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Sample records for production unit fpu

  1. Floating Production Unit FPU P53: logistic and modules installation; Logistica e instalacao dos modulos da Unidade Flutuante de Producao FPU P53

    Arantes, Joao Durval [UTC Engenharia S.A., SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This work intends to show a 'case' of success, namely the model of management and the strategy, applied in the logistics and installation of the P53 modules. The criteria, which took QUIP to contract, in Brazil and abroad, technology companies, to supply integrated modules, including engineering, procurement, construction and warranty of performance, are shown. Establishment, at the initial phase of the Project, of the discipline 'constructibility', with the attribution to interact with the engineering design and construction of the modules under QUIP's responsibility, modules supplied by PETROBRAS and mainly, with the site of Naval Conversion in Singapore. Establishment of the discipline 'Marinharia', to act together with 'constructibility' to overcome the difficulties and restrictions of Porto de Rio Grande, such as the following: the width of the sailing channel, interferences of commercial port, availability of mooring pier, relationship with port pilotage and authorities of the Fifth Naval District of Brazilian Navy. The challenges were the maneuvers with 2 crane barges for modules installation, in front the P-53, a VLCC ship and maneuvers the barges, involved at the time of installation of the modules. And, finally, to show the proceeding applied in the physical interfaces of installation of the modules, such as: interferences, supports of the modules, stools in the ship, guides and bumpers. Dimensional control, simulations and extensive planning were the tools of success. (author)

  2. FPU-Supported Running Error Analysis

    T. Zahradnický; R. Lórencz

    2010-01-01

    A-posteriori forward rounding error analyses tend to give sharper error estimates than a-priori ones, as they use actual data quantities. One of such a-posteriori analysis – running error analysis – uses expressions consisting of two parts; one generates the error and the other propagates input errors to the output. This paper suggests replacing the error generating term with an FPU-extracted rounding error estimate, which produces a sharper error bound.

  3. High-Energy Waves in Superpolynomial FPU-Type Chains

    Herrmann, Michael

    2017-02-01

    We consider periodic traveling waves in FPU-type chains with superpolynomial interaction forces and derive explicit asymptotic formulas for the high-energy limit as well as bounds for the corresponding approximation error. In the proof we adapt twoscale techniques that have recently been developed by Herrmann and Matthies for chains with singular potential and provide an asymptotic ODE for the scaled distance profile.

  4. Method of synchronizing independent functional unit

    Kim, Changhoan

    2017-02-14

    A system for synchronizing parallel processing of a plurality of functional processing units (FPU), a first FPU and a first program counter to control timing of a first stream of program instructions issued to the first FPU by advancement of the first program counter; a second FPU and a second program counter to control timing of a second stream of program instructions issued to the second FPU by advancement of the second program counter, the first FPU is in communication with a second FPU to synchronize the issuance of a first stream of program instructions to the second stream of program instructions and the second FPU is in communication with the first FPU to synchronize the issuance of the second stream program instructions to the first stream of program instructions.

  5. On Some Classes of New Solutions of Continuous β-FPU Chain

    XU Quan; TIAN Qiang

    2008-01-01

    A continuous β-Fermi-Pasta-Ulam (FPU) chain is investigated by using the knowledge of elliptic equation and Jacobian elliptic functions. We obtain the new solutions, two-kink soliton solution, breather solution and breather lattice solution, of the continuous β-FPU chain, besides the kink-soliton solution and chaos solution.

  6. Execution and Result Integration Scheme in FPU Farms for Co-ordinated Performance

    Nair, T R Gopalakrishnan; Saraf, Vighnaraju

    2010-01-01

    - The main goal of this research is to develop the concept of an innovative processor system called Functional Processor System. The particular work carried out in this paper focuses on the execution of functions in the heterogeneous functional processor units(FPU) and integration of functions to bring net results. As the functional programs are super-level programs, the requirements of execution are only at functional level. The Execution and integration of results of functions in FPUs are a challenge. The methodology of executing the functions in the functional processor farm and the integration of results of functions according to the assigned addresses are investigated here. The concept of feeding the functions into the processor is promoted rather than the processor fetching the instructions/functions and executing in this paradigm. This work is carried out at conceptual levels and it takes a long way to go into the realization of this model in hardware, possibly only with a large industry team and with ...

  7. Low-dimensional q-Tori in FPU Lattices: Dynamics and Localization Properties

    Christodoulidi, Helen

    2012-01-01

    This is a continuation of our study concerning q-tori, i.e. tori of low dimensionality in the phase space of nonlinear lattice models like the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam (FPU) model. In our previous work we focused on the beta FPU system, and we showed that the dynamical features of the q-tori serve as an interpretational tool to understand phenomena of energy localization in the FPU space of linear normal modes. In the present paper i) we employ the method of Poincare - Lindstedt series, for a fixed set of frequencies, in order to compute an explicit quasi-periodic representation of the trajectories lying on q-tori in the alpha model, and ii) we consider more general types of initial excitations in both the alpha and beta models. Furthermore we turn into questions of physical interest related to the dynamical features of the q-tori. We focus on particular q-tori solutions describing low-frequency `packets' of modes, and excitations of a small set of modes with an arbitrary distribution in q-space. In the former case, ...

  8. Linguistic Units and Speech Production Theory.

    MacNeilage, Peter F.

    This paper examines the validity of the concept of linguistic units in a theory of speech production. Substantiating data are drawn from the study of the speech production process itself. Secondarily, an attempt is made to reconcile the postulation of linguistic units in speech production theory with their apparent absence in the speech signal.…

  9. The development of truncated inviscid turbulence and the FPU-problem

    Ooms, G.; Boersma, B. J.

    As is well known Fermi, Pasta and Ulam [1] studied the energy redistribution between the linear modes of a one-dimensional chain of particles connected via weakly nonlinear springs. To their surprise no apparent tendency to equipartition of energy was observed in their numerical experiments. Much more knowledge is now available about this problem (see, for instance, the recent book by Gallavotti [2] or the review by Cambell et al. [3] in the focus issue on the FPU-problem in the journal Chaos).

  10. A Method of FPU Integration Based on Fine-Grained Pipeline Control%一种细粒度流水化控制的 FPU 集成方法

    陈庆宇; 吴龙胜

    2015-01-01

    解决了在 RISC 处理器中嵌入高精度 FPU 的问题,提出一种细粒度的基于集中控制和分段数据处理的扩展双精度 FPU 集成方法,该方法通过细分浮点指令的执行状态,然后以执行状态为基本粒度生成与之对应的 FPU 控制信息,最后根据控制信息分段处理目标操作数,并通过流水化的形式实现数据的回写。基于一款 SPARC V8型微处理器对上述方案进行了设计实现、仿真验证及分析。结果表明,该 FPU 集成方法与公开文献的方案相比,浮点指令关键路径缩短61%,硬件消耗减小16.9%,浮点计算效率提高1.7倍,可用于将扩展双精度 FPU 集成到 RISC 处理器中,并使两者高效协同运算。%Double⁃precision floating⁃point can hardly satisfy the accuracy requirement of contemporary scientific computing. It deserves further study about how to get the higher precision FPU embedded into the RISC processor and about how to make an effective collaborative computing between them. A fine⁃grained integration method of ex⁃tended double⁃precision FPU is proposed in this paper; it is based on centralized control and segmented data pro⁃cessing. The method finely differentiates the execution status of floating instructions and generates the FPU control information corresponding to execution status of floating⁃point instructions in fine⁃grain. Then, destination operands are segmentedly processed and written back register is implemented and the implementation is explained with a flowchart. An SPARC V8 processor based on the proposed mechanism has been implemented, verified and analyzed. The results and their analysis show preliminarily that the critical path of floating instructions decreases 61%, hardware consumption declines 16.9% and the floating⁃point calculation efficiency increase 1.7 times.

  11. Petroleum Refinery Hydrogen Production Unit: Exergy and Production Cost Evaluation

    Silvio de Oliveira Júnior

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Some specific processes are required to obtain pure hydrogen and the most usual one is natural gas reforming, where natural gas reacts with superheated steam producing H2, CO, CO2 and H2O. This paper presents the exergy and production costs evaluation of a complete hydrogen production unit of a petroleum refinery. The hydrogen production unit analysed in this paper has to supply 550,000 Nm3 of hydrogen per day to purify diesel oil. Based on a synthesis plant of the hydrogen production unit, the exergy efficiency of each component and of the overall plant are calculated. The hydrogen production cost is determined by means of a thermoeconomic analysis in which the equality cost partition method is employed, including capital and operational costs, in order to determine the production cost of hydrogen and other products of the plant.

  12. Syllables as Processing Units in Handwriting Production

    Kandel, Sonia; Alvarez, Carlos J.; Vallee, Nathalie

    2006-01-01

    This research focused on the syllable as a processing unit in handwriting. Participants wrote, in uppercase letters, words that had been visually presented. The interletter intervals provide information on the timing of motor production. In Experiment 1, French participants wrote words that shared the initial letters but had different syllable…

  13. Two-Dimensional Breather Lattice Solutions and Compact-Like Discrete Breathers and Their Stability in Discrete Two-Dimensional Monatomic β-FPU Lattice

    XU Quan; TIAN Qiang

    2009-01-01

    We restrict our attention to the discrete two-dimensional monatomic β-FPU lattice. We look for twodimensional breather lattice solutions and two-dimensional compact-like discrete breathers by using trying method and analyze their stability by using Aubry's linearly stable theory. We obtain the conditions of existence and stability of two-dimensional breather lattice solutions and two-dimensional compact-like discrete breathers in the discrete twodimensional monatomic β-FPU lattice.

  14. Julius Edgar Lilienfeld Prize Talk: The Fermi Pasta Ulam (FPU) Problem and The Birth of Nonlinear Science

    Campbell, David K.

    2010-03-01

    In 1953, Enrico Fermi, John Pasta, and Stan Ulam initiated a series of computer studies aimed at exploring how simple, multi-degree of freedom nonlinear mechanical systems obeying reversible deterministic dynamics evolve in time to an equilibrium state describable by statistical mechanics. Their expectation was that this would occur by mixing behavior among the many linear modes. Their intention was then to study more complex nonlinear systems, with the hope of modeling turbulence computationally. The results of this first study of the so-called Fermi-Pasta-Ulam (FPU) problem, which were published in 1955 and characterized by Fermi as a ``little discovery,'' showed instead of the expected mixing of linear modes a striking series of (near) recurrences of the initial state and no evidence of equipartition. This work heralded the beginning of both computational physics and (modern) nonlinear science. In particular, the work marked the first systematic study of a nonlinear system by digital computers (``experimental mathematics'') and led directly to the discovery of ``solitons,'' as well as to deep insights into deterministic chaos and statistical mechanics. In this talk, I will review the original FPU studies and show how they led to the understanding of two key paradigms of nonlinear science. Specifically, I will show how a continuum approximation to the original discrete system led to the discovery of ``solitions'' whereas a low-mode approximation led to an early example of ``deterministic chaos.'' I will close with a brief indication of how the recurrence phenomenon observed by behavior by FPU can be reconciled with mixing, equipartition, and statistical mechanics.

  15. Unit Price Scaling Trends for Chemical Products

    Qi, Wei [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sathre, Roger [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Morrow, III, William R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Shehabi, Arman [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-08-01

    To facilitate early-stage life-cycle techno-economic modeling of emerging technologies, here we identify scaling relations between unit price and sales quantity for a variety of chemical products of three categories - metal salts, organic compounds, and solvents. We collect price quotations for lab-scale and bulk purchases of chemicals from both U.S. and Chinese suppliers. We apply a log-log linear regression model to estimate the price discount effect. Using the median discount factor of each category, one can infer bulk prices of products for which only lab-scale prices are available. We conduct out-of-sample tests showing that most of the price proxies deviate from their actual reference prices by a factor less than ten. We also apply the bootstrap method to determine if a sample median discount factor should be accepted for price approximation. We find that appropriate discount factors for metal salts and for solvents are both -0.56, while that for organic compounds is -0.67 and is less representative due to greater extent of product heterogeneity within this category.

  16. 75 FR 13345 - Pricing for Certain United States Mint Products

    2010-03-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for Certain United States Mint Products AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing the price of...

  17. Biomass Production System (BPS) Plant Growth Unit

    Morrow, R. C.; Crabb, T. M.

    The Biomass Production System (BPS) was developed under the Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) program to meet science, biotechnology and commercial plant growth needs in the Space Station era. The BPS is equivalent in size to a double middeck locker, but uses it's own custom enclosure with a slide out structure to which internal components mount. The BPS contains four internal growth chambers, each with a growing volume of more than 4 liters. Each of the growth chambers has active nutrient delivery, and independent control of temperature, humidity, lighting, and CO2 set-points. Temperature control is achieved using a thermoelectric heat exchanger system. Humidity control is achieved using a heat exchanger with a porous interface which can both humidify and dehumidify. The control software utilizes fuzzy logic for nonlinear, coupled temperature and humidity control. The fluorescent lighting system can be dimmed to provide a range of light levels. CO2 levels are controlled by injecting pure CO2 to the system based on input from an infrared gas analyzer. The unit currently does not scrub CO2, but has been designed to accept scrubber cartridges. In addition to providing environmental control, a number of features are included to facilitate science. The BPS chambers are sealed to allow CO2 and water vapor exchange measurements. The plant chambers can be removed to allow manipulation or sampling of specimens, and each chamber has gas/fluid sample ports. A video camera is provided for each chamber, and frame-grabs and complete environmental data for all science and hardware system sensors are stored on an internal hard drive. Data files can also be transferred to 3.5-inch disks using the front panel disk drive

  18. Unit Values in International Trade and Product Quality

    Chang Hong

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Is the unit value of traded goods representative of quality? To answer this question, we analyze unit value with respect to exporter country’s capacity to export, which is determined by its production cost, tariff, and distance. The change in a country’s export unit value is decomposed into the components associated with pure term-of-trade effect, quality effect, distance effect, and production cost effect. Our empirical results confirm that tariff, distance, and wages all significantly affect the unit values. Furthermore, by comparing CIF and FOB unit values, we show that quality is an important contributor on driving up the unit values: exporters increase unit price to distant trading partners through quality upgrading. This “Washington apple effect” is much larger than the pure distance effect or production cost increase.

  19. Ranking production units according to marginal efficiency contribution

    Ghiyasi, Mojtaba; Hougaard, Jens Leth

    League tables associated with various forms of service activities from schools to hospitals illustrate the public need for ranking institutions by their productive performance. We present a new method for ranking production units which is based on each units marginal contribution to the technical...

  20. Units in the Production of Narrative Discourse.

    Gee, James Paul

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the sources of information in oral language. Uses converging evidence from prosody, pausing, structural and semantic parallelism, and stylistic analysis to argue for a series of hypotheses about the units that organize the construction of narrative discourse. Provides examples and appendixes. (JD)

  1. Ethanol Demand in United States Gasoline Production

    Hadder, G.R.

    1998-11-24

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (OWL) Refinery Yield Model (RYM) has been used to estimate the demand for ethanol in U.S. gasoline production in year 2010. Study cases examine ethanol demand with variations in world oil price, cost of competing oxygenate, ethanol value, and gasoline specifications. For combined-regions outside California summer ethanol demand is dominated by conventional gasoline (CG) because the premised share of reformulated gasoline (RFG) production is relatively low and because CG offers greater flexibility for blending high vapor pressure components like ethanol. Vapor pressure advantages disappear for winter CG, but total ethanol used in winter RFG remains low because of the low RFG production share. In California, relatively less ethanol is used in CG because the RFG production share is very high. During the winter in California, there is a significant increase in use of ethanol in RFG, as ethanol displaces lower-vapor-pressure ethers. Estimated U.S. ethanol demand is a function of the refiner value of ethanol. For example, ethanol demand for reference conditions in year 2010 is 2 billion gallons per year (BGY) at a refiner value of $1.00 per gallon (1996 dollars), and 9 BGY at a refiner value of $0.60 per gallon. Ethanol demand could be increased with higher oil prices, or by changes in gasoline specifications for oxygen content, sulfur content, emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCS), and octane numbers.

  2. Map service: United States Oil and Gas Production 2008

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map service displays present and past oil and gas production in the United States, as well as the location and intensity of exploratory drilling outside...

  3. Map service: United States Decadal Production History Cells

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map service displays present and past oil and gas production in the United States, as well as the location and intensity of exploratory drilling outside...

  4. Native American Career Education Unit. From Idea to Product.

    Far West Lab. for Educational Research and Development, San Francisco, CA.

    One of twelve instructional units in the Native American Career Education (NACE) program, this unit is intended to help Indian junior high school students understand the steps involved in making a product. Focus is on the subject areas of economics, lumber and furniture industries, and woodworking. The first two activities concern the nature of…

  5. Training product unit neural networks with genetic algorithms

    Janson, D. J.; Frenzel, J. F.; Thelen, D. C.

    1991-01-01

    The training of product neural networks using genetic algorithms is discussed. Two unusual neural network techniques are combined; product units are employed instead of the traditional summing units and genetic algorithms train the network rather than backpropagation. As an example, a neural netork is trained to calculate the optimum width of transistors in a CMOS switch. It is shown how local minima affect the performance of a genetic algorithm, and one method of overcoming this is presented.

  6. Non-Linear Unit Root Properties of Crude Oil Production

    Svetlana Maslyuk; Russell Smyth

    2007-01-01

    While there is good reason to expect crude oil production to be non-linear, previous studies that have examined the stochastic properties of crude oil production have assumed that crude oil production follows a linear process. If crude oil production is a non-linear process, conventional unit root tests, which assume linear and systematic adjustment, could interpret departure from linearity as permanent stochastic disturbances. The objective of this paper is to test for non-linearities and un...

  7. Fabrication of Integrated Malting Unit for Production of Malts

    Sanjay Kumar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Malting is a three step process i.e. steeping(grain soaked in water, germination(development of sprout and enhance enzymatic activityand kilning (drying the grain and stop the enzymatic activity. All these three steps are completed in separate plants. The present study is based on the development of integrated malting unit which serves all three processes in a single unit. Integrated malting unit is used for small scale production of malt. Integrated malting unit proved useful for development of new malting technique for grains

  8. On units combination and commitment optimization for electric power production

    谭忠富; 何永秀

    2004-01-01

    Electric power system is one of the most important and complex engineering in modern society, supplying main and general power for social production and social life. Meanwhile, since it is a productive system with both high input and output, it has an obvious economic significance to improve its operating efficiency. For an example, an unit is 10 GW year. It will be discussed mainly that how to establish optimization model and its numerical algorithm for operating management of the electric power system. The idea on establishing optimization model is how to dispatch work state of units or power plants, so that total cost of fuel consumption for generation is reduced to the minimum. Here the dispatch is to decide which unit or plant to operate, which unit or plant to stop running, how much power should be generated for those operating units or plants at each given time interval.

  9. Production of cellulase from kraft paper mill sludge by Trichoderma reesei rut C-30.

    Wang, Wei; Kang, Li; Lee, Yoon Y

    2010-05-01

    Paper mill sludge is a solid waste material generated from pulping and papermaking operations. Because of high glucan content and its well-dispersed structure, paper mill sludges are well suited for bioconversion into value-added products. It also has high ash content originated from inorganic additives used in papermaking, which causes hindrance to bioconversion. In this study, paper mill sludges from Kraft process were de-ashed by a centrifugal cleaner and successive treatment by sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide, and used as a substrate for cellulase production. The treated sludge was the only carbon source for cellulase production, and predominantly inorganic nutrients were used as the nitrogen source for this bioprocess. The cellulase enzyme produced from the de-ashed sludge exhibited cellulase activity of 8 filter paper unit (FPU)/mL, close to that obtainable from pure cellulosic substrates. The yield of cellulase enzyme was 307 FPU/g glucan of de-ashed sludge. Specific activity was 8.0 FPU/mg protein. In activity tests conducted against the corn stover and alpha-cellulose, the xylanse activity was found to be higher than that of a commercial cellulase. Relatively high xylan content in the sludge appears to have induced high xylanase production. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) was performed using partially de-ashed sludge as the feedstock for ethanol production using Sacharomyces cerevisiae and the cellulase produced in-house from the sludge. With 6% (w/v) glucan feed, ethanol yield of 72% of theoretical maximum and 24.4 g/L ethanol concentration were achieved. These results were identical to those of the SSF using commercial cellulases.

  10. Decisions about Product Safety. A Multidisciplinary Teaching Unit.

    Procter and Gamble Educational Services, Cincinnati, OH.

    A multidisciplinary educational unit featuring product safety decisions made by businesses and consumers is presented. teach critical thinking and decision making while supplementing the science, home economics, social studies, and economics curricula. The activities rely extensively, though not exclusively, on Procter & Gamble's experiences in…

  11. Current automation environment of PETROBRAS offshore production units

    Moura, C.H.W.; Mendes, F.M.R.; Silva Filho, J.A.P.; Loureiro, P. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1996-12-31

    This paper aims to show the evolution of automation in PETROBRAS` off-shore production units during the last decade. It also displays the currently used standard architecture, describing the main aspects of each sub-system which is part of the entire automation system. The changes in PETROBRAS` purchasing policy, and their consequences, are also discussed. 2 figs.

  12. 12 CFR 7.4005 - Combination of loan production office, deposit production office, and remote service unit.

    2010-01-01

    ... production office, and remote service unit. 7.4005 Section 7.4005 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE... production office, deposit production office, and remote service unit. A location at which a national bank operates a loan production office (LPO), a deposit production office (DPO), and a remote service unit...

  13. SOLVING THE SHUGART QUEEN SAND PENASCO UNIT DECLINING PRODUCTION PROBLEM

    Lowell Deckert

    2000-08-25

    The Penasco Shugart Queen Sand Unit located in sections 8, 9, 16 & 17, T18S, 31E Eddy County New Mexico is operated by MNA Enterprises Ltd. Co. Hobbs, NM. The first well in the Unit was drilled in 1939 and since that time the Unit produced 535,000 bbl of oil on primary recovery and 375,000 bbl of oil during secondary recovery operations that commenced in 1973. The Unit secondary to primary ratio is 0.7, but other Queen waterfloods in the area had considerably larger S/P ratios. On June 25 1999 MNA was awarded a grant under the Department of Energy's ''Technology Development with Independents'' program. The grant was used to fund a reservoir study to determine if additional waterflood reserves could be developed. A total of 14 well bores that penetrate the Queen at 3150 ft are within the Unit boundaries. Eleven of these wells produced oil during the past 60 years. Production records were pieced together from various sources including the very early state production records. One very early well had a resistivity log, but nine of the wells had no logs, and four wells had gamma ray-neutron count-rate perforating logs. Fortunately, recent offset deep drilling in the area provided a source of modern logs through the Queen. The logs from these wells were used to analyze the four old gamma ray-neutron logs within the Unit. Additionally the offset well log database was sufficient to construct maps through the unit based on geostatistical interpolation methods. The maps were used to define the input parameters required to simulate the primary and secondary producing history. The history-matched simulator was then used to evaluate four production scenarios. The best scenario produces 51,000 bbl of additional oil over a 10-year period. If the injection rate is held to 300 BWPD the oil rate declines to a constant 15 BOPD after the first year. The projections are reasonable when viewed in the context of the historical performance ({approx}30 BOPD with a

  14. Lightweight Radioisotope Heater Unit (LWRHU) production for the Cassini mission

    Rinehart, G.H.

    1996-06-01

    The Lightweight Radioisotope Heater Unit (LWRHU) is a {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fueled heat source designed to provide a thermal watt of power for space missions. The LWRHU will be used to maintain the temperature of various components on the spacecraft at the required level. The heat source consists of a {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fuel pellet, a Pt-30Rh capsule, a pyrolytic graphite insulator, and a woven graphite aeroshell assembly. Los Alamos has fabricated 180 heater units, which will be used on the Cassini mission. This report summarizes the specifications, fabrication processes, and production data for the heat sources fabricated at Los Alamos.

  15. Simulating Potential Switchgrass Production in the United States

    Thomson, Allison M.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; West, T. O.; Parrish, David J.; Tyler, Donald D.; Williams, Jimmy R.

    2009-12-31

    Using results from field trials of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) in the United States, the EPIC (Environmental Policy Integrated Climate) process-level agroecosystem model was calibrated, validated, and applied to simulate potential productivity of switchgrass for use as a biofuel feedstock. The model was calibrated with a regional study of 10-yr switchgrass field trials and subsequently tested against a separate compiled dataset of field trials from across the eastern half of the country. An application of the model in a national database using 8-digit watersheds as the primary modeling unit produces 30-yr average switchgrass yield estimates that can be aggregated to 18 major watersheds. The model projects average annual switchgrass productivity of greater than 7 Mg ha-1 in the Upper Mississippi, Lower Mississippi, and Ohio watersheds. The major factors limiting simulated production vary by region; low precipitation is the primary limiting factor across the western half of the country, while moderately acidic soils limit yields on lands east of the Mississippi River. Average projected switchgrass production on all crop land in the continental US is 5.6 Mg ha-1. At this level of productivity, 28.6 million hectares of crop land would be required to produce the 16 billion gallons of cellulosic ethanol called for by 2022 in the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act. The model described here can be applied as a tool to inform the land-use and environmental consequences of switchgrass production.

  16. Classifying Floating Potential Measurement Unit Data Products as Science Data

    Coffey, Victoria; Minow, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    We are Co-Investigators for the Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU) on the International Space Station (ISS) and members of the FPMU operations and data analysis team. We are providing this memo for the purpose of classifying raw and processed FPMU data products and ancillary data as NASA science data with unrestricted, public availability in order to best support science uses of the data.

  17. 76 FR 41525 - Hewlett Packard Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management Unit Including...

    2011-07-14

    ... Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management Unit, including teleworkers reporting to... Employment and Training Administration Hewlett Packard Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles... Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management Unit, including teleworkers reporting to Houston,...

  18. The Proximate Unit in Chinese Handwritten Character Production

    Jenn-Yeu eChen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In spoken word production, a proximate unit is the first phonological unit at the sublexical level that is selectable for production (O’Seaghdha, Chen, & Chen, 2010. The present study investigated whether the proximate unit in Chinese handwritten word production is the stroke, the radical, or something in between. A written version of the form preparation task was adopted. Chinese participants learned sets of two-character words, later were cued with the first character of each word, and had to write down the second character (the target. Response times were measured from the onset of a cue character to the onset of a written response. In Experiment 1, the target characters within a block shared (homogeneous or did not share (heterogeneous the first stroke. In Experiment 2, the first two strokes were shared in the homogeneous blocks. Response times in the homogeneous blocks and in the heterogeneous blocks were comparable in both experiments (Exp. 1: 687 ms vs. 684 ms, Exp. 2: 717 vs. 716. In Experiment 3 and 4, the target characters within a block shared or did not share the first radical. Response times in the homogeneous blocks were significantly faster than those in the heterogeneous blocks (Exp. 3: 685 vs. 704, Exp. 4: 594 vs. 650. In Experiment 5 and 6, the shared component was a Gestalt-like form that is more than a stroke, constitutes a portion of the target character, can be a stand-alone character itself, can be a radical of another character but is not a radical of the target character (e.g., 士in聲, 鼓, 穀, 款; called a logographeme. Response times in the homogeneous blocks were significantly faster than those in the heterogeneous blocks (Exp. 5: 576 vs. 625, Exp. 6: 586 vs. 620. These results suggest a model of Chinese handwritten character production in which the stroke is not a functional unit, the radical plays the role of a morpheme, and the logographeme is the proximate unit.

  19. Superscalar pipelined inner product computation unit for signed unsigned number

    Ravindra P. Rajput

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we proposed superscalar pipelined inner product computation unit for signed-unsigned number operating at 16 GHz. This is designed using five stage pipelined operation with four 8 × 8 multipliers operating in parallel. Superscalar pipelined is designed to compute four 8 × 8 products in parallel in three clock cycles. In the fourth clock cycle of the pipeline operation, two inner products are computed using two adders in parallel. Fifth stage of the pipeline is designed to compute the final product by adding two inner partial products. Upon the pipeline is filled up, every clock cycle the new product of 16 × 16-bit signed unsigned number is obtained. The worst delay measured among the pipeline stage is 0.062 ns, and this delay is considered as the clock cycle period. With the delay of 0.062 ns clock cycle period, the pipeline stage can be operated with 16 GHz synchronous clock signal. Each superscalar pipeline stage is implemented using 45 nm CMOS process technology, and the comparison of results shows that the delay is decreased by 38%, area is reduced by 45% and power dissipation is saved by 32%.

  20. Analysis of Product Sampling for New Product Diffusion Incorporating Multiple-Unit Ownership

    Zhineng Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple-unit ownership of nondurable products is an important component of sales in many product categories. Based on the Bass model, this paper develops a new model considering the multiple-unit adoptions as a diffusion process under the influence of product sampling. Though the analysis aims to determine the optimal dynamic sampling effort for a firm and the results demonstrate that experience sampling can accelerate the diffusion process, the best time to send free samples is just before the product being launched. Multiple-unit purchasing behavior can increase sales to make more profit for a firm, and it needs more samples to make the product known much better. The local sensitivity analysis shows that the increase of both external coefficients and internal coefficients has a negative influence on the sampling level, but the internal influence on the subsequent multiple-unit adoptions has little significant influence on the sampling. Using the logistic regression along with linear regression, the global sensitivity analysis gives a whole analysis of the interaction of all factors, which manifests the external influence and multiunit purchase rate are two most important factors to influence the sampling level and net present value of the new product, and presents a two-stage method to determine the sampling level.

  1. Minimization of entropy production in separate and connected process units

    Roesjorde, Audun

    2004-08-01

    The objective of this thesis was to further develop a methodology for minimizing the entropy production of single and connected chemical process units. When chemical process equipment is designed and operated at the lowest entropy production possible, the energy efficiency of the equipment is enhanced. We have found for single process units that the entropy production could be reduced with up to 20-40%, given the degrees of freedom in the optimization. In processes, our results indicated that even bigger reductions were possible. The states of minimum entropy production were studied and important painter's for obtaining significant reductions in the entropy production were identified. Both from sustain ability and economical viewpoints knowledge of energy efficient design and operation are important. In some of the systems we studied, nonequilibrium thermodynamics was used to model the entropy production. In Chapter 2, we gave a brief introduction to different industrial applications of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. The link between local transport phenomena and overall system description makes nonequilibrium thermodynamics a useful tool for understanding design of chemical process units. We developed the methodology of minimization of entropy production in several steps. First, we analyzed and optimized the entropy production of single units: Two alternative concepts of adiabatic distillation; diabatic and heat-integrated distillation, were analyzed and optimized in Chapter 3 to 5. In diabatic distillation, heat exchange is allowed along the column, and it is this feature that increases the energy efficiency of the distillation column. In Chapter 3, we found how a given area of heat transfer should be optimally distributed among the trays in a column separating a mixture of propylene and propane. The results showed that heat exchange was most important on the trays close to the re boiler and condenser. In Chapter 4 and 5, we studied how the entropy

  2. Fabrication and testing history prototypes and production units

    1954-09-01

    From April, 1951 to Aug, 1954, New York Shipbuilding Corp. carried out a subcontract with E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company that was without parallel in the shipyard`s history. The work, designated the NYX Project for reasons of security, was vital to the operations of the Savannah River Plant, Aiken, S.C., which was then being designed and constructed by du Pont for the Atomic Energy Commission. It consisted of three broad parts: developmental and experimental work; fabrication and testing of a prototype unit; fabrication of production units. Five production units were ultimately built, one of them converted from the prototype. All were fabricated from stainless steel, and involved welding techniques, control of thermal distortion and tolerances never previously attempted on assemblies of comparable size. Du Pont`s technical experience and the background of New York Ship in heavy construction, particularly in the fabrication of naval gun turrets, were combined from the outset to resolve the difficult fabrication problems that occurred almost daily. Representatives of both companies worked together as a team in the shops and at supervisory levels to an unprecedented extent. The report is intended primarily to summarize New York Ship`s part in the project, but also includes some of du Pont`s activities since the work of the two organizations was so interrelated. Because of the scope of the program, it will not always be possible to provide detailed information, but rather to record what happened in general terms. Where the reader desires more specific data, he should refer to original plans and records, including various reports compiled during the course of the project.

  3. Global production methods and women employment in garment units of Mumbai Metropolitan Region

    Sanjay R, Sanjay

    2010-01-01

    Production in the garment unit is depending on technology, efficiency and skills of workers. If the labors are young and more educated then they adjust with flexible production methods. The garment export units are following global standard methods of production and they provide the various production related facilities to workers. In Mumbai metropolitan region, export related units are more competitive as compare to the domestic garment units. The monthly incomes of the women workers are hig...

  4. Corn Production. A Unit for Teachers of Vocational Agriculture. Production Agriculture Curriculum Materials Project.

    Grace, Clyde, Jr.

    Designed to provide instructional materials for use by vocational agriculture teachers, this unit contains nine lessons based upon competencies needed to maximize profits in corn production. The lessons cover opportunities for growing corn; seed selection; seedbed preparation; planting methods and practices; fertilizer rates and application;…

  5. 16 CFR 1616.63 - Policy regarding garment production unit identification.

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Policy regarding garment production unit...) Interpretations and Policies § 1616.63 Policy regarding garment production unit identification. No provision of 16 CFR 1616.31(b)(7) prohibits placement of a garment production unit identification on a...

  6. 16 CFR 1615.63 - Policy regarding garment production unit identification.

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Policy regarding garment production unit...) Interpretations and Policies § 1615.63 Policy regarding garment production unit identification. No provision of § 1615.31(b)(8) prohibits placement of a garment production unit identification on a label...

  7. Phonological units in spoken word production: insights from Cantonese.

    Andus Wing-Kuen Wong

    Full Text Available Evidence from previous psycholinguistic research suggests that phonological units such as phonemes have a privileged role during phonological planning in Dutch and English (aka the segment-retrieval hypothesis. However, the syllable-retrieval hypothesis previously proposed for Mandarin assumes that only the entire syllable unit (without the tone can be prepared in advance in speech planning. Using Cantonese Chinese as a test case, the present study was conducted to investigate whether the syllable-retrieval hypothesis can be applied to other Chinese spoken languages. In four implicit priming (form-preparation experiments, participants were asked to learn various sets of prompt-response di-syllabic word pairs and to utter the corresponding response word upon seeing each prompt. The response words in a block were either phonologically related (homogeneous or unrelated (heterogeneous. Participants' naming responses were significantly faster in the homogeneous than in the heterogeneous conditions when the response words shared the same word-initial syllable (without the tone (Exps.1 and 4 or body (Exps.3 and 4, but not when they shared merely the same word-initial phoneme (Exp.2. Furthermore, the priming effect observed in the syllable-related condition was significantly larger than that in the body-related condition (Exp. 4. Although the observed syllable priming effects and the null effect of word-initial phoneme are consistent with the syllable-retrieval hypothesis, the body-related (sub-syllabic priming effects obtained in this Cantonese study are not. These results suggest that the syllable-retrieval hypothesis is not generalizable to all Chinese spoken languages and that both syllable and sub-syllabic constituents are legitimate planning units in Cantonese speech production.

  8. Net Ecosystem Production (NEP) of the Great Plains, United States

    Howard, Daniel; Gilmanov, Tagir; Gu, Yingxin; Wylie, Bruce; Zhang, Li

    2012-01-01

    Gross primary production (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (Re) are the fundamental environmental characteristics that promote carbon exchanges with the atmosphere (Chapin and others, 2009), although other exchanges of carbon, such as direct oxidation (Lovett and others, 2006), can modify net ecosystem production (NEP). The accumulation of carbon in terrestrial ecosystems results in systems in which soil organic matter (SOM) carbon often exceeds biomass carbon (Post and Kwon, 2000). This SOM pool exists at a steady state between GPP and Re in ecosystems unless drivers change or the ecosystem endures environmental perturbations (for example, climatic). As indicated by Wilhelm and others (2011), conversion of grasslands to agriculture and cultivation can result in reduced soil carbon, with the release of carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere by stimulated oxidation and higher Re; therefore, land-use and land management practices have clear effects on NEP, with potential repercussions on ecosystems. The recent demand for biofuels has changed land-use and cropping patterns, especially in Midwestern United States (Wilhelm and others, 2011). It is important to ensure the sustainability of these and other land uses and to assess the effects on NEP.

  9. 75 FR 13345 - Pricing for Certain 2010 United States Mint Products

    2010-03-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for Certain 2010 United States Mint Products AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing the price of...

  10. Dynamic Action Units Slip in Speech Production Errors

    Goldstein, Louis; Pouplier, Marianne; Chen, Larissa; Saltzman, Elliot; Byrd, Dani

    2007-01-01

    In the past, the nature of the compositional units proposed for spoken language has largely diverged from the types of control units pursued in the domains of other skilled motor tasks. A classic source of evidence as to the units structuring speech has been patterns observed in speech errors--"slips of the tongue". The present study reports, for…

  11. COSTING OF QUALITY IN BUSINESS BASE UNIT SEVERAL PRODUCTIONS, CIENFUEGOS

    Gómez Alfonso, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The calculation of quality costs as a component of the System of Quality Management, is a must for Cuban business managers, to provide a technique identified as an advanced instrument of management, which will lead to improved competitiveness and serve as an informative source. Identify and calculate the costs of quality, as well as propose measured plans, to promote a decrease in operating expenses, which can be used as a tool to improve processes. The Business Unit of Several Base Productions of Cienfuegos presents the fault to give way to Business Improvement and certification of its Quality Management System, according to the norm ISO 9001:2008 and the decree law 281, so that the objective research was to estimate the costs of quality processes in the company. To achieve this level were used empirical methods and techniques such as direct observation, document review and work in groups, which allowed to calculate the costs of quality in all processes. The results obtained are applicable to companies that operate in the Cuban economy and according to the Cuban economic model implemented from the year 2011.

  12. 78 FR 28633 - TE Connectivity, a Subsidiary of Tyco Electronics Corporation, Relay Products Business Unit...

    2013-05-15

    ... Products Business Unit Including On-Site Leased Workers From Kelly Services, Diversco and Hagemeyer North... Corporation, Relay Products Business Unit, including on-site leased workers from Kelly Services, Winston-Salem, North Carolina. The workers are engaged in activities related to the production of...

  13. Tree-Fruit Production. An Instructional Unit for Teachers of Adult Vocational Education in Agriculture.

    O'Bryan, Robert C.; Iverson, Maynard J.

    Designed as a guide for teachers in planning and conducting young and adult farmer classes, the unit covers the basic areas of tree-fruit production. The format of the 10-lesson unit allows for the utilization of the problem-solving and discussion methods of teaching. The major objective of the unit is to develop the ability to effectively…

  14. Xylanase production by Trichoderma strains in solid substrate fermentation

    Krisztina Kovacs; George Szakacs; Lew Christopher

    2004-01-01

    @@ The importance of microbial enzymes in pulp and paper manufacturing has grown significantly in the last two decades. Solid substrate fermentation (SSF) holds tremendous potential for the production of microbial enzymes of commercial interest. SSF can be of special interest in those processes where the crude fermented product (whole SSF culture, in situ enzyme) may be used directly as the enzyme source. Xylanase preparations practically free of cellulase activity are especially useful for biobleaching of crude cellulose pulps. Thirty-nine Trichoderma isolates have been screened in SSF for xylanase production on hardwood oxygen-delignified soda-aq pulp as carbon source and enzyme inducer.Xylanase activities varied between 0 and 2200 IU/g dry matter (DM) of initial substrate. In most instances, the simultaneously produced cellulase levels were below 1.0 Filter Paper Unit (FPU) /g DM. The xylanase to cellulase activity ratio varied in the range of 5 to 3500. The three most promising isolates (TUB F-1647, TUB F-1658 and TUB F-1684) yielded xylanase activity of 2040,1300 and 1500 IU/g DM xylanase, respectively, and 0.64, 0.43 and 0.43 FPU/g DM cellulase with a xylanase to cellulase activity ratio of 3200, 3000 and 3500, respectively. Wild strains F-1647, F-1658 and F-1684 were isolated from tree bark of Maldives, soils of Peru (last two), respectively.Medium optimization experiments to enhance the xylanase yield and to increase the xylanase to cellulase ratio have also been performed.

  15. 76 FR 13973 - United States Warehouse Act; Processed Agricultural Products Licensing Agreement

    2011-03-15

    ... Farm Service Agency United States Warehouse Act; Processed Agricultural Products Licensing Agreement... warehouse licenses may be issued under the United States Warehouse Act (USWA). Through this notice, FSA is... processed agricultural products that are stored in climate controlled, cooler, and freezer warehouses....

  16. Soybean Production and Marketing. An Instructional Unit for Teachers of Adult Education in Agriculture.

    Irish, Paul; Iverson, Maynard J.

    The instructional unit was developed for use as a guide for planning and teaching adult or young farmer classes in Kentucky. The unit consists of 12 lessons covering various aspects of soybean production and marketing. The course objective is to develop the effective ability of farmers to plan for profitable soybean production. Transparency and…

  17. 21 CFR 1010.5 - Exemptions for products intended for United States Government use.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exemptions for products intended for United States Government use. 1010.5 Section 1010.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... General Provisions § 1010.5 Exemptions for products intended for United States Government use....

  18. Beef Cattle Production. An Instructional Unit for Teachers of Adult Vocational Education in Agriculture.

    Metzger, Bruce; Iverson, Maynard J.

    The unit on beef cattle production is designed primarily for the adult farmer program in Kentucky as an aid to making the beef enterprise more profitable. It is aimed primarily at the commercial producer. The lessons center on some of the more important economic points in beef cattle production. Ten lessons comprise the unit, which can be adapted…

  19. Toeplitz and Hankel Products on Bergman Spaces of the Unit Ball

    Yufeng LU; Chaomei LIU

    2009-01-01

    The authors give some new necessary conditions for the boundedness of Toeplitzproducts TafTagon the weighted Bergman space A2a of the unit ball, where f and g are analytic on the unit ball. Hankel products HfH*g on the weighted Bergman space of the unit ball are studied, and the results analogous to those Stroethoff and Zheng obtained in the setting of unit disk are proved.

  20. Riesz Isomorphisms of Tensor Products of Order Unit Banach Spaces

    T S S R K Rao

    2009-06-01

    In this paper we formulate and prove an order unit Banach space version of a Banach–Stone theorem type theorem for Riesz isomorphisms of the space of vector-valued continuous functions. Similar results were obtained recently for the case of lattice-valued continuous functions in [5] and [6].

  1. An EPQ Model with Unit Production Cost and Set-Up Cost as Functions of Production Rate

    Behrouz Afshar-Nadjafi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Extensive research has been devoted to economic production quantity (EPQ problem. However, no attention has been paid to problems where unit production and set-up costs must be considered as functions of production rate. In this paper, we address the problem of determining the optimal production quantity and rate of production in which unit production and set-up costs are assumed to be continuous functions of production rate. Based on the traditional economic production quantity (EPQ formula, the cost function associated with this model is proved to be nonconvex and a procedure is proposed to solve this problem. Finally, utility of the model is presented using some numerical examples and the results are analyzed.

  2. DOE Project 353: TAMS Prototype and production coupling alignment units

    Field, K.V.

    1996-02-01

    TAMS is an electronic measurement system used to determine the alignment of turbine-generator shafts at the coupling interface. The displacement transducer is a strain gage based sensor mounted in a portable probe. The measurement system was experiencing zero input drift and temperature induced drift. This project endeavored to determine the source of these problems and to revise a unit to be returned to a customer, Baltimore Gas and Electric (BGE), within a period of five weeks.

  3. Unit-Linked Life Insurance Products Versus Other Alternative Investments

    Cristina Ciumas; Diana-Maria Chis

    2015-01-01

    Unit-linked insurance is a life insurance policy with investment component. An important component of the activity carried out by the insurance companies is the investment of the premiums paid by policyholders in various types of assets, in order to obtain higher yields than those guaranteed by the insurance contracts, while providing the necessary liquidity for the payment of insurance claims in case of occurrence of the assumed risks. This research contributes to the existing literature reg...

  4. Forecasting the Unit Cost of a Product with Some Linear Fuzzy Collaborative Forecasting Models

    Toly Chen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Forecasting the unit cost of every product type in a factory is an important task. However, it is not easy to deal with the uncertainty of the unit cost. Fuzzy collaborative forecasting is a very effective treatment of the uncertainty in the distributed environment. This paper presents some linear fuzzy collaborative forecasting models to predict the unit cost of a product. In these models, the experts’ forecasts differ and therefore need to be aggregated through collaboration. According to the experimental results, the effectiveness of forecasting the unit cost was considerably improved through collaboration.

  5. Production of short straight sections hits 100 units

    2005-01-01

    The 100th short straight section for the Large Hadron Collider was assembled at CERN at the beginning of April. These units combine superconducting quadrupoles and other multipole corrector magnets, housed in their cryostats, which are used to guide, focus and fine-tune the beam in the LHC. Building 904, where the 474 short straight sections are being assembled, is often called "Lego Land" by the workers, with a touch of humor and pride because of the wide variety of these sets of magnets and cryostats .

  6. Cascade units for neon isotope production by rectification

    Bondarenko, V. L.; Simonenko, Yu. M.; Diachenko, O. V.; Matveyev, E. V.

    2013-05-01

    The basics of neon isotope separation by the distillation method at T = 28 K are discussed. The required numbers of transfer units at the top and bottom column sections are calculated for different loads. The experimental characteristics of packed rectification columns are presented and examples of the cascade are discussed. A configuration for a cryogenic circuit based on a high-pressure throttle neon cycle with intermediate nitrogen cooling is presented. The necessity for and the technical feasibility of creating a driver pressure difference between the columns for different stages are demonstrated.

  7. Improving productivity and welfare among workers of small and household textile and garment units in India

    Sanjay RODE

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Global Production System has changed remarkably over the period of time. In order to cope up with the change in the nature and type of production, the small and household garment and textile units are employing the younger and skilled labor force. The workers in these units are employed on the contract, causal and temporary basis. They are not given the different benefits as applicable to the large scale unit workers. Such workers are employed more hours and weekly holidays are not given to them. The small and household units are simply maximizing their interest and profit. Such capitalist nature of productive activities makes the labor worse. They are given less wages and classified as unskilled workers. Workers are not given proper training and security of work by these units. Their access to productive assets and standard of living is low as compare to the large unit’s workers. In order to improve the workers conditions, minimum wage should be given to all workers in small and household units. Such units must maintain their annual records of transactions. Small and household units must send their workers for compulsory training. Work place environment, minimum hours of work are required to regulate in these sectors. Immediate steps will have positive impact on workers earning and standard of living. It will help for further productivity enhancement.

  8. Green energy products in the United Kingdom, Germany and Finland

    Hast, Aira; McDermott, Liisa; Järvelä, Marja; Syri, Sanna

    2014-12-01

    In liberalized electricity markets, suppliers are offering several kinds of voluntary green electricity products marketed as environmentally friendly. This paper focuses on the development of these voluntary markets at household level in the UK, Germany and Finland. Since there are already existing renewable energy policies regulating and encouraging the use of renewable energy, it is important to consider whether voluntary products offer real additional benefits above these policies. Problems such as double counting or re-marketing hydropower produced in existing plants are identified. According to our study, the demand varies between countries: in Germany the number of green electricity customers has increased and is also higher than in the UK or Finland. Typically the average additional cost to consumer from buying green electricity product instead of standard electricity product is in the range of 0-5% in all studied countries, although the level of price premium depends on several factors like electricity consumption. Case study of Finland and literature show that the impacts of green energy are not solely environmental. Renewable energy can benefit local public policy.

  9. China-United States Productivity Catch-Up

    Deng, Paul Duo; Jefferson, Gary H.

    reduction function and find that the key drivers for the productivity convergence are the initial technology gap, increased R&D spending, firm’s ownership restructuring, and industry level entry-exit ratio, a measure of competitive dynamism. A key finding is that the catch-up dynamic entails the break out...

  10. Trends in United States cotton yield productivity since 1980

    Cotton is produced in over 30 countries and provides a major fiber source for textile manufacturers. In 2012, the direct market value of 17.0 million bales of U.S. cotton equated to US$ 8.1 billion. The objective of this study was to document trends in U.S. upland cotton yield productivity since 198...

  11. Ethanol Production from High Solids Loading of Alkali-Pretreated Sugarcane Bagasse with an SSF Process

    Yueshu Gao

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A fed-batch process and high-temperature simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF process were investigated to obtain high sugar yield and ethanol concentration. Different amounts of alkali-pretreated sugarcane bagasse were added during the first 24 h. For the highest final dry matter (DM content of 25% (w/v, a maximal glucose and total sugar concentration of 79.53 g/L and 135.39 g/L, respectively, were achieved with 8.3 FPU/g substrate after 120 h of hydrolysis. Based on the hydrolysis experiment, two processes for ethanol production from sugarcane bagasse, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF and separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF, were also compared using S. cerevisiae. The results indicated that ethanol concentration and yield in the SHF were higher, while ethanol productivity (gram per unit volume and over time was lower. For 25% substrate loading, the ethanol productivity and ethanol concentration could reach 0.38 g.L-1.h-1 and 36.25 g/L SSF in 96 h, respectively, while that of SHF could reach 0.32 g.L-1.h-1, with an ethanol concentration of 47.95 g/L in 152 h for SHF. When high-temperature simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF process was performed by using Kluyveromyces marxianus NCYC 587 at 42 °C, 42.21 g/L ethanol (with an ethanol productivity of 0.44 g.L-1.h-1 was produced with 25% dry matter content and 8.3 FPU cellulase/g substrate, which meant 16.4% more ethanol when compared with SSF of S. cerevisiae.

  12. The Role of Supralexical Prosodic Units in Speech Production: Evidence from the Distribution of Speech Errors

    Choe, Wook Kyung

    2013-01-01

    The current dissertation represents one of the first systematic studies of the distribution of speech errors within supralexical prosodic units. Four experiments were conducted to gain insight into the specific role of these units in speech planning and production. The first experiment focused on errors in adult English. These were found to be…

  13. ICT and Europe's productivity performance : Industry-level growth account comparisons with the United States

    Inklaar, R.; O'Mahony, M.; Timmer, M.P.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we present a new industry-level database to analyze sources of growth in four major European countries: France, Germany, Netherlands and the United Kingdom (EU-4), in comparison with the United States for the period 1979-2000. Aggregate labor productivity growth is decomposed into indu

  14. Are Productivity Levels Higher in Some European Countries than in the United States?

    Gilbert Cette

    2005-01-01

    Estimates produced by the OECD indicate that labour productivity levels are higher in a number of European countries than in the United States, implying that Europe and not the United States is the world technological leader. The author argues that a structural measure of labour productivity, closer to a measure of technical efficiency, would take into account the much lower employment rates and hours of work in Europe. Low employment rates reflect the exclusion of certain low-porductivity gr...

  15. Advanced Dairy Unit for Advanced Livestock Production Curriculum. Selected Readings. AGDEX 410/00.

    Coday, Stan; Stewart, Bob R.

    These selected readings are designed to supplement James Gillespie's "Modern Livestock and Poultry Production" (2nd edition) as the the student reference for the advanced dairy unit. Readings are provided for 18 lessons. Topics include profitability of the dairy enterprise; production costs for dairy; comparative advantages of dairy; milk…

  16. Productivity Effects of United States Multinational Enterprises : The Roles of Market Orientation and Regional Integration

    Smeets, Roger; Wei, Yingqi

    2010-01-01

    Smeets R. and Wei Y. Productivity effects of United States multinational enterprises: the roles of market orientation and regional integration, Regional Studies. This paper considers the role of market orientation and regional integration in foreign direct investment (FDI) productivity effects. Usin

  17. Advanced Beef Unit for Advanced Livestock Production Curriculum. Selected Readings. AGDEX 420/00.

    Sparks, Jim; Stewart, Bob R.

    These selected readings are designed to supplement James Gillespie's "Modern Livestock and Poultry Production" (2nd edition) as the student reference for the advanced beef unit. The 15 lessons build on Agricultural Science I and II competencies. Topics of the 15 lessons are: importance of the beef enterprise; cost of beef production;…

  18. 76 FR 34271 - Hewlett Packard, Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management Unit, Including...

    2011-06-13

    ... workers of Hewlett Packard, Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management Unit... Employment and Training Administration Hewlett Packard, Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles... Supply Chain Group, including leased workers from QFlex, North America Logistics and UPS...

  19. Measurements of methane emissions at natural gas production sites in the United States

    Allen, David T.; Torres, Vincent M.; Thomas, James; Sullivan, David W.; Harrison, Matthew; Hendler, Al; Herndon, Scott C.; Kolb, Charles E.; Fraser, Matthew P.; Hill, A. Daniel; Lamb, Brian K.; Miskimins, Jennifer; Sawyer, Robert F.; Seinfeld, John H.

    2013-01-01

    Engineering estimates of methane emissions from natural gas production have led to varied projections of national emissions. This work reports direct measurements of methane emissions at 190 onshore natural gas sites in the United States (150 production sites, 27 well completion flowbacks, 9 well unloadings, and 4 workovers). For well completion flowbacks, which clear fractured wells of liquid to allow gas production, methane emissions ranged from 0.01 Mg to 17 Mg (mean = 1.7 Mg; 95% confiden...

  20. An efficient process for lactic acid production from wheat straw by a newly isolated Bacillus coagulans strain IPE22

    Zhang, Yuming; Chen, Xiangrong; Luo, Jianquan

    2014-01-01

    this process, 46.12 g LA could be produced from 100 g dry wheat straw with a supplement of 10 g/L corn steep liquid powder at the cellulase loading of 20 FPU (filter paper activity units)/g cellulose. The process by B. coagulans IPE22 provides an economical route to produce LA from lignocellulose...

  1. The web of production: the economic geography of commercial Internet content production in the United States

    Matthew A Zook

    2000-01-01

    This paper provides a description and analysis of the clustering behavior of the commercial Internet content industry in specific geographical locations within the United States. Using a data set of Internet domain name developed in the summer of 1998, I show that three regions -- San Francisco, New York, and Los Angeles -- are the leading centers for Internet content in the United States in terms both of absolute size and of degree of specialization. In order to understand better how the ind...

  2. Product- and Process Units in the CRITT Translation Process Research Database

    Carl, Michael

    The first version of the "Translation Process Research Database" (TPR DB v1.0) was released In August 2012, containing logging data of more than 400 translation and text production sessions. The current version of the TPR DB, (v1.4), contains data from more than 940 sessions, which represents more...... than 300 hours of text production. The database provides the raw logging data, as well as Tables of pre-processed product- and processing units. The TPR-DB includes various types of simple and composed product and process units that are intended to support the analysis and modelling of human text...... reception, production, and translation processes. In this talk I describe some of the functions and features of the TPR-DB v1.4, and how they can be deployed in empirical human translation process research....

  3. Niche marketing production practices for beef cattle in the United States and prevalence of foodborne pathogens.

    Fox, J Trent; Reinstein, Shelby; Jacob, Megan E; Nagaraja, T G

    2008-10-01

    Niche-marketed food products are rapidly gaining market share in today's society. Consumers are willing to pay premium prices for food perceived to be safer, healthier, more nutritious, and better tasting than conventional food. This review outlines typical production practices for niche-market beef production systems in the United States and compares prevalence estimates of foodborne pathogens in animals and produce from conventional and niche-market production systems. The two main niches for food animal production are organic and natural productions. Organic and natural beef productions are becoming increasingly popular and there is high consumer demand. Two major differences between conventional beef production systems and niche-market production systems (natural and organic) are in the use of antimicrobials and growth-promoting hormones. The impacts of these production systems on foodborne pathogens in beef cattle are variable and often data are nonexistent. Studies directly comparing conventional and niche-market production systems for dairy, swine, poultry, and produce have observed that the prevalence of foodborne pathogens was seldom statistically different between production systems, but when differences were observed, prevalence was typically greater for the niche-market production systems than the conventional production system. The published literature suggests that the perception of niche-marketed food products being safer and healthier for consumers with regard to foodborne pathogens may not be justified.

  4. Life cycle inventory for the production of germinated oil palm seeds at a selected seed production unit in Malaysia

    Khairuddin, Nik Sasha Khatrina; Ismail, B. S.; Muhamad, Halimah; May, Choo Yuen

    2013-11-01

    The increasing global demand for edible oil has encouraged Malaysia to increase the areas under oil palm cultivation. The total demand for germinated oil palm seeds in the years 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012 were 86.4, 76.5, 72.6 and 75.2 million, respectively. Production of germinated oil palm seeds is the first link in the palm oil supply chain. Therefore, good management practices at seed production stage is required to ensure only high quality germinated oil palm seeds are produced before sale to customers. Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been used as a tool to assess environmental impact of the processes throughout a product's lifespan and this approach is an important tool for assessing green house gas (GHG) emission. For this study, a gate-to-gate life cycle inventory (LCI) of a single germinated oil palm seed production unit was carried out. The functional unit used for this LCI was one germinated oil palm seed. To determine the environmental impact for the production of germinated oil palm seeds, information on the inputs were obtained. The inputs for the production of germinated oil palm seeds involved materials such as polyethylene bags, electricity, water, chemicals and fungicides. For this study, the system boundary involved seed germination process and management of germinated oil palm seeds. It was found that the amount of input such as materials and energy used in the production of germinated oil palm seeds was very minimal.

  5. Evaluation of syngas production unit cost of bio-gasification facility using regression analysis techniques

    Deng, Yangyang; Parajuli, Prem B.

    2011-08-10

    Evaluation of economic feasibility of a bio-gasification facility needs understanding of its unit cost under different production capacities. The objective of this study was to evaluate the unit cost of syngas production at capacities from 60 through 1800Nm 3/h using an economic model with three regression analysis techniques (simple regression, reciprocal regression, and log-log regression). The preliminary result of this study showed that reciprocal regression analysis technique had the best fit curve between per unit cost and production capacity, with sum of error squares (SES) lower than 0.001 and coefficient of determination of (R 2) 0.996. The regression analysis techniques determined the minimum unit cost of syngas production for micro-scale bio-gasification facilities of $0.052/Nm 3, under the capacity of 2,880 Nm 3/h. The results of this study suggest that to reduce cost, facilities should run at a high production capacity. In addition, the contribution of this technique could be the new categorical criterion to evaluate micro-scale bio-gasification facility from the perspective of economic analysis.

  6. Competitiveness of China’s Agricultural Product Export to the United States of America

    Aiping; YAO; Liping; WAN

    2014-01-01

    Taking major agricultural product importers at the American market as reference object and using market share and growth rate,this paper analyzed current situation of the competitiveness of China’s agricultural product export to the United States of America. It used the Exports Similarity Index to evaluate the competitiveness of China’s agricultural product export to USA and it analyzed the competitiveness of China’s agricultural product export to USA by the shift share method. Research results indicate that China’s agricultural products occupy small portion of American market and are faced with intense competition of many developing countries,especially the Thailand. However,China still has strong export competitiveness and ranks the second place only second to India. Finally,it came up with recommendations for raising the competitiveness of China’s agricultural product export to USA and promoting China’s agricultural product export to USA.

  7. Design of the IBM RISC System/6000 floating-point execution unit

    Montoye, R.K.; Hokenek, E. (International Business Machines Corp., Yorktown Heights, NY (USA). Thomas J. Watson Research Center); Runyon, S.L. (IBM Advanced Workstations Div., Austin, TX (US))

    1990-01-01

    The IBM RISC System/6000 (RS/6000) floating-point unit (FPU) exemplifies a second-generation RISC CPU architecture and an implementation which greatly increases floating-point performance and accuracy. The key feature of the FPU is a unified floating-point multiply-add-fused unit (MAF) which performs the accumulate operation ({ital A} {times} {ital B}) + {ital C} as an indivisible operation. This single functional unit reduces the latency for chained floating-point operations, as well as rounding errors and chip busing. It also reduces the number of adders/normalizers by combining the addition required for fast multiplication with accumulation. The MAF unit is made practical by a unique fast-shifter, which eases the overlap of multiplication and addition, and a leading-zero/one anticipator, which eases overlap of normalization and addition. The accumulate instruction required by this architecture reduces the instruction path length by combining two instructions into one. Additionally, the RS/6000 FPU is tightly coupled to the rest of the CPU, unlike typical floating-point coprocessor chips.

  8. Development of in-situ product removal strategies in biocatalysis applying scaled-down unit operations

    Heintz, Søren; Börner, Tim; Ringborg, Rolf Hoffmeyer;

    2017-01-01

    different process steps while operating it as a combined system, giving the possibility to test and characterize the performance of novel process concepts and biocatalysts with minimal influence of inhibitory products. Here the capabilities of performing process development by applying scaled-down unit......An experimental platform based on scaled-down unit operations combined in a plug-and-play manner enables easy and highly flexible testing of advanced biocatalytic process options such as in-situ product removal (ISPR) process strategies. In such a platform it is possible to compartmentalize......-automatically characterize ω-transaminases in a scaled-down packed-bed reactor (PBR) module, showing MPPA as a strong inhibitor. To overcome the inhibition, a two-step liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) ISPR concept was tested using scaled-down unit operations combined in a plug-and-play manner. Through the tested ISPR concept...

  9. Fruit and Vegetable Production Unit for Plant Science Core Curriculum. Instructor's Guide. Volume 16, Number 3.

    Stewart, Bob R.; Mullinix, Mark K.

    This curriculum guide, part of a plant science core curriculum, consists of materials for use in teaching a unit on fruit and vegetable production. Provided in the first part of the guide are a list of objectives, a bibliography, and a competency profile. The remainder of the guide consists of 11 lessons dealing with the following topics: planning…

  10. China's first large-scale MA production unit operational in Shanxi

    2008-01-01

    @@ Abrainchild of researchers of the CAS Institute of Coal Chemistry, a production unit capable of turning out 20,000 tons of maleic anhydride (MA) per year, the largest of its kind in China, has come into operation recently at the Shanxi Regent Taiming Chemical Co Ltd in Taiyuan, capital of north China's Shanxi Province.

  11. Seamless production of interoperable e-Learning units: stakes and pitfalls

    Spang Bovey, Nadia; Dunand, Nicolas

    2006-01-01

    Please, cite this publication as: Spang Bovey, N. & Dunand, N. (2006). Seamless production of interoperable e-Learning units: stakes and pitfalls. Proceedings of International Workshop in Learning Networks for Lifelong Competence Development, TENCompetence Conference. March 30th-31st, Sofia, Bulgari

  12. Reasons for changes in the value of unit pressure of compression products supporting external treatment

    Kowalski, K.; Ilska, A.; Kłonowska, M.

    2016-07-01

    The paper presents the basics of modelling compression products with intended values of unit pressure for body circumferences with fixed and variable radius of curvature. The derived relationships referring to the dimensions of the fabric's circumferences in a relaxed state of the product were based on Laplace law, local values of the radius of curvature, and the characteristics of stretching and relaxing (deformation) of the knitted fabric, described by experimental relation for the stress and relaxation phase for the 6th hysteresis loop, taking into account confidence intervals. The article indicates the possibilities of using 3D scanning techniques of the human body to identify the radius of curvature of various circumference of the human silhouette, for which the intended value of the unit pressure is designed, and quantitative changes in the body deformation due to compression. Classic method of modelling and design of compression products, based on a cylindrical model of the human body does not provide in each case the intended value of unit pressure, according to specific normative requirements, because it neglects the effect of different values of the radius of curvature of the body circumference and the properties of the viscoelastic knitted fabrics. The model and experimental research allowed for a quantitative and qualitative assessment of the reasons for the changes in the value of unit pressure of compression products supporting the process of external treatment.

  13. Quasi-symmetric Conjugacy of Blaschke Products on the unit Circle

    Petersen, Carsten Lunde

    2007-01-01

    Let B be a Blaschke product for which the restriction to the unit circle 1 is a degree d > 1 covering. We prove that B is quasi-symmetrically conjugate to z zd on 1, if all its periodic points in 1 are repelling and if 1 does not intersect the -limit set of any recurrent critical point for B....

  14. VARIANTS OF DETERMINING THE MANUFACTURING COST OF A PRODUCT IN A PRODUCTION UNIT IN THE LIGHT OF BALANCE SHEET LAW

    Marzena STROJEK‐FILUS

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The category of the manufacturing cost of a product is one of the most important ones from the point of view of proper valuation of the assets of a production unit, costs of its operations as well as pricing decisions. This article presents the problem of determining the manufacturing cost of a product in terms of balance sheet law. It has been shown that in order to determine this value various methods and options are allowed by this law, by means of which different values of manufacturing cost of a product are obtained. The importance of a proper selection of an allocation key in setilement of indirect production costs has been highlighted as well as the results of using, in certain cases, approved simplifications in the balance sheet law when determining the manufacturing cost of products have been demonstrated. The problem presented in this article is crucial from the point of view of an organization and management of production as well as managerial decision‐making in a company in the area of design of products and processes.

  15. Glassmaking Units and Glass Feeders Production——a New Production Development Stage at JSC "Krastsvetmet"

    MALTSEV E. V.; MAMONOV S. N.; DMITRIEV V. A.; KHORIKOV P. A.

    2012-01-01

    JSC "Krastsvetmet" has launched the production of glass melting units (GU) and glass feeders (GF),with the number of bushings being from 200 to 4000,made from platinum-rhodium alloys doped with oxide-forming and reinforcing elements.The proprietary technology for dispersion-stabilized material of PtRh10DS composition having high strength and performance properties has been developed and applied.Combined products production was launched where bushings made of PtRh-20 alloy are welded to the plate of the dispersion-stabilized PtRh10DS material.The manufacture of seamless spinning assemblies has been organized.

  16. [Production of data for the pre-natal information system in basic health units].

    Lima, Aline Pinto de; Corrêa, Aurea Christina de Paula

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the process of data production for Information System Prenatal and Birth (SISPRENATAL) in Basic Health Units of Cuiabá, MT, Brazil. This qualitative, exploratory and descriptive study was developed in eight units of Basic Health Coordination, through semi-structured interviews with professionals who worked with SISPRENATAL (nurses, physicians, managers and data entry) and comparative document analysis between system data and the written patient records. Data analysis revealed a lack of definition of the team's participation in the production of data and different modes of completing forms within the system. Professionals' knowledge about many aspects of the formswas divergent, completion of the forms was inadequate, and flaws in the computerized system were identified. Measures such as professional training, the review of the system and its forms are indispensible for the production of reliable information about prenatal care in the municipality.

  17. Systemic approach in rural administration: Study of the family production unit

    Adilson R. Paz Stamberg

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on understanding the rationality of production management and available resources in agricultural production unit (UPA, identifying its main technical and socioeconomic characteristics in order to make a diagnosis to subsidize the rural manager in decision making.This study was part of the extension project approved in the Institutional Incentive Extension Program of the Farroupilha Federal Institute (Brazil, prioritizing as object of study a family UPA in the municipality of Santo Antônio das Missões/RS/Brazil, being conducted between October-November 2014.As methodological procedure a survey was done with qualitative and quantitative data, such as natural resources, utilized agricultural area, herd, plant, machinery and equipment, availability of labor force and yields of the various cultivation subsystems, breeding and processing. This data was organized in a spreadsheet, which identifies the adopted production system and its main technical and socioeconomic characteristics. As proposed, technical and managerial intervention in the production system, proposed strategically to enhance milk production opposed to the soybean production, considering its high contribution in relation to the value added per unit area.Key Words: Rural Administration - Production management - Systemic approach.

  18. Ethanol production from banana peels using statistically optimized simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process.

    Oberoi, Harinder Singh; Vadlani, Praveen V; Saida, Lavudi; Bansal, Sunil; Hughes, Joshua D

    2011-07-01

    Dried and ground banana peel biomass (BP) after hydrothermal sterilization pretreatment was used for ethanol production using simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). Central composite design (CCD) was used to optimize concentrations of cellulase and pectinase, temperature and time for ethanol production from BP using SSF. Analysis of variance showed a high coefficient of determination (R(2)) value of 0.92 for ethanol production. On the basis of model graphs and numerical optimization, the validation was done in a laboratory batch fermenter with cellulase, pectinase, temperature and time of nine cellulase filter paper unit/gram cellulose (FPU/g-cellulose), 72 international units/gram pectin (IU/g-pectin), 37 °C and 15 h, respectively. The experiment using optimized parameters in batch fermenter not only resulted in higher ethanol concentration than the one predicted by the model equation, but also saved fermentation time. This study demonstrated that both hydrothermal pretreatment and SSF could be successfully carried out in a single vessel, and use of optimized process parameters helped achieve significant ethanol productivity, indicating commercial potential for the process. To the best of our knowledge, ethanol concentration and ethanol productivity of 28.2 g/l and 2.3 g/l/h, respectively from banana peels have not been reported to date.

  19. The provision of assistive technology products and services for people with dementia in the United Kingdom.

    Gibson, Grant; Newton, Lisa; Pritchard, Gary; Finch, Tracy; Brittain, Katie; Robinson, Louise

    2016-07-01

    In this review we explore the provision of assistive technology products and services currently available for people with dementia within the United Kingdom. A scoping review of assistive technology products and services currently available highlighted 171 products or product types and 331 services. In addition, we assimilated data on the amount and quality of information provided by assistive technology services alongside assistive technology costs. We identify a range of products available across three areas: assistive technology used 'by', 'with' and 'on' people with dementia. Assistive technology provision is dominated by 'telecare' provided by local authorities, with services being subject to major variations in pricing and information provision; few currently used available resources for assistive technology in dementia. We argue that greater attention should be paid to information provision about assistive technology services across an increasingly mixed economy of dementia care providers, including primary care, local authorities, private companies and local/national assistive technology resources.

  20. LIDEM unit for the production of methyl tert-butyl ether from butanes

    Rudin, M.G.; Zadvornov, M.A.

    1994-09-01

    One of the basic problems in the production of motor fuels is how to obtain high-octane unleaded gasolines that will meet today`s ecological requirements. The term {open_quotes}reformulated gasolines{close_quotes} has come into general use throughout the world to denote fuels with a certain chemical composition. These gasolines consist of preselected components; as shown by worldwide experience, they must include oxygen-containing compounds that are distinguished by high octane numbers and low reactivities. Standards in effect in the United States, Japan, and certain Western European countries require that automotive gasolines must contain at least 2-4% by weight of oxygen-containing compounds (calculated as oxygen). In the last 15 years, in order to meet these requirements, production has been set up in various countries for the manufacture of high-octane oxygen-containing components known as oxygenates. The most common of these is methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), obtained by etherification of isobutene by methanol. Process technology developed by this last organization was used as the basis for constructing a unit in the Nizhnekamskneftekhim Production Association and at the Mazheikyai Petroleum Refinery in Lithuania. MTBE production has been held back mainly by a shortage of isobutene, which is obtained mainly from butane-butene cuts produced in cat crackers. In order to alleviate this shortage, it has been proposed that MTBE should be obtained from saturated C{sub 4} hydrocarbons that are recovered in processing oilfield associated gas, and also in the refinery from primary distillation units, catalytic reformers, and hydrocrackers. A working design was developed in 1991-1992 by Lengiproneftekhim for a basically new combination unit designed for the processing of saturated C{sub 4} hydrocarbons, which has been termed the LIDEM unit (Leningrad - isomerization - dehydrogenation - MTBE).

  1. Causes and trends of water scarcity in food production

    Porkka, Miina; Gerten, Dieter; Schaphoff, Sibyll; Siebert, Stefan; Kummu, Matti

    2016-01-01

    The insufficiency of water resources to meet the needs of food production is a pressing issue that is likely to increase in importance in the future. Improved understanding of historical developments can provide a basis for addressing future challenges. In this study we analyse how hydroclimatic variation, cropland expansion and evolving agricultural practices have influenced the potential for food self-sufficiency within the last century. We consider a food production unit (FPU) to have experienced green-blue water (GBW) scarcity if local renewable green (in soils) and blue water resources (in rivers, lakes, reservoirs, aquifers) were not sufficient for producing a reference food supply of 3000 kcal with 20% animal products for all inhabitants. The number of people living in FPUs affected by GBW scarcity has gone up from 360 million in 1905 (21% of world population at the time) to 2.2 billion (34%) in 2005. During this time, GBW scarcity has spread to large areas and become more frequent in regions where it occurs. Meanwhile, cropland expansion has increased green water availability for agriculture around the world, and advancements in agronomic practices have decreased water requirements of producing food. These efforts have improved food production potential and thus eased GBW scarcity considerably but also made possible the rapid population growth of the last century. The influence of modern agronomic practices is particularly striking: if agronomic practices of the early 1900s were applied today, it would roughly double the population under GBW scarcity worldwide.

  2. The evolution, current status, and regulation of ostomy products in the United States.

    Turnbull, G B

    2001-01-01

    In today's rapidly evolving health care environment in which quality, cost-effectiveness, and outcomes are among the most valued health care products, significant issues must be addressed regarding ostomy products and how persons with stomas use them. The lack of evidence-based data has a direct impact on the pocketbooks of many patients with ostomies in the United States and their quality of life. Regulators, accrediting agencies, and payers look to WOC nurses and other providers to provide a sound scientific base upon which they can develop standards and regulations that will improve the life of Americans with stomas.

  3. Rethinking Food: How United States Agriculture Production Affects Security Policy and Global Markets

    2014-06-13

    of re- exporting , it is assumed some countries (like Argentina did) must have done so for either economic or political gain with the Soviets. Following... Argentina and Brazil began exporting soy meal in 1977. That same year Brazil displaced America as the top soy meal exporter in the world while Argentina ...likely prevent an ideal distribution of food. The United States has been and remains a major exporter of several key commodities giving US production

  4. The Effect of Water Injection on the Fission Product Aerosol Behavior in Fukushima Unit 1

    Kim, Sung Il; Ha, Kwang Soon; Kim, Dong Ha; Kim, Tae Woon [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The most important factor affects human health is fission product that is released from the plant. Fission products usually released with types of aerosol and vapor. The amount of released aerosols out of the plant is crucial, because it can be breathed by people. In this study, the best estimated scenario of Fukushima unit 1 accident was modeled with MELCOR. The amount of released fission product aerosols was estimated according to the amount of added water into reactor pressure vessel (RPV). The analysis of Fukushima unit 1 accident was conducted in view of fission product aerosol release using MELCOR. First of all, thermodynamic results of the plant were compared to the measured data, and then fission product aerosol (CsOH) behavior was calculated with changing the amount of water injection. Water injection affects the amount of aerosol which released into reactor building, because it decreases the temperature of deposition surface. In this study, only aerosol behavior was considered, further study will be conducted including hygroscopic model.

  5. Operational Evaluation of VEGGIE Food Production System in the Habitat Demonstration Unit

    Stutte, Gary W.; Newsham, Gerard; Morrow, Robert M.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2011-01-01

    The 2010 Desert Research and Technology Studies (DRATS) of the VEGGIE Food Production System in the Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU) Pressurized Excursion Module (PEM) was the first operational evaluation of salad crop production technology in a NASA analog test. A systematic evaluation of rooting media and nutrient delivery systems were evaluated for three lettuce cultivars that have shown promise as candidates for a surface based food production system. The VEGGIE nutrient delivery system worked well, was able to be maintained by multiple operators with a minimum of training, and supported excellent lettuce growth for the duration of the test. A Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) evaluation was performed using ProSan(tm) as sanitation agent prior to consumption was approved, and the crew was allowed to consume the lettuce grown using the VEGGIE light cap and gravity based nutrient delivery system at the completion of the 14-day DRAT field test. The DRAT field test validated the crew operations; Growth of all lettuce cultivars was excellent. The operational DRAT field testing in the HDU identified light quality issues related to morphology and pigment development that will need to be addressed through additional testing. Feedback from the crew, ground support personnel, and human factors leads was uniformly positive on the psychological value of having the crop production system in the excursion module. A number of areas have been identified for future work, to minimize the "footprint" of the Food Production system through creative use of unused wall and floor space in the unit.

  6. Operation Evaluation of the VEGGIE Food Production System in the Habitat Demonstration Unit

    Stutte, Gary W.; Newsham, Gerard; Morrow, Robert M.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2011-01-01

    The 2010 Desert Research and Technology Studies (DRATS) of the VEGGIE Food Production System in the Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU) Pressurized Excursion Module (PEM) was the first operational evaluation of salad crop production technology in a NASA analog test. A systematic evaluation of rooting media and nutrient delivery systems were evaluated for three lettuce cultivars that have shown promise as candidates for a surface based food production system. The VEGGIE nutrient delivery system worked well, was able to be maintained by multiple operators with a minimum of training, and supported excellent lettuce growth for the duration of the test. A Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) evaluation was performed using ProSantm as sanitation agent prior to consumption was approved, and the crew was allowed to consume the lettuce grown using the VEGGIE light cap and gravity based nutrient delivery system at the completion of the 14-day DRAT field test. The DRAT field test validated the crew operations; Growth of all lettuce cultivars was excellent. The operational DRAT field testing in the HDU identified light quality issues related to morphology and pigment development that will need to be addressed through additional testing. Feedback from the crew, ground support personnel, and human factors leads was uniformly positive on the psychological value of having the crop production system in the excursion module. A number of areas have been identified for future work, to minimize the "footprint" of the Food Production system through creative use of unused wall and floor space in the unit.

  7. Environmental and economic suitability of forest biomass-based bioenergy production in the Southern United States

    Dwivedi, Puneet

    This study attempts to ascertain the environmental and economic suitability of utilizing forest biomass for cellulosic ethanol production in the Southern United States. The study is divided into six chapters. The first chapter details the background and defines the relevance of the study along with objectives. The second chapter reviews the existing literature to ascertain the present status of various existing conversion technologies. The third chapter assesses the net energy ratio and global warming impact of ethanol produced from slash pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm.) biomass. A life-cycle assessment was applied to achieve the task. The fourth chapter assesses the role of emerging bioenergy and voluntary carbon markets on the profitability of non-industrial private forest (NIPF) landowners by combining the Faustmann and Hartmann models. The fifth chapter assesses perceptions of four stakeholder groups (Non-Government Organization, Academics, Industries, and Government) on the use of forest biomass for bioenergy production in the Southern United States using the SWOT-AHP (Strength, Weakness, Opportunity, and Threat-Analytical Hierarchy Process) technique. Finally, overall conclusions are made in the sixth chapter. Results indicate that currently the production of cellulosic ethanol is limited as the production cost of cellulosic ethanol is higher than the production cost of ethanol derived from corn. However, it is expected that the production cost of cellulosic ethanol will come down in the future from its current level due to ongoing research efforts. The total global warming impact of E85 fuel (production and consumption) was found as 10.44 tons where as global warming impact of an equivalent amount of gasoline (production and consumption) was 21.45 tons. This suggests that the production and use of ethanol derived from slash pine biomass in the form of E85 fuel in an automobile saves about 51% of carbon emissions when compared to gasoline. The net energy ratio

  8. Nutrient control for stationary phase cellulase production in Trichoderma reesei Rut C-30.

    Callow, Nicholas V; Ray, Christopher S; Kelbly, Matthew A; Ju, Lu-Kwang

    2016-01-01

    This work describes the use of nutrient limitations with Trichoderma reesei Rut C-30 to obtain a prolonged stationary phase cellulase production. This period of non-growth may allow for dependable cellulase production, extended fermentation periods, and the possibility to use pellet morphology for easy product separation. Phosphorus limitation was successful in halting growth and had a corresponding specific cellulase production of 5±2 FPU/g-h. Combined with the addition of Triton X-100 for fungal pellet formation and low shear conditions, a stationary phase cellulase production period in excess of 300 h was achieved, with a constant enzyme production rate of 7±1 FPU/g-h. While nitrogen limitation was also effective as a growth limiter, it, however, also prevented cellulase production.

  9. Impacts of reproductive technologies on beef production in the United States.

    Dahlen, Carl; Larson, Jamie; Lamb, G Cliff

    2014-01-01

    Estimations of world population growth indicate that by the year 2050 we will reach nine billion habitants on earth. These estimates impose a tremendous challenge in the current agricultural systems as food supply will need to increase by 100 % in the next 40 years (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 2009). Beef will be a primary protein source that will assist in meeting the requirements for a portion of the protein in diets of this expanding global populace. Beef is a high-quality protein that contains all essential amino acids for the human body and also contains additional essential nutrients such as iron, zinc, B vitamins, riboflavin, selenium, choline, and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). Adopting reproductive technologies at greater rates than currently used is a viable method to dramatically enhance production efficiency of beef cattle enterprises.Artificial insemination (AI), estrous synchronization and fixed-time AI (TAI), semen and embryo cryopreservation, multiple ovulation and embryo transfer (MOET), in vitro fertilization, sex determination of sperm or embryos, and nuclear transfer are technologies that are used to enhance the production efficiency of beef operations. In many cases, the development of these technologies is responsible for significant changes to traditional livestock production practices. However, adoption of these technologies appears to has not grown at the same rate in the United States as other formidable beef producing nations. For example, sales of beef semen for AI increased from 3.3 to 11.9 million units between 1993 and 2011 in Brazil, whereas that in the United States has increased from 2.9 to 3.8 million units during the same period. The significant increases in adoption of reproductive technologies in developing countries is likely as a result of the development of practical estrous synchronization and TAI systems that have allowed beef producers the opportunity to eliminate detection of estrus in their

  10. The Significance of Consumer’s Awareness about Organic Food Products in the United Arab Emirates

    Safdar Muhummad

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Awareness about negative externalities generated by conventional farming is gaining momentum with consumers around the world, opting for alternatively, namely organically, produced food products. Information about consumers’ awareness is an essential element for farmers and marketing agencies to successfully plan production that can capture a greater market share. This study discusses effective factors influencing consumers’ awareness about the benefits of organic food in the United Arab Emirates. Sample data and ordinary least square (OLS regression techniques are applied to delineate factors influencing consumers’ awareness about organic food. The results from this regression analysis highlight the importance of specific socioeconomic determinants that change awareness about organic food products in United Arab Emirates (UAE households. This study finds that awareness about organic food is influenced more effective factors such as gender, nationality, and education as well as income, occupation and age. These research findings apply to other economies and societies that have an increasing per capita spending on organic food, but also where people are highly sensitive to information provided about organic food. Therefore, these results are important to these research beneficiaries including food marketing planners, researchers, and agricultural and food policy makers.

  11. Development of a combined bio-hydrogen- and methane-production unit using dark fermentation

    Brunstermann, R.; Widmann, R. [Duisburg-Essen Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Urban Water and Waste Management

    2010-07-01

    Hydrogen is regarded as a source of energy of the future. Currently, hydrogen is produced, predominantly, by electrolysis of water by using electricity or by stream reforming of natural gas. So both methods are based on fossil fuels. If the used electricity is recovered from renewable recourses, hydrogen produced by water electrolysis may be a clean solution. At present, the production of hydrogen by biological processes finds more and more attention world far. The biology provides a wide range of approaches to produce hydrogen, including bio-photolysis as well as photo-fermentation and dark-fermentation. Currently these biological technologies are not suitable for solving every day energy problems [1]. But the dark-fermentation is a promising approach to produce hydrogen in a sustainable way and was already examined in some projects. At mesophilic conditions this process provides a high yield of hydrogen by less energy demand, [2]. Short hydraulic retention times (HRT) and high metabolic rates are advantages of the process. The incomplete transformation of the organic components into various organic acids is a disadvantage. Thus a second process step is required. Therefore the well known biogas-technique is used to degrade the organic acids predominantly acetic and butyric acid from the hydrogen-production unit into CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2}. This paper deals with the development of a combined hydrogen and methane production unit using dark fermentation at mesophilic conditions. The continuous operation of the combined hydrogen and methane production out of DOC loaded sewages and carbohydrate rich biowaste is necessary for the examination of the technical and economical implementation. The hydrogen step shows as first results hydrogen concentration in the biogas between 40 % and 60 %.The operating efficiency of the combined production of hydrogen and methane shall be checked as a complete system. (orig.)

  12. Functional unit and product functionality—addressing increase in consumption and demand for functionality in sustainability assessment with LCA

    Kim, Seung Jin; Kara, Sami; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The static functional unit definition in the current LCA framework has limitations in addressing the changing product functionality and associated environmental impact of constantly evolving product technologies. As a result, it overlooks the changes in consumer behaviour of increased co...... cycle design that helps keep the total environmental impact of the company’s product portfolio within absolute boundaries....

  13. Prospects for expanded mohair and cashmere production and processing in the United States of America.

    Lupton, C J

    1996-05-01

    Mohair from Angora goats has been produced in the United States since the introduction of these animals from Turkey in 1849. Cashmere on Texas meat goats was reported in 1973, but domestic interest in commercial production did not occur until the mid-1980s. Since 1982, the average prices of U.S.-produced mohair and cashmere (de-haired) have ranged from $1.81 to $9.48/kg and approximately $55 to $200/kg, respectively. However, return to producers from mohair has been relatively constant, averaging $10.21/kg, due to the federal incentive program. Because this program is scheduled to terminate with final payment in 1996, the future of mohair profitability is questionable. Prospects for expanded mohair and cashmere production and processing in the United States are influenced by numerous interacting factors and potential constraints. These include the prospect that the goat and textile industries may no longer be profitable in the absence of clear government policies. Although selection may have slightly increased fiber production by Angoras (long term) and domestic meat goats (short term), availability of genetic resources may prove to be a constraint to increased fiber production by cashmere goats and improved meat production by both types of goat. Land resources are plentiful unless new government policies prohibit goats from vast tracts of rangeland and forest because of environmental concerns. Future demand is an unknown, but with increasing world population and affluence, prospects for long-term improved demand for luxury fibers seem good. Competition from foreign cashmere growers is expected, whereas, in the short term, mohair production overseas is declining. However, increased processing of cashmere in its country of origin is expected to result in shortages of raw materials for European and U.S. processors. The amount of scouring, worsted, and woolen equipment in the United States is adequate to accommodate major increases in domestic processing of goat

  14. Smokers' reactions to FDA regulation of tobacco products: Findings from the 2009 ITC United States survey

    Fix Brian V

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background On June 22, 2009, the US FDA was granted the authority to regulate tobacco products through the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (FSPTCA. The intent is to improve public health through regulations on tobacco product marketing and tobacco products themselves. This manuscript reports baseline data on smokers' attitudes and beliefs on specific issues relevant to the FSPTCA. Method Between November 2009 and January 2010, a telephone survey among a nationally representative sample of n = 678 smokers in the US was performed as part of the International Tobacco Control (ITC United States Survey. Participants answered a battery of questions on their attitudes and beliefs about aspects of the FSPTCA. Results Most smokers were unaware of the new FDA tobacco regulations. Smokers indicated support for banning cigarette promotion and nearly a quarter supported requiring tobacco companies to sell cigarettes in plain packaging. Seventy two percent of smokers supported reducing nicotine levels to make cigarettes less addictive if nicotine was made easily available in non-cigarette form. Conclusion Most smokers were limited in their understanding of efforts to regulate tobacco products in general. Smokers were supportive of efforts to better inform the public about health risks, restrict advertising, and make tobacco products less addictive.

  15. Sources of HO x and production of ozone in the upper troposphere over the United States

    Jaeglé, L.; Jacob, Daniel James; Brune, W. H.; Tan, D.; I. C. Faloona; Weinheimer, A. J.; Ridley, B.A.; Campos, T. L.; G. W. Sachse

    1998-01-01

    The sources of HOx (OH+peroxy radicals) and the associated production of ozone at 8–12 km over the United States are examined by modeling observations of OH, HO2, NO, and other species during the SUCCESS aircraft campaign in April–May 1996. The HOx concentrations measured in SUCCESS are up to a factor of 3 higher than can be calculated from oxidation of water vapor and photolysis of acetone. The highest discrepancy was seen in the outflow of a convective storm. We show that convective injecti...

  16. Quality and productivity drive innovation and improvement at United Technologies Aerospace Operations, Inc.

    Jamar, L. G.

    1986-01-01

    Quality and innovation are the hallmarks of the national space program. In programs that preceded the Shuttle Program the emphasis was on meeting the risks and technical challenges of space with safety, quality, reliability, and success. At United Technologies Aerospace Operations, Inc. (UTAO), the battle has developed along four primary fronts. These fronts include programs to motivate and reward people, development and construction of optimized processes and facilities, implementation of specifically tailored management systems, and the application of appropriate measurement and control systems. Each of these initiatives is described. However, to put this quality and productivity program in perspective, UTAO and its role in the Shuttle Program are described first.

  17. Tobacco product use among middle and high school students--United States, 2011 and 2012.

    2013-11-15

    Nearly 90% of adult smokers in the United States began smoking by age 18 years. To assess current tobacco product use among youths, CDC analyzed data from the 2012 National Youth Tobacco Survey (NYTS). This report describes the results of that analysis, which found that, in 2012, the prevalence of current tobacco product use among middle and high school students was 6.7% and 23.3%, respectively. After cigarettes, cigars were the second most commonly used tobacco product, with prevalence of use at 2.8% and 12.6%, respectively. From 2011 to 2012, electronic cigarette use increased significantly among middle school (0.6% to 1.1%) and high school (1.5% to 2.8%) students, and hookah use increased among high school students (4.1% to 5.4%). During the same period, significant decreases occurred in bidi and kretek use among middle and high school students, and in dissolvable tobacco use among high school students. A substantial proportion of youth tobacco use occurs with products other than cigarettes, so monitoring and prevention of youth tobacco use needs to incorporate other products, including new and emerging products. Implementing evidence-based interventions can prevent and reduce tobacco use among youths as part of comprehensive tobacco control programs. In addition, implementation of the 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, which granted the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) the authority to regulate the manufacture, distribution, and marketing of tobacco products, also is critical to addressing this health risk behavior.

  18. Automated cleaning of fan coil units with a natural detergent-disinfectant product

    Di Onofrio Valeria

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Air conditioning systems represent one important source of microbial pollutants for indoor air. In the past few years, numerous strategies have been conceived to reduce the contamination of air conditioners, mainly in hospital settings. The biocidal detergent BATT2 represents a natural product obtained through extraction from brown seaweeds, that has been tested previously on multidrug-resistant microorganisms. Methods BATT2 has been utilized for the disinfection of fan coil units from four air conditioning systems located in hospital environments with a mean degree of risk. Samples were collected from the air supplied by the conditioning systems and from the surfaces of fan coil units, before and after sanitization procedures. Total microbial counts at 37°C and 22°C and mycotic count at 32°C were evaluated. Staphylococci and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were also detected on surfaces samples. Results The biodetergent was able to reduce up 50% of the microbial pollution of fan coil units surfaces and air supplied by the air conditioners. Conclusions BATT2 could be considered for cleaning/disinfection of air conditioning systems, that should be performed on the basis of accurate and verifiable sanitization protocols.

  19. Economic assessment of greenhouse-cucumber production units in Birjand Township

    M. R. Bakhshi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was economic assessment of greenhouse-cucumber production units in Birjand Township and investigation of factors influencing it. Statistical population of this research consisted of all the greenhouse owners in Birjand (50 units. For economic assessment, the profitability index (TR/TC and discriminative analysis were used. Based on the TR/TC index and cluster analysis with –K mean method, the considered society was divided into two groups of successful and less-successful units. The median of this index was more than 1.49 in the successful group and less than1.49 in the other group. After dividing the groups by discriminative analysis, the variables distinguishing the groups were determined. Results showed that the most important variables which influence the TR/TC index and distinguish these two groups are amount of applied micronutrients, greenhouse area, number of irrigations, amount of the applied manure, educational-extension films, and visiting other greenhouse-owners’ activities.

  20. Unit for Production of MTBE and Butene-1 from Refinery C4 Successfully Put on Stream at Guangzhou Petrochemical Complex

    2008-01-01

    @@ The unit for manufacture of MTBE with co-production of butene-1 was successfully put on stream at Guangzhou Pet-rochemical Complex (GPC). It is told that this is the first domestic unit that utilizes the refinery C4 fraction to make MTBE and butene-1.

  1. The trade in sharks and their products in the United Arab Emirates

    Jabado, Rima W.

    2015-01-01

    The rapid growth in the demand for shark products, particularly fins, has led to the worldwide overexploitation of many elasmobranch species. Although there are growing concerns about this largely unregulated and unmonitored trade, little information still exists about its dynamics, the species involved and the impact of this pressure on stocks in various regions. Our study provides the first attempt at characterizing the trade in shark products from the United Arab Emirates (UAE), the fourth largest exporter in the world of raw dried shark fins to Hong Kong. A review of trade records and informal interviews with local traders confirmed that the UAE is being used as hub in the broader North Indian Ocean region for the trade in shark products with the Emirati fishery minimally contributing to this trade. Results based on morphological identification of sharks (n= 12,069) and DNA barcoding of tissue samples (n= 655) indicated that the trade was made up of at least 37 species. The most abundant families represented at the Dubai study site were the Sphyrnidae (9.3%), Lamnidae (9%) and Alopiidae (5.9%). While information was mostly limited to shark products originating from the UAE and Oman, results indicated that 45.3% of species traded were considered to be at high risk of global extinction based on the IUCN Red List Global Assessments. Since many of the species found during this survey are likely part of stocks shared with other countries, regional cooperation and management will be crucial to ensure their long term survival.

  2. Spatiotemporal patterns of livestock manure nutrient production in the conterminous United States from 1930 to 2012

    Yang, Qichun, E-mail: qichun.yang@pnnl.gov [International Center for Climate and Global Change Research, School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Joint Global Change Research Institute, Pacific Northwest National Lab, College Park, MD 20740 (United States); Tian, Hanqin, E-mail: tianhan@auburn.edu [International Center for Climate and Global Change Research, School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Li, Xia [International Center for Climate and Global Change Research, School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Ren, Wei [International Center for Climate and Global Change Research, School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Department of Plant & Soil Sciences, College of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Zhang, Bowen [International Center for Climate and Global Change Research, School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Zhang, Xuesong [Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Wolf, Julie [Joint Global Change Research Institute, Pacific Northwest National Lab, College Park, MD 20740 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Manure nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from livestock husbandry are important components of terrestrial biogeochemical cycling. Assessment of the impacts of livestock manure on terrestrial biogeochemistry requires a compilation and analysis of spatial and temporal patterns of manure nutrients. In this study, we reconstructed county-level manure nutrient data of the conterminous United States (U.S.) in 4- to 5-year increments from 1930 to 2012. Manure N and P were 5.89 ± 0.64 Tg N yr.{sup −1} (Mean ± Standard Deviation) and 1.73 ± 0.29 Tg P yr.{sup −1} (1 Tg = 10{sup 12} g), and increased by 46% and 92% from 1930 to 2012, respectively. Prior to 1970, manure provided more N to the U.S. lands than chemical fertilizer use. Since 1970, however, increasing chemical N fertilizer use has exceeded manure N production. Manure was the primary P source in the U.S. during 1930–1969 and 1987–2012, but was lower than P fertilizer use in 1974, 1978, and 1982. High-nutrient-production regions shifted towards eastern and western areas of the U.S. Decreasing small farms and increasing Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) induced concentrated spatial patterns in manure nutrient loads. Counties with cattle or poultry as the primary manure nutrient contributors expanded significantly from 1930 to 2012, whereas regions with sheep and hog as the primary contributors decreased. We identified regions facing environmental threats associated with livestock farming. Effective management of manure should consider the impacts of CAFOs in manure production, and changes in livestock population structure. The long-term county-level manure nutrient dataset provides improved spatial and temporal information on manure nutrients in the U.S. This dataset is expected to help advance research on nutrient cycling, ammonia volatilization, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from livestock husbandry, recovery and reuse of manure nutrients, and impacts of livestock feeding on human health in

  3. Bioenergy production and forest landscape change in the southeastern United States

    Costanza, Jennifer K.; Abt, Robert C.; McKerrow, Alexa; Collazo, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    Production of woody biomass for bioenergy, whether wood pellets or liquid biofuels, has the potential to cause substantial landscape change and concomitant effects on forest ecosystems, but the landscape effects of alternative production scenarios have not been fully assessed. We simulated landscape change from 2010 to 2050 under five scenarios of woody biomass production for wood pellets and liquid biofuels in North Carolina, in the southeastern United States, a region that is a substantial producer of wood biomass for bioenergy and contains high biodiversity. Modeled scenarios varied biomass feedstocks, incorporating harvest of ‘conventional’ forests, which include naturally regenerating as well as planted forests that exist on the landscape even without bioenergy production, as well as purpose-grown woody crops grown on marginal lands. Results reveal trade-offs among scenarios in terms of overall forest area and the characteristics of the remaining forest in 2050. Meeting demand for biomass from conventional forests resulted in more total forest land compared with a baseline, business-as-usual scenario. However, the remaining forest was composed of more intensively managed forest and less of the bottomland hardwood and longleaf pine habitats that support biodiversity. Converting marginal forest to purpose-grown crops reduced forest area, but the remaining forest contained more of the critical habitats for biodiversity. Conversion of marginal agricultural lands to purpose-grown crops resulted in smaller differences from the baseline scenario in terms of forest area and the characteristics of remaining forest habitats. Each scenario affected the dominant type of land-use change in some regions, especially in the coastal plain that harbors high levels of biodiversity. Our results demonstrate the complex landscape effects of alternative bioenergy scenarios, highlight that the regions most likely to be affected by bioenergy production are also critical for

  4. Use estimates of in-feed antimicrobials in swine production in the United States.

    Apley, Michael D; Bush, Eric J; Morrison, Robert B; Singer, Randall S; Snelson, Harry

    2012-03-01

    When considering the development of antimicrobial resistance in food animals, comparing gross use estimates of different antimicrobials is of little value due to differences in potencies, duration of activity, relative effect on target and commensal bacteria, and mechanisms of resistance. However, it may be valuable to understand quantities of different antimicrobials used in different ages of swine and for what applications. Therefore, the objective of this project was to construct an estimate of antimicrobial use through the feed in swine production in the United States. Estimates were based on data from the National Animal Health Monitoring System (NAHMS) Swine 2006 Study and from a 2009 survey of swine-exclusive practitioners. Inputs consisted of number of pigs in a production phase, feed intake per day, dose of the antimicrobial in the feed, and duration of administration. Calculations were performed for a total of 102 combinations of antimicrobials (n=17), production phases (n=2), and reasons for use (n=3). Calculations were first conducted on farm-level data, and then extrapolated to the U.S. swine population. Among the nursery phase estimates, chlortetracycline had the largest estimate of use, followed by oxytetracycline and tilmicosin. In the grower/finisher phase, chlortetracycline also had the largest use estimate, followed by tylosin and oxytetracycline. As an annual industry estimate for all phases, chlortetracycline had the highest estimated use at 533,973 kg. The second and third highest estimates were tylosin and oxytetracycline with estimated annual uses of 165,803 kg and 154,956 kg, respectively. The estimates presented here were constructed to accurately reflect available data related to production practices, and to provide an example of a scientific approach to estimating use of compounds in production animals.

  5. Examining the impact of heterogeneous nitryl chloride production on air quality across the United States

    G. Sarwar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The heterogeneous hydrolysis of dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5 has typically been modeled as only producing nitric acid. However, recent field studies have confirmed that the presence of particulate chloride alters the reaction product to produce nitryl chloride (ClNO2 which undergoes photolysis to generate chlorine atoms and nitrogen dioxide (NO2. Both chlorine and NO2 affect atmospheric chemistry and air quality. We present an updated gas-phase chlorine mechanism that can be combined with the Carbon Bond 05 mechanism and incorporate the combined mechanism into the Community Multiscale Air Quality modeling system. We then update the current model treatment of heterogeneous hydrolysis of N2O5 to include ClNO2 as a product. The model, in combination with a comprehensive inventory of chlorine compounds, reactive nitrogen, particulate matter, and organic compounds, is used to evaluate the impact of the heterogeneous ClNO2 production on air quality across the United States for the months of February and September in 2006. The heterogeneous production increases ClNO2 in coastal as well as many in-land areas in the United States. Particulate chloride derived from sea-salts, anthropogenic sources, and forest fires activates the heterogeneous production of ClNO2. With current estimates of tropospheric emissions burden, it modestly enhances monthly mean 8-h ozone (up to 1–2 ppbv or 3–4% but causes large increases (up to 13 ppbv in isolated episodes. It also substantially reduce the mean total nitrate by up to 0.8–2.0 μg m−3 or 11–21%. Modeled ClNO2 accounts for up to 3–4% of the monthly mean total reactive nitrogen. Sensitivity results of the model suggest that ClNO2 formation is limited more by the presence of particulate chloride than by the abundance of N2O5.

  6. Reduction of nutrients, microbes, and personal care products in domestic wastewater by a benchtop electrocoagulation unit

    Symonds, E. M.; Cook, M. M.; McQuaig, S. M.; Ulrich, R. M.; Schenck, R. O.; Lukasik, J. O.; van Vleet, E. S.; Breitbart, M.

    2015-03-01

    To preserve environmental and human health, improved treatment processes are needed to reduce nutrients, microbes, and emerging chemical contaminants from domestic wastewater prior to discharge into the environment. Electrocoagulation (EC) treatment is increasingly used to treat industrial wastewater; however, this technology has not yet been thoroughly assessed for its potential to reduce concentrations of nutrients, a variety of microbial surrogates, and personal care products found in domestic wastewater. This investigation's objective was to determine the efficiency of a benchtop EC unit with aluminum sacrificial electrodes to reduce concentrations of the aforementioned biological and chemical pollutants from raw and tertiary-treated domestic wastewater. EC treatment resulted in significant reductions (p < 0.05, α = 0.05) in phosphate, all microbial surrogates, and several personal care products from raw and tertiary-treated domestic wastewater. When wastewater was augmented with microbial surrogates representing bacterial, viral, and protozoan pathogens to measure the extent of reduction, EC treatment resulted in up to 7-log10 reduction of microbial surrogates. Future pilot and full-scale investigations are needed to optimize EC treatment for the following: reducing nitrogen species, personal care products, and energy consumption; elucidating the mechanisms behind microbial reductions; and performing life cycle analyses to determine the appropriateness of implementation.

  7. The effects of retail concentration on retail dairy product prices in the United States.

    Hovhannisyan, V; Bozic, M

    2016-06-01

    This study provides an empirical investigation of the relationship between grocery retail concentration and retail dairy product prices in the United States. The analysis was performed based on a unique data set on store-level retail prices provided by the Information Resources Inc. Further, alternative measures of retail concentration were considered, which included revenue and store selling space-based Herfindahl-Hirschman Index that were computed based on a Nielsen TDLinx data set on store characteristics. Results from a reduced-form empirical framework estimated via panel data techniques indicated that grocery retail concentration had a positive statistically significant effect on retail dairy product prices in the analyzed locations during the analyzed period of time. Specifically, a 10% increase in concentration was found to lead to a 0.46% rise in retail dairy product prices. This central result was robust to the way in which retail concentration was measured and was consistent with broader empirical evidence in the literature on retail market power.

  8. 78 FR 14361 - U.S. Steel Tubular Products, Inc., Mckeesport Tubular Operations Division, Subsidiary of United...

    2013-03-05

    ... Employment and Training Administration U.S. Steel Tubular Products, Inc., Mckeesport Tubular Operations Division, Subsidiary of United States Steel Corporation, Mckeesport, PA; Notice of Initiation of...) filed on December 20, 2012 on behalf of workers of U.S. Steel Tubular Products, McKeesport...

  9. 78 FR 37584 - U.S. Steel Tubular Products, Inc., Mckeesport Tubular Operations Division, Subsidiary of United...

    2013-06-21

    ... Employment and Training Administration U.S. Steel Tubular Products, Inc., Mckeesport Tubular Operations Division, Subsidiary of United States Steel Corporation, Mckeesport, Pennsylvania; Notice of Amended... workers of U.S. Steel Tubular Products, McKeesport Tubular Operations Division, a subsidiary of...

  10. EFFECT OF SOWING DATE OF TRITICALE ON SEASONAL HERBAGE PRODUCTION IN THE CENTRAL APPALACHIAN HIGHLANDS OF THE UNITED STATES

    Mixed perennial, cool-season species are the dominant components of pastures in the central Appalachian Region of the United States. Forage production from such pastures is often limited during hot, dry summer months and cool, early and late season periods. We studied forage production and stand d...

  11. 9 CFR 327.2 - Eligibility of foreign countries for importation of products into the United States.

    2010-01-01

    ... producing products for exportation to the United States; (B) Written reports prepared by the representative... period when the establishment is not operating or is not engaged in producing products for exportation to... after inspection and marking as required by the applicable provisions of this part. Argentina,...

  12. Salad Machine - A vegetable production unit for long duration space missions

    Kliss, M.; Macelroy, R. D.

    1990-01-01

    A review of NASA CELSS development specific to vegetable cultivation during space missions is presented in terms of enhancing the quality of life for space crews. A cultivation unit is being developed to permit the production of 600 grams of edible salad vegetables per week, thereby allowing one salad per crew member three times weekly. Plant-growth requirements are set forth for the specific vegetables, and environmental subsystems are listed. Several preprototype systems are discussed, and one particular integrated-systems design concept is presented in detail with views of the proposed rack configuration. The Salad Machine is developed exclusively from CELSS-derived technology, and the major challenge is the mitigation of the effects of plant-growth requirements on other space-mission facility operations.

  13. Distribution of the search of evolutionary product unit neural networks for classification

    Tallón-Ballesteros, A J; Hervás-Martínez, C

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the distributed processing in the search for an optimum classification model using evolutionary product unit neural networks. For this distributed search we used a cluster of computers. Our objective is to obtain a more efficient design than those net architectures which do not use a distributed process and which thus result in simpler designs. In order to get the best classification models we use evolutionary algorithms to train and design neural networks, which require a very time consuming computation. The reasons behind the need for this distribution are various. It is complicated to train this type of nets because of the difficulty entailed in determining their architecture due to the complex error surface. On the other hand, the use of evolutionary algorithms involves running a great number of tests with different seeds and parameters, thus resulting in a high computational cost

  14. Productivity Gap and Asymmetric Trade Relations: The Canada-United States of America Integration Process

    Germán H. Gonzalez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The usefulness of the European model of integration is currently subject to debate and the North American integration process has been largely ignored as a comparative framework. The asymmetrical relationship between Canada and the United States began a long time before NAFTA, and the study of this process could shed light on the usual problems faced by Latin American countries. This article attempts to encourage discussion about this topic. Particularly,there is evidence for a substantial and positive change in Canadian productivity at the time of the Canada-US Free Trade Agreement (CUFTA. However, the enactment of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA does not seem to have had the same effect as the earlier treaty.

  15. The critical role of extreme heat for maize production in the United States

    Lobell, David B.; Hammer, Graeme L.; McLean, Greg; Messina, Carlos; Roberts, Michael J.; Schlenker, Wolfram

    2013-05-01

    Statistical studies of rainfed maize yields in the United States and elsewhere have indicated two clear features: a strong negative yield response to accumulation of temperatures above 30°C (or extreme degree days (EDD)), and a relatively weak response to seasonal rainfall. Here we show that the process-based Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM) is able to reproduce both of these relationships in the Midwestern United States and provide insight into underlying mechanisms. The predominant effects of EDD in APSIM are associated with increased vapour pressure deficit, which contributes to water stress in two ways: by increasing demand for soil water to sustain a given rate of carbon assimilation, and by reducing future supply of soil water by raising transpiration rates. APSIM computes daily water stress as the ratio of water supply to demand, and during the critical month of July this ratio is three times more responsive to 2°C warming than to a 20% precipitation reduction. The results suggest a relatively minor role for direct heat stress on reproductive organs at present temperatures in this region. Effects of elevated CO2 on transpiration efficiency should reduce yield sensitivity to EDD in the coming decades, but at most by 25%.

  16. Qualitative Assessment for Toxoplasma gondii Exposure Risk Associated with Meat Products in the United States.

    Guo, Miao; Buchanan, Robert L; Dubey, Jitender P; Hill, Dolores E; Lambertini, Elisabetta; Ying, Yuqing; Gamble, H Ray; Jones, Jeffrey L; Pradhan, Abani K

    2015-12-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a global protozoan parasite capable of infecting most warm-blooded animals. Although healthy adult humans generally have no symptoms, severe illness does occur in certain groups, including congenitally infected fetuses and newborns, immunocompromised individuals including transplant patients. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that consumption of raw or undercooked meat products is one of the major sources of infection with T. gondii. The goal of this study was to develop a framework to qualitatively estimate the exposure risk to T. gondii from various meat products consumed in the United States. Risk estimates of various meats were analyzed by a farm-to-retail qualitative assessment that included evaluation of farm, abattoir, storage and transportation, meat processing, packaging, and retail modules. It was found that exposure risks associated with meats from free-range chickens, nonconfinement-raised pigs, goats, and lamb are higher than those from confinement-raised pigs, cattle, and caged chickens. For fresh meat products, risk at the retail level was similar to that at the farm level unless meats had been frozen or moisture enhanced. Our results showed that meat processing, such as salting, freezing, commercial hot air drying, long fermentation times, hot smoking, and cooking, are able to reduce T. gondii levels in meat products. whereas nitrite and/or nitrate, spice, low pH, and cold storage have no effect on the viability of T. gondii tissue cysts. Raw-fermented sausage, cured raw meat, meat that is not hot-air dried, and fresh processed meat were associated with higher exposure risks compared with cooked meat and frozen meat. This study provides a reference for meat management control programs to determine critical control points and serves as the foundation for future quantitative risk assessments.

  17. Tackling the Use of Supari (Areca Nut) and Smokeless Tobacco Products in the South Asian Community in the United Kingdom.

    Chande, Milan; Suba, Krishna

    2016-06-01

    The use of supari (areca nut) and smokeless tobacco products are seen as a major risk factor for oral cancer. There are increasing rates of oral cancer across the United Kingdom, along with the increase of the use of these products. This article examines the uses of such products amongst the South Asian Community and explores sensitive issues associated with the cessation of their use. Evidence-based recommendations are provided on how to provide advice and treatment to patients that regularly use these products. A rethink is also suggested on the policy of taxation of such products. CPD/Clinical Relevance: With the rates of oral cancer increasing across the United Kingdom, it is important for us as dental professionals to tackle the use of areca nut and smokeless tobacco products.

  18. Scaling net ecosystem production and net biome production over a heterogeneous region in the western United States

    D. P. Turner

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Bottom-up scaling of net ecosystem production (NEP and net biome production (NBP was used to generate a carbon budget for a large heterogeneous region (the state of Oregon, 2.5×105 km2 in the western United States. Landsat resolution (30 m remote sensing provided the basis for mapping land cover and disturbance history, thus allowing us to account for all major fire and logging events over the last 30 years. For NEP, a 23-year record (1980–2002 of distributed meteorology (1 km resolution at the daily time step was used to drive a process-based carbon cycle model (Biome-BGC. For NBP, fire emissions were computed from remote sensing based estimates of area burned and our mapped biomass estimates. Our estimates for the contribution of logging and crop harvest removals to NBP were from the model simulations and were checked against public records of forest and crop harvesting. The predominately forested ecoregions within our study region had the highest NEP sinks, with ecoregion averages up to 197 gC m−2 yr−1. Agricultural ecoregions were also NEP sinks, reflecting the imbalance of NPP and decomposition of crop residues. For the period 1996–2000, mean NEP for the study area was 17.0 TgC yr−1, with strong interannual variation (SD of 10.6. The sum of forest harvest removals, crop removals, and direct fire emissions amounted to 63% of NEP, leaving a mean NBP of 6.1 TgC yr−1. Carbon sequestration was predominantly on public forestland, where the harvest rate has fallen dramatically in the recent years. Comparison of simulation results with estimates of carbon stocks, and changes in carbon stocks, based on forest inventory data showed generally good agreement. The carbon sequestered as NBP, plus accumulation of forest products in slow turnover pools, offset 51% of the annual emissions of fossil fuel CO2 for the state. State-level NBP dropped below zero in 2002

  19. Methane emissions from process equipment at natural gas production sites in the United States: pneumatic controllers.

    Allen, David T; Pacsi, Adam P; Sullivan, David W; Zavala-Araiza, Daniel; Harrison, Matthew; Keen, Kindal; Fraser, Matthew P; Daniel Hill, A; Sawyer, Robert F; Seinfeld, John H

    2015-01-06

    Emissions from 377 gas actuated (pneumatic) controllers were measured at natural gas production sites and a small number of oil production sites, throughout the United States. A small subset of the devices (19%), with whole gas emission rates in excess of 6 standard cubic feet per hour (scf/h), accounted for 95% of emissions. More than half of the controllers recorded emissions of 0.001 scf/h or less during 15 min of measurement. Pneumatic controllers in level control applications on separators and in compressor applications had higher emission rates than controllers in other types of applications. Regional differences in emissions were observed, with the lowest emissions measured in the Rocky Mountains and the highest emissions in the Gulf Coast. Average methane emissions per controller reported in this work are 17% higher than the average emissions per controller in the 2012 EPA greenhouse gas national emission inventory (2012 GHG NEI, released in 2014); the average of 2.7 controllers per well observed in this work is higher than the 1.0 controllers per well reported in the 2012 GHG NEI.

  20. Methane emissions from process equipment at natural gas production sites in the United States: liquid unloadings.

    Allen, David T; Sullivan, David W; Zavala-Araiza, Daniel; Pacsi, Adam P; Harrison, Matthew; Keen, Kindal; Fraser, Matthew P; Daniel Hill, A; Lamb, Brian K; Sawyer, Robert F; Seinfeld, John H

    2015-01-01

    Methane emissions from liquid unloadings were measured at 107 wells in natural gas production regions throughout the United States. Liquid unloadings clear wells of accumulated liquids to increase production, employing a variety of liquid lifting mechanisms. In this work, wells with and without plunger lifts were sampled. Most wells without plunger lifts unload less than 10 times per year with emissions averaging 21,000-35,000 scf methane (0.4-0.7 Mg) per event (95% confidence limits of 10,000-50,000 scf/event). For wells with plunger lifts, emissions averaged 1000-10,000 scf methane (0.02-0.2 Mg) per event (95% confidence limits of 500-12,000 scf/event). Some wells with plunger lifts are automatically triggered and unload thousands of times per year and these wells account for the majority of the emissions from all wells with liquid unloadings. If the data collected in this work are assumed to be representative of national populations, the data suggest that the central estimate of emissions from unloadings (270 Gg/yr, 95% confidence range of 190-400 Gg) are within a few percent of the emissions estimated in the EPA 2012 Greenhouse Gas National Emission Inventory (released in 2014), with emissions dominated by wells with high frequencies of unloadings.

  1. Proceedings of Workshop on Uranium Production Environmental Restoration: An exchange between the United States and Germany

    1993-12-31

    Scientists, engineers, elected officials, and industry regulators from the United, States and Germany met in Albuquerque, New Mexico, August 16--20, 1993, in the first joint international workshop to discuss uranium tailings remediation. Entitled ``Workshop on Uranium Production Environmental Restoration: An Exchange between the US and Germany,`` the meeting was hosted by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The goal of the workshop was to further understanding and communication on the uranium tailings cleanup projects in the US and Germany. Many communities around the world are faced with an environmental legacy -- enormous quantities of hazardous and low-level radioactive materials from the production of uranium used for energy and nuclear weapons. In 1978, the US Congress passed the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act. Title I of the law established a program to assess the tailings at inactive uranium processing sites and provide a means for joint federal and state funding of the cleanup efforts at sites where all or substantially all of the uranium was produced for sale to a federal agency. The UMTRA Project is responsible for the cleanup of 24 sites in 10 states. Germany is facing nearly identical uranium cleanup problems and has established a cleanup project. At the workshop, participants had an opportunity to interact with a broad cross section of the environmental restoration and waste disposal community, discuss common concerns and problems, and develop a broader understanding of the issues. Abstracts are catalogued individually for the data base.

  2. Spatiotemporal patterns of livestock manure nutrient production in the conterminous United States from 1930 to 2012

    Yang, Qichun; Tian, Hanqin; Li, Xia; Ren, Wei; Zhang, Bowen; Zhang, Xuesong; Wolf, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Manure nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from livestock husbandry are important components of terrestrial biogeochemical cycling. Assessment of the impacts of livestock manure on terrestrial biogeochemistry requires a compilation and analysis of spatial and temporal patterns of manure nutrients. In this study, we reconstructed county-level manure nutrient data of the conterminous United States (U.S.) in 4- to 5-year increments from 1930 to 2012. Manure N and P were 5.89 +/- 0.64 Tg N yr.(-1) (Mean +/- Standard Deviation) and 1.73 +/- 0.29 Tg P yr.(-1) (1 Tg=10(12) g), and increased by 46% and 92% from 1930 to 2012, respectively. Prior to 1970, manure provided more N to the U.S. lands than chemical fertilizer use. Since 1970, however, increasing chemical N fertilizer use has exceeded manure N production. Manure was the primary P source in the U.S. during 1930-1969 and 1987-2012, but was lower than P fertilizer use in 1974, 1978, and 1982. High-nutrient-production regions shifted towards eastern and western areas of the U.S. Decreasing small farms and increasing Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) induced concentrated spatial patterns in manure nutrient loads. Counties with cattle or poultry as the primary manure nutrient contributors expanded significantly from 1930 to 2012, whereas regions with sheep and hog as the primary contributors decreased. We identified regions facing environmental threats associated with livestock farming. Effective management of manure should consider the impacts of CAFOs inmanure production, and changes in livestock population structure. The long-term county-level manure nutrient dataset provides improved spatial and temporal information on manure nutrients in the U.S. This dataset is expected to help advance research on nutrient cycling, ammonia volatilization, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from livestock husbandry, recovery and reuse of manure nutrients, and impacts of livestock feeding on human health in the context of global

  3. Bioenergy potential of the United States constrained by satellite observations of existing productivity

    Smith, W. Kolby; Cleveland, Cory C.; Reed, Sasha C.; Miller, Norman L.; Running, Steven W.

    2012-01-01

    United States (U.S.) energy policy includes an expectation that bioenergy will be a substantial future energy source. In particular, the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) aims to increase annual U.S. biofuel (secondary bioenergy) production by more than 3-fold, from 40 to 136 billion liters ethanol, which implies an even larger increase in biomass demand (primary energy), from roughly 2.9 to 7.4 EJ yr–1. However, our understanding of many of the factors used to establish such energy targets is far from complete, introducing significgant uncertainty into the feasibility of current estimates of bioenergy potential. Here, we utilized satellite-derived net primary productivity (NPP) data—measured for every 1 km2 of the 7.2 million km2 of vegetated land in the conterminous U.S.—to estimate primary bioenergy potential (PBP). Our results indicate that PBP of the conterminous U.S. ranges from roughly 5.9 to 22.2 EJ yr–1, depending on land use. The low end of this range represents the potential when harvesting residues only, while the high end would require an annual biomass harvest over an area more than three times current U.S. agricultural extent. While EISA energy targets are theoretically achievable, we show that meeting these targets utilizing current technology would require either an 80% displacement of current crop harvest or the conversion of 60% of rangeland productivity. Accordingly, realistically constrained estimates of bioenergy potential are critical for effective incorporation of bioenergy into the national energy portfolio.

  4. FAMILY UNIT PRODUCTION AS ALTERNATIVE TO IMPROVE THE ETHNIC YAQUI FOOD SECURITY IN VICAM, SONORA, MÉXICO

    A. Guillermo Ramírez-García

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The family production unit is a strategy that has Ethnicity Yaqui population for food production at low cost and thus achieve the food sovereignty. This work was carried out in Vicam, where 41 surveys were applied to household which were selected through cooperation of their occupants. The main results indicate that food sovereignty concept is unknow from daily life population in the region; partly, because food production in the region is reduced; besides weather, market and social factors that prevent it. In addition, the family production unit is not a common element among families. However, there are some homes with some spaces, although small ones, for food production and families obtain, in certain seasons, some grains and some vegetables.

  5. The Modelling Of Basing Holes Machining Of Automatically Replaceable Cubical Units For Reconfigurable Manufacturing Systems With Low-Waste Production

    Bobrovskij, N. M.; Levashkin, D. G.; Bobrovskij, I. N.; Melnikov, P. A.; Lukyanov, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    Article is devoted the decision of basing holes machining accuracy problems of automatically replaceable cubical units (carriers) for reconfigurable manufacturing systems with low-waste production (RMS). Results of automatically replaceable units basing holes machining modeling on the basis of the dimensional chains analysis are presented. Influence of machining parameters processing on accuracy spacings on centers between basing apertures is shown. The mathematical model of carriers basing holes machining accuracy is offered.

  6. Returns and determinants of technical efficiency in small-scale Malabari goat production units in Kerala, India.

    Alex, Rani; Kunniyoor Cheemani, Raghavan; Thomas, Naicy

    2013-11-01

    A stochastic frontier production function was employed to measure technical efficiency and its determinants in smallholder Malabari goat production units in Kerala, India. Data were obtained from 100 goat farmers in northern Kerala, selected using multistage random sampling. The parameters of the stochastic frontier production function were estimated using the maximum likelihood method. Cost and return analysis showed that the major expenditure was feed and fodder, and veterinary expenses were secondary. The chief returns were the sale of live animals, milk and manure. Individual farm technical efficiency ranged from 0.34 to 0.97 with a mean of 0.88. The study found herd size (number of animal units) and centre (locality of farm) significantly affected technical efficiency, but sex of farmer, education, land size and family size did not. Technical efficiency decreased as herd size increased; half the units with five or more adult animals had technical efficiency below 60 %.

  7. Dark Solitons in FPU Lattice Chain

    2007-01-01

    Based on multiple scales method, we study the nonlinear properties of a new Fermi-Pasta-Ulam lattice model analytically. It is found that the lattice chain exhibits a novel nonlinear elementary excitation, i.e. a dark soliton.Moreover, the modulation depth of dark soliton is increasing as the anharmonic parameter increases.

  8. Soil nutrient budgets following projected corn stover harvest for biofuel production in the conterminous United States

    Tan, Zhengxi; Liu, Shuguang

    2015-01-01

    Increasing demand for food and biofuel feedstocks may substantially affect soil nutrient budgets, especially in the United States where there is great potential for corn (Zea mays L) stover as a biofuel feedstock. This study was designed to evaluate impacts of projected stover harvest scenarios on budgets of soil nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) currently and in the future across the conterminous United States. The required and removed N, P, and K amounts under each scenario were estimated on the basis of both their average contents in grain and stover and from an empirical model. Our analyses indicate a small depletion of soil N (−4 ± 35 kg ha−1) and K (−6 ± 36 kg ha−1) and a moderate surplus of P (37 ± 21 kg ha−1) currently on the national average, but with a noticeable variation from state to state. After harvesting both grain and projected stover, the deficits of soil N, P, and K were estimated at 114–127, 26–27, and 36–53 kg ha−1 yr−1, respectively, in 2006–2010; 131–173, 29–32, and 41–96 kg ha−1 yr−1, respectively, in 2020; and 161–207, 35–39, and 51–111 kg ha−1 yr−1, respectively, in 2050. This study indicates that the harvestable stover amount derived from the minimum stover requirement for maintaining soil organic carbon level scenarios under current fertilization rates can be sustainable for soil nutrient supply and corn production at present, but the deficit of P and K at the national scale would become larger in the future.

  9. Impacts of animal science research on United States sheep production and predictions for the future.

    Lupton, C J

    2008-11-01

    One hundred years ago, there were more than 48 million sheep in the United States. In 1910, they were valued at $4/head, with 43% of income coming from the sale of sheep, lambs, and meat and 57% coming from wool. Over the years, fluctuations in this ratio have challenged the breeder and researcher alike. By 2007, sheep numbers had declined to 6.2 million, with the average sheep shearing 3.4 kg of wool (representing animal science research has made little impact on sheep production in the United States. On the contrary, lamb crops in the new millennium (range = 109 to 115%) are greater than those recorded in the 1920s (85 to 89%) and dressed lamb weights increased from 18 to 32 kg from 1940 to the present. In the past century, researchers conducted thousands of investigations, with progress reported in new, existing, and crossbreed evaluations, quantitative and molecular genetics, selection, nutrition, fiber, meat, hides, milk, growth, physiology, reproduction, endocrinology, management, behavior, the environment, disease, pharmacology, toxicology, and range, pasture, and forage utilization such that a vast amount of new information was accrued. Our understanding of sheep has benefited also from research conducted on other species, and vice versa. Many factors that have contributed to the decline in the sheep industry are not influenced easily by academic research (e.g., low per capita consumption of lamb meat, predation, reluctance to adopt new technologies, cost and availability of laborers with sheep-related skills, and fewer young people pursuing careers in agriculture). The size of the US sheep industry is expected to remain stable, with possible slow growth in the foreseeable future. To remain profitable, producers will take advantage of new (or previously unused) technologies, the desire of the public for things natural, domestic niche and international fiber markets, and the ability of the sheep to control noxious weeds and thrive in suboptimal ecosystems.

  10. 77 FR 64588 - Highway Safety Programs; Conforming Products List of Calibrating Units for Breath Alcohol Testers

    2012-10-22

    ... calibrating units. In Appendix A of that notice, NHTSA identified the calibrating units with an asterisk that...). Instruments not marked with an asterisk meet the Model Specifications in 72 FR 32742 (June 25, 2007),...

  11. 77 FR 24940 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy

    2012-04-26

    ...: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy'', dated March 10, 2011, 76 FR 13168. May 29, 2012, the cost figures...: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department... forecasting the representative average unit costs of five residential energy sources for the year...

  12. Maximizing light olefins production in fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) units; Maximizacao de olefinas leves em unidades de craqueamento catalitico fluido

    Pimenta, Ricardo D.M.; Pinho, Andrea de Rezende [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) process is widely spread over the ten PETROBRAS refineries in its thirteen industrial units. The importance of the FCC process resides on its high gasoline output, being the main supplier of this important product to the system. Additionally, FCC process is the main source of light hydrocarbons in the LPG range, including light olefins. The increasing demand for ethylene, propylene and butylenes was encouraging to concentrate the research efforts on studies about alternatives for the traditional FCC process. In the present work, the proposals from main licensors (UOP, KBR, Stone and Webster) for a light-olefins-driven FCC process (Petrochemical FCC) will be compared. Furthermore, the catalytic route for light olefins production in FCC units is also described. An additive based on ZSM- 5 zeolite, which is produced following a PETROBRAS proprietary technology, is being largely applied into the catalyst inventories of all FCC units. An analysis of different scenarios was performed to estimate the maximum potential of light olefins production from the highest possible ZSM-5 additive usage. More specifically for the case of ethylene, which production is also boosted by the same type of additive, studies are being conducted with the objective of recovering it from a C2 stream using specific units to do the splitting (UPGR). The search for increasing light olefins production in the refining processes is in line with PETROBRAS strategic plan which targeted for the company a more intense activity in the Brazilian petrochemical market (author)

  13. Polyethylene film incorporation into the horticultural soil of small periurban production units in Argentina.

    Ramos, Laura; Berenstein, Giselle; Hughes, Enrique A; Zalts, Anita; Montserrat, Javier M

    2015-08-01

    Horticulture makes intensive use of soil and extensive use of polyethylene (PE) sheeting and pesticides, producing an environment where the dynamics between soil and plastics can affect pesticide fate. We have determined that the presence of plastic residues in the horticultural soil of small production units equals 10% of the soil area, being meso and macro-sections the predominant fragment sizes. All soil samples were taken from different plots located in Cuartel V, Moreno district, in the suburbs of Buenos Aires city, Argentina. Laboratory experiments were conducted to see the relations among pesticide, soil and PE film. Endosulfan recovery from LDPE films (25μm and 100μm) was studied, observing evidence that indicated migration to the inside of the plastic matrix. To further analyze the dynamics of pesticide migration to soil and atmosphere, experiments using chlorpyrifos, procymidone and trifluralin were performed in soil-plastic-atmosphere microenvironments, showing that up to 24h significant amounts of pesticides moved away from the PE film. To determine whether PE residues could act as potential pesticide collector in soil, column elution experiments were done using chlorpyrifos, procymidone and trifluralin. Results showed an important pesticide accumulation in the mulch film (584μg-2284μg pesticide/g plastic) compared to soil (13μg-32μg pesticide/g soil). Finally, chemical and photochemical degradation of deltamethrin adsorbed in PE film was studied, finding a protective effect on hydrolysis but no protective effect on photodegradation. We believe that a deeper understanding of the dynamics among soil, plastic and pesticides in horticultural productive systems may contribute to alert for the implications of PE use for plastic sheeting.

  14. Estimates of hydraulic fracturing (Frac) sand production, consumption, and reserves in the United States

    Bleiwas, Donald I.

    2015-01-01

    The practice of fracturing reservoir rock in the United States as a method to increase the flow of oil and gas from wells has a relatively long history and can be traced back to 1858 in Fredonia, New York, when a gas well situated in shale of the Marcellus Formation was successfully fractured using black powder as a blasting agent. Nearly all domestic hydraulic fracturing, often referred to as hydrofracking or fracking, is a process where fluids are injected under high pressure through perforations in the horizontal portion of a well casing in order to generate fractures in reservoir rock with low permeability (“tight”). Because the fractures are in contact with the well bore they can serve as pathways for the recovery of gas and oil. To prevent the fractures generated by the fracking process from closing or becoming obstructed with debris, material termed “proppant,” most commonly high-silica sand, is injected along with water-rich fluids to maintain or “prop” open the fractures. The first commercial application of fracking in the oil and gas industry took place in Oklahoma and Texas during the 1940s. In 1949, over 300 wells, mostly vertical, were fracked (ALL Consulting, LLC, 2012; McGee, 2012; Veil, 2012) and used silica sand as a proppant (Fracline, 2011). The resulting increase in well productivity demonstrated the significant potential that fracking might have for the oil and gas industry.

  15. The Emergence of a Phoneme-Sized Unit in L2 Speech Production: Evidence from Japanese-English Bilinguals.

    Nakayama, Mariko; Kinoshita, Sachiko; Verdonschot, Rinus G

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has revealed that the way phonology is constructed during word production differs across languages. Dutch and English native speakers are suggested to incrementally insert phonemes into a metrical frame, whereas Mandarin Chinese speakers use syllables and Japanese speakers use a unit called the mora (often a CV cluster such as "ka" or "ki"). The present study is concerned with the question how bilinguals construct phonology in their L2 when the phonological unit size differs from the unit in their L1. Japanese-English bilinguals of varying proficiency read aloud English words preceded by masked primes that overlapped in just the onset (e.g., bark-BENCH) or the onset plus vowel corresponding to the mora-sized unit (e.g., bell-BENCH). Low-proficient Japanese-English bilinguals showed CV priming but did not show onset priming, indicating that they use their L1 phonological unit when reading L2 English words. In contrast, high-proficient Japanese-English bilinguals showed significant onset priming. The size of the onset priming effect was correlated with the length of time spent in English-speaking countries, which suggests that extensive exposure to L2 phonology may play a key role in the emergence of a language-specific phonological unit in L2 word production.

  16. 31 CFR 560.511 - Exportation or supply of insubstantial United States content for use in foreign-made products or...

    2010-07-01

    ... into a foreign-made end product in a country other than the United States or Iran, intended...-made end product: (i) U.S.-origin goods (excluding software) comprise less than 10 percent of the... insubstantial United States content for use in foreign-made products or technology. 560.511 Section...

  17. Low cost solar array project production process and equipment task. A Module Experimental Process System Development Unit (MEPSDU)

    1981-01-01

    Technical readiness for the production of photovoltaic modules using single crystal silicon dendritic web sheet material is demonstrated by: (1) selection, design and implementation of solar cell and photovoltaic module process sequence in a Module Experimental Process System Development Unit; (2) demonstration runs; (3) passing of acceptance and qualification tests; and (4) achievement of a cost effective module.

  18. Grammatical Planning Units during Real-Time Sentence Production in Speakers with Agrammatic Aphasia and Healthy Speakers

    Lee, Jiyeon; Yoshida, Masaya; Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Grammatical encoding (GE) is impaired in agrammatic aphasia; however, the nature of such deficits remains unclear. We examined grammatical planning units during real-time sentence production in speakers with agrammatic aphasia and control speakers, testing two competing models of GE. We queried whether speakers with agrammatic aphasia…

  19. The effects of potential changes in United States beef production on global grazing systems and greenhouse gas emissions

    Dumortier, Jerome; Hayes, Dermot J.; Carriquiry, Miguel; Dong, Fengxia; Du, Xiaodong; Elobeid, Amani; Fabiosa, Jacinto F.; Martin, Pamela A.; Mulik, Kranti

    2012-06-01

    We couple a global agricultural production and trade model with a greenhouse gas model to assess leakage associated with modified beef production in the United States. The effects on emissions from agricultural production (i.e., methane and nitrous oxide emissions from livestock and crop management) as well as from land-use change, especially grazing system, are assessed. We find that a reduction of US beef production induces net carbon emissions from global land-use change ranging from 37 to 85 kg CO2-equivalent per kg of beef annualized over 20 years. The increase in emissions is caused by an inelastic domestic demand as well as more land-intensive cattle production systems internationally. Changes in livestock production systems such as increasing stocking rate could partially offset emission increases from pasture expansion. In addition, net emissions from enteric fermentation increase because methane emissions per kilogram of beef tend to be higher globally.

  20. DESIGN OF OYSTER (PLEUROTUS OSTREATUS PRODUCTION UNIT TAKING INTO ACCOUNT ITS AGROTECHNIC OF GROWIGN AND QUALITY AND QUANTITY OF ITS PRODUCTION

    Marcel Golian

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available According to influence of population increasing followed by agricultural soils decreasing there is noticed a necessity of individual food commodities production intensification. There is also needed to think about some new unconventional and alternative sort of food-stuff. An edible mushroom growing is one of the relatively new agricultural branches, whereby on a large scale there are grown species which belong to saprophytic group. The aim of task was the building – technological and equipment – technological proposal of oyster (Pleurotus ostreatus, Jacq. P. Kumm production unit with taking account to its specific agro technical requirements and valid legislative. In the next part of task there were evaluated and compared qualitative and quantitative parameters of sporocarps from two variants which were collected in the first growth wave and accuracy of the proposed oyster production unit. In case of variant A there were used sacks with substrates, which have been exposed to cold shock by 6°C temperature for 4 days and in variant B were used substrates without cold shock. According to reached results the cold shock had almost neither influence on production quantity. There was found out an important fact that crop height from first growth wave wasn´t identical with well-known literature sources. The low crop is connected with high CO2 content in oyster production unit room, according to our opinion. Other equipment aimed to air humidity regulation, air temperature regulation and room lights was designed correctly.

  1. Corn Production and Marketing. An Instructional Unit for Teachers of Adult Vocational Education in Agriculture.

    Grace, Clyde, Jr.; Iverson, Maynard J.

    The instructional unit designed to develop the effective ability of farmers to produce, harvest, store, and market corn profitably is structured in 11 lessons. The unit was developed as a guide for use by teachers in planning and conducting young farmer or adult farmer classes. The specific topic areas include varieties of corn, principles of…

  2. Soil Conservation Unit for the Advanced Crop Production and Marketing Course. Instructor's Guide. AGDEX 570.

    Stewart, Bob R.; And Others

    This instructor's guide contains eight lesson plans for teaching soil conservation in accordance with the Missouri State Board of Education's Vocational Instructional Management System. To make the unit easier for teachers to use, the following materials are provided in the front of the unit: objectives and competencies for each lesson, a…

  3. Advanced Dairy Unit for Advanced Livestock Production Curriculum. Instructor's Guide. AGDEX 410/00.

    Coday, Stan; Stewart, Bob R.

    This instructor's guide contains 18 lessons for teaching advanced dairying in accordance with the Missouri State Board of Education's Vocational Instructional Management System. To make the unit easier for teachers to use, the following materials are provided in the front of the unit: objectives and competencies for each lesson, a references and…

  4. Advanced Beef Unit for Advanced Livestock Production Curriculum. Instructor's Guide. AGDEX 420/00.

    Sparks, Jim; Stewart, Bob R.

    This instructor's guide for an advanced beef unit contains 15 lessons that build on Agricultural Science I and II competencies. Introductory materials include lists of performance objectives and competencies for the complete unit, suggestions for motivational technique/interest approach and evaluation, lists of references and materials for the…

  5. Sources of Corn for Ethanol Production in the United States: A Review and Decomposition Analysis of the Empirical Data

    Oladosu, Gbadebo A [ORNL; Kline, Keith L [ORNL; Uria Martinez, Rocio [ORNL; Eaton, Laurence M [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    The use of corn for ethanol production in the United States quintupled between 2001 and 2009, generating concerns that this could lead to the conversion of forests and grasslands around the globe, known as indirect land-use change (iLUC). Estimates of iLUC and related food versus fuel concerns rest on the assumption that the corn used for ethanol production in the United States would come primarily from displacing corn exports and land previously used for other crops. A number of modeling efforts based on these assumptions have projected significant iLUC from the increases in the use of corn for ethanol production. The current study tests the veracity of these assumptions through a systematic decomposition analysis of the empirical data from 2001 to 2009. The logarithmic mean divisia index decomposition method (Type I) was used to estimate contributions of different factors to meeting the corn demand for ethanol production. Results show that about 79% of the change in corn used for ethanol production can be attributed to changes in the distribution of domestic corn consumption among different uses. Increases in the domestic consumption share of corn supply contributed only about 5%. The remaining contributions were 19% from added corn production, and 2% from stock changes. Yield change accounted for about two-thirds of the contributions from production changes. Thus, the results of this study provide little support for large land-use changes or diversion of corn exports because of ethanol production in the United States during the past decade.

  6. Green coconut mesocarp pretreated by an alkaline process as raw material for bioethanol production.

    Soares, Jimmy; Demeke, Mekonnen M; Foulquié-Moreno, Maria R; Van de Velde, Miet; Verplaetse, Alex; Fernandes, Antonio Alberto Ribeiro; Thevelein, Johan M; Fernandes, Patricia Machado Bueno

    2016-09-01

    Cocos nucifera L., coconut, is a palm of high importance in the food industry, but a considerable part of the biomass is inedible. In this study, the pretreatment and saccharification parameters NaOH solution, pretreatment duration and enzyme load were evaluated for the production of hydrolysates from green coconut mesocarp using 18% (w/v) total solids (TS). Hydrolysates were not detoxified in order to preserve sugars solubilized during the pretreatment. Reduction of enzyme load from 15 to 7.5 filter paper cellulase unit (FPU)/g of biomass has little effect on the final ethanol titer. With optimized pretreatment and saccharification, hydrolysates with more than 7% (w/v) sugars were produced in 48h. Fermentation of the hydrolysate using industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains produced 3.73% (v/v) ethanol. Our results showed a simple pretreatment condition with a high-solid load of biomass followed by saccharification and fermentation of undetoxified coconut mesocarp hydrolysates to produce ethanol with high titer.

  7. A Study of United States Army Product Support Manager (PSM) Training

    2016-03-25

    SUPPORT MANAGER (PSM) TRAINING 20 Acquisition University 2016 Catalog, 2016). The DAU provides training needed for an individual to achieve the...Defense Acquisition University , 2016) Figure 9. The Product Support Manager’s Career Path (Nicholas, 2016) PRODUCT SUPPORT MANAGER (PSM...ajaxhist=0 Glazik, M. (2014, May 5). SSCF Research Paper. Product Support Management - Is It Effective? Defense Acquisition University - South, AL

  8. Applying unit process life cycle inventor (UPLCI) methodology in product/packaging combinatons

    Oude Luttikhuis, E.J.; Toxopeus, M.E.; Overcash, M.; Nee, Andrew Y.C.; Song, Bin; Ong, Soh-Khim

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses how the UPLCI approach can be used for determining the inventory of the manufacturing phases of product/packaging combinations. The UPLCI approach can make the inventory of the manufacturing process of the product that is investigated more accurate. The life cycle of product/pac

  9. Employment Opportunities and Training Needs in Agribusiness. Competencies for Horse Production in the United States.

    Holcomb, John W.; And Others

    Competencies necessary for entry and advancement in horse production were determined by a survey of 46 people in the horse production industry from the nine leading horse production states other than Texas. A preliminary listing of competencies was developed from a review of the literature and a survey of leaders in agricultural education. The 46…

  10. Validating Vegetable Production Unit (VPU) Plants, Protocols, Procedures and Requirements (P3R) using Currently Existing Flight Resources

    Bingham, Gail; Bates, Scott; Bugbee, Bruce; Garland, Jay; Podolski, Igor; Levinskikh, Rita; Sychev, Vladimir; Gushin, Vadim

    2009-01-01

    Validating Vegetable Production Unit (VPU) Plants, Protocols, Procedures and Requirements (P3R) Using Currently Existing Flight Resources (Lada-VPU-P3R) is a study to advance the technology required for plant growth in microgravity and to research related food safety issues. Lada-VPU-P3R also investigates the non-nutritional value to the flight crew of developing plants on-orbit. The Lada-VPU-P3R uses the Lada hardware on the ISS and falls under a cooperative agreement between National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Russian Federal Space Association (FSA). Research Summary: Validating Vegetable Production Unit (VPU) Plants, Protocols, Procedures and Requirements (P3R) Using Currently Existing Flight Resources (Lada-VPU-P3R) will optimize hardware and

  11. A Revenue Equivalence Result in a Duopolistic Electricity Market where one of the suppliers has two production units

    Estrella Alonso

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we will model the electricity market auction as a two-person game with incomplete information under the assumption that bid-ders are asymmetric in units production, risk neutral and with unknownvalues.We characterize the strictly monotone bayesian Nash equilibrium andwe rank a family of auction models which contains the classic models Uniform, Discriminatory and Vickrey auction models.

  12. Designing in an Interplay with a Product Model - Explained by Design Units

    Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    1996-01-01

    If we expand the concept of product models from a bill of material and representations of parts to a genetic model (a chromosome), which is able to capture decisions on functions and design concepts during the design activity, a new design situation is created. This paper treats designing...... in an interplay with a product model in a so-called Designer's Workbench, based on the clarification of the structuring of the product model, the design operationswhich succesively build up the product model, and the role of the product model in the design work as basis for synthesis and modelling of properties....... The main results from this paper are identification of the classes of product models in a Designer's Workbench and description of a scenario for designing in an interplay with the product models....

  13. Savings estimates for the United States Environmental Protection Agency?s ENERGY STAR voluntary product labeling program

    Sanchez, Marla Christine; Sanchez, Marla Christine; Brown, Richard; Homan, Gregory; Webber, Carrie

    2008-06-03

    ENERGY STAR is a voluntary energy efficiency-labeling program operated jointly by the United States Department of Energy and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). Since the program inception in 1992, ENERGY STAR has become a leading international brand for energy efficient products. ENERGY STAR's central role in the development of regional, national, and international energy programs necessitates an open process whereby its program achievements to date as well as projected future savings are shared with committed stakeholders. Through 2006, US EPA?S ENERGY STAR labeled products saved 4.8 EJ of primary energy and avoided 82 Tg C equivalent. We project that US EPA?S ENERGY STAR labeled products will save 12.8 EJ and avoid 203 Tg C equivalent over the period 2007-2015. A sensitivity analysis examining two key inputs (carbon factor and ENERGY STAR unit sales) bounds the best estimate of carbon avoided between 54 Tg C and 107 Tg C (1993 to 2006) and between 132 Tg C and 278 Tg C (2007 to 2015).

  14. Intensification and forecasting of low-pour-point diesel fuel production via modelling reactor and stabilizer column at industrial unit

    Belinskaya, N. S.; Frantsina, E. V.; Ivanchina, E. D.; Popova, N. V.; Zyryanova, I. V.; Averyanova, E. V.

    2016-09-01

    In this work forecast calculation of stabilizer column in the technology of low-pour- point diesel fuel production was modelled. The results of forecast calculation were proved by full-scale experiment at diesel fuel catalytic dewaxing unit. The forecast calculation and full- scale experiment made it possible to determine the ways of mass transfer intensification, as well as to increase the degree of hydrogen sulphide removal in the column, and thereby to decrease corrosiveness of the product stream. It was found out that maintenance of the reflux rate in the range of 80-90 m3/h and injection of additional vapourizing streams, such as stable naphtha from distillation unit (in the volume of 10-22 m3/h) and hydrogen-containing gas (in the volume of 100-300 m3/h), ensure complete elimination of corrosive hydrogen sulphide from the product stream. Reduction of stream corrosive activity due to suggested solutions extends service life of equipment and pipelines at industrial catalytic dewaxing unit.

  15. Preliminary estimates of the quantities of rare-earth elements contained in selected products and in imports of semimanufactured products to the United States, 2010

    Bleiwas, Donald I.; Gambogi, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Rare-earth elements (REEs) are contained in a wide range of products of economic and strategic importance to the Nation. The REEs may or may not represent a significant component of that product by mass, value, or volume; however, in many cases, the embedded REEs are critical for the device’s function. Domestic sources of primary supply and the manufacturing facilities to produce products are inadequate to meet U.S. requirements; therefore, a significant percentage of the supply of REEs and the products that contain them are imported to the United States. In 2011, mines in China produced roughly 97 percent of the world’s supply of REEs, and the country’s production of these elements will likely dominate global supply until at least 2020. Preliminary estimates of the types and amount of rare-earth elements, reported as oxides, in semimanufactured form and the amounts used for electric vehicle batteries, catalytic converters, computers, and other applications were developed to provide a perspective on the Nation’s use of these elements. The amount of rare-earth metals recovered from recycling, remanufacturing, and reuse is negligible when the tonnage of products that contain REEs deposited in landfills and retained in storage is considered. Under favorable market conditions, the recovery of REEs from obsolete products could potentially displace a portion of the supply from primary sources.

  16. A socio-technical approach for the design of a production control system : towards controllable production units

    Slomp, Jannes; Ruël, Gwenny C.

    2000-01-01

    In the design of a production control system much attention is usually paid to technicalaspects, whereas the elaboration upon social aspects remain underexposed. SociotechnicalSystems Theory (SST) emphasizes the importance of finding a joint optimization between the technical and the social systems

  17. Light Weight Radioisotope Heater Unit (LWRHU) production for the Galileo mission

    Rinehart, Gary H.

    The Light Weight Radioisotope Heater Unit (LWRHU) is a (Pu-238)O2-fueled heat source designed to provide a thermal watt of power for space missions. The LWRHU will be used to maintain the temperature of various components on the spacecraft at the required level. The heat source consists of a (Pu-238)O2-fuel pellet, a Pt-30 pct Rh capsule, a pyrolytic graphite insulator, and a woven graphite aeroshell assembly. Los Alamos National Laboratory has fabricated 134 heater units which will be used on the Galileo mission.

  18. Assessment of Energy Production Potential from Ocean Currents along the United States Coastline

    Haas, Kevin A. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2013-10-03

    Increasing energy consumption and depleting reserves of fossil fuels have resulted in growing interest in alternative renewable energy from the ocean. Ocean currents are an alternative source of clean energy due to their inherent reliability, persistence and sustainability. General ocean circulations exist in the form of large rotating ocean gyres, and feature extremely rapid current flow in the western boundaries due to the Coriolis Effect. The Gulf Stream system is formed by the western boundary current of the North Atlantic Ocean that flows along the east coastline of the United States, and therefore is of particular interest as a potential energy resource for the United States.

  19. Fertilizer Demand for Biofuel and Cereal crop Production in the United States

    Acheampong, Kwame; Dicks, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    The emergence of biofuel production has impacted almost all sectors of the agricultural industry and the general economy and has produced a large body of research into how increased production of biofuels will impact the agricultural sector and the general economy. All research is in agreement that total biomass production will be required to increase to meet food and fuel demands. The increase in biomass will, of necessity, require increased use of fertilizers. Research on fertilizer demand ...

  20. Analysis of Maize versus Ethanol Production in Nebraska, United States and International Agricultural Droughts: Lessons for Global Food Security

    Boken, V.; Tenkorang, F.

    2012-04-01

    Nebraska is one of the eight main corn (maize) belt states of the United States. Maize is the major crop of Nebraska with an average annual production of about 38 million tons (about 12% of U.S. production), which contributes billions of dollars to the state's economy. The yield of maize has increased significantly over the past century - from 1.6 t/ha in 1900 to 10.4 t/ha in 2010. While the majority of maize (about 40%) is currently used for animal feed and ethanol production, only about six percent is exported. It is estimated that about one billion people accounting for about 15% population of the world live in chronic hunger because of low agricultural productivity and drought. Most of these people depend on the U.S. for grains including maize. If a greater quantity of maize is diverted to ethanol production, considerably less quantity of maize would be available for export to developing countries where it could be used for human consumption and to mitigate hunger and improve food security. This paper presents analysis of maize production in Nebraska for the past three decades and examines how its commercialization for ethanol production has affected its exports in the face of drought at an international level.

  1. Breeding Livestock. A Unit for Teachers of Vocational Agriculture. Production Agriculture Curriculum Materials Project.

    O'Bryan, Robert C.

    Designed to provide instructional materials for use by vocational agriculture teachers, this unit on breeding livestock contains materials for use in teaching the importance of breeding, the physiology of livestock breeding, reproductive processes, sire selection, and breeding systems. Lessons on each of these competencies contain the following:…

  2. Soil Conservation Unit for the Advanced Crop Production and Marketing Course. Student Reference. AGDEX 570.

    Stewart, Bob R.; And Others

    This student reference booklet is designed to accompany lessons outlined in the companion instructor's guide on soil conservation. The soil conservation unit builds on competencies gained in Agricultural Science I and II. Informative material is provided for these eight lessons: benefits of conservation, land utilization, how soils are eroded,…

  3. Improving milling and production of a dust-producing unit equipped with hammer mills

    Vorotnikov, Ye.G.; Nikiforov, A.A.; Rasputin, O.V.; Sukhunin, V.I.

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents generalized experience for deriving coarse ground coal dust in hammer mills by providing comparison data on improving efficiency of operation of the unit when switching to a coarser-type grind of the fuel. Need to have more precise formulas to calculate grinding potential of hammer mills when using a coarser grind is shown.

  4. Coherence of EMG activity and single motor unit discharge patterns in human rhythmical force production.

    Sosnoff, Jacob J; Vaillancourt, David E; Larsson, Lars; Newell, Karl M

    2005-03-30

    The purpose of this study was to examine the modulation of the motor neuronal pool as a function of task dynamics. Specifically, we investigated the effects of task frequency on the single motor unit discharge pattern, electromyogram (EMG) activity and effector force output. Myoelectric activity and effector force were recorded while young adults isometrically abducted their first dorsal interosseus at five sinusoidal targets (0.5 Hz, 1 Hz, 2 Hz, 3 Hz and 4 Hz) and at two force levels (5% and 25% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC)). Individual motor unit spike trains were isolated from the EMG. Auto-spectral and coherence analyses were performed on the force output, EMG and motor unit spike trains. The frequency of maximal coherence between the EMG and force output closely corresponded to the target frequency in all conditions. There was a broadband distribution of power with multiple peaks in the EMG and motor unit spectrums in the 0.5 Hz and 1 Hz targets. However, the EMG and motor unit spectrums in the 2 Hz, 3 Hz and 4 Hz targets were characterized by an increasingly narrower band of activity with one dominant peak that closely corresponded to the target. There is high coherence between EMG output and target force frequency, but the relative contribution of the fast and slow neuromuscular bands are differentially influenced by the task frequency. The rhythmical organization of neuromuscular output in the 0.5 Hz task is relatively broadband and similar to that shown previously for constant level force output. The frequency structure of neuromuscular organization becomes increasingly more narrowband as the frequency of the target increases (2-4 Hz). The modulation of the motor neuronal pool is adaptive and depends on the relative contribution of feedback and feedforward control processes, which are driven by the task demands.

  5. THE SECTORAL PRODUCTIVITY PERFORMANCE OF JAPAN AND THE UNITED-STATES, 1885-1990

    PILAT, D

    1993-01-01

    This paper provides a disaggregated productivity comparison between Japan and the U.S. for the period 1885-1990. It combines two detailed productivity comparisons for 1939 and 1975 with time series to provide a long-term sectoral perspective. There is much diversity in the Japanese experience. The a

  6. p-Phenylenediamine and other allergens in hair dye products in the United States

    Hamann, Dathan; Yazar, Kerem; Hamann, Carsten R

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hair dye products constitute an important source of allergen exposure, and contribute importantly to allergic contact dermatitis in consumers and hairdressers. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the presence of potent contact sensitizers in oxidative hair dye products intended for home use...... on the US market. METHODS: Ingredient labels of 107 hair dyes from 10 major brands were examined and used to assess the prevalence of hair dye substances known to be potent contact sensitizers. RESULTS: One hundred and six of 107 (99%) products contained at least one potent sensitizer, and the average...... product contained six (range 0-11). p-Phenylenediamine (PPD) was found in 83 products (78%), but resorcinol (89%), m-aminophenol (75%), p-aminophenol (60%) and toluene-2,5-diamine (21%) were also frequently identified. CONCLUSIONS: Potent contact sensitizers were almost universally included in the hair...

  7. Determining stocks and flows of structural wood products in single family homes in the United States between 1950 and 2010

    McFarlane, Paul N.; Ackom, Emmanuel; Sianchuk, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    , modern SWPs, such as I-joists, LVL, and OSB, have replaced lumber and plywood products. The needs of the US single family housing industry have been met by a smaller mass of SWPs per unit area constructed. The mass of SWP present in construction wastes was influenced strongly by building cycles....... Production of construction waste peaked in 2005, when 3.31 million tonnes of SWPs were produced by 1.72 million single family housing starts. It diminished to 0.874 million tonnes of SWPs as the housing starts fell to 445,000 in 2009. In contrast, the mass of demolition wastes produced was affected...... substantially by the number of houses in the stock and their half-lives. Approximately 4.5 million tonnes of SWP demolition waste were produced in 2010, and in the same year, the stock of SWPs in US single family homes reached 1,220 million tonnes. © Forest Products Society 2012....

  8. Trends, productivity losses, and associated medical conditions among toxoplasmosis deaths in the United States, 2000-2010.

    Cummings, Patricia L; Kuo, Tony; Javanbakht, Marjan; Sorvillo, Frank

    2014-11-01

    Few studies have quantified toxoplasmosis mortality, associated medical conditions, and productivity losses in the United States. We examined national multiple cause of death data and estimated productivity losses caused by toxoplasmosis during 2000-2010. A matched case-control analysis examined associations between comorbid medical conditions and toxoplasmosis deaths. In total, 789 toxoplasmosis deaths were identified during the 11-year study period. Blacks and Hispanics had the highest toxoplasmosis mortality compared with whites. Several medical conditions were associated with toxoplasmosis deaths, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), lymphoma, leukemia, and connective tissue disorders. The number of toxoplasmosis deaths with an HIV codiagnosis declined from 2000 to 2010; the numbers without such a codiagnosis remained static. Cumulative disease-related productivity losses for the 11-year period were nearly $815 million. Although toxoplasmosis mortality has declined in the last decade, the infection remains costly and is an important cause of preventable death among non-HIV subgroups.

  9. An Optimal Balancing of Multiple Assembly Line For a Batch Production Unit

    M. Mohan Prasad

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Higher Productivity in organizations leads to national prosperity and better standard of living for the whole community. This has motivated several workers on productivity improvement at different levels of XXXX India Pvt Ltd, Chennai. The main objective of this project is to increase the production by changing the layout of the assembly line in making of Transmit Mixer. At present 12 machines are being manufactured in a total of 2 shifts per day. Time study is carried out to identify and avoid the idle time to increase the production rate to 24 machines per day. The organization facing the problems like production time, online inventory, delay and idle time. Here our objective is to reduce the idle time, identifying the cycle time and optimal method of production. The COMSOAL (Computer Method for Sequencing Operations for Assembly Lines and RPW (Ranked Positional Weight algorithms have been used to get the optimal solution. This algorithm provides the better solution, thereby reducing unnecessary movements of the worker within the station. The overall cycle time got reduced when compared with the existing cycle time in order to meet the customer demand. Thus we are proposing this scientific approach to get the optimal solution for increased rate of production of the company without affecting the quality and cost.

  10. Flavored Tobacco Product Use Among Middle and High School Students--United States, 2014.

    Corey, Catherine G; Ambrose, Bridget K; Apelberg, Benjamin J; King, Brian A

    2015-10-02

    The 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act prohibits "characterizing flavors" (e.g., candy, fruit, and chocolate) other than tobacco and menthol in cigarettes; however, characterizing flavors are not currently prohibited in other tobacco products. Analyses of retail sales data suggest that U.S. consumption of flavored noncigarette tobacco products, including flavored cigars and flavored e-cigarettes, has increased in recent years. There is growing concern that widely marketed varieties of new and existing flavored tobacco products might appeal to youths (2) and could be contributing to recent increases in the use of tobacco products, including e-cigarettes and hookah, among youths. CDC and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) analyzed data from the 2014 National Youth Tobacco Survey (NYTS) to determine the prevalence of past 30 day use (current use) of flavored e-cigarette, hookah tobacco, cigar, pipe tobacco or smokeless tobacco products, and menthol cigarettes among middle and high school students, and the proportion of current tobacco product users who have used flavored products. An estimated 70.0% (3.26 million) of all current youth tobacco users had used at least one flavored tobacco product in the past 30 days. Among current users, 63.3%, (1.58 million) had used a flavored e-cigarette, 60.6%, (1.02 million) had used flavored hookah tobacco, and 63.5% (910,000) had used a flavored cigar in the past 30 days. Given the millions of current youth tobacco users, it is important for comprehensive tobacco prevention and control strategies to address all forms of tobacco use, including flavored tobacco products, among U.S. youths.

  11. High-titer lactic acid production from NaOH-pretreated corn stover by Bacillus coagulans LA204 using fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation under non-sterile condition.

    Hu, Jinlong; Zhang, Zhenting; Lin, Yanxu; Zhao, Shumiao; Mei, Yuxia; Liang, Yunxiang; Peng, Nan

    2015-04-01

    Lactic acid (LA) is an important chemical with various industrial applications. Non-food feedstock is commercially attractive for use in LA production; however, efficient LA fermentation from lignocellulosic biomass resulting in both high yield and titer faces technical obstacles. In this study, the thermophilic bacterium Bacillus coagulans LA204 demonstrated considerable ability to ferment glucose, xylose, and cellobiose to LA. Importantly, LA204 produces LA from several NaOH-pretreated agro stovers, with remarkably high yields through simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). A fed-batch SSF process conducted at 50°C and pH 6.0, using a cellulase concentration of 30 FPU (filter paper unit)/g stover and 10 g/L yeast extract in a 5-L bioreactor, was developed to produce LA from 14.4% (w/w) NaOH-pretreated non-sterile corn stover. LA titer, yield, and average productivity reached 97.59 g/L, 0.68 g/g stover, and 1.63 g/L/h, respectively. This study presents a feasible process for lignocellulosic LA production from abundant agro stovers.

  12. Production and postharvest quality maintenance of single unit and bunching broccoli in Virginia

    Jett, Lewis W.

    1990-01-01

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) has become an increasingly popular vegetable with American consumers. Much of the attractiveness of fresh broccoli is derived from this vegetable's high nutrition and excellent organoleptic properties. In a consumer response survey, Virginia Master Gardeners indicated a preference for broccoli that has less stalk and more florets by weight. The objectives of this research were to produce single unit broccoli, and to examine vac...

  13. Oil and Gas Exploration and Production in the United States Shown as Quarter-Mile Cells

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A cells polygon feature class was created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to illustrate the degree of exploration, type of production, and distribution of...

  14. New linear codes from matrix-product codes with polynomial units

    Hernando, Fernando; Ruano Benito, Diego

    2010-01-01

    A new construction of codes from old ones is considered, it is an extension of the matrix-product construction. Several linear codes that improve the parameters of the known ones are presented.......A new construction of codes from old ones is considered, it is an extension of the matrix-product construction. Several linear codes that improve the parameters of the known ones are presented....

  15. Carbon Molecular Sieve Membrane as a True One Box Unit for Large Scale Hydrogen Production

    Liu, Paul

    2012-05-01

    IGCC coal-fired power plants show promise for environmentally-benign power generation. In these plants coal is gasified to syngas then processed in a water gas-shift (WGS) reactor to maximize the hydrogen/CO{sub 2} content. The gas stream can then be separated into a hydrogen rich stream for power generation and/or further purified for sale as a chemical and a CO{sub 2} rich stream for the purpose of carbon capture and storage (CCS). Today, the separation is accomplished using conventional absorption/desorption processes with post CO{sub 2} compression. However, significant process complexity and energy penalties accrue with this approach, accounting for ~20% of the capital cost and ~27% parasitic energy consumption. Ideally, a one-box process is preferred in which the syngas is fed directly to the WGS reactor without gas pre-treatment, converting the CO to hydrogen in the presence of H{sub 2}S and other impurities and delivering a clean hydrogen product for power generation or other uses. The development of such a process is the primary goal of this project. Our proposed "one-box" process includes a catalytic membrane reactor (MR) that makes use of a hydrogen-selective, carbon molecular sieve (CMS) membrane, and a sulfur-tolerant Co/Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst. The membrane reactor's behavior has been investigated with a bench top unit for different experimental conditions and compared with the modeling results. The model is used to further investigate the design features of the proposed process. CO conversion >99% and hydrogen recovery >90% are feasible under the operating pressures available from IGCC. More importantly, the CMS membrane has demonstrated excellent selectivity for hydrogen over H{sub 2}S (>100), and shown no flux loss in the presence of a synthetic "tar"-like material, i.e., naphthalene. In summary, the proposed "one-box" process has been successfully demonstrated with the bench-top reactor. In parallel we have successfully designed and

  16. Nontraditional Use of Biomass at Certified Forest Management Units: Forest Biomass for Energy Production and Carbon Emissions Reduction in Indonesia

    Asep S. Suntana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass conversion technologies that produce energy and reduce carbon emissions have become more feasible to develop. This paper analyzes the potential of converting biomass into biomethanol at forest management units experiencing three forest management practices (community-based forest management (CBFM, plantation forest (PF, and natural production forest (NPF. Dry aboveground biomass collected varied considerably: 0.26–2.16 Mg/ha/year (CBFM, 8.08–8.35 Mg/ha/year (NPF, and 36.48–63.55 Mg/ha/year (PF. If 5% of the biomass was shifted to produce biomethanol for electricity production, the NPF and PF could provide continuous power to 138 and 2,762 households, respectively. Dedicating 5% of the biomass was not a viable option from one CBFM unit. However, if all biomasses were converted, the CBFM could provide electricity to 19–27 households. If 100% biomass from two selected PF was dedicated to biomethanol production: (1 52,200–72,600 households could be provided electricity for one year; (2 142–285% of the electricity demand in Jambi province could be satisfied; (3 all gasoline consumed in Jambi, in 2009, would be replaced. The net carbon emissions avoided could vary from 323 to 8,503 Mg when biomethanol was substituted for the natural gas methanol in fuel cells and from 294 to 7,730 Mg when it was used as a gasoline substitute.

  17. ASAS Centennial Paper: Impact of animal science research on United States goat production and predictions for the future.

    Sahlu, T; Dawson, L J; Gipson, T A; Hart, S P; Merkel, R C; Puchala, R; Wang, Z; Zeng, S; Goetsch, A L

    2009-01-01

    Goat research in the United States has increased but at a rate less than that in production. Research on goat meat includes nutritional quality, packaging, color, sensory characteristics, and preslaughter management. Goat skins have value for leather, but quality of goat leather has not been extensively studied. Research in the production, quality, antibiotic residues, and sensory characteristics of goat milk and its products has aided development of the US dairy goat industry. Limited progress has been made in genetic improvement of milk or meat production. There is need to explore applications of genomics and proteomics and improve consistency in texture and functionality of goat cheeses. New goat meat and milk products are needed to increase demand and meet the diverse tastes of the American public. Despite research progress in control of mohair and cashmere growth, erratic prices and sale of raw materials have contributed to further declines in US production. Innovative and cooperative ventures are needed for profit sharing up to the consumer level. Internal parasites pose the greatest challenge to goat production in humid areas largely because of anthelmintic resistance. Study of alternative controls is required, including immunity enhancement via nutrition, vaccination, pasture management such as co-grazing with cattle, and genetic resistance. Similarly, the importance of health management is increasing related in part to a lack of effective vaccines for many diseases. Nutrition research should address requirements for vitamins and minerals, efficiencies of protein utilization, adjusting energy requirements for nutritional plane, acclimatization, and grazing conditions, feed intake prediction, and management practices for rapid-growth production systems. Moreover, efficient technology transfer methods are needed to disseminate current knowledge and that gained in future research.

  18. On Improving Ratio/Product Estimator by Ratio/Product-cum-Mean-per-Unit Estimator Targeting More Efficient Use of Auxiliary Information

    Angela Shirley

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To achieve a more efficient use of auxiliary information we propose single-parameter ratio/product-cum-mean-per-unit estimators for a finite population mean in a simple random sample without replacement when the magnitude of the correlation coefficient is not very high (less than or equal to 0.7. The first order large sample approximation to the bias and the mean square error of our proposed estimators are obtained. We use simulation to compare our estimators with the well-known sample mean, ratio, and product estimators, as well as the classical linear regression estimator for efficient use of auxiliary information. The results are conforming to our motivating aim behind our proposition.

  19. The United States (U.S. Steel import crisis and the global production overcapacity till 2016

    Gh. H. Popescu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present research is to examine and evaluate the swift growth in surplus steel production capacity and international supply chain integration, the effects of steel manufacturing on U.S. employment, raising imports of unfairly traded steel and steel goods, and the global steel sector’s structural overcapacity. This paper contributes to the literature by providing evidence on the mechanisms forming the foundation of the first-rate productivity growth in the U.S. steel industry, models of growth in the international steel supply chains, and the advantages of adequate trade remedy implementation for the U.S. steel sector.

  20. Opportunities, barriers, and strategies for forest bioenergy and bio-based product development in the Southern United States

    Mayfield, Chyrel A.; Foster, C. Darwin; Gan, Jianbang [Department of Ecosystem Science and Management, Texas A and M University, MS 2138, College Station, TX 77842-2135 (United States); Smith, C. Tattersall [Faculty of Forestry, University of Toronto, 33 Willcocks Street, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Fox, Susan [USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station, 200 WT Weaver Boulevard, Asheville, NC 28804 (United States)

    2007-09-15

    Focus groups were used to identify opportunities, barriers, and strategies for increased utilization of forest biomass in the Southern United States. The groups were based on the seven critical components in the bioenergy and bio-based products value chain, as identified by the International Energy Agency (IEA) Bioenergy Task 31 ''Biomass Production for Energy from Sustainable Forestry.'' These components include sustainable biomass production, sustainable forest operations, product delivery logistics, manufacturing and energy production, environmental sustainability, consumer demand, and rural economic development. Participants included handpicked experts from each of the seven component areas. Six common themes emerged from the focus groups. Market creation, infrastructure development, community engagement, incentives, collaboration, and education will all be critical to the successful development of the biomass industry. The forest industry, the energy industry, academia, extension personnel, and rural communities should collaborate together to support research, policy issues, and educational programs that enhance the efficiency of current forest biomass operations and promote the use of forest biomass for bioenergy. (author)

  1. Structure formation of aerated concrete containing waste coal combustion products generated in the thermal vortex power units

    Ivanov, A. I.; Stolboushkin, A. Yu; Temlyanstev, M. V.; Syromyasov, V. A.; Fomina, O. A.

    2016-10-01

    The results of fly ash research, generated in the process of waste coal combustion in the thermal vortex power units and used as an aggregate in aerated concrete, are provided. It is established that fly ash can be used in the production of cement or concrete with low loss on ignition (LOI). The permitted value of LOI in fly ash, affecting the structure formation and operational properties of aerated concrete, are defined. During non-autoclaved hardening of aerated concrete with fly ash aggregate and LOI not higher than 2%, the formation of acicular crystals of ettringite, reinforcing interporous partitions, takes place.

  2. Use and Production of Digital Information and Knowledge in Technical University Education - Co-operation of Faculty and Support Units

    Anna-Kaarina Kairamo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapidly changing educational landscape is of increasing importance in university teaching. Universities in Finland are responsible for research and education based on research. Traditionally information and support services related to using and producing knowledge, support research, and education has mostly been seen purely from the students´ perspective. Teaching in universities is still a hidden individual activity, and, as such, challenges the support units to reach and interact with the academic community. This paper will review the aspects influencing the use and production of digital information and knowledge in technical university education; examples illustrating the experiences will be given.

  3. Assessment of Fatigue Strength of An Offshore Floating Production and Storage Unit

    刘建成; 顾永宁

    2002-01-01

    The procedure of assessment of structural fatigue strength of an offshore floating production and storage and offloadingunit(FPSO) in this paper. The emphasis is placed on the long-term prediction of wave induced loading, the refined finite el-ement model for hot spot stress calculation, the combination of stress components, and fatigue damage assessment based onS-N curve.

  4. Planning Scope in Spoken Sentence Production: The Role of Grammatical Units

    Allum, Paul H.; Wheeldon, Linda R.

    2007-01-01

    Four experiments investigate the scope of grammatical planning during spoken sentence production in Japanese and English. Experiment 1 shows that sentence latencies vary with length of sentence-initial subject phrase. Exploiting the head-final property of Japanese, Experiments 2 and 3 extend this result by showing that in a 2-phrase subject…

  5. An analysis of scholarly productivity in United States academic anaesthesiologists by citation bibliometrics.

    Pagel, P S; Hudetz, J A

    2011-10-01

    The h-index is used to evaluate scholarly productivity in academic medicine, but has not been extensively used in anaesthesia. We analysed the publications, citations, citations per publication and h-index from 1996 to date using the Scopus(®) database for 1630 (1120 men, 510 women) for faculty members from 24 randomly selected US academic anaesthesiology departments The median (interquartile range [range]) h-index of US academic anaesthesiologists was 1 [0-5 (0-44)] with 3 [0-18 (0-398)] total publications, 24 [0-187 (0-8515)] total citations, and 5 [0-14 (0-252)] citations per publication. Faculty members in departments with National Institutes of Health funding were more productive than colleagues in departments with little or no government funding. The h-index increased significantly between successive academic ranks concomitant with increases in the number of publications and total citations. Men had higher median h-index than women concomitant with more publications and citations, but the number of citations per publication was similar between groups. Our results suggest that h-index is a reasonable indicator of scholarly productivity in anaesthesia. The results may help comparisons of academic productivity across countries and may be used to assess whether new initiatives designed to reverse recent declines in academic anaesthetic are working. You can respond to this article at http://www.anaesthesiacorrespondence.com.

  6. Production of advanced biofuels: Co-processing of upgraded pyrolysis oil in standard refinery units

    Miguel Mercader, de F.; Groeneveld, M.J.; Kersten, S.R.A.; Way, N.W.J.; Schaverien, C.J.; Hogendoorn, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    One of the possible process options for the production of advanced biofuels is the co-processing of upgraded pyrolysis oil in standard refineries. The applicability of hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) was studied as a pyrolysis oil upgrading step to allow FCC co-processing. Different HDO reaction end temper

  7. 76 FR 13168 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy

    2011-03-10

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products... pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act. The five sources are electricity, natural gas, No. 2... of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (Act) requires that DOE prescribe test procedures for...

  8. Production of aerogel double glazed units and measurement of key performance parameters

    Duer, Karsten; Svendsen, Sv Aa Højgaard

    1997-01-01

    By providing at the same time thermal insulation and transparency the silica aerogel is a very attractive material for the purpose of improving the thermal performance of windows. Nevertheless a lot of problems have to be solved on the way from concept to the developed product. The B1 Aerogels...

  9. The average unit production cost of blood in Zimbabwe from a provider's perspective

    Mafirakureva, N.; Nyoni, H.; Chikwereti, R.; Khoza, S.; Mvere, D.A.; Emmanuel, J.C.; Postma, M.J.; Van Hulst, M.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Case Studies: Blood utilization and blood transfusion costs are generally perceived to be increasing at a time when healthcare budgets continue being constricted. There is a paucity of published data on the production costs of blood and the costs of blood transfusion in sub-Saharan Africa

  10. Moving from a Predominantly Teaching Oriented Culture to a Research Productivity Mission: The Case of Mexico and the United States

    Gustavo Gregorutti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study qualitatively analyzes the culture conflicts professors in the United States and Mexico are experiencing with the increasing pressures to produce more research about higher education. The first dataset was collected from 36 faculty members from 12 small and medium sized private, doctorate-granting universities. These universities are located in 11 states across the United States. The remaining data came from 44 faculty members employed at four small and medium sized private, doctoral granting universities in four states across Mexico. Results showed that universities in the US are transitioning from a predominantly teaching college culture to a more research orientation. Although the sampled universities continue to offer established graduate programs, faculty members continue to struggle with their teaching requirements and conflicts research productivity pressures place on their teaching and mentoring time with students. Participating faculty members employed in the US were not evenly interested in research opportunities due to the diverse mission objectives promoted by their respective institutions. On the other hand, faculty members employed in Mexico were generally more concerned with their research productivity and subsequent factors, which negatively impact their research productivity. Mexican faculty members rarely cited conflicts between their institutional missions and teaching objectives. This study is highly relevant to policy makers, higher education administrators, and scholars interested in comparative and international higher education. Administrators can benefit from the findings in this study, which provides faculty members’ perceptions and describes departmental structures and organizational dynamics employed to advance greater research and development opportunities. This study concludes with a discussion on how administrators and faculty members should handle the pressures for research productivity and

  11. Effects of ozone on net primary production and carbon sequestration in the conterminous United States using a biogeochemistry model

    Felzer, B.; Kicklighter, D.; Melillo, J.; Wang, C.; Zhuang, Q.; Prinn, R.

    2004-07-01

    The effects of air pollution on vegetation may provide an important control on the carbon cycle that has not yet been widely considered. Prolonged exposure to high levels of ozone, in particular, has been observed to inhibit photosynthesis by direct cellular damage within the leaves and through possible changes in stomatal conductance. We have incorporated empirical equations derived for trees (hardwoods and pines) and crops into the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model to explore the effects of ozone on net primary production (NPP) and carbon sequestration across the conterminous United States. Our results show a 2.6 6.8% mean reduction for the United States in annual NPP in response to modelled historical ozone levels during the late 1980s-early 1990s. The largest decreases (over 13% in some locations) occur in the Midwest agricultural lands, during the mid-summer when ozone levels are highest. Carbon sequestration since the 1950s has been reduced by 18 38 Tg C yr1 with the presence of ozone. Thus the effects of ozone on NPP and carbon sequestration should be factored into future calculations of the United States' carbon budget.

  12. A Critical Review of the Marketing Claims of Infant Formula Products in the United States.

    Belamarich, Peter F; Bochner, Risa E; Racine, Andrew D

    2016-05-01

    A highly competitive infant formula market has resulted in direct-to-consumer marketing intended to promote the sale of modified formulas that claim to ameliorate common infant feeding problems. The claims associated with these marketing campaigns are not evaluated with reference to clinical evidence by the Food and Drug Administration. We aimed to describe the language of claims made on formula labels and compare it with the evidence in systematic reviews. Of the 22 product labels we identified, 13 product labels included claims about colic and gastrointestinal symptoms. There is insufficient evidence to support the claims that removing or reducing lactose, using hydrolyzed or soy protein or adding pre-/probiotics to formula benefits infants with fussiness, gas, or colic yet claims like "soy for fussiness and gas" encourage parents who perceive their infants to be fussy to purchase modified formula. Increased regulation of infant formula claims is warranted.

  13. Why is Agricultural Labor Productivity so Low in the United States?

    Todd Schoellman; Berthold Herrendorf

    2011-01-01

    A big question in development economics is why developing countries are so unproductive in agriculture. This question is hard to answer because of limited data. In this project, we explore what we can learn from agriculture in US states where we have rich data. Focusing on US states has the advantage that there are no major barriers or institutional differences. We provide evidence that there are large labor productivity gaps between nonagriculture and nonagriculture; in some US states the di...

  14. Productive work groups in complex hospital units. Proposed contributions of the nurse executive.

    Sheafor, M

    1991-05-01

    The Fiedler and Garcia cognitive resources contingency model of leadership offers a new approach for nurse executives to influence the productivity of work groups led by nurse managers. The author offers recommendations toward achieving the relatively stress-free environment for nurse managers specified by the model using Schmeiding's application of Orlando's communication theory to nursing administration. Suggestions for incorporating these insights into graduate education for nursing administration follow.

  15. A Primary Care Workload Production Model for Estimating Relative Value Unit Output

    2011-03-01

    that a similar future production capacity will be possible, as in the period studied. Significance of Study The academic body of knowledge...Conversion Factors (Adapted from AMA, 2010) To calculate payment amounts using the Medicare system, the practice expense, malpractice insurance and RVUs... Malpractice (PLI) RVU x PLI GPCI = Total RVU x CY 2011 Conversion Factor of $33.9764 = Payment Here, the Geographic Price

  16. Extending the “Web of Drug Identity” with Knowledge Extracted from United States Product Labels

    2013-01-01

    Structured Product Labels (SPLs) contain information about drugs that can be valuable to clinical and translational research, especially if it can be linked to other sources that provide data about drug targets, chemical properties, interactions, and biological pathways. Unfortunately, SPLs currently provide coarsely-structured drug information and lack the detailed annotation that is required to support computational use cases. To help address this issue we created LinkedSPLs, a Linked Data ...

  17. Estimates of land in agricultural production in counties in the conterminous United States as reported in the 1987 Census of Agriculture

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage contains estimates of land in agricultural production in counties in the conterminous United States as reported in the 1987 Census of Agriculture (U.S....

  18. The global decentralization of commercial aircraft production: Implications for United States-based manufacturing activity

    Pritchard, David John

    This research explores the role of industrial offset agreements and international subcontracting patterns in the global decentralization of US commercial aircraft production. Particular attention is given to the manufacturing processes involved in the design and assembly of large passenger jets (100 seats or more). It is argued that the current geography of aircraft production at the global level has been shaped by a new international distribution of input costs and technological capability. Specifically, low-cost producers within several of the newly emerging markets (NEMs) have acquired front-end manufacturing expertise as a direct result of industrial offset contracts and/or other forms of technology transfer (e.g. international joint-ventures, imports of advanced machine tools). The economic and technological implications of industrial offset (compensatory trade) are examined with reference to the commercial future of US aircraft production. Evidence gathered via personal interviews with both US and foreign producers suggests that the current Western duopoly (Boeing and Airbus) faces a rather uncertain future. In particular, the dissertation shows that the growth of subcontracting and industrial offset portends the transformation of Boeing from an aircraft manufacturer to a systems integrator. The economic implications of this potential reconfiguration of the US aircraft industry are discussed in the context of several techno-market futures, some of which look rather bleak for US workers in this industry.

  19. Enhanced salinomycin production by adjusting the supply of polyketide extender units in Streptomyces albus.

    Lu, Chenyang; Zhang, Xiaojie; Jiang, Ming; Bai, Linquan

    2016-05-01

    The anticoccidial salinomycin is a polyketide produced by Streptomyces albus and requires malonyl-CoAs, methylmalonyl-CoAs, and ethylmalonyl-CoAs for the backbone assembly. Genome sequencing of S. albus DSM 41398 revealed a high percentage of genes involved in lipid metabolism, supporting the high salinomycin yield in oil-rich media. Seven PKS/PKS-NRPS gene clusters in the genome were found to be actively transcribed and had been individually deleted, which resulted in significantly improved salinomycin production. However, a combined deletion of PKS-NRPS-2 and PKS-6 showed no further improvement. Whereas the concentrations of malonyl-CoA and methylmalonyl-CoA were increased, the concentration of ethylmalonyl-CoA remained low in the mutants. An endogenous crotonyl-CoA reductase gene (ccr) was overexpressed in the ΔPKS-NRPS-2/ΔPKS-6 mutant, resulting in improved production. Combination of cluster deletions and over-expression of ccr gene led to an overall titer improvement of salinomycin from 0.60 to 6.60g/L. This engineering strategy can be implemented for various natural polyketides production.

  20. The Interplay Between Bioenergy Grass Production and Water Resources in the United States of America.

    Song, Yang; Cervarich, Matthew; Jain, Atul K; Kheshgi, Haroon S; Landuyt, William; Cai, Ximing

    2016-03-15

    We apply a land surface model to evaluate the interplay between potential bioenergy grass (Miscanthus, Cave-in-Rock, and Alamo) production, water quantity, and nitrogen leaching (NL) in the Central and Eastern U.S. Water use intensity tends to be lower where grass yields are modeled to be high, for example in the Midwest for Miscanthus and Cave-in-Rock and the upper southeastern U.S. for Alamo. However, most of these regions are already occupied by crops and forests and substitution of these biome types for ethanol production implies trade-offs. In general, growing Miscanthus consumes more water, Alamo consumes less water, and Cave-in-Rock consumes approximately the same amount of water as existing vegetation. Bioenergy grasses can maintain high productivity over time, even in water limited regions, because their roots can grow deeper and extract the water from the deep, moist soil layers. However, this may not hold where there are frequent and intense drought events, particularly in regions with shallow soil depths. One advantage of bioenergy grasses is that they mitigate nitrogen leaching relative to row crops and herbaceous plants when grown without applying N fertilizer; and bioenergy grasses, especially Miscanthus, generally require less N fertilizer application than row crops and herbaceous plants.

  1. Design and Analysis of Health Products and Services: An Example at a Specialized COPD Unit

    Domingo, Christian; Rubio, Vicente Ortún

    2008-01-01

    Health care demands have increased dramatically in recent decades. With the introduction of major changes in the management of health problems, health care costs have spiralled. Today, in the interests of cost control, medicine is geared towards outpatient care whenever possible. In this process, the medical community has been obliged to adapt its traditional criteria to the dictates of national economies. Today the criteria for the organization and evaluation of the health services are based on the concepts of efficacy, effectiveness and efficiency. This has led to the emergence of a new discipline for the design and evaluation of medical service production, known as servuction, an amalgam of “service” and “production”. The organigram of a new health product should include the problems the program faces and the steps proposed to overcome these problems. The concept of evaluation can be divided into two categories: administrative evaluation, and evaluative research. Avedis Donabedian was one of the founders of evaluative research, based on an easy-to-remember triad: structure-process-results. In the final evaluation of a new health care model, the innovations it provides must be considered. In this article we describe the stages involved in the design of a new health product and correlate them with the types of evaluation that should be applied at each point in the process. Our discussion addresses general aspects of servuction, but also focuses on the design of a particular service, created to care for patients with severe COPD. PMID:19340319

  2. The effect of cover geometry on the productivity of a modified solar still desalination unit

    Malaeb, Lilian

    2014-01-01

    Desalination methods based on renewable energy offer a promising solution to both water shortage and environmental degradation problems that continue to grow globally. The solar still is one such method that uses a sustainable energy source to produce potable water albeit at a relatively low productivity rate. A new modification has been introduced to the conventional solar still to enhance its productivity. The modification consists of a light weight, black finished, slowly-rotating drum, which leads to a sustainable, cost-effective, and low-tech amendment that preserves the key features of the still while considerably increasing its yield compared to a control still that does not include the drum. In this paper, three different cover geometries of the modified still are studied and the effect of cover design on the performance of the still in terms of measured temperatures and productivity is considered. The three cover designs are as follows: double-sloped or triangular, single-sloped and curved cover. In addition, a conventional double-sloped still without the rotating drum is operated in parallel as a control and the findings of this study are reported and discussed. © 2014 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Climate-driven interannual variability of water scarcity in food production potential: a global analysis

    Kummu, M.; Gerten, D.; Heinke, J.; Konzmann, M.; Varis, O.

    2014-02-01

    Interannual climatic and hydrologic variability has been substantial during the past decades in many regions. While climate variability and its impacts on precipitation and soil moisture have been studied intensively, less is known on subsequent implications for global food production. In this paper we quantify effects of hydroclimatic variability on global "green" and "blue" water availability and demand in global agriculture, and thus complement former studies that have focused merely on long-term averages. Moreover, we assess some options to overcome chronic or sporadic water scarcity. The analysis is based on historical climate forcing data sets over the period 1977-2006, while demography, diet composition and land use are fixed to reference conditions (year 2000). In doing so, we isolate the effect of interannual hydroclimatic variability from other factors that drive food production. We analyse the potential of food production units (FPUs) to produce a reference diet for their inhabitants (3000 kcal cap-1 day-1, with 80% vegetal food and 20% animal products). We applied the LPJmL vegetation and hydrology model to calculate the variation in green-blue water availability and the water requirements to produce that very diet. An FPU was considered water scarce if its water availability was not sufficient to produce the diet (i.e. assuming food self-sufficiency to estimate dependency on trade from elsewhere). We found that 24% of the world's population lives in chronically water-scarce FPUs (i.e. water is scarce every year), while an additional 19% live under occasional water scarcity (water is scarce in some years). Among these 2.6 billion people altogether, 55% would have to rely on international trade to reach the reference diet, while for 24% domestic trade would be enough. For the remaining 21% of the population exposed to some degree of water scarcity, local food storage and/or intermittent trade would be enough to secure the reference diet over the

  4. Relationships between work unit climate and labour productivity in the financial sector: A longitudinal test of the mediating role of work satisfaction

    Voorde, F.C. van de; Veldhoven, M.J.P.M. van; Paauwe, J.

    2014-01-01

    This study is designed to test the mediating role of work satisfaction in the relationship between work unit climate and labour productivity. Two work unit climate facets are examined: goals and service orientation. Longitudinal data obtained from more than 14,000 employees in 171 branches of a fina

  5. Using GRACE-Derived Water and Moisture Products as a Predictive Tool for Fire Response in the Contiguous United States

    Rousseau, N. J.; Jensen, D.; Zajic, B.; Rodell, M.; Reager, J. T., II

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the relationship between wildfire activity and soil moisture in the United States has been difficult to assess, with limited ability to determine areas that are at high risk. This limitation is largely due to complex environmental factors at play, especially as they relate to alternating periods of wet and dry conditions, and the lack of remotely-sensed products. Recent drought conditions and accompanying low Fuel Moisture Content (FMC) have led to disastrous wildfire outbreaks causing economic loss, property damage, and environmental degradation. Thus, developing a programmed toolset to assess the relationship between soil moisture, which contributes greatly to FMC and fire severity, can establish the framework for determining overall wildfire risk. To properly evaluate these parameters, we used data assimilated from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and data from the Fire Program Analysis fire-occurrence database (FPA FOD) to determine the extent soil moisture affects fire activity. Through these datasets, we produced correlation and regression maps at a coarse resolution of 0.25 degrees for the contiguous United States. These fire-risk products and toolsets proved the viability of this methodology, allowing for the future incorporation of more GRACE-derived water parameters, MODIS vegetation indices, and other environmental datasets to refine the model for fire risk. Additionally, they will allow assessment to national-scale early fire management and provide responders with a predictive tool to better employ early decision-support to areas of high risk during regions' respective fire season(s).

  6. Community syndicalism for the United States: preliminary observations on law and globalization in democratic production

    Kenneth M. Casebeer

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Great Recession resulting from the globalization of Finance Capitalism created two structural labor crises for developed economies: 1 The channeling of substantial investment into non-productive, paper commodities, reducing growth of production for use and therefore reducing available aggregate job creation; and 2 The continued exportation of industrial jobs to other lower cost jurisdictions, and outsourcing, automation, just-in-time production, and speed-ups associated with global supply chains. As a result, local communities and regional populations have destabilized and even collapsed with attendant social problems. One possible response is Community Syndicalism – local community finance and operating credit for industrial production combined with democratic worker ownership and control of production. The result would increase investment directly for production, retain jobs in existing population centers, promote job skilling, and retain tax bases for local services and income supporting local businesses, at the same time increasing support for authentic political democracy by rendering the exploitive ideology of the Public/Private distinction superfluous. Slowing job exportation may reduce the global race to the bottom of labor standards and differential wage rates reducing the return to producers of value and increasing the skew of income distribution undermining social wages and welfare worldwide. Community Syndicalism can serve as moral goal in an alternative production model focusing incentives on long term stability of jobs and community economic base. La Gran Recesión que ha traído la globalización del capitalismo financiero ha dado lugar a dos crisis laborales estructurales en las economías desarrolladas: 1 El destino principal de la inversión hacia bienes no productivos, reduciendo la producción de bienes de consumo, y reduciendo también las posibilidades de creación de puestos de trabajo, y 2 el traslado de puestos de

  7. Mitigating an increase of specific power consumption in a cryogenic air separation unit at reduced oxygen production

    Singla, Rohit; Chowdhury, Kanchan

    2017-02-01

    Specific power consumed in a Linde double column air separation unit (ASU) increases as the quantity of oxygen produced at a given purity is decreased due to the changes of system requirement or market demand. As the plant operates in part load condition, the specific power consumption (SPC) increases as the total power consumption remains the same. In order to mitigate the increase of SPC at lower oxygen production, the operating pressure of high pressure column (HPC) can be lowered by extending the low pressure column (LPC) by a few trays and adding a second reboiler. As the duty of second reboiler in LPC is increased, the recovery of oxygen decreases with a lowering of the HPC pressure. This results in mitigation of the increase of SPC of the plant. A Medium pressure ASU with dual reboiler that produces pressurised gaseous and liquid products of oxygen and nitrogen is simulated in Aspen Hysys 8.6®, a commercial process simulator to determine SPC at varying oxygen production. The effects of reduced pressure of air feed into the cold box on the size of heat exchangers (HX) are analysed. Operation strategy to obtain various oxygen production rates at varying demand is also proposed.

  8. Site Productivity and Forest Carbon Stocks in the United States: Analysis and Implications for Forest Offset Project Planning

    James E. Smith

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The documented role of United States forests in sequestering carbon, the relatively low cost of forest-based mitigation, and the many co-benefits of increasing forest carbon stocks all contribute to the ongoing trend in the establishment of forest-based carbon offset projects. We present a broad analysis of forest inventory data using site quality indicators to provide guidance to managers planning land acquisition for forest-based greenhouse gas mitigation projects. Specifically, we summarize two condition class indicators of site productivity within the FIA forest inventory database—physclcd and siteclcd—as they relate to current aboveground live tree carbon stocks. Average carbon density is higher on more productive sites, but compared to the overall variability among sites, the differences are relatively small for all but the highest and lowest site classes. Some minor differences in eastern- versus western-forests were apparent in terms of how carbon on the least productive sites differed from most other forest land over time. Overall results suggest that xeric sites in most regions as well as sites that correspond to the lowest, non-productive classifications of forest land should preferentially not be used forestry-based greenhouse gas mitigation projects, but all other forest areas appear to be suitable.

  9. Economic Feasibility of Managing Loblolly Pine Forests for Water Production under Climate Change in the Southeastern United States

    Andres Susaeta

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we assessed the impacts of climate change, forest management, and different forest productivity conditions on the water yield and profitability of loblolly pine stands in the southeastern United States. Using the 3-PG (Physiological Processes Predicting Growth model, we determined different climatic projections and then employed a stand level economic model that incorporates, for example, prices for timber and increased water yield. We found that, under changing climatic conditions, water yield increases with thinnings and low levels of tree planting density. On average, under moderate climatic conditions, water yield increases by 584 kL·ha−1 and 97 kL·ha−1 for low and high productivity conditions, respectively. Under extreme climatic conditions, water yield increases by 100 kL·ha−1 for low productivity conditions. Land expectation values increase by 96% ($6653.7 ha−1 and 95% ($6424.1 ha−1 for each climatic scenario compared to those obtained for unthinned loblolly pine plantations managed only for timber production and under current climatic conditions. The contributions of payments for increased water yield to the land values were 38% ($2530.1 ha−1 and 30% ($1894.8 ha−1. Results suggest that payments for water yield may be a “win-win” strategy to sustainably improve water supply and the economic conditions of forest ownership in the region.

  10. Assessment of Energy Production Potential from Ocean Currents along the United States Coastline

    Haas, Kevin

    2013-09-15

    Increasing energy consumption and depleting reserves of fossil fuels have resulted in growing interest in alternative renewable energy from the ocean. Ocean currents are an alternative source of clean energy due to their inherent reliability, persistence and sustainability. General ocean circulations exist in the form of large rotating ocean gyres, and feature extremely rapid current flow in the western boundaries due to the Coriolis Effect. The Gulf Stream system is formed by the western boundary current of the North Atlantic Ocean that flows along the east coastline of the United States, and therefore is of particular interest as a potential energy resource for the United States. This project created a national database of ocean current energy resources to help advance awareness and market penetration in ocean current energy resource assessment. The database, consisting of joint velocity magnitude and direction probability histograms, was created from data created by seven years of numerical model simulations. The accuracy of the database was evaluated by ORNL?s independent validation effort documented in a separate report. Estimates of the total theoretical power resource contained in the ocean currents were calculated utilizing two separate approaches. Firstly, the theoretical energy balance in the Gulf Stream system was examined using the two-dimensional ocean circulation equations based on the assumptions of the Stommel model for subtropical gyres with the quasi-geostrophic balance between pressure gradient, Coriolis force, wind stress and friction driving the circulation. Parameters including water depth, natural dissipation rate and wind stress are calibrated in the model so that the model can reproduce reasonable flow properties including volume flux and energy flux. To represent flow dissipation due to turbines additional turbine drag coefficient is formulated and included in the model. Secondly, to determine the reasonableness of the total power

  11. Identification of specific organic contaminants in different units of a chemical production site.

    Dsikowitzky, L; Botalova, O; al Sandouk-Lincke, N A; Schwarzbauer, J

    2014-07-01

    Due to the very limited number of studies dealing with the chemical composition of industrial wastewaters, many industrial organic contaminants still escape our view and consequently also our control. We present here the chemical characterization of wastewaters from different units of a chemical complex, thereby contributing to the characterization of industrial pollution sources. The chemicals produced in the investigated complex are widely and intensively used and the synthesis processes are common and applied worldwide. The chemical composition of untreated and treated wastewaters from the chemical complex was investigated by applying a non-target screening which allowed for the identification of 39 organic contaminants. According to their application most of them belonged to four groups: (i) unspecific educts or intermediates of industrial syntheses, (ii) chemicals for the manufacturing of pharmaceuticals, (iii) educts for the synthesis of polymers and resins, and (iv) compounds known as typical constituents of municipal sewage. A number of halogenated compounds with unknown toxicity and with very high molecular diversity belonged to the second group. Although these compounds were completely removed or degraded during wastewater treatment, they could be useful as "alarm indicators" for industrial accidents in pharmaceutical manufacturing units or for malfunctions of wastewater treatment plants. Three potential branch-specific indicators for polymer manufacturing were found in the outflow of the complex. Among all compounds, bisphenol A, which was present in the leachate water of the on-site waste deposit, occurred in the highest concentrations of up to 20 000 μg L(-1). The comparison of contaminant loads in the inflow and outflow of the on-site wastewater treatment facility showed that most contaminants were completely or at least significantly removed or degraded during the treatment, except two alkylthiols, which were enriched during the treatment process

  12. Risk factors associated with swine dysentery in East-European pig production units

    Mirko C.P.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine the risk factors for swine dysentery in East-European middle-size to large farrow to finish units with separate breeding and grower-finisher facilities. Ten breeding animals (3-10% of the female inventory and 10 grower tinisher pigs (80-140 days-of age were sampled in each herd for polymerase chain reaction testing (PCR for Brachyspira hyodysenteriae (B hyo in their feces. Of 139 farrow to finish units, 51 (36.7% were positive, 49 (35,3% were negative, and 39 (28.1% were inconclusive for B hyo by PCR. In breeding subunits, twelve variables passed the screening criterion for risk factors (P<.2 for B hyo PCR positivity. The odds of the breeding subunits being B hyo PCR positive were 3.5 times greater when the grower-finisher subunit was positive and the fiber content of the diet was >6%. Use of "all in all out" farrowing policy and having >60% multiparous sows, each reduced the odds of being B hyo PCR positive about fourfold. In growing-finishing subunits, fourteen variables passed the screening criterion for risk factors (P<-2 for B hyo PCR positivity. B hyo PCR positive status of the breeding subunits and higher fiber content of the diet were the most influential variable, with the odds of the grower-finisher subunits being B hyo PCR positive almost eight times greater when the breeding subunit was also B hyo PCR positive. Grower-finisher B hyo PCR positivity was also associated with the percentage of pigs housed on concrete slats, with the odds of being positive 7.5 times higher for subunits where more that 70% of the animals were kept on concrete slats compared to all other floor types. There was a strong association between grower-finisher status and whether the animals were in outdoor lots with the odds of being B hyo PCR positive substantially lower for pigs in outdoor lots compared with all other surfaces.

  13. Assessment of municipal solid waste for energy production in the western United States

    Goodman, B.J.; Texeira, R.H.

    1990-08-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) represents both a significant problem and an abundant resource for the production of energy. The residential, institutional, and industrial sectors of this country generate about 250 million tons of MSW each year. In this report, the authors have compiled data on the status of MSW in the 13-state western region, including economic and environmental issues. The report is designed to assist the members of the Western Regional Biomass Energy Program Ad Hoc Resource Committee in determining the potential for using MSW to produce energy in the region. 51 refs., 7 figs., 18 tabs.

  14. APPLE PRICE AND PRODUCTION FORECASTS FOR MAINE AND THE UNITED STATES

    Hayward, Russel A.; Criner, George K.; Skinner, Steven P.

    1984-01-01

    An econometric model of U.S. and Maine apple production and prices was estimated with ordinary least squares multiple regression. A Gauss-Seidel solution technique was used to examine the equation system goodness of fit and to forecast endogenous variable values. Results indicate that supply expansion in the U.S. and Maine will continue, but Maine's slower rate of increase will erode its market share. Apple prices for the U.S. and Maine are predicted to decline in real terms by the year 2000 ...

  15. Effects of productivity on biodiversity in forest ecosystems across the United States and China.

    Liang, Jingjing; Watson, James V; Zhou, Mo; Lei, Xiangdong

    2016-04-01

    In the global campaign against biodiversity loss in forest ecosystems, land managers need to know the status of forest biodiversity, but practical guidelines for conserving biodiversity in forest management are lacking. A major obstacle is the incomplete understanding of the relationship between site primary productivity and plant diversity, due to insufficient ecosystem-wide data, especially for taxonomically and structurally diverse forest ecosystems. We investigated the effects of site productivity (the site's inherent capacity to grow timber) on tree species richness across 19 types of forest ecosystems in North America and China through 3 ground-sourced forest inventory data sets (U.S. Forest Inventory and Analysis, Cooperative Alaska Forest Inventory, and Chinese Forest Management Planning Inventory). All forest types conformed to a consistent and highly significant (P biodiversity relationship among the 3 data sets we examined makes it possible to quantify the expected tree species richness that a forest stand is capable of sustaining, and a comparison between the actual species richness and the sustainable values can be useful in prioritizing conservation efforts.

  16. Characterization of predominant bacteria isolates from clean rooms in a pharmaceutical production unit

    2007-01-01

    Aims: To screen for the predominant bacteria strains distributed in clean rooms and to analyze their phylogenetic relationships. Methods and Results: The bacteria distributed in air, surfaces and personnel in clean rooms were routinely monitored using agar plates. Five isolates frequently isolated from the clean rooms of an aseptic pharmaceutical production workshop were selected based on their colony and cell morphology characteristics. Their physiological and biochemical properties, as well as partial 16S rDNA sequences, were analyzed. Results showed that all the five isolates belong to Gram positive bacteria, of which three were Staphylococcus, one Microbacterium and one Bacillus species. Sensitivity tests for these bacteria isolates to 3 disinfectants showed that isolate F03 was obtuse, and had low susceptivity to UV irradiation, while isolates F02, F01 and F04 were not sensitive to phenol treatment. Isolates F04, F01 and F05 were resistant to chlorhexidine gluconate. Conclusion: Bacteria widely distributed in clean rooms are mainly a group of Gram positive strains, showing high resistance to selected disinfectants. Significance and impact of the study: Clean rooms are essential in aseptic pharmaceutical and food production. Screening bacteria isolates and identifying them is part of good manufacturing practices, and will aid in finding a more effective disinfection method.

  17. PRODUCTION OF RAPESEED IN THE UNITED KINGDOM, IN THE ZONAL AND EUROPEAN CONTEXT (2010-2012

    Radu Lucian PÂNZARU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapeseed is currently one of the world's most important oil species. Rapeseed oil contains varying proportions of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids: Oleic - 20%, linoleic 15%, linolenic - 9% -15% erucic, casenoic - 8%, palmitic - 4%, 1% stearic acid. Erucic acid from rapeseed oil used in diet has negative effects on the human body because it retards the growth of young organism causing diseases of the circulatory system and the adrenal glands, liver and thyroid gland. By reducing the erucic acid content has increased proportion of oleic acid, from 14-20% to more than 64%, and the percentage of linoleic acid from 13-15% to more than 24%, which increased the food quality of rapeseed oil which can replace in this respect the sunflower oil. It should be noted also that, rapeseed oil low in erucic acid content, has unique effects on serum total cholesterol, serum fatty acids and the level of antioxidants, compared to diets high in saturated fat or oil mono- or poly-unsaturated from sunflower. The work was born following the presentation of producer’s performance placed in another area of culture, rather than national, through different environmental conditions and production (production structure, way of organizing the activity, degree of capitalization of the producers etc..

  18. Coal-water slurry fuel production: Its evolution and current status in the United States

    Morrison, J.L.; Miller, B.G.; Scaroni, A.W. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Interest in the US in utilizing bituminous coal in a slurry form has evolved substantially over the last two decades. In the mid-1970`s, technologies to utilize coal-oil mixtures (COMs) as potential fuel oil replacements for utility and industrial boilers were developed as a consequence of escalating world oil prices. To further reduce dependency on imported oil, interest shifted away from COMs to coal-water slurry fuels (CWSFs) because higher solids loadings were obtainable while eliminating the use of oil. Research which focused on the use of CWSF as a potential fuel oil replacement peaked in the mid to late-1980`s as a result of a decline in world oil prices. During the late 1980`s and early 1990`s, coal suppliers and coal-fired utilities began to evaluate the production of CWSF using bituminous coal fines from fine coal cleaning circuits in an effort to reduce dewatering/drying costs. This marked a philosophical change in the driving force behind the utilization of CWSF in the US. In an effort to broaden the supply of coal fines, The Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) and the Pennsylvania Electric Company (Penelec) surveyed a series of fine coal impoundments in western Pennsylvania to determine the quality, cleanability, and slurryability of the coal fines contained therein. The development and commercialization of recovery technologies, cleaning techniques, and CWSF reentrainment circuits, coupled with an interest by utilities to utilize low-cost fuels, has fostered the recovery of impounded coal fines. In addition to the fine coal impoundments, fine coal cleaning circuits which actively dispose of process water having suspended coal fines (e.g. centrifuge effluent) are being examined to determine if the fines can be recovered and thickened into a low solids CWSF. The paper describes required physical and chemical properties of a CWSF for boiler applications. There is a growing awareness that CWSF is a fuel form that can be cofired with coal. The

  19. Evaluating United States and world consumption of neodymium, dysprosium, terbium, and praseodymium in final products

    Hart, Matthew

    This paper develops scenarios of future rare-earth-magnet metal (neodymium, dysprosium, terbium, and praseodymium) consumption in the permanent magnets used in wind turbines and hybrid electric vehicles. The scenarios start with naive base-case scenarios for growth in wind-turbine and hybrid-electric-vehicle sales over the period 2011 to 2020, using historical data for each good. These naive scenarios assume that future growth follows time trends in historical data and does not depend on any exogenous variable. Specifically, growth of each technological market follows historical time trends, and the amount of rare earths used per unit of technology remains fixed. The chosen reference year is 2010. Implied consumptions of the rare earth magnet metals are calculated from these scenarios. Assumptions are made for the material composition of permanent magnets, the market share of permanent-magnet wind turbines and vehicles, and magnet weight per unit of technology. Different scenarios estimate how changes in factors like the material composition of magnets, growth of the economy, and the price of a substitute could affect future consumption. Each scenario presents a different method for reducing rare earth consumption and could be interpreted as potential policy choices. In 2010, the consumption (metric tons, rare-earth-oxide equivalent) of each rare-earth-magnet metal was as follows. Total neodymium consumption in the world for both technologies was 995 tons; dysprosium consumption was 133 tons; terbium consumption was 50 tons; praseodymium consumption was zero tons. The base scenario for wind turbines shows there could be strong, exponential growth in the global wind turbine market. New U.S. sales of hybrid vehicles would decline (in line with the current economic recession) while non-U.S. sales increase through 2020. There would be an overall increase in the total amount of magnetic rare earths consumed in the world. Total consumption of each rare earth in the short

  20. Geoneutrino production of the northern Black Hills, South Dakota, United States of America

    Zimny, Eric Gerald

    Current neutrino observatories operate underground to isolate the detector from cosmic rays and background radiation. However, background radiation from local sources has yet to be accounted for. Current models for neutrino contributions from terrestrial rocks are formulated from bulk compositional estimates of the whole Earth. To better understand local background radiation from geologic sources surfaces rocks were collected throughout the area surrounding the Homestake Mine, South Dakota, home of the Sanford Underground Research Laboratory. The surface rocks were analyzed for radioactivity and neutrino luminosity, producing heat maps indicating the levels of neutrino production throughout the area. The area around the Homestake Mine was found to be more luminous then upper crustal averages generated from current bulk silicate Earth models.

  1. The effect of lightning NOx production on surface ozone in the continental United States

    Y. Choi

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Lightning NOx emissions calculated using the U.S. National Lightning Detection Network data were found to account for 30% of the total NOx emissions for July–August 2004, a period chosen both for having higher lightning NOx production and high ozone levels, thus maximizing the likelihood that such emissions could impact peak ozone levels. Including such emissions led to modest, but sometimes significant increases in simulated surface ozone when using the Community Multi-scale Air Quality Model (CMAQ. Three model simulations were performed, two with the addition of lightning NOx emissions, and one without. Domain-wide daily maximum 8-h ozone changes due to lightning NOx were less than 2 ppbv in 71% of the cases with a maximum of 10-ppbv; whereas the difference in 1-h ozone was less than 2 ppbv in 77% of the cases with a maximum of 6 ppbv. Daily maximum 1-h and 8-h ozone for grids containing O3 monitoring stations changed slightly, with more than 43% of the cases differing less than 2 ppbv. The greatest differences were 42-ppbv for both 1-h and 8-h O3, though these tended to be on days of lower ozone. Lightning impacts on the season-wide maximum 1-h and 8-h averaged ozone decreased starting from the 1st to 4th highest values (an average of 4th highest, 8-h values is used for attainment demonstration in the U.S.. Background ozone values from the y-intercept of O3 versus NOz curve were 42.2 and 43.9 ppbv for simulations without and with lightning emissions, respectively. Results from both simulations with lightning NOx suggest that while North American lightning production of NOx can lead to significant local impacts on a few occasions, they will have a relatively small impact on typical maximum levels and determination of Policy Relevant Background levels.

  2. High frequency of porcine norovirus infection in finisher units of Brazilian pig-production systems.

    Silva, Patrícia F N; Alfieri, Alice F; Barry, Aline F; de Arruda Leme, Raquel; Gardinali, Noemi R; van der Poel, Wim H M; Alfieri, Amauri Alcindo

    2015-01-01

    Norovirus (NoV) is a member of the Caliciviridae family and is considered an emerging human enteric pathogen. NoVs are detected in farm animals such as cattle, sheep and pigs. Porcine NoV (PoNoV) is widespread worldwide, but frequency of infection is often low. This study aimed to investigate the natural PoNoV infection from adult animals of an important Brazilian pig-production region. Faecal samples (n = 112) of asymptomatic pigs aged 9 to 24 weeks old were collected from 16 grower-to-finish herds located in Paraná state, Brazilian Southern region, and evaluated for PoNoV presence. A reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay was performed using specific primers that target a conserved region of the virus capsid gene (VP1). PoNoV was detected in 58 (51.8%) of the 112 faecal samples and in 14 (87.5%) of the 16 herds evaluated. Six of the obtained amplicons were submitted to phylogenetic genotyping analysis. The higher nucleotide (86.5-97.4%) and amino acid (100%) similarities of the sequences in this study were with the representative strains of the porcine NoV genogroup II genotype 11 (PoNoV GII-11). These results reveal that PoNoV infection is endemic in one of the most important pork production areas of Brazil and that the PoNoV GII-11 is prevalent in this region.

  3. Geological and production characteristics of strandplain/barrier island reservoirs in the United States

    Cole, E.L.; Fowler, M.; Jackson, S.; Madden, M.P.; Reeves, T.K.; Salamy, S.P.; Young, M.A.

    1994-12-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) primary mission in the oil research program is to maximize the economically and environmentally sound recovery of oil from domestic reservoirs and to preserve access to this resource. The Oil Recovery Field Demonstration Program supports DOE`s mission through cost-shared demonstrations of improved Oil Recovery (IOR) processes and reservoir characterization methods. In the past 3 years, the DOE has issued Program Opportunity Notices (PONs) seeking cost-shared proposals for the three highest priority, geologically defined reservoir classes. The classes have been prioritized based on resource size and risk of abandonment. This document defines the geologic, reservoir, and production characteristics of the fourth reservoir class, strandplain/barrier islands. Knowledge of the geological factors and processes that control formation and preservation of reservoir deposits, external and internal reservoir heterogeneities, reservoir characterization methodology, and IOR process application can be used to increase production of the remaining oil-in-place (IOR) in Class 4 reservoirs. Knowledge of heterogeneities that inhibit or block fluid flow is particularly critical. Using the TORIS database of 330 of the largest strandplain/barrier island reservoirs and its predictive and economic models, the recovery potential which could result from future application of IOR technologies to Class 4 reservoirs was estimated to be between 1.0 and 4.3 billion barrels, depending on oil price and the level of technology advancement. The analysis indicated that this potential could be realized through (1) infill drilling alone and in combination with polymer flooding and profile modification, (2) chemical flooding (sufactant), and (3) thermal processes. Most of this future potential is in Texas, Oklahoma, and the Rocky Mountain region. Approximately two-thirds of the potentially recoverable resource is at risk of abandonment by the year 2000.

  4. Occurrence of Transgenic Feral Alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa L.) in Alfalfa Seed Production Areas in the United States.

    Greene, Stephanie L; Kesoju, Sandya R; Martin, Ruth C; Kramer, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The potential environmental risks of transgene exposure are not clear for alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa), a perennial crop that is cross-pollinated by insects. We gathered data on feral alfalfa in major alfalfa seed-production areas in the western United States to (1) evaluate evidence that feral transgenic plants spread transgenes and (2) determine environmental and agricultural production factors influencing the location of feral alfalfa, especially transgenic plants. Road verges in Fresno, California; Canyon, Idaho; and Walla Walla, Washington were surveyed in 2011 and 2012 for feral plants, and samples were tested for the CP4 EPSPS protein that conveys resistance to glyphosate. Of 4580 sites surveyed, feral plants were observed at 404 sites. Twenty-seven percent of these sites had transgenic plants. The frequency of sites having transgenic feral plants varied among our study areas. Transgenic plants were found in 32.7%, 21.4.7% and 8.3% of feral plant sites in Fresno, Canyon and Walla Walla, respectively. Spatial analysis suggested that feral populations started independently and tended to cluster in seed and hay production areas, places where seed tended to drop. Significant but low spatial auto correlation suggested that in some instances, plants colonized nearby locations. Neighboring feral plants were frequently within pollinator foraging range; however, further research is needed to confirm transgene flow. Locations of feral plant clusters were not well predicted by environmental and production variables. However, the likelihood of seed spillage during production and transport had predictive value in explaining the occurrence of transgenic feral populations. Our study confirms that genetically engineered alfalfa has dispersed into the environment, and suggests that minimizing seed spillage and eradicating feral alfalfa along road sides would be effective strategies to minimize transgene dispersal.

  5. Occurrence of Transgenic Feral Alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa L. in Alfalfa Seed Production Areas in the United States.

    Stephanie L Greene

    Full Text Available The potential environmental risks of transgene exposure are not clear for alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa, a perennial crop that is cross-pollinated by insects. We gathered data on feral alfalfa in major alfalfa seed-production areas in the western United States to (1 evaluate evidence that feral transgenic plants spread transgenes and (2 determine environmental and agricultural production factors influencing the location of feral alfalfa, especially transgenic plants. Road verges in Fresno, California; Canyon, Idaho; and Walla Walla, Washington were surveyed in 2011 and 2012 for feral plants, and samples were tested for the CP4 EPSPS protein that conveys resistance to glyphosate. Of 4580 sites surveyed, feral plants were observed at 404 sites. Twenty-seven percent of these sites had transgenic plants. The frequency of sites having transgenic feral plants varied among our study areas. Transgenic plants were found in 32.7%, 21.4.7% and 8.3% of feral plant sites in Fresno, Canyon and Walla Walla, respectively. Spatial analysis suggested that feral populations started independently and tended to cluster in seed and hay production areas, places where seed tended to drop. Significant but low spatial auto correlation suggested that in some instances, plants colonized nearby locations. Neighboring feral plants were frequently within pollinator foraging range; however, further research is needed to confirm transgene flow. Locations of feral plant clusters were not well predicted by environmental and production variables. However, the likelihood of seed spillage during production and transport had predictive value in explaining the occurrence of transgenic feral populations. Our study confirms that genetically engineered alfalfa has dispersed into the environment, and suggests that minimizing seed spillage and eradicating feral alfalfa along road sides would be effective strategies to minimize transgene dispersal.

  6. The Use of Multi-Source Satellite and Geospatial Data to Study the Effect of Urbanization of Primary Productivity in the United States

    Imhoff, M. L.; Tucker, C. J.; Lawrence, W. T.; Stutzer, D.; Rusin, Robert

    2000-01-01

    Data from two different satellites, a digital land cover map, and digital census data were analyzed and combined in a geographic information system to study the effect of urbanization on photosynthetic vegetation productivity in the United States. Results show that urbanization can have a measurable but variable impact on the primary productivity of the land surface. Annual productivity can be reduced by as much as 20 days in some areas, but in resource limited regions, photosynthetic production can be enhanced by human activity. Overall, urban development reduces the productivity of the land surface and those areas with the highest productivity are directly in the path of urban sprawl.

  7. Winter wheat production forecast in United States of America using AVHRR historical data and NCAR Growing Degree Day

    Claverie, M.; Franch, B.; Vermote, E.; Becker-Reshef, I.; Justice, C. O.

    2015-12-01

    Wheat is one of the key cereals crop grown worldwide. Thus, accurate and timely forecasts of its production are critical for informing agricultural policies and investments, as well as increasing market efficiency and stability. Becker-Reshef et al. (2010) used an empirical generalized model for forecasting winter wheat production using combined BRDF-corrected daily surface reflectance from the Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Climate Modeling Grid (CMG) with detailed official crop statistics and crop type masks. It is based on the relationship between the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) at the peak of the growing season, percent wheat within the CMG pixel, and the final yields. This method predicts the yield approximately one month to six weeks prior to harvest. Recently, Franch et al. (2015) included Growing Degree Day (GDD) information extracted from NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data in order to improve the winter wheat production forecast by increasing the timeliness of the forecasts between a month to a month and a half prior to the peak NDVI (i.e. 1-2.5 months prior to harvest), while conserving the accuracy of the original model. In this study, we apply these methods to historical data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR). We apply both the original and the modified model to United States of America from 1990 to 2014 and inter-compare the AVHRR results to MODIS from 2000 to 2014.

  8. Climate-driven interannual variability of water scarcity in food production: a global analysis

    M. Kummu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Interannual climatic and hydrologic variability has been substantial during the past decades in many regions. While climate variability and its impacts on precipitation and soil moisture have been rather intensively studied, less is known on its impacts on freshwater availability and further implications for global food production. In this paper we quantify effects of hydroclimatic variability on global "green" and "blue" water availability and demand in agriculture. Analysis is based on climate forcing data for the past 30 yr with demography, diet composition and land use fixed to constant reference conditions. We thus assess how observed interannual hydroclimatic variability impacts on the ability of food production units (FPUs to produce a given diet for their inhabitants, here focused on a benchmark for hunger alleviation (3000 kilocalories per capita per day, with 80% vegetal food and 20% animal products. We applied the LPJmL vegetation and hydrology model to calculate spatially explicitly the variation in green-blue water availability and the water requirements to produce that very diet. An FPU was considered water scarce if its water availability was not sufficient to produce the diet (neglecting trade from elsewhere, i.e. assuming food self-sufficiency. We found that altogether 24% of the global population lives in areas under chronic scarcity (i.e. water is scarce every year while an additional 19% live under occasional water scarcity (i.e. water is scarce in some years. Of these 2.6 billion people under some degree of scarcity, 55% would have to rely on international trade to reach the reference diet while for 24% domestic trade would be enough (assuming present cropland extent and management. For the remaining 21% of population under scarcity, local food storage and/or intermittent trade would be enough secure the reference diet over the occasional dry years.

  9. Climate-driven interannual variability of water scarcity in food production: a global analysis

    Kummu, M.; Gerten, D.; Heinke, J.; Konzmann, M.; Varis, O.

    2013-06-01

    Interannual climatic and hydrologic variability has been substantial during the past decades in many regions. While climate variability and its impacts on precipitation and soil moisture have been rather intensively studied, less is known on its impacts on freshwater availability and further implications for global food production. In this paper we quantify effects of hydroclimatic variability on global "green" and "blue" water availability and demand in agriculture. Analysis is based on climate forcing data for the past 30 yr with demography, diet composition and land use fixed to constant reference conditions. We thus assess how observed interannual hydroclimatic variability impacts on the ability of food production units (FPUs) to produce a given diet for their inhabitants, here focused on a benchmark for hunger alleviation (3000 kilocalories per capita per day, with 80% vegetal food and 20% animal products). We applied the LPJmL vegetation and hydrology model to calculate spatially explicitly the variation in green-blue water availability and the water requirements to produce that very diet. An FPU was considered water scarce if its water availability was not sufficient to produce the diet (neglecting trade from elsewhere, i.e. assuming food self-sufficiency). We found that altogether 24% of the global population lives in areas under chronic scarcity (i.e. water is scarce every year) while an additional 19% live under occasional water scarcity (i.e. water is scarce in some years). Of these 2.6 billion people under some degree of scarcity, 55% would have to rely on international trade to reach the reference diet while for 24% domestic trade would be enough (assuming present cropland extent and management). For the remaining 21% of population under scarcity, local food storage and/or intermittent trade would be enough secure the reference diet over the occasional dry years.

  10. Land-Use Analysis of Croplands for Sustainable Food and Energy Production in the United States

    Zumkehr, Andrew Lee

    Energy security and environmental sustainability are major concerns to many in the U.S. Energy from biomass has been proposed as a strategy to help meet future energy needs; however, widespread cultivation for biofuels could have significant impacts on food security and the environment. One solution to minimizing the impacts of biofuel cultivation is to limit production to abandoned croplands where competition from food crops and environmental degradation will be minimized. Here I estimate the spatial distribution of historical U.S. cropland areas from 1850 to 2000 and subsequently calculate abandoned cropland areas for the year 2000. From this data I estimate the potential biomass energy that could be obtained from abandoned croplands. I also estimate the potential for biomass energy to contribute to a renewable energy system consisting of wind and solar power by meeting seasonal energy storage needs that are a result of the intermittent nature of renewable energy sources. Lastly, I use the historical cropland areas result to estimate the ability of U.S. croplands to supply food to local populations at the county level.

  11. Ethanol Demand in United States Production of Oxygenate-limited Gasoline

    Hadder, G.R.

    2000-08-16

    Ethanol competes with methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) to satisfy oxygen, octane, and volume requirements of certain gasolines. However, MTBE has water quality problems that may create significant market opportunities for ethanol. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has used its Refinery Yield Model to estimate ethanol demand in gasolines with restricted use of MTBE. Reduction of the use of MTBE would increase the costs of gasoline production and possibly reduce the gasoline output of U.S. refineries. The potential gasoline supply problems of an MTBE ban could be mitigated by allowing a modest 3 vol percent MTBE in all gasoline. In the U.S. East and Gulf Coast gasoline producing regions, the 3 vol percent MTBE option results in costs that are 40 percent less than an MTBE ban. In the U.S. Midwest gasoline producing region, with already high use of ethanol, an MTBE ban has minimal effect on ethanol demand unless gasoline producers in other regions bid away the local supply of ethanol. The ethanol/MTBE issue gained momentum in March 2000 when the Clinton Administration announced that it would ask Congress to amend the Clean Air Act to provide the authority to significantly reduce or eliminate the use of MTBE; to ensure that air quality gains are not diminished as MTBE use is reduced; and to replace the existing oxygenate requirement in the Clean Air Act with a renewable fuel standard for all gasoline. Premises for the ORNL study are consistent with the Administration announcement, and the ethanol demand curve estimates of this study can be used to evaluate the impact of the Administration principles and related policy initiatives.

  12. Plutonium: The first 50 years. United States plutonium production, acquisition, and utilization from 1944 through 1994

    None

    1996-02-01

    The report contains important newly declassified information regarding the US production, acquisition, and removals of plutonium. This new information, when combined with previously declassified data, has allowed the DOE to issue, for the first time, a truly comprehensive report on the total DOE plutonium inventory. At the December 7, 1993, Openness Press Conference, the DOE declassified the plutonium inventories at eight locations totaling 33.5 metric tons (MT). This report declassifies the remainder of the DOE plutonium inventory. Newly declassified in this report is the quantity of plutonium at the Pantex Site, near Amarillo, Texas, and in the US nuclear weapons stockpile of 66.1 MT, which, when added to the previously released inventory of 33.5 MT, yields a total plutonium inventory of 99.5 MT. This report will document the sources which built up the plutonium inventory as well as the transactions which have removed plutonium from that inventory. This report identifies four sources that add plutonium to the DOE/DoD inventory, and seven types of transactions which remove plutonium from the DOE/DoD inventory. This report also discusses the nuclear material control and accountability system which records all nuclear material transactions, compares records with inventory and calculates material balances, and analyzes differences to verify that nuclear materials are in quantities as reported. The DOE believes that this report will aid in discussions in plutonium storage, safety, and security with stakeholders as well as encourage other nations to declassify and release similar data. These data will also be available for formulating policies with respect to disposition of excess nuclear materials. The information in this report is based on the evaluation of available records. The information contained in this report may be updated or revised in the future should additional or more detailed data become available.

  13. [Ways of inserting physicians into the healthcare production process: case of study of basic healthcare units in Belo Horizonte, Brazil].

    Gariglio, Maria Terezinha; Radicchi, Antônio Leite Alves

    2008-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to describe and analyze the ways of inserting physicians into the health production process. This subject is justified by a belief that that this way of working may be a problem but at the same time may well be the key to implementing healthcare models that are ethically and politically committed to the lives of public health system users. Initially, the problem is presented through the construction of an archetype physician and his historical and social and cultural conditioning factors, taking the work processes of physicians at Basic Healthcare Units in Belo Horizonte as an example that is built up through interviews and participative observations. Some possibilities for intervention are indicated through the introduction of new concepts and technologies that could transform the work of these practitioners in ways that would build up links with more responsibility for the care and lives of users of public healthcare services.

  14. Analytical method for assessing potential dermal exposure to captan, using whole body dosimetry, in small vegetable production units in Argentina.

    Hughes, Enrique A; Zalts, Anita; Ojeda, Javier J; Flores, Andrea P; Glass, Richard C; Montserrat, Javier M

    2006-09-01

    An analytical method has been developed that can be used to determine the potential dermal exposure (PDE) of workers to the pesticide captan in small-scale horticultural production units. The methodology is based on the whole body dosimetry technique, using a cotton coverall and cotton gloves as sampling media, with protective clothing worn beneath the cotton media to protect the operator. The quantitative determination of captan was done by gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD), with the analytical method validated by measuring limits of detection and quantification, linear ranges, sample recovery and precision. Special emphasis is placed on factors that affected the stability of captan during chromatographic determination. The data generated for potential dermal exposure are presented separately for mixing/loading and application activities. These data are compared with values obtained with visible tracers using a similar field technique. Margin of safety (MOS) values are also calculated for the agricultural procedures studied.

  15. TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION IN PROJECTS OF NEW PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT: AN EXPLORATORY STUDY ON RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT INTEGRATION AMONG UNITS OF A MULTINATIONAL COMPANY

    Daniel Jugend; Sérgio Luis da Silva

    2012-01-01

    Although the topic of integration in product development is widely debated in the literature, there are few studies that address the participation by subsidiaries of multinational and R & D centers around the world in development projects of new products. Focusing on the perception of the Brazilian unit, this paper aims to present and analyze integration practices among subsidiaries, headquarters and R&D centers in product development projects in a multinational high tech company. For this pu...

  16. Impacts of different regulatory regimes in the unitization of production; Impactos dos diferentes regimes regulatorios na individualizacao da producao

    Ribeiro, Vinicius Farias; Moreira, Robson Prates [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The unitization process is required in most regulatory models around the world when it identifies that a reservoir straddles to out of the contracted area. This procedure aims to ensure a greater exploitation of petroleum. In Brazil is no different; however there are still many ambiguities in this process. The introduction of new tax regimes in the country broadened the doubts, as we may have a reservoir straddling between concession, production sharing, assignment of rights areas and areas not yet contracted. The objective of the present paper is to explore the uncertainties that must be addressed by the oil and gas sector in order to ensure low legal, regulatory and fiscal risks in the oil industry. The main topics discussed are the rules for production allocation, reserves and expenditures, the ANP and PPSA roles' conflicts, restriction of parties' rights, adjustment of contractual rules and also mitigate or eliminate economic, financial and fiscal uncertainties. This article does not propose solutions to all lacks raised. (author)

  17. Powerplant Productivity Improvement Study: historic performance of Illinois investor-owned electrical-generating units. Final report, Project 2, Task 1

    None

    1979-05-04

    In this task the historical performance of powerplants in Illinois was examined and the opportunities for improved powerplant productivity in Illinois was determined. The four utilities considered were the major investor-owned electric generating utilities in Illinois, i.e., Central Illinois Light Co., (CILCO), Central Illinois Public Service (CIPS), Commonwealth Edison (CECO), and Illinois Power (IP). The major findings are: (1) for evaluation purposes, the equivalent availability was judged to be the most-appropriate measure; (2) in terms of powerplant productivity, IP is among the best in the nation and, in terms of productivity from large coal units, it ranks in the top five nationally; (3) in general, the performance of coal-fired units of CILCO and CECO have been below national averages and in some cases, significantly below; (4) a review of the trends in production of all Illinois units reveals that Illinois units as a group have been generally below national averages for the respective unit classes; (5) as noted in this and other studies, productivities of the nuclear plants in Illinois have been below the national average for all comparable nuclear plants; and (6) this analysis should be updated when national 1977 and 1978 Edison Electric Institute data become publicly available.

  18. Community Essay: Product stewardship in the United States: the changing policy landscape and the role of business

    Vesela Veleva

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Since I came to the United States almost twelve years ago, I have been astonished by the rate of consumption and the enormous amount of waste generated by people and organizations. Could Americans wake up one day without electricity, gasoline, or bread, as happened to many Eastern European countries in the early 1990s? It was a tough lesson that many people of my generation will never forget. It is clear to me that the current rate of consumption and environmental pollution is unsustainable. Every few years, people change cars, computers, televisions, other appliances, and even their homes! It is often said that if every person on this planet consumed like Americans, we would need several planets Earth. But why should people in other countries not have the right to own a car, travel to exotic destinations, and purchase prepackaged food, modern appliances, and toys for their children? As an engineer and scientist trained in cleaner production, I have always believed in the unlimited potential of humankind to find solutions to seemingly unsolvable problems. But we need to have the right incentives. This does not mean people and organizations should not change their consumption patterns, but rather that we can build the economy from a systems perspective, considering the entire lifecycle of products and services and the social, economic, and environmental impacts of our actions today and in the decades to come. The current global recession makes it even clearer that a systems approach is critical going forward to ensure stable and sustainable development in an increasingly interconnected world. Business, government, and civil society organizations all need to work together to design the rules of the new economic system where products last longer, have no toxic chemicals, and are reused and recycled; society as a whole consumes less; and people spend more time with family and friends and less time working to maintain their “standard of living.”

  19. Observational constraints on glyoxal production from isoprene oxidation and its contribution to organic aerosol over the Southeast United States

    Li, Jingyi; Mao, Jingqiu; Min, Kyung-Eun; Washenfelder, Rebecca A.; Brown, Steven S.; Kaiser, Jennifer; Keutsch, Frank N.; Volkamer, Rainer; Wolfe, Glenn M.; Hanisco, Thomas F.; Pollack, Ilana B.; Ryerson, Thomas B.; Graus, Martin; Gilman, Jessica B.; Lerner, Brian M.; Warneke, Carsten; Gouw, Joost A.; Middlebrook, Ann M.; Liao, Jin; Welti, André; Henderson, Barron H.; McNeill, V. Faye; Hall, Samuel R.; Ullmann, Kirk; Donner, Leo J.; Paulot, Fabien; Horowitz, Larry W.

    2016-08-01

    We use a 0-D photochemical box model and a 3-D global chemistry-climate model, combined with observations from the NOAA Southeast Nexus (SENEX) aircraft campaign, to understand the sources and sinks of glyoxal over the Southeast United States. Box model simulations suggest a large difference in glyoxal production among three isoprene oxidation mechanisms (AM3ST, AM3B, and Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM) v3.3.1). These mechanisms are then implemented into a 3-D global chemistry-climate model. Comparison with field observations shows that the average vertical profile of glyoxal is best reproduced by AM3ST with an effective reactive uptake coefficient γglyx of 2 × 10-3 and AM3B without heterogeneous loss of glyoxal. The two mechanisms lead to 0-0.8 µg m-3 secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from glyoxal in the boundary layer of the Southeast U.S. in summer. We consider this to be the lower limit for the contribution of glyoxal to SOA, as other sources of glyoxal other than isoprene are not included in our model. In addition, we find that AM3B shows better agreement on both formaldehyde and the correlation between glyoxal and formaldehyde (RGF = [GLYX]/[HCHO]), resulting from the suppression of δ-isoprene peroxy radicals. We also find that MCM v3.3.1 may underestimate glyoxal production from isoprene oxidation, in part due to an underestimated yield from the reaction of isoprene epoxydiol (IEPOX) peroxy radicals with HO2. Our work highlights that the gas-phase production of glyoxal represents a large uncertainty in quantifying its contribution to SOA.

  20. Installation to Production of a Large-Scale General Purpose Graphics Processing Unit (GPGPU) Cluster at the U.S. Army Research Laboratory: Thufir

    2014-09-01

    section 3.6. The GPUs supported the execution of CUDA and OpenCL applications during the initial acceptance testing. These tests included short...unties ( GPUs ), and a mixture of CPU-only and CPU/ GPU nodes. The final accepted production system is stable and capable of nearly 1 PetaFLOPS (1012...processing units (CPUs), Nvidia Fermi graphics processing units ( GPUs ), and a mixture of CPU-only and CPU/ GPU nodes. The combined government/contractor team

  1. Increase of propylene production and recovery in a PETROBRAS FCC units; Aumento da producao e recuperacao de propeno em uma Unidade de FCC da PETROBRAS

    Penna, Elisangela Melo; Pinho, Andrea de Rezende; Wolff, Marcelo Straubel [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Propylene is one of the major petrochemical raw materials and its demand has been growing rapidly in recent years. Projections for future years indicate that the growth in propylene production via pyrolysis tends to be lower than the growth in the demand for ethylene, creating a supply deficit of this product. The FCC units are in a unique position to meet this increase in propylene demand due to its operational flexibility. Although their primary function in recent decades has been the gasoline production, FCC units are often operated for maximizing other products, such as LPG or distillates. At the FCC conversion section, the increase of propylene yield requires some increase in reaction severity, which can be obtained by increasing reactor riser temperature, and the use of catalyst additives based on ZSM-5. However, besides maximizing the propylene production in the reactor, a second objective should be pursued: the propylene recovery increase in the gas recovery section. In this section, the yield is affected by the gas compressor performance, the equipment design and process scheme. Eventually, new equipment may be installed, such as chillers, aimed at improving the absorption system. Predicting a real increase in propylene demand in the Brazilian market, this study aims to evaluate the adequacy of the gas recovery section of a PETROBRAS FCC unit, analyzing the impacts that a new products yields profile, which bend the propylene production compared to a conventional operation, would cause on this unit. In this paper, the main limitations and modifications that would be needed for an operation were identified, aiming at maximizing the propylene production, as well as proposed changes in the hardware of the unit. (author)

  2. Downstream process synthesis for biochemical production of butanol, ethanol, and acetone from grains: generation of optimal and near-optimal flowsheets with conventional operating units.

    Liu, Jiahong; Fan, L T; Seib, Paul; Friedler, Ferenc; Bertok, Botond

    2004-01-01

    Manufacturing butanol, ethanol, and acetone through grain fermentation has been attracting increasing research interest. In the production of these chemicals from fermentation, the cost of product recovery constitutes the major portion of the total production cost. Developing cost-effective flowsheets for the downstream processing is, therefore, crucial to enhancing the economic viability of this manufacturing method. The present work is concerned with the synthesis of such a process that minimizes the cost of the downstream processing. At the outset, a wide variety of processing equipment and unit operations, i.e., operating units, is selected for possible inclusion in the process. Subsequently, the exactly defined superstructure with minimal complexity, termed maximal structure, is constructed from these operating units with the rigorous and highly efficient graph-theoretic method for process synthesis based on process graphs (P-graphs). Finally, the optimal and near-optimal flowsheets in terms of cost are identified.

  3. Production Increasing and Consumption Reducing for Low Pressure Alcoholization and Alkylation Unit%低压醇烃化系统提产降耗优化措施

    赵阳

    2013-01-01

    The problems affect normal operation and high consumption of the unit during trial production , w hich include low methanol production , the alcoholization and alkylation unit not being able to maintain autothermal equilibrium and the high content trace organic impurities to cause the ammonia plant operation fluctuation etc . After analyzing the reasons and taking optimization measures , the production is increased and consumption is reduced in the alcoholization and alkylation unit .%基于试生产过程中出现的甲醇产量低、醇烃化系统不能维持自热平衡、出口微量高导致合成氨系统波动大等影响系统正常运行且消耗高的问题,分析其原因,制定优化措施,从而降低了能耗,提高了产量。

  4. 单精度浮点运算单元的FPGA设计与实现%Design and Implement of Single Precision Floating-Point Unit on FPGA

    张素萍; 李红刚; 张慧坚; 董定超

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the principle and operation process of the floating-point unit; studies the architecture of Floating-Point Unit. To solve the deficiency which FPU design depended on software. We propose a project of the FPU design which is suitable for FPGA.This approach enhances the portability and improvement of the system and higher calculating speed. The design unit is simulated, meeting the requirements of design and realizing logic synthesis in FPGA with the model Cyclone Ⅱ EP2C35F672C6. The result shows that the operating frequency is 47. 4MHZ to meet all requirements of the design.%针对以前浮点运算依靠软件实现的弊端,提出采用自顶向下的设计方法,模块化的设计思想来实现FPU整个设计,这种设计方法增强了系统的可移植性及可改进性;系统在CycloneⅡ EP2C35FC684C6的FPGA上综合实现,验证结果表明,在满足各项功能要求的前提下,其系统最高时钟频率可达到47.4MHZ,提高了浮点运算单元的处理速度.

  5. Ventilation and air conditioning systems in maritime productions units; Panorama dos sistemas de VAC em unidades maritimas de producao

    Guedes, Fernando Pedrosa; Sztajnbok, Ernani Luis [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Padua, Carlos Eduardo Dantas de; Passos, Alfredo Silveira [DUOVAC Engenharia Ltda. (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    In an Offshore Stationary Production Unit (SPU), the adequate project of the Ventilation and Air Conditioning (VAC) System is not only a thermal comfort requirement but part of the essential safety services of the installation and complement for area classification requirements associated with electrical equipment. The VAC installations are sometimes the object of complaints by onboard team. Problems such as unsatisfactory system performance, high noise levels in the accommodation quarters, offices and other areas and the discomfort caused by unbalanced ventilation and air conditioning systems, are some of the most frequent complaints. Air Conditioning systems are classified as Direct and Indirect Expansion. Decentralized systems with Indirect Expansion has been adopted in PETROBRAS projects. This conception is not used in VAC Systems for platforms installed in North Sea, where the use of Centralized Systems with Direct Expansion are more common. The objective of this work is to compare the VAC conception projects, analyzing their advantages and disadvantages . The evaluation of VAC System in PETROBRAS project, and their steps in SPU development, is also scope of this paper. (author)

  6. Enzymatic saccharification and fermentation of paper and pulp industry effluent for biohydrogen production

    Lakshmidevi, Rajendran; Muthukumar, Karuppan [Department of Chemical Engineering, Alagappa College of Technology Campus, Anna University Chennai, Chennai 600 025 (India)

    2010-04-15

    Paper and pulp industry effluent was enzymatically hydrolysed using crude cellulase enzyme (0.8-2.2FPU/ml) obtained from Trichoderma reesei and from the hydrolysate biohydrogen was produced using Enterobacter aerogenes. The influence of temperature and incubation time on enzyme production was studied. The optimum temperature for the growth of T. reesei was found to be around 29 C. The enzyme activity of 2.5 FPU/ml was found to produce about 22 g/l of total sugars consisting mainly of glucose, xylose and arabinose. Relevant kinetic parameters with respect to sugars production were estimated using two fraction model. The enzymatic hydrolysate was used for the biohydrogen production using E. aerogenes. The growth data obtained for E. aerogenes were fitted well with Monod and Logistic equations. The maximum hydrogen yield of 2.03 mol H{sub 2}/mol sugar and specific hydrogen production rate of 225 mmol of H{sub 2}/g cell/h were obtained with an initial concentration of 22 g/l of total sugars. The colour and COD of effluent was also decreased significantly during the production of hydrogen. The results showed that the paper and pulp industry effluent can be used as a substrate for biohydrogen production. (author)

  7. A Survey of N'-Nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and Total Water Content in Select Smokeless Tobacco Products Purchased in the United States in 2015.

    Ammann, Jeffrey R; Lovejoy, Katherine S; Walters, Matthew J; Holman, Matthew R

    2016-06-01

    This investigation provides an updated survey measuring the levels of N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and water content of a select number of smokeless tobacco products sold in the United States in 2015. A total of 34 smokeless tobacco products were collected and analyzed for NNN and water content using LC-MS/MS and GC-TCD, respectively. Smokeless tobacco products were chosen to obtain a representative sample of the different types of products on the U.S. market. These smokeless products represent 12 of the 25 top-selling smokeless tobacco products according to 2013 Nielsen net sales data while five of the smokeless tobacco products are of lower selling smokeless tobacco products. The NNN levels and the water content of the smokeless tobacco products were determined and compared to previous studies. Although the range of NNN levels found was broad for the examined smokeless tobacco products (0.64-12.0 μg/g dry weight), dry snuff had the highest levels of NNN observed (>5 μg/g dry weight). We observed a general decrease in NNN levels for the same six moist snuff products that were analyzed in 2004 compared to our current 2015 study. The water content of the smokeless tobacco products surveyed ranged from 3.92 to 54.8%.

  8. Monosyllabic Mandarin Tone Productions by 3-Year-Olds Growing up in Taiwan and in the United States: Interjudge Reliability and Perceptual Results

    Wong, Puisan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The author compared monosyllabic Mandarin lexical tones produced by 3-year-old Mandarin-speaking children growing up in Taiwan and in the United States. Method: Following the procedures in Wong, Schwartz, and Jenkins (2005), the author collected monosyllabic tone productions from 3-year-old Mandarin-speaking children in Taiwan and…

  9. Water usage for natural gas production through hydraulic fracturing in the United States from 2008 to 2014.

    Chen, Huan; Carter, Kimberly E

    2016-04-01

    Hydraulic fracturing has promoted the exploitation of shale oil and natural gas in the United States (U.S.). However, the large amounts of water used in hydraulic fracturing may constrain oil and natural gas production in the shale plays. This study surveyed the amounts of freshwater and recycled produced water used to fracture wells from 2008 to 2014 in Arkansas, California, Colorado, Kansas, Louisiana, Montana, North Dakota, New Mexico, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Texas, West Virginia, and Wyoming. Results showed that the annual average water volumes used per well in most of these states ranged between 1000 m(3) and 30,000 m(3). The highest total amount of water was consumed in Texas with 457.42 Mm(3) of water used to fracture 40,521 wells, followed by Pennsylvania with 108.67 Mm(3) of water used to treat 5127 wells. Water usages ranged from 96.85 Mm(3) to 166.10 Mm(3) annually in Texas from 2012 to 2014 with more than 10,000 wells fractured during that time. The percentage of water used for hydraulic fracturing in each state was relatively low compared to water usages for other industries. From 2009 to 2014, 6.55% (median) of the water volume used in hydraulic fracturing contained recycled produced water or recycled hydraulic fracturing wastewater. 10.84% (median) of wells produced by hydraulic fracturing were treated with recycled produced water. The percentage of wells where recycled wastewater was used was lower, except in Ohio and Arkansas, where more than half of the wells were fractured using recycled produced water. The median recycled wastewater volume in produced wells was 7127 m(3) per well, more than half the median value in annual water used per well 11,259 m(3). This indicates that, for wells recycling wastewater, more than half of their water use consisted of recycled wastewater.

  10. A survey of alkylphenols, bisphenols, and triclosan in personal care products from China and the United States.

    Liao, Chunyang; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2014-07-01

    Exposure of humans to environmental phenolic compounds such as bisphenol A (BPA) and alkylphenols is a matter of concern, due to these compounds' ubiquitous occurrence and estrogenic potencies. Little is known about the levels of environmental phenolics in personal care products (PCPs). In this study, nonylphenol, two octylphenols, eight bisphenols (BPA and its analogs), and triclosan (TCS) were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in PCP samples (n = 231) collected from China and the United States (U.S.). The concentrations of 4-n-nonylphenol (4-NP), 4-n-octylphenol (4-OP), 4-tert-octylphenol (4-t-OP), and TCS were in the ranges of bisphenol S (BPS), and bisphenol F (BPF), were generally at sub-nanogram per gram levels. No significant differences in concentrations of the target compounds were found among various PCP categories or between China and the U.S. The estimated GM daily intakes of 4-NP, ∑OPs (sum of 4-OP and 4-t-OP), ∑BPs (sum of eight bisphenols), and TCS through dermal absorption from the use of PCPs were 0.932, 0.093, 0.072, and 0.016 μg/day, respectively, for adult Chinese women and 0.340, 0.054, 0.120, and 0.068 μg/day, respectively, for adult U.S. women. Body lotions, face creams, and liquid foundations accounted for the majority (>85 %) of the dermal exposure doses of the target phenolics.

  11. Realization of Clean Production in Melamine Unit%在三聚氰胺装置中实施清洁生产

    沈铁青

    2011-01-01

    清洁生产是一项系统工程.从工艺设计、设备选型、过程控制概述了在三聚氰胺生产装置中实施清洁生产的具体措施.%Clean production is a kind of system engineering. The concrete measures are summarized in the melamine production unit from the point of process design, selection of equipment and process control in clean production.

  12. Medium and Long Term Crude Oil Price Outlook: Economic research on shale oil and gas production behavior in the United States (Japanese)

    2015-01-01

    It has been pointed out that the steep fall in crude oil prices after the latter half of 2014 has been strongly affected by both demand side factors such as the slowdown of world economic growth and supply side factors such as a massive increase in shale oil production in the United States and other structural factors. Shale oil and gas production is well known for its different aspects compared to conventional oil and gas production such as differences in oil and gas reserves, differences in...

  13. The role of method of production and resolution of the DEM on slope-units delineation for landslide susceptibility assessment - Ubaye Valley, French Alps case study

    Schlögel, Romy; Marchesini, Ivan; Alvioli, Massimiliano; Reichenbach, Paola; Rossi, Mauro; Malet, Jean-Philippe

    2016-04-01

    Landslide susceptibility assessment forms the basis of any hazard mapping, which is one of the essential parts of quantitative risk mapping. For the same study area, different susceptibility maps can be achieved depending on the type of susceptibility mapping methods, mapping unit, and scale. In the Ubaye Valley (South French Alps), we investigate the effect of resolution and method of production of the DEM to delineate slope units for landslide susceptibility mapping method. Slope units delineation has been processed using multiple combinations of circular variance and minimum area size values, which are the input parameters for a new software for terrain partitioning. We rely on this method taking into account homogeneity of aspect direction inside each unit and inhomogeneity between different units. We computed slope units delineation for 5, 10 and 25 meters resolution DEM, and investigate statistical distributions of morphometric variables within the different polygons. Then, for each different slope units partitioning, we calibrated a landslide susceptibility model, considering landslide bodies and scarps as a dependent variable (binary response). This work aims to analyse the role of DEM resolution on slope-units delineation for landslide susceptibility assessment. Area Under the Curve of the Receiver Operating Characteristic is investigated for the susceptibility model calculations. In addition, we analysed further the performance of the Logistic Regression Model by looking at the percentage of significant variable in the statistical analyses. Results show that smaller slope units have a better chance of containing a smaller number of thematic and morphometric variables, allowing for an easier classification. Reliability of the models according to the DEM resolution considered as well as scarp area and landslides bodies presence/absence as dependent variable are discussed.

  14. Integration of biotechnological wastewater treatment units in textile finishing factories: from end of the pipe solutions to combined production and wastewater treatment units.

    Feitkenhauer, H; Meyer, U

    2001-08-23

    Increasing costs for water, wastewater and energy put pressure on textile finishing plants to increase the efficiency of wet processing. An improved water management can decrease the use of these resources and is a prerequisite for the integration of an efficient, anaerobic on-site pretreatment of effluents that will further cut wastewater costs. A two-phase anaerobic treatment is proposed, and successful laboratory experiments with model effluents from the cotton finishing industry are reported. The chemical oxygen demand of this wastewater was reduced by over 88% at retention times of 1 day or longer. The next step to boost the efficiency is to combine the production and wastewater treatment. The example of cotton fabric desizing (removing size from the fabric) illustrates how this final step of integration uses the acidic phase bioreactor as a part of the production and allows to close the water cycle of the system.

  15. The multi-task barge: a floating deep-sea production, storage and unloading unit, with surface production heads and drilling installations; La barge multifonctions: une unite flottante de production, de stockage et dechargement en eau profonde, avec tetes de production en surface et installations de forage

    Valenchon, C.; Rossig, J.H. [Bouygues Offshore (France); Pouget, G. [Sedco-Forex (France); Biolley, F. [Institut Francais du Petrole, 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France)

    1998-05-01

    The multi-task barge is devoted to the exploitation of deep-sea fields in rather good conditions. It has been designed to bring together within a single installation, a production, storage and unloading unit and the necessary means for the drilling, the connecting and the work-over of wells. Thus submarine well-heads and well-head platforms are no longer needed. When the field configuration or the use of oriented drillings allows to group several wells together, the multi-task platform allows to use more economical surface production heads installed on steel rigid risers. This concept requires less investments thanks to less expensive drilling operations and restricted submarine installations, and to easier well operations and lower exploitation costs. Crude oil storage is ensured to up to about 2 millions of barrels. This paper presents the design aspects and the dynamical analysis of risers with the methods used. The tensioning and mooring system is examined and the advantages of the cylindrical float system is underlined and compared to the classical hydro-pneumatic systems. (J.S.) 11 refs.

  16. Application of digital soil mapping in traditional soil survey - an approach used for the production of the national soil map of the United Arab

    Abdelfattah, M. A.; Pain, C.

    2012-04-01

    Digital soil maps are essential part of the soil assessment framework which supports soil-related decisions and policy-making and therefore it is of crucial importance that they are of known quality. Digital soil mapping is perhaps the next great advancement in soil survey information. Traditional soil survey has always struggled with the collection of data. The amount of soil data and information required to justify the mapping product, how to interpolate date to similar areas, and how to incorporate older data are all challenges that need further exploration. The present study used digital soil mapping to develop a generalized national soil map of the United Arab Emirates with available recent traditional soil survey of Abu Dhabi Emirate (2006-2009) and Northern Emirates (2010-2012), together with limited data from Dubai Emirate, an important part of the country. The map was developed by joining, generalizing, and correlating the information contained in the Soil Survey of Abu Dhabi Emirate, the Soil map of Dubai with limited data, and the Soil Survey of the Northern Emirates. Because the soil surveys were completed at different times and with different standards and procedures, the original map lines and soil classifications had to be modified in order to integrate the three original maps and legends into this single national level map. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) version 2 was used to guide line placement of the map units. It was especially helpful for the Torripsamments units which are separated based on local landscape relief characteristics. A generalized soil map of the United Arab Emirates is produced, which consists of fifteen map units, twelve are named for the soil great group that dominants each unit. Three are named "Rock outcrop", "Mountains", or "Miscellaneous units". Statistical details are also presented. Soil great groups are appropriate taxa to use for soil

  17. 9 CFR 381.196 - Eligibility of foreign countries for importation of poultry products into the United States.

    2010-01-01

    ...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS... Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) system, as set forth in part 417 of this chapter. (I)...

  18. Thermodynamic and economic analysis of integrating lignocellulosic bioethanol production in a Danish combined heat and power unit

    Lythcke-Jørgensen, Christoffer Ernst; Haglind, Fredrik; Clausen, Lasse Røngaard

    Integrating lignocellulosic bioethanol production with combined heat and power (CHP) production in polygeneration systems is considered an efficient and competitive way to produce a sustainable fuel for the transportation sector. This study assessed the energy economy of integrating lignocellulosic...

  19. The chemical composition of smokeless tobacco: a survey of products sold in the United States in 2006 and 2007.

    Borgerding, M F; Bodnar, J A; Curtin, G M; Swauger, J E

    2012-12-01

    Selected toxicant concentrations and other chemical measures have been determined for 43 U.S. smokeless tobacco products sold in 2006 and 2007. Products evaluated included moist snuff, dry snuff, loose leaf, plug, dissolvable and snus tobacco brands. Reference products available for scientific research purposes and eleven Swedish products were also evaluated and compared to the commercial products studied. Chemical endpoints determined included benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN), N'-nitrosoanatabine (NAT), N'-nitrosoanabasine (NAB), 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), nitrite, cadmium, lead, arsenic, nickel, chromium, chloride, water, pH and nicotine. Different toxicant profiles were observed for the products studied, with snus tobacco brands generally containing relatively low concentrations of B[a]P and tobacco specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) compared to other moist snuffs. Smokeless tobacco reference product toxicant profiles were similar to corresponding commercial products, with the exception of the TSNA content of the dry snuff reference material. TSNA concentrations observed for all commercial products were lower than historically reported values, likely reflecting changes in product shelf life, tobacco curing practices and, possibly, product blend formulations during the last 20-30 years. The survey results summarized provide a temporal point of comparison with future data anticipated from FDA "harmful and potentially harmful constituents in tobacco products" reporting.

  20. 75 FR 79394 - United States v. L.B. Foster Company and Portec Rail Products, Inc.; Proposed Final Judgment and...

    2010-12-20

    ... Guidelines Sec. 5.3 (issued by the U.S. Department of Justice and the Federal Trade Commission on Aug. 19... Huntington facility, primarily friction management products and Shipping Systems Division (``SSD'') products... the same equipment or inputs. For example, the friction management and SSD products are...

  1. Research on sequence stratigraphy, hydrogeological units and commingled drainage associated with coalbed methane production: a case study in Zhuzang syncline of Guizhou province, China

    Li, Xin; Fu, Xuehai; Ge, Yanyan; Chang, Xixi

    2016-08-01

    Exploitation of coalbed methane (CBM) involves groundwater extraction to depressurize coal reservoirs. This can involve groundwater extraction from multiple coal seams (commingled drainage). Interlayer interferences, caused by heterogeneity of hydrodynamic fields of the different coal gas reservoirs, can restrain CBM production. Understanding of the hydrogeological characteristics of each reservoir, inseparable from characteristics of the sequence stratigraphic framework, is critical for CBM exploration. Analysis of Zhuzang syncline in Guizhou province, China, found gas- and water-blocking strata near the maximum flooding surface in the upper part of each third-order stratigraphic sequence; thus, the hydrogeological units were divided vertically (SQ4, SQ3, SQ2 and SQ1) by the boundaries of the third-order sequence. The commingled-drainage CBM wells were analyzed by numerical simulation and Extenics theory, on the basis of characteristics of the hydrogeological units. Gas content, reservoir pressure and hydrodynamic parameters were found to vary between the hydrogeological units. The interlayer interference was not obvious where there was commingled drainage within single hydrogeological units with similar hydrodynamic force; this was validated by observing the consistent pressure decrease within each reservoir using historical matching. Since the source of drainage water varied from stratum SQ3 to SQ4 (containing lower hydrodynamic force compared to SQ3), it was obvious that groundwater extraction from SQ4 was restrained by SQ3, by showing obvious interlayer interference and restrained CBM production during commingled drainage across the different hydrogeological units. Reservoirs within each single hydrogeological unit tend to obtain higher CBM yield, thus take priority for commingled drainage.

  2. Research on sequence stratigraphy, hydrogeological units and commingled drainage associated with coalbed methane production: a case study in Zhuzang syncline of Guizhou province, China

    Li, Xin; Fu, Xuehai; Ge, Yanyan; Chang, Xixi

    2016-12-01

    Exploitation of coalbed methane (CBM) involves groundwater extraction to depressurize coal reservoirs. This can involve groundwater extraction from multiple coal seams (commingled drainage). Interlayer interferences, caused by heterogeneity of hydrodynamic fields of the different coal gas reservoirs, can restrain CBM production. Understanding of the hydrogeological characteristics of each reservoir, inseparable from characteristics of the sequence stratigraphic framework, is critical for CBM exploration. Analysis of Zhuzang syncline in Guizhou province, China, found gas- and water-blocking strata near the maximum flooding surface in the upper part of each third-order stratigraphic sequence; thus, the hydrogeological units were divided vertically (SQ4, SQ3, SQ2 and SQ1) by the boundaries of the third-order sequence. The commingled-drainage CBM wells were analyzed by numerical simulation and Extenics theory, on the basis of characteristics of the hydrogeological units. Gas content, reservoir pressure and hydrodynamic parameters were found to vary between the hydrogeological units. The interlayer interference was not obvious where there was commingled drainage within single hydrogeological units with similar hydrodynamic force; this was validated by observing the consistent pressure decrease within each reservoir using historical matching. Since the source of drainage water varied from stratum SQ3 to SQ4 (containing lower hydrodynamic force compared to SQ3), it was obvious that groundwater extraction from SQ4 was restrained by SQ3, by showing obvious interlayer interference and restrained CBM production during commingled drainage across the different hydrogeological units. Reservoirs within each single hydrogeological unit tend to obtain higher CBM yield, thus take priority for commingled drainage.

  3. Strategies to increase cellulase production with submerged fermentation using fungi isolated from the Brazilian biome

    Genilton da Silva Faheina Junior

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies on new microbial sources of cellulase and accurate assessment of the steps that increase cellulase production are essential strategies to reduce costs of various processes using such enzymes. This study aimed at the selection of cellulase-producing filamentous fungi, and at the research of parameters involving cellulase production by submerged fermentation. The first test consisted of selecting the best cellulase-producing microorganisms (FPase in Erlenmeyer flasks containing 200 mL of specific growth medium. The next test was designed to further investigate the enzyme production in fermentation with four types of soluble sugars: glucose, lactose, sucrose and xylose. In bioreactor tests, three different inoculation strategies were analyzed. The best FPase activity was presented by the strain Trichoderma sp. CMIAT 041 (49.9 FPU L-1 and CMCase by the fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae CMIAT 096 (350.0 U L-1. Sucrose proved to be the best option among the soluble sugars tested, with higher rates of FPase activity (49.9 FPU L-1 and CMCase (119.7 U L-1. The best inoculation strategy for the bioreactor was a spore suspension obtained from a semi-solid state fermentation of wheat bran for 72h.

  4. Aligning clinical compensation with clinical productivity: design and implementation of the financial value unit (FVU) system in an academic department of internal medicine.

    Stites, Steven; Steffen, Patrick; Turner, Scott; Pingleton, Susan

    2013-07-01

    A new metric was developed and implemented at the University of Kansas School of Medicine Department of Internal Medicine, the financial value unit (FVU). This metric analyzes faculty clinical compensation compared with clinical work productivity as a transparent means to decrease the physician compensation variability and compensate faculty equitably for clinical work.The FVU is the ratio of individual faculty clinical compensation compared with their total work relative value units (wRVUs) generated divided by Medical Group Management Association (MGMA) salary to wRVUs of a similar MGMA physician.The closer the FVU ratio is to 1.0, the closer clinical compensation is to that of an MGMA physician with similar clinical productivity. Using FVU metrics to calculate a faculty salary gap compared with MGMA median salary and wRVU productivity, a divisional production payment was established annually.From FY 2006 to FY 2011, both total faculty numbers and overall clinical activity increased. With the implementation of the FVU, both clinical productivity and compensation increased while, at the same time, physician retention rates remained high. Variability in physician compensation decreased. Dramatic clinical growth was associated with the alignment of clinical work and clinical compensation in a transparent and equable process.

  5. Impact of air pollution control regulations on thermal enhanced oil recovery production in the United States. Final report

    Norton, J.F.; Rouge, J.D.; Beekley, P.K.; Husband, S.N.; Arnold, C.W.; Menzies, W.R.; Balentine, H.W.

    1982-03-01

    This study assesses the impact of air pollution control regulations on the costs of present and future thermal enhanced oil recovery (TEOR) production. The conclusions of this study indicate that lengthy permitting processes, limited control sytem availability, and costly control system requirements complicate regulatory compliance and constrain TEOR production expansion. Seven heavy oil production areas with potential for increased TEOR production were selected for detailed analyses. Five of these areas are in California: central Kern County, western Kern County, Coalinga, San Ardo, and Los Angeles Basin. The other two areas are the Slocum field in Texas and the Smackover field in Arkansas. Air pollution control rule and regulation requirements were determined for each production area. State-of-the-art air pollution control technology was assessed and costs were estimated for the control systems needed to comply with previous new source review (NSR) and retrofit rules in each area. For each California production area, the maximum potential increase in TEOR production was estimated, based on available emission offsets. Potential increases in the Texas and Arkansas fields were not projected because production is expected to decrease in these areas. Costs were calculated for the control systems required to allow the maximum increase in TEOR production. An air quality impact analysis was performed for the four largest production areas in California. The results of this analysis allowed estimation of the air quality changes associated with the maximum TEOR production increase and compliance with retrofit and NSR rules.

  6. Semi-quantitative analysis of solid waste flows from nano-enabled consumer products in Europe, Denmark and the United Kingdom - Abundance, distribution and management.

    Heggelund, Laura; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard; Boldrin, Alessio

    2016-10-01

    Many nano-enabled consumer products are known to be in the global market. At the same, little is known about the quantity, type, location etc. of the engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) inside the products. This limits the scientific investigations of potential environmental effects of these materials, and especially the knowledge of ENM behaviour and potential effects at the end-of-life stage of the products is scarce. To gain a better understanding of the end-of-life waste treatment of nano-enabled consumer product, we provide an overview of the ENMs flowing into and throughout waste systems in Europe, Denmark and the United Kingdom. Using a nanoproduct inventory (nanodb.dk), we performed a four-step analysis to estimate the most abundant ENMs and in which waste fractions they are present. We found that in terms of number of products: (i) nano silver is the most used ENM in consumer products, and (ii) plastic from used product containers is the largest waste fraction also comprising a large variety of ENMs, though possibly in very small masses. Also, we showed that the local waste management system can influence the distribution of ENMs. It is recommended that future research focus on recycling and landfilling of nano-enabled products since these compartments represent hot spots for end-of-life nanoproducts.

  7. Effect of Changing Climatic Conditions on Chill Units Accumulation and Productivity of Apple in Mid Hill Sub Humid Zone of Western Himalayas, India

    Hukam Chand

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out during 2014-15 in the Kullu district of Himachal Pradesh, which is situated between 31º52’00” to 31º58’00” North latitude and 76º13’00” to 77º44’00” East longitudes.The cumulative chill units hours available for apple crop were calculated by using UTAH model for the period of 1986 to 2015 and a decrease of 6.38 chill units(CU hours per year was recorded at Kullu Valley of Himachal Pradesh. Chill units for the last three decades i.e. 1986-1995, 1996-2005 and 2006-2015 also revealed a decreasing trend of the order of 63.79 CU decreased per decade.Monthly accumulation of chill unit hours during the same period for each winter month (November, December, January and February revealed maximum decrease of 2.186 CU per year was observed for the month of February. Trend analysis of last five years 2011-2015 showed there was a huge decrease of 14.98 chill units per year. Data on apple productivity in Kullu district for last decade (2005-2014 showed a decreasing trend of the order of 0.183 tons/ha /year as per the regression equation y = -0.183x + 5.745. Thus the climatic conditions for apple cultivation in the Kullu district will be becoming unfavorable in the coming years.

  8. Antioxidant activity and polyphenol and procyanidin contents of selected commercially available cocoa-containing and chocolate products in the United States.

    Miller, Kenneth B; Stuart, David A; Smith, Nancy L; Lee, Chang Y; McHale, Nancy L; Flanagan, Judith A; Ou, Boxin; Hurst, W Jeffrey

    2006-05-31

    In the United States, commercially available foods, including cocoa and chocolate, are being marketed with statements referring to the level of antioxidant activity and polyphenols. For cocoa-containing foods, there has been no comprehensive survey of the content of these and other chemistries. A survey of cocoa and chocolate-containing products marketed in the United States was conducted to determine antioxidant activity and polyphenol and procyanidin contents. Commercially available samples consisted of the top market share products in each of the following six categories: natural cocoa, unsweetened baking chocolate, dark chocolate, semisweet baking chips, milk chocolate, and chocolate syrup. Composite samples were characterized using four different methods: oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), vitamin C equivalence antioxidant capacity (VCEAC), total polyphenols, and procyanidins. All composite lots were further characterized for percent nonfat cocoa solids (NFCS) and percent fat. Natural cocoas had the highest levels of antioxidant activities, total polyphenols, and procyanidins followed by baking chocolates, dark chocolates and baking chips, and finally milk chocolate and syrups. The results showed a strong linear correlation between NFCS and ORAC (R (2) = 0.9849), total polyphenols (R (2) = 0.9793), and procyanidins (R (2) = 0.946), respectively. On the basis of principal component analysis, 81.4% of the sample set was associated with NFCS, antioxidant activity, total polyphenols, and procyanidins. The results indicated that, regardless of the product category, NFCS were the primary factor contributing to the level of cocoa antioxidants in the products tested. Results further suggested that differences in cocoa bean blends and processing, with the possible exception of Dutching, are minor factors in determining the level of antioxidants in commercially available cocoa-containing products in the United States.

  9. Analysis and Prospect of Soybean Production in the United States%美国大豆生产分析及展望

    潘月红; 逯锐; 迟凤玲

    2011-01-01

    大豆作为美国的主要农作物之一,在美国农业经济和国际农产品贸易中占有重要地位。文章从美国大豆生产概况入手,分析了美国大豆种植面积、单产和总产量的变化以及对大豆的补贴情况,总结了美国大豆总产量、总产值以及价格等的变化趋势,介绍了近期气候条件等因素对美国大豆生产的影响;依据气候条件及单产等因素,估算了2011年美国大豆单产和总产;并对未来一段时期美国大豆的生产前景进行展望。%As one of the major crops in the United States,soybean is very important in the U.S.agricultural economics and international agricultural trade.The author analyzed soybean's planting area,yield and production,as well as soybean subsidies from the angle of soybean production situation in the U.S.,and total production,production value and price changes were summarized.Effect of recent climate condition and other factors on the soybean production were introduced.According to climate condition,yield and other factors,the author estimated the U.S.soybean yield and production in 2011,and prospected soybean production in the United States.

  10. Ethos of Independence across Regions in the United States: The Production-Adoption Model of Cultural Change

    Kitayama, Shinobu; Conway, Lucian Gideon, III; Pietromonaco, Paula R.; Park, Hyekyung; Plaut, Victoria C.

    2010-01-01

    Contemporary U.S. culture has a highly individualistic ethos. Nevertheless, exactly how this ethos was historically fostered remains unanalyzed. A new model of dynamic cultural change maintains that sparsely populated, novel environments that impose major threats to survival, such as the Western frontier in the United States during the 18th and…

  11. Evaluation of the Productive Skills in the Second Language: The Work of the Assessment of Performance Unit (APU).

    Dickson, Peter

    The work in second language education of the Assessment of Performance Unit, established by the Department of Education and Science of England and Wales to monitor certain areas of the public education curriculum is described. The focus is on the development of a rationale for testing, the elicitation procedures used in the assessment of speaking…

  12. Summary of Potassium Nitrate Productive Technology and Unit in China%我国硝酸钾生产工艺及装置概述

    张罡

    2011-01-01

    The potassium nitrate productive technology in China is based mainly on the processes of double decomposition of sodium nitrate and potassium chloride, ion-exchange of ammonium nitrate and potassium chloride, double decomposition of ammonium nitrate and potassium chloride and double decomposition of magnesium nitrate and potassium chloride. The production unit has achieved continuous production on a large scale, the total annual output ranks the third in the world, and the technology and equipment have attained the international advanced level. A brief account is given of the potassium nitrate productive technology and unit in China.%我国硝酸钾生产工艺主要有硝酸钠与氯化钾复分解法、硝酸铵与氯化钾离子交换法、硝酸铵与氯化钾复分解法、硝酸镁与氯化钾复分解法,生产装置均己实现了规模连续化生产,年总产量位居世界第3位,技术与装备达到国际先进水平.简要概述了我国硝酸钾生产工艺及装置情况.

  13. To Whom It May Concern: Epistolary Political Philosophies and the Production of Racial Counterpublic Knowledge in the United States

    Vaught, Sabina; Hernández, Gabrielle

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the philosophical underpinnings and implications of the idea of the public in the US state processes of knowledge production and control. In it we take up questions of public and counterpublic political philosophical knowledge production and mediation in relation to an expanding state. Specifically, we examine the political…

  14. Ethanol production from sunflower meal biomass by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) with Kluyveromyces marxianus ATCC 36907.

    Camargo, Danielle; Gomes, Simone D; Sene, Luciane

    2014-11-01

    The lignocellulosic materials are considered promising renewable resources for ethanol production, but improvements in the processes should be studied to reduce operating costs. Thus, the appropriate enzyme loading for cellulose saccharification is critical for process economics. This study aimed at evaluating the concentration of cellulase and β-glucosidase in the production of bioethanol by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of sunflower meal biomass. The sunflower biomass was pretreated with 6% H2SO4 (w/v), at 121 °C, for 20 min, for hemicellulose removal and delignificated with 1% NaOH. SSF was performed with Kluyveromyces marxianus ATCC 36907, at 38 °C, 150 rpm, for 72 h, with different enzyme concentrations (Cellulase Complex NS22086-10, 15 and 20 FPU/gsubstrate and β-Glucosidase NS22118, with a cellulase to β-glucosidase ratio of 1.5:1; 2:1 and 3:1). The best condition for ethanol production was cellulase 20 FPU/gsubstrate and β-glucosidase 13.3 CBU/gsubstrate, resulting in 27.88 g/L ethanol, yield of 0.47 g/g and productivity of 0.38 g/L h. Under this condition the highest enzymatic conversion of cellulose to glucose was attained (87.06%).

  15. Land usage attributed to corn ethanol production in the United States: sensitivity to technological advances in corn grain yield, ethanol conversion, and co-product utilization

    Mumm, Rita H.; Goldsmith, Peter D.; Rausch, Kent D; Stein, Hans H

    2014-01-01

    Background Although the system for producing yellow corn grain is well established in the US, its role among other biofeedstock alternatives to petroleum-based energy sources has to be balanced with its predominant purpose for food and feed as well as economics, land use, and environmental stewardship. We model land usage attributed to corn ethanol production in the US to evaluate the effects of anticipated technological change in corn grain production, ethanol processing, and livestock feedi...

  16. Optimization of production in the oil field through the study of the problem of location of wells and production units; Otimizacao da producao em campo de petroleo pelo estudo do problema de localizacao de pocos e unidades de producao

    Santana, Roberta G.S. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Rosa, Vinicius R. [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This project provides a process for determining the best location of well and production units in an oil field in order to optimize the reservoir performance and the volume of recovered oil, maximizing the profitability. The process uses various statistical analyses presented in the reservoir simulation results, under considerations and parameters. Sensibility analysis and response surface methodology is also applied to a better understanding of how each well influence the total production and the location of the platform and/or manifold can be changed to optimize the production. The method is shown being applied on a field scale with synthetic data. It aims to be a new way of guiding decision-making on a project to develop a field production. (author)

  17. Global analysis of climate-driven interannual variability of food production and related water scarcity

    Kummu, Matti; Gerten, Dieter; Heinke, Jens; Konzmann, Markus; Varis, Olli

    2014-05-01

    Interannual climatic and hydrologic variability has been substantial during the past decades in many regions. While climate variability and its impacts on precipitation and soil moisture have been studied intensively, less is known on subsequent implications for global food production. In this study we quantify effects of hydroclimatic variability on global "green" and "blue" water availability and demand in global agriculture, and thus complement former studies that have focused merely on long-term averages. We further quantify some options to overcome food deficit due to chronic or sporadic water scarcity. We found that 24% of the world's population lives in chronically water scare food production units (FPUs) (i.e. water is scarce every year), while an additional 19% live under occasional water scarcity (water is scarce in some years). Among these 2.6 billion people altogether, 55% would have to rely on international trade to reach the reference diet, while for 24% domestic trade would be enough. For the remaining 21% of population exposed to some degree of water scarcity, local food storage and/or intermittent trade would be enough to secure the reference diet over the occasional dry years. The analysis is based on historical climate forcing dataset over the period 1977-2007, while demography, diet composition and land use are fixed to reference conditions (year 2000). In so doing, we isolate the effect of interannual hydroclimatic variability from other factors that drive food production. We analyse the potential of FPUs to produce a reference diet for their inhabitants (3,000 kilocalories per capita per day, with 80% vegetal food and 20% animal products). The LPJmL vegetation and hydrology model was used to calculate spatially and explicitly the variation in food production, green-blue water availability and the water requirements to produce that very diet. An FPU was considered water scarce if its water availability was not sufficient to produce the diet (i

  18. Oil and Gas Exploration and Production in the United States Shown as One-Mile Cells (Decadal Time Slices)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A cells polygon feature class was created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to illustrate the degree of exploration, type of production, and distribution of...

  19. Effects of Haying and Grazing on Duck Production in the Blitzen Valley (Unit 12) of Malheur National Wildlife Refuge, 1979

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is about a study that was done at Malheur National Wildlife Refuge to determine the effects that haying and grazing have on duck production. Three...

  20. Fungicides affect the production of extracellular mucilaginous material (ECMM) and the peripheral growth unit (PGU) in two wood-rotting basidiomycetes.

    Vesentini, Damiano; Dickinson, David J; Murphy, Richard J

    2006-10-01

    This study shows the effect of two fungicides on the production of extracellular mucilaginous material (ECMM) in two wood-rotting basidiomycetes and identifies a mechanism that might be responsible for the variation observed. Increasing concentrations of the fungicides copper sulphate (CuSO4) and cyproconazole in the growth medium increased the proportion of ECMM in the biomass of Trametes versicolor and Gloeophyllum trabeum. These fungicides also caused a reduction in the length of the peripheral growth unit (PGU) of the mycelia leading to a more highly branched morphology and a larger number of hyphal tips, the sites for active secretion of ECMM, per unit length of mycelium. It is postulated that both in T. versicolor and G. trabeum this change in growth leads to the increases observed in the proportion of ECMM in the total biomass. The implications of these results are discussed with a view to a potential protective role of ECMM against stress and toxic environments.

  1. HDPE装置影响产品质量因素的分析%Aanalysis of the Factors of HDPE Unit Affecting Product Quality

    雷霞; 张志国; 陆本

    2012-01-01

    High -density polyethylene was produced with slurry method by HDPE Unit. Polymerization mechanism, processes and methods of polymerization position of Lanzhou Petrochemical HDPE Unit, and the typical operating parame- ters grades 5000S were introduced. The three factors affecting product quality ( MFR, density, bulk density) were ana- lyzed, taking 5000S as an example, specific operational methods to improve product quality were put forward, and the a brief performance characteristics of HDPE products were briefly introduced.%HDPE装置采用淤浆法生产高密度聚乙烯,本文描述了兰州石化HDPE装置聚合岗位的聚合机理、流程和方式,介绍了典型牌号5000S的操作参数,以5000S为例分析了影响产品质量的三个因素(熔融指数、密度、堆积密度),并提出了具体操作中提高产品质量的方法,简单介绍了HDPE产品性能特点。

  2. Geochemical database of feed coal and coal combustion products (CCPs) from five power plants in the United States

    Affolter, Ronald H.; Groves, Steve; Betterton, William J.; William, Benzel; Conrad, Kelly L.; Swanson, Sharon M.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Clough, James G.; Belkin, Harvey E.; Kolker, Allan; Hower, James C.

    2011-01-01

    The principal mission of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Energy Resources Program (ERP) is to (1) understand the processes critical to the formation, accumulation, occurrence, and alteration of geologically based energy resources; (2) conduct scientifically robust assessments of those resources; and (3) study the impacts of energy resource occurrence and (or) their production and use on both the environment and human health. The ERP promotes and supports research resulting in original, geology-based, non-biased energy information products for policy and decision makers, land and resource managers, other Federal and State agencies, the domestic energy industry, foreign governments, non-governmental groups, and academia. Investigations include research on the geology of oil, gas, and coal, and the impacts associated with energy resource occurrence, production, quality, and utilization. The ERP's focus on coal is to support investigations into current issues pertaining to coal production, beneficiation and (or) conversion, and the environmental impact of the coal combustion process and coal combustion products (CCPs). To accomplish these studies, the USGS combines its activities with other organizations to address domestic and international issues that relate to the development and use of energy resources.

  3. Manufacture of Clinical-Grade Human Clonal Mesenchymal Stem Cell Products from Single Colony Forming Unit-Derived Colonies Based on the Subfractionation Culturing Method.

    Yi, TacGhee; Kim, Si-na; Lee, Hyun-Joo; Kim, Junghee; Cho, Yun-Kyoung; Shin, Dong-Hee; Tak, Sun-Ji; Moon, Sun-Hwa; Kang, Ji-Eun; Ji, In-Mi; Lim, Huyn-Ja; Lee, Dong-Soon; Jeon, Myung-Shin; Song, Sun U

    2015-12-01

    Stem cell products derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been widely used in clinical trials, and a few products have been already commercialized. However, the therapeutic effects of clinical-grade MSCs are still controversial owing to mixed results from recent clinical trials. A potential solution to overcome this hurdle may be to use clonal stem cells as the starting cell material to increase the homogeneity of the final stem cell products. We have previously developed an alternative isolation and culture protocol for establishing a population of clonal MSCs (cMSCs) from single colony forming unit (CFU)-derived colonies. In this study, we established a good manufacturing practice (GMP)-compatible procedure for the clinical-grade production of human bone marrow-derived cMSCs based on the subfractionation culturing method. We optimized the culture procedures to expand and obtain a clonal population of final MSC products from single CFU-derived colonies in a GMP facility. The characterization results of the final cMSC products met our preset criteria. Animal toxicity tests were performed in a good laboratory practice facility, and showed no toxicity or tumor formation in vivo. These tests include single injection toxicity, multiple injection toxicity, biodistribution analysis, and tumorigenicity tests in vivo. No chromosomal abnormalities were detected by in situ karyotyping using oligo-fluorescence in situ hydridization (oligo-FISH), providing evidence of genetic stability of the clinical-grade cMSC products. The manufacture and quality control results indicated that our GMP methodology could produce sufficient clonal population of MSC products from a small amount of bone marrow aspirate to treat a number of patients.

  4. A comprehensive evaluation of two MODIS evapotranspiration products over the conterminous United States: using point and gridded FLUXNET and water balance ET

    Velpuri, Naga M.; Senay, Gabriel B.; Singh, Ramesh K.; Bohms, Stefanie; Verdin, James P.

    2013-01-01

    Remote sensing datasets are increasingly being used to provide spatially explicit large scale evapotranspiration (ET) estimates. Extensive evaluation of such large scale estimates is necessary before they can be used in various applications. In this study, two monthly MODIS 1 km ET products, MODIS global ET (MOD16) and Operational Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEBop) ET, are validated over the conterminous United States at both point and basin scales. Point scale validation was performed using eddy covariance FLUXNET ET (FLET) data (2001–2007) aggregated by year, land cover, elevation and climate zone. Basin scale validation was performed using annual gridded FLUXNET ET (GFET) and annual basin water balance ET (WBET) data aggregated by various hydrologic unit code (HUC) levels. Point scale validation using monthly data aggregated by years revealed that the MOD16 ET and SSEBop ET products showed overall comparable annual accuracies. For most land cover types, both ET products showed comparable results. However, SSEBop showed higher performance for Grassland and Forest classes; MOD16 showed improved performance in the Woody Savanna class. Accuracy of both the ET products was also found to be comparable over different climate zones. However, SSEBop data showed higher skill score across the climate zones covering the western United States. Validation results at different HUC levels over 2000–2011 using GFET as a reference indicate higher accuracies for MOD16 ET data. MOD16, SSEBop and GFET data were validated against WBET (2000–2009), and results indicate that both MOD16 and SSEBop ET matched the accuracies of the global GFET dataset at different HUC levels. Our results indicate that both MODIS ET products effectively reproduced basin scale ET response (up to 25% uncertainty) compared to CONUS-wide point-based ET response (up to 50–60% uncertainty) illustrating the reliability of MODIS ET products for basin-scale ET estimation. Results from this research

  5. High energy SEU test results for the commercially available MIPS R3000 microprocessor and R3010 floating point unit

    Shaeffer, D.L.; Kimbrough, J.R.; Denton, S.M.; Kaschimitter, J.L.; Wilburn, J.W.; Davis, R.W.; Colella, N.J. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)); Holtkamp, D.B. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States))

    1991-08-15

    Single event upset (SEU) cross sections and total dose hardness of commercially available MIPS R3000 microprocessors (CPU) and R3010 floating point units (FPU) were obtained by exposing these parts to 256 MeV protons from the linear accelerator (LINAC) at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). Parts from several manufacturers were tested. The CPUs and FPUs were tested dynamically during radiation exposure with specially designed assembly language codes which exercised a subset of the available instructions in order to simulate the actual operation of each part. Cross sections derived from the SEU data were used to calculate expected upset rate for a 500-km orbit during quiet solar conditions, the King 1972 solar flare, and the August 4, 1972, event modeled by Adams et al. 16 refs., 16 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. High energy proton SEU test results for the commercially available MIPS R3000 microprocessor and R3010 floating point unit

    Shaeffer, D.L.; Kimbrough, J.R.; Denton, S.M.; Kaschmiter, J.L.; Wilburn, J.W.; Davis, R.W.; Colella, N.J. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)); Holtkamp, D.B. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States))

    1991-12-01

    This paper reports on proton single event upset (SEU) cross sections and proton total dose hardness of commercially available MIPS R3000 microprocessors (CPU) and R3010 floating point units (FPU) that were obtained by exposing these parts to 256 MeV protons from the linear accelerator (LINAC) at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). Parts from several manufacturers were tested. The CPUs and FPUs were tested dynamically during radiation exposure with specially designed assembly language codes which exercised a subset of the available instructions. Cross sections derived from the SEU data were used to calculate expected upset rates for a 500-km, 60-degree inclination, orbit during quiet solar conditions and during the August 4, 1972, King solar flare event.

  7. The Coarse-Grained/Fine-Grained Logic Interface in FPGAs with Embedded Floating-Point Arithmetic Units

    Chi Wai Yu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the interface between fine-grained and coarse-grained programmable logic in FPGAs. Specifically, it presents an empirical study that covers the location, pin arrangement, and interconnect between embedded floating point units (FPUs and the fine-grained logic fabric in FPGAs. It also studies this interface in FPGAs which contain both FPUs and embedded memories. The results show that (1 FPUs should have a square aspect ratio; (2 they should be positioned near the center of the FPGA; (3 their I/O pins should be arranged around all four sides of the FPU; (4 embedded memory should be located between the FPUs; and (5 connecting higher I/O density coarse-grained blocks increases the demand for routing resources. The hybrid FPGAs with embedded memory required 12% wider channels than the case where embedded memory is not used.

  8. Identification of the bkdAB gene cluster, a plausible source of the starter-unit for virginiamycin M production in Streptomyces virginiae.

    Pulsawat, Nattika; Kitani, Shigeru; Kinoshita, Hiroshi; Lee, Chang Kwon; Nihira, Takuya

    2007-06-01

    The bkdAB gene cluster, which encodes plausible E1 and E2 components of the branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCDH) complex, was isolated from Streptomyces virginiae in the vicinity of a regulatory island for virginiamycin production. Gene disruption of bkdA completely abolished the production of virginiamycin M (a polyketide-peptide antibiotic), while the production of virginiamycin S (a cyclodepsipeptide antibiotic) was unaffected. Complementation of the bkdA disruptant by genome-integration of intact bkdA completely restored the virginiamycin M production, indicating that the bkdAB cluster is essential for virginiamycin M biosynthesis, plausibly via the provision of isobutyryl-CoA as a primer unit. In contrast to a feature usually seen in the Streptomyces E1 component, namely, the separate encoding of the alpha and beta subunits, S. virginiae bkdA seemed to encode the fused form of the alpha and beta subunits, which was verified by the actual catalytic activity of the fused protein in vitro using recombinant BkdA overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Supply of an additional bkdA gene under the strong and constitutive promoter ermE* in the wild-type strain of S. virginiae resulted in enhanced production of virginiamycin M, suggesting that the supply of isobutyryl-CoA is one of the rate-limiting factors in the biosynthesis of virginiamycin M.

  9. Intra-unit correlations in seroconversion to Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae at different levels in Danish multi-site pig production facilities

    Vigre, Håkan; Dohoo, I.R.; Stryhn, H.;

    2004-01-01

    2) and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mh). Based on the estimated variances, three newly described computational methods (model linearisation, simulation and linear modelling) and the standard method (latent-variable approach) were used to estimate the correlations (intra-class correlation components......, ICCs) between pigs in the same production unit regarding seroconversion. Substantially different values of ICCs were obtained from the four methods. However, ICCs obtained by the simulation and the model linearisation were quite consistent. Data used for estimation were collected from 1161 pigs from...

  10. 柴油加氢精制装置试生产直馏航煤%Straight run aviation kerosene pilot production in diesel hydrotreating unit

    庞龙

    2015-01-01

    辽阳石化分公司在200万吨/年加氢装置开始进行了为期一个月的航煤试生产,采用不停工直接切换原料的方式进行生产,通过不断调整操作参数,成功生产出合格的航空煤油产品.%The 2mt/a diesel hydrotreating unit in Liaoyang petrochemicals implemented pilot production without shutdown for one month to produce on-spec aviation kerosene by adjusting operating parameters.

  11. Proximate Units in Word Production: Phonological Encoding Begins with Syllables in Mandarin Chinese but with Segments in English

    O'Seaghdha, Padraig G.; Chen, Jenn-Yeu; Chen, Train-Min

    2010-01-01

    In Mandarin Chinese, speakers benefit from fore-knowledge of what the first syllable but not of what the first phonemic segment of a disyllabic word will be (Chen, Chen, & Dell, 2002), contrasting with findings in English, Dutch, and other Indo-European languages, and challenging the generality of current theories of word production. In this…

  12. 77 FR 70724 - Eligibility of the Republic of Korea To Export Poultry Products to the United States

    2012-11-27

    ... Critical Control Point (HACCP) system; and (9) any other requirements found in the PPIA and its... Regulations, (3) Sanitation, (4) Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) Systems, (5) Chemical... system requirements are equivalent to the Poultry Products Inspection Act (PPIA) and its...

  13. Africa’s Booming Oil and Natural Gas Exploration and Production: National Security Implications for the United States and China

    2013-12-01

    and production licenses than firms from other, non-African developing countries, including the other BRIC countries of Brazil, Russia, and India...companies, Addax and Nexen. Among other BRIC countries, India’s ONGC Videsh had shares in deepwater Blocks OPL 279 and OPL 285 (45.5 and 64.33

  14. A survey of phthalates and parabens in personal care products from the United States and its implications for human exposure.

    Guo, Ying; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2013-12-17

    Despite the widespread usage of phthalates and parabens in personal care products (PCPs), little is known about concentrations and profiles as well as human exposure to these compounds through the use of PCPs. In this study, nine phthalates and six parabens were determined in 170 PCPs (41 rinse-off and 109 leave-on), including 20 baby care products collected from Albany, New York. Phthalates were less frequently found in rinse-off PCPs but were more frequently found in perfumes (detection frequency of 100% for diethyl phthalate [DEP], 67% for dibutyl phthalate [DBP]), skin toners (90% for DEP), and nail polishes (90% for DBP). Parabens were found in ∼40% of rinse-off products and ∼60% of leave-on products. The highest concentrations of DEP, DBP, methyl- (MeP), ethyl- (EtP), propyl- (PrP), and butyl parabens (BuP) were on the order of 1000 μg per gram of the product. On the basis of amount and frequency of use of PCPs and the measured median concentrations of target analytes, the total dermal intake doses (sum of all phthalates or parabens) were calculated to be 0.37 and 31.0 μg/kg-bw/day for phthalates and parabens, respectively, for adult females. The calculated dermal intake of phthalates from PCPs was lower for infants and toddlers than for adult females. In contrast, dermal intake of parabens from PCPs by infants and toddlers was higher than that for adult females. The calculated maximum daily exposure dose of MeP, EtP, and PrP from PCPs ranged between 58.6 and 766 μg/kg-bw/day for infants and toddlers, which was 3 times higher than that calculated for adult females. PCPs are an important source of human exposure to parabens; the contribution of PCPs to phthalate exposure is low, except for DEP.

  15. Techno-economic evaluation of conditioning with sodium sulfite for bioethanol production from softwood.

    Cavka, Adnan; Martín, Carlos; Alriksson, Björn; Mörtsell, Marlene; Jönsson, Leif J

    2015-11-01

    Conditioning with reducing agents allows alleviation of inhibition of biocatalytic processes by toxic by-products generated during biomass pretreatment, without necessitating the introduction of a separate process step. In this work, conditioning of steam-pretreated spruce with sodium sulfite made it possible to lower the yeast and enzyme dosages in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) to 1g/L and 5FPU/g WIS, respectively. Techno-economic evaluation indicates that the cost of sodium sulfite can be offset by benefits resulting from a reduction of either the yeast load by 0.68g/L or the enzyme load by 1FPU/g WIS. As those thresholds were surpassed, inclusion of conditioning can be justified. Another potential benefit results from shortening the SSF time, which would allow reducing the bioreactor volume and result in capital savings. Sodium sulfite conditioning emerges as an opportunity to lower the financial uncertainty and compensate the overall investment risk for commercializing a softwood-to-ethanol process.

  16. Bioconversion of municipal solid waste to glucose for bio-ethanol production.

    Li, Aiduan; Antizar-Ladislao, Blanca; Khraisheh, Majeda

    2007-05-01

    Selected biodegradable municipal solid waste fractions were subjected to fifteen different pre-hydrolysis treatments to obtain the highest glucose yield for bio-ethanol production. Pre-hydrolysis treatments consisted of dilute acid (H(2)SO(4), HNO(3) or HCl, 1 and 4%, 180 min, 60 degrees C), steam treatment (121 and 134 degrees C, 15 min), microwave treatment (700 W, 2 min) or a combination of two of them. Enzymatic hydrolysis was carried out with Trichoderma reesei and Trichoderma viride (10 and 60 FPU g(-1) substrate). Glucose yields were compared using a factorial experimental design. The highest glucose yield (72.80%) was obtained with a pre-hydrolysis treatment consisting of H(2)SO(4) at 1% concentration, followed by steam treatment at 121 degrees C, and enzymatic hydrolysis with Trichoderma viride at 60 FPU g(-1) substrate. The contribution of enzyme loading and acid concentration was significantly higher (49.39 and 47.70%, respectively), than the contribution of temperature during steam treatment (0.13%) to the glucose yield.

  17. Is an organic nitrogen source needed for cellulase production by Trichoderma reesei Rut-C30?

    Rodriguez-Gomez, Divanery; Hobley, Timothy John

    2013-11-01

    The effect of organic and inorganic nitrogen sources on Trichoderma reesei Rut-C30 cellulase production was investigated in submerged cultivations. Stirred tank bioreactors and shake flasks, with and without pH control, respectively, were employed. The experimental design involved the addition of individual organic nitrogen sources (soy peptone, glutamate, glycine and alanine) within a basal medium containing Avicel (i.e. micro crystalline cellulose) and ammonium sulphate. It was found that in the shake flask experiments, the highest cellulase activities (~0.1 ± 0.02 FPU ml(-1)) were obtained with media containing soy peptone (3-6 g l(-1)) and glutamate (3.6 g l(-1)). However, these improvements in the cellulase titers in the presence of the organic nitrogen sources appeared to be related to smaller changes in the pH of the medium. This was confirmed using stirred tank bioreactors with pH control. No significant differences were observed in the highest cellulase titers and the protein pattern (according to the SDS-PAGE) of supernatants from pH controlled stirred tank bioreactor cultivations, when different nitrogen sources were used in the medium. Here the cellulase activities (~1.0 ± 0.2 FPU ml(-1)) were also much greater (8-150 times) than in shake flask cultivation. Consequently, the addition of ammonium sulphate as sole nitrogen source to Avicel basal medium is recommended when performing cultivations in stirred tank bioreactors with strict pH controlled conditions.

  18. Comparison of production-phase environmental impact metrics derived at the farm- and national-scale for United States agricultural commodities

    Costello, Christine; Xue, Xiaobo; Howarth, Robert W.

    2015-11-01

    Agricultural production is critical for human survival and simultaneously contributes to ecosystem degradation. There is a need for transparent, rapid methods for evaluating the environmental impacts of agricultural production at the system-level in order to develop sustainable food supplies. We have developed a method for estimating the greenhouse gas (GHG), land use and reactive nitrogen inputs associated with the agricultural production phase of major crop and livestock commodities produced in the United States (US). Materials flow analysis (MFA) and life cycle assessment (LCA) techniques were applied to national inventory datasets. The net anthropogenic nitrogen inputs (NANI) toolbox served as the primary accounting tool for LCA and MFA. NANI was updated to create links between nitrogen fertilizer and nitrogen fixation associated with feed crops and animal food commodities. Results for the functional units kilogram (kg) of product and kg of protein for 2002 data fall within ranges of published LCA results from farm-scale studies across most metrics. Exceptions include eutrophication potential for milk and GHGs for chicken and eggs, these exceptions arise due to differing methods and boundary assumptions; suggestions for increasing agreement are identified. Land use for livestock commodities are generally higher than reported by other LCA studies due to the inclusion of all land identified as pasture or grazing land in the US in this study and given that most of the estimates from other LCAs were completed in Europe where land is less abundant. The method provides a view of the entire US agricultural system and could be applied to any year using publically available data. Additionally, utilizing a top-down approach reduces data collection and processing time making it possible to develop environmental inventory metrics rapidly for system-level decision-making.

  19. Adverse drug reaction labelling for atomoxetine, methylphenidate and modafinil: comparison of product information for oral formulations in Australia, Denmark and the United States.

    Aagaard, Lise; Hansen, Ebba Holme

    2013-07-01

    Medical product information contains information about efficacy and safety for marketed pharmaceuticals. Three studies have compared safety labelling for different therapeutic categories in different countries and detected large variations in a number of reported adverse drug reactions (ADRs). The rapid increase in use of medications for treatment of ADHD symptoms has created concern due to lack of information about effects from long-term use. The aim of this study was to compare ADR information in product information (PI)/summary of product characteristics (SPC) for oral formulations of atomoxetine, methylphenidate and modafinil marketed by the same pharmaceutical companies in Australia, Denmark and the United States. Discrepancies in listed ADRs were defined as types of ADRs (system organ class) not listed in all countries. For ADRs where discrepancies were detected, we extracted information about study design (clinical trials, spontaneous report). Discrepancies in ADR labelling for the medications were found across the three countries. A total of 75 ADR categories were listed for atomoxetine and 80% of these were listed in all three countries. For methylphenidate, totally 101 ADR categories and for modafinil 115 ADR categories were listed. For both substances approximately 60% of listed ADRs were found in all three countries. Discrepancies were primarily detected for ADRs information based on clinical trials. For methylphenidate, many ADRs labelled in Australia and Denmark were not mentioned in PIs issued in the United States. In conclusion, information about possible ADRs associated with the use of a specific product should be made available worldwide, as the prescriber information about medicines' safety profile should not depend on the country in which the medication is licensed.

  20. Fish protein hydrolysate production from sardine solid waste by crude pepsin enzymatic hydrolysis in a bioreactor coupled to an ultrafiltration unit

    Benhabiles, M.S.; Abdi, N. [National Polytechnic school of Algiers, B.P. 182-16200, El Harrach, Algiers (Algeria); Drouiche, N., E-mail: nadjibdrouiche@yahoo.fr [National Polytechnic school of Algiers, B.P. 182-16200, El Harrach, Algiers (Algeria); Silicon Technology Development Unit (UDTS) 2, Bd Frantz Fanon BP140, Alger-7 Merveilles, 16000 (Algeria); Lounici, H. [National Polytechnic school of Algiers, B.P. 182-16200, El Harrach, Algiers (Algeria); Pauss, A. [University of Technology of Compiegne, Departement Genie chimique,B.P. 20.509, 60205 Compiegne cedex (France); Goosen, M.F.A. [Alfaisal University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Mameri, N. [University of Technology of Compiegne, Departement Genie chimique,B.P. 20.509, 60205 Compiegne cedex (France)

    2012-05-01

    The aims of the study were to optimize the production a fish protein hydrolysate (FPH) by enzymatic hydrolysis of sardine solid waste using crude pepsin, and to scale up the process in a bioreactor coupled to an ultrafiltration unit for product recovery. Results showed that the crude pepsin prepared by autolysis of the mucous membranes of a sheep stomach at optimal conditions (i. e. pH = 1.5-2 and incubation time of 6 h) could be satisfactory used for the enzymatic hydrolysis of fish solid waste. The optimal conditions for enzymatic reaction were: temperature 48 Degree-Sign C, and pH 1.5. The scale up of the enzymatic hydrolysis and the coupling of the reactor an ultrafiltration unit to concentrate the hydrolysate gave good results with a rejection coefficient for the protein hydrolysate product in the range of 90%. The volumetric concentration factor was 2.5, with a permeate flux of 200 L m{sup -2} bar{sup -1}. However, the results also suggest that the ultrafiltration product concentration process may be operating beyond the critical flux at which point irreversible membrane fouling occurs. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Evaluating to produce a (FPH) by enzymatic hydrolysis of sardine solid wastes was achieved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Investigation of key parameters for optimal conditions for enzymatic hydrolysis have been studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Valorization of sardine waste was realized by enzymatic hydrolysis process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Performances of this enzyme gave comparable results to those obtained with commercial pepsin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The nutritional quality of the FPH produced appears to be satisfactory.

  1. Anticipatory Life Cycle Analysis of In Vitro Biomass Cultivation for Cultured Meat Production in the United States.

    Mattick, Carolyn S; Landis, Amy E; Allenby, Braden R; Genovese, Nicholas J

    2015-10-06

    Cultured, or in vitro, meat consists of edible biomass grown from animal stem cells in a factory, or carnery. In the coming decades, in vitro biomass cultivation could enable the production of meat without the need to raise livestock. Using an anticipatory life cycle analysis framework, the study described herein examines the environmental implications of this emerging technology and compares the results with published impacts of beef, pork, poultry, and another speculative analysis of cultured biomass. While uncertainty ranges are large, the findings suggest that in vitro biomass cultivation could require smaller quantities of agricultural inputs and land than livestock; however, those benefits could come at the expense of more intensive energy use as biological functions such as digestion and nutrient circulation are replaced by industrial equivalents. From this perspective, large-scale cultivation of in vitro meat and other bioengineered products could represent a new phase of industrialization with inherently complex and challenging trade-offs.

  2. Target marketing of tobacco and alcohol-related products to ethnic minority groups in the United States.

    Moore, D J; Williams, J D; Qualls, W J

    1996-01-01

    This paper examines whether increased consumption of tobacco and alcohol products by minority groups is a function of the target marketing campaigns directed at these groups by marketers, and whether such contributes to the perpetuation of racism. First, a description of the tobacco and alcohol consumption rates of blacks and Hispanics compared to whites is presented, including a comparative analysis of the health effects and mortality rates resulting from the consumption of tobacco and alcohol. Second, the paper examines specific marketing strategies of targeting tobacco and alcohol products to ethnic minority consumers. This is followed by a discussion of whether these practices are a deliberate strategy driven by racism or just the pursuit of profit. A framework for answering the question is provided. Finally, the paper assesses the prospects for change in the future, and analyzes specific needs for future research.

  3. Using a unit cost model to predict the impact of budget cuts on logistics products and services

    Van Haasteren, Cleve J.

    1992-01-01

    Approved for Public Release; Distribution is Unlimited The Director of the Trident Integrated Logistics Support Division at the Naval Sea Systems Command manages a complex and dynamic budget that supports the provision of logistics products and services to the Trident submarine fleet. This thesis focuses on analyzing the Logistics Division budget and developing a model where the impact of a budget cut can be predicted by employing marginal cost. The thesis also explores ...

  4. Regional Algal Biofuel Production Potential in the Coterminous United States as Affected by Resource Availability Trade-offs

    Venteris, Erik R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Skaggs, Richard [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wigmosta, Mark S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Coleman, Andre M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-03-15

    The warm sunny climate and unoccupied arid lands in the American southwest are favorable factors for algae cultivation. However, additional resources affect the overall viability of specific sites and regions. We investigated the tradeoffs between growth rate, water, and CO2 availability and costs for two strains: N. salina and Chlorella sp. We conducted site selection exercises (~88,000 US sites) to produce 21 billion gallons yr-1 (BGY) of renewable diesel (RD). Experimental trials from the National Alliance for Advanced Biofuels and Bio-Products (NAABB) team informed the growth model of our Biomass Assessment Tool (BAT). We simulated RD production by both lipid extraction and hydrothermal liquefaction. Sites were prioritized by the net value of biofuel minus water and flue gas costs. Water cost models for N. salina were based on seawater and high salinity groundwater and for Chlorella, fresh and brackish groundwater. CO2 costs were based on a flue gas delivery model. Selections constrained by production and water were concentrated along the Gulf of Mexico and southeast Atlantic coasts due to high growth rates and low water costs. Adding flue gas constraints increased the spatial distribution, but the majority of sites remained in the southeast. The 21 BGY target required ~3.8 million hectares of mainly forest (41.3%) and pasture (35.7%). Exclusion in favor of barren and scrub lands forced most production to the southwestern US, but with increased water consumption (5.7 times) and decreased economic efficiency (-38%).

  5. The Representation of Different Genders in Product Advertising: Comparison of TV Advertisements in Thailand and the United Kingdom

    Tadpikultong, Supavee

    2008-01-01

    With the strong impact of advertising to the business by which it could limit or expand the perception of customer towards the product and the organisation, the marketing strategists then wonder on how to cope with gender role portrayal in advertising; especially within the television advertising which are watched from most of the family members. Until now there are extensive researches on the issue of gender roles in advertising which were trying to support the debates about differential por...

  6. Association of biofilm production with multidrug resistance among clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa from intensive care unit

    Jeetendra Gurung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Given choice, bacteria prefer a community-based, surface-bound colony to an individual existence. The inclination for bacteria to become surface bound is so ubiquitous in diverse ecosystems that it suggests a strong survival strategy and selective advantage for surface dwellers over their free-ranging counterparts. Virtually any surface, biotic or abiotic (animal, mineral, or vegetable is suitable for bacterial colonization and biofilm formation. Thus, a biofilm is "a functional consortium of microorganisms organized within an extensive exopolymeric matrix." Materials and Methods: The present study was undertaken to detect biofilm production from the repertoire stocks of Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa obtained from clinical specimens. The tube method was performed to qualitatively detect biofilm production. Results: A total of 109 isolates of both organisms were included in the study, out of which 42% (46/109 isolates showed biofilm detection. Among the biofilm producers, 57% of P. aeruginosa and 73% of A. baumannii showed multidrug resistance (MDR pattern which was statistically significant in comparison to nonbiofilm producers (P < 0.001. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the only study to have tested the biofilm production in both P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii in a single study. Biofilm production and MDR pattern were found to be significantly higher in A. baumannii than P. aeruginosa. Antibiotic resistance was significantly higher among biofilm producing P. aeruginosa than non producers. Similarly, antibiotic resistance was significantly higher among biofilm producing A. baumannii than non producers.

  7. Slow Lives in the Fast Landscape: Conservation and Management of Plethodontid Salamanders in Production Forests of the United States

    Jessica A. Homyack; Andrew J. Kroll

    2014-01-01

    Intensively-managed forest (IMF) ecosystems support environmental processes, retain biodiversity and reduce pressure to extract wood products from other forests, but may affect species, such as plethodontid salamanders, that are associated with closed canopies and possess limited vagility. We describe: (1) critical aspects of IMF ecosystems; (2) effectiveness of plethodontid salamanders as barometers of forest change; (3) two case studies of relationships between salamanders and coarse wood...

  8. Wet oxidation pre-treatment of woody yard waste: Parameter optimization and enzymatic digestibility for ethanol production

    Lissens, G.; Klinke, H.B.; Verstraete, W.

    2004-01-01

    Woody yard waste with high lignin content (22% of dry matter (DM)) was subjected to wet oxidation pre-treatment for subsequent enzymatic conversion and fermentation. The effects of temperature (185-200 degreesC), oxygen pressure (3-12 bar) and addition of sodium carbonate (0-3.3 g per 100 g DM...... biomass) on enzymatic cellulose and hemicellulose (xylan) convertibility were studied. The enzymatic cellulose conversion was highest after wet oxidation for 15 min at 185 degreesC with addition of 12 bars of oxygen and 3.3 g Na2CO3 per 100g waste. At 25 FPU (filter paper unit) cellulase g(-1) DM added......% conversion efficiency was still reached at 15 FPU g(-1) DM. Total carbohydrate recoveries were high (91-100% for cellulose and 72-100% for hemicellulose) and up to 49% of the original lignin and 79% of the hemicellulose could be solubilized during wet oxidation treatment and converted into carboxylic acids...

  9. Use of Current 2010 Forest Disturbance Monitoring Products for the Conterminous United States in Aiding a National Forest Threat Early Warning System

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Hargrove, William; Gasser, J.; Smoot, J.; Kuper, P.

    2010-01-01

    This presentation discusses contributions of near real time (NRT) MODIS forest disturbance detection products for the conterminous United States to an emerging national forest threat early warning system (EWS). The latter is being developed by the USDA Forest Service s Eastern and Western Environmental Threat Centers with help from NASA Stennis Space Center and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Building off work done in 2009, this national and regional forest disturbance detection and viewing capability of the EWS employs NRT MODIS NDVI data from the USGS eMODIS group and historical NDVI data from standard MOD13 products. Disturbance detection products are being computed for 24 day composites that are refreshed every 8 days. Products for 2010 include 42 dates of the 24 day composites. For each compositing date, we computed % change in forest maximum NDVI products for 2010 with respect to each of three historical baselines of 2009, 2007-2009, and 2003-2009,. The three baselines enable one to view potential current, recent, and longer term forest disturbances. A rainbow color table was applied to each forest change product so that potential disturbances (NDVI drops) were identified in hot color tones and growth (NDVI gains) in cold color tones. Example products were provided to end-users responsible for forest health monitoring at the Federal and State levels. Large patches of potential forest disturbances were validated based on comparisons with available reference data, including Landsat and field survey data. Products were posted on two internet mapping systems for US Forest Service internal and collaborator use. MODIS forest disturbance detection products were computed and posted for use in as little as 1 day after the last input date of the compositing period. Such products were useful for aiding aerial disturbance detection surveys and for assessing disturbance persistence on both inter- and intra-annual scales. Multiple 2010 forest disturbance events were

  10. Critical analysis of the waste management performance of two uranium production units in Brazil--part I: Poços de Caldas production centre.

    Fernandes, Horst Monken; Franklin, Mariza Ramalho; Gomiero, Luiz Alberto

    2008-04-01

    Waste management strategies in mining projects will depend to a large extent on the characteristics of the operational process, the type of ore and prevailing socio-environmental conditions, amongst other issues. The expenditures required by the management scheme and the implementation of remediation programs will be determined by the extent that the above issues were considered in the planning phase of the project. Several works have been published in the literature concerning the analysis of waste management programs and environmental impacts associated with uranium projects around the world. However, the vast majority do not report a comprehensive assessment integrating the various relationships among operational process, environmental impact, remediation strategy and costs. This study, divided into two papers, presents a detailed critical analysis of the waste management strategies adopted in two uranium production centres in Brazil, i.e., the Poços de Caldas Project (Part I) and the Caetité Project (Part II). The operational processes are described and the environmental impacts of the generated wastes as well as the adopted management strategies and costs are examined. Also, in Part II, a comparison between both production centres is made emphasizing the impacts of environmental and social-economical issues on the overall assessment.

  11. BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION BY MISCANTHUS AS A LIGNOCELLULOSIC BIOMASS: FOCUS ON HIGH EFFICIENCY CONVERSION TO GLUCOSE AND ETHANOL

    Minhee Han Mail

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Current ethanol production processes using crops such as corn and sugar cane have been well established. However, the utilization of cheaper lignocellulosic biomass could make bioethanol more competitive with fossil fuels while avoiding the ethical concerns associated with using potential food resources. In this study, Miscanthus, a lignocellulosic biomass, was pretreated using NaOH to produce bioethanol. The pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis conditions were evaluated by response surface methodology (RSM. The optimal conditions were found to be 145.29 °C, 28.97 min, and 1.49 M for temperature, reaction time, and NaOH concentration, respectively. Enzymatic digestibility of pretreated Miscanthus was examined at various enzyme loadings (10 to 70 FPU/g cellulose of cellulase and 30 CbU/g of β-glucosidase. Regarding enzymatic digestibility, 50 FPU/g cellulose of cellulase and 30 CbU/g of β-glucosidase were selected as the test concentrations, resulting in a total glucose conversion rate of 83.92%. Fermentation of hydrolyzed Miscanthus using Saccharomyces cerevisiae resulted in an ethanol concentration of 59.20 g/L at 20% pretreated biomass loading. The results presented here constitute a significant contribution to the production of bioethanol from Miscanthus.

  12. Analysis of drought impacts on electricity production in the Western and Texas interconnections of the United States.

    Harto, C. B.; Yan, Y. E.; Demissie, Y. K.; Elcock, D.; Tidwell, V. C.; Hallett, K.; Macknick, J.; Wigmosta, M. S.; Tesfa, T. K. (Environmental Science Division); (Sandia National Laboratory); (National Renewable Energy Laboratory); (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)

    2012-02-09

    Electricity generation relies heavily on water resources and their availability. To examine the interdependence of energy and water in the electricity context, the impacts of a severe drought to assess the risk posed by drought to electricity generation within the western and Texas interconnections has been examined. The historical drought patterns in the western United States were analyzed, and the risk posed by drought to electricity generation within the region was evaluated. The results of this effort will be used to develop scenarios for medium- and long-term transmission modeling and planning efforts by the Western Electricity Coordination Council (WECC) and the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT). The study was performed in response to a request developed by the Western Governors Association in conjunction with the transmission modeling teams at the participating interconnections. It is part of a U.S. Department of Energy-sponsored, national laboratory-led research effort to develop tools related to the interdependency of energy and water as part of a larger interconnection-wide transmission planning project funded under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. This study accomplished three main objectives. It provided a thorough literature review of recent studies of drought and the potential implications for electricity generation. It analyzed historical drought patterns in the western United States and used the results to develop three design drought scenarios. Finally, it quantified the risk to electricity generation for each of eight basins for each of the three drought scenarios and considered the implications for transmission planning. Literature on drought impacts on electricity generation describes a number of examples where hydroelectric generation capacity has been limited because of drought but only a few examples of impact on thermoelectric generation. In all documented cases, shortfalls of generation were met by purchasing power

  13. Exporting an Inherently Harmful Product: The Marketing of Virginia Slims Cigarettes in the United States, Japan, and Korea.

    Dewhirst, Timothy; Lee, Wonkyong B; Fong, Geoffrey T; Ling, Pamela M

    2016-11-01

    Ethical issues surrounding the marketing and trade of controversial products such as tobacco require a better understanding. Virginia Slims, an exclusively women's cigarette brand first launched in 1968 in the USA, was introduced during the mid 1980s to major Asian markets, such as Japan and Korea, dominated by male smokers. By reviewing internal corporate documents, made public from litigation, we examine the marketing strategies used by Philip Morris as they entered new markets such as Japan and Korea and consider the extent that the company attempted to appeal to women in markets where comparatively few women were smokers. The case study of Virginia Slims reveals that the classification of "vulnerable" consumers is variable depending on culture, tobacco firms display responsive efforts and strategies when operating within a "mature" market, and cultural values played a role in informing Philip Morris' strategic decision to embrace an adaptive marketing approach, particularly when entering the Korean market. Finally, moral questions are raised with tobacco being identified as a priority product for export and international trade agreements being used by corporations, governments, or trade partners in efforts to undermine domestic public health policies.

  14. / production

    François Arleo; Pol-Bernard Gossiaux; Thierry Gousset; Jörg Aichelin

    2003-04-01

    For more than 25 years /Ψ production has helped to sharpen our understanding of QCD. In proton induced reaction some observations are rather well understood while others are still unclear. The current status of the theory of /Ψ production will be sketched, paying special attention to the issues of formation time and /Ψ re-interaction in a nuclear medium.

  15. Analysis of drought impacts on electricity production in the Western and Texas interconnections of the United States.

    Harto, C. B.; Yan, Y. E.; Demissie, Y. K.; Elcock, D.; Tidwell, V. C.; Hallett, K.; Macknick, J.; Wigmosta, M. S.; Tesfa, T. K. (Environmental Science Division); (Sandia National Laboratory); (National Renewable Energy Laboratory); (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)

    2012-02-09

    Electricity generation relies heavily on water resources and their availability. To examine the interdependence of energy and water in the electricity context, the impacts of a severe drought to assess the risk posed by drought to electricity generation within the western and Texas interconnections has been examined. The historical drought patterns in the western United States were analyzed, and the risk posed by drought to electricity generation within the region was evaluated. The results of this effort will be used to develop scenarios for medium- and long-term transmission modeling and planning efforts by the Western Electricity Coordination Council (WECC) and the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT). The study was performed in response to a request developed by the Western Governors Association in conjunction with the transmission modeling teams at the participating interconnections. It is part of a U.S. Department of Energy-sponsored, national laboratory-led research effort to develop tools related to the interdependency of energy and water as part of a larger interconnection-wide transmission planning project funded under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. This study accomplished three main objectives. It provided a thorough literature review of recent studies of drought and the potential implications for electricity generation. It analyzed historical drought patterns in the western United States and used the results to develop three design drought scenarios. Finally, it quantified the risk to electricity generation for each of eight basins for each of the three drought scenarios and considered the implications for transmission planning. Literature on drought impacts on electricity generation describes a number of examples where hydroelectric generation capacity has been limited because of drought but only a few examples of impact on thermoelectric generation. In all documented cases, shortfalls of generation were met by purchasing power

  16. Biocompatibility of Poly (L-Lactic Acid Synthesized In Polymerization Unit By Cytotoxicity And Hemocompatibility Assay And Nanofibers Production

    Xavier, M.V

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The absorbable polyacid is one of the most used and studied materials in tissue engineering. This work synthesized a poly (L-lactic acid (PLLA through ring-opening polymerization and produced nanofibers by the electrospinning process. The PLLA was analyzed by FTIR and the cytotoxicity was evaluated by the MTT assay and Live/Dead®. The hemocompatibility was tested by platelet adhesion and hemolytic activity assay. The tests were performed in contact with human mesenchymal cells at varying times. The high rates of cell viability and proliferation shown by MTT and Live/Dead® tests demonstrate that this PLLA is a non-toxic material and the hemocompatibility assay revealed that the biomaterial was also biocompatible. It was achieved as well the successful production of electrospinning nanofibers, which can be converted for specific biomedical applications in the future

  17. Partitioning of selected trace elements in coal combustion products from two coal-burning power plants in the United States

    Swanson, Sharon M.; Engle, Mark A.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Affolter, Ronald H.; Jones, Kevin B.

    2013-01-01

    Samples of feed coal (FC), bottom ash (BA), economizer fly ash (EFA), and fly ash (FA) were collected from power plants in the Central Appalachian basin and Colorado Plateau to determine the partitioning of As, Cr, Hg, Pb, and Se in coal combustion products (CCPs). The Appalachian plant burns a high-sulfur (about 3.9 wt.%) bituminous coal from the Upper Pennsylvanian Pittsburgh coal bed and operates with electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), with flue gas temperatures of about 163 °C in the ESPs. At this plant, As, Pb, Hg, and Se have the greatest median concentrations in FA samples, compared to BA and EFA. A mass balance (not including the FGD process) suggests that the following percentages of trace elements are captured in FA: As (48%), Cr (58%), Pb (54%), Se (20%), and Hg (2%). The relatively high temperatures of the flue gas in the ESPs and low amounts of unburned C in FA (0.5% loss-on-ignition for FA) may have led to the low amount of Hg captured in FA. The Colorado Plateau plant burns a blend of three low-S (about 0.74 wt.%) bituminous coals from the Upper Cretaceous Fruitland Formation and operates with fabric filters (FFs). Flue gas temperatures in the baghouses are about 104 °C. The elements As, Cr, Pb, Hg, and Se have the greatest median concentrations in the fine-grained fly ash product (FAP) produced by cyclone separators, compared to the other CCPs at this plant. The median concentration of Hg in FA (0.0983 ppm) at the Colorado Plateau plant is significantly higher than that for the Appalachian plant (0.0315 ppm); this higher concentration is related to the efficiency of FFs in Hg capture, the relatively low temperatures of flue gas in the baghouses (particularly in downstream compartments), and the amount of unburned C in FA (0.29% loss-on-ignition for FA).

  18. Evaluation of NASA's MERRA Precipitation Product in Reproducing the Observed Trend and Distribution of Extreme Precipitation Events in the United States

    Ashouri, Hamed; Sorooshian, Soroosh; Hsu, Kuo-Lin; Bosilovich, Michael G.; Lee, Jaechoul; Wehner, Michael F.; Collow, Allison

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates the performance of NASA's Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) precipitation product in reproducing the trend and distribution of extreme precipitation events. Utilizing the extreme value theory, time-invariant and time-variant extreme value distributions are developed to model the trends and changes in the patterns of extreme precipitation events over the contiguous United States during 1979-2010. The Climate Prediction Center (CPC) U.S.Unified gridded observation data are used as the observational dataset. The CPC analysis shows that the eastern and western parts of the United States are experiencing positive and negative trends in annual maxima, respectively. The continental-scale patterns of change found in MERRA seem to reasonably mirror the observed patterns of change found in CPC. This is not previously expected, given the difficulty in constraining precipitation in reanalysis products. MERRA tends to overestimate the frequency at which the 99th percentile of precipitation is exceeded because this threshold tends to be lower in MERRA, making it easier to be exceeded. This feature is dominant during the summer months. MERRA tends to reproduce spatial patterns of the scale and location parameters of the generalized extreme value and generalized Pareto distributions. However, MERRA underestimates these parameters, particularly over the Gulf Coast states, leading to lower magnitudes in extreme precipitation events. Two issues in MERRA are identified: 1) MERRA shows a spurious negative trend in Nebraska and Kansas, which is most likely related to the changes in the satellite observing system over time that has apparently affected the water cycle in the central United States, and 2) the patterns of positive trend over the Gulf Coast states and along the East Coast seem to be correlated with the tropical cyclones in these regions. The analysis of the trends in the seasonal precipitation extremes indicates that

  19. Disinfection aboard cruise liners and naval units: formation of disinfection by-products using chlorine dioxide in different qualities of drinking water.

    Ufermann, Petra; Petersen, Hauke; Exner, Martin

    2011-12-01

    The world-wide deployment of cruise liners and naval units has caused an increased need for the disinfection of drinking water. The main cause for this is the unknown quality of drinking water in foreign harbours--besides the formation of bio-films due to the climatically disadvantageous conditions in the operational area. Water conduits on board are currently disinfected with calcium hypochlorite in case of microbiological contamination. Chemical and physical analyses after disinfection with calcium hypochlorite have shown that organic by-products consisting of trihalomethanes develop in considerable amounts during disinfection. Furthermore, the method is susceptible to handling errors and thus often leads to insufficient disinfection results. Hitherto, the use of other disinfection methods allowed by government regulations, especially chlorine dioxide, is not widely spread. Unlike disinfection with calcium hypochlorite, chlorine dioxide does not lead to the formation of trihalomethanes. Typical disinfection by-products (DBP) are the anions chlorite and chlorate, which are formed in oxidative processes. The formation conditions of these anions have not yet been elucidated. For this reason, the probability of the generation of inorganic by-products after disinfection with chlorine dioxide has been determined, and their occurrence in drinking water on board has been examined with respect to a possible correlation between water quality and the formation of chlorate and chlorite. Therefore, a chromatographic method was developed and validated in order to determine the periodical development of chlorate and chlorite from chorine dioxide in purified water at different pH-values as well as in actual drinking water samples from water conduits on board. The formation of the by-products chlorite and chlorate after disinfection with chlorine dioxide is influenced neither by pH-value nor by chemical properties of the disinfected water. Considering the examined conditions

  20. Caractérisation physico-chimique de boues d’unité de production d’eau potable Physico-chemical characterization of sludge from a unit water drinking production

    Mostahsine S.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available La composition chimique des boues hydroxydes, sous-produit de la potabilisation de l’eau est constituée majoritairement d’hydroxydes d’aluminium et de silice, les hydroxydes de Fer, de calcium, de potassium et de magnésium dont le taux peut varier sensiblement selon les périodes de prélèvement des eaux brutes et peut conférer à la boue des propriétés physico-chimiques intéressantes. La composition minéralogique des boues peut également comporter un solidifiant tel que les silicates de calcium. L’observation au MEB de ces boues hydroxydes montre une phase amorphe sous forme de flocons dont la géométrie est mal définie et emprisonnant de petits cristaux de quartz et de muscovite. Ces observations sont en corrélation avec les principales phases minérales mises en évidence dans les essais de diffraction des rayons X. L’étude du comportement thermique des boues, notamment celui de la déshydroxylation et les transformations de phases sont situées dans un intervalle de température compris entre 300 et 800°C. Ces transformations thermiques sont caractérisées par plusieurs méthodes analytiques (DSC, DRX et infrarouge. Les nouvelles phases cristallisées sont sous différentes formes de solutions solides du type (Ca, Al, Si, Fe, K, Mg. Chemical composition of the Hydroxides sludge, by-product of treatment of drinking water, are composed mainly of silica and the hydroxides of aluminium, the ratio of the hydroxides of iron, calcium, potassium and magnesium fluctuate appreciably according to the periods of taking away raw waters, and could confer to the sludge interesting physico-chemical properties. The mineralogical composition of the sludge may also contain a solidifying component such as calcium silicate. The MEB observation shows an amorphous phase in the form of flakes whose geometry is badly defined and imprisoning small muscovite and quartz crystals. These observations are in correlation with principal mineral

  1. Optimal unit sizing of a hybrid renewable energy system for isolated applications; Optimalite des elements d'un systeme decentralise de production d'energie electrique

    Morales, D

    2006-07-15

    In general, the methods used to conceive a renewable energy production system overestimate the size of the generating units. These methods increase the investment cost and the production cost of energy. The work presented in this thesis proposes a methodology to optimally size a renewable energy system.- This study shows that the classic approach based only on a long term analysis of system's behaviour is not sufficient and a complementary methodology based on a short term analysis is proposed. A numerical simulation was developed in which the mathematical models of the solar panel, the wind turbines and battery are integrated. The daily average solar energy per m2 is decomposed into a series of hourly I energy values using the Collares-Pereira equations. The time series analysis of the wind speed is made using the Monte Carlo Simulation Method. The second part of this thesis makes a detailed analysis of an isolated wind energy production system. The average energy produced by the system depends on the generator's rated power, the total swept area of the wind turbine, the gearbox's transformation ratio, the battery voltage and the wind speed probability function. The study proposes a methodology to determine the optimal matching between the rated power of the permanent magnet synchronous machine and the wind turbine's rotor size. This is made taking into account the average electrical energy produced over a period of time. (author)

  2. The Application of the Extension of Qualitative Performance of Information Systems in the Technology and Research Unit and in the Office of Science Production Extension of Universities

    Milad Forouzan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Today, designing according to needs and demands of customers is the most important aspect of service design. Therefore, service design needs certain plans and programs according to the needs of customer expectations in a way that the offered service has the desired properties and has equal or less price than the products of rivals. One of the most important needs of customers is their information needs about service or the process of services in the organizations under question which should be identified and fulfilled. One of the tools of designing and development of new products is to extend the qualitative performance. The present study was practical in terms of goal and descriptive type. In this study, interviews were used to collect data. Interviewees were the experts in the research and technology unit and the office of science production extension of Islamic Azad University of Ayatollah Amoli, Iran. Some managers in two other Azad universities were interviewed in order to investigate the rivals in the mentioned area.

  3. Gamete production patterns, ploidy, and population genetics reveal evolutionary significant units in hybrid water frogs (Pelophylax esculentus).

    Pruvost, Nicolas B M; Hoffmann, Alexandra; Reyer, Heinz-Ulrich

    2013-09-01

    The European water frog Pelophylax esculentus is a natural hybrid between P. lessonae (genotype LL) and P. ridibundus (RR). It reproduces through hybridogenesis, eliminating one parental genome from its germline and producing gametes containing the genome of the other parental species. According to previous studies, this elimination and transmission pattern is very diverse. In mixed populations, where only diploid hybrids (LR) live in sympatry and mate with one or both parental species, the excluded genome varies among regions, and the remaining genome is transmitted clonally to haploid gametes. In all-hybrid populations consisting of diploid (LR) and triploid (LLR and/or LRR) frogs, diploid individuals also produce gametes clonally (1n in males, 2n in females), whereas triploids eliminate the genome they have in single copy and produce haploid gametes containing the recombined other genome. However, here, too, regional differences seem to exist, and some triploids have been reported to produce diploid gametes. In order to systematically study such regional and genotype differences in gamete production, their potential origin, and their consequences for the breeding system, we sampled frogs from five populations in three European countries, performed crossing experiments, and investigated the genetic variation through microsatellite analysis. For four populations, one in Poland, two in Germany, and one in Slovakia, our results confirmed the elimination and transmission pattern described above. In one Slovakian population, however, we found a totally different pattern. Here, triploid males (LLR) produce sperm with a clonally transmitted diploid LL genome, rather than a haploid recombined L genome, and LR females clonally produce haploid R eggs, rather than diploid LR eggs. These differences among the populations in gamete production go along with differences in genomotype composition, breeding system (i.e., the way triploids are produced), and genetic variation

  4. A continuous measure of gross primary production for the conterminous United States derived from MODIS and AmeriFlux data

    Xiao, Jingfeng [Purdue University; Zhuang, Qianlai [Purdue University; Law, Beverly E. [Oregon State University; Chen, Jiquan [University of Toledo, Toledo, OH; Baldocchi, D. D. [University of California, Berkeley; Ma, Siyan [University of California, Berkeley; Cook, David R. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Oren, Ram [Duke University; Katul, G. G. [Duke University; Gu, Lianhong [ORNL

    2010-03-01

    The quantification of carbon fluxes between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere is of scientific importance and also relevant to climate-policy making. Eddy covariance flux towers provide continuous measurements of ecosystem-level exchange of carbon dioxide spanning diurnal, synoptic, seasonal, and interannual time scales. However, these measurements only represent the fluxes at the scale of the tower footprint. Here we used remotely sensed data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to upscale gross primary productivity (GPP) data from eddy covariance flux towers to the continental scale. We first combined GPP and MODIS data for 42 AmeriFlux towers encompassing a wide range of ecosystem and climate types to develop a predictive GPP model using a regression tree approach. The predictive model was trained using observed GPP over the period 2000 2004, and was validated using observed GPP over the period 2005 2006 and leave-one-out cross-validation. Our model predicted GPP fairly well at the site level. We then used the model to estimate GPP for each 1 km 1 km cell across the U.S. for each 8-day interval over the period from February 2000 to December 2006 using MODIS data. Our GPP estimates provide a spatially and temporally continuous measure of gross primary production for the U.S. that is a highly constrained by eddy covariance flux data. Our study demonstrated that our empirical approach is effective for upscaling eddy flux GPP data to the continental scale and producing continuous GPP estimates across multiple biomes. With these estimates, we then examined the patterns, magnitude, and interannual variability of GPP. We estimated a gross carbon uptake between 6.91 and 7.33 Pg C yr 1 for the conterminous U.S. Drought, fires, and hurricanes reduced annual GPP at regional scales and could have a significant impact on the U.S. net ecosystem carbon exchange. The sources of the interannual variability of U.S. GPP were dominated by these

  5. Slow Lives in the Fast Landscape: Conservation and Management of Plethodontid Salamanders in Production Forests of the United States

    Jessica A. Homyack

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Intensively-managed forest (IMF ecosystems support environmental processes, retain biodiversity and reduce pressure to extract wood products from other forests, but may affect species, such as plethodontid salamanders, that are associated with closed canopies and possess limited vagility. We describe: (1 critical aspects of IMF ecosystems; (2 effectiveness of plethodontid salamanders as barometers of forest change; (3 two case studies of relationships between salamanders and coarse woody debris (CWD; and (4 research needs for effective management of salamanders in IMF ecosystems. Although plethodontid salamanders are sensitive to microclimate changes, their role as ecological indicators rarely have been evaluated quantitatively. Our case studies of CWD and salamanders in western and eastern forests demonstrated effects of species, region and spatial scale on the existence and strength of relationships between plethodontid species and a “critical” microhabitat variable. Oregon slender salamanders (Batrachoseps wrighti were more strongly associated with abundance of CWD in managed second growth forests than ensatina salamanders (Ensatina eschscholtzii. Similarly, CWD was not an important predictor of abundance of Appalachian salamanders in managed hardwood forest. Gaining knowledge of salamanders in IMF ecosystems is critical to reconciling ecological and economic objectives of intensive forest management, but faces challenges in design and implementation.

  6. Succinic acid production from corn stover by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation using Actinobacillus succinogenes.

    Zheng, Pu; Fang, Lin; Xu, Yan; Dong, Jin-Jun; Ni, Ye; Sun, Zhi-Hao

    2010-10-01

    Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) technique was applied for succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes in a 5-l stirred bioreactor with corn stover as the raw material. The process parameters of SSF, including corn stover pretreatment condition, substrate concentration, enzyme loading and fermentation temperature were investigated. Results indicated that pretreating corn stover with diluted alkaline was beneficial for the succinic acid production, and succinic acid yield could be significantly increased when adding the cellulase supplemented with cellobiase. The maximal succinic acid concentration and yield could reach 47.4 g/l and 0.72 g/g-substrate, respectively. The corresponding operation conditions were summarized as follows: SSF operation at 38 °C for 48 h, diluted alkaline pretreated corn stover as substrate with concentration of 70 g/l, enzyme loading of 20FPU cellulase and 10 U cellobiase per gram substrate. This result suggested an industrial potential of succinic acid production by using SSF and corn stover.

  7. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B Permit Application for Production Associated Units at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    1994-09-01

    This is the RCRA required permit application for Radioactive and Hazardous Waste Management at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant for the following units: Building 9206 Container Storage Unit; Building 9212 Container Storage Unit; Building 9720-12 Container Storage Unit; Cyanide Treatment Unit. All four of these units are associated with the recovery of enriched uranium and other metals from wastes generated during the processing of nuclear materials.

  8. United States based agricultural {open_quotes}waste products{close_quotes} as fillers in a polypropylene homopolymer

    Jacobson, R.E.; Rowell, R.M.; Caulfield, D.F. [Forest Products Lab., Madison, WI (United States)] [and others

    1995-11-01

    With the advent of modern coupling agents (MAPP or maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene), the potential use of various types of renewable, sustainable agricultural byproducts as fillers in thermoplastics is explored. Over 7.7 billion pounds of fillers were used in the plastics industry in 1993. With sharp price increases in commodity thermoplastics (i.e. approximately 25% in 94`), the amount of fillers in thermoplastic materials will increase throughout the 90`s. Various types of agricultural fibers are evaluated for mechanical properties vs. 50% wood flour and 40% talc filled polypropylene (PP). The fibers included in this study are: kenaf core, oat straw, wheat straw, oat hulls, wood flour (pine), corncob, hard corncob, rice hulls, peanut hulls, corn fiber, soybean hull, residue, and jojoba seed meal. Composite interfaces were modified with MAPP to improve the mechanical properties through increased adhesion between the hydrophilic and polar fibers with the hydrophobic and non-polar matrix. The agro-waste composites had compositions of 50% agro-waste/48% PP/2% MAPP. All of the agricultural waste by-products were granulated through a Wiley mill with a 30 mesh screen and compounded in a high intensity shear-thermo kinetic mixer. The resultant blends were injection molded into ASTM standard samples and tested for tensile, flexural, and impact properties. This paper reports on the mechanical properties of the twelve resultant composites and compares them to wood flour and talc-filled polypropylene composites. The mechanical properties of kenaf core, oat straw, wheat straw, and oat hulls compare favorably to the wood flour and talc-filled PP, which are both commercially available and used in the automotive and furniture markets.

  9. Techno-economic assessment of FT unit for synthetic diesel production in existing stand-alone biomass gasification plant using process simulation tool

    Hunpinyo, Piyapong; Narataruksa, Phavanee; Tungkamani, Sabaithip;

    2014-01-01

    such as Fischer-Tropsch (FT) diesel. The embedding of the FT plant into the stand-alone based on power mode plants for production of a synthetic fuel is a promising practice, which requires an extensive adaptation of conventional techniques to the special chemical needs found in a gasified biomass. Because......For alternative thermo-chemical conversion process route via gasification, biomass can be gasified to produce syngas (mainly CO and H2). On more applications of utilization, syngas can be used to synthesize fuels through the catalytic process option for producing synthetic liquid fuels...... there are currently no plans to engage the FT process in Thailand, the authors have targeted that this work focus on improving the FT configurations in existing biomass gasification facilities (10 MWth). A process simulation model for calculating extended unit operations in a demonstrative context is designed...

  10. [An a priori risk analysis study. Securisation of transfusion of blood product in a hospital: from the reception in the medical unit to its administration].

    Bertrand, E; Lévy, R; Boyeldieu, D

    2013-12-01

    Following an ABO accident after transfusion of red blood cells, an a priori risk analysis study is being performed in a hospital. The scope of this analysis covers from the reception of the blood product in the medical unit to its administration. The risk analysis enables to identify the potentially dangerous situations and the evaluation of the risks in order to propose corrective measures (precautionary or protective) and bring the system back to an acceptable risk level. The innovative concept of an a priori risk analysis in the medical field allows the extension of the analysis of this transfusion risk to other hospitals. In addition, it allows the extension of the use of this approach to other medical fields.

  11. EXPLORATION ON ENVIRONMENTAL FRIENDLY PRODUCTION AND RUNNING OF MTBE UNIT%MTBE 装置绿色环保生产运行探索

    吴伟

    2014-01-01

    分析MTBE装置停工、开工、正常生产过程中的环境风险,介绍哈尔滨石化在降低环境风险方面的经验,提出了延长催化剂使用寿命可以有效降低风险的措施。%The paper analyzed environmental risks existing in course of shut down , start and regular production of MTBE unit , described the experiences of Harbin Petrochemical Com-pany in reducing the environmental risks and put forth some measurements which could reduce effectively the risks by prolonging the catalyst service life.

  12. Inventory dynamic management applied to supply offshore production units; Gerenciamento dinamico da localizacao de armazens e alocacao de estoques aplicado ao abastecimento de unidades de producao offshore

    Silva, Thiago Castilho Moreira; Ferreira Filho, Virgilio Jose Martins [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The discovery of large reserves in the region called the pre-salt, significantly changed the environment of oil production in Brazil, as well as the entire chain involved in these activities. From the standpoint of logistics network linked to exploration and production of oil, located further down the coast at greater depths and in a place with no infrastructure in place, new and challenging problems arise: tighter restrictions need to address the problem at different levels hierarchical, requiring consideration of risks and uncertainties in addressing problems and decision making. The correct dimensioning of the network of support facilities, the allocation and sizing of inventory of supplies and spare parts illustrate a series of decisions ranging from strategic decisions to operational planning. In terms of specific operations involved in oil production in offshore platforms, with severe space constraints and high costs of storage and transport these issues are of particular interest. The objective of this work is to develop a model of inventory management, aiming to supply equipment for the extraction of oil at sea, usually called Production Units (UPs), which considers: effects of consolidating inventory, potential alternatives to location of these inventories and time variation of both the location of the UPs, and their demand patterns. For this purpose we developed a nonlinear mathematical programming model whose objective is to minimize the fixed costs of installation of warehouses and variable costs of transportation and storage. Different scenarios are analyzed to understand how the incorporation of the cycle and safety stocks affects the decision to locate one or more warehouses, and also the effects related to the main inventory allocation policies. (author)

  13. Improvement of the performances of a tandem simulated moving bed chromatography by controlling the yield level of a key product of the first simulated moving bed unit.

    Mun, Sungyong; Wang, Nien-Hwa Linda

    2017-03-10

    One of the trustworthy processes for ternary separation is a tandem simulated moving bed (SMB) process, which consists of two subordinate four-zone SMB units (Ring I and Ring II). To take full advantage of a tandem SMB as a means of recovering all three products with high purities and high economical efficiency, it is important to understand how the separation condition in Ring II is affected by that in Ring I, and further to reflect such point in the stage of designing a tandem SMB. In regard to such issue, it was clarified in this study that the Ring I factors affecting the Ring II condition could be represented by the yield level of a key product of Ring I (Ykey(RingI)). As the Ykey(RingI) level became higher, the amount of the Ring I key-product that was reloaded into Ring II was reduced, which affected favorably the Ring II separation condition. On the other hand, the higher Ykey(RingI) level caused a larger dilution for the stream from Ring I to Ring II, which affected adversely the Ring II separation condition. As a result, a minimum in the desorbent usage of a tandem SMB occurred at the Ykey(RingI) level where the two aforementioned factors could be balanced with each other. If such an optimal Ykey(RingI) level was adopted, the desorbent usage could be reduced by up to 25%. It was also found that as the throughput of a tandem SMB became higher, the factor related to the migration of the Ring I key-product into Ring II was more influential in the performances of a tandem SMB than the factor related to the dilution of the stream from Ring I to Ring II.

  14. Identifying potential areas for biofuel production and evaluating the environmental effects: a case study of the James River Basin in the Midwestern United States

    Wu, Yiping; Liu, Shu-Guang; Li, Zhengpeng

    2012-01-01

    Biofuels are now an important resource in the United States because of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. Both increased corn growth for ethanol production and perennial dedicated energy crop growth for cellulosic feedstocks are potential sources to meet the rising demand for biofuels. However, these measures may cause adverse environmental consequences that are not yet fully understood. This study 1) evaluates the long-term impacts of increased frequency of corn in the crop rotation system on water quantity and quality as well as soil fertility in the James River Basin and 2) identifies potential grasslands for cultivating bioenergy crops (e.g. switchgrass), estimating the water quality impacts. We selected the soil and water assessment tool, a physically based multidisciplinary model, as the modeling approach to simulate a series of biofuel production scenarios involving crop rotation and land cover changes. The model simulations with different crop rotation scenarios indicate that decreases in water yield and soil nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N) concentration along with an increase in NO3-N load to stream water could justify serious concerns regarding increased corn rotations in this basin. Simulations with land cover change scenarios helped us spatially classify the grasslands in terms of biomass productivity and nitrogen loads, and we further derived the relationship of biomass production targets and the resulting nitrogen loads against switchgrass planting acreages. The suggested economically efficient (planting acreage) and environmentally friendly (water quality) planting locations and acreages can be a valuable guide for cultivating switchgrass in this basin. This information, along with the projected environmental costs (i.e. reduced water yield and increased nitrogen load), can contribute to decision support tools for land managers to seek the sustainability of biofuel development in this region.

  15. Using remotely sensed indices of primary productivity to evaluate large mammal abundance and movement in the arid Southwestern United States

    Stoner, D.; Edwards, T.; Sexton, J. O.; Nagol, J.; Sims, A.; Ironside, K.; Choate, D.; Longshore, K.; Anand, A.; Mattson, D.

    2013-12-01

    Southwestern ecoregions are marked by topographic and climatic variability, which facilitates the coexistence of large herbivores exploiting different dietary niches. Mountain ungulates buffer this variability through physiological and behavioral adaptations such as fat accumulation and seasonal migrations. However, projected climatic shifts imply changes in vegetation biomass and phenology, and therefore mammalian distributions. Here we evaluate how the distribution of primary productivity and phenological rhythms influence abundance and seasonal movements of three widely distributed ungulate species and their principal predator. We used spatio-temporal patterns in the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) derived from MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) measurements at 250-m, daily resolution to explain spatial variability in the abundance of mule deer, elk, and bighorn sheep. Ungulate population response to NDVI was assessed using annual survey data collected by state wildlife agencies with jurisdiction on and around the Colorado Plateau ecoregion. We used NDVI-ungulate relationships to evaluate the spatial requirements and potential densities of cougars; a predator whose diet, density, and distribution is closely tied to these species. Cougar location data were combined from nine radio-telemetry studies conducted over a range of climatic conditions. Focal ungulates demonstrated differing responses to patterns in NDVI. Mule deer abundance corresponded to the timing of green-up (late spring), elk abundance correlated best with peak green biomass (July-Aug), and bighorn showed no relationship to NDVI. Seasonal movements also differed, with deer migrating between distinct summer and winter ranges; bighorn residing on annual ranges, and elk demonstrating a mixed pattern of residency and migration. Cougar movements did not correspond to phenology per se, but home range size and diet diversity varied inversely with NDVI. Projected shifts in the

  16. Performance Analysis of Bit-Width Reduced Floating-Point Arithmetic Units in FPGAs: A Case Study of Neural Network-Based Face Detector

    Yongsoon Lee

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper implements a field programmable gate array- (FPGA- based face detector using a neural network (NN and the bit-width reduced floating-point arithmetic unit (FPU. The analytical error model, using the maximum relative representation error (MRRE and the average relative representation error (ARRE, is developed to obtain the maximum and average output errors for the bit-width reduced FPUs. After the development of the analytical error model, the bit-width reduced FPUs and an NN are designed using MATLAB and VHDL. Finally, the analytical (MATLAB results, along with the experimental (VHDL results, are compared. The analytical results and the experimental results show conformity of shape. We demonstrate that incremented reductions in the number of bits used can produce significant cost reductions including area, speed, and power.

  17. Is a 10-sow unit economically sustainable? A profitability assessment of productivity amongst small-holder pig farmers, Mpumalanga, South Africa.

    Munzhelele, Priscilla; Oguttu, James W; Fasina, Folorunso O

    2016-05-12

    The majority of small-holder pig farmers in Mpumalanga had between 1- and 10-sow herds. The main aim of this study is to evaluate the current government agricultural intervention (supply of 10 sows and a boar) in terms of technical and economic feasibilities and ascertain whether the small-scale pig value chain system alleviates poverty. Data were obtained from 220 randomly selected small-holder pig farmers using a semi-structured questionnaire. The results showed that 58% farrowed ≤ 10 piglets/born/sow/litter, 44.2% practiced no weaning method and many fed swill and leftovers alone (41.6%). Pair-wise association revealed that the feeding of commercial feeds had a relationship with pigs in relatively good to very good body condition. Pigs in poor body condition were positively correlated with the feeding of swill alone. The economic models for the 10-sow unit proved that pig farming is unprofitable if the current management and feeding systems that operate in the commercial industry are utilised. However, only through a combination of cooperative systems, benefits of economies of scale, reduction of preweaning mortalities and structured government inputs can pig production be profitable at this scale of production.

  18. Interleukin-10 inhibits burst-forming unit-erythroid growth by suppression of endogenous granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor production from T cells.

    Oehler, L; Kollars, M; Bohle, B; Berer, A; Reiter, E; Lechner, K; Geissler, K

    1999-02-01

    Numerous cytokines released from accessory cells have been shown to exert either stimulatory or inhibitory growth signals on burst-forming unit-erythroid (BFU-E) growth. Because of its cytokine synthesis-inhibiting effects on T cells and monocytes, interleukin-10 (IL-10) may be a potential candidate for indirectly affecting erythropoiesis. We investigated the effects of IL-10 on BFU-E growth from normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) using a clonogenic progenitor cell assay. The addition of recombinant human IL-10 to cultures containing recombinant human erythropoietin suppressed BFU-E growth in a dose-dependent manner (by 55.2%, range 47.3-63.3%, p cultivating highly enriched CD34+ cells. BFU-E growth from PBMC also was markedly suppressed in the presence of a neutralizing anti-granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) antibody (by 48.7%, range 32.9-61.2% inhibition,p < 0.01), but not by neutralizing antibodies against granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and interleukin-3. This suggests a stimulatory role of endogenously released GM-CSF on BFU-E formation. Also, the addition of exogenous GM-CSF completely restored IL-10-induced suppression of BFU-E growth. To determine the cellular source of GM-CSF production, we analyzed GM-CSF levels in suspension cultures containing PBMC that were either depleted of monocytes or T cells. Monocyte-depleted PBMC showed spontaneous production of increasing amounts of GM-CSF on days 3, 5, and 7, respectively, which could be suppressed by IL-10, whereas GM-CSF levels did not increase in cultures containing T-cell-depleted PBMC. Our data indicate that IL-10 inhibits the growth of erythroid progenitor cells in vitro, most likely by suppression of endogenous GM-CSF production from T cells.

  19. Comparing cropland net primary production estimates from inventory, a satellite-based model, and a process-based model in the Midwest of the United States

    Li, Zhengpeng; Liu, Shuguang; Tan, Zhengxi; Bliss, Norman B.; Young, Claudia J.; West, Tristram O.; Ogle, Stephen M.

    2014-04-01

    Accurately quantifying the spatial and temporal variability of net primary production (NPP) for croplands is essential to understand regional cropland carbon dynamics. We compared three NPP estimates for croplands in the Midwestern United States: inventory-based estimates using crop yield data from the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS); estimates from the satellite-based Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) NPP product; and estimates from the General Ensemble biogeochemical Modeling System (GEMS) process-based model. The three methods estimated mean NPP in the range of 469–687 g C m-2 yr-1 and total NPP in the range of 318–490 Tg C yr-1 for croplands in the Midwest in 2007 and 2008. The NPP estimates from crop yield data and the GEMS model showed the mean NPP for croplands was over 650 g C m-2 yr-1 while the MODIS NPP product estimated the mean NPP was less than 500 g C m-2 yr-1. MODIS NPP also showed very different spatial variability of the cropland NPP from the other two methods. We found these differences were mainly caused by the difference in the land cover data and the crop specific information used in the methods. Our study demonstrated that the detailed mapping of the temporal and spatial change of crop species is critical for estimating the spatial and temporal variability of cropland NPP. Finally, we suggest that high resolution land cover data with species–specific crop information should be used in satellite-based and process-based models to improve carbon estimates for croplands.

  20. Contribution of Oil and Gas Production to Atmospheric CH4 in the South-Central United States: Reconciling Bottom-up and Top-down Estimates

    Liu, Z.; Pinto, J. P.; Turner, A. J.; Bruhwiler, L.; Henze, D. K.; Brioude, J. F.; Bousserez, N.; Sargsyan, K.; Safta, C.; Najm, H. N.; LaFranchi, B. W.; Bambha, R.; Michelsen, H. A.

    2014-12-01

    Estimates of anthropogenic CH4 emissions in the United States have been largely inconsistent, particularly for oil and gas production (OGP) in the South-Central United States. We have quantified the contribution of OGP to the South-Central US (TX/OK/KS) CH4 budget through atmospheric regional transport modeling with the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ). This model is driven by a new process-based, spatially resolved OGP CH4 emissions inventory. We employed Bayesian inference to calibrate CMAQ emissions inputs using continuous CH4 measurements at the DOE Southern Great Plains (SGP) central facility and evaluated model predictions against a subset of aircraft and surface flask measurements that are assimilated by NOAA's CarbonTracker-CH4. Our results suggest that OGP emissions are the largest source of CH4 observed at the DOE SGP site and the largest source of CH4 in TX/OK/KS, constituting ~45% of total CH4 emission in the region. The next largest source in the region is livestock, with other sources being relatively less important. We estimate OGP emissions in TX/OK/KS contribute about one half of national total OGP emissions. Using continuous CH4 measurements, we found evidence of rapid nocturnal transport by the Great Plains low-level jet (LLJ) and sporadic oil and gas emissions. Our study demonstrates the importance of improved knowledge of the spatial and temporal features of oil and gas emissions in reconciling CH4 budgets derived using bottom-up and top-down approaches at regional and national scales.

  1. Survey of controllability in decentralized CHP plants. Optimal operation of priority production units; Kortlaegning af decentrale kraftvarmevaerkers regulerbarhed. Optimal drift af prioriterede anlaeg - Teknologisk grundlag

    NONE

    2005-03-15

    The present report presents results from two closely related projects, carried out in parallel, under the PSO-F and U 2002. The one project is 'Survey of controllability in de-centralized combined heat and power plants' project number PSO 4724 and is fully reported here. The other project: 'Optimal operation of priority production units, project number PSO 4712, only the part project 'Technological foundations is reported here. In project 4724 the technical conditions that matter regarding controllability of electricity production in de-centralized heat and power stations are surveyed. In this context the term controllability means how fast and to which extent the load factors of the plants can be changed. Also, is has been investigated which options are available for improving the controllability, their potentials and estimates on required investments associated. The investigation covers CHP plants having a production capacity of up to 30 MW of electricity. The main part of the de-centralized CHP plants are based on spark ignited internal combustion engines (Otto engines). Most of these engines are fuelled by natural gas and a smaller part by biogas. A minor number are gas turbines fuelled by natural gas and steam turbines in industrial applications, waste incineration plants or in combined cycle power plants. The mapping has among others consisted of a number of visits on selected different types of plants including interview with people responsible for the daily operation. From these interviews data on the actual operating strategy and technical data have been provided. In addition suppliers of engines and other equipment involved have been contacted for technical information or recommendations regarding possible changes in operation strategy. Searching the Internet has been widely used for identification of technical investigations concerning e.g. operation and maintenance of relevant equipment. Finally, substantial statistical data from

  2. United States

    Stephen Bernow

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and discusses an integrated set of policies designed to reduce U.S. carbon emissions over the next four decades. This innovation path also aims to promote environmental quality, particularly by reducing emissions of criteria air pollutants, to reduce U.S. dependence on imported oil, and to induce technological innovation and diffusion in energy production and consumption. The innovation path would reduce economy-wide carbon emissions by 26% below baseline projections for 2010 and by 62% below baseline projections for 2030; this translates into 10% below 1990 levels in 2010 and 45% below 1990 levels in 2030. Emissions of criteria pollutants also would be significantly reduced, as would petroleum imports by the United States. Moreover, the innovation path would yield cumulative net savings for the United States of $218 billion (1993 dollars through 2010, or $19 billion on a leveled annual basis, and would result in 800,000 additional jobs nationwide by 2010. Although the overall findings from the innovation path analysis are robust, the results should be taken as indicative, rather than precisely predictive, owing to uncertainties in future costs, prices, technology performance, and consumer behavior.

  3. Examining the Role of N2O5 Hydrolysis and ClNO2 Production Over the Northeast United States: Results from WINTER 2015 Aircraft Campaign

    Haskins, J.; Jaegle, L.; Thornton, J. A.; Shah, V.; Lopez-Hilfiker, F.; Lee, B. H.; Fibiger, D. L.; McDuffie, E.; Brown, S. S.; Jimenez, J. L.; Weber, R. J.; Dibb, J. E.; Day, D. A.; Holloway, J. S.; Fiddler, M. N.; Campuzano Jost, P.; Schroder, J. C.; Sullivan, A.; Veres, P. R.; Green, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    The heterogeneous uptake of N2O5 on liquid aerosol particles plays a critical role in regulating tropospheric reactive nitrogen (NOx) availability, particle nitrate loadings, and halogen activity, which, in turn, have downwind effects on oxidant availability and ozone production. However, parameterizations of this process in regional and global models remain relatively untested. Measurements taken during the 2015 Wintertime Investigation of Transportation, Emissions, & Reactivity (WINTER) allow both empirical and theoretical calculations of the N2O5 reactive uptake coefficient (γ) and ClNO2 yield (Y) during 13 winter flights over the eastern US. We use observations of gas and particle composition as inputs to the offline thermodynamic equilibrium models, ISORROPIA II and AIM, to generate outputs of particulate aqueous phase concentrations of NO3-(aq), Cl-(aq), and H2O(l) . These outputs are used to theoretically calculate γ (N2O5) and Y(ClNO2), using the parameterizations described in Bertram & Thornton, 2009. The calculated values are then compared to the empirical counterparts to assess the validity of the parameterization's representation of temperature, humidity, and composition dependences. The updated parameterization is then used in the online GEOS-Chem chemical transport model to examine the role of wintertime multiphase chemistry in controlling the regional distribution and export of NOx and Cl-atom source downwind of the northeast United States.

  4. Recent innovations in design of mooring systems for floating production and drilling units; Recentes inovacoes no projeto de sistemas de ancoragem para unidades de producao e perfuracao flutuantes

    Castro, Gustavo A.V.; Henriques, Carlos [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1998-07-01

    This paper describes the recent technological innovations adopted in the design of mooring systems for floating platforms. Three points that represent new frontiers in deep water mooring will be focused: In the first point the innovative concept of taut-leg mooring will be shown. In the second point the application of poliester ropes in the mooring of floating platforms will be described, stressing the characteristics of this kind of rope that are fundamental to make feasible the concept of taut-leg mooring. In the third point the utilization of vertically loaded anhors (VLA's) for fixation of mooring lines to the marine bed will be explored. The VLA development program with two manufacturer will be detailed, including prototype and full scale tests done at Campos Basin. The characteristics of some platforms installed in Campos Basin using the above technologies will be shown, stressing the benefits of taut-leg mooring and including comparisons with conventional mooring. The installation of PETROBRAS-27 (first production unit installed with VLA's) will be detailed, to point the advantages and disadvantages of using Vertical Loaded Anhors compared to more conventional fixation points (piles). In the recent years, we have seen a movement of oil industry towards fields located in deeper and deeper waters. The utilization of the described technologies drives a big impulse to the technical and economical viabilization of deep water projects. (author)

  5. Ge Implantation to Improve Crystallinity and Productivity for Solid Phase Epitaxy Prepared by Atomic Mass Unit Cross Contamination-Free Technique

    Lee, Kong-Soo; Yoo, Dae-Han; Han, Jae-Jong; Son, Gil-Hwan; Lee, Chang-Hun; Noh, Ju-Hee; Kim, Seok-Jae; Kim, Yong-Kwon; You, Young-Sub; Hyung, Yong-Woo; Lee, Hyeon-Deok

    2006-11-01

    Germanium (Ge) ion implantation was investigated for crystallinity enhancement during solid phase epitaxial (SPE) regrowth. Electron back-scatter diffraction (EBSD) measurement showed numerical increase of 19% of (100) signal, which might be due to the effect of pre-amorphization implantation (PAI) on silicon layer. On the other hand, electrical property such as off-leakage current of n-channel metal oxide semiconductor (NMOS) transistor degraded in specific regions of wafers. It was confirmed that arsenic (As) atoms were incorporated into channel area during Ge ion implantation. Since the equipment for Ge PAI was using several source gases such as BF3 and AsH3, atomic mass unit (AMU) contamination during PAI of Ge with AMU 74 caused the incorporation of As with AMU 75 which resided in arc-chamber and other parts of the equipment. It was effective to use Ge isotope of AMU 72 to suppress AMU contamination. It was effective to use enriched Ge source gas with AMU 72 in order to improve productivity.

  6. Proposal of appication of CRM theory in productive and commercial units of clothing industry sector in the comercial emporium gamarra, in Lima - Peru

    Jorge Luis Escalante Flores

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Social transformations, the evolution of science and technology, globalization and modern conceptions of management that are taking place in the twenty-first century require all organizations in the world to innovate according to this new reality. “Plaza Gamarra” cannot be oblivious to these changes and requires confronting this reality, adapting organizational, administrative and functionally to new challenges. The micro and small enterprises, located in “Plaza Gamarra”, evidenced by its constant concern through its orientation to the diverse needs of consumers, their creative capacity to respond to the rapidly changing environment and technological innovationcapacity, allowing respond to the demands of the domestic and foreign markets. This research tries to guide the implementation of CRM theory in “Plaza Gamarra”, in response to the growing need for production and commercial units strengthen customer relationships, to rethink traditional concepts of marketing and use concepts of relational marketing. This decision was made after analysing several possibilities. Finally, we faced the challenge of developing this paper that we consider of great scope in a dynamic sector of the economy that can be a source of accumulation of wealth, life quality improvement and transcendence as a country.

  7. 醋酸乙烯装置乙醛精馏塔模拟及优化%Simulation and optimization of acetaldehyde distillation in vinyl acetate production unit

    涂开慧; 王煤; 程橙; 陈果

    2012-01-01

    运用Aspen Plus流程模拟软件,对某天然气乙炔法醋酸乙烯装置中的乙醛精馏塔进行了模拟,模拟结果与实际工况数据吻合良好.在此基础上,利用Aspen Plus中的Model Analysis Tools,对乙醛精馏塔的侧线和各主要操作参数进行了分析及初步优化.经优化后,乙醛回收率从98.6%提高到99.5%;侧线采出产品中丙酮质量分数从19.9%提高到20.5%.%A model of the acetaldehyde distillation in a vinyl acetate production unit based on vapor acetylene route was built and Aspen Plus software was used to simulate it Simulated results were in good agreement with actual data. Further, the side stream and key operation parameters for acetaldehyde distillation were analyzed and optimized by Model Analysis Tools of Aspen Plus. After optimization, acetaldehyde recovery increased from 98.6% to 99.5%, and the mass fraction of acetone in side draw increased from 19.9% to 20.5%.

  8. An efficient process for lactic acid production from wheat straw by a newly isolated Bacillus coagulans strain IPE22.

    Zhang, Yuming; Chen, Xiangrong; Luo, Jianquan; Qi, Benkun; Wan, Yinhua

    2014-04-01

    A thermophilic lactic acid (LA) producer was isolated and identified as Bacillus coagulans strain IPE22. The strain showed remarkable capability to ferment pentose, hexose and cellobiose, and was also resistant to inhibitors from lignocellulosic hydrolysates. Based on the strain's promising features, an efficient process was developed to produce LA from wheat straw. The process consisted of biomass pretreatment by dilute sulfuric acid and subsequent SSCF (simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation), while the operations of solid-liquid separation and detoxification were avoided. Using this process, 46.12 g LA could be produced from 100g dry wheat straw with a supplement of 10 g/L corn steep liquid powder at the cellulase loading of 20 FPU (filter paper activity units)/g cellulose. The process by B. coagulans IPE22 provides an economical route to produce LA from lignocellulose.

  9. Evaluation of Dried Sweet Sorghum Stalks as Raw Material for Methane Production

    Matsakas, Leonidas; Rova, Ulrika; Christakopoulos, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The potential of utilizing dried sweet sorghum stalks as raw material for anaerobic digestion has been evaluated. Two different treatments were tested, a mild thermal and an enzymatic, alone or in combination. Thermal pretreatment was found to decrease the methane yields, whereas one-step enzymatic treatment resulted in a significant increase of 15.1% comparing to the untreated sweet sorghum. Subsequently, in order to increase the total methane production, the combined effect of enzyme load and I/S on methane yields from sweet sorghum was evaluated by employing response surface methodology. The obtained model showed that the maximum methane yield that could be achieved is 296 mL CH4/g VS at I/S ratio of 0.35 with the addition of 11.12 FPU/g sweet sorghum. PMID:25210715

  10. Design and implementation of fast single-precision floating-point arithmetic unit%快速单精度浮点运算器的设计与实现

    田红丽; 闫会强; 赵红东

    2011-01-01

    浮点运算单元FPU( Floating-point Unit)在当前CPU的运算中地位越来越重要,论文中实现了一种基于FPGA的快速单精度浮点运算器.该运算器采用了流水线和并行计算技术,使得浮点教运算的速度有了显著的提高.在QUARTUSII 7.1系统上对运算器已仿真成功,结果表明它可以运行在40.5MHz时钟工作频率下,能快速准确地完成各种加、减、乘和除算术运算.

  11. Analisis Integritas Struktur Kaki Jack-up yang Mengalami Retak dengan Pendekatan Ultimate Strength; Studi Kasus Jack-up Maleo MOPU (Mobile Offshore Production Unit

    Alit Winiscoyo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Jack-up adalah suatu struktur bangunan lepas pantai yang terdiri dari lambung (hull, kaki (legs, dan suatu sistem jacking sehingga memungkinkan untuk dipindahkan dari satu lokasi ke lokasi yang lain. Pada penelitian ini akan dilakukan studi kasus struktur Maleo MOPU (Mobile Offshore Production Unit yang dioperasikan oleh SANTOS (Madura Pty.Ltd. yang beroperasi di Selat Madura blok Maleo dengan kedalaman perairan di lokasi ini adalah 57 m terhadap MSL (Mean Sea Level. Studi kasus ini dilakukan karena ditemukan indikator retak lelah/damage pada sambungan antara kaki jack-up dan mudmat. Analisis ultimate strength akan dilakukan untuk mengetahui integritas struktur terhadap beban maksimal . Variasi dead load, live load dan environmental load menjadi tahapan penting dalam analisa ini untuk mengetahui tingkat integritas struktur. Dengan pengaruh variasi beban (dead load dan live load terhadap struktur untuk tiap-tiap kasus didapatkan nilai unity check (UC yang dari semua kasus dikategorikan aman karena tidak ada nilai UC yang melebihi 1,3 (API RP 2A WSD. Dari semua analisis yang dilakukan dead load lebih berpengaruh dibandingkan dengan live load. Dari analisis pushover yang telah dilakukan pada jack-up Maleo MOPU yang dimitigasi dengan menambahkan brace dan menambahkan ketebalan dihasilkan nilai Reserve Strength Ratio (RSR terkecil pada arah pembebanan 2700 dengan nilai 6,5 pada Brace Clamp case dan terbesar dengan nilai 18,3 pada X-Bracing case. Nilai RSR tersebut masih memenuhi syarat yang telah ditetapkan API RP 2A berupa nilai RSR minimal untuk platform berpenghuni adalah 1,6.  

  12. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 5): Feed Materials Production Center, (USDOE), Operable Unit 1, Fernald, Hamilton and Butler Counties, OH, March 1, 1995. Final report

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The decision document presents the selected remedial action for Operable Unit 1 of the FEMP site in Hamilton and Butler Counties, Ohio. Operable Unit 1 consists of Waste Pits 1 through 6, the Burn Pit, the Clearwell, and associated environmental media (excluding groundwater).

  13. Efficient production of ethanol from waste paper and the biochemical methane potential of stillage eluted from ethanol fermentation.

    Nishimura, Hiroto; Tan, Li; Sun, Zhao-Yong; Tang, Yue-Qin; Kida, Kenji; Morimura, Shigeru

    2016-02-01

    Waste paper can serve as a feedstock for ethanol production due to being rich in cellulose and not requiring energy-intensive thermophysical pretreatment. In this study, an efficient process was developed to convert waste paper to ethanol. To accelerate enzymatic saccharification, pH of waste paper slurry was adjusted to 4.5-5.0 with H2SO4. Presaccharification and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (PSSF) with enzyme loading of 40 FPU/g waste paper achieved an ethanol yield of 91.8% and productivity of 0.53g/(Lh) with an ethanol concentration of 32g/L. Fed-batch PSSF was used to decrease enzyme loading to 13 FPU/g waste paper by feeding two separate batches of waste paper slurry. Feeding with 20% w/w waste paper slurry increased ethanol concentration to 41.8g/L while ethanol yield decreased to 83.8%. To improve the ethanol yield, presaccharification was done prior to feeding and resulted in a higher ethanol concentration of 45.3g/L, a yield of 90.8%, and productivity of 0.54g/(Lh). Ethanol fermentation recovered 33.2% of the energy in waste paper as ethanol. The biochemical methane potential of the stillage eluted from ethanol fermentation was 270.5mL/g VTS and 73.0% of the energy in the stillage was recovered as methane. Integrating ethanol fermentation with methane fermentation, recovered a total of 80.4% of the energy in waste paper as ethanol and methane.

  14. Coastal Geostationary Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Products from NOAA GOES and Japanese MTSAT-1R satellites, coastal United States, 2000 - present (NCEI Accession 0108128)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA's Office of Satellite and Data Distribution (OSDPD) generates geostationary sea surface temperature (SST) products. These products are derived from NOAA's...

  15. [WTO Case Review Series No. 5] United States—Measures Affecting the Production and Sale of Clove Cigarettes (DS406):The Relationship between Article 2.1 of TBT Agreement and GATT Article III:4 (Japanese)

    NAIKI Yoshiko

    2013-01-01

    There have been very few World Trade Organization (WTO) dispute settlement cases based on the Agreement of the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT Agreement). While the rulings of the European Communities-Measures Affecting Asbestos and Products Containing Asbestos and European Communities-Trade Description of Sardines are well-known, there were no rulings which addressed the core obligations of the TBT Agreement, namely Articles 2.1 and 2.2. The case of United States - Measures Affecting the Pr...

  16. The creation of jobs and productive units of the Creative Economy in the Region of Corede Vale do Rio dos Sinos - CONSINOS - RS / Brazil from 1996 to 2009. New Perspective Development

    Bem, Judite; Giacomini,Nelci Maria Richter; DE SOUZA RECH, GISLAINE CRISTINA

    2011-01-01

    Activities that develop in a region, using resources to be produced and generating results that affect the economy and trigger a multiplier effect on employment and income. The activities on the economy of culture have this effect on the economy, namely the impact that investments generate benefits they bring on other productive activities. The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) - UN Special Body was established in 1964 as a result of demands from countries with lower...

  17. 150kt/a硝基高塔复合肥装置运行总结%Sum-Up of Operation of Nitro-Compound Fertilizer Production Unit with High Prilling Tower of 150 kt/a

    梅桂; 张吉刚; 冯明毅

    2011-01-01

    介绍了硝基高塔复合肥生产装置的工艺流程、高塔造粒生产复合肥的优点、生产中存在的问题及防范措施.经过近2年的运行,通过不断总结完善,目前硝基高塔复合肥生产装置已实现安全、长周期、稳定运行,对产品结构调整发挥了积极的作用.%A brief account is given of the nitre-compound fertilizer production unit with the high prilling tower, its production process, advantages in compound fertilizer production with a high prilling tower, problems in production and counter measures. After nearly 2 years of operation, with constant summing up and improvement and perfection, the unit has now realized safe, long-period, stable running, and played a positive role in the adjustment of product mix.

  18. Optimization and operation of RNG-unit for production of reformed natural gas integrated with standard CHP unit; Optimering og drift af RNG-enhed til produktion af reformeret naturgas integreret med standard kraftvarmeenhed

    Soegaard, C.; Schramm, J.

    2004-02-01

    A steam reforming unit has been developed during this project. The unit converts natural gas into reformed natural gas (RNG), which contain hydrogen. The RNG is combusted in an SI engine, which produces power and heat. Hydrogen was supposed to reduce hydrocarbon emissions and increase the combustion efficiency. An efficient control strategy has been developed, and the plant has been operating automatically without problems for more than one week. An increase in power efficiency of 0,5% was achieved, but almost no reduction in hydrocarbon emissions. However, the engine was unable to operate at excess air ratios beyond 2, where 10% reduction in unburned hydrocarbon emissions was seen. It is believed that larger plants, which operates with more excess air, will demonstrate more reduction in unburned hydrocarbons with RNG. An increase in compression ratio with RNG over NG is possible since the engine operates more stable on RNG. This could further improve power efficiency with 2-3%. The payback time for the plant was calculated to be 81 years without the effect from increased compression ratio. This does not support implementation of the plant in practice. (au)

  19. Cellulase production using biomass feed stock and its application in lignocellulose saccharification for bio-ethanol production

    Sukumaran, Rajeev K.; Singhania, Reeta Rani; Mathew, Gincy Marina; Pandey, Ashok [Biotechnology Division, National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology, CSIR, Trivandrum-695 019 (India)

    2009-02-15

    A major constraint in the enzymatic saccharification of biomass for ethanol production is the cost of cellulase enzymes. Production cost of cellulases may be brought down by multifaceted approaches which include the use of cheap lignocellulosic substrates for fermentation production of the enzyme, and the use of cost efficient fermentation strategies like solid state fermentation (SSF). In the present study, cellulolytic enzymes for biomass hydrolysis were produced using solid state fermentation on wheat bran as substrate. Crude cellulase and a relatively glucose tolerant BGL were produced using fungi Trichoderma reesei RUT C30 and Aspergillus niger MTCC 7956, respectively. Saccharification of three different feed stock, i.e. sugar cane bagasse, rice straw and water hyacinth biomass was studied using the enzymes. Saccharification was performed with 50 FPU of cellulase and 10 U of {beta}-glucosidase per gram of pretreated biomass. Highest yield of reducing sugars (26.3 g/L) was obtained from rice straw followed by sugar cane bagasse (17.79 g/L). The enzymatic hydrolysate of rice straw was used as substrate for ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The yield of ethanol was 0.093 g per gram of pretreated rice straw. (author)

  20. UNIT, TIBET.

    Louisiana Arts and Science Center, Baton Rouge.

    THE UNIT OF STUDY DESCRIBED IN THIS BOOKLET DEALS WITH THE GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY OF TIBET. THE UNIT COVERS SOME OF THE GENERAL FEATURES OF THE COUNTRY AND THEIR EFFECT UPON THE LIVES OF THE TIBETAN PEOPLE. DISCUSSION QUESTIONS ARE INSERTED TO STIMULATE THOUGHT. THE RELIGION OF TIBET IS DISCUSSED IN RELATION TO ITS INFLUENCE ON THE ART AND CULTURE…

  1. Role of MODIS Vegetation Phenology Products in the ForWarn System for Monitoring of Forest Disturbances in the Conterminous United States

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Hargrove, William; Norman, Steve; Gasser, Jerry; Smoot, James; Kuper, Philip D,

    2012-01-01

    This presentation discusses MODIS vegetation phenology products used in the ForWarn Early Warning System (EWS) tool for near real time regional forest disturbance detection and surveillance at regional to national scales. The ForWarn EWS is being developed by the USDA Forest Service NASA, ORNL, and USGS to aid federal and state forest health management activities. ForWarn employs multiple historical land surface phenology products that are derived from MODIS MOD13 Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data. The latter is temporally processed into phenology products with the Time Series Product Tool (TSPT) and the Phenological Parameter Estimation Tool (PPET) software produced at NASA Stennis Space Center. TSPT is used to effectively noise reduce, fuse, and void interpolate MODIS NDVI data. PPET employs TSPT-processed NDVI time series data as an input, outputting multiple vegetation phenology products at a 232 meter resolution for 2000 to 2011, including NDVI magnitude and day of year products for seven key points along the growing season (peak of growing season and the minima, 20%, and 80% of the peak NDVI for both the left and right side of growing season), cumulative NDVI integral products for the most active part of the growing season and sequentially across the growing season at 8 day intervals, and maximum value NDVI products composited at 24 day intervals in which each product date has 8 days of overlap between the previous and following product dates. MODIS NDVI phenology products are also used to compute nationwide NRT forest change products refreshed every 8 days. These include percent change in forest NDVI products that compare the current NDVI from USGS eMODIS products to historical MODIS MOD13 NDVI. For each date, three forest change products are produced using three different maximum value NDVI baselines (from the previous year, three previous years, and all previous years). All change products are output with a rainbow color table in which

  2. Role of MODIS Vegetation Phenology Products in the ForWarn System for Monitoring of Forest Disturbances in the Conterminous United States

    Spruce, J.; Hargrove, W. W.; Norman, S.; Gasser, J.; Smoot, J.; Kuper, P.

    2012-12-01

    This presentation discusses MODIS vegetation phenology products used in the ForWarn Early Warning System (EWS) tool for near real time regional forest disturbance detection and surveillance at regional to national scales. The ForWarn EWS is being developed by the USDA Forest Service NASA, ORNL, and USGS to aid federal and state forest health management activities. ForWarn employs multiple historical land surface phenology products that are derived from MODIS MOD13 Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data. The latter is temporally processed into phenology products with the Time Series Product Tool (TSPT) and the Phenological Parameter Estimation Tool (PPET) software produced at NASA Stennis Space Center. TSPT is used to effectively noise reduce, fuse, and void interpolate MODIS NDVI data. PPET employs TSPT-processed NDVI time series data as an input, outputting multiple vegetation phenology products at a 232 meter resolution for 2000 to 2011, including NDVI magnitude and day of year products for seven key points along the growing season (peak of growing season and the minima, 20%, and 80% of the peak NDVI for both the left and right side of growing season), cumulative NDVI integral products for the most active part of the growing season and sequentially across the growing season at 8 day intervals, and maximum value NDVI products composited at 24 day intervals in which each product date has 8 days of overlap between the previous and following product dates. MODIS NDVI phenology products are also used to compute nationwide near real time forest change products every 8 days. These include percent change in forest NDVI products that compare the current NDVI from USGS eMODIS products to historical MODIS MOD13 NDVI. For each date, three forest change products are produced using three different maximum value NDVI baselines (from the previous year, three previous years, and all previous years). All change products are output with a rainbow color table in which

  3. Simulating long-term impacts of cover crops and climate change on crop production and environmental outcomes in the midwestern United States

    It is critical to evaluate conservation practices that protect soil and water resources from climate change in the Midwestern United States, a region that produces one-quarter of the world’s soybeans and one-third of the world’s maize. An over-winter cover crop in a maize-soybean rotation offers mul...

  4. Application of PSA Decarburization Unit in Nitrogen Fertilizer Production%变压吸附脱碳装置在氮肥生产中的应用

    郑高潮

    2013-01-01

    介绍变压吸附脱碳的基本原理、设计参数、工艺流程及主要设备,系统的运行情况及优化改造措施。%Describe PSA decarburization basic principles , design parameters , process and major equipment , also the unit operation and optimization renovation measures .

  5. On wage formation, wage flexibility and wage coordination:A focus on the wage impact of productivity in Germany, Greece, Ireland, Portugal, Spain and the United States

    Peeters, M.; Den Reijer, A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the endeavours of policy makers to come to some degree of wage coordination among EU countries, aiming at aligning wage growth with labour productivity growth at the national levels. In this context, we analyse the wage and productivity developments in Germany, the European Unio

  6. Semi-quantitative analysis of solid waste flows from nano-enabled consumer products in Europe, Denmark and the United Kingdom - Abundance, distribution and management

    Heggelund, Laura Roverskov; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2016-01-01

    Many nano-enabled consumer products are known to be in the global market. At the same, little is known about the quantity, type, location etc. of the engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) inside the products. This limits the scientific investigations of potential environmental effects of these material...

  7. Production System Analysis of Brem Processing Unit (Case Study: The Industrial Centers of Brem in Kaliabu and Bancong Village, Madiun District

    Ardaneswari Dyah Pitaloka Citraresmi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the condition, the priorities, and the strategy development policy of the brem Madiun production system as an effort to increase the brem Madiun production system. The samples which are used were the brem industries at industrial centers of brem in Kaliabu and Bancong Village at Madiun District. The main instrument to collect the data was a questionnaire for 21 respondents of business leaders. Data analysis method which is used was Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP. The results showed that the sequence of factors causing the decline of brem’s production capacity were the final product (0,477, capital (0,244, raw materials (0,123, human resources (0,088, the tools and machinery (0,041, and the method (0,026. Benchmarks for goals to be achieved by the production system were the effectiveness of brem Madiun (0,548, productivity (0,227, efficiency (0,138, and quality (0,087. Strategies that can be done on developing the brem industry in Madiun are provision of venture capital to support the administrations, improvement of licensing services, improvement of joint venture accessibility on infrastructure production, supporting on marketing, improvement of human resources quality (coaching and training, development of product, improvement of business management, and development on network of business partnership respectively. After the several strategies development policy was formulated based on existing condition, then the performance of the brem Madiun production system can be improved. Keywords : Brem, Production System Analysis, Strategy Formulation

  8. Operable Units

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset consists of operable unit data from multiple Superfund sites in U.S. EPA Region 8. These data were acquired from multiple sources at different times and...

  9. Turnley Unit

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Facilities at this unit include cattle working pens, hydraulic squeeze chute and electronic scale, a maintenance building, and four hay storage sheds. There is one...

  10. Diagnosis methodology applied to the preventive maintenance of power generation units in isolated sites; Methodologie de diagnostic appliquee a la maintenance preventive d'unites de production d'electricite en sites isoles

    Marie-Joseph, M.

    2003-04-01

    Todays, overseas territories gather more than 25% of the photovoltaic systems of the French territory. More than 600 kWc of this photovoltaic park is located in French Guiana and 75% in isolated areas. This leads to the problem of implementation of a convenient maintenance policy mainly because of the problem of supply of replacement parts, of the lack of qualified local manpower, and of the complexity of a fast diagnosis of the installations. Therefore, the development of a diagnosis tool for the different kinds of failures and defects that can occur on a photovoltaic power system is of prime importance. Starting from the elements of preventive maintenance philosophy developed in the thesis of S. Salvat, this work describes the development of a functional simulation tool allowing the validation of these first results. Using models for the simulation of each sub-part of the system, involving a statistical modeling of the solar resource and of the connected load, a detailed analysis of the operation defects is presented. This tool, which is a key element of the elaboration of the diagnosis, allows the use of detection methods based on pattern recognition principle. The supervised learning makes a classification using the search for a parametric discriminating function minimizing the quadratic error on the base. The algorithms performing the real-time monitoring of the system in the presence of defects are fitted in an experimental kit representing the production of an individual generator at a reduced scale. The experimental detection procedures are then tested on production and regulation defects and then compared to those obtained from simulations performed in the same operating conditions. (J.S.)

  11. Additional paper waste in pulping sludge for biohydrogen production by heat-shocked sludge.

    Chairattanamanokorn, Prapaipid; Tapananont, Supachok; Detjaroen, Siriporn; Sangkhatim, Juthatip; Anurakpongsatorn, Patana; Sirirote, Pramote

    2012-01-01

    Dark anaerobic fermentation is an interesting alternative method for producing biohydrogen (H(2)) as a renewable fuel because of its low cost and various usable organic substrates. Pulping sludge from wastewater treatment containing plentiful cellulosic substrate could be feasibly utilized for H(2) production by dark fermentation. The objective of this study was to investigate the optimal proportion of pulping sludge to paper waste, the optimal initial pH, and the optimal ratio of carbon and nitrogen (C/N) for H(2) production by anaerobic seed sludge pretreated with heat. The pulping sludge was pretreated with NaOH solution at high temperature and further hydrolyzed with crude cellulase. Pretreatment of the pulping sludge with 3% NaOH solution under autoclave at 121 °C for 2 h, hydrolysis with 5 FPU crude cellulase at 50 °C, and pH 4.8 for 24 h provided the highest reducing sugar production yield (229.68 ± 2.09 mg/g(TVS)). An initial pH of 6 and a C/N ratio of 40 were optimal conditions for H(2) production. Moreover, the supplement of paper waste in the pulping sludge enhanced the cumulative H(2) production yield. The continuous hydrogen production was further conducted in a glass reactor with nylon pieces as supporting media and the maximum hydrogen production yield was 151.70 ml/g(TVS).

  12. Techno-economic assessment of FT unit for synthetic diesel production in existing stand-alone biomass gasification plant using process simulation tool

    Hunpinyo, Piyapong; Narataruksa, Phavanee; Tungkamani, Sabaithip

    2014-01-01

    there are currently no plans to engage the FT process in Thailand, the authors have targeted that this work focus on improving the FT configurations in existing biomass gasification facilities (10 MWth). A process simulation model for calculating extended unit operations in a demonstrative context is designed...... by commercial software. The aim of this work is to develop detailed process flow diagram for the FT technology in order to subsequently study the economic feasibility based on once-Through mode. A cost analysis is performed to find out the convenience of the proposed solutions....

  13. Calculation of the temperature in the container unit with a modified design for the production of {sup 99}Mo at the VVR-Ts research reactor facility (IVV.10M)

    Kazantsev, A. A., E-mail: kazantsevanatoly@gmail.com [Experimental Scientific Research and Methodology Center Simulation Systems (Russian Federation); Sergeev, V. V. [Leipunsky Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (Russian Federation); Kochnov, O. Yu. [Karpov Institute of Physical Chemistry (Obninsk Branch) (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    The temperature regime is calculated for two different designs of containers with uranium-bearing material for the upgraded VVR-Ts research reactor facility (IVV.10M). The containers are to be used in the production of {sup 99}Mo. It is demonstrated that the modification of the container design leads to a considerable temperature reduction and an increase in the near-wall boiling margin and allows one to raise the amount of material loaded into the container. The calculations were conducted using the international thermohydraulic contour code TRAC intended to analyze the technical safety of water-cooled nuclear power units.

  14. Application of geothermal energy for heating and fresh water production in a brackish water greenhouse desalination unit. A case study from Algeria

    Mahmoudi, Hacene [Laboratory of Water and Environment, Hassiba Ben Bouali University, Chlef, P.O. Box 151 (Algeria); Faculty of Sciences and Engineering Sciences, Hassiba Ben Bouali University, Chlef (Algeria); Spahis, Nawel [Faculty of Sciences and Engineering Sciences, Hassiba Ben Bouali University, Chlef (Algeria); Goosen, Mattheus F. [Office of Research and Graduate Studies, Alfaisal University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Ghaffour, Noreddine [Middle East Desalination Research Center, P.O. Box 21, P.C. 133, Muscat (Oman); Drouiche, Nadjib [Silicon Technology Development Unit (UDTS), 2 Bd Frantz Fanon BP399, Algiers (Algeria); Ouagued, Abdellah [Laboratory of Water and Environment, Hassiba Ben Bouali University, Chlef, P.O. Box 151 (Algeria)

    2010-01-15

    The aim of this paper was to outline a proposed a new brackish water greenhouse desalination unit powered by geothermal energy for the development of arid and relatively cold regions, using Algeria as a case study. Countries which have abundant sea/brackish water resources and good geothermal conditions are ideal candidates for producing fresh water from sea/brackish water. The establishment of human habitats in these arid areas strongly depends on availability of fresh water. The main advantage of using geothermal energy to power brackish water greenhouse desalination units is that this renewable energy source can provide power 24 h a day. This resource is generally invariant with less intermittence problems compared to other renewable resources such as solar or wind energy. Geothermal resources can both be used to heat the greenhouses and to provide fresh water needed for irrigation of the crops cultivated inside the greenhouses. A review of the geothermal potential in the case study country is also outlined. (author)

  15. Ethanol and lignin production from Brazilian empty fruit bunch biomass.

    Raman, Jegannathan Kenthorai; Gnansounou, Edgard

    2014-11-01

    Brazil Government is promoting palm plantations to use degraded land for biofuels. Palm production is expected to increase 35 per cent in future and there would be profuse biomass available that needs to be handled efficiently. Therefore, in this study the potential of EFB from Brazil as raw material for biorefinery was explored by compositional analysis and pretreatment conditions optimization to produce ethanol and co-products. EFB from Brazil contains significant cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and low ash content. The optimized dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment conditions for efficient cellulose and hemicellulose separation were 160°C temperature, 1.025% v/v acid concentration, 10.5min and 20% solid loading. Under optimum pretreatment process conditions, low enzyme loading (10FPU, 20IU cellulase and glucosidase enzyme/g glucan) and 15% solid loading, 51.1g ethanol, 344.1g solid residue (65% lignin and 24.87MJ/kg LHV) and 3.7l xylose rich liquid could be produced per kg dry EFB.

  16. Use of ERTS-1 to utlitize and apply marine station data to study productivity along eastern shelf expanded waters of the United States

    Marshall, H. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Water samples taken in offshore waters between Cap Cod, Massachusetts, and Charleston, South Carolina have been used with other sea truth information as a basis to correlate productivity values with ERTS-1 sensory data. Positive correlations were established on January 26, 1973 regarding chlorophyll concentrations and optical density values.

  17. Testing for Salmonella in raw meat and poultry products collected at federally inspected establishments in the United States, 1998 through 2000.

    Rose, Bonnie E; Hill, Walter E; Umholtz, Robert; Ransom, Gerri M; James, William O

    2002-06-01

    The Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) issued Pathogen Reduction; Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) Systems; Final Rule (the PR/HACCP rule) on 25 July 1996. To verify that industry PR/HACCP systems are effective in controlling the contamination of raw meat and poultry products with human disease-causing bacteria, this rule sets product-specific Salmonella performance standards that must be met by slaughter establishments and establishments producing raw ground products. These performance standards are based on the prevalence of Salmonella as determined from the FSIS's nationwide microbial baseline studies and are expressed in terms of the maximum number of Salmonella-positive samples that are allowed in a given sample set. From 26 January 1998 through 31 December 2000, federal inspectors collected 98,204 samples and 1,502 completed sample sets for Salmonella analysis from large, small, and very small establishments that produced at least one of seven raw meat and poultry products: broilers, market hogs, cows and bulls, steers and heifers, ground beef, ground chicken, and ground turkey. Salmonella prevalence in most of the product categories was lower after the implementation of PR/HACCP than in pre-PR/HACCP baseline studies and surveys conducted by the FSIS. The results of 3 years of testing at establishments of all sizes combined show that >80% of the sample sets met the following Salmonella prevalence performance standards: 20.0% for broilers, 8.7% for market hogs, 2.7% for cows and bulls, 1.0% for steers and heifers, 7.5% for ground beef, 44.6% for ground chicken, and 49.9% for ground turkey. The decreased Salmonella prevalences may partly reflect industry improvements, such as improved process control, incorporation of antimicrobial interventions, and increased microbial-process control monitoring, in conjunction with PR/HACCP implementation.

  18. Microwave pretreatment of switchgrass for bioethanol production

    Keshwani, Deepak Radhakrishin

    conditions, 82% glucose and 63% xylose yields were achieved for switchgrass, and 87% glucose and 59% xylose yields were achieved for coastal bermudagrass following enzymatic hydrolysis of the pretreated biomass. The optimum enzyme loadings were 15 FPU/g and 20 CBU/g for switchgrass and 10 FPU/g and 20 CBU/g for coastal bermudagrass. Dielectric properties for dilute sodium hydroxide solutions were measured and compared to solid loss, lignin reduction and reducing sugar levels in hydrolyzates. Results indicate that the dielectric loss tangent of alkali solutions is a potential indicator of the severity of microwave-based pretreatments. Modeling of pretreatment processes can be a valuable tool in process simulations of bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. Chapter 4 discusses three different approaches that were used to model delignification and carbohydrate loss during microwave-based pretreatment of switchgrass: statistical linear regression modeling, kinetic modeling using a time-dependent rate coefficient, and a Mamdani-type fuzzy inference system. The dielectric loss tangent of the alkali reagent and pretreatment time were used as predictors in all models. The statistical linear regression model for delignification gave comparable root mean square error (RMSE) values for training and testing data and predictions were approximately within 1% of experimental values. The kinetic model for delignification and xylan loss gave comparable RMSE values for training and testing data sets and predictions were approximately within 2% of experimental values. The kinetic model for cellulose loss was not as effective and predictions were only within 5-7% of experimental values. The time-dependent rate coefficients of the kinetic models calculated from experimental data were consistent with the heterogeneity (or lack thereof) of individual biomass components. The Mamdani-type fuzzy inference system was shown to be an effective means to model pretreatment processes and gave

  19. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 62: The Influence of Knowledge Diffusion on Aeronautics Innovation: The Research, Development, and Production of Large Commercial Aircraft in France, Germany, and the United Kingdom

    Golich, Vicki L.; Pinelli, Thomas E.

    1997-01-01

    This paper focuses on how European public policies-individually and collectively - influence the diffusion of knowledge and technology. It begins with an overview of the roles played historically and currently by European governments in the Research, Development and Production (RD&P) of Large Commercial Aircraft (LCA). The analytical framework brings together literature from global political economy, comparative politics, business management, and science and technology policy studies. It distinguishes between the production of knowledge, on the one hand, and the dissemination of knowledge, on the other. France, Germany, and the United Kingdom serve as the analytical cases. The paper concludes with a call for additional research in this area, some tentative lessons learned, and a discussion of the consequences of national strategies and policies for the diffusion of knowledge and technology in an era of globalizaton.

  20. [Conservation Units.

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    Each of the six instructional units deals with one aspect of conservation: forests, water, rangeland, minerals (petroleum), and soil. The area of the elementary school curriculum with which each correlates is indicated. Lists of general and specific objectives are followed by suggested teaching procedures, including ideas for introducing the…

  1. 2011 and 2012 Early Careers Achievement Awards: improving the production, environmental, and economic efficiency of the stocker cattle industry in the southeastern United States.

    Beck, P A; Anders, M; Watkins, B; Gunter, S A; Hubbell, D; Gadberry, M S

    2013-06-01

    Grazing forages on small-grain fields can be a profitable "second crop" for grain producers and an opportunity for cow-calf producers to retain ownership of weaned calves. The increasing costs of conventional tillage and movement of soil nutrients into surface water creates a need for more sustainable production practices to be incorporated by producers into wheat pasture production systems. Research at the Livestock and Forestry Research Station near Batesville, AR, and the Southwest Research and Extension Center near Hope, AR, has been conducted over a 9-yr span to characterize the impacts of pasture systems on forage production, animal performance, soil quality, water runoff, and the economics associated with the stocker cattle enterprises. Gains of growing cattle grazing nontoxic endophyte-infected tall fescue and small-grain forages can be increased by 80 and 150%, respectively, compared with grazing Bermuda grass or toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue. Producers grazing spring-calving cowherds can use these improved forages to accelerate stocker performance when retaining calves in the fall and improve net returns by 99% with winter annual or nontoxic tall fescue production systems compared with Bermuda grass or toxic tall fescue. Rainfall simulation of small grain pastures indicates that runoff volume and nutrient load does not differ between conventionally tilled fields and no-till fields in the spring before tillage when soil surface cover is similar. In the fall after tillage, however, conventionally tilled fields had 4 times greater runoff; hence, there was 1.9 times greater N runoff and 3.2 times greater P runoff in conventionally tilled fields compared with no-till. Total natural rainfall runoff from conventionally tilled wheat fields were 2 times greater than from no-till fields with 25 mm rainfall events yet were 4 times greater with 62-mm rainfall events. Soil analysis shows that soil aggregate content was greater in no-till compared with

  2. Technical implementation plan for the ShakeAlert production system: an Earthquake Early Warning system for the West Coast of the United States

    Given, Douglas D.; Cochran, Elizabeth S.; Heaton, Thomas; Hauksson, Egill; Allen, Richard; Hellweg, Peggy; Vidale, John; Bodin, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) systems can provide as much as tens of seconds of warning to people and automated systems before strong shaking arrives. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) and its partners are developing such an EEW system, called ShakeAlert, for the West Coast of the United States. This document describes the technical implementation of that system, which leverages existing stations and infrastructure of the Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) regional networks to achieve this new capability. While significant progress has been made in developing the ShakeAlert early warning system, improved robustness of each component of the system and additional testing and certification are needed for the system to be reliable enough to issue public alerts. Major components of the system include dense networks of ground motion sensors, telecommunications from those sensors to central processing systems, algorithms for event detection and alert creation, and distribution systems to alert users. Capital investment costs for a West Coast EEW system are projected to be $38.3M, with additional annual maintenance and operations totaling $16.1M—in addition to current ANSS expenditures for earthquake monitoring. An EEW system is complementary to, but does not replace, other strategies to mitigate earthquake losses. The system has limitations: false and missed alerts are possible, and the area very near to an earthquake epicenter may receive little or no warning. However, such an EEW system would save lives, reduce injuries and damage, and improve community resilience by reducing longer-term economic losses for both public and private entities.

  3. 生产可能集为凸包时的相对有效性评价模型%A Model for Measuring the Relative Efficiency of Decision Making Units with Production Possibility Set of Convex Hull Type

    刘迎洲; 位刚; 李建明

    2012-01-01

    给出了一个评价决策单元相对有效性的新的DEA模型,它所对应的生产可能集被称为凸包形生产可能集,同时讨论了该模型解的存在性,定义了决策单元技术DEA有效和“上投影”的概念,断定一个决策单元的“上投影”相对于原来的决策单元是技术DEA有效的.最后给出一个应用新模型进行设施农业效率评价的例子.%In this paper, we give a new DEA model, which can be used to evaluate the efficiency of decision making units when the production possibility set is a convex hull. We also give the concept of technical DEA efficiency and the concept of "up projection" , and point out that the "up projection" of a decision making units is the technical DEA efficiency relative to set of the initial decision making units. Finally, we use the model to evaluate the data of sugar beet' s test.

  4. Sleep, quality of life, and productivity impact of nasal symptoms in the United States: findings from the Burden of Rhinitis in America survey.

    Meltzer, Eli O; Nathan, Robert; Derebery, Jennifer; Stang, Paul E; Campbell, Ulka B; Yeh, Wei-Shi; Corrao, Marlo; Stanford, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Rhinitis is a common chronic condition that has been shown in observational and interventional studies to have a substantial impact on the sufferer. This study was performed to describe the impact of symptoms of allergic rhinitis (AR) on sleep, quality of life, and productivity in a U.S. population. A cohort of AR sufferers and non-AR sufferers was assembled by screening a representative sample of 15,000 households with a self-administered questionnaire in January 2004. A subsample of respondents received a detailed follow-up questionnaire in the May/June pollen season. Of the 7024 individuals with complete data, 3831 met the case definition of AR sufferer; 3193 were non-AR sufferers. Overall, AR sufferers had consistently poorer average scores on the sleep, quality of life, cognition, and productivity scales compared with non-AR sufferers. Subjects with AR symptoms had more sleep impairment (51.2) compared with subjects with non-AR symptoms and those with no symptoms (59.8 and 63.3, respectively). Only 3.6% of subjects with AR symptoms experienced 100% sleep adequacy compared with 11.7% of subjects with non-AR symptoms and 19.2% of subjects with no symptoms. Quality of life and cognition scores were worse in subjects with AR symptoms compared with subjects with non-AR or no symptoms. Work and school productivity was significantly reduced in subjects with AR symptoms in the past 4 weeks compared with subjects with no symptoms (p productivity.

  5. Increased productivity through continuous improvement in quality in the sub data processing unit in a company courier: the case Peru Courier

    Ramos Martel, Walter Antonio; Universidad Inca Garcilaso de la Vega. Lima, Perú.

    2016-01-01

    The problems in the present investigation were the reprocessing and claims for delay; causing low quality, which could be affecting the productivity. Therefore it was necessary to apply a methodology of process improvement, based on tools and statistical thinking, being the Six Sigma methodology and its phases (Define, measure, analyze, improve and Control) the best adapted to the case study. After applying the first three phases of this methodology and to be a non-experimental research is de...

  6. Process Improvement by Eliminating Mixing of Whole Blood Units after an Overnight Hold Prior to Component Production Using the Buffy Coat Method

    Cherie Mastronardi; Peter Schubert; Elena Levin; Varsha Bhakta; Qi-Long Yi; Adele Hansen; Tamiko Stewart; Craig Jenkins; Wanda Lefresne; William Sheffield; Acker, Jason P.

    2013-01-01

    The elimination of a thorough manual mixing of whole blood (WB) which takes place following the overnight hold, but before the first centrifugation step, during buffy coat component production at Canadian Blood Services (CBS) was investigated. WB was pooled after donation and split. Pairs of platelet, red blood cell (RBC), and plasma components were produced, with half using the standard method and half using a method in which the mixing step was eliminated. Quality assessments included yiel...

  7. Generalized product

    Greco,Salvatore; Mesiar, Radko; Rindone, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    Aggregation functions on [0,1] with annihilator 0 can be seen as a generalized product on [0,1]. We study the generalized product on the bipolar scale [–1,1], stressing the axiomatic point of view. Based on newly introduced bipolar properties, such as the bipolar increasingness, bipolar unit element, bipolar idempotent element, several kinds of generalized bipolar product are introduced and studied. A special stress is put on bipolar semicopulas, bipolar quasi-copulas and bipolar copulas.

  8. FLYING UNITED

    2006-01-01

    Apart from selling hundreds of airplanes to China, Boeing buys locally made aircraft parts and transfers technology, in the true spirit of partnership Whenever Boeing's senior manager hear of a visit by one of China's state leaders, it's no doubt cause for celebration. Since China and the United States established diplomatic ties in 1978, every official trip by China's top statesmen has included a meeting with Boeing that

  9. Pretreatment solution recycling and high-concentration output for economical production of bioethanol.

    Han, Minhee; Moon, Se-Kwon; Choi, Gi-Wook

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to enhance the economic efficiency of producing bioethanol. Pretreatment solution recycling is expected to increase economic efficiency by reducing the cost of pretreatment and the amount of wastewater. In addition, the production of high-concentration bioethanol could increase economic efficiency by reducing the energy cost of distillation. The pretreatment conditions were 95 °C, 0.72 M NaOH, 80 rpm twin-screw speed, and flow rate of 90 mL/min at 18 g/min of raw biomass feeding for pretreatment solution recycling. The pretreatment with NaOH solution recycling was conducted five times. All of the components and the pretreatment efficiency were similar, despite reuse. In addition, we developed a continuous biomass feeding system for production of high-concentration bioethanol. Using this reactor, the bioethanol productivity was investigated using various pretreated biomass feeding rates in a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process. The maximum ethanol concentration, yield, and productivity were 74.5 g/L, 89.5%, and 1.4 g/L h, respectively, at a pretreated biomass loading of approximately 25% (w/v) with an enzyme dosage of 30 FPU g/cellulose. The results presented here constitute an important contribution toward the production of bioethanol from Miscanthus.

  10. A Joint Workshop on Promoting the Development and Deployment of IGCC/Co-Production/CCS Technologies in China and the United States. Workshop report

    Zhao, Lifeng; Ziao, Yunhan; Gallagher, Kelly Sims

    2009-06-03

    With both China and the United States relying heavily on coal for electricity, senior government officials from both countries have urged immediate action to push forward technology that would reduce carbon dioxide emissions from coal-fired plants. They discussed possible actions at a high-level workshop in April 2009 at the Harvard Kennedy School jointly sponsored by the Belfer Center's Energy Technology Innovation Policy (ETIP) research group, China's Ministry of Science and Technology, and the Chinese Academy of Sciences. The workshop examined issues surrounding Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) coal plants, which turn coal into gas and remove impurities before the coal is combusted, and the related carbon capture and sequestration, in which the carbon dioxide emissions are captured and stored underground to avoid releasing carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Though promising, advanced coal technologies face steep financial and legal hurdles, and almost certainly will need sustained support from governments to develop the technology and move it to a point where its costs are low enough for widespread use.

  11. Candida parapsilosis complex water isolates from a haemodialysis unit: biofilm production and in vitro evaluation of the use of clinical antifungals

    Regina Helena Pires

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Candida parapsilosis, currently divided into three distinct species, proliferates in glucose-rich solutions and has been associated with infections resulting from the use of medical devices made of plastic, an environment common in dialysis centres. The aims of this study were (i to screen for Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis (100 environmental isolates previously identified as C. parapsilosis, (ii to test the ability of these isolates to form biofilm and (iii to investigate the in vitro susceptibility of Candida spp biofilms to the antifungal agents, fluconazole (FLC and amphotericin B (AMB. Isolates were obtained from a hydraulic circuit collected from a haemodialysis unit. Based on molecular criteria, 47 strains were re-identified as C. orthopsilosis and 53 as C. parapsilosis. Analyses using a formazan salt reduction assay and total viable count, together with microscopy studies, revealed that 72 strains were able to form biofilm that was structurally similar, but with minor differences in morphology. A microtitre-based colorimetric assay used to test the susceptibility of fungal biofilms to AMB and FLC demonstrated that the C. parapsilosis complex displayed an increased resistance to these antifungal agents. The results from these analyses may provide a basis for implementing quality controls and monitoring to ensure the microbiological purity of dialysis water, including the presence of yeast.

  12. Comparison of Wet Cleaning Processes for Compound Fertilizer Production Units%复混肥生产装置湿式洗涤方式的比较

    郭岩; 宋安新

    2016-01-01

    概述了复混肥生产中含尘尾气水洗除尘工艺和蒸汽扑捉工艺的流程和特点,对2种除尘工艺的除尘效率和生产成本进行了比较。根据粉尘回收后处理的难易程度,对于不易吸湿性肥料可采用水洗除尘工艺,而易吸湿性肥料可采用蒸汽扑捉工艺。%The process flows and characteristics of water washing dedust process and steam dust precipitation process for dustladen tail gas from compound fertilizer production are summarized, a comparison is made in terms of dedust efficiency and production cost between the 2 dust removal processes. Based on how difficult to handle after dust recovery, for fertilizers of low hygroscopicity, the water washing dedust process can be adopted, while fertilizers with high hygroscopicity, steam dust precipitation process can be used.

  13. Process Improvement by Eliminating Mixing of Whole Blood Units after an Overnight Hold Prior to Component Production Using the Buffy Coat Method

    Cherie Mastronardi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The elimination of a thorough manual mixing of whole blood (WB which takes place following the overnight hold, but before the first centrifugation step, during buffy coat component production at Canadian Blood Services (CBS was investigated. WB was pooled after donation and split. Pairs of platelet, red blood cell (RBC, and plasma components were produced, with half using the standard method and half using a method in which the mixing step was eliminated. Quality assessments included yield, pH, CD62P expression and morphology for platelets, hemoglobin, hematocrit, hemolysis, and supernatant K+ for RBCs, and volume and factor VIII activity levels for plasma. All components, produced using either method, met CBS quality control criteria. There were no significant differences in platelet yield between components produced with and without mixing. A significant difference was seen for RBC hemolysis at expiry (P=0.03, but for both groups, levels met quality control requirements. Noninferiority of components produced without mixing was confirmed for all parameters. Manual mixing is laborious and has a risk of repetitive strain for production staff and its significance is unclear. Elimination of this step will improve process efficiencies without compromising quality.

  14. Reduction of COD and Turbidity of Effluent in the Swine Productions Unit Employing Anaerobic Baffled Reactor (ABR Followed by Biological Filters and Sand Filter

    Euzebio Beli

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The growing swine production is constantly in conflict with the environment due to the lack of environmental management directed to the cycle of animal production and the industrial sector, mainly due to the mishandling of slurry produced. In association with large concentrations of confined animals appear huge dumps of organic matter, inorganic nutrients and gaseous emissions, which require special care for its disposal to the environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of an anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR in series with two downflow biological filters, followed by a sand filter as a polishing treatment. It were analyzed the reduction of COD and turbidity, and the behavior of pH in all phases of treatment. The removal of COD in the conjugated system, which occurred during treatment ranged from 74.55% to 94.41% with an average removal of 84.24%. In turn, the removal of turbidity from the period ranged from 53.07% to 96.11% with an average removal of 85.49%. In the studied period the pH changed from 5,6 to 8,4. This system was efficient in the removal of COD and turbidity of swine wastewater.

  15. Summertime weekly cycles of observed and modeled NOx and O3 concentrations as a function of land use type and ozone production sensitivity over the Continental United States

    P. Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Simulation results from the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ model version 4.7.1 over the Conterminous United States (CONUS for August 2009 are analyzed to evaluate how satellite-derived O3 sensitivity regimes capture weekly cycles of the U.S. EPA's Air Quality System (AQS observed ground-level concentrations of ozone (O3. AQS stations are classified according to a geographically-based land use designation or an O3-NOx-VOC chemical sensitivity regime. Land use designations are derived from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR global land cover characteristic data representing three features: urban regions, forest regions, and other regions. The O3 chemical regimes (NOx-saturated, mixed, and NOx-sensitive are inferred from low to high values of photochemical indicators based on the ratio of the HCHO to NO2 column density from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment 2 (GOME-2 and CMAQ. Both AQS-observed weekly cycles of NOx at measurement sites over AVHRR geographical regions and GOME-2 sensitivity regimes show high NOx on weekdays and low NOx on weekends. However, the AQS-observed O3 weekly cycle at sites over the GOME-2 NOx-saturated regime is noticeably different from that over the AVHRR urban region. Whereas the high weekend O3 anomaly is clearly shown at sites over the GOME-2 NOx-saturated regime in both AQS and CMAQ, the weekend effect is not captured at other sites over the AVHRR urban region. In addition, the weekend effect from AQS is more clearly discernible at sites above the GOME-2 NOx-saturated regime than at other sites above the CMAQ NOx-saturated regime. This study suggests that chemical classifications of GOME-2 chemical regime stations produces better results for weekly O3 cycles than either the CMAQ chemical or AVHRR geographical classifications.

  16. The use of ERTS-1 to more fully utilize and apply marine station data to the study and productivity along the eastern shelf waters of the United States

    Marshall, H. G. (Principal Investigator); Bowker, D. E.; Witte, W. G.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Sea truth data were obtained during two ERTS overpasses in waters near the entrance of the Chesapeake Bay. Correlations were made between total phytoplankton and chlorophyll values in these waters to radiance detected by ERTS in an effort to map areas of similar productivity levels. Band 4 radiance had the highest correlation to all parameters with bands 5 and 6 showing decreasing correlations in each case. The radiance values were apparently influenced by one or more factors, most likely including the sediment content of the water. Data have shown that ERTS MSS is not suitable for monitoring chlorophyll in near-shore waters where sediment loads are high. It is suggested that in more seaward or pelagic locations, that ERTS MSS would be more efficient in monitoring surface chlorophyll values and establishing direct relationships to phytoplankton concentrations.

  17. Exploration on Collaborative Innovation Model of Chinese Government, Production, Education and Research Units%我国政产学研协同创新模式的探索

    吴海燕; 徐芝亮; 魏玲玲

    2014-01-01

    There are all sorts of defects in current government-production-education-research collaboration, which is no longer favor to realize the cooperation among these four departments. To speed up the emergence and development of new collaborative innovation model among government, production, education and research units, using the collaborative theory, new collaborative innovation model was explored and designed in the paper from such aspects as the overall model design, positioning, concept innovation, institutions and mechanisms and others. This will provide references for speeding up the realization of government-production-education-research cooperation for government and research institutions (colleges and universities), and enterprises.%现有的政产学研协作模式已出现种种弊端,越来越不利于目前我国政产学研合作的开展。为了加快政产学研协同创新模式的诞生和发展,文章运用政产学研协同理论,在模型设计、目标定位、理念革新、体制机制等方面对政产学研协同创新模式进行了探索和设想,以期能够为加快政府、科研机构(高校)、企业等实现政产学研合作提供参考。

  18. Pesticide Product Information System (PPIS)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Pesticide Product Information System contains information concerning all pesticide products registered in the United States. It includes registrant name and...

  19. Models of Al-, Fe-, Cu- and Zr-alloys corrosion based on thermodynamic estimates of corrosion product solubilities in water coolants of nuclear power units

    Kritskij, V.G. [VNIPIET, S.-Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1998-12-31

    In this report an effort is made to provide thermodynamic explanation of the data on the corrosion of Fe-, Cu-, Zr- and Al-based construction materials in water-cooled circuits of NPPs at concrete water chemistry conditions. Physicochemical models of corrosion in chemically desalinized water are also presented using a complete set of equilibrium conditions in the system CPs - water coolant. At the 1st stage of the problem solution the solubility was defined for the system `corrosion products (Me{sub n}O{sub m}; Me(OH){sub k})) - water (H{sub 2}O) - gas (H{sub 2}, O{sub 2}) - additives (HCl, KOH) for pH correction` in the range of 25-350degC. The 2nd stage of our work includes the formation of the database on the kinetics and rate of metal corrosion in water - parabolic uniform process for Fe-, Cu- and Al-alloys; linear `post-transitional` process for Zr-alloys. The results obtained allow to establish a correlation between the corrosion parameters and the equilibrium solubility of that phase of CPs which remains stable during corrosion tests. (author)

  20. Trial production of FCC light gasoline etherification unit with large processing capacity%催化裂化轻汽油醚化装置大处理量工业试生产

    李秀强; 李林; 叶晓明; 王瑛

    2015-01-01

    为解决催化裂化轻汽油醚化装置不能完全加工上游催化汽油加氢装置生产的轻汽油的问题,以提高炼厂经济效益,实现公司效益最大化,提出了催化裂化轻汽油醚化装置大处理量工业生产,装置处理量由设计处理量的60 t/h提高至70 t/h以上。通过一个月的工业试生产,与装置标定期间相比:醇烯物质的量比下降0.17,空速增大0.24 h-1,第一、二醚化反应器入口温度分别提高10.9℃、13.2℃,醚化分馏塔塔底温度降低3.4℃,其他工艺参数与标定时相当;醚化汽油辛烷值达到99.2,装置能耗下降3.24×105 kJ/t ;醚化汽油收率增加3.53%;装置运行平稳,产品质量满足汽油调和要求,年增加经济效益2688万元。%In order to solve the problem that the FCC light gasoline from FCC gasoline hydrogena‐tion unit was not refined completely by FCC light gasoline etherification unit ,the trial production of FCC light gasoline etherification unit with large processing capacity was presented to increase the eco‐nomic benefit of refinery and gain more benefits to our company .The processing capacity of FCC light gasoline etherification unit was raised from 60 t/h to over 70 t/h ,through one month trial production , compared with the calibration data ,the results showed that molar ratio of methanol/tert‐olefins de‐creased by 0 .17 ,space velocity increased by 0 .24 h-1 ,inlet temperature of first and second etherifica‐tion reactor increased by 10 .9 ℃ and 13 .2 ℃ respectively ,column bottom temperature of etherifica‐tion fractionator decreased by 3 .4 ℃ ,and other process parameters were almost the same with cali‐bration data ;the RON for etherifying gasoline reached 99 .2 ,the unit energy consumption decreased 3 .24 × 105 kJ/t ,and the yield of etherifying gasoline increased by 3 .53% .T he unit is stable in opera‐tion ,the etherifying gasoline quality meet the

  1. Survey of commercially available chocolate- and cocoa-containing products in the United States. 2. Comparison of flavan-3-ol content with nonfat cocoa solids, total polyphenols, and percent cacao.

    Miller, Kenneth B; Hurst, W Jeffrey; Flannigan, Nancy; Ou, Boxin; Lee, C Y; Smith, Nancy; Stuart, David A

    2009-10-14

    A survey of a broad range of chocolate- and cocoa-containing products marketed in the United States was conducted to provide a more detailed analysis of flavan-3-ol monomers, oligomers, and polymers, which can be grouped into a class of compounds called procyanidins. Samples consisted of the three or four top-selling products within the following six categories: natural cocoa powder, unsweetened baking chocolate, dark chocolate, semisweet baking chips, milk chocolate, and chocolate syrup. Composite samples were characterized for percent fat (% fat), percent nonfat cocoa solids (% NFCS), antioxidant level by ORAC, total polyphenols, epicatechin, catechin, total monomers, and flavan-3-ol oligomers and polymers (procyanidins). On a gram weight basis epicatechin and catechin content of the products follow in decreasing order: cocoa powder > baking chocolate > dark chocolate = baking chips > milk chocolate > chocolate syrup. Analysis of the monomer and oligomer profiles within product categories shows there are two types of profiles: (1) products that have high monomers with decreasing levels of oligomers and (2) products in which the level of dimers is equal to or greater than the monomers. Results show a strong correlation (R(2) = 0.834) of epicatechin to the level of % NFCS and also very good correlations for N = 2-5 oligomers to % NFCS. A weaker correlation was observed for catechin to % NFCS (R(2) = 0.680). Other analyses show a similar high degree of correlation with epicatechin and N = 2-5 oligomers to total polyphenols, with catechin being less well correlated to total polyphenols. A lesser but still good correlation exists between the calculated percent cacao (calcd % cacao) content, a proxy for percent cacao, and these same flavanol measures, with catechin again showing a lesser degree of correlation to calcd % cacao. Principal component analysis (PCA) shows that the products group discretely into five classes: (1) cocoa powder, (2) baking chocolate, (3) dark

  2. Closing the circle on the splitting of the atom: The environmental legacy of nuclear weapons production in the United States and what the Department of Energy is doing about it

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    In the grand scheme of things we are a little more than halfway through the cycle of splitting the atom for weapons purposes. If we visualize this historic cycle as the full sweep of a clockface, at zero hour we would find the first nuclear chain reaction by Enrico Fermi, followed immediately by the Manhattan Project and the explosion of the first atomic bombs. From two o`clock until five, the United States built and ran a massive industrial complex that produced tens of thousands of nuclear weapons. At half past, the Cold War ended, and the United States shut down most of its nuclear weapons factories. The second half of this cycle involves dealing with the waste and contamination from nuclear weapons production - a task that had, for the most part, been postponed into the indefinite future. That future is now upon us. Dealing with the environmental legacy of the Cold War is in many ways as big a challenge for us today as the building of the atomic bomb was for the Manhattan Project pioneers in the 1940s. Our challenges are political and social as well as technical, and we are meeting those challenges. We are reducing risks, treating wastes, developing new technologies, and building democratic institutions for a constructive debate on our future course.

  3. Simulation of heat and mass transfer processes in the experimental section of the air-condensing unit of Scientific Production Company "Turbocon"

    Artemov, V. I.; Minko, K. B.; Yan'kov, G. G.; Kiryukhin, A. V.

    2016-05-01

    A mathematical model was developed to be used for numerical analysis of heat and mass transfer processes in the experimental section of the air condenser (ESAC) created in the Scientific Production Company (SPC) "Turbocon" and mounted on the territory of the All-Russia Thermal Engineering Institute. The simulations were performed using the author's CFD code ANES. The verification of the models was carried out involving the experimental data obtained in the tests of ESAC. The operational capability of the proposed models to calculate the processes in steam-air mixture and cooling air and algorithms to take into account the maldistribution in the various rows of tube bundle was shown. Data on the influence of temperature and flow rate of the cooling air on the pressure in the upper header of ESAC, effective heat transfer coefficient, steam flow distribution by tube rows, and the dimensions of the ineffectively operating zones of tube bundle for two schemes of steam-air mixture flow (one-pass and two-pass ones) were presented. It was shown that the pressure behind the turbine (in the upper header) increases significantly at increase of the steam flow rate and reduction of the flow rate of cooling air and its temperature rise, and the maximum value of heat transfer coefficient is fully determined by the flow rate of cooling air. Furthermore, the steam flow rate corresponding to the maximum value of heat transfer coefficient substantially depends on the ambient temperature. The analysis of the effectiveness of the considered schemes of internal coolant flow was carried out, which showed that the two-pass scheme is more effective because it provides lower pressure in the upper header, despite the fact that its hydraulic resistance at fixed flow rate of steam-air mixture is considerably higher than at using the one-pass schema. This result is a consequence of the fact that, in the two-pass scheme, the condensation process involves the larger internal surface of tubes

  4. 7 CFR 1424.7 - Gross payable units.

    2010-01-01

    ...) Biodiesel producers will be eligible for payments on gross payable units for all biodiesel production from... rates. Unless otherwise determined by CCC, gross payable units for biodiesel production from eligible... biodiesel production gross payable units. (3) Adding the APP and BPP to determine biodiesel gross...

  5. Beam-pumping unit production breakdown automatic monitoring system design%游梁式抽油机生产故障自动监测系统设计

    刘广友; 邵惠生; 董超群

    2014-01-01

    为了实时准确监测游梁式抽油机的生产运行状态,及时对停井及停电等故障进行排查和处理,研发了一套适用于油田生产现场的油井生产故障自动监测系统。系统采用接近开关检测曲柄销的运动状态,采用ACDC模块检测抽油机的供电状态,应用GSM网络将报警信息远传至上位机系统,通过页面开发和网络发布,实现了油井生产运行状态的在线实时监测。现场应用表面,系统停电报警响应时间小于20 s,停井报警响应时间小于60 s,且无误报漏报情况发生,满足现场实时性与准确性要求。%In order to monitor the beam-pumping unit production status accurately and process the breakdown or power failure in time, a production breakdown monitoring system for the beam-pumping unit is researched and developed. The proximity switch is adopted to detect the state of motion of the crank pin. The ACDC module is used to detect the state of power supply. The alarm information is transmitted to the upper computer by GSM network. The pages are developed and published. The online real-time monitoring of running status of the beam-pumping unit is realized. The application result shows that the response time of power failure is less than 20s, the response time of breakdown is less than 60s, and the system meets the real-time and accuracy requirements.

  6. Proposição de uma Metodologia para Identificação de Unidades de Manejo Produtivas em Plantios de Eucalyptus Proposal of a Methodology for the Identification of Productive Management Units in Eucalyptus Plantations

    Itamar Antonio Bognola

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available

    O conhecimento integrado das características do solo e outros elementos do meio ambiente é de fundamental importância para a sustentabilidade e competitividade do setor florestal brasileiro. Este estudo foi desenvolvido com o propósito de identificar unidades de manejo produtivas homogêneas (UMP´s. Dados de 128 unidades amostrais foram obtidos em um levantamento pedológico detalhado (escala 1:15.000 realizado em uma propriedade com 4.660 ha, localizada no Planalto Ocidental Paulista, no Município de Araraquara. Os dados originais de cada variável foram analisados por meio de técnicas definidas como “Lógica Fuzzy”. A aplicação dessa técnica permitiu estabelecer, de forma simples e precisa, as UMP´s, revelando informações importantes para futuras intervenções nessas áreas homogêneas, em termos de produtividade, visando ao aumento ou manutenção da produção. As seguintes unidades de manejo foram identificadas para o cultivo de eucaliptos na área em estudo: boa, moderada, fraca, muito fraca e inapta.

     

    Doi: 10.4336/2009.pfb.59.27

    The integrated information of soil characteristics as well as of other elements of the environment
    is of fundamental importance for the sustainability and competitiveness of the Brazilian forest sector. This
    study was developed in order to identify a set of productive management units for plantations established with
    Eucalyptus species, using the method called “Fuzzy Logic”. Data were obtained from 128 sampling units from
    a detailed soil survey (scale 1:15,000 of a 4,660 ha eucalyptus plantation, located in Araraquara county, in the
    western plateau of the São Paulo State. The proposed method showed a great potential to be used as a tool to
    support the identification of management units for Eucalyptus sp. planted forests. The following management
    units were identified for the establishment of Eucalyptus plantations: good, moderate, weak

  7. Termination unit

    Traeholt, Chresten; Willen, Dag; Roden, Mark; Tolbert, Jerry C.; Lindsay, David; Fisher, Paul W.; Nielsen, Carsten Thidemann

    2016-05-03

    Cable end section comprises end-parts of N electrical phases/neutral, and a thermally-insulation envelope comprising cooling fluid. The end-parts each comprises a conductor and are arranged with phase 1 innermost, N outermost surrounded by the neutral, electrical insulation being between phases and N and neutral. The end-parts comprise contacting surfaces located sequentially along the longitudinal extension of the end-section. A termination unit has an insulating envelope connected to a cryostat, special parts at both ends comprising an adapter piece at the cable interface and a closing end-piece terminating the envelope in the end-section. The special parts houses an inlet and/or outlet for cooling fluid. The space between an inner wall of the envelope and a central opening of the cable is filled with cooling fluid. The special part at the end connecting to the cryostat houses an inlet or outlet, splitting cooling flow into cable annular flow and termination annular flow.

  8. 美國專利產品的修理與再製之區分與案例類型 Distinction between Repair and Reconstruction of a Patented Product and Category of Cases in United States

    陳佳麟 Jia-Lin Chen

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available 專利權人或其被授權人所銷售之專利產品,如於銷售時未附加有效限制,購買者可以任意使用、拋棄或再銷售該專利產品,其中使用之權利包含修理或改裝,但不包含再製(或稱:再造)一新的專利產品,此即所謂的可允許修理理論(doctrine of permissible repair)。可允許修理理論源自於專利權耗盡理論和默示授權理論。可允許修理或改裝專利產品,包含拆解和清洗專利產品,並更換其中未受個別專利保護之零組件,不論該零組件是否已耗損或使用過;不可允許再製專利產品係指,當專利產品整體已經耗損後,對其重新製造以致於實質上製造一個新産品。美國最高法院於1850 年第一次處理修理和再製區分案例至今已逾150 年,各級法院已累積了相當多的判決。本文整理與分析美國近年來有關於區分專利產品修理與再製之糾紛案例,藉以歸納出美國最高法院與美國聯邦巡迴上訴法院所發展之判斷準則及應注意事項。 The purchaser of a patented product sold by the patentee or its licensees without effective restriction thereon has the rights to use it, discard it, or resell it. The right to use the patented product includes replacement or modification, but does not include the right to construct an essentially new article on the template of the original one. This is so-called the doctrine of permissible repair, which originates from the patent exhaustion doctrine and implied license. Permissible repair of a patented product includes disassembly and clean of the product as well as replacement of unpatented components, regardless of whether the replaced components are spent or not. Reconstruction of a patented product is basically to make a new article, after the entity, viewed as a whole, has become spent. The Supreme Court of United States first addressed the issue about distinction between repair

  9. Television Production.

    Hird, John R.; Balzarini, Steven

    This document is a course of study to provide high school students with an introduction to television production skills and techniques and to provide a framework for developing critical television viewing skills. The nine units of the course introduce students to storyboards, camera operations, lighting, audio, video recording, graphics,…

  10. Agricultural production in the United States by county: a compilation of information from the 1974 census of agriculture for use in terrestrial food-chain transport and assessment models

    Shor, R.W.; Baes, C.F. III; Sharp, R.D.

    1982-01-01

    Terrestrial food-chain models that simulate the transport of environmentally released radionuclides incorporate parameters describing agricultural production and practice. Often a single set of default parameters, such as that listed in USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.109, is used in lieu of site-specific information. However, the geographical diversity of agricultural practice in the United States suggests the limitations of a single set of default parameters for assessment models. This report documents default parameters with a county-wide resolution based on analysis of the 1974 US Census of Agriculture for use in terrestrial food chain models. Data reported by county, together with state-based information from the US Department of Agriculture, Economic and Statistics Service, provided the basis for estimates of model input parameters. This report also describes these data bases, their limitations, and lists default parameters by county. Vegetable production is described for four categories: leafy vegetables; vegetables and fruits exposed to airborne material; vegetables, fruits, and nuts protected from airborne materials; and grains. Livestock feeds were analyzed in categories of hay, silage, pasture, and grains. Pasture consumption was estimated from cattle and sheep inventories, their feed requirements, and reported quantities of harvested forage. The results were compared with assumed yields of the pasture areas reported. In addition, non-vegetable food production estimates including milk, beef, pork, lamb, poultry, eggs, goat milk, and honey are described. The agricultural parameters and land use information - in all 47 items - are tabulated in four appendices for each of the 3067 counties of the US reported to the Census of Agriculture, excluding those in Hawaii and Alaska.

  11. Analysis of Equine Medicine Products Authorized by Veterinary Medicines Directorate United Kingdom%英国兽药理事会批准的可用于马匹的兽药产品分析

    任洁; 赵红琼; 郝智慧; 姚刚; 况玲

    2016-01-01

    To understand the condition of equine medicine products authorized by Veterinary Medicines Directorate (VMD),United Kingdom,the present study statistically analyzed the Product Information Database provided by VMD in March,2016.The results showed that 12% of veterinary medicine products could be used for horses,and 6% of them were only used for horses.From 1990 to 2015,the authorized equine medicine products were 12 annu-ally.The most amounts of product pharmaceutical holders were Norbrook Laboratories Ltd,Zoetis UK Ltd and In-tervet UK Ltd.The three highest proportion of equine products were anti-inflammatory,central nervous system and anti-parasitic medicines.The top three main active substances used for horses were meloxicam,ivermectin and its compound with praziquantel,and xylazine.Sixty two percentage of equine medicine products were injection form, and 27% of them were orally administrated,while the proportion of topical and inhalation products was low.Those statistical results indicate that the famous international veterinary pharmaceutical companies are interested in apply-ing equine medicines in UK,and the popular equine medicine products and the active substances showed the most requirement medicines for horses in UK.Meanwhile,the statistical results can be refereed to establish Chinese e-quine medicines guidance which is related to the international guidance.%为了探究英国兽药理事会(VMD)批准上市的马匹兽药产品情况,从 VMD 2016年3月提供的产品信息数据库统计分析。结果显示,上市的可用于马匹的兽药产品占兽药总数的12%,而马匹专属产品占6%;1990年-2015年年均批准马匹用兽药产品约12个;持有上市总兽药以及马匹兽药数量最多的前3个企业依次为 Norbrook laboratories Ltd,Zoetis UK Ltd 和 Intervet UK Ltd;批准产品中抗炎药、中枢神经系统药和抗寄生虫药比例最高;优势兽药活性成分中非甾体抗炎药美洛昔康、抗

  12. Alkaline Pretreatment of Sweet Sorghum Bagasse for Bioethanol Production

    Yanni Sudiyani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Lignocellulosic material, which consist mainly of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin, are among the most promising renewable feedstocks for the production of energy and chemicals.   The bagasse residue of sweet sorghum can be utilized as raw material for alternative energy such as bioethanol.  Bioethanol production consists of pretreatment, saccharification, fermentation and purification process.  The pretreatment process was of great importance to ethanol yield.  In the present study, alkaline pretreatment was conducted using a steam explosion reactor at 1300C with concentrations of NaOH  6, and 10% (kg/L for 10, and 30 min.  For ethanol production separated hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF process were conducted with 30 FPU of Ctec2 and Htec2 enzyme and yeast of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.   The results showed that maximum cellulose conversion to total glucose plus xylose were showed greatest with NaOH 10% for 30 min.  The highest yield of ethanol is 96.26% and high concentration of ethanol 66.88 g/L were obtained at SSF condition during 48 h process. Using SSF process could increase yields and concentration of ethanol with less energy process. Article History: Received January 16th 2016; Received in revised form May 25th 2016; Accepted June 28th 2016; Available online How to Cite This Article: Sudiyani, Y., Triwahyuni, E., Muryanto, Burhani, D., Waluyo, J. Sulaswaty, A. and Abimanyu, H. (2016 Alkaline Pretreatment of Sweet Sorghum Bagasse for Bioethanol Production. Int. Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 5(2, 113-118. http://dx.doi.org/10.14710/ijred.5.2.113-118 

  13. Approximate Analysis of Production Systems

    M.B.M. de Koster (René)

    1988-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper complex production systems are studied where a single product is manufactured and where each production unit stores its output in at most one buffer and receives its input from at most one buffer. The production units and the buffers may be connected nearly arbitrarily. The

  14. Holographic Thermalization, Stability of AdS, and the FPU Paradox

    Balasubramanian, Venkat; Green, Stephen R; Lehner, Luis; Liebling, Steven L

    2014-01-01

    For a real massless scalar field in general relativity with a negative cosmological constant, we uncover a large class of spherically symmetric initial conditions that are close to AdS, but whose numerical evolution does not result in black hole formation. According to the AdS/CFT dictionary, these bulk solutions are dual to states of a strongly interacting boundary CFT that fail to thermalize at late times. Furthermore, as these states are not stationary, they define dynamical CFT configurations that do not equilibrate. We develop a two-timescale perturbative formalism that captures both direct and inverse cascades of energy and agrees with our fully nonlinear evolutions in the appropriate regime. We also show that this formalism admits a large class of quasi-periodic solutions. Finally, we demonstrate a striking parallel between the dynamics of AdS and the classic Fermi-Pasta-Ulam-Tsingou problem.

  15. 7 CFR 760.813 - Determination of production.

    2010-01-01

    ... appraised production, and assigned production for the total planted acreage of the crop on the unit. (b) The... production may be attributed to the applicable unit, if the participant made the unit production of a... otherwise obtained from beyond the unit; (2) Had the production measured in a manner acceptable to...

  16. Production and marketing of vegetables for the ethnic markets in the United States Produção e marketing de hortaliças para os mercados étnicos nos Estados Unidos

    Francis X Mangan

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the growing number of immigrants in the United States, made up principally of Latinos, Asians and Africans, there has been a growing demand for products that are popular in their countries of origin. In order to meet this demand, there has been a tremendous increase in imports of agricultural products to the United States. Cassava is a good example. Imports of cassava to the US have increased 370% in the last six years. The University of Massachusetts began to evaluate vegetable crops popular among Puerto Ricans and Dominicans in 1996, and in 2002 began to evaluate crops popular among the large and growing Brazilian population in the state and region. This paper summarizes results of research on crops popular with Brazilian immigrants in the US, in addition to the evaluation of the marketing chain and impact of media outlets to promote and sell these crops. Surveys of Brazilian customers in target markets demonstrated that the majority of Brazilian immigrants in the Northeastern United States are from the state of Minas Gerais. Due to this fact, the crops chosen for research in Massachusetts were ones that were popular in this state: jiló, maxixe, taioba, abóbora and okra. In order to successfully introduce these crops into the marketplace it is critical to devote resources to promotion and marketing. In spite of their popularity among Brazilians, these vegetable crops are not normally found in the market so it is necessary to let the community know that they are available and in what locations. The most effective media outlet evaluated in this work to reach Brazilians was the television station Rede Globo International, available in the United States; however, other avenues evaluated to promote this project to Brazilians, such as Brazilian newspapers and radio programs, were also effective and less expensive. The opportunity to export agricultural products to the United States is a growing opportunity for farmers in Brazil. In order to

  17. Allocative Efficiency of Technically Inefficient Production Units

    Bogetoft, Peter; Fare, Rolf

    1999-01-01

    We discuss how to measure allocative efficiency without presuming technical efficiency. This is relevant when it is easier to introduce reallocations than improvements of technical efficiency. We compare the approach to the traditional one of assuming technical efficiency before measuring allocative efficiency. In particular, we develop necessary and sufficient conditions on the technology to ensure consistent measures and we give dual organizational interpretations of the approaches.

  18. Public debate on the Penly 3 project. Construction of an electronuclear production unit of the Penly site (Seine-Maritime); Debat public sur le projet PENLY 3. Construction d'une unite de production electronucleaire sur le site de Penly (Seine-Maritime)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    After a presentation of the objectives of the Penly 3 project, this report gives an overview of the context of electricity production (increasing world demand, geographically unbalanced energy reserves with fluctuating prices and a tendency to increase, French energy assessment, electricity peculiarities, electricity production and consumption in France in 2009, climate change issue). It presents the Penly 3 project and its alternatives within the frame of the French environment and energy policy. The project is then presented in terms of safety objectives, of design choices, of environmental improvements (water sampling, thermal, chemical and radioactive releases, wastes, sound and visual impact, foreseen cost and financing), and then in terms of socio-economical impact. The main steps of the project are briefly indicated

  19. Acetone-butanol-ethanol production from Kraft paper mill sludge by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.

    Guan, Wenjian; Shi, Suan; Tu, Maobing; Lee, Yoon Y

    2016-01-01

    Paper mill sludge (PS), a solid waste from pulp and paper industry, was investigated as a feedstock for acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) production by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). ABE fermentation of paper sludge by Clostridium acetobutylicum required partial removal of ash in PS to enhance its enzymatic digestibility. Enzymatic hydrolysis was found to be a rate-limiting step in the SSF. A total of 16.4-18.0g/L of ABE solvents were produced in the SSF of de-ashed PS with solid loading of 6.3-7.4% and enzyme loading of 10-15FPU/g-glucan, and the final solvent yield reached 0.27g/g sugars. No pretreatment and pH control were needed in ABE fermentation of paper sludge, which makes it an attractive feedstock for butanol production. The results suggested utilization of paper sludge should not only consider the benefits of buffering effect of CaCO3 in fermentation, but also take into account its inhibitory effect on enzymatic hydrolysis.

  20. Prevalence and characterization of Escherichia coli and Salmonella strains isolated from stray dog and coyote feces in a major leafy greens production region at the United States-Mexico border.

    Michele T Jay-Russell

    Full Text Available In 2010, Romaine lettuce grown in southern Arizona was implicated in a multi-state outbreak of Escherichia coli O145:H28 infections. This was the first known Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC outbreak traced to the southwest desert leafy green vegetable production region along the United States-Mexico border. Limited information exists on sources of STEC and other enteric zoonotic pathogens in domestic and wild animals in this region. According to local vegetable growers, unleashed or stray domestic dogs and free-roaming coyotes are a significant problem due to intrusions into their crop fields. During the 2010-2011 leafy greens growing season, we conducted a prevalence survey of STEC and Salmonella presence in stray dog and coyote feces. Fresh fecal samples from impounded dogs and coyotes from lands near produce fields were collected and cultured using extended enrichment and serogroup-specific immunomagnetic separation (IMS followed by serotyping, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. A total of 461 fecal samples were analyzed including 358 domestic dog and 103 coyote fecals. STEC was not detected, but atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC strains comprising 14 different serotypes were isolated from 13 (3.6% dog and 5 (4.9% coyote samples. Salmonella was cultured from 33 (9.2% dog and 33 (32% coyote samples comprising 29 serovars with 58% from dogs belonging to Senftenberg or Typhimurium. PFGE analysis revealed 17 aEPEC and 27 Salmonella distinct pulsotypes. Four (22.2% of 18 aEPEC and 4 (6.1% of 66 Salmonella isolates were resistant to two or more antibiotic classes. Our findings suggest that stray dogs and coyotes in the desert southwest may not be significant sources of STEC, but are potential reservoirs of other pathogenic E. coli and Salmonella. These results underscore the importance of good agriculture practices relating to mitigation of microbial risks from animal fecal deposits in the

  1. Response surface optimization for enhanced production of cellulases with improved functional characteristics by newly isolated Aspergillus niger HN-2.

    Oberoi, Harinder Singh; Rawat, Rekha; Chadha, Bhupinder Singh

    2014-01-01

    Fungi isolated from partially decayed wood log samples showing characteristic diversity for spore colour, colony morphology and arrangement of spores were assessed for cellulolytic enzyme production. Isolates showing a cellulolytic index of ≥2.0 were assayed for filter paper (FP) cellulase and β-glucosidase (BGL) production. Molecular characterization confirmed the identity of the selected cellulolytic isolate as a strain of Aspergillus niger (A. niger HN-2). Addition of 2 % (w/v) urea enhanced FP and BGL activity by about 20 and 60 %, respectively. Validation studies conducted at parameters (29 °C, pH 5.4, moisture content 72 % and 66 h) optimized through response surface methodology in a solid-state static tray fermentation resulted in FP, BGL, cellobiohydrolase I (CBHI), endoglucanase (EG), xylanase activity and protein content of 25.3 FPU/g ds, 750 IU/g ds, 13.2 IU/g ds, 190 IU/g ds, 2890 IU/g ds and 0.9 mg/ml, respectively. In comparison, A. niger N402 which is a model organism for growth and development studies, produced significantly lower FP, BGL, CBHI, EG, xylanase activity and protein content of 10.0 FPU/g ds, 100 IU/g ds, 2.3 IU/g ds, 50 IU/g ds, 500 IU/g ds and 0.75 mg/ml, respectively under the same process conditions as were used for A. niger HN-2. Process optimization led to nearly 1.8- and 2.2-fold increase in FP and BGL activity, respectively showing promise for cellulase production by A. niger HN-2 at a higher scale of operation. Zymogram analysis revealed two isoforms each for EG and cellobiohydrolase and three isoforms for BGL. Crude cellulase complex produced by A. niger HN-2 exhibited thermostability under acidic conditions showing potential for use in biofuel industry.

  2. LIDAR COMBINED SCANNING UNIT

    V. V. Elizarov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. The results of lidar combined scanning unit development for locating leaks of hydrocarbons are presented The unit enables to perform high-speed scanning of the investigated space in wide and narrow angle fields. Method. Scanning in a wide angular field is produced by one-line scanning path by means of the movable aluminum mirror with a frequency of 20Hz and amplitude of 20 degrees of swing. Narrowband scanning is performed along a spiral path by the deflector. The deflection of the beam is done by rotation of the optical wedges forming part of the deflector at an angle of ±50. The control function of the scanning node is performed by a specialized software product written in C# programming language. Main Results. This scanning unit allows scanning the investigated area at a distance of 50-100 m with spatial resolution at the level of 3 cm. The positioning accuracy of the laser beam in space is 15'. The developed scanning unit gives the possibility to browse the entire investigated area for the time not more than 1 ms at a rotation frequency of each wedge from 50 to 200 Hz. The problem of unambiguous definition of the beam geographical coordinates in space is solved at the software level according to the rotation angles of the mirrors and optical wedges. Lidar system coordinates are determined by means of GPS. Practical Relevance. Development results open the possibility for increasing the spatial resolution of scanning systems of a wide range of lidars and can provide high positioning accuracy of the laser beam in space.

  3. 农垦团场单位体制及其公共产品供给途径分析%Analysis of Unit System of Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps and Its Ways of Supply of Public Goods

    韦统义; 宋瀛; 梁军疆

    2015-01-01

    The Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps is a social and economic organization with the basic function of cultivating and guarding the border areas.Its basic organization structure is functioning as a government body in the upper levels and as enterprises in the bottom levels,and Nongken farms are grassroots business units of the corps.Based on the background of planned economy and the special historical period,the Corps formed a u-nit public goods supply system.In the national reform of non-unit public goods supply,the Nongken farms supply system turns an inverse tendency,resulting in heavy social cost and anomalous enterprise management.In the in-novation of Nongken farms public goods supply system we must clarify the responsibility of the government,the historical path of “unit system”and the principle of market-oriented “non-unit”reform,thus to build a three-rail integrated supply system with the government public finance as the main body,Nongken farms operating surplus as a supplement,combined with market supply (especially from PPP supply mode).%新疆生产建设兵团是以屯垦戍边为基本职能的经济社会组织,上政下企是其基本组织结构,农垦团场是兵团下属的基层企业单位。基于计划经济的背景和当时特殊的历史背景,农垦团场形成了单位制公共产品供给体制。在国家公共产品供给非单位化的改革中,农垦团场公共产品供给体制具有“逆非单位化”倾向,造成农垦团场社会成本沉重,企业经营失范。农垦团场公共产品供给体制创新路径必须明确政府责任、“单位制”历史路径以及“非单位化”的市场化改革原则,构建以政府公共财政为主体、农垦团场经营剩余为补充、市场化供给(特别是借鉴 PPP 供给模式)相结合的“三轨制”的供给路径。

  4. Development and Production of Boric-Magnesium-Zinc Nitro-Compound Fertilizer with 100 kt/a Compound Fertilizer Production Unit%采用100 kt/a 复合肥生产装置开发生产硼镁锌硝基复合肥

    念吉红

    2015-01-01

    Using phosphoric acid, ammonium nitrate solution, gaseous ammonia, sulfuric acid, solid potassium sulfate, borax, magnesium sulfate and zinc sulfate as raw materials, the new type of functional boric-magnesium-zinc nitro-compound fertilizer is produced with revamped 100 kt /a compound fertilizer production unit.The production conditions and technical features of the new functional compound fertilizer are introduced, and matters needing attention in production are summarized.%采用磷酸、硝酸铵溶液、气氨、硫酸、固体硫酸钾、硼砂、硫酸镁、硫酸锌为原料,在100 kt/a 复合肥生产装置上改造生产新型功能型硼镁锌硝基复合肥。介绍了该新型功能型复合肥料的生产情况、技术特点,并对生产中应注意的问题进行总结。

  5. 27 CFR 479.89 - Transfers to the United States.

    2010-04-01

    ... Transfers to the United States. A firearm may be transferred to the United States or any department... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transfers to the United States. 479.89 Section 479.89 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL,...

  6. Reducing sugar production of sweet sorghum bagasse kraft pulp

    Solihat, Nissa Nurfajrin; Fajriutami, Triyani; Adi, Deddy Triyono Nugroho; Fatriasari, Widya; Hermiati, Euis

    2017-01-01

    Kraft pulping of sweet sorghum bagasse (SSB) has been used for effective delignification method for cellulose production. This study was conducted to evaluate the performance pulp kraft of SSB for reducing sugar production. The study intended to investigate the effect of active alkali and sulfidity loading variation of SSB pulp kraft on reducing sugar yield per biomass. The SSB pulp was prepared after pulping using three variations of active alkali (17, 19, and 22%) and sulfidity loading (20, 22, and 24%) at 170°C for 4 h with liquor to wood ratio of 10. A total of 9 pulps were obtained from these pretreatments. Delignification pretreatment has been succesfully removed lignin and hemicellulose more than 90% and 50%, respectively. Increasing active alkali and sulfidity loading has significantly increased lignin removal caused by disruption of the cell wall structure for releasing lignin into black liquor in the cellulose extraction. The enzymatic hydrolysis of pulp was carried out with cellulase loading of 40 FPU per g substrate in the shaking incubator at 50°C and 150 rpm for 78 h. For each 24 h, the reducing sugar yield (DNS assay) has been observed. Even though the lignin and hemicellulose loss occurred along with higher active alkali loading, this condition tends to decrease its yield. The reducing sugar concentration varied between 7-8 g/L. Increasing active alkali and sulfidity was significantly decreased the reducing sugar per biomass. Pulp delignified by 17% active alkali and 20% sulfidity has demonstrated the maximum reducing sugar yield per biomass of 45.57% resulted after 72 h enzymatic hydrolysis. These results indicated that kraft pulping was success to degrade more lignin and hemicellulose content to facilitate the enzyme for breaking down the cellulose into its sugar monomer. A high loss of lignin and hemicellulose are not single factor to improve digestibility of SSB. This sugar has potential for yeast fermented into bioethanol.

  7. Swine production.

    Plain, Ronald L; Lawrence, John D

    2003-07-01

    The US swine industry is large and growing. The quantity of pork desired by consumers of US pork is growing at the rate of 1.5%/y. New production systems and new technology have enabled production per sow to grow at a rate of 4% annually in recent years. Consequently, the number of sows in the United States is declining. Because productivity growth is outpacing demand growth, the deflated price of hogs and pork is declining. Hog production and prices continue to exhibit strong seasonal and cyclic patterns. Pork production is usually lowest in the summer and highest in the fall. Production and prices tend to follow 4-year patterns. The US swine industry continues to evolve toward fewer and larger producers who rely on contracts for both hog production and marketing. In 2000, over half of the hogs marketed were from approximately 156 firms marketing more than 50,000 head annually. These producers finished 60% of their production in contract facilities. Over 90% of their marketings were under contract or were owned by a packer. These producers expressed a high level of satisfaction with hog production. Both they and their contract growers were satisfied with production contracts. These large producers were satisfied with their marketing contracts and planned to continue them in the future. The hog industry has changed a great deal in the last decade. There is little reason to believe this rapid rate of change will not continue. This swine industry is highly competitive and profit driven. Profit margins are too small to allow producers the luxury of ignoring new technology and innovative production systems. Consequently, hog production will continue its rapid evolution from traditional agriculture to typical industry.

  8. Managing the Trade-Public Health Linkage in Defence of Trade Liberalisation and National Sovereignty: An Appraisal of United States-Measures Affecting the Production and Sale of Clove Cigarettes

    Tapiwa Victor Warikandwa

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Under the legal framework of the World Trade Organisation (WTO, countries have great flexibility to unilaterally adopt environmental regulations that have effect within their territories only. However, the same discretion does not apply to measures that adversely affect imports or exports. An absence of clear guidelines on how to address some of the attendant issues poses challenges to the effectiveness of a trade-environment linkage. Not surprisingly, attempts to link the environment and trade have resulted in a number of jurisprudentially significant cases in which the WTO's Panel and Appellate Body have tried to address critical questions about the Organisation's capacity to address or manage legal or quasi-legal subjects falling outside the scope of its legal framework. In this regard the Panel and Appellate Body reports in the case of United States - Measures Affecting the Production and Sale of Clove Cigarettes (US-Clove Cigarettes have re-ignited the debate on the Organisation's existential challenge of balancing the rights of the sovereign to freely regulate matters pertaining to health or the environment within its domestic domain with the need to maintain the sanctity of the multilateral trade order. This article demonstrates that in the US-Clove Cigarettes case the WTO Panel and Appellate Body, whilst managing to successfully defend the integrity of WTO Member States' treaty commitments and the overarching importance of trade liberalisation within the organisation's policy foundations even in the context of public health-related regulations, failed to provide any substantive affirmation of the development-related challenges facing developing countries that are part of the WTO family.

  9. Acetone-butanol-ethanol production from corn stover pretreated by alkaline twin-screw extrusion pretreatment.

    Zhang, Yuedong; Hou, Tongang; Li, Bin; Liu, Chao; Mu, Xindong; Wang, Haisong

    2014-05-01

    In this study, the alkaline twin-screw extrusion pretreated corn stover was subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis after washing. The impact of solid loading and enzyme dose on enzymatic hydrolysis was investigated. It was found that 68.2 g/L of total fermentable sugar could be obtained after enzymatic hydrolysis with the solid loading of 10 %, while the highest sugar recovery of 91.07 % was achieved when the solid loading was 2 % with the cellulase dose of 24 FPU/g substrate. Subsequently, the hydrolyzate was fermented by Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824. The acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) production of the hydrolyzate was compared with the glucose, xylose and simulated hydrolyzate medium which have the same reducing sugar concentration. It was shown that 7.1 g/L butanol and 11.2 g/L ABE could be produced after 72 h fermentation for the hydrolyzate obtained from enzymatic hydrolysis with 6 % solid loading. This is comparable to the glucose and simulated hydrozate medium, and the overall ABE yield could reach 0.112 g/g raw corn stover.

  10. Statistical Optimization of Fermentation Conditions for Cellulase Production from Palm Oil Mill Effluent

    Jamal I. Daoud

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Palm oil mill effluent discharged by the oil palm industries is considered as the mixed of high polluted effluent which is abundant (about 20 million tonnes year-1 and its effect contributes to the serious environmental problems through the pollution of water bodies. Approach: The aim of this study was to identify the potential of low cost substrate such as Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME for the production of cellulase enzyme by liquid state bioconversion. The filamentous fungus Trichoderma harzianum was used for liquid state bioconversion of POME for cellulase production. Statistical optimization was carried out to evaluate the physico-chemical parameters (factors for maximum cellulase production by 2-level fractional factorial design with six central points. The polynomial regression model was developed using the experimental data including the effects of linear, quadratic and interaction of the factors. The factors involved were substrate (POME and co-substrate (wheat flour concentrations, temperature, pH, inoculum and agitation. Results: Statistical analysis showed that the optimum conditions were: Temperature of 30°C, substrate concentration of 2%, wheat flour concentration of 3%, pH of 4, inoculum of 3% and agitation of 200 rpm. Under these conditions, the model predicted the enzyme production to be about 14 FPU mL-1. Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA of the design showed a high coefficient of determination (R2 value of 0.999, thus ensuring a high satisfactory adjustment of the quadratic model with the experimental data. Conclusion/Recommendations: This study indicates a better solution for waste management through the utilization of POME for cellulase production that could be used in the industrial applications such as bioethanol production.

  11. United Arab Emirates.

    1985-02-01

    This discussion of the United Arab Emirates focuses on the following: the people; geography; history; government; political conditions; defense; the economy; foreign relations; and relations between the US and the United Arab Emirates. In 1983 the population was estimated at 1,194,000. In 1984 the annual growth rate was negative. Life expectancy is about 60 years. Fewer than 20% of the population are UAE citizens. Indigenous Emiris are Arab; the rest of the population includes significant numbers of other Arabs -- Palestinians, Egyptians, Jordanians, Yemenis, Omanis, as well as many Iranians, Pakistanis, Indians, and West Europeans, especially in Dubai. The UAE is in the eastern Arabian Peninsula, bounded on the north by the Persian Gulf. European and Arab pirates roamed the Trucial Coast area from the 17th century into the 19th century. Early British expeditions against the pirates led to further campaigns against their headquarters. Piracy continued intermittently until 1835, when the shaikhs agreed not to engage in hostilities at sea. Primarily in reaction to the ambitions of other European countries, the UK and the Trucial States established closer bonds in an 1892 treaty. In 1968 the British government announced its decision, reaffirmed in March 1971, to end the treaty relationship with the gulf shaikhdoms. When the British protective treaty with the Trucial Shaikhdoms ended on December 1, they became fully independent. On December 2, 1971, 6 of them entered into a union called the United Arab Emirates. The 7th, Ras al-Khaimah, joined in early 1972. Administratively, the UAE is a loose federation of 7 emirates, each with its own ruler. The pace at which local government in each emirate is evolving, from traditional to modern, is set primarily by the ruler. Under the provisional constitution of 1971, each emirate reserves considerable powers, including control over mineral rights, taxation, and police powers. In this milieu, the growth of federal powers has

  12. SEARCH FOR MICROORGANISMS IN UTENSILS, MILK AND CHEESE OF THE CRAFT PRODUCTION IN SMALL UNITS OF PRODUCTION IN SEROPÉDICA, RIO DE JANEIRO PESQUISA DE MICRORGANISMOS EM UTENSÍLIOS, LEITE E QUEIJOS DE PRODUÇÃO ARTESANAL EM UNIDADES DE PRODUÇÃO FAMILIAR NO MUNICÍPIO DE SEROPÉDICA, RIO DE JANEIRO.

    Paulo de Tarso Landgraf Botteon

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This work was performed in order to evaluate the hygienical and sanitary features of homemade production of “Minas Frescal” cheese in small units of production in Seropédica, RJ. Samples of subclinical and clinical mastitic cows milk, production stuffs and cheese were analyzed. Several microorganisms were detected in 100% of the samples, including Salmonella spp. in a sample of cheese. The main isolated agents were Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus schleiferi coagulans, Staphylococcus spp., Enterobacter spp., Enterobacter aerogenes, Bacillus spp., Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus uberis, Streptococcus spp. and Micrococcus spp. Microorganisms were isolated from the milk of clinical and subclinical mastitis cows, the production stuffs and storage and also from the cheese, confirming the inadequate thermic treatment and hygienic procedures of the utensils. The inadequate hygienic quality of the homemade cheese evaluated is of concern once the isolated microorganisms represent potential hazards to health and the product sale is direct to the consumers.

    KEY WORDS: Food safety, homemade cheese, hygienic quality.
    Este trabalho foi desenvolvido para avaliar aspectos higiênico-sanitários da produção artesanal de queijo minas frescal em pequenas unidades de produção em um assentamento de reforma agrária em Seropédica, RJ. Analisaram-se amostras de leite, queijo e utensílios utilizados em diferentes etapas da linha de produção. Verificou-se a presença de microrganismos diversos, incluindo-se Salmonella spp. em uma amostra de queijo. Os principais agentes isolados foram Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus schleiferi coagulans, Staphylococcus spp., Enterobacter spp., Enterobacter aerogenes, Bacillus spp, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus uberis, Streptococcus spp. e Micrococcus spp. Isolaram-se microrganismos de quartos mamários de vacas com mastite clínica ou subcl

  13. Slices in the unit ball of the symmetric tensor product of mathcal{C}(K) and L 1(μ) Proyecto de Excelencia” FQM-01438. The second author was partially supported by Junta de Andalucía grants FQM-0199 and FQM-1215, and MTM-2006-15546-C02-02.->

    Acosta, María D.; Becerra Guerrero, Julio

    2009-04-01

    We prove that for the cases X=mathcal{C}(K) ( K infinite) and X= L 1(μ) (μ σ-finite and atomless) it holds that every slice of the unit ball of the N-fold symmetric tensor product of X has diameter two. In fact, we prove more general results for weak neighborhoods relative to the unit ball. As a consequence, we deduce that the spaces of N-homogeneous polynomials on those classical Banach spaces have no points of Fréchet differentiability.

  14. Economical analysis and study on a solar desalination unit

    Based on the calculation of the single-factor impact values of the parameters of a triple tower-type solar desalination unit on the cost of fresh water production by utilizing a single-factor analyzing method, the influences of the cost of solar heating system, the cost of hot water tank, the costs...... of desalination unit and electrical power, the life time of solar desalination unit and the yearly yield of fresh water, on the cost of the fresh water production of the solar desalination unit are studied. It is helpful for the further investigation of solar desalination and for reducing the cost of fresh water...... production for solar desalination units....

  15. 17 CFR 229.1204 - (Item 1204) Oil and gas production, production prices and production costs.

    2010-04-01

    ... price (including transfers) per unit of oil, gas and other products produced; and (2) The average... conversion to synthetic oil or gas, the product's production, transfer prices, and production costs should be disclosed separately from all other products. Instruction 4 to Item 1204: The transfer price of oil and...

  16. NSP Production Reports

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — NSP Production Reports contain cumulative data on units assisted with NSP funds. An NSP grantee reports on the accomplishment of an activity when it meets an End...

  17. Peanut Product Recalls

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes human and pet food subject to recall in the United States since January 2009 related to peanut products distributed by Peanut Corporation of...

  18. Capital productivity and the nature of competition

    Börsch-Supan, Axel

    1997-01-01

    This paper measures capital productivity in West Germany, Japan and the United States and links capital productivity to financial performance. We show that West Germany and Japan have significantly lower levels of capital productivity than the United States, mainly due to lower capital utilization but also because less productive capacity was created per unit of physical assets. On a higher level of causality, we show that this mainly comes from less pressure from product market competition a...

  19. Strategic renewal for business units.

    Whitney, J O

    1996-01-01

    Over the past decade, business units have increasingly taken the role of strategy formulation away from corporate headquarters. The change makes sense: business units are closer to customers, competitors, and costs. Nevertheless, business units can fail, just as headquarters once did, by losing their focus on the organization's priorities and capabilities. John Whitney--turnaround expert and professor of management at Columbia University--offers a method for refocusing companies that he calls the strategic-renewal process. The principles behind the process are straightforward, but its execution demands extensive data, rigorous analysis, and the judgment of key decision makers. However, when applied with diligence, it can produce a strategy that yields both growth and profit. To carry out the process, managers must analyze, one by one or in logical groupings, the company's customers, the products it sells, and the services it offers in light of three criteria: strategic importance, significance, and profitability. Does a given customer, product, or service mesh with the organization's goals? Is it significant in terms of current and future revenues? And is it truly profitable when all costs are care fully considered? Customers, products, and services that do not measure up, says the author, must be weeded out relentlessly. Although the process is a painstaking one, the article offers clear thinking on why-and how-to go about it. A series of exhibits takes managers through the questions they need to raise, and two matrices offer Whitney's concentrated wisdom on when to cultivate--and when to prune.

  20. Alternative Fuel from Biomass:Experiences and Inspirations of Alternative Fuel Production in the United States of America%关于发展生物质替代燃料的讨论--美国替代燃料生产经验对中国的启示

    张丽丽; 张东杰

    2014-01-01

    介绍了美国发展粮食乙醇的历史、现状及世界各国对美国继续发展该产业的担忧和质疑,分析了中国未来大规模发展生物质替代燃料的途径选择:走出一条不同于美国或巴西的发展道路。%The history and current status of grain-based ethanol production in the United States of America is introduced and analyzed , which has raised great anxieties and questions among countries over the world about the future develop -ment of such industry in the United States .It shows that the massive development of alternative fuel from biomass in Chi-na should be in a different path from the United States or Brazil .

  1. Use of a new Trichoderma harzianum strain isolated from the Amazon rainforest with pretreated sugar cane bagasse for on-site cellulase production.

    Delabona, Priscila da Silva; Farinas, Cristiane Sanchez; da Silva, Mateus Ribeiro; Azzoni, Sindelia Freitas; Pradella, José Geraldo da Cruz

    2012-03-01

    The on-site production of cellulases is an important strategy for the development of sustainable second-generation ethanol production processes. This study concerns the use of a specific cellulolytic enzyme complex for hydrolysis of pretreated sugar cane bagasse. Glycosyl hydrolases (FPase, xylanase, and β-glucosidase) were produced using a new strain of Trichoderma harzianum, isolated from the Amazon rainforest and cultivated under different conditions. The influence of the carbon source was first investigated using shake-flask cultures. Selected carbon sources were then further studied under different pH conditions using a stirred tank bioreactor. Enzymatic activities up to 121 FPU/g, 8000 IU/g, and 1730 IU/g of delignified steam-exploded bagasse+sucrose were achieved for cellulase, xylanase and β-glucosidase, respectively. This enzymatic complex was used to hydrolyze pretreated sugar cane bagasse. A comparative evaluation, using an enzymatic extract from Trichoderma reesei RUTC30, indicated similar performance of the T. harzianum enzyme complex, being a potential candidate for on-site production of enzymes.

  2. Unit Cost Compendium Calculations

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Unit Cost Compendium (UCC) Calculations raw data set was designed to provide for greater accuracy and consistency in the use of unit costs across the USEPA...

  3. Malaria Treatment (United States)

    ... a CDC Malaria Branch clinician. malaria@cdc.gov Malaria Treatment (United States) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Treatment of Malaria: Guidelines For Clinicians (United States) Download PDF version ...

  4. United Cerebral Palsy

    ... be sure to follow us on Twitter . United Cerebral Palsy UCP educates, advocates and provides support services to ... Partners Merz Logo Sprint Relay Copyright © 2015 United Cerebral Palsy 1825 K Street NW Suite 600 Washington, DC ...

  5. Ionic liquid pretreatment of biomass for sugars production: Driving factors with a plausible mechanism for higher enzymatic digestibility.

    Raj, Tirath; Gaur, Ruchi; Dixit, Pooja; Gupta, Ravi P; Kagdiyal, V; Kumar, Ravindra; Tuli, Deepak K

    2016-09-20

    In this study, five ionic liquids (ILs) have been explored for biomass pretreatment for the production of fermentable sugar. We also investigated the driving factors responsible for improved enzymatic digestibility of various ILs treated biomass along with postulating the plausible mechanism thereof. Post pretreatment, mainly two factors impacted the enzymatic digestibility (i) structural deformation (cellulose I to II) along with xylan/lignin removal and (ii) properties of ILs; wherein, K-T parameters, viscosity and surface tension had a direct influence on pretreatment. A systematic investigation of these parameters and their impact on enzymatic digestibility is drawn. [C2mim][OAc] with β-value 1.32 resulted 97.7% of glucose yield using 10 FPU/g of biomass. A closer insight into the cellulose structural transformation has prompted a plausible mechanism explaining the better digestibility. The impact of these parameters on the digestibility can pave the way to customize the process to make biomass vulnerable to enzymatic attack.

  6. Unitals in Projective Planes

    Barwick, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Unitals are key structures in projective planes, and have connections with other structures in algebra. This book presents a monograph on unitals embedded in finite projective planes. It offers a survey of the research literature on embedded unitals. It is suitable for graduate students and researchers who want to learn about this topic

  7. Importancia del bienestar animal en las unidades de producción animal en México - Importance of animal welfare in units of animal production in México

    Córdova Izquierdo, Alejandro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEn la actualidad, el bienestar animal (BA, es un tema de vitalimportancia a tomar en cuenta en las Unidades de Producción Animal(UPAS, cuya importancia está relacionado con el trato que el hombrele proporciona a los animales, tanto en la movilización para el manejoen las UPAS y el transporte para el sacrificio, en cualquier parte delmundo. Mediante el uso de conocimientos científicos, relacionadoscon la importancia que tienen el BA para el buen desempeñoreproductivo y productivo de los animales de granja; estosconocimientos, deben estar enfocados a proporcionar mejorpreparación y concientización del personal que está en contactodirecto con los animales, cuyos beneficios están enfocados paraobtener mejores resultados de importancia económica para losproductores ganaderos, sin perjudicar el BA los animales, así como elcuidado al medio ambiente en donde se encuentran ubicadas las UPAS. En este trabajo, se describen los puntos más importantes aconsiderar que se deben llevar a cabo en las UPAS en todo el mundo;medidas que se están tomando para legislar en relación al BA ycuidado del medio ambiente. Se describen los siguientes puntos:factores que determinan el bienestar animal, tales como manejo,instalaciones, clima y transporte. También se menciona situacionesque pueden conducir al fracaso del BA; efectos del BA sobre losanimales, como: comportamiento reproductivo, ciclo estral ypubertad; mecanismos fisiológicos del estrés ante el BA; postuladosde BA en los animales de granja; importancia del Médico Veterinariopara el BA y la situación del BA en México.SummaryAt present, animal welfare (AW, is a topic of vital importance to take into account in the Animal Production Units (APUS, whoseimportance is related to the treatment that the man gives theanimals, both in mobilization for the managing APUS and transportfor slaughter, anywhere in the world. Through the use of scientificknowledge related to the importance of AW for the

  8. Major Technical Measures for Revamp of FCC Units in China

    Li Wenjie

    2003-01-01

    FCC units are playing an important role at refineries, in particular at Chinese refineries. To cope with the current demand for better economic benefits, environmental protection and product slate adjustment, a host of FCC units need to be technically revamped. This article describes the practical processes, technologies and equipment to serve different revamp targets with analysis of two examples on revamp of commercial units.

  9. Mobile contingency unit

    Silva, Sergio O. da; Magalhaes, Milton P. de [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Junqueira, Rodrigo A.; Torres, Carlos A.R. [PETROBRAS Transporte S/A (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This paper is aimed at presenting what is already a reality in TRANSPETRO in the area covered by OSBRA, a pipeline that carries by-products to the Mid-West region of Brazil. In order to meet the needs of covering occasional accidents, TRANSPETRO counts on a standardized system of emergency management. It is a great challenge to secure an efficient communication along the 964 km of extension, considering that there are shadow zones where it is not possible to use conventional means of communication such as mobile telephony and internet. It was in this context that the Mobile Contingency Unit Via Satellite - MCU was developed, to extend the communication facilities existing in fixed installations to remote places, mainly the pipeline right of ways. In case of emergency, simulation and work in the pipeline right of way, MCU is fully able to provide the same data, voice, closed-circuit TV and satellite video conference facilities that are available in any internal area of the PETROBRAS system. (author)

  10. Ethanol production from cashew apple bagasse: improvement of enzymatic hydrolysis by microwave-assisted alkali pretreatment.

    Rodrigues, Tigressa Helena Soares; Rocha, Maria Valderez Ponte; de Macedo, Gorete Ribeiro; Gonçalves, Luciana R B

    2011-07-01

    In this work, the potential of microwave-assisted alkali pretreatment in order to improve the rupture of the recalcitrant structures of the cashew able bagasse (CAB), lignocellulosic by-product in Brazil with no commercial value, is obtained from cashew apple process to juice production, was studied. First, biomass composition of CAB was determined, and the percentage of glucan and lignin was 20.54 ± 0.70% and 33.80 ± 1.30%, respectively. CAB content in terms of cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin, 19.21 ± 0.35%, 12.05 ± 0.37%, and 38.11 ± 0.08%, respectively, was also determined. Results showed that, after enzymatic hydrolysis, alkali concentration exerted influence on glucose formation, after pretreatment with 0.2 and 1.0 mo L(-1) of NaOH (372 ± 12 and 355 ± 37 mg g(glucan)(-1) ) when 2% (w/v) of cashew apple bagasse pretreated by microwave-assisted alkali pretreatment (CAB-M) was used. On the other hand, pretreatment time (15-30 min) and microwave power (600-900 W) exerted no significant effect on hydrolysis. On enzymatic hydrolysis step, improvement on solid percentage (16% w/v) and enzyme load (30 FPU g (CAB-M) (-1) ) increased glucose concentration to 15 g L(-1). The fermentation of the hydrolyzate by Saccharomyces cerevesiae resulted in ethanol concentration and productivity of 5.6 g L(-1) and 1.41 g L(-1) h(-1), respectively.

  11. The voluntary control of facial action units in adults.

    Gosselin, Pierre; Perron, Mélanie; Beaupré, Martin

    2010-04-01

    We investigated adults' voluntary control of 20 facial action units theoretically associated with 6 basic emotions (happiness, fear, anger, surprise, sadness, and disgust). Twenty young adults were shown video excerpts of facial action units and asked to reproduce them as accurately as possible. Facial Action Coding System (FACS; Ekman & Friesen, 1978a) coding of the facial productions showed that young adults succeeded in activating 18 of the 20 target actions units, although they often coactivated other action units. Voluntary control was clearly better for some action units than for others, with a pattern of differences between action units consistent with previous work in children and adolescents.

  12. Ambient Cured Alkali Activated Flyash Masonry Units

    Venugopal, K.; Radhakrishna; Sasalatti, Vinod M.

    2016-09-01

    Geopolymers belong to a category of non-conventional and non-Portland cement based cementitious binders which are produced using industrial by products like fly ash and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS). This paper reports on the development of geopolymer mortars for production of masonry units. The geopolymer mortars were prepared by mixing various by products with manufactured sand and a liquid mixture of sodium silicate and sodium hydroxide solutions. After curing at ambient conditions, the masonry units were tested for strength properties such as water absorption, initial rate of absorption, compression, shear- bond, and stress-strain behaviour etc. It was observed that the flexural strength of the blocks is more than 2 MPa and shear bond strength is more than 0.4MPa. It was found that the properties of geopolymer blocks were superior to the traditional masonry units. Hence they can be recommended for structural masonry.

  13. Periodic peristalsis increasing acetone-butanol-ethanol productivity during simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of steam-exploded corn straw.

    Li, Jingwen; Wang, Lan; Chen, Hongzhang

    2016-11-01

    The acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation of lignocellulose at high solids content has recently attracted extensive attention. However, the productivity of high solids ABE fermentation of lignocellulose is typically low in traditional processes due to the lack of efficient intensifying methods. In the present study, periodic peristalsis, a novel intensifying method, was applied to improve ABE production by the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of steam-exploded corn straw using Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC824. The ABE concentration and the ABE productivity of SSF at a solids content of 17.5% (w/w) with periodic peristalsis were 17.1 g/L and 0.20 g/(L h), respectively, which were higher than those obtained under static conditions (15.2 g/L and 0.14 g/(L h)). The initial sugar conversion rate over the first 12 h with periodic peristalsis was 4.67 g/(L h) at 10 FPU/g cellulase dosage and 15% (w/w) solids content, an increase of 49.7% compared with the static conditions. With periodic peristalsis, the period of batch fermentation was shortened from 108 h to 84 h. The optimal operating regime was a low frequency (6 h(-1)) of periodic peristalsis in the acid-production phase (0-48 h) of SSF. Therefore, periodic peristalsis should be an effective intensifying method to increase the productivity of ABE fermentation at high solids content.

  14. CRITICAL UNIT STREAM POWER FOR SEDIMENT TRANSPORT

    2003-01-01

    Yang's (1996) sediment transport theory based on unit stream power is one of the most accurate theories, but in his equations the use of product of slope and critical velocity instead for critical unit stream power is not suitable. Dimensionless critical unit stream power required at incipient motion can be derived from the principle of conservation of power as a function of dimensionless particle diameter and relative roughness. Based on a lot of data sets, this new criterion was developed. By use of this new criteria, Yang's (1973) sand transport formula and his 1984 gravel transport formula could be improved when sediment concentration is less than about 100 ppm by weight.

  15. Product Platform Modeling

    Pedersen, Rasmus

    on the notion that reuse and encapsulation of platform elements are fundamental characteristics of a product platform. Reuse covers the desire to reuse and share certain assets across a family of products and/or across generations of products. Product design solutions and principles are often regarded...... as important assets in a product platform, yet activities, working patterns, processes and knowledge can also be reused in a platform approach. Encapsulation is seen as a process in which the different elements of a platform are grouped into well defined and self-contained units which are decoupled from each......This PhD thesis has the title Product Platform Modelling. The thesis is about product platforms and visual product platform modelling. Product platforms have gained an increasing attention in industry and academia in the past decade. The reasons are many, yet the increasing globalisation...

  16. ENERGY STAR Unit Reports

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — These quarterly Federal Fiscal Year performance reports track the ENERGY STAR qualified HOME units that Participating Jurisdictions record in HUD's Integrated...

  17. 31 CFR 535.321 - United States; continental United States.

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 535.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof including the Trust Territory...

  18. 31 CFR 515.321 - United States; continental United States.

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 515.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof, including the Trust Territory...

  19. 31 CFR 500.321 - United States; continental United States.

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 500.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof, including U.S. trust...

  20. Is an organic nitrogen source needed for cellulase production by Trichoderma reesei Rut-C30?

    Rodríguez Gómez, Divanery; Hobley, Timothy John

    2013-01-01

    of individual organic nitrogen sources (soy peptone, glutamate, glycine and alanine) within a basal medium containing Avicel (i.e. micro crystalline cellulose) and ammonium sulphate. It was found that in the shake flask experiments, the highest cellulase activities (~0.1 ± 0.02 FPU ml−1) were obtained...

  1. REACH. Air Conditioning Units.

    Garrison, Joe; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of air conditioning. The instructional units focus on air conditioning fundamentals, window air conditioning, system and installation, troubleshooting and…

  2. REACH. Refrigeration Units.

    Snow, Rufus; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of refrigeration. The instructional units focus on refrigeration fundamentals, tubing and pipe, refrigerants, troubleshooting, window air conditioning, and…

  3. Conflict Resolution Unit.

    Busselle, Tish

    This 7-day unit, intended for use with secondary students, contains a statement of rationale and objectives, lesson plans, class assignments, teacher and student bibliographies, and suggestions for instructional materials on conflict resolution between individuals, groups, and nations. Among the six objectives listed for the unit are: 1) explain…

  4. Novel clostridial fusants in comparison with co-cultured counterpart species for enhanced production of biobutanol using green renewable and sustainable feedstock.

    Syed, Kashif; Dahman, Yaser

    2015-11-01

    In this work, biobutanol was produced through simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of wheat straw (WS) that traditionally produces acetone, butanol and ethanol solvents (ABE). Thermal stability was imparted to two mesophilic clostridial wild strains (Clostridium beijerinckii and Clostridium acetobutylicum) through protoplast fusion with that of a corresponding thermophilic clostridial species (Clostridium thermocellum). Production was pursued by the fused strains at 45 °C compared to that of the corresponding co-cultures at 35 °C. Results showed that the fused strains generally achieved higher production at 45 °C than that of the corresponding co-cultures at 35 °C. Highest butanol production of 13.82 g/L was recorded with C. beijerinckii fusant, with ABE solvents production of 23 g/L (yields of 0.17 and 0.57, respectively). Total sugar consumption of this strain was the highest among all strains and was 84%. Fused strains also showed immense level of tolerance towards butanol toxicity compared to the wild strains. Filter paper enzyme assay demonstrated that fused strains were able to produce cellulolytic enzymes in the range of 58.73-68.52 FPU/ml. Cellulosome producing C. thermocellum and its ability to ferment sugars offers a promising future in biofuels through eliminating the need to add external enzymes. Generally, productions reported in the present study were higher than literature where biobutanol stripping systems were employed to eliminate toxicity during production. This demonstrates a clear potential for improving productivity and yield at a larger-scale facility.

  5. Autohydrolysis Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Biomass for Bioethanol Production

    Han, Qiang

    Autohydrolysis, a simple and environmental friendly process, has long been studied but often abandoned as a financially viable pretreatment for bioethanol production due to the low yields of fermentable sugars at economic enzyme dosages. The introduction of mechanical refining can generate substantial improvements for autohydrolysis process, making it an attractive pretreatment technology for bioethanol commercialization. In this study, several lignocellulosic biomass including wheat straw, switchgrass, corn stover, waste wheat straw have been subjected to autohydrolysis pretreatment followed by mechanical refining to evaluate the total sugar recovery at affordable enzyme dosages. Encouraging results have been found that using autohydrolysis plus refining strategy, the total sugar recovery of most feedstock can be as high as 76% at 4 FPU/g enzymes dosages. The mechanical refining contributed to the improvement of enzymatic sugar yield by as much as 30%. Three non-woody biomass (sugarcane bagasse, wheat straw, and switchgrass) and three woody biomass (maple, sweet gum, and nitens) have been subjected to autohydrolysis pretreatment to acquire a fundamental understanding of biomass characteristics that affect the autohydrolysis and the following enzymatic hydrolysis. It is of interest to note that the nonwoody biomass went through substantial delignification during autohydrolysis compared to woody biomass due to a significant amount of p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid. It has been found that hardwood which has a higher S/V ratio in the lignin structure tends to have a higher total sugar recovery from autohydrolysis pretreatment. The economics of bioethanol production from autohydrolysis of different feedstocks have been investigated. Regardless of different feedstocks, in the conventional design, producing bioethanol and co-producing steam and power, the minimum ethanol revenues (MER) required to generate a 12% internal rate of return (IRR) are high enough to

  6. Application of method of operational research (DEA in the performance evaluation of production units for area vocational education Aplicação de método de pesquisa operacional (DEA na avaliação de desempenho de unidades produtivas para área de educação profissional

    João Roberto Lorenzett

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The Data Envelopment Analysis (Data Envelopment Analysis - DEA has been extensively used as management support, in estimating the relative performance of production units similar. Particularly has been applied to companies that work using multiple inputs to produce multiple products, for which it is difficult to assign prices or weights. The study is an exploratory, descriptive and evaluative. The techniques of data collection were observation, document analysis and literature review. The information collected is treated in a qualitative and quantitative. This paper presents a case study of applying this method to a nonprofit corporation, the area of professional education and technical and technological services (SENAI, the National Service of Industrial Learning. It studies the replacement of existing procedures for evaluating performance of production units, including operational aspects, financial and management. Assesses the performance of 21 operating units of SENAI two perspectives: financial and quality. The DEA model chosen is variable returns to scale -oriented product (CCB. The results show that 33.3% of the units are efficient in the financial perspective, 42.8% are from the perspective of quality, and 19, 0% of total units are effective from both perspectives. We conclude that the DEA model is appropriate for performance evaluation of the operational units of SENAI provides valuable results for the managers of the institution such as setting goals and identifying benchmarks for the inefficient units.A Análise Envoltória de Dados (Data Envelopment Analysis - DEA tem sido extensivamente utilizada como apoio à gestão, na estimativa do desempenho relativo de unidades produtivas semelhantes entre si. Particularmente, vem sendo aplicada a empresas que trabalham utilizando múltiplos insumos para a produção de múltiplos produtos, p ara os quais é difícil designar preços ou pesos. O estudo é do tipo exploratório, descritivo e

  7. Interação genótipo × ambiente para produção de leite de bovinos da raça Holandesa entre bacias leiteiras no estado do Paraná Genotype × environment interaction for milk yield of Holstein cows among dairy production units in the state of Paraná

    Meiby Carneiro de Paula

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisados 117.082 registros de lactações encerradas para a produção de leite corrigida para os 305 dias de lactação (PL305 de 49.676 vacas da raça Holandesa, provenientes de 308 rebanhos distribuídos em sete bacias leiteiras no estado do Paraná, com o objetivo de verificar a existência de interação genótipo × ambiente para a PL305 desses animais utilizando-se a inferência Bayesiana. Todos os animais foram controlados oficialmente entre janeiro de 1992 a dezembro de 2003 pelo Serviço de Controle Leiteiro Mensal da Associação Paranaense de Criadores de Bovinos da Raça Holandesa. Os componentes de co-variância e os parâmetros genéticos foram estimados por meio de análises uni e multicaracteres, de modo que, na análise multicaracter, a PL305 em cada uma das bacias foi tratada como uma característica diferente. A produção de leite corrigida para os 305 de lactação, em kg, nas bacias leiteiras de Castro, Carambeí, Witmarsum, Arapoti, Sul, Norte e Oeste foram de 8.414 ± 1.825, 8.481 ± 2.010, 7.636 ± 1.594, 7.850 ± 1.795, 8.617 ± 2.050, 7.401 ± 1.809 e 7.336 ± 2.456, respectivamente. A estimativa de herdabilidade mais alta (0,39 foi obtida para a bacia leiteira do Oeste e a mais baixa (0,23 para a de Carambeí. As correlações genéticas obtidas entre as bacias leiteiras foram baixas (0,09 a 0,57. As correlações de Pearson e de Spearman mais baixas foram obtidas para a bacia leiteira do Oeste do Paraná e variaram de 0,37 a 0,41 e de 0,37 a 0,49, respectivamente. Esses resultados comprovam a existência de interação genótipo × ambiente nas bacias leiteiras do estado do Paraná.It was analyzed 117,082 complete lactation records adjusted for 305 days in milk yield (MY305 of 49,676 Holsteins cows from 308 herds distributed among seven dairy production units in the state of Paraná, Brazil. The objective was to verify the genotype × environment interaction to MY305 of Holsteins cows between dairy

  8. Zero Triple Product Determined Matrix Algebras

    Hongmei Yao

    2012-01-01

    triple product in the aforementioned definition is replaced by Jordan triple product, then A is called zero Jordan triple product determined. This paper mainly shows that matrix algebra Mn(B, n≥3, where B is any commutative unital algebra even different from the above mentioned commutative unital algebra C, is always zero triple product determined, and Mn(F, n≥3, where F is any field with chF≠2, is also zero Jordan triple product determined.

  9. Proactive Risk Assessments and the Continuity of Business Principles: Perspectives on This Novel, Combined Approach to Develop Guidance for the Permitted Movement of Agricultural Products during a Foot-and-Mouth Disease Outbreak in the United States.

    Goldsmith, Timothy J; Culhane, Marie Rene; Sampedro, Fernando; Cardona, Carol J

    2016-01-01

    Animal diseases such as foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) have the potential to severely impact food animal production systems. Paradoxically, the collateral damage associated with the outbreak response may create a larger threat to the food supply, social stability, and economic viability of rural communities than the disease itself. When FMD occurs in domestic animals, most developed countries will implement strict movement controls in the area surrounding the infected farm(s). Historically, stopping all animal movements has been considered one of the most effective ways to control FMD and stop disease spread. However, stopping all movements in an area comes at a cost, as there are often uninfected herds and flocks within the control area. The inability to harvest uninfected animals and move their products to processing interrupts the food supply chain and has the potential to result in an enormous waste of safe, nutritious animal products, and create animal welfare situations. In addition, these adverse effects may negatively impact agriculture businesses and the related economy. Effective disease control measures and the security of the food supply thus require a balanced approach based on science and practicality. Evaluating the risks associated with the movement of live animals and products before an outbreak happens provides valuable insights for risk management plans. These plans can optimize animal and product movements while preventing disease spread. Food security benefits from emergency response plans that both control the disease and keep our food system functional. Therefore, emergency response plans must aim to minimize the unintended negative consequence to farmers, food processors, rural communities, and ultimately consumers.

  10. Proactive Risk Assessments and the Continuity of Business Principles: Perspectives on This Novel, Combined Approach to Develop Guidance for the Permitted Movement of Agricultural Products during a Foot-and-Mouth Disease Outbreak in the United States

    Goldsmith, Timothy J.; Culhane, Marie Rene; Sampedro, Fernando; Cardona, Carol J.

    2017-01-01

    Animal diseases such as foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) have the potential to severely impact food animal production systems. Paradoxically, the collateral damage associated with the outbreak response may create a larger threat to the food supply, social stability, and economic viability of rural communities than the disease itself. When FMD occurs in domestic animals, most developed countries will implement strict movement controls in the area surrounding the infected farm(s). Historically, stopping all animal movements has been considered one of the most effective ways to control FMD and stop disease spread. However, stopping all movements in an area comes at a cost, as there are often uninfected herds and flocks within the control area. The inability to harvest uninfected animals and move their products to processing interrupts the food supply chain and has the potential to result in an enormous waste of safe, nutritious animal products, and create animal welfare situations. In addition, these adverse effects may negatively impact agriculture businesses and the related economy. Effective disease control measures and the security of the food supply thus require a balanced approach based on science and practicality. Evaluating the risks associated with the movement of live animals and products before an outbreak happens provides valuable insights for risk management plans. These plans can optimize animal and product movements while preventing disease spread. Food security benefits from emergency response plans that both control the disease and keep our food system functional. Therefore, emergency response plans must aim to minimize the unintended negative consequence to farmers, food processors, rural communities, and ultimately consumers. PMID:28097122

  11. U.S. Food Safety and Inspection Service testing for Salmonella in selected raw meat and poultry products in the United States, 1998 through 2003: analysis of set results.

    Naugle, Alecia Larew; Barlow, Kristina E; Eblen, Denise R; Teter, Vanessa; Umholtz, Robert

    2006-11-01

    The U.S. Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) tests sets of samples of selected raw meat and poultry products for Salmonella to ensure that federally inspected establishments meet performance standards defined in the pathogen reduction-hazard analysis and critical control point system (PR-HACCP) final rule. In the present report, sample set results are described and associations between set failure and set and establishment characteristics are identified for 4,607 sample sets collected from 1998 through 2003. Sample sets were obtained from seven product classes: broiler chicken carcasses (n = 1,010), cow and bull carcasses (n = 240), market hog carcasses (n = 560), steer and heifer carcasses (n = 123), ground beef (n = 2,527), ground chicken (n = 31), and ground turkey (n = 116). Of these 4,607 sample sets, 92% (4,255) were collected as part of random testing efforts (A sets), and 93% (4,166) passed. However, the percentage of positive samples relative to the maximum number of positive results allowable in a set increased over time for broilers but decreased or stayed the same for the other product classes. Three factors associated with set failure were identified: establishment size, product class, and year. Set failures were more likely early in the testing program (relative to 2003). Small and very small establishments were more likely to fail than large ones. Set failure was less likely in ground beef than in other product classes. Despite an overall decline in set failures through 2003, these results highlight the need for continued vigilance to reduce Salmonella contamination in broiler chicken and continued implementation of programs designed to assist small and very small establishments with PR-HACCP compliance issues.

  12. 21 CFR 26.44 - Transmission of product evaluation reports.

    2010-04-01

    ... AUDIT REPORTS, AND CERTAIN MEDICAL DEVICE PRODUCT EVALUATION REPORTS: UNITED STATES AND THE EUROPEAN.... Transmission of product evaluation reports will take place according to the importing party's...

  13. Economical analysis and study on a solar desalination unit

    Chen, Ziqian; He, Xiaorong; Wang, Tiezhu; Chen, Zhunling; Zheng, Hongfei

    2010-01-01

    Based on the calculation of the single-factor impact values of the parameters of a triple tower-type solar desalination unit on the cost of fresh water production by utilizing a single-factor analyzing method, the influences of the cost of solar heating system, the cost of hot water tank, the costs of desalination unit and electrical power, the life time of solar desalination unit and the yearly yield of fresh water, on the cost of the fresh water production of the solar desalination unit are...

  14. United nations Orchestra

    MusiClub

    MusiClub United nations Orchestra www.ungenevaorchestra.ch An organizing committee has taken the initiative to create an Orchestra of the united nations at Geneva. In the context of this initiative, musicians in the following categories are invited to become members of the Orchestra and the Association: Active or retired staff of International organizations in Geneva; Active or retired employees of Permanent Missions to the United Nations at Geneva; as well as children and spouses of the above persons. For enrolment or for additional information, please contact: un.orchestra@yahoo.com

  15. Reduction of the complexity of product modelling by modularisation

    Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    1998-01-01

    The complexity in handling product aspects in design and production may be reduced by using approaches, which are applied in the field of modular engineering. This unit-oriented "spelling" of products, leading to product models with encapsulation, is introduced.......The complexity in handling product aspects in design and production may be reduced by using approaches, which are applied in the field of modular engineering. This unit-oriented "spelling" of products, leading to product models with encapsulation, is introduced....

  16. China National United Oil Corporation in Progress

    Ge Dongmei

    1997-01-01

    @@ Approved by the State Council and jointly established by China National Petroleum Corp.(CNPC) and China National Chemicals Import and Export Corp.(Sinochem), China National United Oil Corporation (Chinaoil) is an enterprise integrating trade and industrial production. It established itself on January 8,1993.

  17. Establishment and Application of Flow and Lift Calculation Model of the Variable Frequency Pump Unit in Oil Product Pipeline Station%管道站场变频输油泵机组流量扬程计算模型的确立及应用

    于倩秀

    2014-01-01

    The model building process of flow and lift mathematical model of the variable frequency pump unit in oil product pipeline station was introduced, and the model was used to launch a concrete analysis of fuel delivery unit, optimized results were in accord with factual conditions, which indicates that this model can be used in an effective mathematical modeling towards the total flow rate, lift and rotation rate functional dependency in fuel delivery units..%阐述了成品油管道站场输油泵机组流量扬程数学模型的建模过程,运用该模型对某输油站场进行了具体分析,优选结果与实际相符,表明采用该模型可以对输油站场泵机组的总流量、扬程、转速依赖函数进行有效的数学建模。。

  18. Proactive Risk Assessments and the Continuity of Business Principles: Perspectives on This Novel, Combined Approach to Develop Guidance for the Permitted Movement of Agricultural Products during a Foot-and-Mouth Disease Outbreak in the United States

    Goldsmith, Timothy J.; Culhane, Marie Rene; Sampedro, Fernando; Cardona, Carol J.

    2017-01-01

    Animal diseases such as foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) have the potential to severely impact food animal production systems. Paradoxically, the collateral damage associated with the outbreak response may create a larger threat to the food supply, social stability, and economic viability of rural communities than the disease itself. When FMD occurs in domestic animals, most developed countries will implement strict movement controls in the area surrounding the infected farm(s). Historically, sto...

  19. Occurrence and human exposure of p-hydroxybenzoic acid esters (parabens), bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE), and their hydrolysis products in indoor dust from the United States and three East Asian countries.

    Wang, Lei; Liao, Chunyang; Liu, Fang; Wu, Qian; Guo, Ying; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Nakata, Haruhiko; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2012-11-06

    p-Hydroxybenzoic acid esters (parabens) and bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) are widely present in personal care products, food packages, and material coatings. Nevertheless, little is known about the occurrence of these compounds in indoor dust. In this study, we collected 158 indoor dust samples from the U.S., China, Korea, and Japan and determined the concentrations of 11 target chemicals, viz., six parabens and their common hydrolysis product, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (4-HB), as well as BADGE and its three hydrolysis products (BADGE·H(2)O, BADGE·2H(2)O, and BADGE·HCl·H(2)O). All of the target compounds were found in dust samples from four countries. Concentrations of sum of six parabens in dust were on the order of several hundred to several thousands of nanogram per gram. Geometric mean concentrations of BADGEs in dust ranged from 1300 to 2890 ng/g among four countries. Methyl paraben (MeP), propyl paraben (PrP), BADGE·2H(2)O, and BADGE·HCl·H(2)O were the predominant compounds found in dust samples. This is the first report of BADGE and its hydrolysis products (BADGEs) in indoor dust samples and of parabens in indoor dust from Asian countries. On the basis of the measured concentrations of target chemicals, we estimated the daily intake (EDI) via dust ingestion. The EDIs of parabens via dust ingestion were 5-10 times higher in children than in adults. Among the four countries studied, the EDIs of parabens (5.4 ng/kg-bw/day) and BADGEs (6.5 ng/kg-bw/day) through dust ingestion were the highest for children in Korea and Japan.

  20. Voltage verification unit

    Martin, Edward J.

    2008-01-15

    A voltage verification unit and method for determining the absence of potentially dangerous potentials within a power supply enclosure without Mode 2 work is disclosed. With this device and method, a qualified worker, following a relatively simple protocol that involves a function test (hot, cold, hot) of the voltage verification unit before Lock Out/Tag Out and, and once the Lock Out/Tag Out is completed, testing or "trying" by simply reading a display on the voltage verification unit can be accomplished without exposure of the operator to the interior of the voltage supply enclosure. According to a preferred embodiment, the voltage verification unit includes test leads to allow diagnostics with other meters, without the necessity of accessing potentially dangerous bus bars or the like.