, placement of bioenergy crops has the potential to increase environmental sustainability when the pairing of location and crop type result in minimal disruption of current food production systems and provides additional environmental benefits.

  3. New Product

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    铭瑄

    2012-01-01

    Double Coin Holdings Launch New OTR Tire REM-15 With the increase of the demand for large-scale bulldozer in American market, Double Coin Group Co., Ltd. developed the Double Coin REM-15 OTR tire. This product is applicable for large-scale loader and bulldozer. The most remarkable characteristic is that it has good energy-saving performance and durability with low operating cost while the performances of tires aren't lowered. The new REM-15 is currently offered in the 17.5R25 size, which will be expanded to larger sizes in the future.

  4. production lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingshan Li

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, serial production lines with finished goods buffers operating in the pull regime are considered. The machines are assumed to obey Bernoulli reliability model. The problem of satisfying customers demand is addressed. The level of demand satisfaction is quantified by the due-time performance (DTP, which is defined as the probability to ship to the customer a required number of parts during a fixed time interval. Within this scenario, the definitions of DTP bottlenecks are introduced and a method for their identification is developed.

  5. Uptake of cadmium from hydroponic solutions by willows (Salix spp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. NJ TONUKARI

    2011-11-16

    Nov 16, 2011 ... which indicated that cadmium uptake across the plasma membrane was ... to cadmium pollution in water-soil-plant systems because .... plants were separated into roots and shoots, blotted dry with paper tissue .... Analysis of the kinetic constants for cadmium uptake ..... proteins (Welch and Norvell, 1999).

  6. Uptake of cadmium from hydroponic solutions by willows ( Salix spp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salix integra 'Weishanhu') and Yizhibi (S. integra 'Yizhibi') were chosen as model plants to evaluate their potential for uptake of cadmium from hydroponic culture and relative uptake mechanism. Cadmium uptake showed a linear increase in the ...

  7. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, RED WILLOW COUNTY, NEBRASKA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk...

  8. Response of weeping willows to linear alkylbenzene sulfonate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, X.; Trapp, Stefan; Zhou, P.

    2006-01-01

    in hydroponic solution spiked with LAS at 24.0 +/- 1 degrees C for 192 h. The normalized relative transpiration of plants was used to determine toxicity. Severe reduction of the transpiration was only found for high doses of LAS (>= 240 mg 1(-1)). Chlorophyll contents in leaves of treated plants varied...

  9. DCS Hydraulic Submission for Red Willow County, Nebraska

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  10. Interaction in Short rotation coppice willow, Salix viminalis genotype mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begley, D. [Department of Biological Sciences, Queen' s University Belfast, Newforge Lane, Belfast BT9 5PX, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); McCracken, A.R. [Applied Plant Science and Biometrics Division, Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, 18A Newforge Lane, Belfast BT9 5PX, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom)]|[Northern Ireland Horticulture and Plant Breeding Station, Applied Plant Science and Biometrics Division, Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, Loughgall, Co., Armagh BT61 8JB, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Dawson, W.M. [Northern Ireland Horticulture and Plant Breeding Station, Applied Plant Science and Biometrics Division, Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, Loughgall, Co., Armagh BT61 8JB, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Watson, S. [Applied Plant Science and Biometrics Division, Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, 18A Newforge Lane, Belfast BT9 5PX, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom)

    2009-02-15

    Seven straight Salix viminalis genotypes with different levels of rust (Melampsora epitea) susceptibility were grown as mono-plots as well as being incorporated into a range of mixtures. Two 3-year harvests (2003 and 2006) were taken. Disease progress was followed on each of the individual genotypes throughout each growing season 2001-2006. In 2003 there were small but significant yield increases from the mixtures compared to the yield of individual components grown as mono-plots. These differences were not evident at the second harvest in 2006. No consistent effect of mixtures on reducing rust on the most susceptible genotype, Salix viminalis '77082' were observed. In some years, e.g. 2003, at certain times during the growing season, significant reductions were observed on Salix viminalis '77082' in certain 3-way mixtures compared to mono-plots. These, however, were not repeated consistently in subsequent years. It was concluded that the current commercial practice in many parts of Europe of planting mixtures as a disease control strategy will only be effective if there is sufficient genetic diversity between the Salix genotypes incorporated into the mixture. (author)

  11. What the Willow Teaches: Sustainability Learning as Craft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cato, Molly Scott

    2014-01-01

    Whilst the importance of mainstreaming sustainability in higher education curricula is now widely acknowledged, the challenge for educators at university level is to develop and maintain authority and confidence in an area dominated by limited knowledge and uncertainty. This article suggests that the most empowering and authentic response is to…

  12. Willow Trees from Heavy Metals Phytoextraction as Energy Crops

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šyc, Michal; Pohořelý, Michael; Kameníková, Petra; Habart, J.; Svoboda, Karel; Punčochář, Miroslav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 37, - (2012), s. 106-113 ISSN 0961-9534 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA104/07/0977; GA MŠk 2B08048 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : phytoextraction * heavy metal * incineration Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.975, year: 2012

  13. FEM growth and yield data monocultures - White willow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.J.; Oosterbaan, A.; Goudzwaard, L.; Oldenburger, J.F.; Mohren, G.M.J.; Ouden, den J.

    2016-01-01

    The current database is part of the FEM growth and yield database, a collection of growth and yield data from even-aged monocultures (douglas fir, common oak, poplar, Japanese Larch, Norway spruce, Scots pine, Corsican pine, Austrian pine, red oak and several other species, with only a few plots,

  14. Willow Run Laboratories: Separating from the University of Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, John

    1972-01-01

    Outlines the reasons for, and the problems involved in, separation of a research center from the University of Michigan in order to become an independent research organization contracting for private and military research. (AL)

  15. Bottom Production

    CERN Document Server

    Nason, P.; Schneider, O.; Tartarelli, G.F.; Vikas, P.; Baines, J.; Baranov, S.P.; Bartalini, P.; Bay, A.; Bouhova, E.; Cacciari, M.; Caner, A.; Coadou, Y.; Corti, G.; Damet, J.; Dell'Orso, R.; De Mello Neto, J.R.T.; Domenech, J.L.; Drollinger, V.; Eerola, P.; Ellis, N.; Epp, B.; Frixione, S.; Gadomski, S.; Gavrilenko, I.; Gennai, S.; George, S.; Ghete, V.M.; Guy, L.; Hasegawa, Y.; Iengo, P.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jones, R.; Kharchilava, A.; Kneringer, E.; Koppenburg, P.; Korsmo, H.; Kramer, M.; Labanca, N.; Lehto, M.; Maltoni, F.; Mangano, Michelangelo L.; Mele, S.; Nairz, A.M.; Nakada, T.; Nikitin, N.; Nisati, A.; Norrbin, E.; Palla, F.; Rizatdinova, F.; Robins, S.; Rousseau, D.; Sanchis-Lozano, M.A.; Shapiro, M.; Sherwood, P.; Smirnova, L.; Smizanska, M.; Starodumov, A.; Stepanov, N.; Vogt, R.

    2000-01-01

    We review the prospects for bottom production physics at the LHC. Members of the working group who has contributed to this document are: J. Baines, S.P. Baranov, P. Bartalini, A. Bay, E. Bouhova, M. Cacciari, A. Caner, Y. Coadou, G. Corti, J. Damet, R. Dell'Orso, J.R.T. De Mello Neto, J.L. Domenech, V. Drollinger, P. Eerola, N. Ellis, B. Epp, S. Frixione, S. Gadomski, I. Gavrilenko, S. Gennai, S. George, V.M. Ghete, L. Guy, Y. Hasegawa, P. Iengo, A. Jacholkowska, R. Jones, A. Kharchilava, E. Kneringer, P. Koppenburg, H. Korsmo, M. Kraemer, N. Labanca, M. Lehto, F. Maltoni, M.L. Mangano, S. Mele, A.M. Nairz, T. Nakada, N. Nikitin, A. Nisati, E. Norrbin, F. Palla, F. Rizatdinova, S. Robins, D. Rousseau, M.A. Sanchis-Lozano, M. Shapiro, P. Sherwood, L. Smirnova, M. Smizanska, A. Starodumov, N. Stepanov, R. Vogt

  16. Production management (1976)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sun Ryong

    1976-03-01

    This book introduces production management theory, which gives descriptions of production and system, systems approach, development of production management, Taylor system, Ford system, types of production system, measuring ingredients model of production management, decision of production management, selection of production facilities, arrangement of facilities design of work method and task, work measure system, demanding fore casting, production quality system and credibility system.

  17. From Product Models to Product State Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Michael Holm

    1999-01-01

    A well-known technology designed to handle product data is Product Models. Product Models are in their current form not able to handle all types of product state information. Hence, the concept of a Product State Model (PSM) is proposed. The PSM and in particular how to model a PSM is the Research...

  18. Assessing soil quality and potential productivity - a basic approach to define and assess the marginality of land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repmann, Frank; Gerwin, Werner; Freese, Dirk

    2017-04-01

    An ever growing demand for energy and the widely proposed switch from fossil fuels to more sustainable energy sources puts the cultivation and use of bioenergy plants into focus. However, bioenergy production on regular and fertile agricultural soils might conflict with the worldwide growing demand for food. To mitigate or omit this potential conflict, the use of low quality or marginal land for cultivation of bioenergy plants becomes favorable. Against this background the definition and assessment of land marginality and, respectively, the evaluation whether and to which extent specific areas are marginal and thus convenient for sustainable bioenergy production, becomes highly relevant. Within the framework of the EU funded Horizon 2020 project SEEMLA, we attempted to asses land marginality of designated test sites in the Ukraine, Greece and Germany by direct field survey. For that purpose, soil and site properties were investigated and evaluated by applying the Muencheberg Soil Quality Rating (SQR) method, developed at the Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF). The method deploys a comprehensive set of biogeophysical and chemical indicators to describe and finally evaluate the quality of the soil and site by a score ranging from 1 to 100 points. Field survey data were supported by additional laboratory tests on a representative set of soil samples. Practical field work and analysis of field and lab data from the investigated sites proved the applicability of the SQR method within the SEEMLA context. The SQR indices calculated from the field and lab data ranged from 2 to Greece and Germany, which differed considerably in respect to their characteristics. Correlating the site quality index to yield data reflecting yield estimations for common bioenergy plants such as willow (Salix sp.), black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) and poplar (Populus sp.) cultivated at the respective test sites, revealed that SQR might additionally reflect the potential

  19. Tobacco Products Production and Operations Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Treasury — Monthly statistical reports on tobacco products production and operations. Data for Tobacco Statistical Release is derived directly from the Report – Manufacturer of...

  20. Innovation in Product Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAloone, Tim C.; Restrepo-Giraldo, John Dairo

    2005-01-01

    The course on Innovation in Product Development attempts to identify and understand the nature of innovation and product development and their important factors. The course takes both a theoretical and a practical approach and employs a mix of lectures, project work and group discussion. Format...... insight. Course content The following aspects of innovation in product development are considered: - Humans and products - Needs and products - Product life - Teams creating products - Products creating business - Product development models - Organising product development - Product development tools...... - The future of product development....

  1. SaferProducts API

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Consumer Product Safety Commission — On March 11, 2011, the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission launched SaferProducts.gov. This site hosts the agency's new Publicly Available Consumer Product...

  2. Product and labour market regulations, production prices, wages and productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cette, G.; Lopez, J.; Mairesse, J.

    2015-01-01

    This study is an attempt to evaluate the effects of product and labour market regulations on industry productivity through their various impacts on changes in production prices and wages. In a first stage, the estimation of a regression equation on an industry*country panel, with controls for

  3. Production management (2000)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Chung Yeong

    2000-08-01

    This book includes basic concept of production management, production system, strategy and mission of production, decision of production management, operation of decision making, life cycle of items and development, value of productions, design for reliability of productions, equipment layout and manufacturing process, quantitative forecast, schedule plan, inventory system, concept, input and output of MRP, Montekalo simulation, quality management, and automation system.

  4. Product Service Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Departing from Product Development models based on physical artefacts. Moving towards integrated Product Development and System Operations models suited Product/Service-systems......Departing from Product Development models based on physical artefacts. Moving towards integrated Product Development and System Operations models suited Product/Service-systems...

  5. Energy performances of intensive and extensive short rotation cropping systems for woody biomass production in the EU

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Djomo, S. N.; Ač, Alexander; Zenone, T.; De Groote, T.; Bergante, S.; Facciotto, G.; Sixto, H.; Ciria Ciria, P.; Weger, J.; Ceulemans, R.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 41, jan (2015), s. 845-854 ISSN 1364-0321 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EE2.3.30.0056 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : poplar * willow * bioenergy crops * energy balance * energy efficiency Subject RIV: GC - Agronomy Impact factor: 6.798, year: 2015

  6. Energy balance and cost-benefit analysis of biogas production from perennial energy crops pretreated by wet oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uellendahl, Hinrich; Wang, Guangtao; Møller, H.B.

    2008-01-01

    . The conversion into biogas in anaerobic digestion plants shows however much lower specific methane yields for the raw perennial crops like miscanthus and willow due to their lignocellulosic structure. Without pretreatment the net energy gain is therefore lower for the perennials than for corn. When applying wet...

  7. Diseases and pests in biomass production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royle, D.J.; Hunter, Tom; McNabb, H.S. Jr.

    1998-01-01

    The current status of disease and pest problems in willow and poplar biomass systems for energy within Canada, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States is described. The IEA Disease and Pest Activities within the recent Task XII (1995-1997), and previous Tasks since 1987, have provided outstanding opportunities for international co-operation which has served substantially to augment national research programmes. Work is described on recognizing different forms of an insect pest or pathogen and understanding the genetic basis of its variability, which is of fundamental importance in developing pest management strategies that exclude inputs of energy-rich materials such as pesticides. Options for more natural pest control are considered including breeding for resistance, plantation designs based on host genotype diversity and biological control 16 refs, 2 figs

  8. The growth productivity, and environmental impact of the cultivation of energy crops on sandy soil in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholz, V. [Institut fuer Agrartechnik Bornim e.V., Potsdam (Germany); Ellerbrock, R. [Zentrum fuer Agrarlandschafts- und Landnutzungsforschung e.V. Muencheberg (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    Energy plants, cultivated on set-aside land, could substitute nearly 3% of the primary energy in Germany and could raise the income of farmers. However, the substitution of fossil fuels by plants requires the selection of plant species with high site suitability, an ecologically benign farming system and high yields. This paper describes results of the cultivation of 10 energy plant species suitable for combustion. Over a period of 6 yr, yield, energy gain, and environmentally relevant substances in the plant and the soil were determined under practical conditions. Fertilization was carried out in four variants each ranging from 0 to 150 kgNha{sup -1} and with wood- and straw-ashes, as well as basic mineral fertilizer. Plant protection products were entirely dispensed with. The results show that, except for topinambur haulm (Jerusalem artichoke) and short rotation coppice with undersown crops, the mean yield ranges between 8 and 12 t{sub DM} ha{sup -1} and that a reduction of nitrogen application from 150 to 75 kgNh{sup -1} causes only slight yield losses. Without fertilization, yields diminish by 20-40% after 6 years, except for poplars, which reach similarly a high yield level as with fertilization. The contents of the emission- and combustion-relevant plant nutrients, such as nitrogen, potassium, sulfur and chlorine, are significantly lower in poplars and willows than in grass, rye, triticale and hemp. Heavy metals, such as cadmium, copper, zinc, and lead, are absorbed differently. Hemp, poplars, and winter rye allow high-energy yields to be achieved. Even if nitrogen fertilization is reduced, net energy gains of more than 120 GJha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} (3.2 kl oil equivalent ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1}) are reached. (author)

  9. Production monitoring system for understanding product robustness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boorla, Srinivasa Murthy; Howard, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    study is used to demonstrate how the monitoring system can be used to efficiently guide corrective action to improve product performance. It is claimed that the monitoring system can be used to dramatically cut the time taken to identify, planand execute corrective action related to typical quality......In the current quality paradigm, the performance of a product is kept within specification by ensuring that its parts are within specification. Product performance is then validated after final assembly. However, this does not control how robust the product performance is, i.e. how much...... it will vary between the specification limits. In this paper, a model for predicting product performance is proposed, taking into account design, assembly and process parameters live from production. This empowers production to maintain final product performance, instead of part quality. The PRECI‐IN case...

  10. Energy production on farms. Sustainability of energy crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Zeijts, H.

    1995-01-01

    In this article the results of a study on sustainability of energy crops are discussed. Contribution to the reduction of the greenhouse effect and other environmental effects were investigated for the Netherlands. The study assumed that energy crops are grown on set-aside land or grain land. Generating electricity and/or heat from hemp, reed, miscanthus, poplar and willow show the best prospects. These crops are sustainable and may in the future be economically feasible. Ethanol from winter wheat shows the most favourable environmental effects, but is not economically efficient. Liquid fuels from oil seed rape and sugar beet are not very sustainable. 2 tabs., 4 refs

  11. Productivity and Performance Measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Kim Sundtoft; Spring, Martin

    This study explores conceptually how performance measurement as discussed in the literature, enables or constrains the ability to manage and improve productivity. It uses an inter-disciplinary literature review to identify five areas of concern relating productivity accounting to the ability...... to improve productivity: “Productivity representation”; “productivity incentives”, “productivity intervention”; “productivity trade-off or synergy” and “productivity strategy and context”. The paper discusses these areas of concern and expands our knowledge of how productivity and performance measurement...

  12. Product Structure, the Heart of Product Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeHoog, C., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the LMMSS Product Definition System (PDS) philosophy and approach were the use of each item parts document or software can be traced to a specific end item (EI) serial/tail number of the product. It explains why a part-oriented approach to data organization and configuration management is required. The definition of part-oriented is that all appropriate product definition data products will be collected. Referenced and managed by their linkage/relationship to parts/items, The paper will touch upon how LMMSS store/controls product definition information under each project's top product designator in a two tiered approach. One tier for each product end item and another tier which contain/controls listings of drawings, documents. Specifications and standards that are required for hardware item definition.

  13. Modelling impacts of second generation bioenergy production on Ecosystem Services in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henner, Dagmar; Smith, Pete; Davies, Christian; McNamara, Niall

    2016-04-01

    Bioenergy crops are an important source of renewable energy and are a possible mechanism to mitigate global climate warming, by replacing fossil fuel energy with higher greenhouse gas emissions. There is, however, uncertainty about the impacts of the growth of bioenergy crops on ecosystem services. This uncertainty is further enhanced by the unpredictable climate change currently going on. The goal of this project is to develop a comprehensive model that covers high impact, policy relevant ecosystem services at a Continental scale including biodiversity and pollination, water and air security, erosion control and soil security, GHG emissions, soil C and cultural services like tourism value. The technical distribution potential and likely yield of second generation energy crops, such as Miscanthus, Short Rotation Coppice (SRC) with willow, poplar, eucalyptus and other broadleaf species and Short Rotation Forestry (SRF), is currently being modelled using ECOSSE, DayCent, SalixFor and MiscanFor, and ecosystem models will be used to examine the impacts of these crops on ecosystem services. The project builds on models of energy crop production, biodiversity, soil impacts, greenhouse gas emissions and other ecosystem services, and on work undertaken in the UK on the ETI-funded ELUM project (www.elum.ac.uk). In addition, methods like water footprint tools, tourism value maps and ecosystem valuation tools and models (e.g. InVest, TEEB database, GREET LCA Model, World Business Council for Sustainable Development corporate ecosystem valuation, Millennium Ecosystem Assessment and the Ecosystem Services Framework) will be utilised. Research will focus on optimisation of land use change feedbacks on above named ecosystem services, impact on food security, land management practices and impacts from climate change. We will present results for GHG emissions and soil organic carbon change after different land use change scenarios (e.g. arable to Miscanthus, forest to SRF), and

  14. Whole system analysis of second generation bioenergy production and Ecosystem Services in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henner, Dagmar; Smith, Pete; Davies, Christian; McNamara, Niall

    2017-04-01

    Bioenergy crops are an important source of renewable energy and are a possible mechanism to mitigate global climate warming, by replacing fossil fuel energy that has higher greenhouse gas emissions. There is, however, uncertainty about the impacts of the growth of bioenergy crops on ecosystem services. This uncertainty is further enhanced by current climate change. It is important to establish how second generation bioenergy crops (Miscanthus, SRC willow and poplar) can contribute by closing the gap between reducing fossil fuel use and increasing the use of other renewable sources in a sustainable way. The project builds on models of energy crop production, biodiversity, soil impacts, greenhouse gas emissions and other ecosystem services, and on work undertaken in the UK on the ETI-funded ELUM project (www.elum.ac.uk). We will present estimated yields for the above named crops in Europe using the ECOSSE, DayCent, SalixFor and MiscanFor models. These yields will be brought into context with a whole system analysis, detailing trade-offs and synergies for land use change, food security, GHG emissions and soil and water security. Methods like water footprint tools, tourism value maps and ecosystem valuation tools and models (e.g. InVest, TEEB database, GREET LCA Model, World Business Council for Sustainable Development corporate ecosystem valuation, Millennium Ecosystem Assessment and the Ecosystem Services Framework) will be used to estimate and visualise the impacts of increased use of second generation bioenergy crops on the above named ecosystem services. The results will be linked to potential yields to generate "inclusion or exclusion areas" in Europe in order to establish suitable areas for bioenergy crop production and the extent of use possible. Policy is an important factor for using second generation bioenergy crops in a sustainable way. We will present how whole system analysis can be used to create scenarios for countries or on a continental scale. As an

  15. Phytoremediation, a sustainable remediation technology? II: Economic assessment of CO2 abatement through the use of phytoremediation crops for renewable energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witters, N.; Mendelsohn, R.; Van Passel, S.; Van Slycken, S.; Weyens, N.; Schreurs, E.; Meers, E.; Tack, F.; Vanheusden, B.; Vangronsveld, J.

    2012-01-01

    Phytoremediation could be a sustainable remediation alternative for conventional remediation technologies. However, its implementation on a commercial scale remains disappointing. To emphasize its sustainability, this paper examines whether and how the potential economic benefit of CO 2 abatement for different crops used for phytoremediation or sustainable land management purposes could promote phytotechnologies. Our analysis is based on a case study in the Campine region, where agricultural soils are contaminated with mainly cadmium. We use Life Cycle Analysis to show for the most relevant crops (willow (Salix spp), energy maize (Zea mays), and rapeseed (Brassica napus)), that phytoremediation, used for renewable energy production, could abate CO 2 . Converting this in economic numbers through the Marginal Abatement Cost of CO 2 (€ 20 ton −1 ) we can integrate this in the economic analysis to compare phytoremediation crops among each other, and phytoremediation with conventional technologies. The external benefit of CO 2 abatement when using phytoremediation crops for land management ranges between € 55 and € 501 per hectare. The purpose of these calculations is not to calculate a subsidy for phytoremediation. There is no reason why one would prefer phytoremediation crops for renewable energy production over “normal” biomass. Moreover, subsidies for renewable energy already exist. Therefore, we should not integrate these numbers in the economic analysis again. However, these numbers could contribute to making explicit the competitive advantage of phytoremediation compared to conventional remediation technologies, but also add to a more sustainably funded decision on which crop should be grown on contaminated land. -- Highlights: ► We add CO 2 abatement for each remediation crop to the private economic analysis. ► This values the advantage of phytoremediation compared to conventional remediation. ► This leads to a crop choice that considers an

  16. Heavy Flavour Production

    CERN Document Server

    Nason, Paolo; Ridolfi, Giovanni

    1995-01-01

    We review the status of heavy flavour production in QCD. Comparison of experimental and theoretical results for top and bottom production are given. Selected topics in charm production are also discussed.

  17. Animal Product Safety Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Product Safety Information Product Safety Information Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... to report adverse experiences with veterinary drugs. Additional Product Information Questions and Answers: Evanger’s Dog and Cat ...

  18. Urinary incontinence products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003973.htm Urinary incontinence products To use the sharing features on this ... There are many products to help you manage urinary incontinence . You can decide which product to choose based ...

  19. COTTAGE CHEESE PRODUCTS FUNCTIONALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Golubeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cottage cheese products holds a significant place among the dairy and milk-containing products. The range of products includes cheese: cheese, pastes, creams, cakes, etc. Such diversity can be attributed to their popularity among the population and benefit brought by the body from regular use. Curd protein is much better and easier to digest by the body than protein fish, meat or milk. Rich curd products lysine and methionine. Minerals contained in cheese products have a positive effect on bone formation and structure of tissues. The composition of curd products, in addition to cheese and dairy ingredients may include non-dairy ingredients origin. Today, for the production of cheese products use the most advanced technologies to further enrich its structure and significantly improve the nutritional value. Pine nut is widely used in the manufacture of many dairy products. But, in most cases, the production of dairy products as a filler used pine nut cake, which deprives the finished product valuable cedar oil. The authors proposed a technology for producing curd product with the addition of pine nuts and honey (pine nuts and fructose. Compatible with cream cheese filling insertion determined sensory organoleptic point scale. he optimum dosage of components: pine nuts – 5 %, honey – 10 % fructose – 7 %. Technological process of cottage cheese product is different from the traditional operations training components and their introduction into the finished cheese. Identify indicators of quality of the new product. Production of curd products thus expanding the range of dairy products functional orientation.

  20. STRATEGIES FOR INCREASING PRODUCTIVITY IN PRODUCTION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Pacheco

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this article is to point a set of practical strategies that can be adopted to increase the capacity of constraints resources on production systems, when the constraint is inside the factory and not is in the market. To serve this purpose will be presented strategies based on best practices of the Theory of Constraints, Lean Manufacturing and Total Productive Maintenance. This article also presents the mains tools for the deployment of these methodologies. The survey results have provided an objective set of practical strategy that can be used to increase the capacity and productivity of production systems according to the needs of each manufacturing system.

  1. PDT (Product Data Technology), Production and Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterager, Johan

    1997-01-01

    Information and communication technology (ICT) constitute a genuine technical revolution by enabling a dynamic and flexible support or automation of knowledge and information work. Bearing in mind that products are frozen knowledge, ICT as known will change the way we produce products dramatically....... The use of ICT in engineering of products constitutes product data technology (PDT).This paper presents a a basic platform for an understanding the ongoing revolution with focus on the PDT-area taking outset in the fundamental elements of knowledge and information work: creation, transformation...

  2. Animal Production Research Advances

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Animal Production Research Advances is a peer-review journal established expressly to promote the production of all animal species utilized as food. The journal has an international scope and is intended for professionals in animal production and related sciences. We solicit contributions from animal production and ...

  3. Intelligent products : A survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, G.G.; Främling, K.; Holmström, J.

    This paper presents an overview of the field of Intelligent Products. As Intelligent Products have many facets, this paper is mainly focused on the concept behind Intelligent Products, the technical foundations, and the achievable practical goals of Intelligent Products. A novel classification of

  4. Making Product Customization Profitable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Hvam, Lars; Haug, Anders

    2010-01-01

    The main result presented in this paper is the Framework for Product Family Master Plan. This framework supports the identification of a product architecture for companies that customize products and services. The framework has five coherent aspects, the market, product assortment, supply...

  5. Consumer Product Category Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Chemical and Product Categories database (CPCat) catalogs the use of over 40,000 chemicals and their presence in different consumer products. The chemical use information is compiled from multiple sources while product information is gathered from publicly available Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS). EPA researchers are evaluating the possibility of expanding the database with additional product and use information.

  6. Ergonomic Product Design 21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Yeong Guk

    1996-09-01

    This book explains basic of ergonomic product design with human engineering, image engineering and strategy of that design, ergonomic industrial design, which includes product design to access the human engineering in development of new product and customer satisfaction, application technology of image engineering, industrial design of human engineering item and strategy of human engineering, a good ergonomic design. It also tells of examples of convenient design for human such as hardware product and software product in automobile, telephones for ergonomic product in the future, new goods and new technology, ergonomic product in house and office, and computers and robots in the future.

  7. Product Family Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Morten

    their focus from single products to entire product families and try to incorporate the development of product variety into a future product family. The key is to create fit between the product design and production setup. The challenge of understanding this fit and modelling dispositional relations between...... and on the ideas of lean production, plus experiences from the industrial collaboration. The idea of waste from the lean philosophy is brought into a product variety context, and discussed in relation to product development. Verification of the model has been carried out in an industrial setting at Danfoss......This thesis reports the results of a PhD project from the Technical University of Denmark. The research has been carried out in a collaborative project with the Danish company Danfoss Automatic Controls. In the global market companies are struggling to meet customers’ expectation of products...

  8. Designing Product Families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Per Erik Elgård; Miller, Thomas Dedenroth

    1998-01-01

    Manufacturing companies that operate with products aimed at different market segments and applications are experiencing an increasing demand from customers who expect products to be tailored to their exact needs rather than accepting general products based on average customer needs. This trend ha......: Variety, Design Principles, and Product Maturity.......Manufacturing companies that operate with products aimed at different market segments and applications are experiencing an increasing demand from customers who expect products to be tailored to their exact needs rather than accepting general products based on average customer needs. This trend has...... led to a new business paradigm, "mass customization", where companies strive to provide highly customized products while still maintaining the efficiency of the classical mass production enterprise. One of the key factors in mass customization has been efficient use of product platforms...

  9. Production Function Geometry with "Knightian" Total Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truett, Dale B.; Truett, Lila J.

    2007-01-01

    Authors of principles and price theory textbooks generally illustrate short-run production using a total product curve that displays first increasing and then diminishing marginal returns to employment of the variable input(s). Although it seems reasonable that a temporary range of increasing returns to variable inputs will likely occur as…

  10. Probiotic fermented dairy products

    OpenAIRE

    Adnan Tamime; Rajka Božanić; Irena Rogelj

    2003-01-01

    Fermented dairy products are the most popular vehicle used in theindustry for the implantation of the probiotic microflora in humans. Therefore this paper provides an overview of new knowledge on probiotic fermented dairy products. It involves historical developments, commercial probiotic microorganisms and products, and their therapeutic properties, possibilities of quality improvement of different types of newly developed fermented dairy products together with fermented goat’s milk products.

  11. Software product quality measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Godliauskas, Eimantas

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyses Ruby product quality measures, suggesting three new measures for Ruby product quality measurement tool Rubocop to measure Ruby product quality characteristics defined in ISO 2502n standard series. This paper consists of four main chapters. The first chapter gives a brief view of software product quality and software product quality measurement. The second chapter analyses object oriented quality measures. The third chapter gives a brief view of the most popular Ruby qualit...

  12. Fission products collecting devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Hiroshi

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To enable fission products trap with no contamination to coolants and cover gas by the provision of a fission products trap above the upper part of a nuclear power plant. Constitution: Upon fuel failures in a reactor core, nuclear fission products leak into coolants and move along the flow of the coolants to the coolants above the reactor core. The fission products are collected in a trap container and guided along a pipeline into fission products detector. The fission products detector monitors the concentration of the fission products and opens the downstream valve of the detector when a predetermined concentration of the fission products is detected to introduce the fission products into a waste gas processing device and release them through the exhaust pipe. (Seki, T.)

  13. BRAND - PRODUCT INTERDEPENDENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudor NISTORESCU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we conceptually discussed the brands’ role in the society, the dimensions of branding and the relationship between the brand and the products. We adhere to the main ideas expressed in the literature, that the brand is more than a product. However the product is needed to render the brand tangible. The product is the magic box that delivers the brand experience. Without the product, the brand meaning would have difficulties in attracting customers. More studies are needed to investigate the brand-product relationship.

  14. Emulsified Water Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Tuğçe AKSUN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Seafood is very important depending on having high protein rate and easily digestibility by human, for supply to an important part of animal protein needed. Determining the quality of emulsion-type products, emulsion stability, viscosity and gel strength properties are very important. In the production of products specified in this property emulsion; the main protein ratio and properties of raw material used while you; emulsion pH, temperature, ionic violence, mixing speed, type of fat and additives that are used as well. Previous studies show that particularly of products resulting from water emulsified chicken and goat meat emulsified product obtained from a high capacity of emulsified and compared to cattle and sheep meat is close to specifications, preparation of emulsified type products may be appropriate for the use of fish meat. Another quality parameter in the emulsified meat products, viscosity depends on the amount of meat used in direct proportion with the texture. Fish meat animals in connective tissue connective tissue in meat other butchers to rate ratio is quite low. In this respect, the fish meat produced using emulsified products viscosity according to products prepared using other meat products is quite low. Fish meat produced using emulsified fish sausage products based on surimi, sausage and fish pate fish varieties classed emulsion type products. In this review the different types of seafood using emulsified meat product.

  15. Micro Products - Product Development and Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2003-01-01

    Innovation within the field of micro and nano technology is to a great extent characterized by cross-disciplinary skills. The traditional disciplines like e.g. physics, biology, medicine and engineering are united in a common development process that can only take place in the presence of multi......-disciplinary competences. One example is sensors for chemical analysis of fluids, where chemistry, biology and flow mechanics all influence the design of the product and thereby the industrial fabrication of the product [1]. On the technological side the development has moved very fast, primarily driven by the need...... of the electronics industry to create still smaller chips with still larger capacity. Therefore the manufacturing technologies connected with micro/nano products in silicon are relatively highly developed compared to the technologies used for manufacturing micro products in metals, polymers and ceramics. For all...

  16. Productivity and Competitiveness of Sorghum Production in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    showed that sorghum production in the study areas yielded profitable returns ... Keywords: Sorghum, Profitability, Competitiveness, Investment Potential, .... Guinness Ghana Brewery Limited to estimate cost and returns at the marketing sector ...

  17. Product line design

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Anderson, S. P.; Celik, Levent

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 157, May (2015), s. 517-526 ISSN 0022-0531 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : product line design * product differentiation * second-degree price discrimination Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.097, year: 2015

  18. Advances in production technology

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This edited volume contains the selected papers presented at the scientific board meeting of the German Cluster of Excellence on “Integrative Production Technology for High-Wage Countries”,  held in November 2014. The topical structure of the book is clustered in six sessions: Integrative Production Technology, Individualised Production, Virtual Production Systems, Integrated Technologies, Self-Optimising Production Systems and Human Factors in Production Technology. The Aachen perspective on a holistic theory of production is complemented by conference papers from external leading researchers in the fields of production, materials science and bordering disciplines. The target audience primarily comprises research experts and practitioners in the field but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  19. Transformer Industry Productivity Slows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Phyllis Flohr

    1981-01-01

    Annual productivity increases averaged 2.4 percent during 1963-79, slowing since 1972 to 1.5 percent; computer-assisted design and product standardization aided growth in output per employee-hour. (Author)

  20. Phenomenology of lepton production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renard, F.M.

    1976-06-01

    The problem of lepton production in hadronic collisions is reviewed. The following subjects are developed: the Drell-Yan model for continuous l + l - production, vector mesons and clusters, and other sources of direct leptons [fr

  1. Pesticide Product Label System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) provides a collection of pesticide product labels (Adobe PDF format) that have been approved by EPA under Section 3 of the...

  2. Dictionaries for text production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuertes-Olivera, Pedro; Bergenholtz, Henning

    2018-01-01

    Dictionaries for Text Production are information tools that are designed and constructed for helping users to produce (i.e. encode) texts, both oral and written texts. These can be broadly divided into two groups: (a) specialized text production dictionaries, i.e., dictionaries that only offer...... a small amount of lexicographic data, most or all of which are typically used in a production situation, e.g. synonym dictionaries, grammar and spelling dictionaries, collocation dictionaries, concept dictionaries such as the Longman Language Activator, which is advertised as the World’s First Production...... Dictionary; (b) general text production dictionaries, i.e., dictionaries that offer all or most of the lexicographic data that are typically used in a production situation. A review of existing production dictionaries reveals that there are many specialized text production dictionaries but only a few general...

  3. Household Products Database: Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Products Manufacturers Ingredients About the Database FAQ Product ... control bulbs carpenter ants caterpillars crabgrass control deer dogs dogs/cats fertilizer w/insecticide fertilizer w/weed ...

  4. Consumer Product Category Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Chemical and Product Categories database (CPCat) catalogs the use of over 40,000 chemicals and their presence in different consumer products. The chemical use...

  5. Globalization and Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayakawa, Kazunobu; Machikita, Tomohiro

    2012-01-01

    Recent empirical studies which utilize plant- or establishment-level data to examine globalization's impact on productivity have discovered many causal mechanisms involved in globalization's impact on firms’ productivity. Because these pathways have been broad, there have been few attempts...

  6. Production sharing agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This paper, which was presented at the Production Sharing Agreement seminar, discusses economic rent, negotiations, trends in fiscal system development, and concessionary systems. Production sharing contracts, risk service contracts, joint ventures and the global market are examined. (UK)

  7. Alcohol production from whey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reesen, L

    1978-01-01

    The continuous production of ethanol from whey permeate, by fermentation of its lactose with Kluyveromyces fragilis, is described. From whey containing 4.4% lactose, production costs were very competitive with those for alcohol from molasses.

  8. National pulpwood production, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald J. Piva; James W. Bentley; Steven W. Hayes

    2014-01-01

    U.S. pulpwood production amounted to 86.5 million cords in 2010, a decrease of 4 percent from 2008. Roundwood production totaled 65.7 million cords and accounted for 76 percent of the Nation's total pulpwood production. The Southern Region led the Nation in total production with 65.5 million cords, followed by the Northern Region with 12.8 million cords, and the...

  9. National pulpwood production, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tony G. Johnson; Ronald J. Piva; Brian F. Walters; al. et.

    2011-01-01

    United States’ pulpwood production amounted to 89.2 million cords in 2008. Roundwood production totaled 63.0 million cords and accounted for 71 percent of the Nation’s total pulpwood production. The use of wood residue totaled 26.2 million cords. Georgia led the Nation in total production, with 11.6 million cords. In 2008, 146 mills were operating and drawing wood from...

  10. Southern pulpwood production, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tony G. Johnson; Carolyn D. Steppleton; James w. Bentley

    2009-01-01

    The South’s production of pulpwood increased from 64.7 million cords in 2006 to 65.7 million cords in 2007. Roundwood production increased 1.2 million cords to 47.6 million cords and accounted for 72 percent of the total pulpwood production. The use of wood residue declined 1 percent to 18.2 million cords. Alabama led the South in total production at 10.6 million cords...

  11. Nordic Noir Production Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waade, Anne Marit; Jensen, Pia Majbritt

    2013-01-01

    In this article the authors argue that Nordic noir constitutes a set of production values utilised and conceptualised to make Danish television series attractive in the international market. The idea of production values is embedded into a media industrial context where market principles of target...... by relating the specific Nordic noir production values present in the two series to changing conditions in Danish television drama production, in particular the internationalisation of DR’s Drama Division....

  12. Pomegranate production and marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    This book is relatively short, with 134 pages, 15 chapters, 52 figures, and 20 tables. It ranges from cultivar descriptions, production, biotic and abiotic challenges to production, to postharvest, aril and juice production, health benefits, and international trade. It contains great information and...

  13. Reconstituted products from oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. C. Lewis; B. G. Heebink

    1971-01-01

    "Reconstituted" describes a family of panel products made from fractionated oak, bonded with either a synthetic resin or a natural lignin bond. Several current commercial fiber panel products from oak are described, and the status of research on experimental products and processes is presented. Recent technological developments are removing the stigma...

  14. Scenario based product design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tideman, M.

    2008-01-01

    Creating good products is not an easy thing to do. There are usually many different people who have an interest in the product. People such as the user, of course, but also marketing managers, production engineers, maintenance workers, recycling specialists, and government representatives, just to

  15. Age, Wage and Productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ours, J.C.; Stoeldraijer, L.

    2010-01-01

    Previous empirical studies on the effect of age on productivity and wages find contradicting results. Some studies find that if workers grow older there is an increasing gap between productivity and wages, i.e. wages increase with age while productivity does not or does not increase at the same

  16. Polling, production & priorities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winands, E.M.M.

    2007-01-01

    Polling, Production & Priorities The present monograph focuses on the so-called stochastic economic lot scheduling problem (SELSP), which deals with the make-to-stock production of multiple standardized products on a single machine with limited capacity under random demands, possibly random setup

  17. Star Products and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Iida, Mari; Yoshioka, Akira

    2010-01-01

    Star products parametrized by complex matrices are defined. Especially commutative associative star products are treated, and star exponentials with respect to these star products are considered. Jacobi's theta functions are given as infinite sums of star exponentials. As application, several concrete identities are obtained by properties of the star exponentials.

  18. Framework of product experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desmet, P.; Hekkert, P.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a general framework for product experience that applies to all affective responses that can be experienced in human-product interaction. Three distinct components or levels of product experiences are discussed: aesthetic experience, experience of meaning, and emotional

  19. Evolving production network structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunow, Martin; Gunther, H.O.; Burdenik, H.

    2007-01-01

    When deciding about future production network configurations, the current structures have to be taken into account. Further, core issues such as the maturity of the products and the capacity requirements for test runs and ramp-ups must be incorporated. Our approach is based on optimization...... modelling and assigns products and capacity expansions to production sites under the above constraints. It also considers the production complexity at the individual sites and the flexibility of the network. Our implementation results for a large manufacturing network reveal substantial possible cost...

  20. Product Structuring, an overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tichem, Marcel; Storm, Ton; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    1997-01-01

    .In the paper, the field of product structuring is defined and broken down into topics. For each of the topics, results of research are presented. Issues for further research are identified. The references in the paper refer to papers in the proceedings of the workshops.......This paper presents the highlights of two WDK Workshops on Product Structuring. Product structuring plays an important role in creating products which have good functional and life-cycle related properties, in design process management, and in several other company functions like production control...

  1. Productivity analysis of sunflower production in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semerci, A.

    2012-01-01

    In Turkey, which ranks the tenth country worldwide in the sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) production, 55% of the production is carried out in Thrace Region. Therefore, agricultural enterprises in Thrace Region, situated in the European part of Turkey have specialized in producing sunflower, and have become the centre of vegetable oil industry in the region in terms of produced raw material. This research was conducted in 182 agricultural enterprises in 3 provinces of Thrace Region in Turkey and its objective was to determine input/output relations in sunflower production. The study indicates that the determination coefficient (r/sup 2/) derived from Cobb-Douglas production function was significant at 0.01 level and the elasticity coefficients of the variables (except chemical fertilizer) were found beta i positive in derived equation. It was determined that the variable of herbicide cost had the highest value of the marginal effectiveness coefficients and none of the variables was used at economically optimal level in the study area. When the Marginal Technical Substitution and the Price Rates were taken into consideration, it was noted that only the seed cost/hoeing cost was closest to economically optimum level (1.10). According to stepwise analysis the Land Renting Value was determined as the most important variable in sunflower production. (author)

  2. Product Platform Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus

    for customisation of products. In many companies these changes in the business environment have created a controversy between the need for a wide variety of products offered to the marketplace and a desire to reduce variation within the company in order to increase efficiency. Many companies use the concept...... other. These groups can be varied and combined to form different product variants without increasing the internal variety in the company. Based on the Theory of Domains, the concept of encapsulation in the organ domain is introduced, and organs are formulated as platform elements. Included......This PhD thesis has the title Product Platform Modelling. The thesis is about product platforms and visual product platform modelling. Product platforms have gained an increasing attention in industry and academia in the past decade. The reasons are many, yet the increasing globalisation...

  3. Low income product innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cecília Sobral

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available At affluent markets, the literature on product development management tells us to aggregate value and technology, to differentiate products and to launch fast. And at the low-income markets? This exploratory research defines a popular product, characterizes and measures their markets in Brazil, and identifies innovation strategies for them. The results suggest that the effective strategic orientation differs from affluent markets. It includes: to enhance the auto service component; to identify and service the key functionalities to the targeted public; to standardize products and increase the production scale; to extend the product life cycle; to use convenient distribution and marketing channels; to build product images that have appeal in the popular market; to offer longer financing horizons with befittingly lower installments. Data came from market researches and general demographic census. General media published stories were used to identify companies and their strategies. And a few case studies allowed the authors a deeper exploration of the relevant themes.

  4. Chlorhexidine in cosmetic products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Opstrup, Morten Schjørring; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Bossi, Rossana

    2015-01-01

    or an antimicrobial agent in cosmetic products at a concentration up to 0.3%, as set by the European Cosmetics Directive (now Regulations). OBJECTIVES: To identify cosmetic product types containing chlorhexidine, and to measure the concentration of chlorhexidine in selected products. METHODS: Between February 2013...... and April 2013, we checked for chlorhexidine in cosmetic products in 14 supermarkets, one hairdressing salon and one beauty and retail store in Copenhagen, Denmark by reading the ingredient labels. The chlorhexidine concentration was measured in 10 selected products by high-performance liquid chromatography...... concentrations were 0.01-0.15%. CONCLUSIONS: We found chlorhexidine in various cosmetic product types, predominantly aimed at females, and in hair products. The measured chlorhexidine concentrations were all within the permitted limit. The relevance for allergic sensitization should be further explored....

  5. Play as productionproduction as game?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eichberg, Henning

    2015-01-01

    Play-related products and their export have through recent decades contributed to a certain Danish image on the world level – with Lego bricks at the commercial end and adventure playgrounds at the pedagogical end. The phenomena of toy production and play exports challenge our understanding of what...... “play” and “game” are, and of their social as well as political significance. At the municipal level, the city of Odense – “city of Hans Christian Andersen” – is branding itself as “city of play”. On the international level, Danish play-related products have expanded on the world market. In the field...... of sport, Danish sport is not just elite sport, but also organized in local associations. People meet in mass summer festivals of popular sport. Folk Academies develop sport as personal development, often in an experimental way. Street sports, parkour, play and games are promoted. Civil society is a basis...

  6. 17 CFR 229.1204 - (Item 1204) Oil and gas production, production prices and production costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... production, production prices and production costs. 229.1204 Section 229.1204 Commodity and Securities... production, production prices and production costs. (a) For each of the last three fiscal years disclose... production cost, not including ad valorem and severance taxes, per unit of production. Instruction 1 to Item...

  7. Nephrotoxicity of Natural Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauffal, Mary; Gabardi, Steven

    2016-01-01

    The manufacture and sale of natural products constitute a multi-billion dollar industry. Nearly a third of the American population admit to using some form of complementary or alternative medicine, with many using them in addition to prescription medications. Most patients fail to inform their healthcare providers of their natural product use and physicians rarely inquire. Annually, thousands of natural product-induced adverse events are reported to Poison Control Centers nationwide. Natural product manufacturers are not responsible for proving safety and efficacy, as the FDA does not regulate them. However, concerns exist surrounding the safety of natural products. This review provides details on natural products that have been associated with renal dysfunction. We have focused on products that have been associated with direct renal injury, immune-mediated nephrotoxicity, nephrolithiasis, rhabdomyolysis with acute renal injury, hepatorenal syndrome, and common adulterants or contaminants that are associated with renal dysfunction. The potential for natural products to cause renal dysfunction is justifiable. It is imperative that natural product use be monitored closely in all patients. Healthcare practitioners must play an active role in identifying patients using natural products and provide appropriate patient education. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Fermentative production of isobutene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Bianca N M; van der Wulp, Albertus M; Duijnstee, Isabelle; van Maris, Antonius J A; Straathof, Adrie J J

    2012-02-01

    Isobutene (2-methylpropene) is one of those chemicals for which bio-based production might replace the petrochemical production in the future. Currently, more than 10 million metric tons of isobutene are produced on a yearly basis. Even though bio-based production might also be achieved through chemocatalytic or thermochemical methods, this review focuses on fermentative routes from sugars. Although biological isobutene formation is known since the 1970s, extensive metabolic engineering is required to achieve economically viable yields and productivities. Two recent metabolic engineering developments may enable anaerobic production close to the theoretical stoichiometry of 1isobutene + 2CO(2) + 2H(2)O per mol of glucose. One relies on the conversion of 3-hydroxyisovalerate to isobutene as a side activity of mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase and the other on isobutanol dehydration as a side activity of engineered oleate hydratase. The latter resembles the fermentative production of isobutanol followed by isobutanol recovery and chemocatalytic dehydration. The advantage of a completely biological route is that not isobutanol, but instead gaseous isobutene is recovered from the fermenter together with CO(2). The low aqueous solubility of isobutene might also minimize product toxicity to the microorganisms. Although developments are at their infancy, the potential of a large scale fermentative isobutene production process is assessed. The production costs estimate is 0.9 Euro kg(-1), which is reasonably competitive. About 70% of the production costs will be due to the costs of lignocellulose hydrolysate, which seems to be a preferred feedstock.

  9. Recombinant organisms for production of industrial products

    OpenAIRE

    Adrio, Jose-Luis; Demain, Arnold L

    2009-01-01

    A revolution in industrial microbiology was sparked by the discoveries of ther double-stranded structure of DNA and the development of recombinant DNA technology. Traditional industrial microbiology was merged with molecular biology to yield improved recombinant processes for the industrial production of primary and secondary metabolites, protein biopharmaceuticals and industrial enzymes. Novel genetic techniques such as metabolic engineering, combinatorial biosynthesis and molecular breeding...

  10. Leading co-production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tortzen, Anne

    leadership styles executed by public managers affect the quality and public value of co-production processes? The paper argues that publicly initiated co-production initiatives are influenced by conflicting governance logics placing public managers in an institutional cross pressure (Lowndes & Roberts, 2013...... of building networks and relations, developing trust and focusing on empowerment and on the participants' resources to develop innovative solutions Drawing on three qualitative case studies of ‘most likely' co-production cases in Danish municipalities, the study identifies three different leadership styles...... and increase public value (Bovaird & Löffler, 2012; Osborne, 2010). The paper argues that a deeper understanding of the dynamics of co-production can be gained from analyzing the leadership dimension of co-production processes, which has hitherto not been given much attention by co-production researchers...

  11. Product Platform Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Lone

    The aim of this research is to improve understanding of platform-based product development by studying platform performance in relation to internal effects in companies. Platform-based product development makes it possible to deliver product variety and at the same time reduce the needed resources...... engaging in platform-based product development. Similarly platform assessment criteria lack empirical verification regarding relevance and sufficiency. The thesis focuses on • the process of identifying and estimating internal effects, • verification of performance of product platforms, (i...... experienced representatives from the different life systems phase systems of the platform products. The effects are estimated and modeled within different scenarios, taking into account financial and real option aspects. The model illustrates and supports estimation and quantification of internal platform...

  12. Global product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2011-01-01

    Globalisation has enabled companies to globalise their product development process. Today, everything from manufacturing to R&D can be globally distributed. This has led to a more complex and disintegrated product development process. This paper investigates the impacts companies have experienced...... operational solutions to counteract the negative impacts with varying degrees of success. This paper presents a unique look into global product development through an investigation of its impact on the organisation, the product development process, and the product. Furthermore, it shows the solutions...... as a result of this, and how they have been addressed. Data was collected through case studies of five Danish multinational corporations. The findings showed that the companies experienced several challenges when they globalised their product development process. They consequently implemented various...

  13. MICROORGANISMS IN CONFECTIONERY PRODUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    Ľubomíra Juhaniaková; Miroslava Kačániová

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine microbiological quality of confectionery products. In confectionery products microbiological parameters: coliforms bacteria, microscopic filamentous fungi and yeasts, Salmonella sp. and staphylococci were observed. The confectionery products were evaluated: Kremes - honey cube, roll Arabica, roll Rona, roll stuffed with apricot cream, honey cube, pinwheel caramel, Sachovnica cut, Zora cut and curd cake. For microbiological tests 18 samples of confectioner...

  14. Southern pulpwood production, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tony G. Johnson; Carolyn D. Steppleton; James W. Bentley

    2010-01-01

    The South’s production of pulpwood increased from 65.7 million cords in 2007 to 67.0 million cords in 2008. Roundwood production increased by 1.2 million cords to 48.8 million cords and accounted for 73 percent of the South’s total pulpwood production. The use of wood residue remained stable at 18.2 million cords. Georgia led the South...

  15. Southern pulpwood production, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    James W. Bentley; Jason A. Cooper

    2015-01-01

    The South’s production of pulpwood increased from 62.7 million cords in 2011 to 63.7 million cords in 2012. Roundwood production decreased by 770,000 cords to 49.3 million cords and accounted for 78 percent of the South’s total pulpwood production. The use of wood residue dropped 15 percent to 14.4 million cords in 2012. Georgia and Alabama led the South in total...

  16. Southern pulpwood production, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    James W. Bentley; Carolyn D. Steppleton

    2013-01-01

    The South’s production of pulpwood declined from 65.5 million cords in 2010 to 62.7 million cords in 2011. Roundwood production decreased by 878,000 cords to 50.1 million cords and accounted for 80 percent of the South’s total pulpwood production. The use of wood residue dropped 14 percent to 12.6 million cords in 2011. Georgia and Alabama led the South in total...

  17. Electricity production of Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czodor, T.

    2003-01-01

    Here is examined the spatial structure of electric energy production divided in hydropower plants (through-flow and re-pumping), thermal power plants as the most expensive way of electric energy production and nuclear power plants where high difficulty and long-term realisation of construction projects and spent financial resources are pointed out. Work describes present structure of electric energy production and consumption and refers to alternative electric energy sources

  18. Working Hours and Productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Collewet, Marion; Sauermann, Jan

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies the link between working hours and productivity using daily information on working hours and performance of a sample of call centre agents. We exploit variation in the number of hours worked by the same employee across days and weeks due to central scheduling, enabling us to estimate the effect of working hours on productivity. We find that as the number of hours worked increases, the average handling time for a call increases, meaning that agents become less productive. Th...

  19. Productivity in Public Services

    OpenAIRE

    Helen Simpson

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses issues arising in the measurement of productivity in public services. Compared to measuring productivity in the private sector difficulties arise because the output of public services is often un-priced and because some public services are consumed collectively. A key problem is measuring the full range of outputs and quality improvements delivered by public sector organisations that are valued by society. Without comprehensive measures of output productivity statistics m...

  20. Ionization of food products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasseur, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    After general remarks on foods preservation, on international works and on ionization future prospects, main irradiation sources are described. Recalls on radioactivity, on radiation-matter interaction, on toxicology of ionized foods and on ionized foods detection are given. Ionization applications to various products are reviewed, especially in: - Poultry meat - Fishing products - Fresh fruits and vegetables - Dry fruits and vegetables - spices, tea, infusion - prepacked products... An evaluation of economics and sociocultural impacts is presented in connection with recent experiments [fr

  1. Accounting for productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aiyar, Shekhar; Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars

    2009-01-01

    The development accounting literature almost always assumes a Cobb-Douglas (CD) production function. However, if in reality the elasticity of substitution between capital and labor deviates substantially from 1, the assumption is invalid, potentially casting doubt on the commonly held view...... that factors of production are relatively unimportant in accounting for differences in labor productivity. We use international data on relative factor shares and capital-output ratios to formulate a number of tests for the validity of the CD assumption. We find that the CD specification performs reasonably...... well for the purposes of cross-country productivity accounting....

  2. Measuring Clinical Productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Mark E; Lebovitz, Evan E

    2018-06-01

    Productivity measurements have been used to evaluate and compare physicians and physician practices. Anesthesiology is unique in that factors outside anesthesiologist control impact opportunity for revenue generation and make comparisons between providers and facilities challenging. This article uses data from the multicenter University of Pittsburgh Physicians Department of Anesthesiology to demonstrate factors influencing productivity opportunity by surgical facility, between department divisions and subspecialties within multispecialty divisions, and by individuals within divisions. The complexities of benchmarking anesthesiology productivity are demonstrated, and the potential value of creating a productivity profile for facilities and groups is illustrated. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Sustainable hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Block, D.L.; Linkous, C.; Muradov, N.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the Sustainable Hydrogen Production research conducted at the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) for the past year. The report presents the work done on the following four tasks: Task 1--production of hydrogen by photovoltaic-powered electrolysis; Task 2--solar photocatalytic hydrogen production from water using a dual-bed photosystem; Task 3--development of solid electrolytes for water electrolysis at intermediate temperatures; and Task 4--production of hydrogen by thermocatalytic cracking of natural gas. For each task, this report presents a summary, introduction/description of project, and results.

  4. DESIGN VERSUS PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edu Grieco Mazzini Junior

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Design or product development? The questioning in relation to the employment of such terminology dates back to possible misconceptions regarding interpretation and approach them. Therefore, it can be stated that there are differences between these two terms? In this context, we highlight two views concerning the origin of the design. The first character creative and based on pre-industrial revolution, based on projective and methodologies directed towards the practice of designing products. And second, where design is understood as an industrial process: the development of new products includes, besides a creative procedure are developed, and symbolic formal solutions for products, but also a technical procedure based on the definition of the requirements concerning the product engineering. Is this the most widely accepted interpretation? theoretical studies were conducted from interpretations of the concept of the design proposed by the International Council of Societies of Industrial Design – ICSDI (2012, and for the characterization of the process of product development, we sought to develop an analogy between these two terminologies and can be proved that the use of one of terminology will not cause deviations of interpretation, since both deal with the life cycle of the product. The main results obtained until now the definition of design proposed by the ICSID where it is characterized as a creative activity focused on the complete life cycle of products is the more approaches of the concept of product development.

  5. The Internationalisation of Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Cheng; Madsen, Erik Skov

    2013-01-01

    practice is further analysed in terms of (1) general information of each case company; (2) motivation of production internationalisation of each case company; (3) limitations as SMEs to internationalise production; (4) operational activities during the internationalization; (5) benefits of joint effort......This paper mainly aims to explore how SMEs internationalise their production. Directed by this objective, a new practice adopted by five Danish SMEs to internationalise their production to China is identified, which to our knowledge has never been reported by any of the existing literature. The new...

  6. Optimizing production under uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Svend

    This Working Paper derives criteria for optimal production under uncertainty based on the state-contingent approach (Chambers and Quiggin, 2000), and discusses po-tential problems involved in applying the state-contingent approach in a normative context. The analytical approach uses the concept...... of state-contingent production functions and a definition of inputs including both sort of input, activity and alloca-tion technology. It also analyses production decisions where production is combined with trading in state-contingent claims such as insurance contracts. The final part discusses...

  7. SMART Product Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cramer-Petersen, Claus L.; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema; Li, Xuemeng

    2016-01-01

    . The ambition of The Danish Industry Foundation and The Kata Foundation was to develop a method; a robust and specific approach to ensure that product innovation in Danish enterprises in practice would result in products of the highest quality, producible at lower costs and profitable at competitive prices...... products to our neighboring countries continues to suffer. The customers’ financial capacity has been reduced and cheaper products from Asia and other regions have found their way into our local markets. Competition is fierce – especially pricewise. This was the starting point for the SMART project...

  8. PRODUCT STRUCTURE DIGITAL MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M. Sineglazov

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available  Research results of representation of product structure made by means of CADDS5 computer-aided design (CAD system, Product Data Management Optegra (PDM system and Product Life Cycle Management Wind-chill system (PLM, are examined in this work. Analysis of structure component development and its storage in various systems is carried out. Algorithms of structure transformation required for correct representation of the structure are considered. Management analysis of electronic mockup presentation of the product structure is carried out for Windchill system.

  9. Production control system specified quality sausage products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Tokarev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of management of production target in technological system of production of sausages of the set quality is considered in article. Decomposition of technological system is considered. Functions of management are allocated: formation of an optimum compounding of forcemeat, expert analysis of a compounding, laboratory analysis of a compounding and its statement. Information technology of interaction of these functions is offered. The mathematical problem definition of finding of an optimum compounding meat product with use of possible substitutes of ingredients is presented. This mathematical problem is a classical linear programming problem whose solution has the standard program. Since the manufacture of the finished product are various nonlinear effects are taken into account at the present time it is practically impossible, the methodology provided in this operation "Expert analysis of the formulation" and "Laboratory analysis of the finished product." An example of calculating the optimum alternative base recipe "Sausages “Viennese with cheese”" TS 9213-010-40155161-2002. For an alternative formulation demands were made at a cost of meat, the ingredient composition, as well as the final product organoleptic and physic-chemical indicators should comply with regulatory requirements "Sausages “Viennese with cheese”" TS 9213-010-40155161-2002. Indicator acid activity (pH calculated stuffing formulation should be in the range 6.0-6.3. As a partial replacement for the main raw material have been proposed acceptable substitutes. It was necessary to calculate on the basis of the formulation "Sausages “Viennese with cheese”" TS 9213-010-40155161-2002 optimal price and quality alternative formulation. As a result of depreciation of the value of alternative stuffing recipe was 14,5 % when all of the restrictions on the consumer properties. The proposed information technology implemented in the software package "Multi

  10. Industrial production of products like petroleum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baurier, P J.H.

    1925-02-25

    This invention has as its object a process for separating tars, oils, or gases coming from the distillation of carbonaceous materials, such as lignities or shales, to separate all other substances of the same kind and to prepare products like petroleum. The process for present consideration consists essentially in achieving simultaneously hydrogenation of the material (treated for conversion to stable products) and desulfurization of the materials showing the following characteristics: The substances to be treated are fed in the gaseous state, as vapors or pulverized and made to react at a temperature of 300 to 450/sup 0/C in the presence of excess water vapor, on divided metals capable of decomposing the water with release of hydrogen, at a temperature below 450/sup 0/C.

  11. Recombinant organisms for production of industrial products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrio, Jose-Luis

    2010-01-01

    A revolution in industrial microbiology was sparked by the discoveries of ther double-stranded structure of DNA and the development of recombinant DNA technology. Traditional industrial microbiology was merged with molecular biology to yield improved recombinant processes for the industrial production of primary and secondary metabolites, protein biopharmaceuticals and industrial enzymes. Novel genetic techniques such as metabolic engineering, combinatorial biosynthesis and molecular breeding techniques and their modifications are contributing greatly to the development of improved industrial processes. In addition, functional genomics, proteomics and metabolomics are being exploited for the discovery of novel valuable small molecules for medicine as well as enzymes for catalysis. The sequencing of industrial microbal genomes is being carried out which bodes well for future process improvement and discovery of new industrial products. PMID:21326937

  12. Recombinant organisms for production of industrial products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrio, Jose-Luis; Demain, Arnold L

    2010-01-01

    A revolution in industrial microbiology was sparked by the discoveries of ther double-stranded structure of DNA and the development of recombinant DNA technology. Traditional industrial microbiology was merged with molecular biology to yield improved recombinant processes for the industrial production of primary and secondary metabolites, protein biopharmaceuticals and industrial enzymes. Novel genetic techniques such as metabolic engineering, combinatorial biosynthesis and molecular breeding techniques and their modifications are contributing greatly to the development of improved industrial processes. In addition, functional genomics, proteomics and metabolomics are being exploited for the discovery of novel valuable small molecules for medicine as well as enzymes for catalysis. The sequencing of industrial microbal genomes is being carried out which bodes well for future process improvement and discovery of new industrial products. © 2010 Landes Bioscience

  13. Volatile products controlling Titan's tholins production

    KAUST Repository

    Carrasco, Nathalie

    2012-05-01

    A quantitative agreement between nitrile relative abundances and Titan\\'s atmospheric composition was recently shown with a reactor simulating the global chemistry occurring in Titan\\'s atmosphere (Gautier et al. [2011]. Icarus, 213, 625-635). Here we present a complementary study on the same reactor using an in situ diagnostic of the gas phase composition. Various initial N 2/CH 4 gas mixtures (methane varying from 1% to 10%) are studied, with a monitoring of the methane consumption and of the stable gas neutrals by in situ mass spectrometry. Atomic hydrogen is also measured by optical emission spectroscopy. A positive correlation is found between atomic hydrogen abundance and the inhibition function for aerosol production. This confirms the suspected role of hydrogen as an inhibitor of heterogeneous organic growth processes, as found in Sciamma-O\\'Brien et al. (Sciamma-O\\'Brien et al. [2010]. Icarus, 209, 704-714). The study of the gas phase organic products is focussed on its evolution with the initial methane amount [CH 4] 0 and its comparison with the aerosol production efficiency. We identify a change in the stationary gas phase composition for intermediate methane amounts: below [CH 4] 0=5%, the gas phase composition is mainly dominated by nitrogen-containing species, whereas hydrocarbons are massively produced for [CH 4] 0>5%. This predominance of N-containing species at lower initial methane amount, compared with the maximum gas-to solid conversion observed in Sciamma-O\\'Brien et al. (2010) for identical methane amounts confirms the central role played by N-containing gas-phase compounds to produce tholins. Moreover, two protonated imines (methanimine CH 2NH and ethanamine CH 3CHNH) are detected in the ion composition in agreement with Titan\\'s INMS measurements, and reinforcing the suspected role of these chemical species on aerosol production. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

  14. Questionnaire typography and production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, M

    1975-06-01

    This article describes the typographic principles and practice which provide the basis of good design and print, the relevant printing processes which can be used, and the graphic designer's function in questionnaire production. As they impose constraints on design decisions to be discussed later in the text, the various methods of printing and production are discussed first.

  15. Product line design

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Anderson, S. P.; Celik, Levent

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 157, May (2015), s. 517-526 ISSN 0022-0531 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-22540S Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : product line design * product differentiation * second-degree price discrimination Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.097, year: 2015

  16. Training for Productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglen, Leo; Hopkins, Sonnie; Burke, Gerald

    An exploratory study was conducted to evaluate the utility of a method to demonstrate that Australian enterprises that invest in the training of their employees gain a return from that investment through an increase in employee productivity. The method, which compares enterprise expenditure on training of personnel with labor productivity across a…

  17. Marketing Novel Fruit Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ’T Riet, Van Jonathan; Onwezen, M.C.; Bartels, Jos; Lans, Van Der I.A.; Kraszewska, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the influence of four different marketing claims and price information on consumers’ product choices for novel fruits and novel fruit products, using a choice experiment. In total, 1,652 people in Greece (n = 400), the Netherlands (n = 419), Poland (n =

  18. Heavy-Quark Production

    CERN Document Server

    Frixione, Stefano; Nason, Paolo; Ridolfi, Giovanni

    1997-01-01

    We review the present theoretical and experimental status of heavy quark production in high-energy collisions. In particular, we cover hadro- and photoproduction at fixed target experiments, at HERA and at the hadron colliders, as well as aspects of heavy quark production in e+e- collisions at the Z0 peak.

  19. Products from cottonseed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glushenkova,

    1977-01-01

    A review with 41 references is made on the manufacture of oil, protein, and other products from cottonseed, the effects of gossypol on protein yield and quality and technology of gossypol removal. A process eliminating thermal treatment of the kernels and permitting the production of oil, proteins, phytin, gossypol, sugar, sterols, phosphatides, tocopherols, and residual shells and bagasse is described.

  20. Productivity and energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovins, H. [Rocky Mountain Inst., Snowmass, CO (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Energy efficient building and office design offers the possibility of significantly increased worker productivity. By improving lighting, heating and cooling, workers can be made more comfortable and productive. An increase of 1 percent in productivity can provide savings to a company that exceed its entire energy bill. Efficient design practices are cost effective just from their energy savings. The resulting productivity gains make them indispensable. This paper documents eight cases in which efficient lighting, heating, and cooling have measurably increased worker productivity, decreased absenteeism, and/or improved the quality of work performed. They also show that efficient lighting can measurably increase work quality by removing errors and manufacturing defects. The case studies presented include retrofit of existing buildings and the design of new facilities, and cover a variety of commercial and industrial settings. Each case study identifies the design changes that were most responsible for increased productivity. As the eight case studies illustrate, energy efficient design may be one of the least expensive ways for a business to improve the productivity of its workers and the quality of its product. (author). 15 refs.

  1. Product Placement in Cartoons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Oroz Štancl

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Product placement is a marketing approach for integrating products or services into selected media content. Studies have shown that the impact of advertising on children and youth are large, and that it can affect their preferences and attitudes. The aim of this article is to determine the existing level of product placement in cartoons that are broadcast on Croatian television stations. Content analysis of cartoons in a period of one month gave the following results: in 30% of cartoons product placement was found; most product placement were visual ads, in 89%, however, auditory product placement and plot connection was also found. Most ads were related to toys and it is significant that even 65% of cartoons are accompanied by a large amount of products available on the Croatian market. This is the result of two sales strategies: brand licensing (selling popular cartoon characters to toys, food or clothing companies and cartoon production based on existing line of toys with the sole aim of making their sales more effective.

  2. Upgrading uncompetitive products economically

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Hua; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2012-01-01

    for upgrading an uncompetitive product, and combine the solutions into a single solution. We also propose a spatial join-based solution that assumes P and T are indexed by an R-tree. Given a set of products in the same R-tree node, we derive three lower bounds on their upgrading costs. These bounds are employed...

  3. Green product innovation strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, P.H.

    2005-01-01

    Over the last decades, companies have started to incorporate green issues in product innovation strategies. This dissertation studies green product innovation strategy, its antecedents and its outcomes. A three-stage approach is followed. In the first stage, the topic is explored and a preliminary

  4. Interleaved Product LDPC Codes

    OpenAIRE

    Baldi, Marco; Cancellieri, Giovanni; Chiaraluce, Franco

    2011-01-01

    Product LDPC codes take advantage of LDPC decoding algorithms and the high minimum distance of product codes. We propose to add suitable interleavers to improve the waterfall performance of LDPC decoding. Interleaving also reduces the number of low weight codewords, that gives a further advantage in the error floor region.

  5. Production (information sheets)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2007-01-01

    Documentation sheets: Geo energy 2 Integrated System Approach Petroleum Production (ISAPP) The value of smartness 4 Reservoir permeability estimation from production data 6 Coupled modeling for reservoir application 8 Toward an integrated near-wellbore model 10 TNO conceptual framework for "E&P

  6. Spectra and strangeness production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miake, Yasuo.

    1990-01-01

    Particle production (π ± , K ± and p ± ) has been measured in p + A and Si + A reactions using the E802 spectrometer. The comparison of the particle production (rapidity distributions, momentum distributions, and the integrated yields ratios) between p + Be, p + Au and central Si + Au collisions and the effects of rescattering is discussed. 14 refs., 6 figs

  7. Marketing technologically advanced products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bender, Horst

    1989-01-01

    This paper calls for a merger of technology and marketing under a customer value perspective; for an enhancement of the traditional technological innovation orientation of the technology-based firm with a market thrust. It establishes technology-based products as product-service offerings that are

  8. Accelerated product development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langerak, F.; Seth, J.N.; Malhotra, N.K.

    2011-01-01

    Accelerated product development is a competitive strategy that seeks to reduce the development cycle time of new products. However, there has been little theoretical advancement and empirical model testing in the identification of the conditions under which cycle time reduction is appropriate, the

  9. Global product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, Thomas Paul; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2016-01-01

    Selecting key performance indicators in conventional product development is a challenging task for project management and is compound by global product development. Informed from the findings of two in depth case studies conducted with large Danish manufacturing companies, in this paper we develo...

  10. Production process of VE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-07-01

    This book tells of synopsis of production process of VE(value engineering), object selection method and establishment of target, collection of object information, design of function, write improvement suggestion, evaluation of improvement suggestion, all sorts of worksheets of production process of VE, explanation of IE, explanation of PERT.

  11. Improved wound care product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention pertains to use of sodium diacetate (NaHAc 2) as an antimicrobial agent against bacteria growing in biofilms. The aspects of the invention include a wound care product comprising sodium diacetate, a kit comprising a wound care product,and a methodof treating an infected wound....

  12. Productivity of Stream Definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endrullis, Jörg; Grabmayer, Clemens; Hendriks, Dimitri; Isihara, Ariya; Klop, Jan

    2007-01-01

    We give an algorithm for deciding productivity of a large and natural class of recursive stream definitions. A stream definition is called ‘productive’ if it can be evaluated continuously in such a way that a uniquely determined stream is obtained as the limit. Whereas productivity is undecidable

  13. The Productive Programmer

    CERN Document Server

    Ford, Neal

    2009-01-01

    Anyone who develops software for a living needs a proven way to produce it better, faster, and cheaper. The Productive Programmer offers critical timesaving and productivity tools that you can adopt right away, no matter what platform you use. Master developer Neal Ford details ten valuable practices that will help you elude common traps, improve your code, and become more valuable to your team.

  14. COMPETITIVE PRODUCT ADVANTAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian MICU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Cost advantages may be either internal or external. Internal economics of scope, scale, or experience, and external economies of focus or logistical integration, enable a company to produce some products at a lower cost than the competition. The coordination of pricing with suppliers, although not actually economizing resources, can improve the efficiency of pricing by avoiding the incrementalization of a supplier's nonincremental fixed costs and profit. Any of these strategies can generate cost advantages that are, at least in the short run, sustainable. Even cost advantages that are not sustainable, however, can generate temporary savings that are often the key to building more sustainable cost or product advantages later.. Even when a product's physical attributes are not readily differentiable, opportunities to develop product advantages remain. The augmented product that customers buy is more than the particular product or service exchanged. It includes all sorts of ancillary services and intangible relationships that make buying thesame product from one company less difficult, less risky, or more pleasant than buying from a competitor. Superior augmentation of the same basic product can add substantial value in the eyes of consumers, leading them to pay willingly what are often considerable price premiums.

  15. Tanzania : Productive Jobs Wanted

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 18 months, the World Bank has been working on a comprehensive plan to address the challenge of productive jobs in Tanzania. This study represents a step towards a better understanding of how to promote job creation in Tanzania. Indeed, the growth of productive jobs is vital for alleviating poverty and promoting shared prosperity - two important goals of Tanzania's economic st...

  16. Risks of Leveraged Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Di Cesare (Antonio)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractLeveraged investments have become a fundamental feature of modern economies. The new financial products allow people to take greater-than-usual exposures to risk factors. This thesis analyzes several different aspects of the risks involved by some frequently used leveraged products:

  17. Quarkonia production at CDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demina, R.

    1996-08-01

    We present the results of J/ψ, ψ', χ c and Υ(1S), Υ(2S), Υ(3S) production in the proton-antiproton collisions at √s = 1800 GeV measured with the CDF Detector. Contributions of different production mechanisms are discussed. 10 refs., 7 figs

  18. Optimal Product Placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chia-Ling; Matta, Rafael; Popov, Sergey V; Sogo, Takeharu

    2017-01-01

    We model a market, such as an online software market, in which an intermediary connects sellers and buyers by displaying sellers' products. With two vertically-differentiated products, an intermediary can place either: (1) one product, not necessarily the better one, on the first page, and the other hidden on the second page; or (2) both products on the first page. We show that it can be optimal for the intermediary to obfuscate a product-possibly the better one-since this weakens price competition and allows the sellers to extract a greater surplus from buyers; however, it is not socially optimal. The choice of which one to obfuscate depends on the distribution of search costs.

  19. Product Architecture Modularity Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkola, Juliana Hsuan

    2003-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to integrate various perspectives on product architecture modularity into a general framework, and also to propose a way to measure the degree of modularization embedded in product architectures. Various trade-offs between modular and integral product architectures...... and how components and interfaces influence the degree of modularization are considered. In order to gain a better understanding of product architecture modularity as a strategy, a theoretical framework and propositions are drawn from various academic literature sources. Based on the literature review......, the following key elements of product architecture are identified: components (standard and new-to-the-firm), interfaces (standardization and specification), degree of coupling, and substitutability. A mathematical function, termed modularization function, is introduced to measure the degree of modularization...

  20. Thermophilic Biohydrogen Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Angelidaki, Irini

    2011-01-01

    Dark fermentative hydrogen production at thermophilic conditions is attractive process for biofuel production. From thermodynamic point of view, higher temperatures favor biohydrogen production. Highest hydrogen yields are always associated with acetate, or with mixed acetate- butyrate type...... fermentation. On the contrary the hydrogen yield decreases, with increasing concentrations of lactate, ethanol or propionate. Major factors affecting dark fermentative biohydrogen production are organic loading rate (OLR), pH, hydraulic retention time (HRT), dissolved hydrogen and dissolved carbon dioxide...... concentrations, and soluble metabolic profile (SMP). A number of thermophilic and extreme thermophilic cultures (pure and mixed) have been studied for biohydrogen production from different feedstocks - pure substrates and waste/wastewaters. Variety of process technologies (operational conditions...

  1. Production measurements at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00392425

    2017-01-01

    The $\\text{LHC}b$ detector, with its excellent momentum resolution and flexible trigger strategy, is ideally suited for measuring heavy quark and quarkonia production properties. In addition, the new system of forward shower counters installed upstream and downstream has begun to be used, therefore the experiment is being suited to measure central exclusive production. The $\\text{LHC}b$ measurements of inclusive and differential cross-sections of the production of $J/\\psi$ resonance and $J/\\psi$ pairs, as well bottom quarks and $Z^0$ boson, based on Run 2 datasets are summarized. Finally, results on the prompt production of open charm hadrons and the exclusive production of charmonium are discussed.

  2. Hydrogen production by Cyanobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaudhuri Surabhi

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The limited fossil fuel prompts the prospecting of various unconventional energy sources to take over the traditional fossil fuel energy source. In this respect the use of hydrogen gas is an attractive alternate source. Attributed by its numerous advantages including those of environmentally clean, efficiency and renew ability, hydrogen gas is considered to be one of the most desired alternate. Cyanobacteria are highly promising microorganism for hydrogen production. In comparison to the traditional ways of hydrogen production (chemical, photoelectrical, Cyanobacterial hydrogen production is commercially viable. This review highlights the basic biology of cynobacterial hydrogen production, strains involved, large-scale hydrogen production and its future prospects. While integrating the existing knowledge and technology, much future improvement and progress is to be done before hydrogen is accepted as a commercial primary energy source.

  3. Health products inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoltz, M.

    2009-01-01

    To protect public health, the Health Products Inspection is a public service mission where the application of regulations concerning activities on human health products and cosmetic products is verified. This mission permits a global approach to assess the health products risk-based benefit and, in monitoring by laboratory testing and by on site inspections, to verify their compliance with appropriate regulations. The seventy five inspectors perform about eight hundred inspections per year, in France and abroad. These inspections are related to data provided in the health products assessment and also to manufacturing and delivery practices. The French inspection body is also involved in the training of foreign inspectors and in the harmonization of national, European and international practices either for operators than for the competent authorities. (author)

  4. Dry alcohol production plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Mirjana S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The IGPC Engineering Department designed basic projects for dry alcohol production plant, using technology developed in the IGPC laboratories. Several projects were completed: technological, machine, electrical, automation. On the basis of these projects a production plant with a capacity of 40 m3/y was manufactured, at "Zorka Pharma", Šabac in 1995-1996. The product meets all quality demands, as well as environmental regulations. The dry alcohol production process is fully automatized. There is no waste in the process, neither gaseous, nor liquid. The chosen process provides safe operation according to temperature regime and resistance in the pipes, air purification columns and filters. Working at increased pressure is suitable for evaporation and condensation at increased temperatures. The production process can be controlled manually, which is necessary during start-up, and repairs.

  5. Exposure from consumer products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadagopan, Geetha

    1998-01-01

    Consumer products containing radioactive material, are available in the market place to any member of public as off the shelf item and are intended for unrestricted use by them at home or for their personal use. Radioactivity may be involved in the product for several reasons: 1. ionising radiation from the radioactive material forms the basis of the particular functioning of the product like radioisotopes in smoke detectors, radio-luminous dials, etc.; 2. chemical/spectroscopic characteristics of the radioactive material and not its radioactivity is the basis for the functional property of the product like thoriated gas mantles, uranium in glass enamels, etc. and 3. radioactive materials could be naturally occurring in consumer products, but could increase in concentration after processing like increased uranium or thorium concentrations after the processing of rare earth oxides

  6. Chemical Product Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul

    2004-01-01

    This paper highlights for a class of chemical products, the design process, their design with respect to the important issues, the need for appropriate tools and finally, lists some of the challenges and opportunities for the process systems engineering (PSE)/computer-aided process engineering...... (CAPE) community. The chemical products considered belong to the following types: chemical/biochemical/agrochemical products, coatings and solvents, food (nutraceuticals), HIM (household, industrial and institutional), personal care, pharmaceuticals and drugs. The challenges and opportunities...... are highlighted in terms of the needs for multi-level modeling with emphasis on property models that are suitable for computer-aided applications, flexible solution strategies that are able to solve a large range of chemical product design problems and finally, a systems chemical product design framework...

  7. Petroleum product market outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-09-01

    The influence of petroleum market disturbances on price increases was discussed with particular reference to Hurricane Katrina and the loss of refinery production and damage to oil infrastructure in the United States. The supply of petroleum products in Canada will be very tight heading into the winter of 2006, despite the fact that Canadian refineries are operating at full capacity to ensure an adequate supply of gasoline and diesel fuel for consumers. In addition to refinery production, petroleum supplies are also determined by the adequacy of inventories and the efficiency of the infrastructure in place to deliver products to where they are needed. The lack of spare capacity has reduced the flexibility of the North American refining system to respond to further disruptions. Refiners were asked to provide information on 4 areas of their operations in order for Natural Resources Canada to analyze the short-term outlook for petroleum products markets. The 4 areas included refinery utilization rates and capability to increase production; any planned refinery turnaround that would affect petroleum product supplies; inventory levels compared to levels in previous years; and, any logistical problems that could affect product distribution. A graph depicting the relationship between Canadian production of gasoline and domestic sales clearly illustrated the seasonal nature of gasoline consumption and that production in Canada is much higher than consumption. Canada exports large volumes of gasoline, primarily to the United States eastern seabord from refineries in Atlantic Canada. The trend is similar for diesel fuel. Demand for both gasoline and diesel is expected to continue to grow in 2005 as high prices have had a limited impact on demand growth. In general, the Ontario/Quebec region is short of gasoline and must import gasoline during the summer months to cover the shortfall. It was noted that motorists and homeowners who heat with oil will bear the burden of higher

  8. Greenhouse production systems for people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giacomelli, G.A.; Sase, S.; Cramer, R.; Hoogeboom, J.; McKenzie, A.; Parbst, K.; Sacrascia-Mugnozza, G.; Selina, P.; Sharp, D.A.; Voogt, J.O.; Weel, van P.A.; Mears, D.

    2012-01-01

    Environmentally sound greenhouse production requires that: demand for market products is understood; greenhouse design addresses the climate circum-stances; input resources are available and consumed efficiently, and; there must be a reasonable balance of production products to the environmental

  9. A Framework For Product Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAloone, Timothy Charles; Robotham, Antony John

    1999-01-01

    -aspect approach to product development; understanding the strategic conditions that affect product development; developing a coherent approach to product quality based on product-life thinking; addressing environmental needs in a proactive manner through innovation techniques; and understanding both...

  10. Product sounds : Fundamentals and application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozcan-Vieira, E.

    2008-01-01

    Products are ubiquitous, so are the sounds emitted by products. Product sounds influence our reasoning, emotional state, purchase decisions, preference, and expectations regarding the product and the product's performance. Thus, auditory experience elicited by product sounds may not be just about

  11. Uranium production from phosphates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketzinel, Z.; Folkman, Y.

    1979-05-01

    According to estimates of the world's uranium consumption, exploitation of most rich sources is expected by the 1980's. Forecasts show that the rate of uranium consumption will increase towards the end of the century. It is therefore desirable to exploit poor sources not yet in use. In the near future, the most reasonable source for developing uranium is phosphate rock. Uranium reserves in phosphates are estimated at a few million tons. Production of uranium from phosphates is as a by-product of phosphate rock processing and phosphoric acid production; it will then be possible to save the costs incurred in crushing and dissolving the rock when calculating uranium production costs. Estimates show that the U.S. wastes about 3,000 tons of uranium per annum in phosphoric acid based fertilisers. Studies have also been carried out in France, Yugoslavia and India. In Israel, during the 1950's, a small plant was operated in Haifa by 'Chemical and Phosphates'. Uranium processes have also been developed by linking with the extraction processes at Arad. Currently there is almost no activity on this subject because there are no large phosphoric acid plants which would enable production to take place on a reasonable scale. Discussions are taking place about the installation of a plant for phosphoric acid production utilising the 'wet process', producing 200 to 250,000 tons P 2 O 5 per annum. It is necessary to combine these facilities with uranium production plant. (author)

  12. An evaluation of the effect of a topical product containing salicin on the visible signs of human skin aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopaul, Remona; Knaggs, Helen E; Lephart, Janet F; Holley, Kara C; Gibson, Erica M

    2010-09-01

    There are many different visible signs of skin aging. These include wrinkles, hyperpigmentation, lack of firmness, poor texture, enlarged pores, and dryness. While there are many topical agents that claim to deliver wide-spectrum anti-aging benefits, few target all of the signs of skin aging to the same extent. Salicin, an extract from white willow bark, has been researched as a potent anti-inflammatory agent when taken orally. Based on unpublished in-house comprehensive consumer clinical studies, it is believed salicin may have anti-aging capabilities when applied topically to human skin. This research evaluated the effect of a topical serum formulation containing salicin at 0.5% on the visible signs of skin aging. This single-center study enrolled 30 female subjects, showing mild to moderate signs of aging, between the ages of 35 and 70 having Fitzpatrick skin types ranging between I and IV. Subjects used the study serum product containing 0.5% salicin on their face twice daily for 12 weeks. Ordinal grading on a nine-point scale (0 = none, 1-3 = mild, 4-6 = moderate, 7-9 = severe) of facial fine lines, molted pigmentation, uneven skin tone, tactile roughness, global firmness appearance, jaw-line contour, radiance, and overall appearance was performed by investigator at baseline, week 1, week 4, week 8, and week 12. Digital photography, ultrasound, cutometry, and corneometry measurements were also performed at each time point. Twenty-nine of 30 subjects successfully completed the study. No tolerability issues were reported. The clinical investigator found statistically significant improvements in wrinkles, tactile roughness, pore size, radiance, and overall appearance at week 1 time point (P ≤ 0.05) against baseline and statistically significant improvements in mottled pigmentation, global firmness, and jaw-line contour at week 4 time point (P ≤ 0.05) against baseline. Cutometry, corneometry, and ultrasound measurements showed significant improvements at week

  13. Manual of radioisotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1966-01-01

    The Manual of Radioisotope Production has been compiled primarily to help small reactor establishments which need a modest programme of radioisotope production for local requirements. It is not comprehensive, but gives guidance on essential preliminary considerations and problems that may be met in the early stages of production. References are included as an aid to the reader who wishes to seek further in the extensive literature on the subject. In preparing the Manual, which is in two parts, the Agency consulted several Member States which already have long experience in radioisotope production. An attempt has been made to condense this experience, firstly, by setting out the technical and economic considerations which govern the planning and execution of an isotope programme and, secondly, by providing experimental details of isotope production processes. Part I covers topics common to all radioisotope processing, namely, laboratory design, handling and dispensing of radioactive solutions, quality control, measurement and radiological safety. Part II contains information on the fifteen radioisotopes in most common use. These are bromine-82, cobalt-58, chromium-51, copper-64, fluorine-18, gold-198, iodine-131, iron-59, magnesium-28, potassium-42, sodium-24, phosphorus-32, sulphur-35, yttrium-90 and zinc-65. Their nuclear properties are described, references to typical applications are given and published methods of production are reviewed; also included are descriptions in detail of the production processes used at several national atomic energy organizations. No attempt has been made to distinguish the best values for nuclear data or to comment on the relative merits of production processes. Each process is presented essentially as it was described by the contributor on the understanding that critical comparisons are not necessary for processes which have been well tried in practical production for many years. The information is presented as a guide to enable

  14. Sicilian potential biogas production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Comparetti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at predicting the Sicilian potential biogas production, using the Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste (OFMSW, animal manure and food industry by-products, in a region where only one biogas plant using MSW and one co-digestion plant are nowadays available. The statistical data about OFMSW, the number of animals bred in medium and large farms and the amounts of by-products of food processing industries were evaluated, in order to compute the Sicilian potential biogas and energy production. The OFMSW produced in Sicily, that is 0.8 million tons ca. per year (37% of MSW, could be used in a bio-reactor, together with other raw materials, for Anaerobic Digestion (AD process, producing biogas and “digestate”. Moreover, 3.03 million tons ca. of manure, collected in medium and large animal husbandry farms (where cows, pigs and poultry are bred, and 350 thousand tons ca. of by-products, collected in food processing industries (pomace from olive oil mills and grape marc from wineries, might be used for AD process. The Sicilian potential biogas production from the AD of the above raw materials is 170.2 millions of m3, that is equal to 1023.4 GWh of energy per year, of which 484 GWh from animal manure, 303 GWh from OFMSW and 236.4 GWh from food industry by-products. The highest biogas production is in the province of Palermo (35.6 millions of m3, Ragusa (30.8 millions of m3 and Catania (22.8 millions of m3, having a potential energy production of 213.8, 185 and 137 GWh, respectively.

  15. Concurrency in product realization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Michael J.

    1994-03-01

    Technology per se does not provide a competitive advantage. Timely exploitation of technology is what gives the competitive edge, and this demands a major shift in the product development process and management of the industrial enterprise. `Teaming to win' is more than a management theme; it is the disciplined engineering practice that is essential to success in today's global marketplace. Teaming supports the concurrent engineering practices required to integrate the activities of people responsible for product realization through achievement of shorter development cycles, lower costs, and defect-free products.

  16. Radiation processed polysaccharide products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Quoc Hien

    2007-01-01

    Radiation crosslinking, degradation and grafting techniques for modification of polymeric materials including natural polysaccharides have been providing many unique products. In this communication, typical products from radiation processed polysaccharides particularly plant growth promoter from alginate, plant protector and elicitor from chitosan, super water absorbent containing starch, hydrogel sheet containing carrageenan/CM-chitosan as burn wound dressing, metal ion adsorbent from partially deacetylated chitin were described. The procedures for producing those above products were also outlined. Future development works on radiation processing of polysaccharides were briefly presented. (author)

  17. Versioning of printed products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuijn, Chris

    2005-01-01

    During the definition of a printed product in an MIS system, a lot of attention is paid to the production process. The MIS systems typically gather all process-related parameters at such a level of detail that they can determine what the exact cost will be to make a specific product. This information can then be used to make a quote for the customer. Considerably less attention is paid to the content of the products since this does not have an immediate impact on the production costs (assuming that the number of inks or plates is known in advance). The content management is typically carried out either by the prepress systems themselves or by dedicated workflow servers uniting all people that contribute to the manufacturing of a printed product. Special care must be taken when considering versioned products. With versioned products we here mean distinct products that have a number of pages or page layers in common. Typical examples are comic books that have to be printed in different languages. In this case, the color plates can be shared over the different versions and the black plate will be different. Other examples are nation-wide magazines or newspapers that have an area with regional pages or advertising leaflets in different languages or currencies. When considering versioned products, the content will become an important cost factor. First of all, the content management (and associated proofing and approval cycles) becomes much more complex and, therefore, the risk that mistakes will be made increases considerably. Secondly, the real production costs are very much content-dependent because the content will determine whether plates can be shared across different versions or not and how many press runs will be needed. In this paper, we will present a way to manage different versions of a printed product. First, we will introduce a data model for version management. Next, we will show how the content of the different versions can be supplied by the customer

  18. OPEC's production policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mabro, R.

    1989-01-01

    An enlightening study on the workings of OPEC its policies and practices, agreements and disagreements, and how each affects the world petroleum market. The book explores OPEC's production patterns and quota agreements and the relationship between production and pricing policies. Political compromises that have hindered OPEC production agreements and their successful implementation are covered - compromises such as concessions made to the U.A.E. and those resulting from the Gulf war. Notable historical events are cited, and a look into the future at what we can expect of OPEC in coming years concludes the study

  19. Production of Metabolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    A recombinant micro-organism such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae which produces and excretes into culture medium a stilbenoid metabolite product when grown under stilbenoid production conditions, which expresses in above native levels a ABC transporter which transports said stilbenoid out of said...... micro-organism cells to the culture medium. The genome of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae produces an auxotrophic phenotype which is compensated by a plasmid which also expresses one or more of said enzymes constituting said metabolic pathway producing said stilbenoid, an expression product of the plasmid...

  20. Entropy Production of Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid M. Martyushev

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The entropy production (inside the volume bounded by a photosphere of main-sequence stars, subgiants, giants, and supergiants is calculated based on B–V photometry data. A non-linear inverse relationship of thermodynamic fluxes and forces as well as an almost constant specific (per volume entropy production of main-sequence stars (for 95% of stars, this quantity lies within 0.5 to 2.2 of the corresponding solar magnitude is found. The obtained results are discussed from the perspective of known extreme principles related to entropy production.