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Sample records for production unconventional natural

  1. unconventional natural gas reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa G, Tomas F; Osorio, Nelson; Restrepo R, Dora P

    2009-01-01

    This work is an exploration about different unconventional gas reservoirs worldwide: coal bed methane, tight gas, shale gas and gas hydrate? describing aspects such as definition, reserves, production methods, environmental issues and economics. The overview also mentioned preliminary studies about these sources in Colombia.

  2. Long term prediction of unconventional oil production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohr, S.H.; Evans, G.M.

    2010-01-01

    Although considerable discussion surrounds unconventional oil's ability to mitigate the effects of peaking conventional oil production, very few models of unconventional oil production exist. The aim of this article was to project unconventional oil production to determine how significant its production may be. Two models were developed to predict the unconventional oil production, one model for in situ production and the other for mining the resources. Unconventional oil production is anticipated to reach between 18 and 32 Gb/y (49-88 Mb/d) in 2076-2084, before declining. If conventional oil production is at peak production then projected unconventional oil production cannot mitigate peaking of conventional oil alone.

  3. Production of unconventional natural gas. Risks and opportunities of fracking; Foerderung von unkonventionellem Erdgas. Risiken und Chancen des Fracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toepfer, Frank-Rainer; Kreutz, Giannina [Baker und McKenzie, Berlin (Germany)

    2013-07-15

    Through its legislation for the promotion of electricity production from renewable resources and the nuclear phase-out the German Federal Republic has taken decisive steps in orienting its energy policy towards the envisioned energy turnaround. Production of natural gas from unconventional natural gas sources could assist in implementing this policy while at the same time improving Germany's energy self-sufficiency. After intensive discussions in the public arena as well as in expert rounds the Federal Ministers of the Environment and of Economic Affairs have agreed on a draft for an ordinance on the exploitation of unconventional gas resources by means of hydraulic fracturing (fracking). On sober analysis of the risks and opportunities involved in this technology one obtains an overall picture which, taking into account the differentiated view it affords on the various aspects involved, ultimately reveals that, on condition of strict compliance with the necessary requirements, for all the risks associated with it fracking is a viable option for Germany.

  4. Tapping methane hydrates for unconventional natural gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppel, Carolyn

    2007-01-01

    Methane hydrate is an icelike form of concentrated methane and water found in the sediments of permafrost regions and marine continental margins at depths far shallower than conventional oil and gas. Despite their relative accessibility and widespread occurrence, methane hydrates have never been tapped to meet increasing global energy demands. With rising natural gas prices, production from these unconventional gas deposits is becoming economically viable, particularly in permafrost areas already being exploited for conventional oil and gas. This article provides an overview of gas hydrate occurrence, resource assessment, exploration, production technologies, renewability, and future challenges.

  5. Hazard Ranking Methodology for Assessing Health Impacts of Unconventional Natural Gas Development and Production: The Maryland Case Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meleah D Boyle

    Full Text Available The recent growth of unconventional natural gas development and production (UNGDP has outpaced research on the potential health impacts associated with the process. The Maryland Marcellus Shale Public Health Study was conducted to inform the Maryland Marcellus Shale Safe Drilling Initiative Advisory Commission, State legislators and the Governor about potential public health impacts associated with UNGDP so they could make an informed decision that considers the health and well-being of Marylanders. In this paper, we describe an impact assessment and hazard ranking methodology we used to assess the potential public health impacts for eight hazards associated with the UNGDP process. The hazard ranking included seven metrics: 1 presence of vulnerable populations (e.g. children under the age of 5, individuals over the age of 65, surface owners, 2 duration of exposure, 3 frequency of exposure, 4 likelihood of health effects, 5 magnitude/severity of health effects, 6 geographic extent, and 7 effectiveness of setbacks. Overall public health concern was determined by a color-coded ranking system (low, moderately high, and high that was generated based on the overall sum of the scores for each hazard. We provide three illustrative examples of applying our methodology for air quality and health care infrastructure which were ranked as high concern and for water quality which was ranked moderately high concern. The hazard ranking was a valuable tool that allowed us to systematically evaluate each of the hazards and provide recommendations to minimize the hazards.

  6. Unconventional Natural Gas Development and Birth Outcomes in Pennsylvania, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Joan A; Savitz, David A; Rasmussen, Sara G; Ogburn, Elizabeth L; Pollak, Jonathan; Mercer, Dione G; Schwartz, Brian S

    2016-03-01

    Unconventional natural gas development has expanded rapidly. In Pennsylvania, the number of producing wells increased from 0 in 2005 to 3,689 in 2013. Few publications have focused on unconventional natural gas development and birth outcomes. We performed a retrospective cohort study using electronic health record data on 9,384 mothers linked to 10,946 neonates in the Geisinger Health System from January 2009 to January 2013. We estimated cumulative exposure to unconventional natural gas development activity with an inverse-distance squared model that incorporated distance to the mother's home; dates and durations of well pad development, drilling, and hydraulic fracturing; and production volume during the pregnancy. We used multilevel linear and logistic regression models to examine associations between activity index quartile and term birth weight, preterm birth, low 5-minute Apgar score and small size for gestational age birth, while controlling for potential confounding variables. In adjusted models, there was an association between unconventional natural gas development activity and preterm birth that increased across quartiles, with a fourth quartile odds ratio of 1.4 (95% confidence interval = 1.0, 1.9). There were no associations of activity with Apgar score, small for gestational age birth, or term birth weight (after adjustment for year). In a posthoc analysis, there was an association with physician-recorded high-risk pregnancy identified from the problem list (fourth vs. first quartile, 1.3 [95% confidence interval = 1.1, 1.7]). Prenatal residential exposure to unconventional natural gas development activity was associated with two pregnancy outcomes, adding to evidence that unconventional natural gas development may impact health.See Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/EDE/B14.

  7. Prospects for Strengthening the Security of Ukraine’s Energy Supply through Development of Unconventional Natural Gas Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyzym Mykola O.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an analysis of the American experience in development of natural shale gas in the US, identifies the causes that led to the shale revolution. Its current state is characterized by achieving the peak production simultaneously with shift in the emphasis from natural shale gas to shale oil. The potential technically extracted gas reserves as well as trends in terms of the growth of conventional natural gas reserves and the development of trade in liquefied natural gas are regarded as global preconditions for enlargement of the shale natural gas output. Natural shale gas can be considered as an alternative project only for liquefied natural gas while, compared to pipeline gas, its production is uncompetitive. The national preconditions for development of the industry of nonconventional natural gas production are determined on the basis of the current trends in Ukraine’s gas market. The main obstacles to the realization of this direction are reduction of the gas needs and liberalization of natural gas trade on the basis of European principles. Economic evaluation of the feasibility of natural shale gas production made it possible to forecast its production cost at the wellhead at different depths and estimate its investment attractiveness in different aggregate states. On the basis of the approbation of the presented methodological approach carried out for the Dnieper-Donets and Carpathian shale basins, it was concluded that the investment attractiveness of the first one is higher, given its reservoir properties and the presence of deposits of nonconventional hydrocarbons in different states of aggregation.

  8. The health implications of unconventional natural gas development in Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Lizhong; Meyerhoefer, Chad; Chou, Shin-Yi

    2018-06-01

    We investigate the health impacts of unconventional natural gas development of Marcellus shale in Pennsylvania between 2001 and 2013 by merging well permit data from the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection with a database of all inpatient hospital admissions. After comparing changes in hospitalization rates over time for air pollution-sensitive diseases in counties with unconventional gas wells to changes in hospitalization rates in nonwell counties, we find a significant association between shale gas development and hospitalizations for pneumonia among the elderly, which is consistent with higher levels of air pollution resulting from unconventional natural gas development. We note that the lack of any detectable impact of shale gas development on younger populations may be due to unobserved factors contemporaneous with drilling, such as migration. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Unconventional Oil and Natural Gas Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA works with states and other key stakeholders, through sound scientific research and regulation; to help ensure that natural gas extraction from shale formations, also called fracking or hydrofracking, does not harm public health and the environment.

  10. Unconventional resource's production under desorption-induced effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sina Hosseini Boosari

    2016-06-01

    We have developed a numerical model to study the effect of changes in porosity, permeability and compaction on four major U.S. shale formations considering their Langmuir isotherm desorption behavior. These resources include; Marcellus, New Albany, Barnett and Haynesville Shales. First, we introduced a model that is a physical transport of single-phase gas flow in shale porous rock. Later, the governing equations are implemented into a one-dimensional numerical model and solved using a fully implicit solution method. It is found that the natural gas production is substantially affected by desorption-induced porosity/permeability changes and geomechancis. This paper provides valuable insights into accurate modeling of unconventional reservoirs that is more significant when an even small correction to the future production prediction can enormously contribute to the U.S. economy.

  11. Analysis of resource potential for China’s unconventional gas and forecast for its long-term production growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jianliang; Mohr, Steve; Feng, Lianyong; Liu, Huihui; Tverberg, Gail E.

    2016-01-01

    China is vigorously promoting the development of its unconventional gas resources because natural gas is viewed as a lower-carbon energy source and because China has relatively little conventional natural gas supply. In this paper, we first evaluate how much unconventional gas might be available based on an analysis of technically recoverable resources for three types of unconventional gas resources: shale gas, coalbed methane and tight gas. We then develop three alternative scenarios of how this extraction might proceed, using the Geologic Resources Supply Demand Model. Based on our analysis, the medium scenario, which we would consider to be our best estimate, shows a resource peak of 176.1 billion cubic meters (bcm) in 2068. Depending on economic conditions and advance in extraction techniques, production could vary greatly from this. If economic conditions are adverse, unconventional natural gas production could perhaps be as low as 70.1 bcm, peaking in 2021. Under the extremely optimistic assumption that all of the resources that appear to be technologically available can actually be recovered, unconventional production could amount to as much as 469.7 bcm, with peak production in 2069. Even if this high scenario is achieved, China’s total gas production will only be sufficient to meet China’s lowest demand forecast. If production instead matches our best estimate, significant amounts of natural gas imports are likely to be needed. - Highlights: • A comprehensive investigation on China’s unconventional gas resources is presented. • China’s unconventional gas production is forecast under different scenarios. • Unconventional gas production will increase rapidly in high scenario. • Achieving the projected production in high scenario faces many challenges. • The increase of China’s unconventional gas production cannot solve its gas shortage.

  12. Alternative coke production from unconventional feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smoot, D.; Eatough, C.N.; Heaton, J.S.; Eatough, S.R.; Miller, A.B. [Combustion Resources, Provo, UT (US)

    2004-07-01

    This presentation reports on US Department of Energy and company sponsored research and development to develop a technology and process for making metallurgical-quality coke from alternate feedstocks, including by-product and waste carbonaceous materials. The basic patent-pending process blends and presses these carbon-containing materials into briquettes of specified size. This product is referred to as CR Clean Coke because pollutant emission levels are carefully controlled to low levels with little or no vagrant emissions during processing. A wide range of feedstock materials has been investigated in over 600 tests for run-of-mine and waste coal fines of various rank with blends of coal tars and pitches, coal and biomass chars, met-coke breeze or petroleum coke. For various coal/pet-coke/tar feedstocks, CR has produced uniform-sized briquettes in commercial-scale briquettes in three nominal sizes: one inch, two inch, and three inch. These products have been successfully qualified according to stringent requirements for conventional met-coke use in a blast furnace. Several formulation have met and frequently exceeded these established met-coke specifications. One specific product containing coal, tar and pet-coke was selected as a base formulation for which preliminary process design and cost estimates have been completed for construction and operation of a demonstration plant capable of producing 120,000 tons per year of CR Clean Coke. Plant design elements and blast furnace test plans are presented. Tailoring of CR Clean Coke products to other prospective end users including foundry, sugar, soda ash, and ferrometals industries presents additional opportunities. The text is accompanied by 30 slides/overheads. 14 refs., 3 figs., 9 tabs.

  13. Organic Substances from Unconventional Oil and Gas Production in Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orem, W. H.; Varonka, M.; Crosby, L.; Schell, T.; Bates, A.; Engle, M.

    2014-12-01

    Unconventional oil and gas (UOG) production has emerged as an important element in the US and world energy mix. Technological innovations in the oil and gas industry, especially horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing, allow for the enhanced release of oil and natural gas from shale compared to conventional oil and gas production. This has made commercial exploitation possible on a large scale. Although UOG is enormously successful, there is surprisingly little known about the effects of this technology on the targeted shale formation and on environmental impacts of oil and gas production at the surface. We examined water samples from both conventional and UOG shale wells to determine the composition, source and fate of organic substances present. Extraction of hydrocarbon from shale plays involves the creation and expansion of fractures through the hydraulic fracturing process. This process involves the injection of large volumes of a water-sand mix treated with organic and inorganic chemicals to assist the process and prop open the fractures created. Formation water from a well in the New Albany Shale that was not hydraulically fractured (no injected chemicals) had total organic carbon (TOC) levels that averaged 8 mg/L, and organic substances that included: long-chain fatty acids, alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, heterocyclic compounds, alkyl benzenes, and alkyl phenols. In contrast, water from UOG production in the Marcellus Shale had TOC levels as high as 5,500 mg/L, and contained a range of organic chemicals including, solvents, biocides, scale inhibitors, and other organic chemicals at thousands of μg/L for individual compounds. These chemicals and TOC decreased rapidly over the first 20 days of water recovery as injected fluids were recovered, but residual organic compounds (some naturally-occurring) remained up to 250 days after the start of water recovery (TOC 10-30 mg/L). Results show how hydraulic fracturing changes the organic

  14. Perinatal outcomes and unconventional natural gas operations in Southwest Pennsylvania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaina L Stacy

    Full Text Available Unconventional gas drilling (UGD has enabled extraordinarily rapid growth in the extraction of natural gas. Despite frequently expressed public concern, human health studies have not kept pace. We investigated the association of proximity to UGD in the Marcellus Shale formation and perinatal outcomes in a retrospective cohort study of 15,451 live births in Southwest Pennsylvania from 2007-2010. Mothers were categorized into exposure quartiles based on inverse distance weighted (IDW well count; least exposed mothers (first quartile had an IDW well count less than 0.87 wells per mile, while the most exposed (fourth quartile had 6.00 wells or greater per mile. Multivariate linear (birth weight or logistical (small for gestational age (SGA and prematurity regression analyses, accounting for differences in maternal and child risk factors, were performed. There was no significant association of proximity and density of UGD with prematurity. Comparison of the most to least exposed, however, revealed lower birth weight (3323 ± 558 vs 3344 ± 544 g and a higher incidence of SGA (6.5 vs 4.8%, respectively; odds ratio: 1.34; 95% confidence interval: 1.10-1.63. While the clinical significance of the differences in birth weight among the exposure groups is unclear, the present findings further emphasize the need for larger studies, in regio-specific fashion, with more precise characterization of exposure over an extended period of time to evaluate the potential public health significance of UGD.

  15. Perinatal outcomes and unconventional natural gas operations in Southwest Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacy, Shaina L; Brink, LuAnn L; Larkin, Jacob C; Sadovsky, Yoel; Goldstein, Bernard D; Pitt, Bruce R; Talbott, Evelyn O

    2015-01-01

    Unconventional gas drilling (UGD) has enabled extraordinarily rapid growth in the extraction of natural gas. Despite frequently expressed public concern, human health studies have not kept pace. We investigated the association of proximity to UGD in the Marcellus Shale formation and perinatal outcomes in a retrospective cohort study of 15,451 live births in Southwest Pennsylvania from 2007-2010. Mothers were categorized into exposure quartiles based on inverse distance weighted (IDW) well count; least exposed mothers (first quartile) had an IDW well count less than 0.87 wells per mile, while the most exposed (fourth quartile) had 6.00 wells or greater per mile. Multivariate linear (birth weight) or logistical (small for gestational age (SGA) and prematurity) regression analyses, accounting for differences in maternal and child risk factors, were performed. There was no significant association of proximity and density of UGD with prematurity. Comparison of the most to least exposed, however, revealed lower birth weight (3323 ± 558 vs 3344 ± 544 g) and a higher incidence of SGA (6.5 vs 4.8%, respectively; odds ratio: 1.34; 95% confidence interval: 1.10-1.63). While the clinical significance of the differences in birth weight among the exposure groups is unclear, the present findings further emphasize the need for larger studies, in regio-specific fashion, with more precise characterization of exposure over an extended period of time to evaluate the potential public health significance of UGD.

  16. Assessment of Methane Emissions – Impact of Using Natural Gas Engines in Unconventional Resource Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nix, Andrew [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Johnson, Derek [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Heltzel, Robert [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Oliver, Dakota [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2018-04-08

    Researchers at the Center for Alternative Fuels, Engines, and Emissions (CAFEE) completed a multi-year program under DE-FE0013689 entitled, “Assessing Fugitive Methane Emissions Impact Using Natural Gas Engines in Unconventional Resource Development.” When drilling activity was high and industry sought to lower operating costs and reduce emissions they began investing in dual fuel and dedicated natural gas engines to power unconventional well equipment. From a review of literature we determined that the prime-movers (or major fuel consumers) of unconventional well development were the service trucks (trucking), horizontal drilling rig (drilling) engines, and hydraulic stimulation pump (fracturing) engines. Based on early findings from on-road studies we assessed that conversion of prime movers to operate on natural gas could contribute to methane emissions associated with unconventional wells. As such, we collected significant in-use activity data from service trucks and in-use activity, fuel consumption, and gaseous emissions data from drilling and fracturing engines. Our findings confirmed that conversion of the prime movers to operate as dual fuel or dedicated natural gas – created an additional source of methane emissions. While some gaseous emissions were decreased from implementation of these technologies – methane and CO2 equivalent emissions tended to increase, especially for non-road engines. The increases were highest for dual fuel engines due to methane slip from the exhaust and engine crankcase. Dedicated natural gas engines tended to have lower exhaust methane emissions but higher CO2 emissions due to lower efficiency. Therefore, investing in currently available natural gas technologies for prime movers will increase the greenhouse gas footprint of the unconventional well development industry.

  17. 18 unconventional essays on the nature of mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Hersh, Reuben

    2006-01-01

    What is the nature of the objects being studied? What determines the directions and styles in which mathematics progresses (or, perhaps, degenerates)? This book collects some of the writings tackling the problem of giving an account of the nature, purpose, and justification of mathematics as actually done by real live mathematicians.

  18. Unconventional natural gas development and public health: toward a community-informed research agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korfmacher, Katrina Smith; Elam, Sarah; Gray, Kathleen M.; Haynes, Erin; Hughes, Megan Hoert

    2015-01-01

    Unconventional natural gas development (UNGD) using high-volume horizontal hydraulic fracturing (“fracking”) has vastly increased the potential for domestic natural gas production in recent years. However, the rapid expansion of UNGD has also raised concerns about its potential impacts on public health. Academics and government agencies are developing research programs to explore these concerns. Community involvement in activities such as planning, conducting, and communicating research is widely recognized as having an important role in promoting environmental health. Historically, however, communities most often engage in research after environmental health concerns have emerged. This community information needs assessment took a prospective approach to integrating community leaders' knowledge, perceptions, and concerns into the research agenda prior to initiation of local UNGD. We interviewed community leaders about their views on environmental health information needs in three states (New York, North Carolina, and Ohio) prior to widespread UNGD. Interviewees emphasized the cumulative, long-term, and indirect determinants of health, as opposed to specific disease outcomes. Responses focused not only on information needs, but also on communication and transparency with respect to research processes and funding. Interviewees also prioritized investigation of policy approaches to effectively protect human health over the long term. Although universities were most often cited as a credible source of information, interviewees emphasized the need for multiple strategies for disseminating information. By including community leaders' concerns, insights, and questions from the outset, the research agenda on UNGD is more likely to effectively inform decision making that ultimately protects public health. PMID:25204212

  19. The framing of unconventional natural gas resources in the foreign energy policy discourse of the Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocelík, Petr; Osička, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The advent of unconventional resources of natural gas has altered the order on global as well as continental gas markets. With rising liquidity, the position of established dominant suppliers is eroding. We focus on the initial response of Russia, the leading supplier of natural gas to Europe, to the new situation, building the research on unit-level constructivism and discourse analysis. We use frame analysis to reveal what image of unconventional resources was constructed in Russian foreign energy policy discourse (FEPD) in the period between 2009 and 2011, when the “unconventional revolution” did not yet have any sharp contours. We conclude that in Russian FEPD the unconventionals are considered as a distinctive and inferior source of energy compared to conventional natural gas. Emphasis is put on their economic irrationality and environmental hazards. The bottom line of the discourse is the idea that there is a choice between conventional and unconventional sources, with this choice being framed as one between good and bad, or right and wrong. - Highlights: • We examine the image of “unconventional gas” in Russian foreign energy policy discourse. • Two main frames (reliable supplier and triumphant natural gas) were identified. • Two main argumentation schemes (economic and environmental) were identified. • The “unconventional gas” is defined as a mistaken and inferior source of energy

  20. Unconventional gas experience at El Paso Production Company : tapping into deep, tight gas and coalbed methane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartley, R.L.

    2003-01-01

    The current conditions in the natural gas industry were reviewed, from the excellent current and projected energy prices to low activity and rig count. Various graphs were presented, depicting total proved dry gas reserves and annual production over time for the Gulf of Mexico, including its continental shelf, the Texas coastal plains, and the United States lower 48. Offshore growth of unconventional gas was also displayed. The key elements of the strategy were also discussed. These included: (1) earnings driven, (2) superior science, (3) innovative application of technology, (4) ability to act quickly and decisively, (5) leadership, management, and professional development, and (6) achieve learning curve economics. The core competencies were outlined along with recent discoveries in South Texas and the Upper Gulf Coast. figs

  1. Air Impacts of Unconventional Natural Gas Development: A Barnett Shale Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, C. W.; Zielinska, B.; Campbell, D.; Fujita, E.

    2013-12-01

    Many atmospheric pollutants have been linked to the lifecycle of unconventional natural gas. Attributing air emissions to particular segments of the natural gas life cycle can be difficult. Further, describing individual and community exposure to air pollutants is complex since contaminants can vary spatially and temporally, based on proximity to point sources, magnitude, transport and dispersion of emissions. Here we will present data from the Barnett Shale formation near Dallas/Fort Worth, TX with the goal of providing a better understanding of the extent to which population exposure to air toxics is associated with emissions from natural gas production operations in this region. The Barnett Shale formation covers nearly 13000 km2 and is located west of Dallas/Fort Worth, TX. This formation contains natural gas, natural gas condensate, and light oil. Samples were collected in April-May 2010 in two phases with the purpose of Phase 1 being to characterize emissions from major gas production facilities in the area, while Phase 2 involved more intensive monitoring of two residential areas identified in Phase 1. One of the residential areas was downwind of a gas well and two condensate tanks and the other area was close to a compressor station. Phase 1 sampling involved our mobile monitoring system, which includes real-time estimates of volatile organic compounds (VOC), using a portable photoionization detector monitor; continuous NO, PM2.5 mass, and a GasFindIR camera. Phase 1 also included 1-hr integrated canister VOC samples and carbonyl compound samples, using DNPH impregnated Sep-Pac Si cartridges. These samples were analyzed by GC/MS and high performance liquid chromatography with a photodiode array detector. Phase 2 sampling included 7-day integrated passive samples for NOx, NO2 and SO2 using Ogawa passive samplers, and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes), 1,3-butadiene, and carbonyl compounds (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein) using

  2. Analysis of the effects of section 29 tax credits on reserve additions and production of gas from unconventional resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-09-01

    Federal tax credits for production of natural gas from unconventional resources can stimulate drilling and reserves additions at a relatively low cost to the Treasury. This report presents the results of an analysis of the effects of a proposed extension of the Section 29 alternative fuels production credit specifically for unconventional gas. ICF Resources estimated the net effect of the extension of the credit (the difference between development activity expected with the extension of the credit and that expected if the credit expires in December 1990 as scheduled). The analysis addressed the effect of tax credits on project economics and capital formation, drilling and reserve additions, production, impact on the US and regional economies, and the net public sector costs and incremental revenues. The analysis was based on explicit modeling of the three dominant unconventional gas resources: Tight sands, coalbed methane, and Devonian shales. It incorporated the most current data on resource size, typical well recoveries and economics, and anticipated activity of the major producers. Each resource was further disaggregated for analysis based on distinct resource characteristics, development practices, regional economics, and historical development patterns

  3. Analysis of the effects of section 29 tax credits on reserve additions and production of gas from unconventional resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    Federal tax credits for production of natural gas from unconventional resources can stimulate drilling and reserves additions at a relatively low cost to the Treasury. This report presents the results of an analysis of the effects of a proposed extension of the Section 29 alternative fuels production credit specifically for unconventional gas. ICF Resources estimated the net effect of the extension of the credit (the difference between development activity expected with the extension of the credit and that expected if the credit expires in December 1990 as scheduled). The analysis addressed the effect of tax credits on project economics and capital formation, drilling and reserve additions, production, impact on the US and regional economies, and the net public sector costs and incremental revenues. The analysis was based on explicit modeling of the three dominant unconventional gas resources: Tight sands, coalbed methane, and Devonian shales. It incorporated the most current data on resource size, typical well recoveries and economics, and anticipated activity of the major producers. Each resource was further disaggregated for analysis based on distinct resource characteristics, development practices, regional economics, and historical development patterns.

  4. A Methodology for the Assessment of Unconventional (Continuous) Resources with an Application to the Greater Natural Buttes Gas Field, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olea, Ricardo A.; Cook, Troy A.; Coleman, James L.

    2010-01-01

    The Greater Natural Buttes tight natural gas field is an unconventional (continuous) accumulation in the Uinta Basin, Utah, that began production in the early 1950s from the Upper Cretaceous Mesaverde Group. Three years later, production was extended to the Eocene Wasatch Formation. With the exclusion of 1100 non-productive ('dry') wells, we estimate that the final recovery from the 2500 producing wells existing in 2007 will be about 1.7 trillion standard cubic feet (TSCF) (48.2 billion cubic meters (BCM)). The use of estimated ultimate recovery (EUR) per well is common in assessments of unconventional resources, and it is one of the main sources of information to forecast undiscovered resources. Each calculated recovery value has an associated drainage area that generally varies from well to well and that can be mathematically subdivided into elemental subareas of constant size and shape called cells. Recovery per 5-acre cells at Greater Natural Buttes shows spatial correlation; hence, statistical approaches that ignore this correlation when inferring EUR values for untested cells do not take full advantage of all the information contained in the data. More critically, resulting models do not match the style of spatial EUR fluctuations observed in nature. This study takes a new approach by applying spatial statistics to model geographical variation of cell EUR taking into account spatial correlation and the influence of fractures. We applied sequential indicator simulation to model non-productive cells, while spatial mapping of cell EUR was obtained by applying sequential Gaussian simulation to provide multiple versions of reality (realizations) having equal chances of being the correct model. For each realization, summation of EUR in cells not drained by the existing wells allowed preparation of a stochastic prediction of undiscovered resources, which range between 2.6 and 3.4 TSCF (73.6 and 96.3 BCM) with a mean of 2.9 TSCF (82.1 BCM) for Greater Natural Buttes

  5. Asthma Exacerbations and Unconventional Natural Gas Development in the Marcellus Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Sara G.; Ogburn, Elizabeth L.; McCormack, Meredith; Casey, Joan A.; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; Mercer, Dione G.; Schwartz, Brian S.

    2017-01-01

    Importance Asthma is common and can be exacerbated by air pollution and stress. Unconventional natural gas development (UNGD) has community and environmental impacts. In Pennsylvania, development began in 2005 and by 2012, 6,253 wells were drilled. There are no prior studies of UNGD and objective respiratory outcomes. Objective To evaluate associations between UNGD and asthma exacerbations. Design A nested case-control study comparing asthma patients with exacerbations to asthma patients without exacerbations from 2005–12. Setting The Geisinger Clinic, which provides primary care services to over 400,000 patients in Pennsylvania. Participants Asthma patients aged 5–90 years (n = 35,508) were identified in electronic health records; those with exacerbations were frequency-matched on age, sex, and year of event to those without. Exposure(s) On the day before each patient’s index date (cases: date of event or medication order; controls: contact date), we estimated UNGD activity metrics for four phases (pad preparation, drilling, stimulation [“fracking”], and production) using distance from the patient’s home to the well, well characteristics, and the dates and durations of phases. Main Outcome(s) and Measure(s) We identified mild, moderate, and severe asthma exacerbations (new oral corticosteroid medication order, emergency department encounter, and hospitalization, respectively). Results We identified 20,749 mild, 1,870 moderate, and 4,782 severe asthma exacerbations, and frequency-matched these to 18,693, 9,350, and 14,104 control index dates, respectively. In three-level adjusted models, there was an association between the highest group of the activity metric for each UNGD phase compared to the lowest group for 11 out of 12 UNGD-outcome pairs (odds ratios [95% CI] ranged from 1.5 [1.2–1.7] for the association of the pad metric with severe exacerbations to 4.4 [3.8–5.2] for the association of the production metric with mild exacerbations). Six of

  6. Analysis of exploration expenditure for unconventional gas : how investing in exploration would improve reserves and production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virine, L.

    2010-01-01

    This paper described a method for analyzing the efficiency of exploration investment, which can improve corporate planning. Exploration expenditure is held to be a main indicator of economic activities in the oil and gas industry because exploration is supposed to lead to booking more reserves and increased production. A model was developed for analyzing the correlation between exploration expenditure and producer's reserves and production for conventional and unconventional gas plays in the United States. The model was used to quantitatively assess the exploration expenditures production and reserves of different producers for various conventional and unconventional gas plays. Producer's booked reserves, production from public sources, and reserves and production forecasts were incorporated into the model, which was used to analyze different types of exploration expenditure (land, drilling, and seismic) incurred at various times prior to reserves and production being booked. There was an overall positive correlation between exploration expenditure and reserves and production, but there was significant variance in the correlation between various producers operating in different plays. Unproved land acquisition was strongly correlated to the booking of proved reserves, but there was no correlation between unproved land acquisition and exploration expenditure ratio, reserves, or production. A number of companies had a high exploration expenditure to overall expenditure ratio, but the resulting payoffs were inconsistent. 6 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs.

  7. Legal frameworks of the unconventional exploration of natural gas by means of Fracking; Rechtliche Rahmenbedingungen der unkonventionellen Erdgasfoerderung mittels Fracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossnagel, Alexander; Hentschel, Anja; Polzer, Andreas

    2012-07-01

    ExxonMobile projects the exploration of natural gas from so-called unconventional deposits by means of the hydraulic fracturing procedure (Fracking). In view of the public concerns, ExxonMobile engaged a neutral group of experts to develop the 'risk study Fracting'. This risk study has to investigate the legal framework for the evaluation of the risks and impacts of an unconventional exploration of natural gas by means of Fracking. The legal instruments to control these risks and impacts also are mentioned. The legal framework for the evaluation and for the compensation for damages within the realization of these risks is described. Furthermore, the most important proposals from the legal discussion are reported. Recommendations are drawn up with respect to the improvement of the legal framework and its controlling instruments.

  8. Legal frameworks of the unconventional exploration of natural gas by means of Fracking; Rechtliche Rahmenbedingungen der unkonventionellen Erdgasfoerderung mittels Fracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossnagel, Alexander; Hentschel, Anja; Polzer, Andreas

    2012-07-01

    ExxonMobile projects the exploration of natural gas from so-called unconventional deposits by means of the hydraulic fracturing procedure (Fracking). In view of the public concerns, ExxonMobile engaged a neutral group of experts to develop the 'risk study Fracting'. This risk study has to investigate the legal framework for the evaluation of the risks and impacts of an unconventional exploration of natural gas by means of Fracking. The legal instruments to control these risks and impacts also are mentioned. The legal framework for the evaluation and for the compensation for damages within the realization of these risks is described. Furthermore, the most important proposals from the legal discussion are reported. Recommendations are drawn up with respect to the improvement of the legal framework and its controlling instruments.

  9. 77 FR 23105 - Supporting Safe and Responsible Development of Unconventional Domestic Natural Gas Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... 2011, natural gas provided 25 percent of the energy consumed in the United States. Its production creates jobs and provides economic benefits to the entire domestic production supply chain, as well as to... appropriate safeguards, natural gas can provide a cleaner source of energy than other fossil fuels. For these...

  10. An unconventional mechanism of lift production during the downstroke in a hovering bird ( Zosterops japonicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Hung; Ting, Shang-Chieh; Liu, Chieh-Cheng; Yang, Jing-Tang; Soong, Chyi-Yeou

    2011-11-01

    An unconventional mechanism of ventral clap is exploited by hovering passerines to produce lift. Quantitative visualization of the wake flow, analysis of kinematics and evaluation of the transient lift force was conducted to dissect the biomechanical role of the ventral clap in the asymmetrical hovering flight of passerines. The ventral clap can first abate and then augment lift production during the downstroke; the net effect of the ventral clap on lift production is, however, positive because the extent of lift augmentation is greater than the extent of lift abatement. Moreover, the ventral clap is inferred to compensate for the zero lift production of the upstroke because the clapping wings induce a substantial elevation of the lift force at the end of the downstroke. Overall, our observations shed light on the aerodynamic function of the ventral clap and offer biomechanical insight into how a bird hovers without kinematically mimicking hovering hummingbirds.

  11. Popular epidemiology and "fracking": citizens' concerns regarding the economic, environmental, health and social impacts of unconventional natural gas drilling operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Martha; Saberi, Poune; Pepino, Richard; Strupp, Emily; Bugos, Eva; Cannuscio, Carolyn C

    2015-06-01

    Pennsylvania sits atop the Marcellus Shale, a reservoir of natural gas that was untapped until the 2004 introduction of unconventional natural gas drilling operations (UNGDO) in the state. Colloquially known as fracking, UNGDO is a controversial process that employs large volumes of water to fracture the shale and capture gas; it has become a multi-billion dollar industry in Pennsylvania. We analyzed letters to the editor of the most widely circulated local newspaper in the most heavily drilled county in Pennsylvania (Bradford County) in order to characterize residents' concerns and their involvement in popular epidemiology--the process by which citizens investigate risks associated with a perceived environmental threat. We reviewed 215 letters to the editor that referenced natural gas operations and were published by The Daily Review between January 1, 2008 and June 8, 2013. We used NVivo 10 to code and analyze letters and identify major themes. Nvivo is qualitative data analysis software (http://www.qsrinternational.com/products_nvivo.aspx) that allows researchers to code and analyze "unstructured" data, including text files of any type (e.g., interview transcripts, news articles, letters, archival materials) as well as photographs and videos. Nvivo can be used to classify, sort, query, comment on, and share data across a research group. Letters demonstrated citizen engagement in beginning and intermediate stages of lay epidemiology, as well as discord and stress regarding four main issues: socio-economic impacts, perceived threats to water, population growth and implications, and changes to the rural landscape. Residents called for stronger scientific evidence and a balance of economic development and health and environmental protections. Citizens' distress regarding UNGDO appeared to be exacerbated by a dearth of information to guide economic growth and health, environmental, and social concerns. This analysis proposes locally informed questions to guide future

  12. Unconventional biomasses as feedstocks for production of biofuels and succinic acid in a biorefinery concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsson, Ingólfur Bragi

    composition of the specific biomass feedstock, as well as which pretreatment, saccharification, fermentation and extraction techniques are used. Furthermore, integrating biological processes into the biorefinery that effectively consume CO2 will become increasingly important. Such process integration could...... significantly improve the sustainability indicators of the overall biorefinery process. In this study, unconventional lignocellulosic- and aquatic biomasses were investigated as biorefinery feedstocks. The studied biomasses were Jerusalem artichoke, industrial hemp and macroalgae species Laminaria digitata....... The chemical composition of biomasses was determined in order to demonstrate their biorefinery potential. Bioethanol and biogas along with succinic acid production were the explored bioconversion routes, while potential production of other compounds was also investigated. Differences and changes in biomass...

  13. Nephrotoxicity of Natural Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauffal, Mary; Gabardi, Steven

    2016-01-01

    The manufacture and sale of natural products constitute a multi-billion dollar industry. Nearly a third of the American population admit to using some form of complementary or alternative medicine, with many using them in addition to prescription medications. Most patients fail to inform their healthcare providers of their natural product use and physicians rarely inquire. Annually, thousands of natural product-induced adverse events are reported to Poison Control Centers nationwide. Natural product manufacturers are not responsible for proving safety and efficacy, as the FDA does not regulate them. However, concerns exist surrounding the safety of natural products. This review provides details on natural products that have been associated with renal dysfunction. We have focused on products that have been associated with direct renal injury, immune-mediated nephrotoxicity, nephrolithiasis, rhabdomyolysis with acute renal injury, hepatorenal syndrome, and common adulterants or contaminants that are associated with renal dysfunction. The potential for natural products to cause renal dysfunction is justifiable. It is imperative that natural product use be monitored closely in all patients. Healthcare practitioners must play an active role in identifying patients using natural products and provide appropriate patient education. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Potential water resource impacts of hydraulic fracturing from unconventional oil production in the Bakken shale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Namita; Chilkoor, Govinda; Wilder, Joseph; Gadhamshetty, Venkataramana; Stone, James J

    2017-01-01

    Modern drilling techniques, notably horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing, have enabled unconventional oil production (UOP) from the previously inaccessible Bakken Shale Formation located throughout Montana, North Dakota (ND) and the Canadian province of Saskatchewan. The majority of UOP from the Bakken shale occurs in ND, strengthening its oil industry and businesses, job market, and its gross domestic product. However, similar to UOP from other low-permeability shales, UOP from the Bakken shale can result in environmental and human health effects. For example, UOP from the ND Bakken shale generates a voluminous amount of saline wastewater including produced and flowback water that are characterized by unusual levels of total dissolved solids (350 g/L) and elevated levels of toxic and radioactive substances. Currently, 95% of the saline wastewater is piped or trucked onsite prior to disposal into Class II injection wells. Oil and gas wastewater (OGW) spills that occur during transport to injection sites can potentially result in drinking water resource contamination. This study presents a critical review of potential water resource impacts due to deterministic (freshwater withdrawals and produced water management) and probabilistic events (spills due to leaking pipelines and truck accidents) related to UOP from the Bakken shale in ND. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. How geographic distance and political ideology interact to influence public perception of unconventional oil/natural gas development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, Christopher E.; Bugden, Dylan; Hart, P. Sol; Stedman, Richard C.; Jacquet, Jeffrey B.; Evensen, Darrick T.N.; Boudet, Hilary S.

    2016-01-01

    A growing area of research has addressed public perception of unconventional oil and natural gas development via hydraulic fracturing (“fracking”). We extend this research by examining how geographic proximity to such extraction interacts with political ideology to influence issue support. Regression analysis of data from a fall 2013 national telephone survey of United States residents reveals that as respondents’ geographic distance from areas experiencing significant development increases, political ideology becomes more strongly associated with issue support, with the liberal-partisan divide widening. Our findings support construal level theory's central premise: that people use more abstract considerations (like political ideology) the more geographically removed they are from an issue. We discuss implications for studying public opinion of energy development as well as for risk communication. - Highlights: • Conservatives support unconventional oil and gas development (UOGD) more than liberals. • This divide widened as geographic distance from UOGD areas increased • Construal Level Theory may help explain this finding • We discuss implications for energy policy and risk communication

  16. Environmental impacts of fracking in the exploration and production of natural gas from unconventional deposits. Risk assessment, recommendations for action and evaluation of existing legal regulations and administrative structures; Umweltauswirkungen von Fracking bei der Aufsuchung und Gewinnung von Erdgas aus unkonventionellen Lagerstaetten. Risikobewertung, Handlungsempfehlungen und Evaluierung bestehender rechtlicher Regelungen und Verwaltungsstrukturen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meiners, Georg; Denneborg, Michael; Mueller, Frank [ahu AG Wasser - Boden - Geomatik, Aachen (Germany); Bergmann, Axel; Weber, Frank-Andreas; Dopp, Elke; Hansen, Carsten; Schueth, Christoph [IWW Rheinisch-Westfaelisches Institut fuer Wasser - Beratungs- und Entwicklungsgesellschaft mbH, Muelheim an der Ruhr (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    We examine the water-related environmental impacts and the risks for human health and the environment that could potentially be caused by hydraulic fracturing (fracking) during exploration and exploitation of unconventional natural gas reservoirs in Germany. This study covers both scientific-technical aspects and the existing mining and environmental regulations. Both were analyzed with respect to consistency, differences and current gaps of knowledge and lack of relevant information. After a general introduction, this study is divided into four sections: We first focus on the description of geospatial conditions, technical aspects and the chemical additives employed by hydraulic fracturing (Part A) and the existing regulatory and administrative framework (Part B), before we conduct a risk and deficit analysis (Part C) and derive recommendations for further actions and proceedings (Part D). The foundation of a sound risk analysis is a description of the current system, the relevant effect pathways and their interactions. We describe known and assumed unconventional natural gas reservoirs in Germany based on publicly available information. We present qualitatively the relevant system interactions for selected geosystems and assess potential technical and geological effect pathways. With regard to the technical aspects, we describe the principles of rock mechanics and provide an overview of the technical fracturing process. In terms of groundwater protection, the key focus is on borehole completion, modelling of fracture propagation and the longterm stability of the borehole (incl. cementation). The injected fracturing fluids contain proppants and several additional chemical additives. The evaluation of fracturing fluids used to date in Germany shows that even in newer fluids several additives were used which exhibit critical properties and/or for which an assessment of their behaviour and effects in the environment is not possible or limited due to lack of the

  17. Environmental impacts of fracking in the exploration and production of natural gas from unconventional deposits. Risk assessment, recommendations for action and evaluation of existing legal regulations and administrative structures; Umweltauswirkungen von Fracking bei der Aufsuchung und Gewinnung von Erdgas aus unkonventionellen Lagerstaetten. Risikobewertung, Handlungsempfehlungen und Evaluierung bestehender rechtlicher Regelungen und Verwaltungsstrukturen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meiners, Georg; Denneborg, Michael; Mueller, Frank [ahu AG Wasser - Boden - Geomatik, Aachen (Germany); Bergmann, Axel; Weber, Frank-Andreas; Dopp, Elke; Hansen, Carsten; Schueth, Christoph [IWW Rheinisch-Westfaelisches Institut fuer Wasser - Beratungs- und Entwicklungsgesellschaft mbH, Muelheim an der Ruhr (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    We examine the water-related environmental impacts and the risks for human health and the environment that could potentially be caused by hydraulic fracturing (fracking) during exploration and exploitation of unconventional natural gas reservoirs in Germany. This study covers both scientific-technical aspects and the existing mining and environmental regulations. Both were analyzed with respect to consistency, differences and current gaps of knowledge and lack of relevant information. After a general introduction, this study is divided into four sections: We first focus on the description of geospatial conditions, technical aspects and the chemical additives employed by hydraulic fracturing (Part A) and the existing regulatory and administrative framework (Part B), before we conduct a risk and deficit analysis (Part C) and derive recommendations for further actions and proceedings (Part D). The foundation of a sound risk analysis is a description of the current system, the relevant effect pathways and their interactions. We describe known and assumed unconventional natural gas reservoirs in Germany based on publicly available information. We present qualitatively the relevant system interactions for selected geosystems and assess potential technical and geological effect pathways. With regard to the technical aspects, we describe the principles of rock mechanics and provide an overview of the technical fracturing process. In terms of groundwater protection, the key focus is on borehole completion, modelling of fracture propagation and the longterm stability of the borehole (incl. cementation). The injected fracturing fluids contain proppants and several additional chemical additives. The evaluation of fracturing fluids used to date in Germany shows that even in newer fluids several additives were used which exhibit critical properties and/or for which an assessment of their behaviour and effects in the environment is not possible or limited due to lack of the

  18. Gething Formation in northeast BC : the next unconventional natural gas resource blockbuster?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karst, R.; Kleiner, S. [Canadian Spirit Resources Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    The stratigraphy and geologic setting of the Gething Formation in northeastern British Columbia was presented. This rock formation hosts a huge hybrid natural gas resource including natural gas from coal (NGC), shale gas and tight sands concentrated in 150-250 metres of stratigraphy at depths less than 1000 metres. The formation has good access, a plains setting, nearby service centres and a large pipeline with spare capacity. This presentation described how adsorption and free-gas compression contributed to the creation of the large natural gas deposits. In addition to a range of geological maps, geologic cross sections and stratigraphic sections, this presentation included an illustration of a simplified Gething structure and a Mannville coal ranking map. A composite section of the Gething Formation before construction of the WAC Bennett Dam in the Peace River Canyon was also provided. In 1982, Utah Mines Ltd. correlated the fluvial and upper delta plain of the Gething Formation with a pro-grading sea environment. This presentation also included a coal desorption summary of proximate analysis used for dry ash free gas content. An adsorption isotherm revealed that the Gething coal is saturated or slightly undersaturated. The coaly shale with significant carbon in the form of disseminated particles is commonly associated with coal seams. Drilling activity in the Farrel Creek Project was also summarized. The estimated gas-in-place for the Gething coals is estimated at 12-16 Bcf per section, while gas-in-place for the Gething shales is estimated at 11-17 Bcf per section. However, the key unknown is produceability, as the pilot production is ongoing without any assigned reserves thus far. tabs., figs.

  19. Coalbed methane and tight gas no longer unconventional resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatens, M.

    2006-01-01

    Unconventional gas refers to natural gas contained in difficult-to-produce formations that require special drilling and completion techniques to achieve commercial production. It includes tight gas, coal seams, organic shales, and gas hydrates. Canada's vast unconventional gas resource is becoming an increasingly important part of the country's gas supply. The emergence of unconventional gas production in Canada over the past several years has made the unconventional increasingly conventional in terms of industry activity. It was suggested that in order to realize the potential for unconventional gas in Canada, all stakeholders should engage to ensure the development is environmentally responsible. Unconventional gas accounts for nearly one third of U.S. gas production. It also accounts for nearly 5 Bcf per day and growing. The impetus to this sudden growth has been the gradual and increasing contribution of tight sands and limes to Canadian production, which accounts for more than 4 Bcf per day. Coalbed methane (CBM) is at 0.5 Bcf per day and growing. In response to expectations that CBM will reach 2 to 3 Bcf per day over the next 2 decades, Canadian producers are placing more emphasis on unconventional resource plays, including organic shales and gas hydrates. As such, significant growth of unconventional gas is anticipated. This growth will be facilitated by the adoption of U.S..-developed technologies and new Canadian technologies. It was suggested that research and development will be key to unlocking the unconventional gas potential. It was also suggested that the already existing, strong regulatory structure should continue in order to accommodate this growth in a sustainable manner. figs

  20. Variability of oil and gas well productivities for continuous (unconventional) petroleum accumulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decade, oil and gas well productivities were estimated using decline-curve analysis for thousands of wells as part of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) studies of continuous (unconventional) oil and gas resources in the United States. The estimated ultimate recoveries (EURs) of these wells show great variability that was analyzed at three scales: within an assessment unit (AU), among AUs of similar reservoir type, and among groups of AUs with different reservoir types. Within a particular oil or gas AU (such as the Barnett Shale), EURs vary by about two orders of magnitude between the most productive wells and the least productive ones (excluding those that are dry and abandoned). The distributions of EURs are highly skewed, with most of the wells in the lower part of the range. Continuous AUs were divided into four categories based on reservoir type and major commodity (oil or gas): coalbed gas, shale gas, other low-permeability gas AUs (such as tight sands), and low-permeability oil AUs. Within each of these categories, there is great variability from AU to AU, as shown by plots of multiple EUR distributions. Comparing the means of each distribution within a category shows that the means themselves have a skewed distribution, with a range of approximately one to two orders of magnitude. A comparison of the three gas categories (coalbed gas, shale gas, and other low-permeability gas AUs) shows large overlap in the ranges of EUR distributions. Generally, coalbed gas AUs have lower EUR distributions, shale gas AUs have intermediate sizes, and the other low-permeability gas AUs have higher EUR distributions. The plot of EUR distributions for each category shows the range of variation among developed AUs in an appropriate context for viewing the historical development within a particular AU. The Barnett Shale is used as an example to demonstrate that dividing wells into groups by time allows one to see the changes in EUR distribution. Subdivision into groups

  1. Antiplasmodial Natural Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio R. Nogueira

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is a human infectious disease that is caused by four species of Plasmodium. It is responsible for more than 1 million deaths per year. Natural products contain a great variety of chemical structures and have been screened for antiplasmodial activity as potential sources of new antimalarial drugs. This review highlights studies on natural products with antimalarial and antiplasmodial activity reported in the literature from January 2009 to November 2010. A total of 360 antiplasmodial natural products comprised of terpenes, including iridoids, sesquiterpenes, diterpenes, terpenoid benzoquinones, steroids, quassinoids, limonoids, curcubitacins, and lanostanes; flavonoids; alkaloids; peptides; phenylalkanoids; xanthones; naphthopyrones; polyketides, including halenaquinones, peroxides, polyacetylenes, and resorcylic acids; depsidones; benzophenones; macrolides; and miscellaneous compounds, including halogenated compounds and chromenes are listed in this review.

  2. Estimated Emissions from the Prime-Movers of Unconventional Natural Gas Well Development Using Recently Collected In-Use Data in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Derek; Heltzel, Robert; Nix, Andrew; Darzi, Mahdi; Oliver, Dakota

    2018-05-01

    Natural gas from shale plays dominates new production and growth. However, unconventional well development is an energy intensive process. The prime movers, which include over-the-road service trucks, horizontal drilling rigs, and hydraulic fracturing pumps, are predominately powered by diesel engines that impact air quality. Instead of relying on certification data or outdated emission factors, this model uses new in-use emissions and activity data combined with historical literature to develop a national emissions inventory. For the diesel only case, hydraulic fracturing engines produced the most NO x emissions, while drilling engines produced the most CO emissions, and truck engines produced the most THC emissions. By implementing dual-fuel and dedicated natural gas engines, total fuel energy consumed, CO 2 , CO, THC, and CH 4 emissions would increase, while NO x emissions, diesel fuel consumption, and fuel costs would decrease. Dedicated natural gas engines offered significant reductions in NO x emissions. Additional scenarios examined extreme cases of full fleet conversions. While deep market penetrations could reduce fuel costs, both technologies could significantly increase CH 4 emissions. While this model is based on a small sample size of engine configurations, data were collected during real in-use activity and is representative of real world activity.

  3. Regional economic impacts of the unconventional promotion of natural gas (Hydraulic Fracturing). Preliminary study; Regionaloekonomische Auswirkungen der unkonventionellen Erdgasfoerderung (Hydraulic Fracturing). Vorstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bizer, Kilian; Bossmeyer, Christoph

    2012-07-01

    Actually, there is a controversial public discussion on the exploitation of conventional natural gas by means of hydraulic fracturing (Fracking). The contribution under consideration examines the geologic, toxicological or technical as well as legal points of contact with respect to the different effects for the actor groups. Based on the existing scientific realizations, the regional economic effects of the fracking technology and the subsequent promotion of unconventional natural gas deposits have to be worked out.

  4. Lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions of coal, conventional and unconventional natural gas for electricity generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    An analysis of the lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with natural gas use recently published by Howarth et al. (2011) stated that use of natural gas produced from shale formations via hydraulic fracturing would generate greater lifecycle GHG emissions than petro...

  5. Baseline Geochemistry of Natural Occurring Methane and Saline Groundwater in an Area of Unconventional Shale Gas Development Through Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkness, J.; Darrah, T.; Warner, N. R.; Whyte, C. J.; Moore, M. T.; Millot, R.; Kloppmann, W.; Jackson, R. B.; Vengosh, A.

    2017-12-01

    Naturally occurring methane is nearly ubiquitous in most sedimentary basins and delineating the effects of anthropogenic contamination sources from geogenic sources is a major challenge for evaluating the impact of unconventional shale gas development on water quality. This study employs a broadly integrated study of various geochemical techniques to investigate the geochemical variations of groundwater and surface water before, during, and after hydraulic fracturing.This approache combines inorganic geochemistry (major cations and anions), stable isotopes of select inorganic constituents including strontium (87Sr/86Sr), boron (δ11B), lithium (δ7Li), and carbon (δ13C-DIC), select hydrocarbon molecular (methane, ethane, propane, butane, and pentane) and isotopic tracers (δ13C-CH4, δ13C-C2H6), tritium (3H), and noble gas elemental and isotopic composition (He, Ne, Ar) to apportion natural and anthropogenic sources of natural gas and salt contaminants both before and after drilling. Methane above 1 ccSTP/L in groundwater samples awas strongly associated with elevated salinity (chloride >50 mg/L).The geochemical and isotopic analysis indicate saline groundwater originated via naturally occurring processes, presumably from the migration of deeper methane-rich brines that have interacted extensively with coal lithologies. The chemistry and gas compostion of both saline and fresh groundwater wells did not change following the installation of nearby shale-gas wells.The results of this study emphasize the value of baseline characterization of water quality in areas of fossil fuel exploration. Overall this study presents a comprehensive geochemical framework that can be used as a template for assessing the sources of elevated hydrocarbons and salts to water resources in areas potentially impacted by oil and gas development.

  6. Natural products as photoprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saewan, Nisakorn; Jimtaisong, Ampa

    2015-03-01

    The rise in solar ultraviolet radiation on the earth's surface has led to a depletion of stratospheric ozone over recent decades, thus accelerating the need to protect human skin against the harmful effects of UV radiation such as erythema, edema, hyperpigmentation, photoaging, and skin cancer. There are many different ways to protect skin against UV radiation's harmful effects. The most popular way to reduce the amount of UV radiation penetrating the skin is topical application of sunscreen products that contain UV absorbing or reflecting active molecules. Based on their protection mechanism, the active molecules in sunscreens are broadly divided into inorganic and organic agents. Inorganic sunscreens reflect and scatter UV and visible radiation, while organic sunscreens absorb UV radiation and then re-emit energy as heat or light. These synthetic molecules have limited concentration according to regulation concern. Several natural compounds with UV absorption property have been used to substitute for or to reduce the quantity of synthetic sunscreen agents. In addition to UV absorption property, most natural compounds were found to act as antioxidants, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory agents, which provide further protection against the damaging effects of UV radiation exposure. Compounds derived from natural sources have gained considerable attention for use in sunscreen products and have bolstered the market trend toward natural cosmetics. This adds to the importance of there being a wide selection of active molecules in sunscreen formulations. This paper summarizes a number of natural products derived from propolis, plants, algae, and lichens that have shown potential photoprotection properties against UV radiation exposure-induced skin damage. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. An Energy Bridge Too Far? Unconventional Natural Gas Innovations and Eurasia’s Energy Bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    known as hydraulic fracturing or “ fracking ” and poses possible environmental risks, including poisoning groundwater and increased greenhouse gas...these fissures open while the wellbore delves into the shale rock to extract the gas. This extraction method, known as hydraulic fracturing or “ fracking ...global gas reserves were estimated to last only seventy more years, but recent advances in hydraulic fracturing, enabling natural gas to be

  8. Unconventional Leadership

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Marinescu; Sorin-George Toma

    2015-01-01

    From the perspective of leadership change symbolizes the existence of the organization.Most assuredly, this is not a matter of change at all costs, but rather of increasing organizational performance and training people. As leadership is a creative activity, in this paper, we aim to show that the unconventional is closely connected to creativity. From the perspective of interpersonal relationships the leader has to continually create contexts in which people can express themselves. On the one...

  9. 78 FR 41047 - Ultra-Deepwater and Unconventional Natural Gas and Other Petroleum Resources Research and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ... fields in an environmentally sustainable way. Offshore, research on Ultra-Deepwater emphasizes improved understanding of systems risk, reducing risk through the acquisition of real-time information, and reducing risk... production value chain ensures that the Department of Energy's research program leverages relevant emerging...

  10. The greenhouse impact of unconventional gas for electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hultman, Nathan; Ramig, Christopher; Rebois, Dylan; Scholten, Michael

    2011-01-01

    New techniques to extract natural gas from unconventional resources have become economically competitive over the past several years, leading to a rapid and largely unanticipated expansion in natural gas production. The US Energy Information Administration projects that unconventional gas will supply nearly half of US gas production by 2035. In addition, by significantly expanding and diversifying the gas supply internationally, the exploitation of new unconventional gas resources has the potential to reshape energy policy at national and international levels—altering geopolitics and energy security, recasting the economics of energy technology investment decisions, and shifting trends in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In anticipation of this expansion, one of the perceived core advantages of unconventional gas—its relatively moderate GHG impact compared to coal—has recently come under scrutiny. In this paper, we compare the GHG footprints of conventional natural gas, unconventional natural gas (i.e. shale gas that has been produced using the process of hydraulic fracturing, or 'fracking'), and coal in a transparent and consistent way, focusing primarily on the electricity generation sector. We show that for electricity generation the GHG impacts of shale gas are 11% higher than those of conventional gas, and only 56% that of coal for standard assumptions.

  11. The greenhouse impact of unconventional gas for electricity generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hultman, Nathan; Ramig, Christopher [School of Public Policy, University of Maryland, 2101 Van Munching Hall, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Rebois, Dylan [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maryland, 2181 Glenn L Martin Hall, Building 088, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Scholten, Michael [Joint Quantum Institute, University of Maryland, 2207 Computer and Space Sciences Building, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    New techniques to extract natural gas from unconventional resources have become economically competitive over the past several years, leading to a rapid and largely unanticipated expansion in natural gas production. The US Energy Information Administration projects that unconventional gas will supply nearly half of US gas production by 2035. In addition, by significantly expanding and diversifying the gas supply internationally, the exploitation of new unconventional gas resources has the potential to reshape energy policy at national and international levels-altering geopolitics and energy security, recasting the economics of energy technology investment decisions, and shifting trends in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In anticipation of this expansion, one of the perceived core advantages of unconventional gas-its relatively moderate GHG impact compared to coal-has recently come under scrutiny. In this paper, we compare the GHG footprints of conventional natural gas, unconventional natural gas (i.e. shale gas that has been produced using the process of hydraulic fracturing, or 'fracking'), and coal in a transparent and consistent way, focusing primarily on the electricity generation sector. We show that for electricity generation the GHG impacts of shale gas are 11% higher than those of conventional gas, and only 56% that of coal for standard assumptions.

  12. The Multi-Porosity Multi-Permeability and Electrokinetic Natures of Shales and Their Effects in Hydraulic Fracturing of Unconventional Shale Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C.; Hoang, S. K.; Tran, M. H.; Abousleiman, Y. N.

    2013-12-01

    Imaging studies of unconventional shale reservoir rocks have recently revealed the multi-porosity multi-permeability nature of these intricate formations. In particular, the porosity spectrum of shale reservoir rocks often comprises of the nano-porosity in the organic matters, the inter-particle micro-porosity, and the macroscopic porosity of the natural fracture network. Shale is also well-known for its chemically active behaviors, especially shrinking and swelling when exposed to aqueous solutions, as the results of pore fluid exchange with external environment due to the difference in electro-chemical potentials. In this work, the effects of natural fractures and electrokinetic nature of shale on the formation responses during hydraulic fracturing are examined using the dual-poro-chemo-electro-elasticity approach which is a generalization of the classical Biot's poroelastic formulation. The analyses show that the presence of natural fractures can substantially increase the leak-off rate of fracturing fluid into the formation and create a larger region of high pore pressure near the fracture face as shown in Fig.1a. Due to the additional fluid invasion, the naturally fractured shale swells up more and the fracture aperture closes faster compared to an intrinsically low permeability non-fractured shale formation as shown in Fig.1b. Since naturally fractured zones are commonly targeted as pay zones, it is important to account for the faster fracture closing rate in fractured shales in hydraulic fracturing design. Our results also show that the presence of negative fixed charges on the surface of clay minerals creates an osmotic pressure at the interface of the shale and the external fluid as shown in Fig.1c. This additional Donnan-induced pore pressure can result in significant tensile effective stresses and tensile damage in the shale as shown in Fig.1d. The induced tensile damage can exacerbate the problem of proppant embedment resulting in more fracture closure

  13. Organic substances in produced and formation water from unconventional natural gas extraction in coal and shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orem, William H.; Tatu, Calin A.; Varonka, Matthew S.; Lerch, Harry E.; Bates, Anne L.; Engle, Mark A.; Crosby, Lynn M.; McIntosh, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Organic substances in produced and formation water from coalbed methane (CBM) and gas shale plays from across the USA were examined in this study. Disposal of produced waters from gas extraction in coal and shale is an important environmental issue because of the large volumes of water involved and the variable quality of this water. Organic substances in produced water may be environmentally relevant as pollutants, but have been little studied. Results from five CBM plays and two gas shale plays (including the Marcellus Shale) show a myriad of organic chemicals present in the produced and formation water. Organic compound classes present in produced and formation water in CBM plays include: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), heterocyclic compounds, alkyl phenols, aromatic amines, alkyl aromatics (alkyl benzenes, alkyl biphenyls), long-chain fatty acids, and aliphatic hydrocarbons. Concentrations of individual compounds range from gas shale unimpacted by production chemicals have a similar range of compound classes as CBM produced water, and TOC levels of about 8 mg/L. However, produced water from the Marcellus Shale using hydraulic fracturing has TOC levels as high as 5500 mg/L and a range of added organic chemicals including, solvents, biocides, scale inhibitors, and other organic chemicals at levels of 1000 s of μg/L for individual compounds. Levels of these hydraulic fracturing chemicals and TOC decrease rapidly over the first 20 days of water recovery and some level of residual organic contaminants remain up to 250 days after hydraulic fracturing. Although the environmental impacts of the organics in produced water are not well defined, results suggest that care should be exercised in the disposal and release of produced waters containing these organic substances into the environment because of the potential toxicity of many of these substances.

  14. Human exposure to unconventional natural gas development: A public health demonstration of periodic high exposure to chemical mixtures in ambient air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David R; Lewis, Celia; Weinberger, Beth I

    2015-01-01

    Directional drilling and hydraulic fracturing of shale gas and oil bring industrial activity into close proximity to residences, schools, daycare centers and places where people spend their time. Multiple gas production sources can be sited near residences. Health care providers evaluating patient health need to know the chemicals present, the emissions from different sites and the intensity and frequency of the exposures. This research describes a hypothetical case study designed to provide a basic model that demonstrates the direct effect of weather on exposure patterns of particulate matter smaller than 2.5 microns (PM2.5) and volatile organic chemicals (VOCs). Because emissions from unconventional natural gas development (UNGD) sites are variable, a short term exposure profile is proposed that determines 6-hour assessments of emissions estimates, a time scale needed to assist physicians in the evaluation of individual exposures. The hypothetical case is based on observed conditions in shale gas development in Washington County, Pennsylvania, and on estimated emissions from facilities during gas development and production. An air exposure screening model was applied to determine the ambient concentration of VOCs and PM2.5 at different 6-hour periods of the day and night. Hourly wind speed, wind direction and cloud cover data from Pittsburgh International Airport were used to calculate the expected exposures. Fourteen months of daily observations were modeled. Higher than yearly average source terms were used to predict health impacts at periods when emissions are high. The frequency and intensity of exposures to PM2.5 and VOCs at a residence surrounded by three UNGD facilities was determined. The findings show that peak PM2.5 and VOC exposures occurred 83 times over the course of 14 months of well development. Among the stages of well development, the drilling, flaring and finishing, and gas production stages produced higher intensity exposures than the

  15. Cigarette Smokers’ Use of Unconventional Tobacco Products and Associations With Quitting Activity: Findings From the ITC-4 U.S. Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and correlates of use of nicotine-containing tobacco products such as cigars, pipe tobacco, and cigarettes that promise less exposure to toxins; e-cigarettes; and smokeless tobacco products among a cohort of conventional cigarette smokers followed over the past decade. We also evaluated associations between use of such products and cigarette quitting. Methods: Participants were 6,110 adult smokers in the United States, who were interviewed as part of the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey between 2002 and 2011. Respondents reported their concurrent use of other smoked tobacco products (including cigars, pipe tobacco, and cigarillos), smokeless tobacco products (including chewing tobacco, snus, and snuff), unconventional cigarettes (including Omni, Accord, and Eclipse), and electronic cigarettes. Prevalence and correlates of use and associations between use and cigarette quitting were assessed using regression analyses via generalized estimating equations. Results: Most cigarette smokers did not use unconventional tobacco products, although use of any of these products started to rise at the end of the study period (2011). For each type of tobacco product evaluated, use was most prevalent among those aged 18–24 years. Smokers who did use unconventional tobacco products did not experience a clear cessation advantage. Conclusions: During the past decade, relatively few cigarette smokers reported also using other tobacco products. Those that did use such products were no more likely to stop using conventional cigarettes compared with those who did not use such products. PMID:24376276

  16. Cigarette smokers' use of unconventional tobacco products and associations with quitting activity: findings from the ITC-4 U.S. cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasza, Karin A; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; O'Connor, Richard J; Compton, Wilson M; Kettermann, Anna; Borek, Nicolette; Fong, Geoffrey T; Cummings, K Michael; Hyland, Andrew J

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and correlates of use of nicotine-containing tobacco products such as cigars, pipe tobacco, and cigarettes that promise less exposure to toxins; e-cigarettes; and smokeless tobacco products among a cohort of conventional cigarette smokers followed over the past decade. We also evaluated associations between use of such products and cigarette quitting. Participants were 6,110 adult smokers in the United States, who were interviewed as part of the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey between 2002 and 2011. Respondents reported their concurrent use of other smoked tobacco products (including cigars, pipe tobacco, and cigarillos), smokeless tobacco products (including chewing tobacco, snus, and snuff), unconventional cigarettes (including Omni, Accord, and Eclipse), and electronic cigarettes. Prevalence and correlates of use and associations between use and cigarette quitting were assessed using regression analyses via generalized estimating equations. Most cigarette smokers did not use unconventional tobacco products, although use of any of these products started to rise at the end of the study period (2011). For each type of tobacco product evaluated, use was most prevalent among those aged 18-24 years. Smokers who did use unconventional tobacco products did not experience a clear cessation advantage. During the past decade, relatively few cigarette smokers reported also using other tobacco products. Those that did use such products were no more likely to stop using conventional cigarettes compared with those who did not use such products.

  17. Effect of unconventional oilseeds (safflower, poppy, hemp, camelina) on in vitro ruminal methane production and fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaopu; Kreuzer, Michael; Braun, Ueli; Schwarm, Angela

    2017-08-01

    Dietary supplementation with oilseeds can reduce methane emission in ruminants, but only a few common seeds have been tested so far. This study tested safflower (Carthamus tinctorius), poppy (Papaver somniferum), hemp (Cannabis sativa), and camelina (Camelina sativa) seeds in vitro using coconut (Cocos nucifera) oil and linseed (Linum usitatissimum) as positive controls. All the tested oilseeds suppressed methane yield (mL g -1 dry matter, up to 21%) compared to the non-supplemented control when provided at 70 g oil kg -1 dry matter, and they were as effective as coconut oil. Safflower and hemp were more effective than linseed (21% and 18% vs. 10%), whereas the effects of poppy and camelina were similar to linseed. When methane was related to digestible organic matter, only hemp and safflower seeds and coconut oil were effective compared to the non-supplemented control (up to 11%). The level of methanogenesis and the ratios of either the n-6:n-3 fatty acids or C 18 :2 :C 18 :3 in the seed lipids were not related. Unconventional oilseeds widen the spectrum of oilseeds that can be used in dietary methane mitigation. In vivo confirmation of their methane mitigating effect is still needed, and their effects on animal performance still must be determined. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. A Natural Love of Natural Products

    OpenAIRE

    Kingston, David G. I.

    2008-01-01

    Recent research on the chemistry of natural products from the author?s group that led to the receipt of the ACS Ernest Guenther Award in the Chemistry of Natural Products is reviewed. REDOR NMR and synthetic studies established the T-taxol conformation as the bioactive tubulin-binding conformation, and these results were confirmed by the synthesis of compounds which clearly owed their activity or lack of activity to whether or not they could adopt the T-taxol conformation. Similar studies wit...

  19. Egg-yolk protein by-product as a source of ACE-inhibitory peptides obtained with using unconventional proteinase from Asian pumpkin (Cucurbita ficifolia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, Ewelina; Zambrowicz, Aleksandra; Pokora, Marta; Setner, Bartosz; Dąbrowska, Anna; Szołtysik, Marek; Szewczuk, Zbigniew; Polanowski, Antoni; Trziszka, Tadeusz; Chrzanowska, Józefa

    2014-10-14

    In the present study angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides were isolated from egg-yolk protein preparation (YP). Enzymatic hydrolysis conducted using unconventional enzyme from Cucurbita ficifolia (dose: 1000 U/mg of hydrolyzed YP (E/S (w/w)=1:7.52)) was employed to obtain protein hydrolysates. The 4-h hydrolysate exhibited a significant (IC₅₀=482.5 μg/mL) ACE inhibitory activity. Moreover, hydrolysate showed no cytotoxic activity on human and animal cell lines which makes it a very useful multifunctional method for peptide preparation. The compiled isolation procedure (ultrafiltration, size-exclusion chromatography and RP-HPLC) of bioactive peptides from YP hydrolysate resulted in obtaining peptides with the strong ACE inhibitory activity. One homogeneous and three heterogeneous peptide fractions were identified. The peptides were composed of 9-18 amino-acid residues, including mainly arginine and leucine at the N-terminal positions. To confirm the selected bioactive peptide sequences their analogs were chemically synthesized and tested. Peptide LAPSLPGKPKPD showed the strongest ACE inhibitory activity, with IC₅₀ value of 1.97 μmol/L. Peptides with specific biological activity can be used in pharmaceutical, cosmetic or food industries. Because of their potential role as physiological modulators, as well as theirhigh safety profile, they can be used as natural pharmacological compounds or functional food ingredients. The development of biotechnological solutions to obtain peptides with desired biological activity is already in progress. Studies in this area are focused on using unconventional highly specific enzymes and more efficient methods developed to conduct food process technologies. Natural peptides have many advantages. They are mainly toxicologically safe, have wide spectra of therapeutic actions, exhibit less side effects compared to synthetic drugs and are more efficiently absorbed in the intestinal tract. The complexity of

  20. 505 Effective Medicated Abdomen Wrapper Best External Care for Lingering Diseases Unconventional Product for Vigorous Health

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    505 Effective Medicated Abdomen Wrapper,a national patent product(patent num-ber 90202386.1),together with its serial products,has filled in the gaps in the field ofChina’s medical science and health care products.The development of the product wasbrought into line with the State Spark Programme by the State Commission for Science

  1. Combinatorial synthesis of natural products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, John

    2002-01-01

    Combinatorial syntheses allow production of compound libraries in an expeditious and organized manner immediately applicable for high-throughput screening. Natural products possess a pedigree to justify quality and appreciation in drug discovery and development. Currently, we are seeing a rapid...... increase in application of natural products in combinatorial chemistry and vice versa. The therapeutic areas of infectious disease and oncology still dominate but many new areas are emerging. Several complex natural products have now been synthesised by solid-phase methods and have created the foundation...... for preparation of combinatorial libraries. In other examples, natural products or intermediates have served as building blocks or scaffolds in the synthesis of complex natural products, bioactive analogues or designed hybrid molecules. Finally, structural motifs from the biologically active parent molecule have...

  2. MALDI-TOF MS for the Identification of Cultivable Organic-Degrading Bacteria in Contaminated Groundwater near Unconventional Natural Gas Extraction Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês C. Santos

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater quality and quantity is of extreme importance as it is a source of drinking water in the United States. One major concern has emerged due to the possible contamination of groundwater from unconventional oil and natural gas extraction activities. Recent studies have been performed to understand if these activities are causing groundwater contamination, particularly with respect to exogenous hydrocarbons and volatile organic compounds. The impact of contaminants on microbial ecology is an area to be explored as alternatives for water treatment are necessary. In this work, we identified cultivable organic-degrading bacteria in groundwater in close proximity to unconventional natural gas extraction. Pseudomonas stutzeri and Acinetobacter haemolyticus were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS, which proved to be a simple, fast, and reliable method. Additionally, the potential use of the identified bacteria in water and/or wastewater bioremediation was studied by determining the ability of these microorganisms to degrade toluene and chloroform. In fact, these bacteria can be potentially applied for in situ bioremediation of contaminated water and wastewater treatment, as they were able to degrade both compounds.

  3. MALDI-TOF MS for the Identification of Cultivable Organic-Degrading Bacteria in Contaminated Groundwater near Unconventional Natural Gas Extraction Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Inês C; Martin, Misty S; Carlton, Doug D; Amorim, Catarina L; Castro, Paula M L; Hildenbrand, Zacariah L; Schug, Kevin A

    2017-08-10

    Groundwater quality and quantity is of extreme importance as it is a source of drinking water in the United States. One major concern has emerged due to the possible contamination of groundwater from unconventional oil and natural gas extraction activities. Recent studies have been performed to understand if these activities are causing groundwater contamination, particularly with respect to exogenous hydrocarbons and volatile organic compounds. The impact of contaminants on microbial ecology is an area to be explored as alternatives for water treatment are necessary. In this work, we identified cultivable organic-degrading bacteria in groundwater in close proximity to unconventional natural gas extraction. Pseudomonas stutzeri and Acinetobacter haemolyticus were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), which proved to be a simple, fast, and reliable method. Additionally, the potential use of the identified bacteria in water and/or wastewater bioremediation was studied by determining the ability of these microorganisms to degrade toluene and chloroform. In fact, these bacteria can be potentially applied for in situ bioremediation of contaminated water and wastewater treatment, as they were able to degrade both compounds.

  4. How unconventional gas prospers without tax incentives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuuskraa, V.A.; Stevens, S.H.

    1995-01-01

    It was widely believed that the development of unconventional natural gas (coalbed methane, gas shales, and tight gas) would die once US Sec. 29 credits stopped. Quieter voices countered, and hoped, that technology advances would keep these large but difficult to produce gas resources alive and maybe even healthy. Sec. 29 tax credits for new unconventional gas development stopped at the end of 1992. Now, nearly three years later, who was right and what has happened? There is no doubt that Sec. 29 tax credits stimulated the development of coalbed methane, gas shales, and tight gas. What is less known is that the tax credits helped spawn and push into use an entire new set of exploration, completion, and production technologies founded on improved understanding of unconventional gas reservoirs. As set forth below, while the incentives inherent in Sec. 29 provided the spark, it has been the base of science and technology that has maintained the vitality of these gas sources. The paper discusses the current status; resource development; technology; unusual production, proven reserves, and well completions if coalbed methane, gas shales, and tight gas; and international aspects

  5. Panorama 2011: Unconventional gas and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vially, R.

    2011-01-01

    For a number of years now, the rapid development of unconventional gas use in North America has been revolutionising the natural gas market. This generic term refers to several production types, such as tight gas, shale gas and coal bed methane. What they have in common is that the rock needs to be 'stimulated' in order to extract gas from it that can be commercially produced. These methods (horizontal drilling, hydraulic fracturing) all involve sensible management of the water needed for gas production. (author)

  6. The future of oil: unconventional fossil fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Kenneth J

    2014-01-13

    Unconventional fossil hydrocarbons fall into two categories: resource plays and conversion-sourced hydrocarbons. Resource plays involve the production of accumulations of solid, liquid or gaseous hydro-carbons that have been generated over geological time from organic matter in source rocks. The character of these hydrocarbons may have been modified subsequently, especially in the case of solids and extra-heavy liquids. These unconventional hydrocarbons therefore comprise accumulations of hydrocarbons that are trapped in an unconventional manner and/or whose economic exploitation requires complex and technically advanced production methods. This review focuses primarily on unconventional liquid hydro-carbons. The future potential of unconventional gas, especially shale gas, is also discussed, as it is revolutionizing the energy outlook in North America and elsewhere.

  7. Unconventional imports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.

    2001-01-01

    This article focuses on bitumens and bitumen products from Canadian oil sands and explores how they will affect the Canadian oil industry and the US refining industry. The falling production of crude, the growing demand for it, and the stagnating refining capacity in the US are reported, and Canadian and Mexican exports to the US, the definition of bitumens and bitumen quality, and the position of Canada as world leader in bitumen resources are considered. Bitumen production techniques, sales of bitumens and synthetic crude, the production outlook, and the quality and refining of bitumen and synthetic crude are examined. Plots illustrating North American crude refining capacity, production and demand for 1980-2000; US crude imports from Canada and Mexico (1981-2000), world proven oil reserves (2001), world bitumen resources, and Canadian oil production (1998-2000) are provided. Details of the composition of crudes and bitumens, and recent synthetic crude production are tabulated

  8. [Expansion of the range of anthocyanin food colorants from unconventional vegetal primary products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetrov, M Yu; Akishin, D V; Akimov, M Yu; Vinnitskaya, V F

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of work to study the content of anthocyanins and other biologically active substances in residues of fruits of Sanberri from receivingjuice and mash. It is established that residues contained over 70% solids, more than 60% of dietary fiber, to 55.4 mg/% of ascorbic acid and up to 90.0 mg/% of anthocyanins. Furthermore, they possessed high antioxidant activity (156.8-399.4 mg/% dihydroquercetin equivalent) that allowed to recommend them as raw materials for receiving natural food colorants. The concentrated food dye from Sanberri's residue (50-51% soluble solids) had intensive color varying from dark-violet (at acidity of 1.0%) to claret-red (at acidity of 3.0%), possessed high antioxidant activity (1308.2-2223.5 mg/%) and contained a large amount of anthocyanins (666-976 mg/%).

  9. Natural products used for diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Karen; Gong, William C

    2002-01-01

    To review the efficacy and safety of natural products commonly used for diabetes. English and Spanish-language journals retrieved through a MEDLINE search of articles published between 1960 and December 2001 using these index terms: Opuntia, karela, gymnema, tecoma, alpha lipoic acid, thioctic acid, ginseng, panaxans, and diabetes. Natural products have long been used in traditional systems of medicine for diabetes. Products in common use include nopal (prickly pear cactus), fenu-greek, karela (bitter melon), gymnema, ginseng, tronadora, chromium, and alpha-lipoic acid. The popularity of these products varies among people of different ethnicities. Nopal is the most commonly used herbal hypoglycemic among persons of Mexican descent. Karela is more commonly used by persons from Asian countries. Some of these agents have gained universal appeal. For a select number of products, studies have revealed single or multiple mechanisms of action. For several of these, high soluble fiber content is a contributing factor. Based on the available evidence, several natural products in common use can lower blood glucose in patients with diabetes. Commonly used natural products often have a long history of traditional use, and pharmacists who have a stronger understanding of these products are better positioned to counsel patients on their appropriate use.

  10. Dissipated energy and entropy production for an unconventional heat engine: the stepwise `circular cycle'

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Liberto, Francesco; Pastore, Raffaele; Peruggi, Fulvio

    2011-05-01

    When some entropy is transferred, by means of a reversible engine, from a hot heat source to a colder one, the maximum efficiency occurs, i.e. the maximum available work is obtained. Similarly, a reversible heat pumps transfer entropy from a cold heat source to a hotter one with the minimum expense of energy. In contrast, if we are faced with non-reversible devices, there is some lost work for heat engines, and some extra work for heat pumps. These quantities are both related to entropy production. The lost work, i.e. ? , is also called 'degraded energy' or 'energy unavailable to do work'. The extra work, i.e. ? , is the excess of work performed on the system in the irreversible process with respect to the reversible one (or the excess of heat given to the hotter source in the irreversible process). Both quantities are analysed in detail and are evaluated for a complex process, i.e. the stepwise circular cycle, which is similar to the stepwise Carnot cycle. The stepwise circular cycle is a cycle performed by means of N small weights, dw, which are first added and then removed from the piston of the vessel containing the gas or vice versa. The work performed by the gas can be found as the increase of the potential energy of the dw's. Each single dw is identified and its increase, i.e. its increase in potential energy, evaluated. In such a way it is found how the energy output of the cycle is distributed among the dw's. The size of the dw's affects entropy production and therefore the lost and extra work. The distribution of increases depends on the chosen removal process.

  11. Synthesis of Polycyclic Natural Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Tuan Hoang [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2003-01-01

    With the continuous advancements in molecular biology and modern medicine, organic synthesis has become vital to the support and extension of those discoveries. The isolations of new natural products allow for the understanding of their biological activities and therapeutic value. Organic synthesis is employed to aid in the determination of the relationship between structure and function of these natural products. The development of synthetic methodologies in the course of total syntheses is imperative for the expansion of this highly interdisciplinary field of science. In addition to the practical applications of total syntheses, the structural complexity of natural products represents a worthwhile challenge in itself. The pursuit of concise and efficient syntheses of complex molecules is both gratifying and enjoyable.

  12. Unconventional recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, K.M.

    1996-05-01

    Despite advances made in recycling technology and markets for materials over the past few years, recycling at convention centers, particularly on the show floor itself, can be a vexing problem. Part of the problem lies in the fact that recycling at convention centers has more to do with logistics than it does with these industry trends. However, given the varied nature of convention centers, and the shows they book, a rigid approach to recycling at convention centers is not always feasible. Like the numerous different curbside programs serving communities across the country, what works for one convention center--and one show--many not work for another. These difficulties notwithstanding, more convention centers are offering recycling programs today, and more groups booking conventions these days have begun requesting recycling services.

  13. Natural Products from Mangrove Actinomycetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Bo Xu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Mangroves are woody plants located in tropical and subtropical intertidal coastal regions. The mangrove ecosystem is becoming a hot spot for natural product discovery and bioactivity survey. Diverse mangrove actinomycetes as promising and productive sources are worth being explored and uncovered. At the time of writing, we report 73 novel compounds and 49 known compounds isolated from mangrove actinomycetes including alkaloids, benzene derivatives, cyclopentenone derivatives, dilactones, macrolides, 2-pyranones and sesquiterpenes. Attractive structures such as salinosporamides, xiamycins and novel indolocarbazoles are highlighted. Many exciting compounds have been proven as potential new antibiotics, antitumor and antiviral agents, anti-fibrotic agents and antioxidants. Furthermore, some of their biosynthetic pathways have also been revealed. This review is an attempt to consolidate and summarize the past and the latest studies on mangrove actinomycetes natural product discovery and to draw attention to their immense potential as novel and bioactive compounds for marine drugs discovery.

  14. Natural Products from Mangrove Actinomycetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dong-Bo; Ye, Wan-Wan; Han, Ying; Deng, Zi-Xin; Hong, Kui

    2014-01-01

    Mangroves are woody plants located in tropical and subtropical intertidal coastal regions. The mangrove ecosystem is becoming a hot spot for natural product discovery and bioactivity survey. Diverse mangrove actinomycetes as promising and productive sources are worth being explored and uncovered. At the time of writing, we report 73 novel compounds and 49 known compounds isolated from mangrove actinomycetes including alkaloids, benzene derivatives, cyclopentenone derivatives, dilactones, macrolides, 2-pyranones and sesquiterpenes. Attractive structures such as salinosporamides, xiamycins and novel indolocarbazoles are highlighted. Many exciting compounds have been proven as potential new antibiotics, antitumor and antiviral agents, anti-fibrotic agents and antioxidants. Furthermore, some of their biosynthetic pathways have also been revealed. This review is an attempt to consolidate and summarize the past and the latest studies on mangrove actinomycetes natural product discovery and to draw attention to their immense potential as novel and bioactive compounds for marine drugs discovery. PMID:24798926

  15. Unconventional Quantum Computing Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Lloyd, Seth

    2000-01-01

    This paper investigates a variety of unconventional quantum computation devices, including fermionic quantum computers and computers that exploit nonlinear quantum mechanics. It is shown that unconventional quantum computing devices can in principle compute some quantities more rapidly than `conventional' quantum computers.

  16. A review on risk assessment techniques for hydraulic fracturing water and produced water management implemented in onshore unconventional oil and gas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Luisa; Yadav, Om Prakash; Khan, Eakalak

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to review different risk assessment techniques applicable to onshore unconventional oil and gas production to determine the risks to water quantity and quality associated with hydraulic fracturing and produced water management. Water resources could be at risk without proper management of water, chemicals, and produced water. Previous risk assessments in the oil and gas industry were performed from an engineering perspective leaving aside important social factors. Different risk assessment methods and techniques are reviewed and summarized to select the most appropriate one to perform a holistic and integrated analysis of risks at every stage of the water life cycle. Constraints to performing risk assessment are identified including gaps in databases, which require more advanced techniques such as modeling. Discussions on each risk associated with water and produced water management, mitigation strategies, and future research direction are presented. Further research on risks in onshore unconventional oil and gas will benefit not only the U.S. but also other countries with shale oil and gas resources. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Marcellus and mercury: Assessing potential impacts of unconventional natural gas extraction on aquatic ecosystems in northwestern Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Christopher J; Weimer, Alexander B; Marks, Nicole K; Perow, Elliott S; Oster, Jacob M; Brubaker, Kristen M; Trexler, Ryan V; Solomon, Caroline M; Lamendella, Regina

    2015-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a persistent element in the environment that has the ability to bioaccumulate and biomagnify up the food chain with potentially harmful effects on ecosystems and human health. Twenty-four streams remotely located in forested watersheds in northwestern PA containing naturally reproducing Salvelinus fontinalis (brook trout), were targeted to gain a better understanding of how Marcellus shale natural gas exploration may be impacting water quality, aquatic biodiversity, and Hg bioaccumulation in aquatic ecosystems. During the summer of 2012, stream water, stream bed sediments, aquatic mosses, macroinvertebrates, crayfish, brook trout, and microbial samples were collected. All streams either had experienced hydraulic fracturing (fracked, n = 14) or not yet experienced hydraulic fracturing (non-fracked, n = 10) within their watersheds at the time of sampling. Analysis of watershed characteristics (GIS) for fracked vs non-fracked sites showed no significant differences (P > 0.05), justifying comparisons between groups. Results showed significantly higher dissolved total mercury (FTHg) in stream water (P = 0.007), lower pH (P = 0.033), and higher dissolved organic matter (P = 0.001) at fracked sites. Total mercury (THg) concentrations in crayfish (P = 0.01), macroinvertebrates (P = 0.089), and predatory macroinvertebrates (P = 0.039) were observed to be higher for fracked sites. A number of positive correlations between amount of well pads within a watershed and THg in crayfish (r = 0.76, P shale natural gas exploration is having an effect on aquatic ecosystems.

  18. Unconventional Quantum Critical Points

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Cenke

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we review the theory of unconventional quantum critical points that are beyond the Landau's paradigm. Three types of unconventional quantum critical points will be discussed: (1). The transition between topological order and semiclassical spin ordered phase; (2). The transition between topological order and valence bond solid phase; (3). The direct second order transition between different competing orders. We focus on the field theory and universality class of these unconventio...

  19. Constraining Methane Emissions from Natural Gas Production in Northeastern Pennsylvania Using Aircraft Observations and Mesoscale Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkley, Z.; Davis, K.; Lauvaux, T.; Miles, N.; Richardson, S.; Martins, D. K.; Deng, A.; Cao, Y.; Sweeney, C.; Karion, A.; Smith, M. L.; Kort, E. A.; Schwietzke, S.

    2015-12-01

    Leaks in natural gas infrastructure release methane (CH4), a potent greenhouse gas, into the atmosphere. The estimated fugitive emission rate associated with the production phase varies greatly between studies, hindering our understanding of the natural gas energy efficiency. This study presents a new application of inverse methodology for estimating regional fugitive emission rates from natural gas production. Methane observations across the Marcellus region in northeastern Pennsylvania were obtained during a three week flight campaign in May 2015 performed by a team from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Global Monitoring Division and the University of Michigan. In addition to these data, CH4 observations were obtained from automobile campaigns during various periods from 2013-2015. An inventory of CH4 emissions was then created for various sources in Pennsylvania, including coalmines, enteric fermentation, industry, waste management, and unconventional and conventional wells. As a first-guess emission rate for natural gas activity, a leakage rate equal to 2% of the natural gas production was emitted at the locations of unconventional wells across PA. These emission rates were coupled to the Weather Research and Forecasting model with the chemistry module (WRF-Chem) and atmospheric CH4 concentration fields at 1km resolution were generated. Projected atmospheric enhancements from WRF-Chem were compared to observations, and the emission rate from unconventional wells was adjusted to minimize errors between observations and simulation. We show that the modeled CH4 plume structures match observed plumes downwind of unconventional wells, providing confidence in the methodology. In all cases, the fugitive emission rate was found to be lower than our first guess. In this initial emission configuration, each well has been assigned the same fugitive emission rate, which can potentially impair our ability to match the observed spatial variability

  20. Natural Products and HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cary, Daniele C; Peterlin, B Matija

    2018-01-01

    The study of natural products in biomedical research is not a modern concept. Many of the most successful medical therapeutics are derived from natural products, including those studied in the field of HIV/AIDS. Biomedical research has a rich history of discovery based on screens of medicinal herbs and traditional medicine practices. Compounds derived from natural products, which repress HIV and those that activate latent HIV, have been reported. It is important to remember the tradition in medical research to derive therapies based on these natural products and to overcome the negative perception of natural products as an "alternative medicine."

  1. Teaching 'natural product chemistry' in Tanzania | Buchanan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Natural products 'historically' and 'today' have vast importance. This article describes the course 'Natural Product Chemistry', a new course in the 2011/2012 academic year in the Faculty of Natural and Applied Sciences at St. John's University of Tanzania. It reveals how the course has been applied to the African and ...

  2. Pathways of Unconventional Protein Secretion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rabouille, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Secretory proteins are conventionally transported through the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi and then to the plasma membrane where they are released into the extracellular space. However, numerous substrates also reach these destinations using unconventional pathways. Unconventional protein

  3. Pathways of Unconventional Protein Secretion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rabouille, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Secretory proteins are conventionally transported through the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi and then to the plasma membrane where they are released into the extracellular space. However, numerous substrates also reach these destinations using unconventional pathways. Unconventional protein

  4. An unconventional colour superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Mei

    2007-01-01

    Superfluidity, or superconductivity with mismatched Fermi momenta, appears in many systems such as charge-neutral dense quark matter, asymmetric nuclear matter, and in imbalanced cold atomic gases. The mismatch plays the role of breaking the Cooper pairing, and the pair-breaking state cannot be properly described in the framework of standard BCS theory. I give a brief review on recent theoretical developments in understanding unconventional colour superconductivity, including a gapless colour superconductor, chromomagnetic instabilities and the Higgs instability in the gapless phase. I also introduce a possible new framework for describing an unconventional colour superconductor

  5. Unconventional uranium transactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, S.C.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe some representative unconventional transactions which have been observed in the uranium market; to explain the circumstances giving rise to these transactions; and to describe the benefits resulting from these transactions. Unconventional transactions are usually quite specialized, since they are tailored to meet the particular needs of specific market participants. Nevertheless, most of these transactions fall into the following basic categories: multi-party (back-to-back; bridge); swap (deconversion; nationality); barter; inventory financing (leasing with repurchase obligation; sale with repurchase option). These transactions are explained and discussed. (U.K.)

  6. Learning Organic Chemistry Through Natural Products

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Higher Learning. ... The Series on "learning Organic Chemistry Through Natural Products". Nature is a remarkable ... skeletal structure to the interior electronic configu- ration ... Among the advantages of this approach are the fact that unlike the.

  7. China's natural gas: Resources, production and its impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jianliang; Feng, Lianyong; Zhao, Lin; Snowden, Simon

    2013-01-01

    In order to achieve energy consumption targets, and subsequently reduce carbon emissions, China is working on energy strategies and policies aimed at actively increasing the consumption of natural gas—the lowest carbon energy of the fossil fuels, and to enhance the proportion of gas in total primary energy consumption. To do this, it is a necessary prerequisite that China must have access to adequate gas resources and production to meet demand. This paper shows that the availability of domestic gas resources are overestimated by China's authorities due to differences in classification and definitions of gas resources/reserves between China and those accepted internationally. Based on official gas resource figures, China's gas production remains low with respect to the projected demand, and will only be 164.6 bcm in 2020, far lower than the 375 bcm of forecast demand. The gap between gas production and demand will reach 210.4 bcm by 2020. Existing plans for the importation of gas and the development of unconventional gas will not close this gap in the next 10 years, and this situation will therefore present a severe challenge to China's gas security, achievement of targets in improving energy consumption structure and reducing carbon emissions. - Highlights: ► We show that available gas resources are overestimated by China's authorities. ► We forecast China's future gas production under different resource scenarios. ► This paper shows that China's gas production will not meet the soaring demand. ► The gap between supply and demand will continue to increase rapidly in future. ► China's gas security will meet a severe challenge because of this increasing gap

  8. Unconventional Algorithms: Complementarity of Axiomatics and Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Dodig Crnkovic

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyze axiomatic and constructive issues of unconventional computations from a methodological and philosophical point of view. We explain how the new models of algorithms and unconventional computations change the algorithmic universe, making it open and allowing increased flexibility and expressive power that augment creativity. At the same time, the greater power of new types of algorithms also results in the greater complexity of the algorithmic universe, transforming it into the algorithmic multiverse and demanding new tools for its study. That is why we analyze new powerful tools brought forth by local mathematics, local logics, logical varieties and the axiomatic theory of algorithms, automata and computation. We demonstrate how these new tools allow efficient navigation in the algorithmic multiverse. Further work includes study of natural computation by unconventional algorithms and constructive approaches.

  9. Super Natural II--a database of natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Priyanka; Erehman, Jevgeni; Gohlke, Björn-Oliver; Wilhelm, Thomas; Preissner, Robert; Dunkel, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    Natural products play a significant role in drug discovery and development. Many topological pharmacophore patterns are common between natural products and commercial drugs. A better understanding of the specific physicochemical and structural features of natural products is important for corresponding drug development. Several encyclopedias of natural compounds have been composed, but the information remains scattered or not freely available. The first version of the Supernatural database containing ∼ 50,000 compounds was published in 2006 to face these challenges. Here we present a new, updated and expanded version of natural product database, Super Natural II (http://bioinformatics.charite.de/supernatural), comprising ∼ 326,000 molecules. It provides all corresponding 2D structures, the most important structural and physicochemical properties, the predicted toxicity class for ∼ 170,000 compounds and the vendor information for the vast majority of compounds. The new version allows a template-based search for similar compounds as well as a search for compound names, vendors, specific physical properties or any substructures. Super Natural II also provides information about the pathways associated with synthesis and degradation of the natural products, as well as their mechanism of action with respect to structurally similar drugs and their target proteins. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  10. An Overview of Some Natural Products with Two A-Level Science Club Natural Products Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosabowski, Michael Hal; Olivier, George W. J.; Jawad, Hala; Maatta, Sieja

    2017-01-01

    Natural products are ubiquitous in nature but do not form a large proportion of the A-level syllabuses in the UK. In this article we briefly discuss a small selection of natural products, focusing on alcohols, aldehydes and ketones, and alkaloids. We then outline two natural product experiments that are suitable for A-level chemistry clubs or…

  11. Food production and nature conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gordon, Iain J.; Squire, Geoff R.; Prins, Herbert H.T.

    2016-01-01

    Feeding the world's growing human population is increasingly challenging, especially as more people adopt a western diet and lifestyle. Doing so without causing damage to nature poses an even greater challenge. This book argues that in order to create a sustainable food supply whilst conserving

  12. Natural Connections on Riemannian Product Manifolds

    OpenAIRE

    Gribacheva, Dobrinka

    2011-01-01

    A Riemannian almost product manifold with integrable almost product structure is called a Riemannian product manifold. In the present paper the natural connections on such manifolds are studied, i.e. the linear connections preserving the almost product structure and the Riemannian metric.

  13. Unconventional politics of unconventional gas: Environmental reframing and policy change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kear, Andrew Robert

    The present Rocky Mountain West natural gas boom, enabled by historic pro-resource-development political, institutional, economic, and cultural structures, is a politically contested battle over values. Volatile political action, unconventional coalitions, and unconventional politics engulf this unconventional gas boom -- especially at the state level. In this comparative case study of natural gas policy in Wyoming, Colorado, and New Mexico, I measure and compare these values, expressed as frames, through textual analysis of interest group public documents and state legislative bills and statutes from 1999-2008. By developing a new measure of state legislative framing, I test the relationship between interest group and institutional framing and also provide a viable measure of policy change useful to Narrative Policy Analysis theory. Results show that competing interest group and state legislative framing efforts are dynamic, measurably different, and periodically correlative. Competing interest groups rarely engage each other, except as the conflict matures when status-quo-supporters break their silence and engage the challengers' frames that have gained legislative traction. Environmental and land-use counter-framing ensues, but status-quo-supporters remain vigilant in their economic framing. Economic frames retain their institutional privilege within Wyoming and New Mexico, but natural gas policy undergoes a complete environmental reframe in the Colorado state legislature. Although the historically dominant economy frame based on "Old West" values remains largely intact, the respective state legislatures partially reframe policy (within 4 years) using environment, alternative land-uses, and democracy frames based on "New West" and long-extant but previously marginalized status-quo-challenger definitions. This reframing is not a strictly partisan issue, but rather it is influenced by political context, policy diffusion, and long-term interest group advocacy and

  14. Material and Energy Flow Analysis (Mefa of the Unconventional Method of Electricity Production Based on Underground Coal Gasification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Czaplicka-Kolarz

    2014-01-01

    Originality/value: This is the first approach which contains a whole chain of electricity production from Underground Coal Gasification, including stages of gas cleaning, electricity production and the additional capture of carbon dioxide.

  15. Learning Organic Chemistry Through Natural Products

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SERIES I ARTICLE. Learning Organic Chemistry. Through Natural Products. 2. Determination of Absolute Stereochemistry. N R Krishnaswamy was initiated into the world of natural products by T R. Seshadri at University of. Delhi and has carried on the glorious traditions of his mentor. He has taught at Bangalore University,.

  16. Nigerian Journal of Natural Products and Medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Natural Products and Medicine is published by the Nigerian Society of Pharmacognosy, a non profit organisation established in 1982 dedicated to the promotion of Pharmacognosy, Natural Products and Traditional Medicine. It has a current circulation of about 500 to scientists in Nigeria and abroad.

  17. Bioactive natural products from novel microbial sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challinor, Victoria L; Bode, Helge B

    2015-09-01

    Despite the importance of microbial natural products for human health, only a few bacterial genera have been mined for the new natural products needed to overcome the urgent threat of antibiotic resistance. This is surprising, given that genome sequencing projects have revealed that the capability to produce natural products is not a rare feature among bacteria. Even the bacteria occurring in the human microbiome produce potent antibiotics, and thus potentially are an untapped resource for novel compounds, potentially with new activities. This review highlights examples of bacteria that should be considered new sources of natural products, including anaerobes, pathogens, and symbionts of humans, insects, and nematodes. Exploitation of these producer strains, combined with advances in modern natural product research methodology, has the potential to open the way for a new golden age of microbial therapeutics. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.

  18. Natural gas production verification tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared by the Department of Energy (DOE) in compliance with the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969. The Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to fund, through a contract with Petroleum Consulting Services, Inc. of Canton, Ohio, the testing of the effectiveness of a non-water based hydraulic fracturing treatment to increase gas recovery from low-pressure, tight, fractured Devonian Shale formations. Although Devonian Shales are found in the Appalachian, Michigan, and Illinois Basins, testing will be done only in the dominant, historical five state area of established production. The objective of this proposed project is to assess the benefits of liquid carbon dioxide (CO 2 )/sand stimulations in the Devonian Shale. In addition, this project would evaluate the potential nondamaging (to the formation) properties of this unique fracturing treatment relative to the clogging or chocking of pores and fractures that act as gas flow paths to the wellbore in the target gas-producing zones of the formation. This liquid CO 2 /sand fracturing process is water-free and is expected to facilitate gas well cleanup, reduce the time required for post-stimulation cleanup, and result in improved production levels in a much shorter time than is currently experienced

  19. Unconventional wind machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheff, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    It is the purpose of this paper to introduce an unconventional wind machine which has economics comparable with nuclear power and is already available in the public market place. Specifically, up to about 17 MWE could be saved for other uses such as sale in most 1000 MWE plants of any type - nuclear, oil, gas, peat, or wood - which use conventional electrically driven fans in their cooling towers. 10 refs

  20. New Synthetic Methods for Hypericum Natural Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Insik [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Organic chemistry has served as a solid foundation for interdisciplinary research areas, such as molecular biology and medicinal chemistry. An understanding of the biological activities and structural elucidations of natural products can lead to the development of clinically valuable therapeutic options. The advancements of modern synthetic methodologies allow for more elaborate and concise natural product syntheses. The theme of this study centers on the synthesis of natural products with particularly challenging structures and interesting biological activities. The synthetic expertise developed here will be applicable to analog syntheses and to other research problems.

  1. Making ''unconventional'' energy resources conventional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beattie, D A; Bresee, J C; Cooper, M J; Herwig, L O; Kintner, E E

    1977-01-01

    Three ''unconventional'' energy technologies - geothermal, solar and fusion - looked upon in the United States as possessing significant potential for the large scale production of energy. Both fusion and solar energy promise virtually inexhaustible supplies in the long term while geothermal resources offer a relatively near term prospect for more modest, but still significant, energy contributions. Realizing energy production from any of these technologies will require: (1) a great deal of scientific information and/or engineering development; (2) a significant effort to achieve and insure attractive economics; and (3) the development of adequate industrial capacity and technological infrastructure. Here the status of the United States Energy Research and Development Administration's technology development programs in geothermal, solar and fusion energy systems is reviewed. Recent advances in overcoming significant technological barriers are discussed and future directions are described. Special needs and unique opportunities for contributions to each technology are also set forth.

  2. Quantifying methane emissions from natural gas production in north-eastern Pennsylvania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. R. Barkley

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Natural gas infrastructure releases methane (CH4, a potent greenhouse gas, into the atmosphere. The estimated emission rate associated with the production and transportation of natural gas is uncertain, hindering our understanding of its greenhouse footprint. This study presents a new application of inverse methodology for estimating regional emission rates from natural gas production and gathering facilities in north-eastern Pennsylvania. An inventory of CH4 emissions was compiled for major sources in Pennsylvania. This inventory served as input emission data for the Weather Research and Forecasting model with chemistry enabled (WRF-Chem, and atmospheric CH4 mole fraction fields were generated at 3 km resolution. Simulated atmospheric CH4 enhancements from WRF-Chem were compared to observations obtained from a 3-week flight campaign in May 2015. Modelled enhancements from sources not associated with upstream natural gas processes were assumed constant and known and therefore removed from the optimization procedure, creating a set of observed enhancements from natural gas only. Simulated emission rates from unconventional production were then adjusted to minimize the mismatch between aircraft observations and model-simulated mole fractions for 10 flights. To evaluate the method, an aircraft mass balance calculation was performed for four flights where conditions permitted its use. Using the model optimization approach, the weighted mean emission rate from unconventional natural gas production and gathering facilities in north-eastern Pennsylvania approach is found to be 0.36 % of total gas production, with a 2σ confidence interval between 0.27 and 0.45 % of production. Similarly, the mean emission estimates using the aircraft mass balance approach are calculated to be 0.40 % of regional natural gas production, with a 2σ confidence interval between 0.08 and 0.72 % of production. These emission rates as a percent of production are

  3. Quantifying methane emissions from natural gas production in north-eastern Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkley, Zachary R.; Lauvaux, Thomas; Davis, Kenneth J.; Deng, Aijun; Miles, Natasha L.; Richardson, Scott J.; Cao, Yanni; Sweeney, Colm; Karion, Anna; Smith, MacKenzie; Kort, Eric A.; Schwietzke, Stefan; Murphy, Thomas; Cervone, Guido; Martins, Douglas; Maasakkers, Joannes D.

    2017-11-01

    Natural gas infrastructure releases methane (CH4), a potent greenhouse gas, into the atmosphere. The estimated emission rate associated with the production and transportation of natural gas is uncertain, hindering our understanding of its greenhouse footprint. This study presents a new application of inverse methodology for estimating regional emission rates from natural gas production and gathering facilities in north-eastern Pennsylvania. An inventory of CH4 emissions was compiled for major sources in Pennsylvania. This inventory served as input emission data for the Weather Research and Forecasting model with chemistry enabled (WRF-Chem), and atmospheric CH4 mole fraction fields were generated at 3 km resolution. Simulated atmospheric CH4 enhancements from WRF-Chem were compared to observations obtained from a 3-week flight campaign in May 2015. Modelled enhancements from sources not associated with upstream natural gas processes were assumed constant and known and therefore removed from the optimization procedure, creating a set of observed enhancements from natural gas only. Simulated emission rates from unconventional production were then adjusted to minimize the mismatch between aircraft observations and model-simulated mole fractions for 10 flights. To evaluate the method, an aircraft mass balance calculation was performed for four flights where conditions permitted its use. Using the model optimization approach, the weighted mean emission rate from unconventional natural gas production and gathering facilities in north-eastern Pennsylvania approach is found to be 0.36 % of total gas production, with a 2σ confidence interval between 0.27 and 0.45 % of production. Similarly, the mean emission estimates using the aircraft mass balance approach are calculated to be 0.40 % of regional natural gas production, with a 2σ confidence interval between 0.08 and 0.72 % of production. These emission rates as a percent of production are lower than rates found in any

  4. Learning Organic Chemistry Through Natural Products

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 10. Learning Organic Chemistry Through Natural Products Architectural Designs in Molecular Constructions. N R Krishnaswamy. Series Article Volume 1 Issue 10 October 1996 pp 37-43 ...

  5. Learning Organic Chemistry Through Natural Products

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 2. Learning Organic Chemistry Through Natural Products Determination of Absolute Stereochemistry. N R Krishnaswamy. Series Article Volume 1 Issue 2 February 1996 pp 40-46 ...

  6. Learning Organic Chemistry Through Natural Products

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 7. Learning Organic Chemistry Through Natural engine Products - Structure and Biological Functions. N R Krishnaswamy. Series Article Volume 1 Issue 7 July 1996 pp 23-30 ...

  7. Antifouling Activity of Marine Natural Products

    KAUST Repository

    Qian, Pei-Yuan; Xu, Sharon Ying

    2012-01-01

    for marine industries. Marine natural products have been considered as one of the most promising sources of antifouling compounds in recent years. In antifouling compound screening processes, bioassay systems often play most critical/vital roles in screening

  8. Learning Organic Chemistry Through Natural Products

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 16; Issue 12. Learning Organic Chemistry Through Natural Products - Architectural Designs in Molecular Constructions. N R Krishnaswamy. Volume 16 Issue 12 December 2011 pp 1287-1293 ...

  9. Synthesis of natural products of therapeutic significance

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    system

    2015-11-07

    Nov 7, 2015 ... potential activity, while more natural products await the ... Treaty that prohibits commercial exploitation of Antarctic resources, the development of a synthetic strategy that allows the synthesis of palmerolide A and an array of its.

  10. Natural Products in the Discovery of Agrochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiseleur, Olivier

    2017-12-01

    Natural products have a long history of being used as, or serving as inspiration for, novel crop protection agents. Many of the discoveries in agrochemical research in the last decades have their origin in a wide range of natural products from a variety of sources. In light of the continuing need for new tools to address an ever-changing array of fungal, weed and insect pests, new agricultural practices and evolving regulatory requirements, the needs for new agrochemical tools remains as critical as ever. In that respect, nature continues to be an important source for novel chemical structures and biological mechanisms to be applied for the development of pest control agents. Here we review several of the natural products and their derivatives which contributed to shape crop protection research in past and present.

  11. Using Genomics for Natural Product Structure Elucidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietz, Jonathan I; Mitchell, Douglas A

    2016-01-01

    Natural products (NPs) are the most historically bountiful source of chemical matter for drug development-especially for anti-infectives. With insights gleaned from genome mining, interest in natural product discovery has been reinvigorated. An essential stage in NP discovery is structural elucidation, which sheds light not only on the chemical composition of a molecule but also its novelty, properties, and derivatization potential. The history of structure elucidation is replete with techniquebased revolutions: combustion analysis, crystallography, UV, IR, MS, and NMR have each provided game-changing advances; the latest such advance is genomics. All natural products have a genetic basis, and the ability to obtain and interpret genomic information for structure elucidation is increasingly available at low cost to non-specialists. In this review, we describe the value of genomics as a structural elucidation technique, especially from the perspective of the natural product chemist approaching an unknown metabolite. Herein we first introduce the databases and programs of interest to the natural products chemist, with an emphasis on those currently most suited for general usability. We describe strategies for linking observed natural product-linked phenotypes to their corresponding gene clusters. We then discuss techniques for extracting structural information from genes, illustrated with numerous case examples. We also provide an analysis of the biases and limitations of the field with recommendations for future development. Our overview is not only aimed at biologically-oriented researchers already at ease with bioinformatic techniques, but also, in particular, at natural product, organic, and/or medicinal chemists not previously familiar with genomic techniques.

  12. Retrieval of Au, Ag, Cu precious metals coupled with electric energy production via an unconventional coupled redox fuel cell reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui-Min; Fan, Zheng; Xu, Wei; Feng, Xiao; Wu, Zu-Cheng

    2017-09-15

    The recovery of heavy metals from aqueous solutions or e-wastes is of upmost importance. Retrieval of Au, Ag, and Cu with electricity generation through building an ethanol-metal coupled redox fuel cells (CRFCs) is demonstrated. The cell was uniquely assembled on PdNi/C anode the electro-oxidation of ethanol takes place to give electrons and then go through the external circuit reducing metal ions to metallic on the cathode, metals are recovered. Taking an example of removal of 100mgL -1 gold in 0.5M HAc-NaAc buffer solution as the catholyte, 2.0M ethanol in 1.0M alkaline solution as the anolyte, an open circuit voltage of 1.4V, more than 96% of gold removal efficiency in 20h, and equivalent energy production of 2.0kWhkg -1 of gold can be readily achieved in this system. When gold and copper ions coexist, it was confirmed that metallic Cu is formed on the cathodic electrode later than metallic Au formation by XPS analysis. Thus, this system can achieve step by step electrodeposition of gold and copper while the two metal ions coexisting. This work develops a new approach to retrieve valuable metals from aqueous solution or e-wastes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Rv2131c gene product: An unconventional enzyme that is both inositol monophosphatase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Xiaoling; Chen Mao; Shen Hongbo; Jiang Xin; Huang Yishu; Wang Honghai

    2006-01-01

    Inositol monophosphatase is an enzyme in the biosynthesis of myo-inostiol, a crucial substrate for the synthesis of phosphatidylinositol, which has been demonstrated to be an essential component of mycobacteria. In this study, the Rv2131c gene from Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv was cloned into the pET28a vector and the recombinant plasmid was transformed into Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) strain, allowing the expression of the enzyme in fusion with a histidine-rich peptide on the N-terminal. The fusion protein was purified from the soluble fraction of the lysed cells under native conditions by immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC). The purified Rv2131c gene product showed inositol monophosphatase activity but with substrate specificity that was broader than those of several bacterial and eukaryotic inositol monophosphatases, and it also acted as fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase. The dimeric enzyme exhibited dual activities of IMPase and FBPase, with K m of 0.22 ± 0.03 mM for inositol-1-phosphate and K m of 0.45 ± 0.05 mM for fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase. To better understand the relationship between the function and structure of the Rv2131c enzyme, we constructed D40N, L71A, and D94N mutants and purified these corresponding proteins. Mutations of D40N and D94N caused the proteins to almost completely lose both the inositol monophosphatase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase activities. However, L71A mutant did not cause loss either of the activities, but the activity toward the inositol was 12-fold more resistant to inhibition by lithium (IC 5 ∼ 60 mM). Based on the substrate specificity and presence of conserved sequence motifs of the M. tuberculosis Rv2131c, we proposed that the enzyme belonged to class IV fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase IV)

  14. Naturally Efficient Emitters: Luminescent Organometallic Complexes Derived from Natural Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen-Hua; Young, David J.

    2013-08-01

    Naturally occurring molecules offer intricate structures and functionality that are the basis of modern medicinal chemistry, but are under-represented in materials science. Herein, we review recent literature describing the use of abundant and relatively inexpensive, natural products for the synthesis of ligands for luminescent organometallic complexes used for organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) and related technologies. These ligands are prepared from the renewable starting materials caffeine, camphor, pinene and cinchonine and, with the exception of caffeine, impart performance improvements to the emissive metal complexes and resulting OLED devices, with emission wavelengths that span the visible spectrum from blue to red. The advantages of these biologically-derived molecules include improved solution processibility and phase homogeneity, brighter luminescence, higher quantum efficiencies and lower turn-on voltages. While nature has evolved these carbon-skeletons for specific purposes, they also offer some intriguing benefits in materials science and technology.

  15. Psychoactive natural products: overview of recent developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    István Ujváry

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Natural psychoactive substances have fascinated the curious mind of shamans, artists, scholars and laymen since antiquity. During the twentieth century, the chemical composition of the most important psychoactive drugs, that is opium, cannabis, coca and "magic mushrooms", has been fully elucidated. The mode of action of the principal ingredients has also been deciphered at the molecular level. In the past two decades, the use of herbal drugs, such as kava, kratom and Salvia divinorum, began to spread beyond their traditional geographical and cultural boundaries. The aim of the present paper is to briefly summarize recent findings on the psychopharmacology of the most prominent psychoactive natural products. Current knowledge on a few lesser-known drugs, including bufotenine, glaucine, kava, betel, pituri, lettuce opium and kanna is also reviewed. In addition, selected cases of alleged natural (or semi-natural products are also mentioned.

  16. Nature tourism: a sustainable tourism product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violante Martínez Quintana

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Nature tourism has emerged in the tourism field as a result of a logical evolution in line with public policies and academic research. After negative outcomes from traditional models first raised the alarm, the entire sector has tried to foster local development based on models of responsibility and sustainability. This article revises key concepts of nature – based tourism and shows new tendencies and the perception of cultural landscapes that are seen as tourism products. Finally, it concludes by analysing new tendencies to foster alternative nature – based tourism. It also presents a planning proposal based on a responsible and sustainable tourism model to guarantee a sustainable tourism product within the natural and cultural heritage context.

  17. Review: Natural products from Genus Selaginella (Selaginellaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AHMAD DWI SETYAWAN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Setyawan AD. 2011. Natural products from Genus Selaginella (Selaginellaceae. Nusantara Bioscience 3: 44-58. Selaginella is a potent medicinal-stuff, which contains diverse of natural products such as alkaloid, phenolic (flavonoid, and terpenoid. This species is traditionally used to cure several diseases especially for wound, after childbirth, and menstrual disorder. Biflavonoid, a dimeric form of flavonoids, is the most valuable natural products of Selaginella, which constituted at least 13 compounds, namely amentoflavone, 2',8''-biapigenin, delicaflavone, ginkgetin, heveaflavone, hinokiflavone, isocryptomerin, kayaflavone, ochnaflavone, podocarpusflavone A, robustaflavone, sumaflavone, and taiwaniaflavone. Ecologically, plants use biflavonoid to response environmental condition such as defense against pests, diseases, herbivory, and competitions; while human medically use biflavonoid especially for antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti carcinogenic. Selaginella also contains valuable disaccharide, namely trehalose that has long been known for protecting from desiccation and allows surviving severe environmental stress. The compound has very prospects as molecular stabilizer in the industries based bioresources.

  18. Natural gas and production of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defago, E.

    2005-01-01

    The forthcoming power supply shortage in Switzerland due to increasing consumption is discussed, as are the possibilities for securing the future supply. Today, the main sources are hydroelectric (roughly 55 %) and nuclear (40 %) power. The share of electricity from natural gas amounts to only 1.4 %. The possibilities of further economic production of hydropower are practically exhausted. Therefore, further electric power has to be either imported or generated from other energy sources (renewable, nuclear, fossil) in the country itself. Due to the low acceptance of nuclear energy and the limited potential of renewable energy sources, natural gas is the most favoured candidate. The advantages of distributed production in cogeneration plants are compared with the centralized production in larger plants using combined cycles. Finally, a project currently under development is presented: an existing thermal power plant fueled with heavy fuel oil shall be refurbished and converted to natural gas as the new fuel

  19. Natural gas product and strategic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Layne, A.W.; Duda, J.R.; Zammerilli, A.M.

    1993-12-31

    Product and strategic analysis at the Department of Energy (DOE)/Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) crosscuts all sectors of the natural gas industry. This includes the supply, transportation, and end-use sectors of the natural-gas market. Projects in the Natural Gas Resource and Extraction supply program have been integrated into a new product focus. Product development facilitates commercialization and technology transfer through DOE/industry cost-shared research, development, and demonstration (RD&D). Four products under the Resource and Extraction program include Resource and Reserves; Low Permeability Formations; Drilling, Completion, and Stimulation: and Natural Gas Upgrading. Engineering process analyses have been performed for the Slant Hole Completion Test project. These analyses focused on evaluation of horizontal-well recovery potential and applications of slant-hole technology. Figures 2 and 3 depict slant-well in situ stress conditions and hydraulic fracture configurations. Figure 4 presents Paludal Formation coal-gas production curves used to optimize the hydraulic fracture design for the slant well. Economic analyses have utilized data generated from vertical test wells to evaluate the profitability of horizontal technology for low-permeability formations in Yuma County, Colorado, and Maverick County, Texas.

  20. Unconventional liquid metal cooled fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinrad, B.I.; Rohach, A.F.; Razzaque, M.M.

    1989-06-01

    This report describes the rationale for, design of and analytical studies on an unconventional sodium-cooled power reactor, called the Trench Reactor. It derives its name from the long, narrow sodium pool in which the reactor is placed. Unconventional features include: pool shape; reactor shape (also long and narrow); reflector control; low power density; hot-leg primary pumping; absence of a cold sodium pool; large core boxes rather than a large number of subassemblies; large diameter metal fuel; vessel suspension from cables; and vessel cooling by natural circulation of building atmosphere (nitrogen) at all times. These features all seem feasible. They result in a system that is capable of at least a ten year reload interval and shows good safety through direct physical response to loss-of-heat-sink, loss-of-flow and limited-reactivity nuclear transients. 43 figs., 43 tabs

  1. Unconventional hydrocarbons. New prospects for the para-petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennaceur, Kamel

    2011-01-01

    Unconventional hydrocarbons represent a significant potential despite complications in extracting them. The International Energy Agency's annual report in 2008 estimated that 9 trillion barrels of liquid hydrocarbons could be produced - a figure to be compared with the current production of 1,1 trillion barrels and the 1,3-1,4 trillion barrels of proven reserves. This estimate includes the potential production from heavy oils, shale oil and tar belts as well as the liquid hydrocarbons obtained by converting coal and natural gas. The IAE's 2009 report estimates resources in gas at more than 850 trillion cubic meters (T m"3), as compared with the 80 T m"3 now being produced and the 187 T m"3 of proven reserves

  2. Natural gas production by fracking in Germany; Erdgasgewinnung durch Fracking in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muehlendahl, Karl Ernst v; Otto, Matthias [Kinderumwelt gGmbH der Deutschen Akademie fuer Kinder- und Jugendmedizin, Osnabrueck (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    ExxonMobil is performing exploration tests in Lower Saxony concerning unconventional sources for natural gas production using hydraulic fracturing. The contribution is dealing with environmental policy related questions that affect public health and should be part of the information of physicians. The contribution covers information on the issues hydraulic fracturing, water consumption and application of chemicals, drilling accidents - blow-out, energy balance, legal questions, summarizing recommendations of neutral expert team, higher-ranking points of view with respect to environmental protection and compatibility. [German] Bei umweltpolitischen Fragen, die auch die Gesundheit der Bevoelkerung tangieren, sollten aerzte informiert sein, um ggf. sachkundig mitsprechen zu koennen. Der Bereitstellung einer notwendigen Basisinformation zu dem Thema Fracking, das in betroffenen Gebieten in Niedersachsen und im Muensterland viel diskutiert wird, dienen die nachfolgenden Ausfuehrungen.

  3. Natural products from microbes associated with insects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beemelmanns, Christine; Guo, Huijuan; Rischer, Maja

    2016-01-01

    Here we review discoveries of secondary metabolites from microbes associated with insects. We mainly focus on natural products, where the ecological role has been at least partially elucidated, and/or the pharmaceutical properties evaluated, and on compounds with unique structural features. We...

  4. Natural products – learning chemistry from plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staniek, A.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Fraser, P.D.; Kayser, O.; Martens, S.; Tissier, A.; Krol, van der A.R.; Wessjohann, L.; Warzecha, H.

    2014-01-01

    Plant natural products (PNPs) are unique in that they represent a vast array of different structural features, ranging from relatively simple molecules to very complex ones. Given the fact that many plant secondary metabolites exhibit profound biological activity, they are frequently used as

  5. Learning Organic Chemistry Through Natural Products -12 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Higher Learning. Generations of students would vouch for the fact that he has the uncanny ability to present the chemistry of natural products logically and with feeling. The most interesting chemical aspect of a molecule is its. reactivHy pattern. NR Krishnaswamy. In this part of the series, dynamic organic chemistry and.

  6. Learning Organic Chemistry Through Natural Products

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 5. Learning Organic Chemistry Through Natural Products From Molecular and Electronic Structures to Reactivity. N R Krishnaswamy. Series Article Volume 1 Issue 5 May 1996 pp 12-18 ...

  7. Flow chemistry syntheses of natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastre, Julio C; Browne, Duncan L; Ley, Steven V

    2013-12-07

    The development and application of continuous flow chemistry methods for synthesis is a rapidly growing area of research. In particular, natural products provide demanding challenges to this developing technology. This review highlights successes in the area with an emphasis on new opportunities and technological advances.

  8. Marine Natural Products as Prototype Agrochemical Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jiangnan; Shen, Xiaoyu; El Sayed, Khalid A.; Dunbar, D. C Harles; Perry, Tony L.; Wilkins, Scott P.; Hamann, Mark T.; Bobzin, Steve; Huesing, Joseph; Camp, Robin; Prinsen, Mike; Krupa, Dan; Wideman, Margaret A.

    2016-01-01

    In the interest of identifying new leads that could serve as prototype agrochemical agents, 18 structurally diverse marine-derived compounds were examined for insecticidal, herbicidal, and fungicidal activities. Several new classes of compounds have been shown to be insecticidal, herbicidal, and fungicidal, which suggests that marine natural products represent an intriguing source for the discovery of new agrochemical agents. PMID:12670165

  9. Plants as natural antioxidants for meat products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomović, V.; Jokanović, M.; Šojić, B.; Škaljac, S.; Ivić, M.

    2017-09-01

    The meat industry is demanding antioxidants from natural sources to replace synthetic antioxidants because of the negative health consequences or beliefs regarding some synthetic ones. Plants materials provide good alternatives. Spices and herbs, generally used for their flavouring characteristics, can be added to meat products in various forms: whole, ground, or as isolates from their extracts. These natural antioxidants contain some active compounds, which exert antioxidative potential in meat products. This antioxidant activity is most often due to phenolic acids, phenolic diterpenes, flavonoids and volatile oils. Each of these compounds often has strong H-donating activity, thus making them extremely effective antioxidants; some compounds can chelate metals and donate H to oxygen radicals, thus slowing oxidation via two mechanisms. Numerous studies have demonstrated the efficacy of natural antioxidants when used in meat products. Based on this literature review, it can be concluded that natural antioxidants are added to fresh and processed meat and meat products to delay, retard, or prevent lipid oxidation, retard development of off-flavours (rancidity), improve colour stability, improve microbiological quality and extend shelf-life, without any damage to the sensory or nutritional properties.

  10. The Rakicidin Family of Anticancer Natural Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsakos, Michail; Jacobsen, Kristian Mark; Yu, Wanwan

    2016-01-01

    Rakicidin A is a prominent member of a small class of macrocyclic lipodepsipeptide natural products that contain an electrophilic 4- amido-2,4-pentadienoate (APD) functionality. Rakicidin A displays selective growth inhibitory activity against hypoxic cancer cells as well as imatinib...

  11. Chocolate: A Marvelous Natural Product of Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannenbaum, Ginger

    2004-01-01

    The study of chocolate, a natural product, can be beneficial for the chemistry students as they ask frequently about the relevancy of their chemistry classes. The history of chocolate, its chemical and physical changes during processing, its composition, different crystalline forms, tempering and its viscosity are discussed.

  12. Advances in unconventional computing

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    The unconventional computing is a niche for interdisciplinary science, cross-bred of computer science, physics, mathematics, chemistry, electronic engineering, biology, material science and nanotechnology. The aims of this book are to uncover and exploit principles and mechanisms of information processing in and functional properties of physical, chemical and living systems to develop efficient algorithms, design optimal architectures and manufacture working prototypes of future and emergent computing devices. This first volume presents theoretical foundations of the future and emergent computing paradigms and architectures. The topics covered are computability, (non-)universality and complexity of computation; physics of computation, analog and quantum computing; reversible and asynchronous devices; cellular automata and other mathematical machines; P-systems and cellular computing; infinity and spatial computation; chemical and reservoir computing. The book is the encyclopedia, the first ever complete autho...

  13. Alternative solvents for natural products extraction

    CERN Document Server

    Chemat, Farid

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a complete picture of the current state-of-the-art in alternative and green solvents used for laboratory and industrial natural product extraction in terms of the latest innovations, original methods and safe products. It provides the necessary theoretical background and details on extraction, techniques, mechanisms, protocols, industrial applications, safety precautions and environmental impacts. This book is aimed at professionals from industry, academicians engaged in extraction engineering or natural product chemistry research, and graduate level students. The individual chapters complement one another, were written by respected international researchers and recognized professionals from the industry, and address the latest efforts in the field. It is also the first sourcebook to focus on the rapid developments in this field.

  14. Magnetothermopower in unconventional density waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dora, B.; Maki, K.; Vanyolos, A.; Virosztek, A.

    2003-10-01

    After a brief introduction on unconventional density waves (i.e. unconventional charge density wave (UCDW) and unconventional spin density wave (USDW)), we discuss the magnetotransport of the low temperature phase (LTP) of α-(BEDT-TTF) 2 KHg(SCN) 4 . Recently we have proposed that the low temperature phase in α-(BEDT-TTF) 2 KHg(SCN 4 should be UCDW. Here we show that UCDW describes very consistently the magnetothermopower of )α-(BEDT-TTF) 2 KHg(SCN) 4 observed by Choi et al. (author)

  15. Regulation of natural health products in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alysyn; Jogalekar, Sumedha; Gibson, Adam

    2014-12-02

    In Canada, all natural health products (NHPs) are regulated by Health Canada (HC) under the Food and Drugs Act and the Natural Health Product Regulations. All authorized products undergo pre-market assessment for safety, efficacy and quality and the degree of pre-market oversight varies depending on the risk of the product. In Canada, over 70,000 products have been authorized for sale and over 2000 sites have been licensed to produce NHPs. In the management of NHPs on the Canadian market, HC employs a number of active and collaborative methods to address the most common issues such as contamination, adulteration and deceptive or misleading advertising practices. HC is currently evolving its approaches to NHPs to recognize them as part of the larger group of health products available without a prescription. As such, the regulatory responsibility for all over-the-counter (OTC) drugs, including non-prescription drugs and NHPs, has been transferred to a single federal division. As a result of this transition a number of benefits are being realized with respect to government efficiency, clarity for industry, support for new innovations and consolidated government interactions with the Canadian market. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. In silico Design of "Un-Natural" Natural Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zucko; J. ...(et al.

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Polyketides and non-ribosomal peptides represent a large class of structurally diverse natural products much studied over recent years because the enzymes that synthesise them, the modular polyketide synthases (PKSs and the non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs, share striking architectural similarities that can be exploited to generate "un-natural" natural products. PKS and NRPS proteins are multifunctional, composed of a co-linear arrangement of discrete protein domains representing each enzymic activity needed for chain elongation using either carboxylic acid or amino acid building blocks. Each domain is housed within larger modules which form the complex. Polyketide and peptide antibiotics, antifungals, antivirals, cytostatics, immunosuppressants, antihypertensives, antidiabetics, antimalarials and anticholesterolemics are in clinical use. Of commercial importance are also polyketide and peptide antiparasitics, coccidiostatics,animal growth promoters and natural insecticides.Polyketides are assembled through serial condensations of activated coenzyme-A thioester monomers derived from simple organic acids such as acetate, propionate and butyrate. The choice of organic acid allows the introduction of different chiral centres into the polyketide backbone. The active sites required for condensation include an acyltransferase (AT, an acyl carrier protein (ACP and a ß-ketoacylsynthase (KS. Each condensation results in a ß-keto group that undergoes all, some or none of a series of processing steps. Active sites that perform these reactions are contained within the following domains; ketoreductase (KR, dehydratase (DH and an enoylreductase (ER. The absence of any ß-keto processing results in the incorporation of a ketone group into the growing polyketide chain, a KR alone gives rise to a hydroxyl moiety, a KR and DH produce an alkene, while the combination of KR, DH and ER domains lead to complete reduction to an alkane. Most often, the last

  17. Chemical Biology of Microbial Anticancer Natural Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladt, Tanja Thorskov; Gotfredsen, Charlotte Held

    than 100 years. New natural products (NPs) are continually discovered and with the increase in selective biological assays, previously described compounds often also display novel bioactivities, justifying their presence in novel screening efforts. Screening and discovery of compounds with activity...... towards chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells is crucial since CLL is considered as an incurable disease. To discover novel agents that targets CLL cells is complicated. CLL cells rapidly undergo apoptosis in vitro when they are removed from their natural microenvironment, even though they are long...

  18. Unconventional Energy Resources: 2015 Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collaboration: American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Energy Minerals Division

    2015-12-15

    This paper includes 10 summaries for energy resource commodities including coal and unconventional resources, and an analysis of energy economics and technology prepared by committees of the Energy Minerals Division of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists. Unconventional energy resources, as used in this report, are those energy resources that do not occur in discrete oil or gas reservoirs held in structural or stratigraphic traps in sedimentary basins. Such resources include coalbed methane, oil shale, U and Th deposits and associated rare earth elements of industrial interest, geothermal, gas shale and liquids, tight gas sands, gas hydrates, and bitumen and heavy oil. Current U.S. and global research and development activities are summarized for each unconventional energy resource commodity in the topical sections of this report, followed by analysis of unconventional energy economics and technology.

  19. Utilization of Natural Products as Functional Feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Magdalena

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of antibiotics as feed additive improves performance in livestock. However, scientific data related to the use of antibiotics in feed merge spreading of bacterial resistance in animal and human bodies, therefore the usage of antibiotics in animal production is restricted. This condition raise the utilization of natural antibiotic as functional feed such as phytogenics (essential oil, flavonoid, saponin, and tannin, enzyme, probiotic, and prebiotic to improve the livestock’s performance, quality, and health. Functional feeds increase profitability in animal husbandry production and its use is feeds are expected to be functional foods that may have positive effects in human nutrition.

  20. Unconventional gas development facilitates plant invasions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Kathryn M; Mortensen, David A; Drohan, Patrick J; Averill, Kristine M

    2017-11-01

    Vegetation removal and soil disturbance from natural resource development, combined with invasive plant propagule pressure, can increase vulnerability to plant invasions. Unconventional oil and gas development produces surface disturbance by way of well pad, road, and pipeline construction, and increased traffic. Little is known about the resulting impacts on plant community assembly, including the spread of invasive plants. Our work was conducted in Pennsylvania forests that overlay the Marcellus and Utica shale formations to determine if invasive plants have spread to edge habitat created by unconventional gas development and to investigate factors associated with their presence. A piecewise structural equation model was used to determine the direct and indirect factors associated with invasive plant establishment on well pads. The model included the following measured or calculated variables: current propagule pressure on local access roads, the spatial extent of the pre-development road network (potential source of invasive propagules), the number of wells per pad (indicator of traffic density), and pad age. Sixty-one percent of the 127 well pads surveyed had at least one invasive plant species present. Invasive plant presence on well pads was positively correlated with local propagule pressure on access roads and indirectly with road density pre-development, the number of wells, and age of the well pad. The vast reserves of unconventional oil and gas are in the early stages of development in the US. Continued development of this underground resource must be paired with careful monitoring and management of surface ecological impacts, including the spread of invasive plants. Prioritizing invasive plant monitoring in unconventional oil and gas development areas with existing roads and multi-well pads could improve early detection and control of invasive plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Natural Products Combating Neurodegeneration: Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solayman, Md; Islam, Md Asiful; Alam, Fahmida; Khalil, Md Ibrahim; Kamal, Mohammad Amjad; Gan, Siew Hua

    2017-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by neurodegeneration and a progressive functional impairment of the midbrain nigral dopaminergic neurons. The cause remains unknown; however, several pathological processes and central factors, such as protein aggregation, mitochondrial dysfunction, iron accumulation, neuroinflammation and oxidative stress, have been reported. The current treatment method primarily targets symptoms by using anti-Parkinson drugs such as levodopa, carbidopa, dopamine (DA) agonists, monoamine oxidase type B inhibitors and anticholinergics to replace DA. When drug therapy is not satisfactory, surgical treatments are recommended. Unfortunately, the existing conventional strategies that target PD are associated with numerous side effects and possess an economic burden. Therefore, novel therapeutic approaches that regulate the pathways leading to neuronal death and dysfunction are necessary. For many years, nature has provided the primary resource for the discovery of potential therapeutic agents. Remarkably, many natural products from medicinal plants, fruits and vegetables have been demonstrated to be efficacious anti-Parkinson agents. These products possess neuroprotective properties as a result of not only their wellrecognized anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities but also their inhibitory roles regarding iron accumulation, protein misfolding and the maintenance of proteasomal degradation, as well as mitochondrial homeostasis. The aim of this review is to report the available anti-Parkinson agents based on natural products and delineate their therapeutic actions, which act on various pathways. Overall, this review emphasizes the types of natural products that are potential future resources in the treatment of PD as novel regimens or supplementary agents. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  2. The chemistry of isoindole natural products

    OpenAIRE

    Speck, Klaus; Magauer, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Summary This review highlights the chemical and biological aspects of natural products containing an oxidized or reduced isoindole skeleton. This motif is found in its intact or modified form in indolocarbazoles, macrocyclic polyketides (cytochalasan alkaloids), the aporhoeadane alkaloids, meroterpenoids from Stachybotrys species and anthraquinone-type alkaloids. Concerning their biological activity, molecular structure and synthesis, we have limited this review to the most inspiring examples...

  3. Utilization of Natural Products as Functional Feed

    OpenAIRE

    Stella Magdalena; Natadiputri G H; Nailufar; Purwadaria T

    2013-01-01

    The use of antibiotics as feed additive improves performance in livestock. However, scientific data related to the use of antibiotics in feed merge spreading of bacterial resistance in animal and human bodies, therefore the usage of antibiotics in animal production is restricted. This condition raise the utilization of natural antibiotic as functional feed such as phytogenics (essential oil, flavonoid, saponin, and tannin), enzyme, probiotic, and prebiotic to improve the livestock’s performan...

  4. Natural cold pressed oils as cosmetic products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Ligęza

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. It seems that patients may ask general practitioners about natural cosmetics applied on the skin regarding their safety and suitability. Objectives. The aim of the study was to analyze natural cold pressed oils as potential cosmetic products. Material and methods. Cold pressed oils obtained from selected seeds and fruit stones were analyzed, including: chokeberry seed oil, blackcurrant seed oil, elderberry seed oil, raspberry seed oil, apricot seed oil, tomato seed oil, strawberry seed oil, broccoli seed oil, Nigella sativa seed oil, hemp oil, safflower seed oil, Silybum marianum seed oil and coconut oil. 80 adult volunteers assessed the cosmetic properties of the analyzed oils. Each of the volunteers tested 2 to 4 different oils, by applying them on the skin. In addition, patch tests with all analyzed oils were performed on 23 individuals. Results. The majority of tested oils were positively evaluated by the participants: in the opinion of the participants, oil extracted from safflower had the best appearance (100% positive opinions, coconut oil had the best smell (70% positive opinions, while black currant seed oil showed the best absorbency (85% positive opinions. No irritation was observed within the analyzed product group, albeit one allergic reaction to apricot seed oil was observed with patch testing. Conclusions . Based on the achieved results, it could be suggested that natural cold pressed oils can be applied to the skin as cosmetics. Our observations may be helpful for general practitioners when choosing natural cosmetics.

  5. Genome engineering for microbial natural product discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Si-Sun; Katsuyama, Yohei; Bai, Linquan; Deng, Zixin; Ohnishi, Yasuo; Kim, Eung-Soo

    2018-03-03

    The discovery and development of microbial natural products (MNPs) have played pivotal roles in the fields of human medicine and its related biotechnology sectors over the past several decades. The post-genomic era has witnessed the development of microbial genome mining approaches to isolate previously unsuspected MNP biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) hidden in the genome, followed by various BGC awakening techniques to visualize compound production. Additional microbial genome engineering techniques have allowed higher MNP production titers, which could complement a traditional culture-based MNP chasing approach. Here, we describe recent developments in the MNP research paradigm, including microbial genome mining, NP BGC activation, and NP overproducing cell factory design. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Conventional Natural Gas Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conventional Natural Gas Production to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center : Conventional Natural Gas Production on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Conventional Natural Gas Production on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Conventional Natural Gas Production

  7. Natural gas production from underground nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1965-01-01

    A remote location in Rio Arriba County, NW. New Mexico, is being considered as the site for an experiment in the use of a nuclear explosive to increase production from a natural gas field. A feasibility study has been conducted by the El Paso Natural Gas Co., the U.S. Atomic Energy commission, and the U.S. Bureau of Mines. As presently conceived, a nuclear explosive would be set in an emplacement hole and detonated. The explosion would create a cylinder or ''chimney'' of collapsed rock, and a network of fractures extending beyond the chimney. The fractures are the key effect. These would consist of new fractures, enlargement of existing ones, and movement along planes where strata overlap. In addition, there are a number of intangible but important benefits that could accrue from the stimulating effect. Among these are the great increase in recoverable reserves and the deliverability of large volumes of gas during the periods of high demand. It is believed that this type of well stimulation may increase the total gas production of these low permeability natural gas fields by about 7 times the amounts now attainable.

  8. Natural products as potential anticonvulsants: caffeoylquinic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyo Geun; Oh, Myung Sook

    2012-03-01

    Current anticonvulsant therapies are generally directed at symptomatic treatment by suppressing excitability within the brain. Consequently, they have adverse effects such as cognitive impairment, dependence, and abuse. The need for more effective and less toxic anticonvulsants has generated renewed interest in natural products for the treatment of convulsions. Caffeoylquinic acids (CQs) are naturally occurring phenolic acids that are distributed widely in plants. There has been increasing interest in the biological activities of CQs in diseases of the central nervous system. In this issue, Nugroho et al. give evidence for the anticonvulsive effect of a CQ-rich extract from Aster glehni Franchet et Sckmidt. They optimized the extract solvent conditions, resulting in high levels of CQs and peroxynitrite-scavenging activity. Then, they investigated the sedative and anticonvulsive effects in pentobarbital- and pentylenetetrazole-induced models in mice. The CQ-rich extract significantly inhibited tonic convulsions as assessed by onset time, tonic extent, and mortality. They suggested that the CQ-rich extract from A. glehni has potential for treating convulsions. This report provides preclinical data which may be used for the development of anticonvulsants from natural products.

  9. Utilizing natural gas huff and puff to enhance production in heavy oil reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenlong, G.; Shuhong, W.; Jian, Z.; Xialin, Z. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)]|[PetroChina Co. Ltd., Beijing (China); Jinzhong, L.; Xiao, M. [China Univ. of Petroleum, Beijing (China)

    2008-10-15

    The L Block in the north structural belt of China's Tuha Basin is a super deep heavy oil reservoir. The gas to oil ratio (GOR) is 12 m{sup 3}/m{sup 3} and the initial bubble point pressure is only 4 MPa. The low production can be attributed to high oil viscosity and low flowability. Although steam injection is the most widely method for heavy oil production in China, it is not suitable for the L Block because of its depth. This paper reviewed pilot tests in which the natural gas huff and puff process was used to enhance production in the L Block. Laboratory experiments that included both conventional and unconventional PVT were conducted to determine the physical property of heavy oil saturated by natural gas. The experiments revealed that the heavy oil can entrap the gas for more than several hours because of its high viscosity. A pseudo bubble point pressure exists much lower than the bubble point pressure in manmade foamy oils, which is relative to the depressurization rate. Elastic energy could be maintained in a wider pressure scope than natural depletion without gas injection. A special experimental apparatus that can stimulate the process of gas huff and puff in the reservoir was also introduced. The foamy oil could be seen during the huff and puff experiment. Most of the oil flowed to the producer in a pseudo single phase, which is among the most important mechanisms for enhancing production. A pilot test of a single well demonstrated that the oil production increased from 1 to 2 cubic metres per day to 5 to 6 cubic metres per day via the natural gas huff and puff process. The stable production period which was 5 to 10 days prior to huff and puff, was prolonged to 91 days in the first cycle and 245 days in the second cycle. 10 refs., 1 tab., 12 figs.

  10. The Noble Gas Fingerprint in a UK Unconventional Gas Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKavney, Rory; Gilfillan, Stuart; Györe, Domokos; Stuart, Fin

    2016-04-01

    In the last decade, there has been an unprecedented expansion in the development of unconventional hydrocarbon resources. Concerns have arisen about the effect of this new industry on groundwater quality, particularly focussing on hydraulic fracturing, the technique used to increase the permeability of the targeted tight shale formations. Methane contamination of groundwater has been documented in areas of gas production1 but conclusively linking this to fugitive emissions from unconventional hydrocarbon production has been controversial2. A lack of baseline measurements taken before drilling, and the equivocal interpretation of geochemical data hamper the determination of possible contamination. Common techniques for "fingerprinting" gas from discrete sources rely on gas composition and isotopic ratios of elements within hydrocarbons (e.g. δ13CCH4), but the original signatures can be masked by biological and gas transport processes. The noble gases (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe) are inert and controlled only by their physical properties. They exist in trace quantities in natural gases and are sourced from 3 isotopically distinct environments (atmosphere, crust and mantle)3. They are decoupled from the biosphere, and provide a separate toolbox to investigate the numerous sources and migration pathways of natural gases, and have found recent utility in the CCS4 and unconventional gas5 industries. Here we present a brief overview of noble gas data obtained from a new coal bed methane (CBM) field, Central Scotland. We show that the high concentration of helium is an ideal fingerprint for tracing fugitive gas migration to a shallow groundwater. The wells show variation in the noble gas signatures that can be attributed to differences in formation water pumping from the coal seams as the field has been explored for future commercial development. Dewatering the seams alters the gas/water ratio and the degree to which noble gases degas from the formation water. Additionally the

  11. Final report on unconventional gas in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-11-15

    The main purpose of the study on the title subject is to analyse how the relevant applicable European legal framework, including environmental law, is applied to the licensing/authorisation and operational permitting for prospection, exploration and production/exploitation of shale gas based on a sample of four Member States, i.e. Poland, France, Germany and Sweden. It is, however, not purpose of the study to assess whether Member State legislation based on EU legislation has been properly transposed. This study focuses on shale gas exploration, because shale gas is the type of unconventional gas most discussed and contentious currently. Also, compared to tight gas and coal bed methane, relatively less experience exists in Europe for shale formations as new source of natural gas. The focus on exploration is due to the stage of projects in Europe. No commercial scale shale gas exploitation has taken place yet and it is only expected in a few years time. Nevertheless, this study also takes into account a possible future production phase and especially analyses legal issues especially related to the transfer from exploration to production stage. As regards areas of law to be studied, the focus is the 'core' licensing and permitting process. Given the importance of environmental law in the area of shale gas exploration and production, it is included as an integral part of the study. However, within the scope of this study it is not possible to perform a thorough assessment of the appropriateness of the EU environmental legislation. Nevertheless, the present report describes and analyses EU environmental legislation which was assumed to be of most relevance for shale gas projects, especially as regards its interface with the 'core' licensing and permitting processes. Thereby it contributes to further efforts to assess the appropriateness of the EU legal framework especially with a view to a future production phase and the challenge to ensure a high

  12. Structure elucidation of secondary natural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seger, C.

    2001-06-01

    The presented thesis deals with the structure elucidation of secondary natural products. Most of the compounds under investigation were terpenes, especially triterpenes, alkaloids and stilbenoids. Besides characterizing a multitude of already known and also new compounds, it was possible to detect and correct wrongly assigned literature data. The methodological aspect of this thesis lies - beside in the utilization of modern 2D NMR spectroscopy - in the evaluation of computer assisted structure elucidation (CASE) techniques in the course of spectroscopy supported structure elucidation processes. (author)

  13. Appreciation of symmetry in natural product synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Wen-Ju; Wang, Xiqing

    2017-12-13

    Covering: 2012 to June 2017This review aims to show that complex natural product synthesis can be streamlined by taking advantage of molecular symmetry. Various strategies to construct molecules with either evident or hidden symmetry are illustrated. Insights regarding the origins and adjustments of these strategies as well as inspiring new methodological developments are deliberated. When a symmetric strategy fails, the corresponding reason is analysed and an alternative approach is briefly provided. Finally, the importance of exploiting molecular symmetry and future research directions are discussed.

  14. Natural gas: reserves keep ahead of production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hough, G V

    1983-08-01

    World production of natural gas in 1982 fell only 1.6% below 1981 levels, while proven recoverable reserves were up by 3.6% for a total of 3.279 quadrillion CF, which is 32.4% higher than had been estimated in 1978. Gas consumption, however, has experienced greater changes, with most of the industrialized countries (except for Japan) reporting declines in gas demand resulting from falling oil prices, reduced energy demand, and a slack world economy. Although gas seems to be holding its own in energy markets, further progress will not be easy to achieve.

  15. A Comparison of the Impacts of Wind Energy and Unconventional Gas Development on Land-use and Ecosystem Services: An Example from the Anadarko Basin of Oklahoma, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kendall M; Nguyen, Michael N; McClung, Maureen R; Moran, Matthew D

    2018-05-01

    The United States energy industry is transforming with the rapid development of alternative energy sources and technological advancements in fossil fuels. Two major changes include the growth of wind turbines and unconventional oil and gas. We measured land-use impacts and associated ecosystem services costs of unconventional gas and wind energy development within the Anadarko Basin of the Oklahoma Woodford Shale, an area that has experienced large increases in both energy sectors. Unconventional gas wells developed three times as much land compared to wind turbines (on a per unit basis), resulting in higher ecosystem services costs for gas. Gas wells had higher impacts on intensive agricultural lands (i.e., row crops) compared to wind turbines that had higher impacts on natural grasslands/pastures. Because wind turbines produced on average less energy compared to gas wells, the average land-use-related ecosystem cost per gigajoule of energy produced was almost the same. Our results demonstrate that both unconventional gas and wind energy have substantial impacts on land use, which likely affect wildlife populations and land-use-related ecosystem services. Although wind energy does not have the associated greenhouse gas emissions, we suggest that the direct impacts on ecosystems in terms of land use are similar to unconventional fossil fuels. Considering the expected rapid global expansion of these two forms of energy production, many ecosystems are likely to be at risk.

  16. TRUCE: A Coordination Action for Unconventional Computation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amos, M.; Stepney, S.; Doursat, R.

    2012-01-01

    Unconventional computation (UCOMP) is an important and emerging area of scientific research, which explores new ways of computing that go beyond the traditional model, as well as quantum- and brain inspired computing. Such alternatives may encompass novel substrates (e.g., DNA, living cells...... quickly, and has the potential to revolutionize not only our fundamental understanding of the nature of computing, but the way in which we solve problems, design networks, do industrial fabrication, make drugs or construct buildings. The problems we already face in the 21 st century will require new...

  17. Natural products as radiation response modifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colin Seymour; Carmel Mothersill

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Protection of cells and organisms against low doses of radiation is a complex issue which must be considered at the level of cells, tissues and organisms. 'Protection' at one level, for example, prevention of cell death, may be adverse at another level, if it allows a damaged cell to survive and form a malignant tumour. Conversely, death of a cell carrying damage can be protective for the organism if it eliminates a damaged cell. Thus, it is important to understand the mechanisms involved in protection against radiation damage at several hierarchical levels. The use of natural products as radiation response modifiers is very attractive. Many of these compounds are readily available and their function and pharmacology is well understood. Some derive from venoms or natural defenses and are currently used in medicine, others include vitamins, antioxidants or cofactors, which are tried and tested nutritional supplements. Radiation effects may be targeted or untargeted. Radiation may interact directly within a cell causing a direct DNA lesion or it may elicit a bystander response from the irradiated cell. A bystander effect is produced when the irradiated cell apparently exhibits no damage from the radiation, but passes on a biochemical signal which induces neighbouring cells to apoptose or undergo a number of other responses usually associated with irradiation such as mutation induction, transformation, induction of ROS responses etc.. Effects induced in progeny of non-targeted cells in receipt of bystander signals include genetic instability, mini and microsatellite mutations and carcinogenesis. A key characteristic of these non targeted effects is that they occur at very low acute doses (of the order of 5mGy) and saturate so that effective prevention requires an agent which can effectively shut off the mechanism. While the mechanism is not fully known, it is thought to involve signals from irradiated cells communicating via

  18. Amorfrutins are potent antidiabetic dietary natural products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidner, Christopher; de Groot, Jens C.; Prasad, Aman; Freiwald, Anja; Quedenau, Claudia; Kliem, Magdalena; Witzke, Annabell; Kodelja, Vitam; Han, Chung-Ting; Giegold, Sascha; Baumann, Matthias; Klebl, Bert; Siems, Karsten; Müller-Kuhrt, Lutz; Schürmann, Annette; Schüler, Rita; Pfeiffer, Andreas F. H.; Schroeder, Frank C.; Büssow, Konrad; Sauer, Sascha

    2012-01-01

    Given worldwide increases in the incidence of obesity and type 2 diabetes, new strategies for preventing and treating metabolic diseases are needed. The nuclear receptor PPARγ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma) plays a central role in lipid and glucose metabolism; however, current PPARγ-targeting drugs are characterized by undesirable side effects. Natural products from edible biomaterial provide a structurally diverse resource to alleviate complex disorders via tailored nutritional intervention. We identified a family of natural products, the amorfrutins, from edible parts of two legumes, Glycyrrhiza foetida and Amorpha fruticosa, as structurally new and powerful antidiabetics with unprecedented effects for a dietary molecule. Amorfrutins bind to and activate PPARγ, which results in selective gene expression and physiological profiles markedly different from activation by current synthetic PPARγ drugs. In diet-induced obese and db/db mice, amorfrutin treatment strongly improves insulin resistance and other metabolic and inflammatory parameters without concomitant increase of fat storage or other unwanted side effects such as hepatoxicity. These results show that selective PPARγ-activation by diet-derived ligands may constitute a promising approach to combat metabolic disease. PMID:22509006

  19. Yoghurt enrichment with natural bee farming products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Lomova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Bee pollen is a unique and unparalleled natural bioactive substances source. Using it in conjunction with the popular functional fermented milk product -yogurt will expand its product range and increase the biological value. Materials and Methods. Dried bee pollen’s moisture determination was made by gravimetry methods, based on the sample weight loss due to desiccation, until constant weight was reached.Test and control yogurt samples were studied by applying standard techniques for milk and milk products set forth in the regulations of Ukraine. Results and discussion. It is found that bee pollen pellet drying to a moisture content of 2 -4%, increases the flow rate of powder almost by 90%. The sample having moisture content of 2% will have a bulk density exceeding 12.5% compared to the sample having moisture content of 10%. Raw output will also increase by 3.7%. By contrast, apparent density and weight fraction of losses decreases, which has a positive impact on pollen efficiency of use and distribution in bulk yogurt. Moreover, the weight fraction of losses decreases by fourfold (4.6% vs. 1%. It was experimentally determined that pollen can deteriorate microbiological characteristics of yogurt. It was proved that treatment of crushed bee pollen pellet sample with ultraviolet allows improving yogurt microbiological safety indicators. Namely, to reduce the presence of coli-forms to 0, mould –to 10 CFU/cm³. Conclusions. The proposed bee pollen pellet treatment method will improve the technological and microbiological characteristics of pollen powder. This provides for yoghurt production biotechnology using bee farming products.

  20. Small multiplicity events in e+ + e- → Z0 and unconventional phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perl, M.L.

    1986-12-01

    Events with two-, four- or six-charged particles and no photons produced through the process e + + e - → Z 0 provide an opportunity to search for unconventional phenomena at the SLC and LEP electron-positron colliders. Examples of unconventional processes are compared with the expected background from electromagnetic processes and from charged lepton pair production

  1. Natural product synthesis at the interface of chemistry and biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Nature has evolved to produce unique and diverse natural products that possess high target affinity and specificity. Natural products have been the richest sources for novel modulators of biomolecular function. Since the chemical synthesis of urea by Wöhler, organic chemists have been intrigued by natural products, leading to the evolution of the field of natural product synthesis over the past two centuries. Natural product synthesis has enabled natural products to play an essential role in drug discovery and chemical biology. With the introduction of novel, innovative concepts and strategies for synthetic efficiency, natural product synthesis in the 21st century is well poised to address the challenges and complexities faced by natural product chemistry and will remain essential to progress in biomedical sciences. PMID:25043880

  2. Conventional and unconventional political participation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opp, K.D.

    1985-01-01

    A non-recursive model is proposed and empirically tested with data of opponents of nuclear power. In explaining conventional and unconventional participation the theory of collective action is applied and modified in two respects: the perceived influence on the elimination of collective evils are taken into account; the selective incentives considered are non-material ones. These modifications proved to be valid: the collective good variables and non-material incentives were important determinants for the two forms of participation. Another result was that there is a reciprocal causal relationship between conventional and unconventional participation. (orig./PW) [de

  3. A search for unconventional mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turnau, J.

    1984-01-01

    Selected problems of the fixed target meson spectroscopy connected with the issue of unconventional states glueballs, hybrides and four-quarks are discussed. The experimental basis of the dissertation consists of some results of the WA3 experiment performed by ACCMOR collaboration (Π - p→(3Π) - p, K - p→K - Π + Π - p, Π - p→K s o K s o n) and of the S136 experiment performed by CCM collaborations (Π - p↑→Π + Π - n, Π - p↑→K + K - n). Mesons with spin parities J PC = 0 -+ , 0 ++ , 1 ++ and 2 ++ are discussed from the point of view of the phenomenology of unconventional states. (author)

  4. Unconventional power - a factor of reducing the pollution in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terzi, P.

    1996-01-01

    The unconventional power generation includes all the activities related to the utilization and management of energy sources, facilities and equipment used to produce and distribute the power obtained through systems other than those based on burning of classical fissile fuels. By its very nature it is not pollutant. The renewable energies as the solar, wind, geothermal, tidal energies, etc, enter this category. As in the same category it is included the energy recovered from different industrial processes, usually associated with the treatment of organic residues or of refuse waters, the unconventional power generation is an important factor in ecological and environmental policy. The paper stresses also the beneficial accompanying actions which are associated with exploiting other unconventional energy sources. For instance, the tidal power exploitation implies also measures of protection of see shore regions from erosion and other forms of decay

  5. Inorganic Contaminants Associated with the Extraction of Unconventional Gas.Initial Analysis and Risk Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, L.; Hurtado, A.; Recreo, F.; Eguilior, S.

    2015-01-01

    The latest technological developments in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing are driving a commercial scale extraction of unconventional fossil fuels in various regions of the world. Europe's position in relation to the exploitation of unconventional fossil fuels is this has to be made under a paradigm of coherence between the technical and economic-financial aspects and environments and public trust, which are essential and which will eventually would enable the viability of exploiting these resources.This requires, by those decision makers, both industry and regulators, a comprehensive management of the risks associated with these exploitations, which implies the need to develop tools of analysis and assessment to environmental impact and risk. The exploitation of unconventional hydrocarbons in formations of shale requires the creation of a network of artificial fractures to connect with production well Horizontal wells are drilled for this purpose and go on for several km into the shale formation. During drilling, a mixture of oil, gas and formation water is pumped to the surface. The water is separated from oil and gas in tanks or pools. The flowback and produced water contains different kinds of chemicals in varying concentrations: salt, oil and other organic compounds, suspended solids, bacteria, naturally occurring radioactive elements (NORM), and any element injected with the fracturing fluid. The concentration of these elements in the water may be increased due to the treatments suffered by flowback and produced water for disposal. Due to the large variability of contaminants in the flowback and produced water and the potentially large volumes involved, the determination of the its composition is essential for proper management of them and to prevent health, safety and environmental risks. This report covers the risk analysis of an unconventional gas extraction project, the initial assessment of the risks associated with the use and management of

  6. Applications of natural products in the control of mosquito ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Applications of natural products in the control of mosquito-transmitted ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... Ultimately, a paradigm shift in research that evaluates natural products in a comparative manner will help to produce new materials for ...

  7. Chocolate: A Marvelous Natural Product of Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannenbaum, Ginger

    2004-08-01

    Chocolate is a natural product as ubiquitous as television. Of course, it is eaten, but it is also found in air fresheners, marking pens, flavoring in a multitude of products including soda pop, and as an aroma in "chocolate-dyed" T-shirts. However, most of us are completely unaware of the complex chemical reactions that take place to produce chocolate and the necessary technology that has evolved to produce chocolate and all its byproducts. Processing results in a mixture of many components, an interesting contrast to most of the simple, one-step reactions introduced at the high school level. This article is a survey of chocolate from tree to table. After a brief introduction to the history of chocolate and how and where it is grown, the manufacturing process is examined, and the chemistry is explored. A bit of the jargon used in the industry is mentioned. Cocoa butter is a significant ingredient in chocolate, and an investigation of it introduces triglycerides, fatty acids, polymorphic behavior, and molecular packing of the fats in chocolate and how they affect the tempering process. There is a brief discussion of chocolate's non-Newtonian behavior and the resulting challenges presented in the manufacturing process. See Featured Molecules Featured on the Cover

  8. Cordyceps fungi: natural products, pharmacological functions and developmental products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xuanwei; Gong, Zhenghua; Su, Ying; Lin, Juan; Tang, Kexuan

    2009-03-01

    Parasitic Cordyceps fungi, such as Cordyceps sinensis, is a parasitic complex of fungus and caterpillar, which has been used for medicinal purposes for centuries particularly in China, Japan and other Asian countries. This article gives a general idea of the latest developments in C. sinensis research, with regard to the active chemical components, the pharmacological effects and the research and development of products in recent years. The common names for preparations include DongChongXiaCao in Chinese, winter worm summer grass in English. It has many bioactive components, such as 3'-deoxyadenosine, cordycepic acid and Cordyceps polysaccharides. It is commonly used to replenish the kidney and soothe the lung, and for the treatment of fatigue. It also can be used to treat conditions such as night sweating, hyposexuality, hyperglycaemia, hyperlipidaemia, asthenia after severe illness, respiratory disease, renal dysfunction, renal failure, arrhythmias and other heart disease and liver disease. Because of its rarity and outstanding curative effects, several mycelia strains have been isolated from natural Cordyceps and manufactured by fermentation technology, and are commonly sold as health food products. In addition, some substitutes such as C. militaris and adulterants also have been used; therefore, quality control of C. sinensis and its products is very important to ensure their safety and efficacy. Recent research advances in the study of Cordyceps, including Cordyceps mushrooms, chemical components, pharmacological functions and developmental products, has been reviewed and discussed. Developing trends in the field have also been appraised.

  9. Unconventional, High-Efficiency Propulsors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul

    1996-01-01

    The development of ship propellers has generally been characterized by search for propellers with as high efficiency as possible and at the same time low noise and vibration levels and little or no cavitation. This search has lead to unconventional propulsors, like vane-wheel propulsors, contra-r...

  10. Unconventional uranium resources in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Fucheng; Zhang Zilong; Li Zhixing; Wang Zhiming; He Zhongbo; Wang Wenquan

    2011-01-01

    Unconventional uranium resources in China mainly include black-rock series, peat, salt lake and evaporitic rocks. Among them, uraniferous black-rock series, uraniferous phosphorite and uranium-polymetallic phosphorite connected with black-rock series are important types for the sustainable support of uranium resources in China. Down-faulting and epocontinental rift in continental margin are the most important and beneficial ore-forming environment for unconventional uranium resources of black-rock series in China and produced a series of geochemistry combinations, such as, U-Cd, U-V-Mo, U-V-Re, U-V-Ni-Mo and U-V-Ni-Mo-Re-Tl. Unconventional uranium resources of black-rock series in China is related to uranium-rich marine black-rock series which are made up of hydrothermal sedimentary siliceous rocks, siliceous phospheorite and carbonaceous-siliceous-pelitic rock and settled in the continental margin down-faulting and epicontinental rift accompanied by submarine backwash and marine volcano eruption. Hydrothermal sedimentation or exhalation sedimentary is the mechanism to form unconventional uranium resources in black-rock series or large scale uranium-polymetallic mineralization in China. (authors)

  11. Antifouling Activity of Marine Natural Products

    KAUST Repository

    Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    With the global ban of application of organotin-based marine coatings by International Maritime Organization in 2008, there is a practical and urgent need of identifying environmentally friendly low-toxic and nontoxic antifouling compounds for marine industries. Marine natural products have been considered as one of the most promising sources of antifouling compounds in recent years. In antifouling compound screening processes, bioassay systems often play most critical/vital roles in screening efforts. To meet various needs, a variety of bioassay systems have been developed and/or adopted in both research and commercial laboratories. In this chapter, we provide a brief outline of common bioassay procedures for both antimicrofouling and antimacrofouling assays, which can serve as a general guideline for setting up bioassay systems in laboratories engaged in antifouling compound screening. Some bioassay procedures currently practiced in various laboratories are not included in this book chapter for various reasons. Individual laboratories should modify bioassay protocols based on their research interests or needs. Nevertheless, we highly recommend the research laboratories to adapt high-throughput assays as much as possible for preliminary screening assays, followed by more complex bioassay processes using multiple target species. We argue strongly for studies in mode-of-action of antifouling compounds against settling propagules, which shall lead to discovery of molecular biomarkers (genes, proteins, receptors, or receptor system) and will allow us to design more targeted bioassay systems.

  12. Separation process design for isolation and purification of natural products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malwade, Chandrakant R.

    Natural products are defined as secondary metabolites produced by plants and form a vast pool of compounds with unlimited chemical and functional diversity. Many of these secondary metabolites are high value added chemicals that are frequently used as ingredients in food, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals...... and other consumer products. Therefore, process technology towards industrial scale production of such high value chemicals from plants has significant value. Natural products can be obtained in pure form via synthetic or semi-synthetic route, but due to their complicated nature these methods have not been...... developed to the extent of industrial production for majority of natural products. Thus, isolation and purification of such natural products from plants is the most viable way to obtain natural products in pure form. This PhD project is mainly concerned with the design of separation process to isolate...

  13. Construction of a 3D-shaped, natural product like fragment library by fragmentation and diversification of natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescher, Horst; Koch, Guido; Schuhmann, Tim; Ertl, Peter; Bussenault, Alex; Glick, Meir; Dix, Ina; Petersen, Frank; Lizos, Dimitrios E

    2017-02-01

    A fragment library consisting of 3D-shaped, natural product-like fragments was assembled. Library construction was mainly performed by natural product degradation and natural product diversification reactions and was complemented by the identification of 3D-shaped, natural product like fragments available from commercial sources. In addition, during the course of these studies, novel rearrangements were discovered for Massarigenin C and Cytochalasin E. The obtained fragment library has an excellent 3D-shape and natural product likeness, covering a novel, unexplored and underrepresented chemical space in fragment based drug discovery (FBDD). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Pharmaceuticals from natural products: current trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PETER R. SEIDL

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of products extracted from plants for medicinal purposes can be traced to the beginnings of civilization and up until the end of the nineteenth century natural products were the principal source of medicines. Since then their relative importance has oscillated according to the strategies of large pharmaceutical companies. Now that these strategies are changing, there are new opportunities for countries like Brazil, in which a large proportion of the world's biodiversity is located. There are, however, new circumstances that must be taken into consideration: material must be collected by groups which are formally authorized to do so and under the conditions of the Convention of Biological Diversity, the discovery process is being successively outsourced to smaller specialized firms and there is a growing integration with producers of cosmetics and phytomedicines.O uso de produtos extraídos de plantas para fins medicinais pode ser tracejado aos inícios da civilização e até o fim do século XIX, os produtos naturais constituíram a principal fonte de medicamentos. Desde então, a importância relativa dos produtos naturais tem oscilado de acordo com as estratégias de grandes companhias farmacêuticas. Agora que estas estratégias vêm mudando, há novas oportunidades para países como o Brasil, no qual está localizada uma vasta proporção da biodiversidade mundial. Há, entretanto, novas circunstâncias que devem ser levadas em consideração: o material deve ser coletado por grupos que estão formalmente autorizados para tal, com a coleta sendo feita sob as condições da Convenção de Diversidade Biológica, o processo de descoberta está sendo sucessivamente terceirizado no sentido de firmas especializadas menores e há uma integração crescente como produtores de cosméticos e fitomedicamentos.

  15. NCI Program for Natural Product Discovery: A Publicly-Accessible Library of Natural Product Fractions for High-Throughput Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornburg, Christopher C; Britt, John R; Evans, Jason R; Akee, Rhone K; Whitt, James A; Trinh, Spencer K; Harris, Matthew J; Thompson, Jerell R; Ewing, Teresa L; Shipley, Suzanne M; Grothaus, Paul G; Newman, David J; Schneider, Joel P; Grkovic, Tanja; O'Keefe, Barry R

    2018-06-13

    The US National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Natural Product Repository is one of the world's largest, most diverse collections of natural products containing over 230,000 unique extracts derived from plant, marine, and microbial organisms that have been collected from biodiverse regions throughout the world. Importantly, this national resource is available to the research community for the screening of extracts and the isolation of bioactive natural products. However, despite the success of natural products in drug discovery, compatibility issues that make extracts challenging for liquid handling systems, extended timelines that complicate natural product-based drug discovery efforts and the presence of pan-assay interfering compounds have reduced enthusiasm for the high-throughput screening (HTS) of crude natural product extract libraries in targeted assay systems. To address these limitations, the NCI Program for Natural Product Discovery (NPNPD), a newly launched, national program to advance natural product discovery technologies and facilitate the discovery of structurally defined, validated lead molecules ready for translation will create a prefractionated library from over 125,000 natural product extracts with the aim of producing a publicly-accessible, HTS-amenable library of >1,000,000 fractions. This library, representing perhaps the largest accumulation of natural-product based fractions in the world, will be made available free of charge in 384-well plates for screening against all disease states in an effort to reinvigorate natural product-based drug discovery.

  16. Natural Product Biosynthetic Diversity and Comparative Genomics of the Cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmann, Elke; Gugger, Muriel; Sivonen, Kaarina; Fewer, David P

    2015-10-01

    Cyanobacteria are an ancient lineage of slow-growing photosynthetic bacteria and a prolific source of natural products with intricate chemical structures and potent biological activities. The bulk of these natural products are known from just a handful of genera. Recent efforts have elucidated the mechanisms underpinning the biosynthesis of a diverse array of natural products from cyanobacteria. Many of the biosynthetic mechanisms are unique to cyanobacteria or rarely described from other organisms. Advances in genome sequence technology have precipitated a deluge of genome sequences for cyanobacteria. This makes it possible to link known natural products to biosynthetic gene clusters but also accelerates the discovery of new natural products through genome mining. These studies demonstrate that cyanobacteria encode a huge variety of cryptic gene clusters for the production of natural products, and the known chemical diversity is likely to be just a fraction of the true biosynthetic capabilities of this fascinating and ancient group of organisms. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Unconventional Solar Sailing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceriotti, Matteo

    The idea of exploiting solar radiation pressure for space travel, or solar sailing, is more than a 100 years old, and yet most of the research thus far has considered only a limited number of sail configurations. However solar sails do not have to be inertially-pointing squares, spin-stabilised discs or heliogyros: there is a range of different configurations and concepts that present some advantageous features. This chapter will show and discuss three non-conventional solar sail configurations and their applications. In the first, the sail is complemented by an electric thruster, resulting in a hybrid-propulsion spacecraft which is capable to hover above the Earth's Poles in a stationary position (pole-sitter). The second concept makes use of a variable-geometry pyramidal sail, naturally pointing towards the sun, to increase or decrease the orbit altitude without the need of propellant or attitude manoeuvres. Finally, the third concept shows that the orbit altitude can also be changed, without active manoeuvres or geometry change, if the sail naturally oscillates synchronously with the orbital motion. The main motivation behind these novel configurations is to overcome some of the engineering limitations of solar sailing; the resulting concepts pose some intriguing orbital and attitude dynamics problems, which will be discussed.

  18. Deposition of naturally occurring radioactivity in oil and gas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lysebo, I.; Strand, T.

    1997-01-01

    This booklet contains general information about naturally occurring radioactive materials, NORM, in production of oil and natural gas, occupational doses, radiation protection procedures and measures, and classification methods of contaminated equipment. 6 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  19. Joint exploration and development: A self-salvation road to sustainable development of unconventional oil and gas resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihui Zheng

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Commercial production of unconventional oil and gas resources will not be easily achieved without large-scale engineering measures, let alone the additional operation cost, increasingly stricter requirement for safety and environment, fluctuating low oil and gas prices, etc., defeating the confidence of those investors. Therefore, unconventional measures are urgently needed to guide the exploration and exploitation of unconventional oil and gas resources. Thus, we put forward the concept of joint exploration and development by integrating research methodologies and operating techniques for a variety of oil and gas resources to simultaneously achieve analysis, construction, gathering and exploitation of multiple hydrocarbon sources. In this way, the annoying interference between the produced mixture of hydrocarbon flow resulting in the reduction of single-well flowrate will be possibly turned into a dynamic mutual force to enhance the well's flowrate. We also point out that the inevitability of joint exploration and development is determined by the occurrence conditions of oil and gas resources, its feasibility relies on the advancement of technologies, and its arduous and long-term nature is attributed to the current energy market and environment. In spite of various problems and difficulties, we believe that joint exploration and development will be a feasible option to achieve both cost reduction and production & benefit enhancement, boost investors' confidence, raise energy comprehensive utilization, and enhance energy supply efficiency. In conclusion, the advantages of joint exploration and development outweigh its disadvantages for both countries and enterprises.

  20. Organosilicon Reagents in Natural Product Synthesis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Organosilicon compounds do not occur free in nature, and are ... work was carried out by Kipping, copsidered today as the father of classical organosilicon chemistry. The ..... v V V V V v. 55 ..... Sweet potato leaf folder moth pheromone.

  1. Biosynthesis of therapeutic natural products using synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awan, Ali R; Shaw, William M; Ellis, Tom

    2016-10-01

    Natural products are a group of bioactive structurally diverse chemicals produced by microorganisms and plants. These molecules and their derivatives have contributed to over a third of the therapeutic drugs produced in the last century. However, over the last few decades traditional drug discovery pipelines from natural products have become far less productive and far more expensive. One recent development with promise to combat this trend is the application of synthetic biology to therapeutic natural product biosynthesis. Synthetic biology is a young discipline with roots in systems biology, genetic engineering, and metabolic engineering. In this review, we discuss the use of synthetic biology to engineer improved yields of existing therapeutic natural products. We further describe the use of synthetic biology to combine and express natural product biosynthetic genes in unprecedented ways, and how this holds promise for opening up completely new avenues for drug discovery and production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Insurgent Uprising: An Unconventional Warfare Wargame

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    Cleveland, Charles T. Connett, and Will Irwin. “Unconventional Warfare in the Gray Zone.” Joint Forces Quarterly 80, no. 1 (2016). Work, Robert O...CODE 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) Today, and in the future, unconventional solutions will present U.S. policymakers with options for dealing...training objectives and will complement existing training exercises. 14. SUBJECT TERMS unconventional warfare, foreign internal defense, direct

  3. Linking neuroethology to the chemical biology of natural products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olivera, Baldomero M.; Raghuraman, Shrinivasan; Schmidt, Eric W.

    2017-01-01

    From a biological perspective, a natural product can be defined as a compound evolved by an organism for chemical interactions with another organism including prey, predator, competitor, pathogen, symbiont or host. Natural products hold tremendous potential as drug leads and have been extensively...... a better understanding of the evolution, biology and biochemistry of natural products will facilitate both neuroscience and the potential for drug leads. The larger goal is to establish a new sub-discipline in the broader field of neuroethology that we refer to as “Chemical Neuroethology”, linking...... the substantial work carried out by chemists on natural products with accelerating advances in neuroethology....

  4. Application of Reservoir Flow Simulation Integrated with Geomechanics in Unconventional Tight Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Menglu; Chen, Shengnan; Mbia, Ernest; Chen, Zhangxing

    2018-01-01

    Multistage hydraulic fracturing techniques, combined with horizontal drilling, have enabled commercial production from the vast reserves of unconventional tight formations. During hydraulic fracturing, fracturing fluid and proppants are pumped into the reservoir matrix to create the hydraulic fractures. Understanding the propagation mechanism of hydraulic fractures is essential to estimate their properties, such as half-length. In addition, natural fractures are often present in tight formations, which might be activated during the fracturing process and contribute to the post-stimulation well production rates. In this study, reservoir simulation is integrated with rock geomechanics to predict the well post-stimulation productivities. Firstly, a reservoir geological model is built based on the field data collected from the Montney formation in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin. The hydraulic fracturing process is then simulated through an integrated approach of fracturing fluid injection, rock geomechanics, and tensile failure criteria. In such a process, the reservoir pore pressure increases with a continuous injection of the fracturing fluid and proppants, decreasing the effective stress exerted on the rock matrix accordingly as the overburden pressure remains constant. Once the effective stress drops to a threshold value, tensile failure of the reservoir rock occurs, creating hydraulic fractures in the formation. The early production history of the stimulated well is history-matched to validate the predicted fracture geometries (e.g., half-length) generated from the fracturing simulation process. The effects of the natural fracture properties and well bottom-hole pressures on well productivity are also studied. It has been found that nearly 40% of hydraulic fractures propagate in the beginning stage (the pad step) of the fracturing schedule. In addition, well post-stimulation productivity will increase significantly if the natural fractures are propped or

  5. Noble gas and hydrocarbon tracers in multiphase unconventional hydrocarbon systems: Toward integrated advanced reservoir simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrah, T.; Moortgat, J.; Poreda, R. J.; Muehlenbachs, K.; Whyte, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    Although hydrocarbon production from unconventional energy resources has increased dramatically in the last decade, total unconventional oil and gas recovery from black shales is still less than 25% and 9% of the totals in place, respectively. Further, the majority of increased hydrocarbon production results from increasing the lengths of laterals, the number of hydraulic fracturing stages, and the volume of consumptive water usage. These strategies all reduce the economic efficiency of hydrocarbon extraction. The poor recovery statistics result from an insufficient understanding of some of the key physical processes in complex, organic-rich, low porosity formations (e.g., phase behavior, fluid-rock interactions, and flow mechanisms at nano-scale confinement and the role of natural fractures and faults as conduits for flow). Noble gases and other hydrocarbon tracers are capably of recording subsurface fluid-rock interactions on a variety of geological scales (micro-, meso-, to macro-scale) and provide analogs for the movement of hydrocarbons in the subsurface. As such geochemical data enrich the input for the numerical modeling of multi-phase (e.g., oil, gas, and brine) fluid flow in highly heterogeneous, low permeability formations Herein we will present a combination of noble gas (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe abundances and isotope ratios) and molecular and isotopic hydrocarbon data from a geographically and geologically diverse set of unconventional hydrocarbon reservoirs in North America. Specifically, we will include data from the Marcellus, Utica, Barnett, Eagle Ford, formations and the Illinois basin. Our presentation will include geochemical and geological interpretation and our perspective on the first steps toward building an advanced reservoir simulator for tracer transport in multicomponent multiphase compositional flow (presented separately, in Moortgat et al., 2015).

  6. Natural Products and Dietary Prevention of Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    The concept of cancer prevention was first introduced in studies using the natural form of vitamin A in the prevention of epithelial cancers. Ever since, research on cancer prevention has grown and become a rather specialized field study. Cancer is a multistage process, and takes several years for...

  7. Data feature World natural Uranium production 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    NUKEM estimates that world uranium production fell more than 13% last year, from 40,729 tonnes U [106 million lbs U308] in 1991 to 35,363 tonnes U [92 million lbs U308] in 1992. Production fell in both the Western World and non-Western World. How much of demand was met by production? World uranium production in 1992 amounted to about 65% of reactor consumption. That's assuming that reactor demand of the non-Western World has not changed much from the Uranium Institute's estimate for 1991. Civilian stockpiles are being drawn down on a massive scale while the world waits to see what will become of the military stockpiles that could soon enter the global supply picture

  8. A Low Carbon EU Energy System and Unconventional Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gracceva, F.; Kanudia, A.; Tosato, GC.

    2013-01-01

    environmental goals. Additionally, the paper examines how and to which extent the availability of unconventional hydrocarbons, as gas and liquids from shale formations, can affect the mix of fuels and technologies of the EU energy system under a carbon constrained trajectory, including changes in the patterns of international gas trade. These results show how natural gas can be a cost-effective bridge to a low carbon energy system.(author)

  9. Taxonomy, Physiology, and Natural Products of Actinobacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Barka, Essaid Ait; Vatsa, Parul; Sanchez, Lisa; Gaveau-Vaillant, Nathalie; Jacquard, Cedric; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Clément, Christophe; Ouhdouch, Yder; van Wezel, Gilles P.

    2015-01-01

    Actinobacteria are Gram-positive bacteria with high G+C DNA content that constitute one of the largest bacterial phyla, and they are ubiquitously distributed in both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Many Actinobacteria have a mycelial lifestyle and undergo complex morphological differentiation. They also have an extensive secondary metabolism and produce about two-thirds of all naturally derived antibiotics in current clinical use, as well as many anticancer, anthelmintic, and antifungal c...

  10. T R Seshadri's Contributions to the Chemistry of Natural Products

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sri Sathya Sai Institute of. Higher Learning. Generations of students would vouch for the fact that he has the uncanny ability to present the chemistry of natural products logically and with feeling. Keywords. Flavonoids, lichen metabolite, methylation, Elbs-Seshadri oxi- dation, structure elucidation, natural products synthesis.

  11. Remote methods of indicating oil products in natural waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shlyakhova, L A

    1981-01-01

    A survey is made of domestic and foreign publications covering remote methods of monitoring film petroleum products and oil in natural waters. The given methods are realized in practice with the use of different sections of the electromagnetic spectrum. Remote quality control of the natural waters at the modern level may be an indicator of water pollution with film petroleum products.

  12. Phytotherapy natural products: Promotional mix features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dugalić Sretenka L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of products takes into account organized and controlled planning of changes of inner self and toward the environment. That means the creation of an active force, which should bring changes in other words, it should change the person who participates in the process of creation or in the consumption of the product. It tried to induce customers to purchase through methodologies and promotion strategies which stand to our sen'ice by the change in the way of thinking of the medical and pharmaceutical profession and users of helpful means. The input of marketing within the control of the outcomes, leaders techniques and promotion strategies by the production of helpful healthy means has a very big meaning.

  13. Harnessing natural product assembly lines: structure, promiscuity, and engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladner, Christopher C; Williams, Gavin J

    2016-03-01

    Many therapeutically relevant natural products are biosynthesized by the action of giant mega-enzyme assembly lines. By leveraging the specificity, promiscuity, and modularity of assembly lines, a variety of strategies has been developed that enables the biosynthesis of modified natural products. This review briefly summarizes recent structural advances related to natural product assembly lines, discusses chemical approaches to probing assembly line structures in the absence of traditional biophysical data, and surveys efforts that harness the inherent or engineered promiscuity of assembly lines for the synthesis of non-natural polyketides and non-ribosomal peptide analogues.

  14. Natural products: the new engine for African trade growth

    OpenAIRE

    Bennett, Ben

    2006-01-01

    This report was to further develop the trade component of the Natural Resources Enterprise Programme (NATPRO). The field work was undertaken in Malawi, Zimbabwe, Namibia, the Republic of South Africa and the United Kingdom between 9th January and 25th February 2006. The work concentrated on ten countries in Southern Africa with potential to export significant quantities of natural products. These products are defined by the project as follows: being plant derived, occurring naturally, wild ha...

  15. NATURAL ANTIOXIDANTS IN PRODUCTION “BRUSHWOOD”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Dubtsova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Flour wares use popularity, there is 48% of general volume of pastry wares on their stake. A marketing study on results that actuality of development of new type of flour good is set with the lowered maintenance of fat and enriched by vitamins is undertaken. The use of natural antioxidant of "Guarding is reasonable toco 70" and introduction of 0,2% is recommended for stabilizing of sunflower-seed oil at fry of frying. Joint introduction of powders is studied from the garden-stuffs of brier and unabi on quality of the brushwood fried in sunflower-seed oil with the use of "Guarding toco 70". From wares extracted lipids and estimated on indexes: peroxides, acid and anizid numbers. It is set that an antioxidant and vegetable powders assist the decline of indexes of safety peroxides and asid in two times, and anizid in 1,3 time. Use of antioxidant of "Guarding toco 70", being in 70% from the natural concentrate of mixture of tocopherolss and 30% of soyaoil.

  16. Service with a smile : service companies are enjoying unconventional gas boom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunan, D.

    2005-01-01

    This article presented financial information from Calgary Brokerage House Peters and Co. Ltd. relating to the growth of unconventional gas production in Canada. The long-lived, stable and low-decline resource is expected to offset some of the rapid reservoir decline many producers are experiencing in conventional operations. However, it is anticipated that service companies involved in well drilling, well stimulation and infrastructure needs of the unconventional gas sector will become more profitable than the operations. In an expansive research paper published late last year, the brokerage house also noted that 2004 marked the transition year for coalbed methane (CBM), as the concept moved from experimental to an increasingly important source of natural gas production. It was suggested that CBM activity could represent the biggest growth opportunity for the Canadian oil-field service sector. Companies using newer generations of coiled tubing drilling units were expected to have the greatest success, as the units are extremely agile and can often drill more than one well a day. A review of service companies was presented, with details of financial activities, including revenues, stock market information and economic forecasts. 4 figs

  17. Effect of Colombian coal rank and its feeding technology on substitute natural gas production by entrained gasification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Fernando Pérez-Bayer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of coal rank (from sub-bituminous to semi-anthracite and type of fuel feeding technology (slurry and dry on the production of substitute natural gas (SNG in entrained flow gasifiers is studied. Ten coals from important Colombian mines were selected. The process is modeled under thermochemical equilibrium using Aspen Plus, and its performance is evaluated in function of output parameters that include SNG heating value, Wobbe index, coal conversion efficiency, cold gas efficiency, process efficiency, global efficiency, and SNG production rate, among others. In descending order, the coal-to-SNG process improves energetically with the use of coals with: higher volatile-matter to fixed-carbon ratio, lower ash content, higher C+H/O ratio, and higher coal heating value. The overall energy efficiency of the slurry-feed technology (S-FT to produce SNG by gasification is 17% higher than the dry-feed technology (D-FT, possibly as a consequence of the higher CH4 concentration in the syngas (around 7 vol. % when the coal is fed as aqueous slurry. As the simulated SNG meets the natural gas (NG quality standards in Colombia, the substitute gaseous fuel could be directly transported through pipelines. Therefore, the coal-to-SNG process is a technically feasible and unconventional alternative for NG production.

  18. Natural products-friends or foes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margină, Denisa; Ilie, Mihaela; Grădinaru, Daniela; Androutsopoulos, Vasilis P; Kouretas, Demetrios; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M

    2015-08-05

    A trend in the general population has been observed in recent years regarding the orientation toward preventive measures in health; in this context the increased interest from the users and researchers concerning the active effect of food supplements on the health state and on longevity, is noticeable. All over the world, the consumption of natural foods and of vegetal supplements has increased spectacularly over the last 5-10 years. The decreased prevalence of cardio-vascular diseases associated with Mediterranean diet, as well as the French paradox convinced researchers to scientifically document the beneficial outcomes pointed out by traditional use of plants, and to try to develop supplements that would have the same positive effects as these noticed for diet components. The intense research dedicated to this topic revealed the fact that food supplements are linked to some problematic aspects, such as toxicological side effects when associated with classical synthetic drugs. The food supplement-drug interactions are submitted to complex issues regarding pharmacokinetic interactions leading to changes in absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion processes with direct impact on effect and toxicological potential. The present review based on recent literature aims at discussing the food-drug interactions with direct impact on efficacy and toxicity of drugs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. MANUFACTURING NATURAL KILLER CELLS AS MEDICINAL PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian CHABANNON

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Natural Killer (NK cells are Innate Lymphoid Cells (ILC with cytotoxic and regulatory properties. Their functions are tightly regulated by an array of inhibitory and activating receptors, and their mechanisms of activation strongly differ from antigen recognition in the context of HLA presentation as needed for T-cell activation. NK cells thus offer unique opportunities for new and improved therapeutic manipulation, either in vivo or in vitro, in a variety of human diseases, including cancers. NK cell activity can possibly be modulated in vivo through direct or indirect actions exerted by small molecules or monoclonal antibodies. NK cells can also be adoptively transferred following more or less substantial modifications through cell and gene manufacturing, in order to empower them with new or improved functions and ensure their controlled persistence and activity in the recipient. In the present review, we will focus on the technological and regulatory challenges of NK cell manufacturing, and discuss conditions in which these innovative cellular therapies can be brought to the clinic.

  20. Taxonomy, Physiology, and Natural Products of Actinobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barka, Essaid Ait; Vatsa, Parul; Sanchez, Lisa; Gaveau-Vaillant, Nathalie; Jacquard, Cedric; Meier-Kolthoff, Jan P; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Clément, Christophe; Ouhdouch, Yder; van Wezel, Gilles P

    2016-03-01

    Actinobacteria are Gram-positive bacteria with high G+C DNA content that constitute one of the largest bacterial phyla, and they are ubiquitously distributed in both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Many Actinobacteria have a mycelial lifestyle and undergo complex morphological differentiation. They also have an extensive secondary metabolism and produce about two-thirds of all naturally derived antibiotics in current clinical use, as well as many anticancer, anthelmintic, and antifungal compounds. Consequently, these bacteria are of major importance for biotechnology, medicine, and agriculture. Actinobacteria play diverse roles in their associations with various higher organisms, since their members have adopted different lifestyles, and the phylum includes pathogens (notably, species of Corynebacterium, Mycobacterium, Nocardia, Propionibacterium, and Tropheryma), soil inhabitants (e.g., Micromonospora and Streptomyces species), plant commensals (e.g., Frankia spp.), and gastrointestinal commensals (Bifidobacterium spp.). Actinobacteria also play an important role as symbionts and as pathogens in plant-associated microbial communities. This review presents an update on the biology of this important bacterial phylum. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Unconventional wisdom: an economic analysis of US shale gas and implications for the EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, Thomas; Sartor, Oliver; Mathieu, Mathilde

    2014-01-01

    Despite very low and ultimately unsustainable short-term prices of natural gas, the unconventional oil and gas revolution has had a minimal impact on the US macro-economy. We provide an upper-optimistic-estimate of its long-term effect on the level of US GDP (not its long-term annual growth rate) at about 0.84% between 2012 and 2035. Compared to an annual growth rate of 1.4%, this long-term increase is small. And we estimate its short-term stimulus effects at 0.88% of GDP during the 2007/8 to 2012 downturn. The unconventional oil and gas revolution has also had a minimal impact on US manufacturing, confined to gas-intensive sectors, which we calculate as making up about 1.2% of US GDP. There is thus no evidence that shale gas is driving an overall manufacturing renaissance in the US. Absent further policies, the US shale revolution will not lead to a significant, sustained decarbonization of the US energy mix nor will it assure US energy security. A reference scenario based on current policies sees US emissions stagnant at current levels out to 2040, clearly insufficient for a reasonable US contribution to global climate change mitigation. Oil imports continue to rise in monetary terms. While it can promote some coal to gas switching in the short term if additional policies are enacted, there is also the risk that the unconventional oil and gas revolution further locks the US into an energy- and emissions-intensive capital stock. It is unlikely that the EU will repeat the US experience in terms of the scale of unconventional oil and gas production. Uncertainty exists around the exact size of exploitable EU shale gas reserves; a median scenario would see the EU producing about 3-10% of its gas demand from shale gas by 2030-2035. The EU's fossil fuel import dependency will therefore continue to increase and its fossil fuel prices will remain largely determined by international markets. Shale production would not have significant macro-economic or competitiveness

  2. Unconventional shale gas extraction: present and future affects

    OpenAIRE

    Mohajan, Haradhan

    2012-01-01

    In the 1990s the extraction of unconventional shale gas extraction increases in the USA due to national and global demand of energy. The expansion of shale gas production will provide low carbon economy, therefore it is a positive side of low greenhouse gas emissions in the atmosphere and considering the benefit sides it has been referred to as a bridging fuel. Horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing are the two technologies by the combination with one another; provide the potential to ...

  3. The 4th Euro-Mediterranean Conference of Natural Products and Drug Discovery: Back to Mother Nature (BioNat-IV, Cairo/Sharm El-Sheikh, Egypt, March 3–7, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf A. Khalil

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The 4th Euro-Mediterranean Conference of Natural Products and Drug Discovery: Back to Mother Nature (BioNat-IV was recently (from March 3rd through 7th, 2015 convened in Cairo and Sharm El-Sheikh along the Red Sea coast of Egypt. Overall, the meeting provided a platform for scientists from different nations to discuss emerging ideas that focused on cell signaling in cancer; the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases; the identification and use of natural products as well as novel drug delivery approaches for the treatment of cancer, arthritis, diabetes, tuberculosis, fungal infection, etc.; and untapped or unconventional sources for natural products. This fourth in a row conference tried to bridge the gap not only between basic research and clinical applications, but also between developed nations and developing countries. With the continuing success of these past meetings, the fifth Euro-Mediterranean Conference of Natural Products and Drug Discovery (BioNat-V is slated to be in February 2017.

  4. Structure-based synthesis from natural products to drug prototypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanessian, S.

    2009-01-01

    X-Ray crystallographic data available from complexes of natural and synthetic molecules with the enzyme thrombin has aided to the design and synthesis of truncated and hybrid molecules exhibiting excellent inhibition in vitro. The vital importance of natural products for the well-being of man has been known lor millennia. Their therapeutic benefits to alleviate pain or cure diseases continue to rank natural products among the primary sources of potential drugs. Great advances have been made in the methods of isolation, identification, and structure elucidation of some of the most complex natural products in recent years. The advent of molecular biology and genetic mapping has also aided in our understanding of the intriguing biosynthetic pathways leading to various classes of therapeutically relevant antibiotic, anticancer, and related natural products. Elegant and practical methodology has been developed leading to the total synthesis of virtually every class of medicinally important natural product. In some cases, natural products or their chemically modified congeners have been manufactured by total synthesis on an industrial level which is a testament to the ingenuity of process chemists. In spite of their potent activities HI enzymatic ox receptor-mediated assays, not all natural products are amenable to being developed as marketable drags. In many instances unfavorable pharmacological effects cannot be overcome without drastic structural and functional modifications, which may also result in altered efficacy. Structure modification through truncation, functional group variations, isosteric replacements, and skeletal rigidifications aided by molecular modeling, X ray crystallography of protein targets, or NMR data are valid objectives in the context of small molecule drug discovery starting with bioactive natural products. A large proportion of these pertain to chemotherapeutic agents against cancer

  5. The insurance industry and unconventional gas development: Gaps and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetherell, Daniel; Evensen, Darrick

    2016-01-01

    The increasingly growing and controversial practice of natural gas development by horizontal drilling and high volume hydraulic fracturing (‘fracking’) faces a severe environmental insurance deficit at the industry level. Part of this deficit is arguably inherent to the process, whereas another part is caused by current risk information shortfalls on the processes and impacts associated with development. In the short and long terms, there are several conventional and unconventional methods by which industry-level and governmental-level policy can insure against these risks. Whilst academic attention has been afforded to the potential risks associated with unconventional natural gas development, little consideration has been given to the lack of insurance opportunities against these risks or to the additional risks promulgated by the dearth of insurance options. We chronicle the ways in which insurance options are limited due to unconventional gas development, the problems caused by lack of insurance offerings, and we highlight potential policy remedies for addressing these gaps, including a range of government- and industry-specific approaches. - Highlights: •A gap exists in provision of liability insurance for ‘fracking’-related risks. •The market gap is due primarily to uncertainties about probabilistic risk. •Insurance for risks similar to ‘fracking’ highlight potential policy options. •Government regulation and/or industry agreements can effectively fill the gap. •Policies on insurance and liability coverage necessitate ethical considerations.

  6. Unconventional neurotransmitters, neurodegeneration and neuroprotection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Leonelli

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurotransmitters are also involved in functions other than conventional signal transfer between nerve cells, such as development, plasticity, neurodegeneration, and neuroprotection. For example, there is a considerable amount of data indicating developmental roles for the glutamatergic, cholinergic, dopaminergic, GABA-ergic, and ATP/adenosine systems. In this review, we discuss the existing literature on these "new" functions of neurotransmitters in relation to some unconventional neurotransmitters, such as the endocannabinoids and nitric oxide. Data indicating both transcriptional and post-transcriptional modulation of endocannabinoid and nitrinergic systems after neural lesions are discussed in relation to the non-conventional roles of these neurotransmitters. Knowledge of the roles of neurotransmitters in brain functions other than information transfer is critical for a more complete understanding of the functional organization of the brain and to provide more opportunities for the development of therapeutical tools aimed at minimizing neuronal death.

  7. Unconventional Liquids, Peak Oil and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J. D.

    2015-12-01

    Oil is the largest source of primary energy in the world, at 32% of 2014 consumption. Forecasts by the International Energy Agency suggest oil will continue to provide the largest share of global energy through 2040, even with new policies to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. The IPCC's Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios indicate that between 1.5 and 3.8 trillion barrels of oil will be burnt between 2015 and 2100. Various sources suggest that the world has 5 to 6 trillion barrels of remaining recoverable oil, more than half of which are in low grade deposits. Although oil sands and extra heavy oil are claimed to hold 1.5 trillion barrels, assessments of major deposits in the Canadian oil sands and the Venezuela Orinoco Belt, which hold the bulk of these resources, total less than 500 billion barrels of recoverable oil. Kerogen oil (oil shale), which has never been produced in anything but miniscule volumes, comprises an additional trillion barrels of these estimates. These unconventional deposits are very different from the conventional oil of the past as: - they are rate constrained, as they require massive upfront capital investments and lengthy construction periods, and therefore cannot be scaled up quickly in response to declines in conventional production. - they are expensive, both in terms of cost per barrel and the large energy inputs required for production. The best in situ oil sands deposits may yield an energy return of 3:1 and kerogen oil even less if it ever becomes commercially viable. This compares to 10:1 or more for conventional oil. Shale oil (light tight oil), may yield another 300 billion barrels worldwide, but suffers from high decline rates, expensive wells and limited availability of high quality deposits. The most productive and economically viable portions of these unconventional deposits tend to be exploited first, leaving the less productive, higher cost oil for later. As a result, increasing global oil consumption

  8. Plant natural products research in tuberculosis drug discovery and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plant natural products research in tuberculosis drug discovery and development: A situation report ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... tuberculosis (XDR-TB), call for the development of new anti-tuberculosis drugs to combat this disease.

  9. Marine organisms: an alternative source of potentially valuable natural products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alphonse Kelecom

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper recalls the outcoming of marine natural products research and reviews a selection of marirne bioactive metabolites in current use together with promising trends in marine pharmacology.

  10. Does species diversity limit productivity in natural grassland communities?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grace, James B.; Anderson, T. Michael; Smith, Melinda D.; Seabloom, Eric; Andelman, Sandy J.; Meche, Gayna; Weiher, Evan; Allain, Larry K.; Jutila, Heli; Sankaran, Mahesh; Knops, Johannes; Ritchie, Mark; Willig, Michael R.

    Theoretical analyses and experimental studies of synthesized assemblages indicate that under particular circumstances species diversity can enhance community productivity through niche complementarity. It remains unclear whether this process has important effects in mature natural ecosystems where

  11. Natural products in soil microbe interactions and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traxler, Matthew F; Kolter, Roberto

    2015-07-01

    In recent years, bacterial interspecies interactions mediated by small molecule natural products have been found to give rise to a surprising array of phenotypes in soil-dwelling bacteria, especially among Streptomyces and Bacillus species. This review examines these interspecies interactions, and the natural products involved, as they have been presented in literature stemming from four disciplines: soil science, interspecies microbiology, ecology, and evolutionary biology. We also consider how these interactions fit into accepted paradigms of signaling, cueing, and coercion.

  12. Anti-Enterovirus 71 Agents of Natural Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyan Wang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This review, with 42 references, presents the fascinating area of anti-enterovirus 71 natural products over the last three decades for the first time. It covers literature published from 2005–2015 and refers to compounds isolated from biogenic sources. In total, 58 naturally-occurring anti-EV71 compounds are recorded.

  13. Anti-Enterovirus 71 Agents of Natural Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liyan; Wang, Junfeng; Wang, Lishu; Ma, Shurong; Liu, Yonghong

    2015-09-09

    This review, with 42 references, presents the fascinating area of anti-enterovirus 71 natural products over the last three decades for the first time. It covers literature published from 2005-2015 and refers to compounds isolated from biogenic sources. In total, 58 naturally-occurring anti-EV71 compounds are recorded.

  14. Dynamical properties of unconventional magnetic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helgesen, G.

    1997-05-01

    The Advanced Study Institute addressed the current experimental and theoretical knowledge of the dynamical properties of unconventional magnetic systems including low-dimensional and mesoscopic magnetism, unconventional ground state, quantum magnets and soft matter. The main approach in this Advanced Study Institute was to obtain basic understanding of co-operative phenomena, fluctuations and excitations in the wide range unconventional magnetic systems now being fabricated or envisioned. The report contains abstracts for lectures, invited seminars and posters, together with a list of the 95 participants from 24 countries with e-mail addresses

  15. Bioactive activities of natural products against herpesvirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Myoungki; Lee, Minjung; Sung, Gi-Ho; Lee, Taeho; Shin, Yu Su; Cho, Hyosun; Lieberman, Paul M; Kang, Hyojeung

    2013-10-01

    More than 90% of adults have been infected with at least one human herpesvirus, which establish long-term latent infection for the life of the host. While anti-viral drugs exist that limit herpesvirus replication, many of these are ineffective against latent infection. Moreover, drug-resistant strains of herpesvirus emerge following chemotherapeutic treatment. For example, resistance to acyclovir and related nucleoside analogues can occur when mutations arise in either HSV thymidine kinase or DNA polymerases. Thus, there exists an unmet medical need to develop new anti-herpesvirus agents with different mechanisms of action. In this Review, we discuss the promise of anti-herpetic substances derived from natural products including extracts and pure compounds from potential herbal medicines. One example is Glycyrrhizic acid isolated from licorice that shows promising antiviral activity towards human gammaherpesviruses. Secondly, we discuss anti-herpetic mechanisms utilized by several natural products in molecular level. While nucleoside analogues inhibit replicating herpesviruses in lytic replication, some natural products can disrupt the herpesvirus latent infection in the host cell. In addition, natural products can stimulate immune responses against herpesviral infection. These findings suggest that natural products could be one of the best choices for development of new treatments for latent herpesvirus infection, and may provide synergistic anti-viral activity when supplemented with nucleoside analogues. Therefore, it is important to identify which natural products are more efficacious anti-herpetic agents, and to understand the molecular mechanism in detail for further advance in the anti-viral therapies.

  16. H2S and polysulfide metabolism: Conventional and unconventional pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Kenneth R

    2018-03-01

    It is now well established that hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) is an effector of a wide variety of physiological processes. It is also clear that many of the effects of H 2 S are mediated through reactions with cysteine sulfur on regulatory proteins and most of these are not mediated directly by H 2 S but require prior oxidation of H 2 S and the formation of per- and polysulfides (H 2 S n , n = 2-8). Attendant with understanding the regulatory functions of H 2 S and H 2 S n is an appreciation of the mechanisms that control, i.e., both increase and decrease, their production and catabolism. Although a number of standard "conventional" pathways have been described and well characterized, novel "unconventional" pathways are continuously being identified. This review summarizes our current knowledge of both the conventional and unconventional. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Emerging trends in the discovery of natural product antibacterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bologa, Cristian G; Ursu, Oleg; Oprea, Tudor

    2013-01-01

    This article highlights current trends and advances in exploiting natural sources for the deployment of novel and potent anti-infective countermeasures. The key challenge is to therapeutically target bacterial pathogens that exhibit a variety of puzzling and evolutionarily complex resistance...... mechanisms. Special emphasis is given to the strengths, weaknesses, and opportunities in the natural product antibacterial drug discovery arena, and to emerging applications driven by advances in bioinformatics, chemical biology, and synthetic biology in concert with exploiting bacterial phenotypes....... These efforts have identified a critical mass of natural product antibacterial lead compounds and discovery technologies with high probability of successful implementation against emerging bacterial pathogens....

  18. Natural product mode of action (MOA) studies: a link between natural and synthetic worlds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Clair, James J

    2010-07-01

    In our understanding of matter, natural products deliver plots that would stun even the best productions of the legendary filmmaker, Sergio Leone. While every decade heralds a new genre of film (as well as avenues of small-molecule discovery), natural products and their "untamed prehistoric" plots continue to dazzle the fields of biotechnology, drug discovery, fragrances, food additives and agrochemistry. This review provides an abridged synopsis of the modes of natural product action discovered within the last decade and the tools and methods used in their discovery. Their stories are united in a common theme that unveils one of the more vital aspects of chemical biological research:understanding the global activity of Nature's arsenal of secondary metabolites.

  19. Nature-Inspired Design : Strategies for Sustainable Product Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Pauw, I.C.

    2015-01-01

    Product designers can apply different strategies, methods, and tools for sustainable product development. Nature-Inspired Design Strategies (NIDS) offer designers a distinct class of strategies that use ‘nature’ as a guiding source of knowledge and inspiration for addressing sustainability.

  20. The use of natural products for consumption in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strandberg, M.

    1996-05-01

    Through a questionnaire it was indicated that Danes use products from 'natural' ecosystems in an amount of approximately 2 kg per year. The most used products are berries and meat from game animals, whereas freshwater fish and wild mushrooms are less common in Danish kitchens. (au)

  1. World statistics on natural gas reserves, production and utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raikaslehto, S.

    2001-01-01

    By reviewing the statistics of BP Amoco on natural gas reserves, production and usage, it is easy to see that Russia and USA, both being large natural gas producers, differ significantly from each other. The natural gas reserves of USA are 6th largest in the world, simultaneously the natural gas consumption and import are largest in the world. About one third of the known natural gas reserves of the world are in Russia. The known natural gas reserves of both USA and Canada have decreases, but they have potential gas reserves left. Known natural gas reserves of the USA have been calculated to be sufficient for 9 years consumption at present usage and those of Canada for 11 years. The reserves of Algeria correspond to the usage of 55 years, and the Russian reserves for are about 83 years. Annual production figures of both Russia and the USA are nearly the same. Russia is the largest exporter (125.5 billion m 3 ) of natural gas and the USA the largest importer (96 billion m 3 ). The natural gas reserves of the largest European producers, the Netherlands and Norway have been estimated to be sufficient for use of about 20 years, but those of Great Britain only for about 10 years. The annual production of Russia has varied in the 1990s between nearly 600 billion m 3 and present 550 billion m 3 , the minimum being in 1997 only about 532 billion m 3 . Ten largest natural gas consumers use 67% of the natural gas consumed annually in the world. USA consumes about 27% of the total natural gas produced in the world, the amount of Russia being 364 billion m 3 (16%). Other large natural gas consumers are Great Britain, Germany, Japan, Ukraine, Canada, Italy, Iran and Uzbekistan. The share of these countries of the total consumption varied in between 2-4%. Only Japan has no natural gas production of its own. The foreign trade between Japan and Indonesia is trade on LNG. On the other hand the natural gas consumption of the world's 10th largest producer Norway is nearly zero, so

  2. Natural product-based nanomedicine: recent advances and issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Rebekah; Wu, Ling; Zhang, Chenming; Davis, Richey M; Xu, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Natural products have been used in medicine for many years. Many top-selling pharmaceuticals are natural compounds or their derivatives. These plant- or microorganism-derived compounds have shown potential as therapeutic agents against cancer, microbial infection, inflammation, and other disease conditions. However, their success in clinical trials has been less impressive, partly due to the compounds’ low bioavailability. The incorporation of nanoparticles into a delivery system for natural products would be a major advance in the efforts to increase their therapeutic effects. Recently, advances have been made showing that nanoparticles can significantly increase the bioavailability of natural products both in vitro and in vivo. Nanotechnology has demonstrated its capability to manipulate particles in order to target specific areas of the body and control the release of drugs. Although there are many benefits to applying nanotechnology for better delivery of natural products, it is not without issues. Drug targeting remains a challenge and potential nanoparticle toxicity needs to be further investigated, especially if these systems are to be used to treat chronic human diseases. This review aims to summarize recent progress in several key areas relevant to natural products in nanoparticle delivery systems for biomedical applications. PMID:26451111

  3. Unconventional Counter-Insurgency in Afghanistan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dyke, John R; Crisafulli, John R

    2006-01-01

    ...) invaded the Al Qaeda safe haven of Afghanistan. USSF A-teams, operating with almost total independence, conducted highly successful Unconventional Warfare "through, with, and by" the indigenous Afghan militias of the Northern Alliance...

  4. Unconventional Pathways of Secretion Contribute to Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. D. Daniels

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the conventional pathway of protein secretion, leader sequence-containing proteins leave the cell following processing through the endoplasmic reticulum (ER and Golgi body. However, leaderless proteins also enter the extracellular space through mechanisms collectively known as unconventional secretion. Unconventionally secreted proteins often have vital roles in cell and organism function such as inflammation. Amongst the best-studied inflammatory unconventionally secreted proteins are interleukin (IL-1β, IL-1α, IL-33 and high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1. In this review we discuss the current understanding of the unconventional secretion of these proteins and highlight future areas of research such as the role of nuclear localisation.

  5. Bioengineering natural product biosynthetic pathways for therapeutic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ming-Cheng; Law, Brian; Wilkinson, Barrie; Micklefield, Jason

    2012-12-01

    With the advent of next-generation DNA sequencing technologies, the number of microbial genome sequences has increased dramatically, revealing a vast array of new biosynthetic gene clusters. Genomics data provide a tremendous opportunity to discover new natural products, and also to guide the bioengineering of new and existing natural product scaffolds for therapeutic applications. Notably, it is apparent that the vast majority of biosynthetic gene clusters are either silent or produce very low quantities of the corresponding natural products. It is imperative therefore to devise methods for activating unproductive biosynthetic pathways to provide the quantities of natural products needed for further development. Moreover, on the basis of our expanding mechanistic and structural knowledge of biosynthetic assembly-line enzymes, new strategies for re-programming biosynthetic pathways have emerged, resulting in focused libraries of modified products with potentially improved biological properties. In this review we will focus on the latest bioengineering approaches that have been utilised to optimise yields and increase the structural diversity of natural product scaffolds for future clinical applications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Minimizing the water and air impacts of unconventional energy extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, R. B.

    2014-12-01

    Unconventional energy generates income and, done well, can reduce air pollution compared to other fossil fuels and even water use compared to fossil fuels and nuclear energy. Alternatively, it could slow the adoption of renewables and, done poorly, release toxic chemicals into water and air. Based on research to date, some primary threats to water resources come from surface spills, wastewater disposal, and drinking-water contamination through poor well integrity. For air resources, an increase in volatile organic compounds and air toxics locally is a potential health threat, but the switch from coal to natural gas for electricity generation will reduce sulfur, nitrogen, mercury, and particulate pollution regionally. Critical needs for future research include data for 1) estimated ultimate recovery (EUR) of unconventional hydrocarbons; 2) the potential for further reductions of water requirements and chemical toxicity; 3) whether unconventional resource development alters the frequency of well-integrity failures; 4) potential contamination of surface and ground waters from drilling and spills; and 5) the consequences of greenhouse gases and air pollution on ecosystems and human health.

  7. Benchmarking of Processes for the Biosynthesis of Natural Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seita, Catarina Sanches

    putida GS1. (R)-perillic acid is a monoterpenoic acid with antimicrobial properties. It has a strong inhibitory effect on bacteria and fungus, which makes it an attractive compound to be used as a preservative for instance in cosmetic industry, but on the other hand makes the biosynthesis a complicated....... These biological activities can be of interest for use in different sectors of chemical industry, in particular pharmaceutical industry where several drugs are derived or inspired by natural products structure. However, the large scale production of natural products is hindered by its relatively poor abundance...... of the process in comparison with other sweeteners. The main benefit of this early-stage evaluation is putting the biosynthesis of natural products into context in relation to demands of an industrially feasible chemical process. Moreover, it can give very meaningful insight into process development and provides...

  8. A Growing Disconnection From Nature Is Evident in Cultural Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesebir, Selin; Kesebir, Pelin

    2017-03-01

    Human connection with nature is widely believed to be in decline even though empirical evidence is scarce on the magnitude and historical pattern of the change. Studying works of popular culture in English throughout the 20th century and later, we have documented a cultural shift away from nature that begins in the 1950s. Since then, references to nature have been decreasing steadily in fiction books, song lyrics, and film storylines, whereas references to the human-made environment have not. The observed temporal pattern is consistent with the explanatory role of increased virtual and indoors recreation options (e.g., television, video games) in the disconnect from nature, and it is inconsistent with a pure urbanization account. These findings are cause for concern, not only because they imply foregone physical and psychological benefits from engagement with nature, but also because cultural products are agents of socialization that can evoke curiosity, respect, and concern for the natural world.

  9. Deposits of naturally occurring radioactivity in production of oil and natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, T.; Lysebo, I.; Kristensen, D.; Birovljev, A.

    1997-01-01

    Deposits of naturally occurring radioactive materials is an increasing problem in Norwegian oil and gas production. Activity concentration in solid-state samples and production water, and doses to workers involved in different operations off-shore, have been measured. The report also includes a discussion of different methods of monitoring and alternatives for final disposal of wastes. 154 refs

  10. Planning of optimum production from a natural gas field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dam, J

    1968-03-01

    The design of an optimum development plan for a natural gas field always depends on the typical characteristics of the producing field, as well as those of the market to be served by this field. Therefore, a good knowledge of the field parameters, such as the total natural gas reserves, the well productivity, and the dependence of production rates on pipeline pressure and depletion of natural gas reserves, is required prior to designing the development scheme of the field, which in fact depends on the gas-sales contract to be concluded in order to commit the natural gas reserves to the market. In this paper these various technical parameters are discussed in some detail, and on this basis a theoretical/economical analysis of natural gas production is given. For this purpose a simplified economical/mathematical model for the field is proposed, from which optimum production rates at various future dates can be calculated. The results of these calculations are represented in a dimensionless diagram which may serve as an aid in designing optimum development plans for a natural gas field. The use of these graphs is illustrated in a few examples.

  11. YBCO SQUIDs with unconventional current phase relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauch, T.; Johansson, J.; Cedergren, K.; Lindstroem, T.; Lombardi, F.

    2007-01-01

    We have studied the dynamics of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ (YBCO) dc sperconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) characterized by an unconventional Josephson current phase relation (CPR). We have focused on SQUID configurations with Josephson junctions where the lobe of the order parameter in one electrode is facing a node in the other electrode. This order parameter arrangement should enhance the appearance of a sin(2φ) term in the CPR. The response of the critical current of the dc SQUID, under the effect of an external magnetic field, has been measured in temperature, down to 20 mK. Our experimental data have been compared with numerical simulations of the SQUIDs dynamics by considering a CPR of a single junction of the form I(φ) = I I sin(φ) - I II sin(2φ) where I I and I II are, respectively, the first and second harmonic component. In our devices the values of the sin(2φ) term are such that the fundamental state of the SQUID is naturally double degenerate. This is of great relevance for applications of d-wave SQUIDs in quantum information processing

  12. Natural product-based nanomedicine: recent advances and issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watkins R

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Rebekah Watkins,1,2,* Ling Wu,1,* Chenming Zhang,3–5 Richey M Davis,3,5,6 Bin Xu1,3 1Department of Biochemistry, 2Program in Nanoscience, 3Center for Drug Discovery, 4Department of Biological Systems Engineering, 5Institute for Critical Technology and Applied Science, 6Department of Chemical Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Natural products have been used in medicine for many years. Many top-selling pharmaceuticals are natural compounds or their derivatives. These plant- or microorganism-derived compounds have shown potential as therapeutic agents against cancer, microbial infection, inflammation, and other disease conditions. However, their success in clinical trials has been less impressive, partly due to the compounds’ low bioavailability. The incorporation of nanoparticles into a delivery system for natural products would be a major advance in the efforts to increase their therapeutic effects. Recently, advances have been made showing that nanoparticles can significantly increase the bioavailability of natural products both in vitro and in vivo. Nanotechnology has demonstrated its capability to manipulate particles in order to target specific areas of the body and control the release of drugs. Although there are many benefits to applying nanotechnology for better delivery of natural products, it is not without issues. Drug targeting remains a challenge and potential nanoparticle toxicity needs to be further investigated, especially if these systems are to be used to treat chronic human diseases. This review aims to summarize recent progress in several key areas relevant to natural products in nanoparticle delivery systems for biomedical applications. Keywords: natural products, nanomedicine, drug delivery, bioavailability, targeting, controlled release

  13. The Traditional Medicine and Modern Medicine from Natural Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haidan Yuan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Natural products and traditional medicines are of great importance. Such forms of medicine as traditional Chinese medicine, Ayurveda, Kampo, traditional Korean medicine, and Unani have been practiced in some areas of the world and have blossomed into orderly-regulated systems of medicine. This study aims to review the literature on the relationship among natural products, traditional medicines, and modern medicine, and to explore the possible concepts and methodologies from natural products and traditional medicines to further develop drug discovery. The unique characteristics of theory, application, current role or status, and modern research of eight kinds of traditional medicine systems are summarized in this study. Although only a tiny fraction of the existing plant species have been scientifically researched for bioactivities since 1805, when the first pharmacologically-active compound morphine was isolated from opium, natural products and traditional medicines have already made fruitful contributions for modern medicine. When used to develop new drugs, natural products and traditional medicines have their incomparable advantages, such as abundant clinical experiences, and their unique diversity of chemical structures and biological activities.

  14. The Traditional Medicine and Modern Medicine from Natural Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Haidan; Ma, Qianqian; Ye, Li; Piao, Guangchun

    2016-04-29

    Natural products and traditional medicines are of great importance. Such forms of medicine as traditional Chinese medicine, Ayurveda, Kampo, traditional Korean medicine, and Unani have been practiced in some areas of the world and have blossomed into orderly-regulated systems of medicine. This study aims to review the literature on the relationship among natural products, traditional medicines, and modern medicine, and to explore the possible concepts and methodologies from natural products and traditional medicines to further develop drug discovery. The unique characteristics of theory, application, current role or status, and modern research of eight kinds of traditional medicine systems are summarized in this study. Although only a tiny fraction of the existing plant species have been scientifically researched for bioactivities since 1805, when the first pharmacologically-active compound morphine was isolated from opium, natural products and traditional medicines have already made fruitful contributions for modern medicine. When used to develop new drugs, natural products and traditional medicines have their incomparable advantages, such as abundant clinical experiences, and their unique diversity of chemical structures and biological activities.

  15. Culture-independent discovery of natural products from soil metagenomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Micah; Hover, Bradley M; Brady, Sean F

    2016-03-01

    Bacterial natural products have proven to be invaluable starting points in the development of many currently used therapeutic agents. Unfortunately, traditional culture-based methods for natural product discovery have been deemphasized by pharmaceutical companies due in large part to high rediscovery rates. Culture-independent, or "metagenomic," methods, which rely on the heterologous expression of DNA extracted directly from environmental samples (eDNA), have the potential to provide access to metabolites encoded by a large fraction of the earth's microbial biosynthetic diversity. As soil is both ubiquitous and rich in bacterial diversity, it is an appealing starting point for culture-independent natural product discovery efforts. This review provides an overview of the history of soil metagenome-driven natural product discovery studies and elaborates on the recent development of new tools for sequence-based, high-throughput profiling of environmental samples used in discovering novel natural product biosynthetic gene clusters. We conclude with several examples of these new tools being employed to facilitate the recovery of novel secondary metabolite encoding gene clusters from soil metagenomes and the subsequent heterologous expression of these clusters to produce bioactive small molecules.

  16. Biotransformation and Production from Hansenula Anomala to Natural Ethyl Phenylacetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Xun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethyl phenylacetate can be widely applied in many industries, such as food, medicines, cosmetics and medicinal herbs. At the moment, the production of natural ethyl phenylacetate is very limited. However, the biotransformation production of natural ethyl phenylacetate has an very extensive application prospect. This paper is written by taking the phenylacetic acid tolerance and the esterifying enzyme activity as the two indexes for screening the HA14 strain of hansenula anomala mutagenic which is regarded as the microorganism of ethyl phenylacetate production through biotransformation. By optimizing the production condition of phenylacetic acid and the esterification condition of ethyl phenylacetate, the production of ethyl phenylacetate accomplished through biotransformation within 72 hours can reach 864mg/L which is 171% of that of the initial bacterial strain.

  17. Dynamical contents of unconventional supersymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guevara, Alfredo [Centro de Estudios Científicos (CECs),Av. Arturo Prat 514, Valdivia (Chile); Departamento de Física, Universidad de Concepción,Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Pais, Pablo [Centro de Estudios Científicos (CECs),Av. Arturo Prat 514, Valdivia (Chile); Physique Théorique et Mathématique,Université Libre de Bruxelles and International Solvay Institutes,Campus Plaine C.P. 231, B-1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Zanelli, Jorge [Centro de Estudios Científicos (CECs),Av. Arturo Prat 514, Valdivia (Chile)

    2016-08-11

    The Dirac Hamiltonian formalism is applied to a system in (2+1)-dimensions consisting of a Dirac field ψ minimally coupled to Chern-Simons U(1) and SO(2,1) connections, A and ω, respectively. This theory is connected to a supersymmetric Chern-Simons form in which the gravitino has been projected out (unconventional supersymmetry) and, in the case of a flat background, corresponds to the low energy limit of graphene. The separation between first-class and second-class constraints is performed explicitly, and both the field equations and gauge symmetries of the Lagrangian formalism are fully recovered. The degrees of freedom of the theory in generic sectors shows that the propagating states correspond to fermionic modes in the background determined by the geometry of the graphene sheet and the nondynamical electromagnetic field. This is shown for the following canonical sectors: i) a conformally invariant generic description where the spinor field and the dreibein are locally rescaled; ii) a specific configuration for the Dirac fermion consistent with its spin, where Weyl symmetry is exchanged by time reparametrizations; iii) the vacuum sector ψ=0, which is of interest for perturbation theory. For the latter the analysis is adapted to the case of manifolds with boundary, and the corresponding Dirac brackets together with the centrally extended charge algebra are found. Finally, the SU(2) generalization of the gauge group is briefly treated, yielding analogous conclusions for the degrees of freedom.

  18. Unconventional gases: a North-American energy revolution not without consequences for Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This paper gives a definition of the different existing unconventional gases (coal-bed methane, tight gases, shale gases), and outlines that, although these gases as well as the techniques to extract them have been well known for a long time, it is the combination of two of these techniques (hydraulic fracturing or fracking, and horizontal drilling) which enables the current technological development and the exploitation of these gases. It also outlines that the current situation in terms of natural resources favours such a development. It evokes projects in the United States, China, India, Europe, and more particularly in France, stressing that environmental issues and population density in Europe are obstacles to perform these drillings. The author questions the production cost issue and explains how these developments, notably in the USA, may change completely the world energetic landscape, and therefore entail a review of the European energy agenda. He explores the possible consequences of a durable decrease of gas prices

  19. Organic Contaminants Associated with the Extraction of Unconventional Gas. Risk Analysis in the Initial Phases of the Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, L.; Hurtado, A.; Recreo, F.; Eguilior, S.

    2015-01-01

    The latest technological advances in hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling are promoting a commercial scale extraction of unconventional fossil fuels in several regions of the world. Although there is still no commercial scale extraction in the Member States of the EU, potential stocks in some of them, as in the case of Spain, stimulate the need to carry out precautionary previous studies. These, based on the experience in the USA, will allow to define the characteristics that a priori should include a project of unconventional gas extraction, so that their safety is maximized by minimizing the likelihood of adverse effects on the environment. In unconventional gas production a fracturing fluid, typically water, with different types of additives is injected into the reservoir at very high pressure in order to create fractures to increase the porosity and permeability of the rock. In this scenario the flowback and produced water (water brought to the surface during the extraction of gas or oil) is usually a mixture of fluids injected and brines present in the repository. The quality of the flowback and produced water is variable. Its salinity varies from similar to drinking water to several times more saline than seawater. Furthermore, different compounds other than salt can be present in various amounts in the flowback and produced water: oil and other organic compounds, solids in suspension, bacteria, naturally occurring radioactive elements (NORM), and any of the elements injected with the hydraulic fracturing fluid. Due to the high variability of contaminants in the flowback and produced water as well as potentially large volumes involved, composition of flowback and produced water and the analysis of the risks associated with them is an important aspect to consider from the initial phases of project development of unconventional gas extraction. This report covers the risk analysis of an unconventional gas extraction project, the initial assessment of the

  20. Philippines targeting unconventional sources for uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes, R.

    2014-01-01

    The quest for uranium in the Philippines dates back in the mid–1950s and to date about 70% of the country has been systematically explored, from reconnaissance to some detailed level using the combined radiometric and geochemical survey methods. However, no major uranium deposit has been discovered so far, only some minor mineralization. Also, there is a general view that the geological environment of the Philippines is unfavourable for uranium based on the lack of similarity between the geological features of known uranium–producing districts around the world and that of the country. It is in this light that the search for uranium in the country shifted to unconventional sources. The first unconventional source of uranium (U) that is being looked into is from rare earth elements (REE)–thorium (Th) minerals. Radiometric measurements along the beaches in northern Palawan identified major REE–Th and minor U potential areas. Heavy beach and stream panned concentrate gave high values of REE and Th, including U within the Ombo and Erawan coastal areas. Preliminary evaluation conducted in these two prospective areas indicated; 1) in the Ombo area, an estimated reserve of 750 t of Th, 30,450 t of REE and 80 t of U contained in about 540,000 t of beach sand with a respective average grade of 0.14% Th, 5.64% REE and 0.015% U, and 2) in the Erawan area, an estimated total reserve of 2,200 t of Th, 113,430 t of REE and 150 t U contained in 2,450,00 t of beach sand with an average grade of 0.09% Th, 4.63% REE and 0.006% U, respectively. Major allanite and minor monazite are the minerals identified and the source of these heavy minerals is the Tertiary Kapoas granitic intrusive rocks. Another unconventional source is a base metal zone with numerous occurrences containing complex assemblages of Cu–Mo–U within the Larap–Paracale mineralized district in Camarines Norte province, in which uranium may be produced as a by–product. A private mining company conducted

  1. Papers of a Canadian Institute conference : Unconventional gas symposium : Tight gas, gas shales, coalbed methane, gas hydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This symposium provided an opportunity for participants to learn from gas industry leaders in both Canada and the United States, different strategies to cost-effectively develop unconventional gas resources. In particular, the representative from EnCana Corporation discussed the results of tight gas drilling in Northeastern British Columbia. The speaker for MGV Energy reported on the outcome of test drilling for coalbed methane (CBM) in Southern Alberta. The economic development of tight gas reservoirs in the United States Permian Basin was discussed by the speaker representing BP America Production Company. The role of unconventional gas in the North American natural gas supply and demand picture was dealt with by TransCanada PipeLines Limited and Canadian Gas Potential Committee. The trend for natural gas prices in North America was examined by Conoco Inc. The Geological Survey of Canada addressed the issue of gas hydrate potential in the Mackenzie Delta Mallik Field. In addition, one presentation by El Paso Production Company discussed the successful drilling for deep, tight gas and CBM in the United States. There were nine presentations at this symposium, of which three were indexed separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  2. World natural gas supply and demand: Brief pause in production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coccia, G.

    1993-01-01

    With reference to the 1992 CEDIGAZ (Centre International sur le Gas Naturel et tous Hydrocarbures Gazeux) report on world natural gas supply and demand, this paper assesses current market and production trends in this industry. The slight drop in production in 1992, the first which has which has occurred after many consecutive years of steady increases, is ascribed to ownership disputes among the former-USSR republics and major changes in the organizational structure of the former-USSR's natural gas industry. Strong increases in demand are forecasted due to expected strong population growth and increased industrialization to take place in China and India. Price trends in natural gas should remain steady as a result of plentiful supplies of this fuel and coal, a major competitor. The use of relatively clean natural gas is suggested as a practical alternative to energy taxes now being proposed as a means for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions

  3. Radon gas in oil and natural gas production facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandler, W.P.

    1994-01-01

    Radon gas is a naturally occurring radionuclide that can be found in some oil and natural gas production facilities, either as a contaminant in a natural gas stream or derived from Radium dissolved in formation waters. The gas itself is not normally a health hazard, but it's decay products, which can be concentrated by plate-out or deposition as a scale in process equipment, can be a health hazard for maintenance personnel. To evaluate possible health hazards, it is necessary to monitor for naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in the gas stream and in the formation water. If Radon and/or Radium is found, a monitoring programme should be initiated to comply with National or State requirements. In some instances, it has been found necessary to dispose of silt and scale materials as low level radioactive waste. 8 refs

  4. Bioactive natural products from Chinese marine flora and fauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhen-Fang; Guo, Yue-Wei

    2012-09-01

    In recent decades, the pharmaceutical application potential of marine natural products has attracted much interest from both natural product chemists and pharmacologists. Our group has long been engaged in the search for bioactive natural products from Chinese marine flora (such as mangroves and algae) and fauna (including sponges, soft corals, and mollusks), resulting in the isolation and characterization of numerous novel secondary metabolites spanning a wide range of structural classes and various biosynthetic origins. Of particular interest is the fact that many of these compounds show promising biological activities, including cytotoxic, antibacterial, and enzyme inhibitory effects. By describing representative studies, this review presents a comprehensive summary regarding the achievements and progress made by our group in the past decade. Several interesting examples are discussed in detail.

  5. Dereplication of Microbial Natural Products by LC-DAD-TOFMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Månsson, Maria; Rank, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Dereplication, the rapid identification of known compounds present in a mixture, is crucial to the fast discovery of novel natural products. Determining the elemental composition of compounds in mixtures and tentatively identifying natural products using MS/MS and UV/vis spectra is becoming easier...... with advances in analytical equipment and better compound databases. Here we demonstrate the use of LC-UV/vis-MS-based dereplication using data from UV/vis diode array detection and ESI+/ESI– time-of-flight MS for assignment of 719 microbial natural product and mycotoxin reference standards. ESI+ was the most...... unambiguously using multiple adduct ions, while a further 41% of the compounds were detected only as [M – H]−. The most reliable interpretations of conflicting ESI+ and ESI– data on a chromatographic peak were from the ionization polarity with the most intense ionization. Poor ionization was most common...

  6. Anti-cancer natural products isolated from chinese medicinal herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Guosheng

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In recent years, a number of natural products isolated from Chinese herbs have been found to inhibit proliferation, induce apoptosis, suppress angiogenesis, retard metastasis and enhance chemotherapy, exhibiting anti-cancer potential both in vitro and in vivo. This article summarizes recent advances in in vitro and in vivo research on the anti-cancer effects and related mechanisms of some promising natural products. These natural products are also reviewed for their therapeutic potentials, including flavonoids (gambogic acid, curcumin, wogonin and silibinin, alkaloids (berberine, terpenes (artemisinin, β-elemene, oridonin, triptolide, and ursolic acid, quinones (shikonin and emodin and saponins (ginsenoside Rg3, which are isolated from Chinese medicinal herbs. In particular, the discovery of the new use of artemisinin derivatives as excellent anti-cancer drugs is also reviewed.

  7. Natural radionuclide distribution in phosphate fertilizer and superphosphate production technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisachenko, Eh P; Ponikarova, T M; Lisitsyna, Yu Z

    1987-01-01

    The obtained data on the natural radionuclide distribution by phosphate fertilizer and superphosphate production process stages testify to phosphate fertilizer enrichment 2-4 times in relation to initial ore, depending in the raw material used. In this case uranium and thorium series element concentration value (in equilibrium with their decomposition products), proposed as a regulating one in phosphorus-containing fertilizers, is not achieved. However, the fact of lurichment as it is and the enrichment factor, stated in the course of the work, should be taken into account for evaluation of phosphorite new deposit raw material with higher concentrations of natural radionuclides. Natural radionuclide separation in the enrichment process and superphosphate production is not revealed.

  8. α-Haloaldehydes: versatile building blocks for natural product synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Robert; Kang, Baldip

    2013-02-01

    The diastereoselective addition of organometallic reagents to α-chloroaldehydes was first reported in 1959 and occupies a historically significant role as the prototypical reaction for Cornforth's model of stereoinduction. Despite clear synthetic potential for these reagents, difficulties associated with producing enantiomerically enriched α-haloaldehydes limited their use in natural product synthesis through the latter half of the 20th century. In recent years, however, a variety of robust, organocatalytic processes have been reported that now provide direct access to optically enriched α-haloaldehydes and have motivated renewed interest in their use as building blocks for natural product synthesis. This Highlight summarizes the methods available for the enantioselective preparation of α-haloaldehydes and their stereoselective conversion into natural products.

  9. Search for bioactive natural products from medicinal plants of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Firoj; Sadhu, Samir Kumar; Ishibashi, Masami

    2010-10-01

    In our continuous search for bioactive natural products from natural resources, we explored medicinal plants of Bangladesh, targeting cancer-related tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand-signaling pathway, along with some other biological activities such as prostaglandin inhibitory activity, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free-radical-scavenging activity, and cell growth inhibitory activity. Along with this, we describe a short field study on Sundarbans mangrove forests, Bangladesh, in the review.

  10. Knowledge based decision making: perspective on natural gas production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ydstie, B. Erik; Stuland, Kjetil M.

    2009-07-01

    Conclusions (drawn by the author): Decarbonization of energy sources - From coal to renewable. Natural Gas Abundantly available - Norway is no. 3 exporter. Natural gas important as - Hydrogen source for chemicals; - Electricity; - End consumer usage (heating etc). Large potential for application of model based decision making; - Where and when to install platforms and drill wells - How to operate platforms and pipeline systems; - How to operate and optimize chemical production; - Optimization of electricity generation systems. (author)

  11. Exposures from consumption of agricultural and semi-natural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, P.; Skuterud, L.; Balonov, M.; Travnikova, I.; Hove, K.; Howard, B.; Prister, B.S.; Ratnikov, A.

    1996-01-01

    The importance of food from different production systems to the internal dose from radiocesium, was investigated in selected study sites in Ukraine and Russia. Food products from semi-natural ecosystems are major contributors to the individual internal dose to rural population in areas affected by the Chernobyl accident. At the selected study sites it is estimated in 1995 that foods from private farms and forests contribute on average 35% to 60%, to the individual internal dose, variation relating to soil types and implemented countermeasures. The importance of food products from private farms and particularly forest products increases with time since Cs concentration in some of the natural food products have longer ecological half life than food products from agricultural systems. A significant relationship was observed between consumption of mushrooms and whole body content of radiocesium in rural people. The contribution to the collective dose of food products produced in the semi-natural ecosystems is less than the contribution to the individual internal dose for the local rural population

  12. LC-NMR: profiling and dereplication of natural product extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban, Sylvia

    2006-01-01

    Natural products have served as a major source of drugs for centuries, with over half of the pharmaceuticals in use today derived from natural origins. Natural products continue to play a dominant role in the discovery of leads for the development of drugs for the treatment of human diseases. Much remains to be explored, particularly the marine and microbial environments, from which a host of novel bioactive chemical entities await discovery. The search for new drugs from natural origins (either terrestrial or marine) involves screening of extracts for the presence of novel compounds and an investigation of their biological activities. Suspected novel or bioactive compounds are usually isolated to elucidate the structure and for further biological and toxicological testing. The path that leads from the intact terrestrial or marine organism to the pure constituents is long, involving work that might last from weeks to years. Recognition of natural products at the earliest possible stage of separation is known as dereplication and is essential to avoid the time-consuming isolation of common constituents and nuisance compounds. In the search for new natural products, crude extracts are typically subjected to multi-step work-up and isolation procedures, which include various separation methods, in order to obtain pure compounds whose structure is then elucidated using off-line spectroscopic methods such as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectroscopy (MS). The characterisation of a natural product can be summarised by the information obtained from each of the individual spectroscopic techniques. With the application of one or more of these individual techniques a dereplication by partial characterisation is possible. As natural product extracts often contain a large number of closely related, and thus difficult to separate, compounds, this classical approach may become very tedious and time-consuming. The characterisation of natural products in complex

  13. Marine Natural Products as Models to Circumvent Multidrug Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solida Long

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Multidrug resistance (MDR to anticancer drugs is a serious health problem that in many cases leads to cancer treatment failure. The ATP binding cassette (ABC transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp, which leads to premature efflux of drugs from cancer cells, is often responsible for MDR. On the other hand, a strategy to search for modulators from natural products to overcome MDR had been in place during the last decades. However, Nature limits the amount of some natural products, which has led to the development of synthetic strategies to increase their availability. This review summarizes the research findings on marine natural products and derivatives, mainly alkaloids, polyoxygenated sterols, polyketides, terpenoids, diketopiperazines, and peptides, with P-gp inhibitory activity highlighting the established structure-activity relationships. The synthetic pathways for the total synthesis of the most promising members and analogs are also presented. It is expected that the data gathered during the last decades concerning their synthesis and MDR-inhibiting activities will help medicinal chemists develop potential drug candidates using marine natural products as models which can deliver new ABC transporter inhibitor scaffolds.

  14. Marine actinobacteria: an important source of bioactive natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manivasagan, Panchanathan; Kang, Kyong-Hwa; Sivakumar, Kannan; Li-Chan, Eunice C Y; Oh, Hyun-Myung; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2014-07-01

    Marine environment is largely an untapped source for deriving actinobacteria, having potential to produce novel, bioactive natural products. Actinobacteria are the prolific producers of pharmaceutically active secondary metabolites, accounting for about 70% of the naturally derived compounds that are currently in clinical use. Among the various actinobacterial genera, Actinomadura, Actinoplanes, Amycolatopsis, Marinispora, Micromonospora, Nocardiopsis, Saccharopolyspora, Salinispora, Streptomyces and Verrucosispora are the major potential producers of commercially important bioactive natural products. In this respect, Streptomyces ranks first with a large number of bioactive natural products. Marine actinobacteria are unique enhancing quite different biological properties including antimicrobial, anticancer, antiviral, insecticidal and enzyme inhibitory activities. They have attracted global in the last ten years for their ability to produce pharmaceutically active compounds. In this review, we have focused attention on the bioactive natural products isolated from marine actinobacteria, possessing unique chemical structures that may form the basis for synthesis of novel drugs that could be used to combat resistant pathogenic microorganisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Natural product terpenoids in Eocene and Miocene conifer fossils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Angelika; White, James D; Simoneit, Bernd R T

    2002-08-30

    Numerous saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons, but not polar compounds, originating from plants and microorganisms (biomarkers) have been reported in sediments, coals, and petroleum. Here we describe natural product terpenoids found in two fossil conifers, Taxodium balticum (Eocene) and Glyptostrobus oregonensis (Miocene). A similar terpenoid pattern is also observed in extant Taxodium distichum. The preservation of characteristic terpenoids (unaltered natural products) in the fossil conifers supports their systematic assignment to the Cypress family (Cupressaceae sensu lato). The results also show that fossil conifers can contain polar terpenoids, which are valuable markers for (paleo)chemosystematics and phylogeny.

  16. Exceptional Drought and Unconventional Energy Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reid B. Stevens

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The hydraulic fracturing boom in Texas required massive water flows. Beginning in the summer of 2011, water became scarce as a prolonged heat wave and subsequent severe drought spread across the state. Oil and gas producers working in drought areas needed to purchase expensive local water or transport water from a non-drought county far from the drill site. In response to decreased water availability in drought areas, these producers completed fewer wells and completed wells that used less water. This decrease in well-level water use had a measurable effect on the amount of oil and gas produced by wells completed during exceptional conditions.

  17. Synthesis and Biological Investigation of Antioxidant Pyrrolomorpholine Spiroketal Natural Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verano, Alyssa Leigh

    The pyrrolomorpholine spiroketal natural product family is comprised of epimeric furanose and pyranose isomers. These compounds were isolated from diverse plant species, all of which are used as traditional Chinese medicines for the treatment of a variety of diseases. Notably, the spiroketal natural products acortatarins A and B exhibit antioxidant activity in a diabetic renal cell model, significantly attenuating hyperglycemia-induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), a hallmark of diabetic nephropathy. The xylapyrrosides, additional members of the family, also inhibit t-butyl hydroperoxide-induced cytotoxicity in rat vascular smooth muscle cells. Accordingly, these natural products have therapeutic potential for the treatment of oxidative stress-related pathologies, and synthetic access would provide an exciting opportunity to investigate bioactivity and mechanism of action. Herein, we report the stereoselective synthesis of acortatarins A and B, furanose members of the pyrrolomorpholine spiroketal family. Our synthetic route was expanded to synthesize the pyranose congeners, thus completing entire D-enantiomeric family of natural products. Efficient access towards these scaffolds enabled systematic analogue synthesis, investigation of mechanism-of-action, and the discovery of novel antioxidants.

  18. European energy security: The future of Norwegian natural gas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soederbergh, Bengt; Jakobsson, Kristofer; Aleklett, Kjell

    2009-01-01

    The European Union (EU) is expected to meet its future growing demand for natural gas by increased imports. In 2006, Norway had a 21% share of EU gas imports. The Norwegian government has communicated that Norwegian gas production will increase by 25-40% from today's level of about 99 billion cubic meters (bcm)/year. This article shows that only a 20-25% growth of Norwegian gas production is possible due to production from currently existing recoverable reserves and contingent resources. A high and a low production forecast for Norwegian gas production is presented. Norwegian gas production exported by pipeline peaks between 2015 and 2016, with minimum peak production in 2015 at 118 bcm/year and maximum peak production at 127 bcm/year in 2016. By 2030 the pipeline export levels are 94-78 bcm. Total Norwegian gas production peaks between 2015 and 2020, with peak production at 124-135 bcm/year. By 2030 the production is 96-115 bcm/year. The results show that there is a limited potential for increased gas exports from Norway to the EU and that Norwegian gas production is declining by 2030 in all scenarios. Annual Norwegian pipeline gas exports to the EU, by 2030, may even be 20 bcm lower than today's level.

  19. An innovative model for regulating supplement products: Natural health products in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nestmann, Earle R.; Harwood, Melody; Martyres, Stephanie

    2006-01-01

    On 1 January 2004, Health Canada officially added a new term to the global list of synonyms for dietary supplements: natural health products (NHP). Developed with the intent of providing Canadian consumers with ready access to NHP that are safe, effective, and of high quality, the Natural Health Products Regulations (the NHP regulations) are applicable to the sale, manufacture, packaging, labelling, importation, distribution, and storage of NHP, and are administered by the recently formed Natural Health Products Directorate (NHPD) within Health Canada. This paper provides an overview of the process for regulating supplement products in Canada

  20. Natural hydrocarbon gases in Canada: the resource base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osadetz, K.G.

    1997-01-01

    The Geological Survey of Canada (GSC) has an ongoing national hydrocarbon resource assessment project which examines, characterizes and quantifies the hydrocarbon resource potential of Canada. In this paper the distribution, characteristics and sizes of conventional and unconventional natural gas resources in Canada are summarized. Four topics were addressed: (1) the origins of conventional and unconventional natural hydrocarbon gases in Canada, (2) the resource assessment techniques used at the GSC, with emphasis on predicting undiscovered reserves, (3) the setting, distribution and size of the conventional natural gas endowment of Canada in a geographic and geological context, and (4) the indications of unconventional natural gas resource endowment in Canada. Conventional in-place natural gas resources for Canada was estimated at 26.8 trillion cubic metres of which 54 per cent comes from the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin. The national inventory of unconventional in-place gas resource is 3,460 trillion cubic metres. At current rates of production, the expected life expectancy for the in-place conventional natural gas resource base was estimated to be about 150 years. 1 tab., 9 figs

  1. Theoretical studies of unconventional superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groensleth, Martin Sigurd

    2008-07-01

    This thesis presents four research papers. In the first three papers we have derived analytical results for the transport properties in unconventional superconductors and ferromagnetic systems with multiple broken symmetries. In Paper I and parts of Paper II we have studied tunneling transport between two non-unitary ferromagnetic spin-triplet superconductors, and found a novel interplay between ferromagnetism and superconductivity manifested in the Josephson effect as a spin- and charge-current in the absence of an applied voltage across the junction. The critical amplitudes of these currents can be adjusted by the relative magnetization direction on each side of the junction. Furthermore, in Paper II, we have found a way of controlling a spin-current between two ferromagnets with spin-orbit coupling. Paper III considers a junction consisting of a ferromagnet and a non-unitary ferromagnetic superconductor, and we show that the conductance spectra contains detailed information about the superconducting gaps and pairing symmetry of the Cooper-pairs. In the last paper we present a Monte Carlo study of an effective Hamiltonian describing orbital currents in the CuO2 layers of high-temperature superconductive cuprates. The model features two intrinsically anisotropic Ising models, coupled through an anisotropic next-nearest neighbor interaction, and an Ashkin-Teller nearest neighbor fourth order coupling. We have studied the specific heat anomaly, as well as the anomaly in the staggered magnetization associated with the orbital currents and its susceptibility. We have found that in a limited parameter regime, the specific heat anomaly is substantially suppressed, while the susceptibility has a non-analytical peak across the order-disorder transition. The model is therefore a candidate for describing the breakup of hidden order when crossing the pseudo-gap line on the under-doped side in the phase diagram of high-temperature superconductors. (Author) 64 refs., figs

  2. Fishing for Nature's Hits: Establishment of the Zebrafish as a Model for Screening Antidiabetic Natural Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Nadia; Tai, Hongmei; Jung, Da-Woon; Williams, Darren R

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus affects millions of people worldwide and significantly impacts their quality of life. Moreover, life threatening diseases, such as myocardial infarction, blindness, and renal disorders, increase the morbidity rate associated with diabetes. Various natural products from medicinal plants have shown potential as antidiabetes agents in cell-based screening systems. However, many of these potential "hits" fail in mammalian tests, due to issues such as poor pharmacokinetics and/or toxic side effects. To address this problem, the zebrafish (Danio rerio) model has been developed as a "bridge" to provide an experimentally convenient animal-based screening system to identify drug candidates that are active in vivo. In this review, we discuss the application of zebrafish to drug screening technologies for diabetes research. Specifically, the discovery of natural product-based antidiabetes compounds using zebrafish will be described. For example, it has recently been demonstrated that antidiabetic natural compounds can be identified in zebrafish using activity guided fractionation of crude plant extracts. Moreover, the development of fluorescent-tagged glucose bioprobes has allowed the screening of natural product-based modulators of glucose homeostasis in zebrafish. We hope that the discussion of these advances will illustrate the value and simplicity of establishing zebrafish-based assays for antidiabetic compounds in natural products-based laboratories.

  3. Monitoring radionuclides in subsurface drinking water sources near unconventional drilling operations: a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, Andrew W.; Knight, Andrew W.; Eitrheim, Eric S.; Schultz, Michael K.

    2015-01-01

    Unconventional drilling (the combination of hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling) to extract oil and natural gas is expanding rapidly around the world. The rate of expansion challenges scientists and regulators to assess the risks of the new technologies on drinking water resources. One concern is the potential for subsurface drinking water resource contamination by naturally occurring radioactive materials co-extracted during unconventional drilling activities. Given the rate of expansion, opportunities to test drinking water resources in the pre- and post-fracturing setting are rare. This pilot study investigated the levels of natural uranium, lead-210, and polonium-210 in private drinking wells within 2000 m of a large-volume hydraulic fracturing operation – before and approximately one-year following the fracturing activities. Observed radionuclide concentrations in well waters tested did not exceed maximum contaminant levels recommended by state and federal agencies. No statistically-significant differences in radionuclide concentrations were observed in well-water samples collected before and after the hydraulic fracturing activities. Expanded monitoring of private drinking wells before and after hydraulic fracturing activities is needed to develop understanding of the potential for drinking water resource contamination from unconventional drilling and gas extraction activities. - Highlights: • Natural radionuclides in ground water near unconventional drilling operations were investigated. • Natural uranium ( nat U), lead-210 ( 210 Pb), and polonium-210 ( 210 Po) levels are described. • No statistically significant increases in natural radioactivity post-drilling were observed

  4. Liquefied natural gas production at Hammerfest: A transforming marine community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bets, van L.K.J.; Tatenhove, van J.P.M.; Mol, A.P.J.

    2016-01-01

    Global energy demand and scarce petroleum resources require communities to adapt to a rapidly changing Arctic environment, but as well to a transforming socio-economic environment instigated by oil and gas development. This is illustrated by liquefied natural gas production by Statoil at Hammerfest,

  5. Chemistry of natural products: A veritable approach to the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Even with the advent of newer technologies such as combinatorial chemistry, robotics, high throughput screening (HTS), bioinformatics, and in silico molecular modelling, natural products still play a crucial role in drug discovery. This is because they provide an unparalleled range of chemical diversity on which the newer ...

  6. Natural Products Research in China from 2015 to 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haishan; Zhu, Guoliang; Fan, Yaqin; Du, Yuqi; Lan, Mengmeng; Xu, Yibo; Zhu, Weiming

    2018-03-01

    This review covers the literature published by Chinese chemists from 2015 to 2016 on natural products (NPs), with 1,985 citations referring to 6,944 new compounds isolated from marine or terrestrial microorganisms, plants, and animals. The emphasis is on 730 new compounds with a novel skeleton or/and significant bioactivity, together with their source organism and country of origin.

  7. Low Carbon Technology Options for the Natural Gas Electricity Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ultimate goal of this task is to perform environmental and economic analysis of natural gas based power production technologies (different routes) to investigate and evaluate strategies for reducing emissions from the power sector. It is a broad research area. Initially, the...

  8. Learning Organic Chemistry Through Natural Products A Practical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 9. Learning Organic Chemistry Through Natural Products A Practical Approach. N R Krishnaswamy. Series Article Volume 1 Issue 9 September 1996 pp 25-33. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  9. Natural gas for power production in Western Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The third and last part of the Sub-Committee's study on natural gas for power generation is reprinted in this issue. This part addresses gas consumption in electricity production until the year 2010. The first part of the study dealing with combined cycle power plants was published in September and the 2nd part on regulatory and environmental issues in October 1992

  10. Flavin-catalyzed redox tailoring reactions in natural product biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teufel, Robin

    2017-10-15

    Natural products are distinct and often highly complex organic molecules that constitute not only an important drug source, but have also pushed the field of organic chemistry by providing intricate targets for total synthesis. How the astonishing structural diversity of natural products is enzymatically generated in biosynthetic pathways remains a challenging research area, which requires detailed and sophisticated approaches to elucidate the underlying catalytic mechanisms. Commonly, the diversification of precursor molecules into distinct natural products relies on the action of pathway-specific tailoring enzymes that catalyze, e.g., acylations, glycosylations, or redox reactions. This review highlights a selection of tailoring enzymes that employ riboflavin (vitamin B2)-derived cofactors (FAD and FMN) to facilitate unusual redox catalysis and steer the formation of complex natural product pharmacophores. Remarkably, several such recently reported flavin-dependent tailoring enzymes expand the classical paradigms of flavin biochemistry leading, e.g., to the discovery of the flavin-N5-oxide - a novel flavin redox state and oxygenating species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Short history of natural product research in the CSIR

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Walwyn, D

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Natural product research has been a major component of the CSIR's bioscience activities for its entire history, and particularly in the 1960s and 1970s. This type of work is also strongly aligned with one of the objectives of the CSIR, namely...

  12. The sustainable management of a productive natural capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daubanes, Julien Xavier

    is relevant, among other examples, to the case of naturebased tourism. I study the sustainable management of a productive natural capital: the conditions under which its exploitation generates maximum long-run social benefits; the various ways in which a regulator can implement such an exploitation; the rent...

  13. Natural product derived insecticides: discovery and development of spinetoram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galm, Ute; Sparks, Thomas C

    2016-03-01

    This review highlights the importance of natural product research and industrial microbiology for product development in the agricultural industry, based on examples from Dow AgroSciences. It provides an overview of the discovery and development of spinetoram, a semisynthetic insecticide derived by a combination of a genetic block in a specific O-methylation of the rhamnose moiety of spinosad coupled with neural network-based QSAR and synthetic chemistry. It also emphasizes the key role that new technologies and multidisciplinary approaches play in the development of current spinetoram production strains.

  14. Gamma radiodecontamination of natural products uses in Cuban pharmaceutical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, M.; Lopez, M.; Guerra, M.; Lastra, H.; Prieto, E.; Padron, E.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the present paper was to carry out the gamma radiodecontamination of industrial productions from there medicinal plant species (C. officinalis, P. incarta and M. recuttia) and two pharmaceuticals forms (S. platensis and bee pollen tabs) which presented high levels of microbiological count. Adequate irradiation doses calculated for each product were used in decontamination. The results obtained showed the effectiveness of the process in the elimination of microbial contamination from theses natural products. No changes in nutritional constituents or physico-chemical properties were observed

  15. Exploitation of Aspergillus terreus for the Production of Natural Statins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishal Subhan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The fungus Aspergillus (A. terreus has dominated the biological production of the “blockbuster” drugs known as statins. The statins are a class of drugs that inhibit HMG-CoA reductase and lead to lower cholesterol production. The statins were initially discovered in fungi and for many years fungi were the sole source for the statins. At present, novel chemically synthesised statins are produced as inspired by the naturally occurring statin molecules. The isolation of the natural statins, compactin, mevastatin and lovastatin from A. terreus represents one of the great achievements of industrial microbiology. Here we review the discovery of statins, along with strategies that have been applied to scale up their production by A. terreus strains. The strategies encompass many of the techniques available in industrial microbiology and include the optimization of media and fermentation conditions, the improvement of strains through classical mutagenesis, induced genetic manipulation and the use of statistical design.

  16. Natural products - plenty more where that came from

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, M.

    1980-12-22

    In this article, natural products and their possible use as renewable resources are reviewed. The fermentation of corn for the production of alcohol for motor fuel is discussed and other crops for this purpose include sugar cane, cassava, sweet potato and Jerusalem artichoke. The hydrolysis of cellulose to sugars based on enzyme hydrolysis is currently being researched in the USA. Also in the USA, Melvin Calvin hopes to breed a rubber-bearing plant whose latex can be easily cracked to motor fuel. Guayule and jojoba rubber-bearing plants are also the focus of research at present. The importance of natural vegetation in the manufacturing of medicines and in the chemical and food industries is stressed. Finally products of the sea, particularly alginates and carragheenins are mentioned, but as yet, the full potential of the sea to yield renewable resources is unknown.

  17. Unconventional ballooning structures for toroidal drift waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Hua-sheng; Xiao, Yong

    2015-01-01

    With strong gradients in the pedestal of high confinement mode (H-mode) fusion plasmas, gyrokinetic simulations are carried out for the trapped electron and ion temperature gradient modes. A broad class of unconventional mode structures is found to localize at arbitrary poloidal positions or with multiple peaks. It is found that these unconventional ballooning structures are associated with different eigen states for the most unstable mode. At weak gradient (low confinement mode or L-mode), the most unstable mode is usually in the ground eigen state, which corresponds to a conventional ballooning mode structure peaking in the outboard mid-plane of tokamaks. However, at strong gradient (H-mode), the most unstable mode is usually not the ground eigen state and the ballooning mode structure becomes unconventional. This result implies that the pedestal of H-mode could have better confinement than L-mode

  18. East-West paths to unconventional computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamatzky, Andrew; Akl, Selim; Burgin, Mark; Calude, Cristian S; Costa, José Félix; Dehshibi, Mohammad Mahdi; Gunji, Yukio-Pegio; Konkoli, Zoran; MacLennan, Bruce; Marchal, Bruno; Margenstern, Maurice; Martínez, Genaro J; Mayne, Richard; Morita, Kenichi; Schumann, Andrew; Sergeyev, Yaroslav D; Sirakoulis, Georgios Ch; Stepney, Susan; Svozil, Karl; Zenil, Hector

    2017-12-01

    Unconventional computing is about breaking boundaries in thinking, acting and computing. Typical topics of this non-typical field include, but are not limited to physics of computation, non-classical logics, new complexity measures, novel hardware, mechanical, chemical and quantum computing. Unconventional computing encourages a new style of thinking while practical applications are obtained from uncovering and exploiting principles and mechanisms of information processing in and functional properties of, physical, chemical and living systems; in particular, efficient algorithms are developed, (almost) optimal architectures are designed and working prototypes of future computing devices are manufactured. This article includes idiosyncratic accounts of 'unconventional computing' scientists reflecting on their personal experiences, what attracted them to the field, their inspirations and discoveries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Natural radioactivity and estimated dose in Brazilian tobacco products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Aline S.G.R. de; Damatto, Sandra R.

    2017-01-01

    Tobacco products contain significant concentrations of natural radionuclides from 238 U and 232 Th series. The consumption of these products increases the internal dose of radiation due to the inhalation of the natural radionuclides. Studies from literature emphasize that tobacco products have measurable concentrations of 210 Po and 210 Pb, and may contribute significantly to the increase of internal radiation dose and a large number of lung cancer in smokers. The objectives of this work were to determine the concentrations (Bq/kg) of the radionuclides 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 210 Pb and 210 Po and calculate the internal doses of radiation due to the consumption of these products. In the present work 71 samples were analyzed, consisting of cigars, unflavored and flavored cigarettes, straw cigarettes, cigars and roll smoke. The samples were purchased in Brazilian popular commercial establishments. The analytical techniques employed were the gross alpha and beta measurement after radiochemical separation for the radionuclides 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 210 Pb and alpha spectrometry for 210 Po. The internal radiation doses were calculated with the activity concentrations determined and using the ICRP Publication 119 dose coefficients. An annual consumption of 3,650 kg of tobacco products was considered. The inhalation rates of each radionuclide followed the rates of the current literature. The estimated mean annual dose varied from 76 to 263μSv/y for the tobacco product studied in this work. (author)

  20. Natural radioactivity and estimated dose in Brazilian tobacco products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Aline S.G.R. de; Damatto, Sandra R., E-mail: aline.oliveira@ipen.br, E-mail: damatto@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Tobacco products contain significant concentrations of natural radionuclides from {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th series. The consumption of these products increases the internal dose of radiation due to the inhalation of the natural radionuclides. Studies from literature emphasize that tobacco products have measurable concentrations of {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb, and may contribute significantly to the increase of internal radiation dose and a large number of lung cancer in smokers. The objectives of this work were to determine the concentrations (Bq/kg) of the radionuclides {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po and calculate the internal doses of radiation due to the consumption of these products. In the present work 71 samples were analyzed, consisting of cigars, unflavored and flavored cigarettes, straw cigarettes, cigars and roll smoke. The samples were purchased in Brazilian popular commercial establishments. The analytical techniques employed were the gross alpha and beta measurement after radiochemical separation for the radionuclides {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 210}Pb and alpha spectrometry for {sup 210}Po. The internal radiation doses were calculated with the activity concentrations determined and using the ICRP Publication 119 dose coefficients. An annual consumption of 3,650 kg of tobacco products was considered. The inhalation rates of each radionuclide followed the rates of the current literature. The estimated mean annual dose varied from 76 to 263μSv/y for the tobacco product studied in this work. (author)

  1. The role of conventional and unconventional gas in the energy transition in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le, Minh Thong

    2017-01-01

    Energy and environmental issues are one of the main challenges for humanity in the 21. Century. Global growth in energy demand links to environmental concerns including pollution, global warming and reduction of CO 2 emissions. In particular, it is an urgent request in rapidly growing developing regions such as Asian countries. Using cleaner energy sources, renewable energy instead of traditional energy sources like coal and oil is an inevitable option in the future. In the current context, natural gas is seen as a clean energy source which plays a major role in the energy transition process towards a low-carbon economy. The consequences for natural gas markets are significant and the condition of this change is an abundant supply of natural gas. The development of unconventional gas, particularly shale gas, provides an opportunity to expand the global gas supply. This is illustrated by the 'shale gas revolution' in US which has profoundly changed the regional gas markets. However, this 'revolution' is hardly reproducible in other regions of the world. This thesis demonstrates particularly that apart from geological, institutional conditions (taxation, property rights), economic (prices, technologies) and organizational (free markets) are necessary for a large scale development of unconventional resources. This research also shows that most of these conditions are not met in Europe or Asia (especially in China). Therefore, an energy transition by natural gas to meet climate challenges in Asia will be solved through imports, rather than through regional production. From three scenarios of the POLES model based on assumptions about climate policy, shale gas development and rapid increase of demand for gas in the energy mix (particularly in Asia), two main conclusions emerge. The developments of shale gas with low cost in the USA make the global gas supply abundant and more competitive than other energies, particularly coal. Therefore, even without

  2. Plan of promotion and development of unconventional renewable sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas M, Jose Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    The plan for the promotion and development of unconventional sources renewable energies developed by the Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad is explained. The percentage data from the use of unconventional renewable sources for power generation in Costa Rica is presented [es

  3. Economic benefits, external costs and the regulation of unconventional gas in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronshaw, Ian; Grafton, R. Quentin

    2016-01-01

    We review the economic benefits and external costs of unconventional gas production (UCG) in the United States from a policy perspective. Based on an overview of state regulation in Pennsylvania, a state that has witnessed very rapid growth of gas production over the past 5 years, and global experiences we present 10 key principles that are proposed to reduce the risks and to increase the net rewards of UCG. Application of these principles has the potential to reduce the risks of UCG, especially at a local level, while maximizing the benefits of gas developments. - Highlights: • SWOT summary of unconventional gas developments. • Risks and returns of unconventional gas highlighted. • 10 principles given to reduce risks and increase rewards of gas extraction.

  4. Interdisciplinary researches for potential developments of drugs and natural products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunrat Chaveerach

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Developments of drugs or natural products from plants are possibly made, simple to use and lower cost than modern drugs. The development processes can be started with studying local wisdom and literature reviews to choose the plants which have long been used in diverse areas, such as foods, traditional medicine, fragrances and seasonings. Then those data will be associated with scientific researches, namely plant collection and identification, phytochemical screening by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, pharmacological study/review for their functions, and finally safety and efficiency tests in human. For safety testing, in vitro cell toxicity by cell viability assessment and in vitro testing of DNA breaks by the comet assay in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells can be performed. When active chemicals and functions containing plants were chosen with safety and efficacy for human uses, then, the potential medicinal natural products will be produced. Based on these procedures, the producing cost will be cheaper and the products can be evaluated for their clinical properties. Thus, the best and lowest-priced medicines and natural products can be distributed worldwide.

  5. Interdisciplinary researches for potential developments of drugs and natural products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arunrat Chaveerach; Runglawan Sudmoon; Tawatchai Tanee

    2017-01-01

    Developments of drugs or natural products from plants are possibly made,simple to use and lower cost than modern drugs.The development processes can be started with studying local wisdom and literature reviews to choose the plants which have long been used in diverse areas,such as foods,traditional medicine,fragrances and seasonings.Then those data will be associated with scientific researches,namely plant collection and identification,phytochemical screening by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry,pharmacological study/review for their functions,and finally safety and efficiency tests in human.For safety testing,in vitro cell toxicity by cell viability assessment and in vitro testing of DNA breaks by the comet assay in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells can be performed.When active chemicals and functions containing plants were chosen with safety and efficacy for human uses,then,the potential medicinal natural products will be produced.Based on these procedures,the producing cost will be cheaper and the products can be evaluated for their clinical properties.Thus,the best and lowest-priced medicines and natural products can be distributed worldwide.

  6. Dietary Natural Products for Prevention and Treatment of Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ya; Li, Sha; Meng, Xiao; Gan, Ren-You; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Li, Hua-Bin

    2017-07-08

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among females worldwide. Several epidemiological studies suggested the inverse correlation between the intake of vegetables and fruits and the incidence of breast cancer. Substantial experimental studies indicated that many dietary natural products could affect the development and progression of breast cancer, such as soy, pomegranate, mangosteen, citrus fruits, apple, grape, mango, cruciferous vegetables, ginger, garlic, black cumin, edible macro-fungi, and cereals. Their anti-breast cancer effects involve various mechanisms of action, such as downregulating ER-α expression and activity, inhibiting proliferation, migration, metastasis and angiogenesis of breast tumor cells, inducing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest, and sensitizing breast tumor cells to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. This review summarizes the potential role of dietary natural products and their major bioactive components in prevention and treatment of breast cancer, and special attention was paid to the mechanisms of action.

  7. Marine natural products: a new wave of drugs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montaser, Rana; Luesch, Hendrik

    2011-01-01

    The largely unexplored marine world that presumably harbors the most biodiversity may be the vastest resource to discover novel ‘validated’ structures with novel modes of action that cover biologically relevant chemical space. Several challenges, including the supply problem and target identification, need to be met for successful drug development of these often complex molecules; however, approaches are available to overcome the hurdles. Advances in technologies such as sampling strategies, nanoscale NMR for structure determination, total chemical synthesis, fermentation and biotechnology are all crucial to the success of marine natural products as drug leads. We illustrate the high degree of innovation in the field of marine natural products, which in our view will lead to a new wave of drugs that flow into the market and pharmacies in the future. PMID:21882941

  8. What Is the Structure of the Antitubercular Natural Product Eucapsitrione?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullella, Glenn A; Wild, Duncan A; Nealon, Gareth L; Elyashberg, Mikhail; Piggott, Matthew J

    2017-07-21

    1,5,7-Trihydroxy-6H-indeno[1,2-b]anthracene-6,11,13-trione (1), proposed to be the antitubercular natural product eucapsitrione, has been synthesized in 43% overall yield and six steps, including a key Suzuki-Miyaura biaryl coupling and a directed remote metalation (DReM)-initiated cyclization. The physical and spectroscopic properties of 1 do not match the data reported for the natural product. At this time there is insufficient information available to enable a structure reassignment. During the optimization of the Suzuki-Miyaura coupling, an unprecedented biaryl coupling ortho to the borono group was observed. The scope of this unusual reaction has been investigated.

  9. Challenges and solutions in natural gas engine development and productions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmadi, Mahdi; Izanloo, Hossein [Irankhodro Powertrain Co. (IPCO) (Iran)

    2008-07-01

    As an alternative fuel, natural gas is generally accepted for internal combustion engines and some developments have been conducted in order to adopt it for the road vehicles and stationary applications. Foresights shows natural gas vehicles will be a part of the future transportation technology regarding to their mid and long-term benefits. Therefore inherent problems of natural gas engine technology should be overcome to produce a competitive engine. In this paper major problems and their possible solutions in developing and producing natural gas engine for passenger cars are detailed and discussed. Challenging materials are sorted and presented in two categorizes: technical and econo-strategical problems. In the technical section major difficulties faced in components or systems of natural gas engine are analysed in different aspects of design, validation, and production. In addition problems arisen from the fuel characteristics which influence the function and durability of engine are argued. Subjects like freezing in gas regulator, cold start fuel injection, gas leakage, impurities within compressed natural gas, variation in fuel composition, thermo-mechanics of cylinder head and block, wear of valve seat inserts, spark plug erosion, back-fire phenomenon, engine oil quality requirement, low power density and mileage are described. In the econo-strategical discussion, challenges like limited gas distribution infrastructure, lack of specific manufacturing standards and codes, and non-dedicated emission standards are explained. In both part of the paper a comprehensive view is extended to clarify the effect, risk and solutions of each problem. Due to the fact that almost all information and analysis presented in this paper are based on the experience of developing a natural gas engine family, and an extensive literature review, discussions and conclusions could be useful as a guide line for future natural gas engine projects. (orig.)

  10. Green Extraction of Natural Products: Concept and Principles

    OpenAIRE

    Giancarlo Cravotto; Maryline Abert Vian; Farid Chemat

    2012-01-01

    The design of green and sustainable extraction methods of natural products is currently a hot research topic in the multidisciplinary area of applied chemistry, biology and technology. Herein we aimed to introduce the six principles of green-extraction, describing a multifaceted strategy to apply this concept at research and industrial level. The mainstay of this working protocol are new and innovative technologies, process intensification, agro-solvents and energy saving. The concept, princi...

  11. Natural Products Research in China From 2015 to 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Haishan Liu; Haishan Liu; Guoliang Zhu; Guoliang Zhu; Yaqin Fan; Yaqin Fan; Yuqi Du; Yuqi Du; Mengmeng Lan; Mengmeng Lan; Yibo Xu; Yibo Xu; Weiming Zhu; Weiming Zhu

    2018-01-01

    This review covers the literature published by chemists from China during the 2015–2016 on natural products (NPs), with 1,985 citations referring to 6,944 new compounds isolated from marine or terrestrial microorganisms, plants, and animals. The emphasis is on 730 new compounds with a novel skeleton or/and significant bioactivity, together with their source organism and country of origin.

  12. Natural Products for the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos, José Luis; Francini, Flavio; Schinella, Guillermo R

    2015-08-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease characterized by persistent hyperglycemia. High blood sugar can produce long-term complications such as cardiovascular and renal disorders, retinopathy, and poor blood flow. Its development can be prevented or delayed in people with impaired glucose tolerance by implementing lifestyle changes or the use of therapeutic agents. Some of these drugs have been obtained from plants or have a microbial origin, such as galegine isolated from Galega officinalis, which has a great similarity to the antidiabetic drug metformin. Picnogenol, acarbose, miglitol, and voglibose are other antidiabetic products of natural origin. This review compiles the principal articles on medicinal plants used for treating diabetes and its comorbidities, as well as mechanisms of natural products as antidiabetic agents. Inhibition of α-glucosidase and α-amylase, effects on glucose uptake and glucose transporters, modification of mechanisms mediated by the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor, inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B activity, modification of gene expression, and activities of hormones involved in glucose homeostasis such as adiponectin, resistin, and incretin, and reduction of oxidative stress are some of the mechanisms in which natural products are involved. We also review the most relevant clinical trials performed with medicinal plants and natural products such as aloe, banaba, bitter melon, caper, cinnamon, cocoa, coffee, fenugreek, garlic, guava, gymnema, nettle, sage, soybean, green and black tea, turmeric, walnut, and yerba mate. Compounds of high interest as potential antidiabetics are: fukugetin, palmatine, berberine, honokiol, amorfrutins, trigonelline, gymnemic acids, gurmarin, and phlorizin. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Cytotoxic Natural Products from Marine Sponge-Derived Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huawei Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence indicates that marine sponge-derived microbes possess the potential ability to make prolific natural products with therapeutic effects. This review for the first time provides a comprehensive overview of new cytotoxic agents from these marine microbes over the last 62 years from 1955 to 2016, which are assorted into seven types: terpenes, alkaloids, peptides, aromatics, lactones, steroids, and miscellaneous compounds.

  14. Dietary Natural Products for Prevention and Treatment of Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Ya; Li, Sha; Meng, Xiao; Gan, Ren-You; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Li, Hua-Bin

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among females worldwide. Several epidemiological studies suggested the inverse correlation between the intake of vegetables and fruits and the incidence of breast cancer. Substantial experimental studies indicated that many dietary natural products could affect the development and progression of breast cancer, such as soy, pomegranate, mangosteen, citrus fruits, apple, grape, mango, cruciferous vegetables, ginger, garlic, black cumin, edible macro-fungi...

  15. Rationale for a natural products approach to herbicide discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayan, Franck E; Owens, Daniel K; Duke, Stephen O

    2012-04-01

    Weeds continue to evolve resistance to all the known modes of herbicidal action, but no herbicide with a new target site has been commercialized in nearly 20 years. The so-called 'new chemistries' are simply molecules belonging to new chemical classes that have the same mechanisms of action as older herbicides (e.g. the protoporphyrinogen-oxidase-inhibiting pyrimidinedione saflufenacil or the very-long-chain fatty acid elongase targeting sulfonylisoxazoline herbicide pyroxasulfone). Therefore, the number of tools to manage weeds, and in particular those that can control herbicide-resistant weeds, is diminishing rapidly. There is an imminent need for truly innovative classes of herbicides that explore chemical spaces and interact with target sites not previously exploited by older active ingredients. This review proposes a rationale for a natural-products-centered approach to herbicide discovery that capitalizes on the structural diversity and ingenuity afforded by these biologically active compounds. The natural process of extended-throughput screening (high number of compounds tested on many potential target sites over long periods of times) that has shaped the evolution of natural products tends to generate molecules tailored to interact with specific target sites. As this review shows, there is generally little overlap between the mode of action of natural and synthetic phytotoxins, and more emphasis should be placed on applying methods that have proved beneficial to the pharmaceutical industry to solve problems in the agrochemical industry. Published 2012 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Annual survey 2013 - Natural gas in the World 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The 2013 Edition of 'Natural Gas in the World' by CEDIGAZ is built on CEDIGAZ's unique natural gas statistical database. This 170-page study, published since 1983, provides an in-depth analysis of the latest developments in the gas markets along with the most complete set of statistical data on the whole gas chain covering close to 130 countries. Topics covered by Natural Gas in the World 2013 include: proved natural gas reserves; unconventional gas status in the world; gross and marketed natural gas production; the international gas trade; existing and planned underground gas storage facilities in the world; natural gas consumption; natural gas prices

  17. Automated genome mining of ribosomal peptide natural products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohimani, Hosein; Kersten, Roland; Liu, Wei; Wang, Mingxun; Purvine, Samuel O.; Wu, Si; Brewer, Heather M.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Bandeira, Nuno; Moore, Bradley S.; Pevzner, Pavel A.; Dorrestein, Pieter C.

    2014-07-31

    Ribosomally synthesized and posttranslationally modified peptides (RiPPs), especially from microbial sources, are a large group of bioactive natural products that are a promising source of new (bio)chemistry and bioactivity (1). In light of exponentially increasing microbial genome databases and improved mass spectrometry (MS)-based metabolomic platforms, there is a need for computational tools that connect natural product genotypes predicted from microbial genome sequences with their corresponding chemotypes from metabolomic datasets. Here, we introduce RiPPquest, a tandem mass spectrometry database search tool for identification of microbial RiPPs and apply it for lanthipeptide discovery. RiPPquest uses genomics to limit search space to the vicinity of RiPP biosynthetic genes and proteomics to analyze extensive peptide modifications and compute p-values of peptide-spectrum matches (PSMs). We highlight RiPPquest by connection of multiple RiPPs from extracts of Streptomyces to their gene clusters and by the discovery of a new class III lanthipeptide, informatipeptin, from Streptomyces viridochromogenes DSM 40736 as the first natural product to be identified in an automated fashion by genome mining. The presented tool is available at cy-clo.ucsd.edu.

  18. Natural Radiation in byproducts of the production of phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silveira, Marcilei A. Guazzelli da; Cardoso, L.L.; Medina, N.H.

    2014-01-01

    Natural radiation is the largest source of radiation exposure to which man is subject. It is formed basically by cosmic radiation and the radionuclides present in the Earth crust, as 40 K and the elements of the decay series of 232 Th and 238 U. Phosphate ores, which constitutes the raw material for the production of phosphoric acid, have a high rate of natural radiation from the decay series of 232 Th and 238 U. Phosphogypsum, which is naturally radioactivity, is a by-product of the production of phosphoric acid by the wet method. For each ton of phosphoric acid it is produced about 4.5 tons of phosphogypsum. This work presents the analysis of samples collected in all stages of the manufacturing process of phosphoric acid, which generates the phosphogypsum. Gamma-ray spectrometry was used to measure the concentration of the elements of the decay series of 232 Th and 238 U. All analyzed samples showed a high concentration of radionuclides, promoting the need for further steps in the process in order to reduce the presence of such radionuclides in the phosphogypsum. The results indicate the radionuclide 238 U has higher contribution in some samples of the intermediate stages of the process. All samples exceeded the international average range of human exposure to terrestrial gamma radiation, which is 0.3 to 1.0 mSv/year. (author)

  19. Novel fermentation processes for manufacturing plant natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jingwen; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2014-02-01

    Microbial production of plant natural products (PNPs), such as terpenoids, flavonoids from renewable carbohydrate feedstocks offers sustainable and economically attractive alternatives to their petroleum-based production. Rapid development of metabolic engineering and synthetic biology of microorganisms shows many advantages to replace the current extraction of these useful high price chemicals from plants. Although few of them were actually applied on a large scale for PNPs production, continuous research on these high-price chemicals and the rapid growing global market of them, show the promising future for the production of these PNPs by microorganisms with a more economic and environmental friendly way. Introduction of novel pathways and optimization of the native cellular processes by metabolic engineering of microorganisms for PNPs production are rapidly expanding its range of cell-factory applications. Here we review recent progress in metabolic engineering of microorganisms for the production of PNPs. Besides, factors restricting the yield improvement and application of lab-scale achievements to industrial applications have also been discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A study on the future of unconventional oil development under different oil price scenarios: A system dynamics approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseini, Seyed Hossein; Shakouri, Hamed G.

    2016-01-01

    Fluctuations in the oil global market has been a critical topic for the world economy so that analyzing and forecasting the conventional oil production rate has been examined by many researchers thoroughly. However, the dynamics of the market has not been studied systematically with regard to the new emerging competitors, namely unconventional oil. In this paper, the future trend of conventional and unconventional oil production and capacity expansion rates are analyzed using system dynamics approach. To do so, a supply-side modeling approach is utilized while main effective loops are modeled mathematically as follows: technological learning and progress, long and short-term profitability of oil capacity expansion and production, and oil proved reserve limitations. The proposed model is used to analyze conventional and unconventional oil production shares, up to 2025, under different oil price scenarios. The results show that conventional oil production rate ranges from 79.995 to 87.044 MB/day, which is 75–80 percent of total oil production rate, while unconventional oil production rate ranges from 19.615 to 28.584 MB/day. Simulation results reveal that unconventional oil can gain a considerable market share in the short run, although conventional oil will remain as the major source for the market in the long run. - Highlights: • Variables and loops affecting oil production are formulated mathematically. • Shares of conventional and unconventional oil in the global oil market is analyzed. • Oil production rate under different oil price scenarios up to 2025 is simulated. • Unconventional oil would obtain a considerable share in market in the short-term. • A late peak for the conventional oil resources would occur.

  1. Upgrading Unconventional Oil Resources with the EST Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delbianco, Alberto; Meli, Salvatori; Panariti, Nicolleta; Rispoli, Giacomo

    2007-07-01

    We strongly believe that unconventional oils will play a much larger role in the growth of supply than is currently recognized. As a matter of fact, whereas the earth's conventional proven world oil reserves are 1.3 trillion barrels, extra-heavy plus bitumen resources amount to about 4 trillion barrels. The unconventional oils are characterized by low API gravity (<10), high viscosity and high concentration of poisons such as sulphur, nitrogen, metals, and asphaltenes. For this reason, a key role for the full exploitation of these hydrocarbon resources is played by the downstream processes that are required to upgrade and convert them into valuable products. In this scenario, Eni has developed a novel hydrocracking process (EST: Eni Slurry Technology) which is particularly well-suited for the conversion and upgrading of heavy feedstocks (conventional vacuum residues, extra-heavy oils and bitumen). EST employs nano-sized hydrogenation catalysts and an original process scheme that allow complete feedstock conversion to an upgraded synthetic crude oil (SCO) with an API gravity gain greater than 20 and avoid the production of residual by-products, such as pet-coke or heavy fuel oil. A Commercial Demonstration Unit (CDP) of 1200 bbl/d capacity is successfully operating in the Eni's Taranto refinery since November 2005. (auth)

  2. Stream vulnerability to widespread and emergent stressors: a focus on unconventional oil and gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entrekin, Sally; Maloney, Kelly O.; Katherine E. Kapo,; Walters, Annika W.; Evans-White, Michelle A.; Klemow, Kenneth M.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple stressors threaten stream physical and biological quality, including elevated nutrients and other contaminants, riparian and in-stream habitat degradation and altered natural flow regime. Unconventional oil and gas (UOG) development is one emerging stressor that spans the U.S. UOG development could alter stream sedimentation, riparian extent and composition, in-stream flow, and water quality. We developed indices to describe the watershed sensitivity and exposure to natural and anthropogenic disturbances and computed a vulnerability index from these two scores across stream catchments in six productive shale plays. We predicted that catchment vulnerability scores would vary across plays due to climatic, geologic and anthropogenic differences. Across-shale averages supported this prediction revealing differences in catchment sensitivity, exposure, and vulnerability scores that resulted from different natural and anthropogenic environmental conditions. For example, semi-arid Western shale play catchments (Mowry, Hilliard, and Bakken) tended to be more sensitive to stressors due to low annual average precipitation and extensive grassland. Catchments in the Barnett and Marcellus-Utica were naturally sensitive from more erosive soils and steeper catchment slopes, but these catchments also experienced areas with greater UOG densities and urbanization. Our analysis suggested Fayetteville and Barnett catchments were vulnerable due to existing anthropogenic exposure. However, all shale plays had catchments that spanned a wide vulnerability gradient. Our results identify vulnerable catchments that can help prioritize stream protection and monitoring efforts. Resource managers can also use these findings to guide local development activities to help reduce possible environmental effects.

  3. Stream Vulnerability to Widespread and Emergent Stressors: A Focus on Unconventional Oil and Gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entrekin, Sally A; Maloney, Kelly O; Kapo, Katherine E; Walters, Annika W; Evans-White, Michelle A; Klemow, Kenneth M

    2015-01-01

    Multiple stressors threaten stream physical and biological quality, including elevated nutrients and other contaminants, riparian and in-stream habitat degradation and altered natural flow regime. Unconventional oil and gas (UOG) development is one emerging stressor that spans the U.S. UOG development could alter stream sedimentation, riparian extent and composition, in-stream flow, and water quality. We developed indices to describe the watershed sensitivity and exposure to natural and anthropogenic disturbances and computed a vulnerability index from these two scores across stream catchments in six productive shale plays. We predicted that catchment vulnerability scores would vary across plays due to climatic, geologic and anthropogenic differences. Across-shale averages supported this prediction revealing differences in catchment sensitivity, exposure, and vulnerability scores that resulted from different natural and anthropogenic environmental conditions. For example, semi-arid Western shale play catchments (Mowry, Hilliard, and Bakken) tended to be more sensitive to stressors due to low annual average precipitation and extensive grassland. Catchments in the Barnett and Marcellus-Utica were naturally sensitive from more erosive soils and steeper catchment slopes, but these catchments also experienced areas with greater UOG densities and urbanization. Our analysis suggested Fayetteville and Barnett catchments were vulnerable due to existing anthropogenic exposure. However, all shale plays had catchments that spanned a wide vulnerability gradient. Our results identify vulnerable catchments that can help prioritize stream protection and monitoring efforts. Resource managers can also use these findings to guide local development activities to help reduce possible environmental effects.

  4. Unconventional superconductivity in heavy-fermion compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, B.D. [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Center for Advanced Nanoscience, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Thompson, J.D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Maple, M.B., E-mail: mbmaple@ucsd.edu [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Center for Advanced Nanoscience, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Quasiparticles in heavy-fermion compounds are much heavier than free electrons. • Superconductivity involves pairing of these massive quasiparticles. • Quasiparticle pairing mediated by magnetic or quadrupolar fluctuations. • We review the properties of superconductivity in heavy-fermion compounds. - Abstract: Over the past 35 years, research on unconventional superconductivity in heavy-fermion systems has evolved from the surprising observations of unprecedented superconducting properties in compounds that convention dictated should not superconduct at all to performing explorations of rich phase spaces in which the delicate interplay between competing ground states appears to support emergent superconducting states. In this article, we review the current understanding of superconductivity in heavy-fermion compounds and identify a set of characteristics that is common to their unconventional superconducting states. These core properties are compared with those of other classes of unconventional superconductors such as the cuprates and iron-based superconductors. We conclude by speculating on the prospects for future research in this field and how new advances might contribute towards resolving the long-standing mystery of how unconventional superconductivity works.

  5. Unconventional funding of urban public transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ubbels, B.J.; Nijkamp, P.

    2002-01-01

    In the past decade public authorities have developed a wealth of creative funding mechanisms to support transit systems. This paper offers a taxonomy of various unconventional funding mechanisms (i.e. outside the domain of charges for transit passengers or general taxation schemes), based on a

  6. Intergas `95: International unconventional gas symposium. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The International Unconventional Gas Symposium was held on May 14--20, 1995 in Tuscaloosa, Alabama where 52 reports were presented. These reports are grouped in this proceedings under: geology and resources; mine degasification and safety; international developments; reservoir characterization/coal science; and environmental/legal and regulatory. Each report has been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  7. A water legislation evaluation of the unconventional production of natural gas by means of fracking; Wasserrechtliche Bewertung der unkonventionellen Erdgasfoerderung mittels Fracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossnagel, Alexander; Polzer, Andreas [Kassel Univ. (Germany). Kompetenzzentrum fuer Klimaschutz und Klimaanpassung (CliMA); Hentschel, Anja [Kassel Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Wirtschaftsrecht (IWR)

    2012-07-01

    Fracking causes underground and aboveground risks for ground water. Under this aspect, the authors of the contribution report on regulation concepts and instruments of the water protection law in order to manage the risks. The authors also describe how these regulations have to be understood in order to manage these underground and aboveground risks.

  8. Marine natural products in prevention and treatment of osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Ghanbari

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Undoubtedly, pharmaceutical and nutritional factors play an important role in the prevention of age-related bone loss. According to the several studies so far, the effects of nutrients and bioactive components which are extracted from marine resources are very promising in osteoporosis. Most of these investigations have been done on various marine algae extracts. Since, algae are rich source of essential minerals, primary and secondary unique natural products, several amino acids and growth factors their extracts show favorable effects on bone metabolism. Moreover, it has been shown that marine nutrients such as marine fishes, shrimp and crabs increase the absorption of calcium and bone collagen synthesis or reduce the production of prostaglandins and decrease the deoxypyridinoline disposal. On the other hand, secondary products which are extracted and characterized from marine organisms such as mollusks, fungi, bacteria, sponges and coral reefs show anti-osteoporosis activities via the inhibition of osteoclast differentiation and the induction of apoptosis in osteoclasts like cells or stimulation of osteoblast differentiation. Although, several investigations have been done in this area, many of studies have been carried out on animal models, like ovariectomy-induced bone loss in mice. Hence, clinical investigations are warranted to develop marine natural products against bone loss and to prevent osteoporosis.

  9. The water-food nexus of natural rubber production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarelli, D. D.; Rosa, L.; Rulli, M. C.; D'Odorico, P.

    2017-12-01

    The increasing global demand for natural rubber (100% increase in the last 15 years) is for most part met by Malaysia and Indonesia, and - to a lesser extent - other countries in south-east Asia and Africa. The consequent expansion of rubber plantation has often occurred at the expenses of agricultural land for staple food, particularly in southeast Asia, where most of the land suitable for agriculture is already harvested for food crops or other uses. Here we investigate the extent to which the ongoing increase in rubber production is competing with the food system and affecting the livelihoods of rural communities in the areas of production and their appropriation of natural resources, such as water. We also investigate to what extent the expansion of rubber plantations is taking place through large scale land acquisitions (LSLAs) and evaluate the impacts on rural communities. Our results show how rubber production has strong environmental, social and economic impacts. Despite their ability to bring employment and increase the average income of economically disadvantaged areas, rubber plantations may threaten the local water and food security and induce a loss of rural livelihoods, particularly when the new plantations result from LSLAs that displace semi-subsistence forms of production thereby forcing the local populations to depend on global markets.

  10. Mimicking a natural pathway for de novo biosynthesis: natural vanillin production from accessible carbon sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Jun; Tao, Fei; Du, Huaiqing; Xu, Ping

    2015-09-02

    Plant secondary metabolites have been attracting people's attention for centuries, due to their potentials; however, their production is still difficult and costly. The rich diversity of microbes and microbial genome sequence data provide unprecedented gene resources that enable to develop efficient artificial pathways in microorganisms. Here, by mimicking a natural pathway of plants using microbial genes, a new metabolic route was developed in E. coli for the synthesis of vanillin, the most widely used flavoring agent. A series of factors were systematically investigated for raising production, including efficiency and suitability of genes, gene dosage, and culture media. The metabolically engineered strain produced 97.2 mg/L vanillin from l-tyrosine, 19.3 mg/L from glucose, 13.3 mg/L from xylose and 24.7 mg/L from glycerol. These results show that the metabolic route enables production of natural vanillin from low-cost substrates, suggesting that it is a good strategy to mimick natural pathways for artificial pathway design.

  11. Mimicking a natural pathway for de novo biosynthesis: natural vanillin production from accessible carbon sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Jun; Tao, Fei; Du, Huaiqing; Xu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Plant secondary metabolites have been attracting people’s attention for centuries, due to their potentials; however, their production is still difficult and costly. The rich diversity of microbes and microbial genome sequence data provide unprecedented gene resources that enable to develop efficient artificial pathways in microorganisms. Here, by mimicking a natural pathway of plants using microbial genes, a new metabolic route was developed in E. coli for the synthesis of vanillin, the most widely used flavoring agent. A series of factors were systematically investigated for raising production, including efficiency and suitability of genes, gene dosage, and culture media. The metabolically engineered strain produced 97.2 mg/L vanillin from l-tyrosine, 19.3 mg/L from glucose, 13.3 mg/L from xylose and 24.7 mg/L from glycerol. These results show that the metabolic route enables production of natural vanillin from low-cost substrates, suggesting that it is a good strategy to mimick natural pathways for artificial pathway design. PMID:26329726

  12. Nature is the best source of anticancer drugs: Indexing natural products for their anticancer bioactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayan, Anwar; Raiyn, Jamal; Falah, Mizied

    2017-01-01

    Cancer is considered one of the primary diseases that cause morbidity and mortality in millions of people worldwide and due to its prevalence, there is undoubtedly an unmet need to discover novel anticancer drugs. However, the traditional process of drug discovery and development is lengthy and expensive, so the application of in silico techniques and optimization algorithms in drug discovery projects can provide a solution, saving time and costs. A set of 617 approved anticancer drugs, constituting the active domain, and a set of 2,892 natural products, constituting the inactive domain, were employed to build predictive models and to index natural products for their anticancer bioactivity. Using the iterative stochastic elimination optimization technique, we obtained a highly discriminative and robust model, with an area under the curve of 0.95. Twelve natural products that scored highly as potential anticancer drug candidates are disclosed. Searching the scientific literature revealed that few of those molecules (Neoechinulin, Colchicine, and Piperolactam) have already been experimentally screened for their anticancer activity and found active. The other phytochemicals await evaluation for their anticancerous activity in wet lab.

  13. Nature is the best source of anticancer drugs: Indexing natural products for their anticancer bioactivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar Rayan

    Full Text Available Cancer is considered one of the primary diseases that cause morbidity and mortality in millions of people worldwide and due to its prevalence, there is undoubtedly an unmet need to discover novel anticancer drugs. However, the traditional process of drug discovery and development is lengthy and expensive, so the application of in silico techniques and optimization algorithms in drug discovery projects can provide a solution, saving time and costs. A set of 617 approved anticancer drugs, constituting the active domain, and a set of 2,892 natural products, constituting the inactive domain, were employed to build predictive models and to index natural products for their anticancer bioactivity. Using the iterative stochastic elimination optimization technique, we obtained a highly discriminative and robust model, with an area under the curve of 0.95. Twelve natural products that scored highly as potential anticancer drug candidates are disclosed. Searching the scientific literature revealed that few of those molecules (Neoechinulin, Colchicine, and Piperolactam have already been experimentally screened for their anticancer activity and found active. The other phytochemicals await evaluation for their anticancerous activity in wet lab.

  14. Natural products as potential cancer therapy enhancers: A preclinical update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abed Agbarya

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a multifactorial disease that arises as a consequence of alterations in many physiological processes. Recently, hallmarks of cancer were suggested that include sustaining proliferative signaling, evading growth suppressors, resisting cell death, enabling replicative immortality, inducing angiogenesis, and activating invasion and metastasis, along with two emerging hallmarks including reprogramming energy metabolism and escaping immune destruction. Treating multifactorial diseases, such as cancer with agents targeting a single target, might provide partial treatment and, in many cases, disappointing cure rates. Epidemiological studies have consistently shown that the regular consumption of fruits and vegetables is strongly associated with a reduced risk of developing chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Since ancient times, plants, herbs, and other natural products have been used as healing agents. Moreover, the majority of the medicinal substances available today have their origin in natural compounds. Traditionally, pharmaceuticals are used to cure diseases, and nutrition and herbs are used to prevent disease and to provide an optimal balance of macro- and micro-nutrients needed for good health. We explored the combination of natural products, dietary nutrition, and cancer chemotherapeutics for improving the efficacy of cancer chemotherapeutics and negating side effects.

  15. Production of hydrogen by thermocatalytic cracking of natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muradov, N. [Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The conventional methods of hydrogen production from natural gas (for example, steam reforming and partial oxidation) are complex, multi-step processes that produce large quantities of CO{sub 2}. The main goal of this project is to develop a technologically simple process for hydrogen production from natural gas (NG) and other hydrocarbon fuels via single-step decomposition of hydrocarbons. This approach eliminates or significantly reduces CO{sub 2} emission. Carbon is a valuable by-product of this process, whereas conventional methods of hydrogen production from NG produce no useful by-products. This approach is based on the use of special catalysts that reduce the maximum temperature of the process from 1400-1500{degrees}C (thermal non-catalytic decomposition of methane) to 500-900{degrees}C. Transition metal based catalysts and various forms of carbon are among the candidate catalysts for the process. This approach can advantageously be used for the development of compact NG reformers for on-site production of hydrogen-methane blends at refueling stations and, also, for the production of hydrogen-rich gas for fuel cell applications. The author extended the search for active methane decomposition catalysts to various modifications of Ni-, Fe-, Mo- and Co-based catalysts. Variation in the operational parameters makes it possible to produce H{sub 2}-CH{sub 4} blends with a wide range of hydrogen concentrations that vary from 15 to 98% by volume. The author found that Ni-based catalysts are more effective at temperatures below 750{degrees}C, whereas Fe-based catalysts are effective at temperatures above 800{degrees}C for the production of hydrogen with purity of 95% v. or higher. The catalytic pyrolysis of liquid hydrocarbons (pentane, gasoline) over Fe-based catalyst was conducted. The author observed the production of a hydrogen-rich gas (hydrogen concentration up to 97% by volume) at a rate of approximately 1L/min.mL of hydrocarbon fuel.

  16. Natural Gas and the Transformation of the U.S. Energy Sector: Electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, Jeffrey [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heath, Garvin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Paranhos, Elizabeth [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Boyd, William [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Carlson, Ken [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Domestic natural gas production was largely stagnant from the mid-1970s until about 2005. However, beginning in the late 1990s, advances linking horizontal drilling techniques with hydraulic fracturing allowed drilling to proceed in shale and other formations at much lower cost. The result was a slow, steady increase in unconventional gas production. The Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis (JISEA) designed this study to address four related key questions, which are a subset from the wider dialogue on natural gas; regarding the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with shale gas compared to conventional natural gas and other fuels used to generate electricity; existing legal and regulatory frameworks governing unconventional gas development at federal, state, and local levels, and changes in response to the rapid industry growth and public concerns; natural gas production companies changing their water-related practices; and demand for natural gas in the electric sector.

  17. Liquefied natural gas (LNG) : production, storage and handling. 7. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalra, S; Jaron, K; Adragna, M; Coyle, S; Foley, C; Hawryn, S; Martin, A; McConnell, J [eds.

    2003-07-01

    This Canadian Standard on the production, storage and handling of liquefied natural gas (LNG) was prepared by the Technical Committee on Liquefied Natural Gas under the jurisdiction of the Steering Committee on Oil and Gas Industry Systems and Materials. It establishes the necessary requirements for the design, installation and safe operation of LNG facilities. The Standard applies to the design, location, construction, operation and maintenance of facilities at any location of the liquefaction of natural gas and for the storage, vaporization, transfer, handling and truck transport of LNG. The training of personnel involved is also included as well as containers for LNG storage, including insulated vacuum systems. It includes non-mandatory guidelines for small LNG facilities but does not apply to the transportation of refrigerants, LNG by rail, marine vessel or pipeline. This latest edition contains changes in working of seismic design requirements and minor editorial changes to several clauses to bring the Standard closer to the US National Fire Protection Association's Committee on Liquefied Natural Gas Standard while maintaining Canadian regulatory requirements. The document is divided into 12 sections including: general requirements; plant site provisions; process equipment; stationary LNG storage containers; vaporization facilities; piping system and components; instrumentation and electrical services; transfer of LNG and refrigerants; fire protection, safety and security; and, operating, maintenance and personnel training. This Standard, like all Canadian Standards, was subject to periodic review and was most recently reaffirmed in 2003. 6 tabs., 6 figs., 3 apps.

  18. Production of bio-synthetic natural gas in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacatoglu, Kevork; McLellan, P James; Layzell, David B

    2010-03-15

    Large-scale production of renewable synthetic natural gas from biomass (bioSNG) in Canada was assessed for its ability to mitigate energy security and climate change risks. The land area within 100 km of Canada's network of natural gas pipelines was estimated to be capable of producing 67-210 Mt of dry lignocellulosic biomass per year with minimal adverse impacts on food and fiber production. Biomass gasification and subsequent methanation and upgrading were estimated to yield 16,000-61,000 Mm(3) of pipeline-quality gas (equivalent to 16-63% of Canada's current gas use). Life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of bioSNG-based electricity were calculated to be only 8.2-10% of the emissions from coal-fired power. Although predicted production costs ($17-21 GJ(-1)) were much higher than current energy prices, a value for low-carbon energy would narrow the price differential. A bioSNG sector could infuse Canada's rural economy with $41-130 billion of investments and create 410,000-1,300,000 jobs while developing a nation-wide low-carbon energy system.

  19. Natural Gas Reserves, Development and Production in Qatar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naji, Abi-Aad.

    1998-01-01

    Qatar entered the club of natural gas exporters in early 1997 when the first shipment of liquefied natural gas left the state for Japan. Qatar was helped by the discovery in 1971 of supergiant North Field gas field, the country's suitable location between the established gas consuming markets in Europe and Southeast Asia, and its proximity to developing markets in the Indian subcontinent and in neighbouring countries. All that have combined to make gas export projects from Qatar economically viable and commercially attractive. In addition to export-oriented development, increased gas production from the North Field is planned for meeting a growing domestic demand for gas as fuel and feedstock for power generation and desalination plants, as well as value-added petrochemical and fertilizer industries

  20. Leveraging ecological theory to guide natural product discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smanski, Michael J; Schlatter, Daniel C; Kinkel, Linda L

    2016-03-01

    Technological improvements have accelerated natural product (NP) discovery and engineering to the point that systematic genome mining for new molecules is on the horizon. NP biosynthetic potential is not equally distributed across organisms, environments, or microbial life histories, but instead is enriched in a number of prolific clades. Also, NPs are not equally abundant in nature; some are quite common and others markedly rare. Armed with this knowledge, random 'fishing expeditions' for new NPs are increasingly harder to justify. Understanding the ecological and evolutionary pressures that drive the non-uniform distribution of NP biosynthesis provides a rational framework for the targeted isolation of strains enriched in new NP potential. Additionally, ecological theory leads to testable hypotheses regarding the roles of NPs in shaping ecosystems. Here we review several recent strain prioritization practices and discuss the ecological and evolutionary underpinnings for each. Finally, we offer perspectives on leveraging microbial ecology and evolutionary biology for future NP discovery.

  1. Bridging the gap: basic metabolomics methods for natural product chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Oliver A H; Hügel, Helmut M

    2013-01-01

    Natural products and their derivatives often have potent physiological activities and therefore play important roles as both frontline treatments for many diseases and as the inspiration for chemically synthesized therapeutics. However, the detection and synthesis of new therapeutic compounds derived from, or inspired by natural compounds has declined in recent years due to the increased difficulty of identifying and isolating novel active compounds. A new strategy is therefore necessary to jumpstart this field of research. Metabolomics, including both targeted and global metabolite profiling strategies, has the potential to be instrumental in this effort since it allows a systematic study of complex mixtures (such as plant extracts) without the need for prior isolation of active ingredients (or mixtures thereof). Here we describe the basic steps for conducting metabolomics experiments and analyzing the results using some of the more commonly used analytical and statistical methodologies.

  2. Conceptual process synthesis for recovery of natural products from plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malwade, Chandrakant R.; Qu, Haiyan; Rong, Ben-Guang

    2013-01-01

    ) and purification of target compound(s) from the crude extract. Process analytical technology (PAT) is used in each step to understand the nature of material systems and separation characteristics of each separation method. In the present work, this methodology is applied to generate process flow sheet for recovery......A systematic method of conceptual process synthesis for recovery of natural products from their biological sources is presented. This methodology divides the task into two major subtasks namely, isolation of target compound from a chemically complex solid matrix of biological source (crude extract...... in individual unit operations of maceration, flash column chromatography, and crystallization are 90.0%, 87.1, and 47.6%, respectively. Results showed that the crystallization step is dominant to the overall yield of the process which was 37.3%....

  3. Water for wood products versus nature, food or feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schyns, Joep; Booij, Martijn; Hoekstra, Arjen

    2017-04-01

    more water available for the generation of other ecosystem services. Our findings contribute to a more complete picture of the human appropriation of water and the understanding of the interlinkages between the SDGs, thus feeding the debate on water for wood products versus nature, food or feed.

  4. Water Use for Unconventional Energy Development: How Much, What Kind, and to What Reaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubert, E.

    2017-12-01

    Water resources—access to water, protection of water, and allocation of water in particular—are a major priority for Americans, but water use for the energy sector has not previously been well characterized. Water use and management associated with unconventional energy development is of special interest, in part because it is often new to the locations and contexts where it occurs. This presentation focuses on three major questions about water use for unconventional energy development, drawing on both engineering and anthropological research. First, using results from a recent study of water use for energy in the entire United States, how much water does the US use for unconventional energy resources, and how does that compare with water use for more mature fuel cycles? Second, based on that same study, what kind of water is used for these unconventional energy resource fuel cycles? Specifically, where does the water come from, and what is its quality? Finally, drawing on recent case studies in the US and elsewhere, what has the reaction been to these water uses, and why does that matter? Case studies focused on oil and natural gas resources illustrate societal reactions to issues of both water management, particularly related to induced seismicity associated with produced water injection, and water allocation, particularly related to hydraulic fracturing. Overall, recent work finds that public concern about water used for unconventional energy resources is often better explained by observed or anticipated local impacts and the uncertainty surrounding these impacts than by specifics about quantities, allocation, and management techniques. This work provides both quantitative and qualitative characterization of water management and allocation for unconventional energy development.

  5. A general enantioselective route to the chamigrene natural product family

    KAUST Repository

    White, David E.

    2010-06-01

    Described in this report is an enantioselective route toward the chamigrene natural product family. The key disconnections in our synthetic approach include sequential enantioselective decarboxylative allylation and ring-closing olefin metathesis to form the all-carbon quaternary stereocenter and spirocyclic core present in all members of this class of compounds. The generality of this strategy is demonstrated by the first total syntheses of elatol and the proposed structure of laurencenone B, as well as the first enantioselective total syntheses of laurencenone C and α-chamigrene. A brief exploration of the substrate scope of the enantioselective decarboxylative allylation/ring-closing metathesis sequence with fully substituted vinyl chlorides is also presented.

  6. Bioactive Natural Products of Marine Sponges from the Genus Hyrtios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nourhan Hisham Shady

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Marine sponges are known as a rich source for novel bioactive compounds with valuable pharmacological potential. One of the most predominant sponge genera is Hyrtios, reported to have various species such as Hyrtios erectus, Hyrtios reticulatus, Hyrtios gumminae, Hyrtios communis, and Hyrtios tubulatus and a number of undescribed species. Members of the genus Hyrtios are a rich source of natural products with diverse and valuable biological activities, represented by different chemical classes including alkaloids, sesterterpenes and sesquiterpenes. This review covers the literature until June 2016, providing a complete survey of all compounds isolated from the genus Hyrtios with their corresponding biological activities whenever applicable.

  7. Green extraction of natural products: concept and principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemat, Farid; Vian, Maryline Abert; Cravotto, Giancarlo

    2012-01-01

    The design of green and sustainable extraction methods of natural products is currently a hot research topic in the multidisciplinary area of applied chemistry, biology and technology. Herein we aimed to introduce the six principles of green-extraction, describing a multifaceted strategy to apply this concept at research and industrial level. The mainstay of this working protocol are new and innovative technologies, process intensification, agro-solvents and energy saving. The concept, principles and examples of green extraction here discussed, offer an updated glimpse of the huge technological effort that is being made and the diverse applications that are being developed.

  8. Natural product diversity of actinobacteria in the Atacama Desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rateb, Mostafa E; Ebel, Rainer; Jaspars, Marcel

    2018-02-14

    The Atacama Desert of northern Chile is considered one of the most arid and extreme environment on Earth. Its core region was described as featuring "Mars-like" soils that were at one point deemed too extreme for life to exist. However, recent investigations confirmed the presence of diverse culturable actinobacteria. In the current review, we discuss a total of 46 natural products isolated to date representing diverse chemical classes characterized from different actinobacteria isolated from various locations in the Atacama Desert. Their reported biological activities are also discussed.

  9. Enantiospecific Synthesis of Trisubstituted Butyrolactone Natural Products and Their Analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibi, Mukund P.; Lu, Jianliang; Talbacka, Chelsy L.

    1996-11-01

    A general methodology for the synthesis of highly substituted butyrolactones in enantiomerically pure form has been developed. The application of this process in a highly efficient synthesis of lactone natural products blastmycinone (1), NFX-2 (2), antimycinone (3), and NFX-4 (4) and two lipid metabolites (5, 6) are described. Additionally, the total synthesis of 5-epi-blastmycinone (22), 5-epi-NFX-2 (21b), 5-epi-NFX-4 (21c), and lipid metabolite analogs (19, 20) are also described. The overall yields for the target molecules are the highest reported so far in the literature.

  10. A general enantioselective route to the chamigrene natural product family

    KAUST Repository

    White, David E.; Stewart, Ian C.; Seashore-Ludlow, Brinton A.; Grubbs, Robert H.; Stoltz, Brian M.

    2010-01-01

    Described in this report is an enantioselective route toward the chamigrene natural product family. The key disconnections in our synthetic approach include sequential enantioselective decarboxylative allylation and ring-closing olefin metathesis to form the all-carbon quaternary stereocenter and spirocyclic core present in all members of this class of compounds. The generality of this strategy is demonstrated by the first total syntheses of elatol and the proposed structure of laurencenone B, as well as the first enantioselective total syntheses of laurencenone C and α-chamigrene. A brief exploration of the substrate scope of the enantioselective decarboxylative allylation/ring-closing metathesis sequence with fully substituted vinyl chlorides is also presented.

  11. Marine Vibrionaceae as a source of bioactive natural products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Månsson, Maria; Wietz, Matthias; Gram, Lone

    an ecological function. Using chemical profiling, vibrio strains were compared on a global scale, revealing that the production of certain compounds is a conserved feature independent of sample locations. Chemical screening techniques such as explorative solid-phase extraction led to the isolation of two novel...... that some strains were capable of producing antibacterial compounds when grown on natural substrates such as chitin or seaweed. One Vibrio coralliilyticus strain was capable of producing the antibacterial compound when using chitin as the sole carbon source and in a live chitin model system, suggesting...... of which possess biological activities attractive for alternative strategies in antibacterial therapy....

  12. Natural product antifoulants from the octocorals of Indian waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raveendran, T.V.; LimnaMol, V.P.; Parameswaran, P.S.

    stream_size 22497 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Int_Biodeterior_Biodegrad_65_265a.pdf.txt stream_source_info Int_Biodeterior_Biodegrad_65_265a.pdf.txt Content-Encoding UTF-8 Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8... 1 Author version: International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, vol.65(1); 2011; 265-268 Natural Product Antifoulants from the Octocorals of Indian waters T.V. Raveendran * , V.P. Limna Mol, P.S. Parameswaran National Institute...

  13. Green Extraction of Natural Products: Concept and Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo Cravotto

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The design of green and sustainable extraction methods of natural products is currently a hot research topic in the multidisciplinary area of applied chemistry, biology and technology. Herein we aimed to introduce the six principles of green-extraction, describing a multifaceted strategy to apply this concept at research and industrial level. The mainstay of this working protocol are new and innovative technologies, process intensification, agro-solvents and energy saving. The concept, principles and examples of green extraction here discussed, offer an updated glimpse of the huge technological effort that is being made and the diverse applications that are being developed.

  14. The Canadian Natural Health Products (NHP) regulations: industry compliance motivations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laeeque, Hina; Boon, Heather; Kachan, Natasha; Cohen, Jillian Clare; D'Cruz, Joseph

    2007-06-01

    This qualitative study explores corporations' motivations to comply with new natural health products (NHP) Regulations in Canada. Interviews were conducted with representatives from 20 Canadian NHP companies. Findings show that the rationale for compliance differs for large compared to small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Large firms are motivated to comply with the regulations because of the deterrent fear of negative media coverage, social motivations, ability to comply and maintaining a competitive market advantage. In contrast, SMEs are motivated to comply due to the deterrent fear of legal prosecution and a sense of duty.

  15. Geochemistry of actinides and fission products in natural aquifer systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.I.

    1989-06-01

    The progress in the research area of the community project MIRAGE: 'Geochemistry of actinides and fission products in natural aquatic systems' has been reviewed. This programme belongs to a specific research and technical development programme for the European Atomic Energy Community in the field of management and storage of radioactive waste. The review summarizes research progresses in subject areas: complexation with organics, colloid generation in groundwater and basic retention mechanisms in the framework of the migration of radionuclides in the geosphere. The subject areas are being investigated by 23 laboratories under interlaboratory collaborations or independent studies. (orig.)

  16. Environmental review of natural gas production in Lake Erie

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Shea, K.

    2002-01-01

    The water of Lake Erie is used as a source of drinking water for Ontario, New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio and Michigan. An environmental review has been conducted to determine the impact of drilling operations on the overall ecology of the lake. Since 1913, 2000 natural gas wells have been drilled in Lake Erie, of which 550 currently produce gas and account for 75 per cent of Ontario's total gas production. 180 wells are shut-in or suspended and the remaining wells have been abandoned. The gas wells are connected to onshore production facilities by approximately 1,600 km of small diameter pipelines that lie buried near shore or on top of the lake bed. Nearly 90 per cent of the in-lake infrastructure is in water depths of more than 20 metres. Talisman Energy is actively involved with the Canadian Coast Guard, the Department of Fisheries and Oceans, and the Ministry of Natural Resources to ensure cooperation between regulators and off-shore personnel. The environmental assessment of natural gas production in Lake Erie included a review of regulatory and best management practices, a biophysical overview of the lake, and a review of drilling practices, well completions, handling of waste streams, materials management, operations inspections, wastewater discharge, air emissions, and oil spills. It was revealed that for most drilling programs, cuttings are washed and discharged to the Lake. Ongoing testing will determine the impact that this practice has on benthic populations. The drill muds used for drilling operations are water based, environmentally friendly, and re-used between well locations. For completion programs, all well activities are closed circuit operations. Wells are abandoned through plugging with cement, removing wellheads and casing below the lake bottom. There has been a reported volume of about 23,000 litres of spilled product from 1990 to 2001, of which 68 per cent has come from 3 industrial companies that operate near Lake Erie. The offshore gas

  17. In-ground operation of Geothermic Fuel Cells for unconventional oil and gas recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Neal; Anyenya, Gladys; Haun, Buddy; Daubenspeck, Mark; Bonadies, Joseph; Kerr, Rick; Fischer, Bernhard; Wright, Adam; Jones, Gerald; Li, Robert; Wall, Mark; Forbes, Alan; Savage, Marshall

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents operating and performance characteristics of a nine-stack solid-oxide fuel cell combined-heat-and-power system. Integrated with a natural-gas fuel processor, air compressor, reactant-gas preheater, and diagnostics and control equipment, the system is designed for use in unconventional oil-and-gas processing. Termed a ;Geothermic Fuel Cell; (GFC), the heat liberated by the fuel cell during electricity generation is harnessed to process oil shale into high-quality crude oil and natural gas. The 1.5-kWe SOFC stacks are packaged within three-stack GFC modules. Three GFC modules are mechanically and electrically coupled to a reactant-gas preheater and installed within the earth. During operation, significant heat is conducted from the Geothermic Fuel Cell to the surrounding geology. The complete system was continuously operated on hydrogen and natural-gas fuels for ∼600 h. A quasi-steady operating point was established to favor heat generation (29.1 kWth) over electricity production (4.4 kWe). Thermodynamic analysis reveals a combined-heat-and-power efficiency of 55% at this condition. Heat flux to the geology averaged 3.2 kW m-1 across the 9-m length of the Geothermic Fuel Cell-preheater assembly. System performance is reviewed; some suggestions for improvement are proposed.

  18. Personal-Care Products Formulated with Natural Antioxidant Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Soto

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential use of some vegetal raw materials in personal-care products. Four ethanolic extracts (grape pomace, Pinus pinaster wood chips, Acacia dealbata flowers, and Lentinus edodes were prepared and total phenolics, monomeric sugars, and antioxidant capacity were determined on alcoholic extracts. Six of the most important groups of cosmetics products (hand cream, body oil, shampoo, clay mask, body exfoliating cream, and skin cleanser were formulated. Participants evaluated some sensory attributes and overall acceptance by a 10-point scale; the results showed differences among age-intervals, but not between males and females. The results confirmed that all extracts presented characteristics appropriate for their use in cosmetic formulations and their good acceptability by consumers into all cosmetic products. Texture/appearance, spreadability, and skin feeling are important attributes among consumer expectations, but odor and color were the primary drivers and helped differentiate the natural extracts added into all personal-care products.

  19. US production of natural gas from tight reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    For the purposes of this report, tight gas reservoirs are defined as those that meet the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's (FERC) definition of tight. They are generally characterized by an average reservoir rock permeability to gas of 0.1 millidarcy or less and, absent artificial stimulation of production, by production rates that do not exceed 5 barrels of oil per day and certain specified daily volumes of gas which increase with the depth of the reservoir. All of the statistics presented in this report pertain to wells that have been classified, from 1978 through 1991, as tight according to the FERC; i.e., they are ''legally tight'' reservoirs. Additional production from ''geologically tight'' reservoirs that have not been classified tight according to the FERC rules has been excluded. This category includes all producing wells drilled into legally designated tight gas reservoirs prior to 1978 and all producing wells drilled into physically tight gas reservoirs that have not been designated legally tight. Therefore, all gas production referenced herein is eligible for the Section 29 tax credit. Although the qualification period for the credit expired at the end of 1992, wells that were spudded (began to be drilled) between 1978 and May 1988, and from November 5, 1990, through year end 1992, are eligible for the tax credit for a subsequent period of 10 years. This report updates the EIA's tight gas production information through 1991 and considers further the history and effect on tight gas production of the Federal Government's regulatory and tax policy actions. It also provides some high points of the geologic background needed to understand the nature and location of low-permeability reservoirs

  20. Applying Unconventional Secretion in Ustilago maydis for the Export of Functional Nanobodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Terfrüchte

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Exploiting secretory pathways for production of heterologous proteins is highly advantageous with respect to efficient downstream processing. In eukaryotic systems the vast majority of heterologous proteins for biotechnological application is exported via the canonical endoplasmic reticulum–Golgi pathway. In the endomembrane system target proteins are often glycosylated and may thus be modified with foreign glycan patterns. This can be destructive for their activity or cause immune reactions against therapeutic proteins. Hence, using unconventional secretion for protein expression is an attractive alternative. In the fungal model Ustilago maydis, chitinase Cts1 is secreted via an unconventional pathway connected to cell separation which can be used to co-export heterologous proteins. Here, we apply this mechanism for the production of nanobodies. First, we achieved expression and unconventional secretion of a functional nanobody directed against green fluorescent protein (Gfp. Second, we found that Cts1 binds to chitin and that this feature can be applied to generate a Gfp-trap. Thus, we demonstrated the dual use of Cts1 serving both as export vehicle and as purification tag. Finally, we established and optimized the production of a nanobody against botulinum toxin A and hence describe the first pharmaceutically relevant target exported by Cts1-mediated unconventional secretion.

  1. Telomerase Inhibitors from Natural Products and Their Anticancer Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Ganesan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Telomeres and telomerase are nowadays exploring traits on targets for anticancer therapy. Telomerase is a unique reverse transcriptase enzyme, considered as a primary factor in almost all cancer cells, which is mainly responsible to regulate the telomere length. Hence, telomerase ensures the indefinite cell proliferation during malignancy—a hallmark of cancer—and this distinctive feature has provided telomerase as the preferred target for drug development in cancer therapy. Deactivation of telomerase and telomere destabilization by natural products provides an opening to succeed new targets for cancer therapy. This review aims to provide a fundamental knowledge for research on telomere, working regulation of telomerase and its various binding proteins to inhibit the telomere/telomerase complex. In addition, the review summarizes the inhibitors of the enzyme catalytic subunit and RNA component, natural products that target telomeres, and suppression of transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. This extensive understanding of telomerase biology will provide indispensable information for enhancing the efficiency of rational anti-cancer drug design.

  2. Total Synthesis of Natural Products Using Hypervalent Iodine Reagents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetan eMaertens

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a review of natural product syntheses accomplished in our laboratory during the last five years. Each synthetic route features a phenol dearomatization promoted by an environmentally benign hypervalent iodine reagent. The dearomatizations demonstrate the aromatic ring umpolung concept, and involve stereoselective remodeling of the inert unsaturations of a phenol into a highly functionalized key intermediate that may contain a quaternary carbon center and a prochiral dienone system. Several new oxidative strategies were employed, including transpositions (1,3-alkyl shift and Prins-pinacol, a polycyclization, an ipso rearrangement, and direct nucleophilic additions at the phenol para position. Several alkaloids, heterocyclic compounds, and a polycyclic core have been achieved, including sceletenone (a serotonin reuptake inhibitor, acetylaspidoalbidine (an antitumor agent, fortucine (antiviral and antitumor, erysotramidine (curare-like effect, platensimycin (an antibiotic, and the main core of a kaurane diterpene (immunosuppressive agent and stimulator of apoptosis. These concise and in some cases enantioselective syntheses effectively demonstrate the importance of hypervalent iodine reagents in the total synthesis of bioactive natural products.

  3. A diversity oriented synthesis of natural product inspired molecular libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Jyoti; Luthra, Tania; Gundla, Rambabu; Ferraro, Antonio; Holzgrabe, Ulrike; Sen, Subhabrata

    2017-11-07

    Natural products are the source of innumerable pharmaceutical drug candidates and also form an important aspect of herbal remedies. They are also a source of various bioactive compounds. Herein we have leveraged the structural attributes of several natural products in building a library of architecturally diverse chiral molecules by harnessing R-tryptophan as the chiral auxiliary. It is converted to its corresponding methyl ester 1 which in turn provided a bevy of 1-aryl-tetrahydro-β-carbolines 2a-d, which were then converted to chiral compounds via a diversity oriented synthetic strategy (DOS). In general, intermolecular and intramolecular ring rearrangements facilitated the formation of the final compounds. Four different classes of molecules with distinct architectures were generated, adding up to nearly twenty-two individual molecules. Phenotypic screening of a representative section of the library revealed two molecules that selectively inhibit MCF7 breast cancer cells with IC 50 of ∼5 μg mL -1 potency.

  4. Applications of natural zeolites on agriculture and food production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eroglu, Nazife; Emekci, Mevlut; Athanassiou, Christos G

    2017-08-01

    Zeolites are crystalline hydrated aluminosilicates with remarkable physical and chemical properties, which include losing and receiving water in a reverse way, adsorbing molecules that act as molecular sieves, and replacing their constituent cations without structural change. The commercial production of natural zeolites has accelerated during the last 50 years. The Structure Commission of the International Zeolite Association recorded more than 200 zeolites, which currently include more than 40 naturally occurring zeolites. Recent findings have supported their role in stored-pest management as inert dust applications, pesticide and fertilizer carriers, soil amendments, animal feed additives, mycotoxin binders and food packaging materials. There are many advantages of inert dust application, including low cost, non-neurotoxic action, low mammalian toxicity and safety for human consumption. The latest consumer trends and government protocols have shifted toward organic origin materials to replace synthetic chemical products. In the present review, we summarize most of the main uses of zeolites in food and agruculture, along with the with specific paradigms that illustrate their important role. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. The potential of natural products for targeting PPARα

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Rigano

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs α, -γ and -β/δ are ligand-activated transcription factors and members of the superfamily of nuclear hormone receptor. These receptors play key roles in maintaining glucose and lipid homeostasis by modulating gene expression. PPARs constitute a recognized druggable target and indeed several classes of drugs used in the treatment of metabolic disease symptoms, such as dyslipidemia (fibrates, e.g. fenofibrate and gemfibrozil and diabetes (thiazolidinediones, e.g. rosiglitazone and pioglitazone are ligands for the various PPAR isoforms. More precisely, antidiabetic thiazolidinediones act on PPARγ, while PPARα is the main molecular target of antidyslipidemic fibrates. Over the past few years, our understanding of the mechanism underlying the PPAR modulation of gene expression has greatly increased. This review presents a survey on terrestrial and marine natural products modulating the PPARα system with the objective of highlighting how the incredible chemodiversity of natural products can provide innovative leads for this “hot” target.

  6. Experience curve for natural gas production by hydraulic fracturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, Rokuhei; Greenfield, Carl; Pogue, Katie; Zwaan, Bob van der

    2017-01-01

    From 2007 to 2012 shale gas production in the US expanded at an astounding average growth rate of over 50%/yr, and thereby increased nearly tenfold over this short time period alone. Hydraulic fracturing technology, or “fracking”, as well as new directional drilling techniques, played key roles in this shale gas revolution, by allowing for extraction of natural gas from previously unviable shale resources. Although hydraulic fracturing technology had been around for decades, it only recently became commercially attractive for large-scale implementation. As the production of shale gas rapidly increased in the US over the past decade, the wellhead price of natural gas dropped substantially. In this paper we express the relationship between wellhead price and cumulative natural gas output in terms of an experience curve, and obtain a learning rate of 13% for the industry using hydraulic fracturing technology. This learning rate represents a measure for the know-how and skills accumulated thus far by the US shale gas industry. The use of experience curves for renewable energy options such as solar and wind power has allowed analysts, practitioners, and policy makers to assess potential price reductions, and underlying cost decreases, for these technologies in the future. The reasons for price reductions of hydraulic fracturing are fundamentally different from those behind renewable energy technologies – hence they cannot be directly compared – and hydraulic fracturing may soon reach, or maybe has already attained, a lower bound for further price reductions, for instance as a result of its water requirements or environmental footprint. Yet, understanding learning-by-doing phenomena as expressed by an industry-wide experience curve for shale gas production can be useful for strategic planning in the gas sector, as well as assist environmental policy design, and serve more broadly as input for projections of energy system developments. - Highlights: • Hydraulic

  7. Natural radioactivity product from coal burning in PLTU Pacitan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukirno; Sri Murniasih; Rosidi; Sutanto WW

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring of radioactivity in the coal-fired power plant has been carried out in the CAST-NAA laboratory at 2015. Monitoring includes analysis of soil, water, fly ash, bottom ash and coal. The basic purpose of this work is the investigation of natural radionuclide contents in coal and the actual product samples in the Pacitan power plant as a first step to estimate the radioactive in the vicinity. This paper presents the results of the analysis of radioactivity in samples of coal, fly ash and bottom ash as well as environment samples of soil and water. Ra-226, Th-232, K-40, U-235, U-238, and Pb-210 Natural radionuclides are determined by gamma spectrometry with HPGe detector. Natural radionuclide in fine grain coal, bottom ash and fly ash have concentrations range (162.182 to 0.057) Bq/kg. Radioactivity contained in soil ranges (0.041 to 169.34) Bq/kg, whereas in water ranges (0.003 to 0.045) Bq/L. According Perka BAPETEN. No. 7 of 2013. On Boundary Value Environmental Radioactivity, the results of measurement analysis contained water around the power plant Pacitan still below the limit values allowed by BAPETEN. (author)

  8. Just fracking: a distributive environmental justice analysis of unconventional gas development in Pennsylvania, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, Emily; Bell, Derek

    2016-02-01

    This letter presents a distributive environmental justice analysis of unconventional gas development in the area of Pennsylvania lying over the Marcellus Shale, the largest shale gas formation in play in the United States. The extraction of shale gas using unconventional wells, which are hydraulically fractured (fracking), has increased dramatically since 2005. As the number of wells has grown, so have concerns about the potential public health effects on nearby communities. These concerns make shale gas development an environmental justice issue. This letter examines whether the hazards associated with proximity to wells and the economic benefits of shale gas production are fairly distributed. We distinguish two types of distributive environmental justice: traditional and benefit sharing. We ask the traditional question: are there a disproportionate number of minority or low-income residents in areas near to unconventional wells in Pennsylvania? However, we extend this analysis in two ways: we examine income distribution and level of education; and we compare before and after shale gas development. This contributes to discussions of benefit sharing by showing how the income distribution of the population has changed. We use a binary dasymetric technique to remap the data from the 2000 US Census and the 2009-2013 American Communities Survey and combine that data with a buffer containment analysis of unconventional wells to compare the characteristics of the population living nearer to unconventional wells with those further away before and after shale gas development. Our analysis indicates that there is no evidence of traditional distributive environmental injustice: there is not a disproportionate number of minority or low-income residents in areas near to unconventional wells. However, our analysis is consistent with the claim that there is benefit sharing distributive environmental injustice: the income distribution of the population nearer to shale gas wells

  9. Lichen Symbiosis: Nature's High Yielding Machines for Induced Hydrogen Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papazi, Aikaterini; Kastanaki, Elizabeth; Pirintsos, Stergios; Kotzabasis, Kiriakos

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen is a promising future energy source. Although the ability of green algae to produce hydrogen has long been recognized (since 1939) and several biotechnological applications have been attempted, the greatest obstacle, being the O2-sensitivity of the hydrogenase enzyme, has not yet been overcome. In the present contribution, 75 years after the first report on algal hydrogen production, taking advantage of a natural mechanism of oxygen balance, we demonstrate high hydrogen yields by lichens. Lichens have been selected as the ideal organisms in nature for hydrogen production, since they consist of a mycobiont and a photobiont in symbiosis. It has been hypothesized that the mycobiont’s and photobiont’s consumption of oxygen (increase of COX and AOX proteins of mitochondrial respiratory pathways and PTOX protein of chrolorespiration) establishes the required anoxic conditions for the activation of the phycobiont’s hydrogenase in a closed system. Our results clearly supported the above hypothesis, showing that lichens have the ability to activate appropriate bioenergetic pathways depending on the specific incubation conditions. Under light conditions, they successfully use the PSII-dependent and the PSII-independent pathways (decrease of D1 protein and parallel increase of PSaA protein) to transfer electrons to hydrogenase, while under dark conditions, lichens use the PFOR enzyme and the dark fermentative pathway to supply electrons to hydrogenase. These advantages of lichen symbiosis in combination with their ability to survive in extreme environments (while in a dry state) constitute them as unique and valuable hydrogen producing natural factories and pave the way for future biotechnological applications. PMID:25826211

  10. Lichen symbiosis: nature's high yielding machines for induced hydrogen production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aikaterini Papazi

    Full Text Available Hydrogen is a promising future energy source. Although the ability of green algae to produce hydrogen has long been recognized (since 1939 and several biotechnological applications have been attempted, the greatest obstacle, being the O2-sensitivity of the hydrogenase enzyme, has not yet been overcome. In the present contribution, 75 years after the first report on algal hydrogen production, taking advantage of a natural mechanism of oxygen balance, we demonstrate high hydrogen yields by lichens. Lichens have been selected as the ideal organisms in nature for hydrogen production, since they consist of a mycobiont and a photobiont in symbiosis. It has been hypothesized that the mycobiont's and photobiont's consumption of oxygen (increase of COX and AOX proteins of mitochondrial respiratory pathways and PTOX protein of chrolorespiration establishes the required anoxic conditions for the activation of the phycobiont's hydrogenase in a closed system. Our results clearly supported the above hypothesis, showing that lichens have the ability to activate appropriate bioenergetic pathways depending on the specific incubation conditions. Under light conditions, they successfully use the PSII-dependent and the PSII-independent pathways (decrease of D1 protein and parallel increase of PSaA protein to transfer electrons to hydrogenase, while under dark conditions, lichens use the PFOR enzyme and the dark fermentative pathway to supply electrons to hydrogenase. These advantages of lichen symbiosis in combination with their ability to survive in extreme environments (while in a dry state constitute them as unique and valuable hydrogen producing natural factories and pave the way for future biotechnological applications.

  11. [Unconventional disease agents--a danger for humans and animals?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaaden, O R

    1994-02-01

    The occurrence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in Great Britain in 1985/86, has focused again the public concern as well as scientific interest to the Scrapie disease of sheep and goat known more than 150 years. The agents of scrapie and BSE are characterized by unusual biological and physical-chemical properties, especially their high tenacity. Therefore, they are also designated "unconventional agents of viruses". Different theories have been proposed about their infectious characteristics--especially because of the apparent or real missing of an agent-specific nucleic acid--which are named Virinos, Prions or Nemavirus. The broad host range of Scrapie respective BSE, which includes domestic and wild ruminants, Suidae, Felidae, Mustelidae, small rodents, birds and non-primates, has created some concern since there might be an aetiological correlation between the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies of man (Creutzfeld-Jakob- and Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker-Disease) and that of animals. Although at present neither epidemiological nor molecular biological evidence whatsoever was proved, the hypothesis cannot be completely disproved. The probability of infection through digestive tract seems to be rather unlikely but special precautions should be taken as far as production, investigation and application of human medicine drugs of animal origin. Furthermore, research about the aetiology of "unconventional agents" and pathogenesis of resulting diseases is necessary and should be intensified in Germany. Finally, only an early intra vitam-Diagnose and in vitro detection can avoid an further spread of this new category of diseases.

  12. Combating Daesh: A Socially Unconventional Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    to those that pledge political support.49 Auyero et al . outline four scenarios where clientelism may spur collective action.50 The first is...to al -Baghdadi Abu Ahmad al -Alwani Direct tie to al -Baghdadi Adnan Latif Hamid al -Sweidawi Wilaya Anbar Governor Fadel Ahmad Abdullah al -Hiyali...Exploitation, SME, Unconventional Warfare, UW, Irregular Warfare, IW, Abu Badr al -Baghdadi, Army Operating Concept, AOC, Human Domain Mapping

  13. Unconventional Use of Intense Pulsed Light

    OpenAIRE

    Piccolo, D.; Di Marcantonio, D.; Crisman, G.; Cannarozzo, G.; Sannino, M.; Chiricozzi, A.; Chimenti, S.

    2014-01-01

    According to the literature, intense pulsed light (IPL) represents a versatile tool in the treatment of some dermatological conditions (i.e., pigmentation disorders, hair removal, and acne), due to its wide range of wavelengths. The authors herein report on 58 unconventional but effective uses of IPL in several cutaneous diseases, such as rosacea (10 cases), port-wine stain (PWS) (10 cases), disseminated porokeratosis (10 cases), pilonidal cyst (3 cases), seborrheic keratosis (10 cases), hype...

  14. Unconventional device concepts for polymer solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veenstra, S.C.; Slooff, L.H.; Verhees, W.J.H.; Cobussen-Pool, E.M.; Lenzmann, F.O.; Kroon, J.M. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands); Sessolo, M.; Bolink, H.J. [Instituto de Ciencia Molecular, Universidad de Valencia, Valencia (Spain)

    2009-09-15

    The inclusion of metal-oxide layers in polymer solar cells enables the fabrication of a series of unconventional device architectures. These devices include: semi-transparent polymer solar cells, devices with inverted polarity, as well as devices with air stable electrodes. A proof-of-principle of these devices is presented. The anticipated benefits of these novel device structures over conventional polymer solar cells are discussed.

  15. A comparison of ground-based and aircraft-based methane emission flux estimates in a western oil and natural gas production basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snare, Dustin A.

    Recent increases in oil and gas production from unconventional reservoirs has brought with it an increase of methane emissions. Estimating methane emissions from oil and gas production is complex due to differences in equipment designs, maintenance, and variable product composition. Site access to oil and gas production equipment can be difficult and time consuming, making remote assessment of emissions vital to understanding local point source emissions. This work presents measurements of methane leakage made from a new ground-based mobile laboratory and a research aircraft around oil and gas fields in the Upper Green River Basin (UGRB) of Wyoming in 2014. It was recently shown that the application of the Point Source Gaussian (PSG) method, utilizing atmospheric dispersion tables developed by US EPA (Appendix B), is an effective way to accurately measure methane flux from a ground-based location downwind of a source without the use of a tracer (Brantley et al., 2014). Aircraft measurements of methane enhancement regions downwind of oil and natural gas production and Planetary Boundary Layer observations are utilized to obtain a flux for the entire UGRB. Methane emissions are compared to volumes of natural gas produced to derive a leakage rate from production operations for individual production sites and basin-wide production. Ground-based flux estimates derive a leakage rate of 0.14 - 0.78 % (95 % confidence interval) per site with a mass-weighted average (MWA) of 0.20 % for all sites. Aircraft-based flux estimates derive a MWA leakage rate of 0.54 - 0.91 % for the UGRB.

  16. Naturally occurring radionuclides in agricultural products: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanlon, E.A.

    1994-01-01

    Low levels of naturally occurring radionuclides exist in phosphatic clays, a by-product of phosphatic mining and beneficiation processes. Concerns about these radionuclides entering the human food chain were an immediate research priority before the phosphate clays could be reclaimed for intensive agricultural purposes. Efforts included the assembly of a large body of data from both sons and plants, part of which were produced by the Polk County (Florida) Mined Lands Agricultural Research/Demonstration Project MLAR/DP. Additional detailed studies involving dairy and beef cattle (Bos taurus) were conducted by researchers working with the MLAR/DP. A national symposium was conducted in which data concerning the MLAR/DP work and other research projects also dealing with naturally occurring radionuclides in agriculture could be discussed. The symposium included invited review papers dealing with the identification of radionuclide geological origins, the geochemistry and movement of radionuclides within the environment, mechanisms of plant uptake, entry points into the food chain, and evaluation of dose and risk assessment to the consumer of low levels of radionuclides. The risk to human health of an individual obtaining 0.1 of his or her dietary intake from crops produced on phosphatic clays increased by 1 in 5 x 10 6 /yr above a control individual consuming no food grown on phosphatic clays. Leaf tissues were found to be generally higher than fruit, grain, or root tissues. The natural range in radionuclide content among various food types was greater than the difference in radionuclides content between the same food produced on phosphatic clays vs. natural soils. 19 refs

  17. Natural Occurrence of Aldol Condensation Products in Valencia Orange Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Ingo; Da Costa, Neil C; van Es, Alfred; Kim, Jung-A; Parasar, Uma; Poulsen, Mauricio L

    2017-12-01

    Cold pressed orange oils contain predominantly d-limonene (approximately 95%) and various other lower concentration monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, sinensals plus 3 key aliphatic aldehydes: hexanal, octanal. and decanal. The aldol self-condensation products or "dimers" for each aldehyde have been postulated as being present at low concentrations in the oil. However, to date only the hexanal dimer has been previously reported. In this paper, cold pressed Valencia orange oil was fractionally distilled/folded and analyzed by GC and high resolution GC-MS to detect these compounds on 2 different capillary column phases. Subsequently the hexanal, octanal, and decanal self-aldol condensation products, 2-butyl-2-octenal, 2-hexyl-2-decenal, and 2-octyl-2-dodecenal, respectively, were detected in the folded oil. These predominantly trans configuration isomeric compounds were synthesized, to confirm them as being present in nature and evaluated organoleptically by a panel of evaluators. To further confirm the mechanism of their formation, the enriched oil was made into a simple beverage to show the effect on the formation of these aldol compounds under acidic conditions. Finally aliphatic aldehydes from hexanal to undecanal were reacted together in various combinatorial pairs to give an additional 33 self and mixed aldol condensation products, some of which were also detected in the folded oil. This paper discloses the structural elucidation and synthesis of 8 novel aldol condensation products found at trace concentrations in citrus and leading to a further 31 mass spectrally determined aldol products. Sensory evaluations and application of some of these components were demonstrated in a model citrus beverage. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  18. Cholesterol overload impairing cerebellar function: the promise of natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayyad, Hassan I H

    2015-05-01

    The cerebellum is the part of the brain most involved in controlling motor and cognitive function. The surface becomes convoluted, forming folia that have a characteristic internal structure of three layers including molecular, Purkinje cell, and granular layer. This complex neural network gives rise to a massive signal-processing capability. Cholesterol is a major constituent, derived by de novo synthesis and the blood-brain barrier. Cholesterol is tightly regulated between neurons and glia-that is, astrocytes, microglia, and oligodendrocytes-and is essential for normal brain development. The axon is wrapped by myelin (cholesterol, phospholipids, and glycosphingolipids) and made up of membranes of oligodendrocytes, separated by periodic gaps in the myelin sheath, called nodes of Ranvier. Hypercholesterolemia is associated with increased oxidative stress and the development of neurotoxicity and Alzheimer's disease. Treatment with natural products has been found to support improved brain function and reduce low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol level. Fish oil is one such product; among the many plant products are: Morus alba leaves, fruit, and bark; pomegranate fruit and peel; Barley β - glucans; date palm; and Allium sativum. The therapeutic potential was discussed in relation with the antilipidemic drugs, statins (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Does Osmotic Stress Affect Natural Product Expression in Fungi?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overy, David; Correa, Hebelin; Roullier, Catherine; Chi, Wei-Chiung; Pang, Ka-Lai; Rateb, Mostafa; Ebel, Rainer; Shang, Zhuo; Capon, Rob; Bills, Gerald; Kerr, Russell

    2017-08-13

    The discovery of new natural products from fungi isolated from the marine environment has increased dramatically over the last few decades, leading to the identification of over 1000 new metabolites. However, most of the reported marine-derived species appear to be terrestrial in origin yet at the same time, facultatively halo- or osmotolerant. An unanswered question regarding the apparent chemical productivity of marine-derived fungi is whether the common practice of fermenting strains in seawater contributes to enhanced secondary metabolism? To answer this question, a terrestrial isolate of Aspergillus aculeatus was fermented in osmotic and saline stress conditions in parallel across multiple sites. The ex-type strain of A. aculeatus was obtained from three different culture collections. Site-to-site variations in metabolite expression were observed, suggesting that subculturing of the same strain and subtle variations in experimental protocols can have pronounced effects upon metabolite expression. Replicated experiments at individual sites indicated that secondary metabolite production was divergent between osmotic and saline treatments. Titers of some metabolites increased or decreased in response to increasing osmolite (salt or glycerol) concentrations. Furthermore, in some cases, the expression of some secondary metabolites in relation to osmotic and saline stress was attributed to specific sources of the ex-type strains.

  20. Rational synthetic pathway refactoring of natural products biosynthesis in actinobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Gao-Yi; Liu, Tiangang

    2017-01-01

    Natural products (NPs) and their derivatives are widely used as frontline treatments for many diseases. Actinobacteria spp. are used to produce most of NP antibiotics and have also been intensively investigated for NP production, derivatization, and discovery. However, due to the complicated transcriptional and metabolic regulation of NP biosynthesis in Actinobacteria, especially in the cases of genome mining and heterologous expression, it is often difficult to rationally and systematically engineer synthetic pathways to maximize biosynthetic efficiency. With the emergence of new tools and methods in metabolic engineering, the synthetic pathways of many chemicals, such as fatty acids and biofuels, in model organisms (e.g. Escherichia coli ), have been refactored to realize precise and flexible control of production. These studies also offer a promising approach for synthetic pathway refactoring in Actinobacteria. In this review, the great potential of Actinobacteria as a microbial cell factory for biosynthesis of NPs is discussed. To this end, recent progress in metabolic engineering of NP synthetic pathways in Actinobacteria are summarized and strategies and perspectives to rationally and systematically refactor synthetic pathways in Actinobacteria are highlighted. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Natural sweetening of food products by engineering Lactococcus lactis for glucose production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pool, Wietske A.; Neves, Ana Rute; Kok, Jan; Santos, Helena; Kuipers, Oscar P.

    We show that sweetening of food products by natural fermentation can be achieved by a combined metabolic engineering and transcriptome analysis approach. A Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris strain was constructed in which glucose metabolism was completely disrupted by deletion of the genes coding for

  2. Lightweight Approaches to Natural Gas Hydrate Exploration & Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Max, M. D.; Johnson, A. H.

    2017-12-01

    Lower-cost approaches to drilling and reservoir utilization are made possible by adapting both emerging and new technology to the unique, low risk NGH natural gas resource. We have focused on drilling, wellbore lining technology, and reservoir management with an emphasis on long-term sand control and adaptive mechanical stability during NGH conversion to its constituent gas and water. In addition, we suggest that there are opportunities for management of both the gas and water with respect to maintaining desired thermal conditions. Some of the unique aspects of NGH deposits allow for new, more efficient technology to be applied to development, particularly in drilling. While NGH-bearing sands are in deepwater, they are confined to depths beneath the seafloor of 1.2 kilometers or less. As a result, they will not be significantly above hydrostatic pressure, and temperatures will be less than 30 oC. Drilling will be through semi-consolidated sediment without liquid hydrocarbons. These characteristics mean that high capability drillships are not needed. What is needed is a new perspective about drilling and producing NGH. Drilling from the seafloor will resolve the high-pressure differential between a wellhead on the sea surface in a vessel and reservoir to about the hydrostatic pressure difference between the seafloor and, at most, the base of the GHSZ. Although NGH production will begin using "off-the-shelf" technology, innovation will lead to new technology that will bring down costs and increase efficiency in the same way that led to the shale breakthrough. Commercial success is possible if consideration is given to what is actually needed to produce NGH in a safe and environmentally manner. Max, M.D. 2017. Wellbore Lining for Natural Gas Hydrate. U.S. Patent Application US15644947 Max, M.D. & Johnson, A.H. 2017. E&P Cost Reduction Opportunities for Natural Gas Hydrate. OilPro. . Max, M.D. & Johnson, A.H. 2016. Exploration and Production of Oceanic Natural Gas

  3. Biocombinatorial Engineering of Fungal PKS-NRPS Hybrids for Production of Novel Synthetic Natural Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Maria Lund

    encoding a PKS-NRPS hybrid responsible for the production of a medically relevant compound in Talaromyces atroroseus. To the best of my knowledge, this study represents the first example of reverse engineering of a Talaromyces species. In the fourth study (chapter 5), I used the CRISPR-Cas9 system...... structure optimization. Within the last decade, an alternative approach for expanding natural product chemodiversity has been applied. This strategy, known as combinatorial biosynthesis, involves the re-engineering of biosynthetic pathways and ultimately the rational engineering of new natural product...... analogs. This field, however, has proved very challenging and many engineering efforts have resulted in enzymatic loss-of-function or reduced yields. Thus, the future success in combinatorial biosynthetic studies requires a thorough understanding of the structure and function of biosynthetic enzymes...

  4. Marine Natural Products from New Caledonia—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia-Eléna Motuhi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Marine micro- and macroorganisms are well known to produce metabolites with high biotechnological potential. Nearly 40 years of systematic prospecting all around the New Caledonia archipelago and several successive research programs have uncovered new chemical leads from benthic and planktonic organisms. After species identification, biological and/or pharmaceutical analyses are performed on marine organisms to assess their bioactivities. A total of 3582 genera, 1107 families and 9372 species have been surveyed and more than 350 novel molecular structures have been identified. Along with their bioactivities that hold promise for therapeutic applications, most of these molecules are also potentially useful for cosmetics and food biotechnology. This review highlights the tremendous marine diversity in New Caledonia, and offers an outline of the vast possibilities for natural products, especially in the interest of pursuing collaborative fundamental research programs and developing local biotechnology programs.

  5. Inhibitors of Microglial Neurotoxicity: Focus on Natural Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoungho Suk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Microglial cells play a dual role in the central nervous system as they have both neurotoxic and neuroprotective effects. Uncontrolled and excessive activation of microglia often contributes to inflammation-mediated neurodegeneration. Recently, much attention has been paid to therapeutic strategies aimed at inhibiting neurotoxic microglial activation. Pharmacological inhibitors of microglial activation are emerging as a result of such endeavors. In this review, natural products-based inhibitors of microglial activation will be reviewed. Potential neuroprotective activity of these compounds will also be discussed. Future works should focus on the discovery of novel drug targets that specifically mediate microglial neurotoxicity rather than neuroprotection. Development of new drugs based on these targets may require a better understanding of microglial biology and neuroinflammation at the molecular, cellular, and systems levels.

  6. The Complexity of Bioactive Natural Products in Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisch, Tina

    Plants produce a diverse range of bioactive natural products promoting their fitness. These specialized metabolites may serve as chemical defence against herbivores and pathogens and may inhibit the growth and development of competing species. Hydroxynitrile glucosides and glucosinolates are two...... classes of defence compounds, which have diverging properties, but also share common biosynthetic features. Hydroxynitrile glucosides are produced in species across the plant kingdom, whereas glucosinolates are found almost exclusively within the Brassicales, which generally does not contain...... hydroxynitrile glucosides. This division has raised questions regarding possible evolutionary relationships between the biosynthetic pathways. The very rare co-occurrence of hydroxynitrile glucosides and glucosinolates found in Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard, løgkarse) and Carica papaya (papaya) makes...

  7. Role of Antioxidants and Natural Products in Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palanisamy Arulselvan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is a comprehensive array of physiological response to a foreign organism, including human pathogens, dust particles, and viruses. Inflammations are mainly divided into acute and chronic inflammation depending on various inflammatory processes and cellular mechanisms. Recent investigations have clarified that inflammation is a major factor for the progression of various chronic diseases/disorders, including diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, eye disorders, arthritis, obesity, autoimmune diseases, and inflammatory bowel disease. Free radical productions from different biological and environmental sources are due to an imbalance of natural antioxidants which further leads to various inflammatory associated diseases. In this review article, we have outlined the inflammatory process and its cellular mechanisms involved in the progression of various chronic modern human diseases. In addition, we have discussed the role of free radicals-induced tissue damage, antioxidant defence, and molecular mechanisms in chronic inflammatory diseases/disorders. The systematic knowledge regarding the role of inflammation and its associated adverse effects can provide a clear understanding in the development of innovative therapeutic targets from natural sources that are intended for suppression of various chronic inflammations associated diseases.

  8. Influenza neuraminidase: a druggable target for natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grienke, Ulrike; Schmidtke, Michaela; von Grafenstein, Susanne; Kirchmair, Johannes; Liedl, Klaus R; Rollinger, Judith M

    2012-01-01

    The imminent threat of influenza pandemics and repeatedly reported emergence of new drug-resistant influenza virus strains demonstrate the urgent need for developing innovative and effective antiviral agents for prevention and treatment. At present, influenza neuraminidase (NA), a key enzyme in viral replication, spread, and pathogenesis, is considered to be one of the most promising targets for combating influenza. Despite the substantial medical potential of NA inhibitors (NAIs), only three of these drugs are currently on the market (zanamivir, oseltamivir, and peramivir). Moreover, sudden changes in NAI susceptibility revealed the urgent need in the discovery/identification of novel inhibitors. Nature offers an abundance of biosynthesized compounds comprising chemical scaffolds of high diversity, which present an infinite pool of chemical entities for target-oriented drug discovery in the battle against this highly contagious pathogen. This review illuminates the increasing research efforts of the past decade (2000-2011), focusing on the structure, function and druggability of influenza NA, as well as its inhibition by natural products. Following a critical discussion of publications describing some 150 secondary plant metabolites tested for their inhibitory potential against influenza NA, the impact of three different strategies to identify and develop novel NAIs is presented: (i) bioactivity screening of herbal extracts, (ii) exploitation of empirical knowledge, and (iii) computational approaches. This work addresses the latest developments in theoretical and experimental research on properties of NA that are and will be driving anti-influenza drug development now and in the near future.

  9. Aminobenzoates as building blocks for natural product assembly lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Christopher T; Haynes, Stuart W; Ames, Brian D

    2012-01-01

    The ortho-, meta-, and para- regioisomers of aminobenzoate are building blocks for a wide range of microbial natural products. Both the ortho-isomer (anthranilate) and PABA derive from the central shikimate pathway metabolite chorismate while the meta-isomer is not available by that route and starts from UDP-3-aminoglucose. PABA is largely funnelled into folate biosynthesis while anthranilate is the scaffold for biosynthetic elaboration into many natural heterocycles, most notably with its role in indole formation for tryptophan biosynthesis. Anthranilate is also converted to benzodiazepinones, fumiquinazolines, quinoxalines, phenoxazines, benzoxazolinates, quinolones, and phenazines, often with redox enzyme participation. The 5-hydroxy form of 3-aminobenzaote is the starter unit for ansa-bridged rifamycins, ansamitocins, and geldanamycins, whereas regioisomers 2-hydroxy, 4-hydroxy and 2,4-dihydroxy-3-aminobenzoate are key components of antimycin, grixazone, and platencin and platensimycin biosynthesis, respectively. The enzymatic mechanisms for generation of the aminobenzoate regioisomers and their subsequent utilization for diverse heterocycle and macrocycle construction are examined.

  10. Toxic element contamination of natural health products and pharmaceutical preparations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J Genuis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Concern has recently emerged regarding the safety of natural health products (NHPs-therapies that are increasingly recommended by various health providers, including conventional physicians. Recognizing that most individuals in the Western world now consume vitamins and many take herbal agents, this study endeavored to determine levels of toxic element contamination within a range of NHPs. METHODS: Toxic element testing was performed on 121 NHPs (including Ayurvedic, traditional Chinese, and various marine-source products as well as 49 routinely prescribed pharmaceutical preparations. Testing was also performed on several batches of one prenatal supplement, with multiple samples tested within each batch. Results were compared to existing toxicant regulatory limits. RESULTS: Toxic element contamination was found in many supplements and pharmaceuticals; levels exceeding established limits were only found in a small percentage of the NHPs tested and none of the drugs tested. Some NHPs demonstrated contamination levels above preferred daily endpoints for mercury, cadmium, lead, arsenic or aluminum. NHPs manufactured in China generally had higher levels of mercury and aluminum. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to toxic elements is occurring regularly as a result of some contaminated NHPs. Best practices for quality control-developed and implemented by the NHP industry with government oversight-is recommended to guard the safety of unsuspecting consumers.

  11. Core@shell Nanoparticles: Greener Synthesis Using Natural Plant Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Khatami

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Among an array of hybrid nanoparticles, core-shell nanoparticles comprise of two or more materials, such as metals and biomolecules, wherein one of them forms the core at the center, while the other material/materials that were located around the central core develops a shell. Core-shell nanostructures are useful entities with high thermal and chemical stability, lower toxicity, greater solubility, and higher permeability to specific target cells. Plant or natural products-mediated synthesis of nanostructures refers to the use of plants or its extracts for the synthesis of nanostructures, an emerging field of sustainable nanotechnology. Various physiochemical and greener methods have been advanced for the synthesis of nanostructures, in contrast to conventional approaches that require the use of synthetic compounds for the assembly of nanostructures. Although several biological resources have been exploited for the synthesis of core-shell nanoparticles, but plant-based materials appear to be the ideal candidates for large-scale green synthesis of core-shell nanoparticles. This review summarizes the known strategies for the greener production of core-shell nanoparticles using plants extract or their derivatives and highlights their salient attributes, such as low costs, the lack of dependence on the use of any toxic materials, and the environmental friendliness for the sustainable assembly of stabile nanostructures.

  12. Unconventional Gas. A Game Changer for Transport Too?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boncourt, Maite de

    2011-01-01

    A new technology trend, the development of natural gas vehicles, is emerging in the transport sector. While not new this technology is now being simultaneously revived by the discovery of significant amounts of unconventional gas, by the rise of oil prices, and by the decreased confidence in the sustainability of nuclear technology (and subsequent rising electricity prices in Europe). Natural gas could provide a path to a lower carbon intensive transport sector in both developed and developing countries. Gas is cheaper and less polluting than oil. It emits significantly less local pollutants than diesel and less CO 2 than gasoline. Historically present in Italy, South America, Iran and Pakistan natural gas vehicles are emerging in other countries: in some European countries, in the United States, in the Chinese provinces of Shaanxi and Henan, and in India. Asia and developing countries are expected to be responsible for a large share of the car market growth in the next years and consequently for a significant share of transport CO 2 emissions. The adoption of a given technology there could impact global markets and global CO 2 emissions significantly. While the trend is still loose, this paper responds to the possibility that this technology will expand: what would it imply? would it compete with the development of the electric vehicle? is it desirable? It appears that the advantages of natural gas vehicles are not as clear cut as they seem. Environmentally, they are beneficial only to countries with little -if no- CO 2 emissions standards. Several issues including the development of costly infrastructures are likely to raise costs. Natural gas vehicles development could also slow down the roll out of electric vehicles, hence delaying hopes of smoothing the integration of renewables into the power grid through the use of car batteries' storage capacity. But the main concern is the availability of cheap gas itself, on the basis of which this technology shift could

  13. Effects of bioenergy production on European nature conservation options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleupner, C.; Schneider, U. A.

    2009-04-01

    To increase security of energy supply and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions the European Commission set out a long-term strategy for renewable energy in the European Union (EU). Bioenergy from forestry and agriculture plays a key role for both. Since the last decade a significant increase of biomass energy plantations has been observed in Europe. Concurrently, the EU agreed to halt the loss of biodiversity within its member states. One measure is the Natura2000 network of important nature sites that actually covers about 20% of the EU land surface. However, to fulfil the biodiversity target more nature conservation and restoration sites need to be designated. There are arising concerns that an increased cultivation of bioenergy crops will decrease the land available for nature reserves and for "traditional" agriculture and forestry. In the following the economic and ecological impacts of structural land use changes are demonstrated by two examples. First, a case study of land use changes on the Eiderstedt peninsula in Schleswig-Holstein/Germany evaluates the impacts of grassland conversion into bioenergy plantations under consideration of selected meadow birds. Scenarios indicate not only a quantitative loss of habitats but also a reduction of habitat quality. The second study assesses the role of bioenergy production in light of possible negative impacts on potential wetland conservation sites in Europe. By coupling the spatial wetland distribution model "SWEDI" (cf. SCHLEUPNER 2007) to the European Forest and Agricultural Sector Optimization Model (EUFASOM; cf. SCHNEIDER ET AL. 2008) economic and environmental aspects of land use are evaluated simultaneously. This way the costs and benefits of the appropriate measures and its consequences for agriculture and forestry are investigated. One aim is to find the socially optimal balance between alternative wetland uses by integrating biological benefits - in this case wetlands - and economic opportunities - here

  14. Collective excitations in unconventional superconductors and superfluids

    CERN Document Server

    Brusov, Peter

    2009-01-01

    This is the first monograph that strives to give a complete and detailed description of the collective modes (CMs) in unconventional superfluids and superconductors (UCSF&SC). Using the most powerful method of modern theoretical physics - the path (functional) integral technique - authors build the three- and two-dimensional models for s -, p - and d -wave pairing in neutral as well as in charged Fermi-systems, models of superfluid Bose-systems and Fermi-Bose-mixtures. Within these models they study the collective properties of such systems as superfluid 3 He, superfluid 4 He, superfluid 3 He-

  15. Amplification Effects and Unconventional Monetary Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile BASTIDON GILLES

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Global financial crises trigger off amplification effects, which allow relatively small shocks to propagate through the whole financial system. For this reason, the range of Central banks policies is now widening beyond conventional monetary policies and lending of last resort. The aim of this paper is to establish a rule for this practice. The model is based on the formalization of funding conditions in various types of markets. We conduct a comprehensive analysis of the “unconventional monetary policies”, and especially quantify government bonds purchases by the Central bank.

  16. Unconventional applications of conventional intrusion detection sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.D.; Matter, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    A number of conventional intrusion detection sensors exists for the detection of persons entering buildings, moving within a given volume, and crossing a perimeter isolation zone. Unconventional applications of some of these sensors have recently been investigated. Some of the applications which are discussed include detection on the edges and tops of buildings, detection in storm sewers, detection on steam and other types of large pipes, and detection of unauthorized movement within secure enclosures. The enclosures can be used around complicated control valves, electrical control panels, emergency generators, etc

  17. A systematic review of natural health product treatment for vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boon Heather S

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitiligo is a hypopigmentation disorder affecting 1 to 4% of the world population. Fifty percent of cases appear before the age of 20 years old, and the disfigurement results in psychiatric morbidity in 16 to 35% of those affected. Methods Our objective was to complete a comprehensive, systematic review of the published scientific literature to identify natural health products (NHP such as vitamins, herbs and other supplements that may have efficacy in the treatment of vitiligo. We searched eight databases including MEDLINE and EMBASE for vitiligo, leucoderma, and various NHP terms. Prospective controlled clinical human trials were identified and assessed for quality. Results Fifteen clinical trials were identified, and organized into four categories based on the NHP used for treatment. 1 L-phenylalanine monotherapy was assessed in one trial, and as an adjuvant to phototherapy in three trials. All reported beneficial effects. 2 Three clinical trials utilized different traditional Chinese medicine products. Although each traditional Chinese medicine trial reported benefit in the active groups, the quality of the trials was poor. 3 Six trials investigated the use of plants in the treatment of vitiligo, four using plants as photosensitizing agents. The studies provide weak evidence that photosensitizing plants can be effective in conjunction with phototherapy, and moderate evidence that Ginkgo biloba monotherapy can be useful for vitiligo. 4 Two clinical trials investigated the use of vitamins in the therapy of vitiligo. One tested oral cobalamin with folic acid, and found no significant improvement over control. Another trial combined vitamin E with phototherapy and reported significantly better repigmentation over phototherapy only. It was not possible to pool the data from any studies for meta-analytic purposes due to the wide difference in outcome measures and poor quality ofreporting. Conclusion Reports investigating the

  18. Development of an Improved Methodology to Assess Potential Unconventional Gas Resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar, Jesus; McVay, Duane A.; Lee, W. John

    2010-01-01

    Considering the important role played today by unconventional gas resources in North America and their enormous potential for the future around the world, it is vital to both policy makers and industry that the volumes of these resources and the impact of technology on these resources be assessed. To provide for optimal decision making regarding energy policy, research funding, and resource development, it is necessary to reliably quantify the uncertainty in these resource assessments. Since the 1970s, studies to assess potential unconventional gas resources have been conducted by various private and governmental agencies, the most rigorous of which was by the United States Geological Survey (USGS). The USGS employed a cell-based, probabilistic methodology which used analytical equations to calculate distributions of the resources assessed. USGS assessments have generally produced distributions for potential unconventional gas resources that, in our judgment, are unrealistically narrow for what are essentially undiscovered, untested resources. In this article, we present an improved methodology to assess potential unconventional gas resources. Our methodology is a stochastic approach that includes Monte Carlo simulation and correlation between input variables. Application of the improved methodology to the Uinta-Piceance province of Utah and Colorado with USGS data validates the means and standard deviations of resource distributions produced by the USGS methodology, but reveals that these distributions are not right skewed, as expected for a natural resource. Our investigation indicates that the unrealistic shape and width of the gas resource distributions are caused by the use of narrow triangular input parameter distributions. The stochastic methodology proposed here is more versatile and robust than the USGS analytic methodology. Adoption of the methodology, along with a careful examination and revision of input distributions, should allow a more realistic

  19. Natural Products as Leads in Schistosome Drug Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno J. Neves

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is a neglected parasitic tropical disease that claims around 200,000 human lives every year. Praziquantel (PZQ, the only drug recommended by the World Health Organization for the treatment and control of human schistosomiasis, is now facing the threat of drug resistance, indicating the urgent need for new effective compounds to treat this disease. Therefore, globally, there is renewed interest in natural products (NPs as a starting point for drug discovery and development for schistosomiasis. Recent advances in genomics, proteomics, bioinformatics, and cheminformatics have brought about unprecedented opportunities for the rapid and more cost-effective discovery of new bioactive compounds against neglected tropical diseases. This review highlights the main contributions that NP drug discovery and development have made in the treatment of schistosomiasis and it discusses how integration with virtual screening (VS strategies may contribute to accelerating the development of new schistosomidal leads, especially through the identification of unexplored, biologically active chemical scaffolds and structural optimization of NPs with previously established activity.

  20. Chapter 7. Cloning and analysis of natural product pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gust, Bertolt

    2009-01-01

    The identification of gene clusters of natural products has lead to an enormous wealth of information about their biosynthesis and its regulation, and about self-resistance mechanisms. Well-established routine techniques are now available for the cloning and sequencing of gene clusters. The subsequent functional analysis of the complex biosynthetic machinery requires efficient genetic tools for manipulation. Until recently, techniques for the introduction of defined changes into Streptomyces chromosomes were very time-consuming. In particular, manipulation of large DNA fragments has been challenging due to the absence of suitable restriction sites for restriction- and ligation-based techniques. The homologous recombination approach called recombineering (referred to as Red/ET-mediated recombination in this chapter) has greatly facilitated targeted genetic modifications of complex biosynthetic pathways from actinomycetes by eliminating many of the time-consuming and labor-intensive steps. This chapter describes techniques for the cloning and identification of biosynthetic gene clusters, for the generation of gene replacements within such clusters, for the construction of integrative library clones and their expression in heterologous hosts, and for the assembly of entire biosynthetic gene clusters from the inserts of individual library clones. A systematic approach toward insertional mutation of a complete Streptomyces genome is shown by the use of an in vitro transposon mutagenesis procedure.

  1. [Sugar Chain Construction of Functional Natural Products Using Plant Glucosyltransferases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizukami, Hajime

    2015-01-01

    Plant secondary product glycosyltransferases belong to family 1 of the glycosyltransferase superfamily and mediate the transfer of a glycosyl residue from activated nucleotide sugars to lipophilic small molecules, thus affecting the solubility, stability and pharmacological activities of the sugar-accepting compounds. The biotechnological application of plant glycosyltransferases in glycoside synthesis has attracted attention because enzymatic glycosylation offers several advantages over chemical methods, including (1) avoiding the use of harsh conditions and toxic catalysts, (2) providing strict control of regio-and stereo-selectivity and (3) high efficiency. This review describes the in vivo and in vitro glycosylation of natural organic compounds using glycosyltransferases, focusing on our investigation of enzymatic synthesis of curcumin glycosides. Our current efforts toward functional characterization of some glycosyltransferases involved in the biosynthesis of iridoids and crocin, as well as in the sugar chain elongation of quercetin glucosides, are described. Finally, I describe the relationship of the structure of sugar chains and the intestinal absorption which was investigated using chemoenzymatically synthesized quercetin glycosides.

  2. Identification and quantification of the halogenated natural product BC-3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melcher, J.; Olbrich, D.; Vetter, W. [Hohenheim Univ., Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Lebensmittelchemie; Marsh, G. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Chemistry; Gaus, C.; Mueller, J.F. [National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology, Coopers Plains (Australia)

    2004-09-15

    Halogenated natural products (HNPs) of marine origin are increasingly recognized as critical residues in foodstuff (e. g. fish) and environmental samples (e. g. marine mammals and birds). Some of these HNPs (Q1, MHC-1, BC-2, and HDBPs including BC-10) were detected in diverse fish and marine mammal samples at concentrations sometimes exceeding those of PCBs, DDT, and other anthropogenic pollutants. Recent studies with marine mammal samples from Australia led to the detection of six abundant HNPs (Q1, BC-1, BC-2, BC-3, BC-10, and BC-11). In the meantime, Q1 was identified as heptachloro-1{sup '}-methyl-1,2{sup '}-bipyrrole, BC-2 as 4,6-dibromo-2-(2{sup '},4{sup '}-dibromo)phenoxyanisole, BC- 10 as 1,1{sup '}-dimethyl-3,3{sup '},4,4{sup '}-tetrabromo-5,5{sup '}-dichloro-2,2{sup '}-bipyrrole, and BC-11 as 3,5-dibromo- 2-(3{sup '},5{sup '}-dibromo,2{sup '}-methoxy)phenoxyanisole. However the identity of BC-1 and BC-3 remained unclear. The goal of the present study was the identification of BC-3. The tetrabromo compound BC-3 has previously been detected in marine mammals from four continents. Furthermore, we attempted establishing quantitative concentrations in diverse marine biota samples.

  3. Formulating natural based cosmetic product - irradiated herbal lip balm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seri Chempaka Mohd Yusof; Ros Anita Ahmad Ramli; Foziah Ali; Zainab Harun

    2007-01-01

    Herbal lip balm was formulated in efforts to produce a safe product, attractive with multifunctional usage i.e. prevent chap lips, reduce mouth odour and benefits in improving the health quality. Problems faced in constructing formulations of herbal lip balm were focused to the extraction of anthocyanins, the stability of the pigments in the formulations and changes of colour during irradiation for the sterilization of herbal lip balm. Natural pigment, anthocyanin was used as a colorant agent in herbal lip balm, obtained from various herbs and vegetables i.e. Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (roselle), Brassica oleracea var. capitata f. rubra (red cabbage) and Daucus carota (carrot). Water based extraction method was used in extracting the anthocyanins. The incorporation of honey in the formulations improved the colour of the lip balm. The usage of plant based ingredient i.e. cocoa butter substituting the normal based ingredient i.e. petroleum jelly in lip balm also affecting the colour of herbal lip balm. Irradiation at 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy was carried out as preservation and reducing of microbial load of the herbal lip balm and changes in colour were observed in formulations irradiated at 10 kGy. (Author)

  4. Natural products as a resource for biologically active compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanke, F.J.

    1986-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate various sources of biologically active natural products in an effort to identify the active pesticidal compounds involved. The study is divided into several parts. Chapter 1 contains a discussion of several new compounds from plant and animal sources. Chapter 2 introduces a new NMR technique. In section 2.1 a new technique for better utilizing the lanthanide relaxation agent Gd(fod) 3 is presented which allows the predictable removal of resonances without line broadening. Section 2.2 discusses a variation of this technique for use in an aqueous solvent by applying this technique towards identifying the binding sites of metals of biological interest. Section 2.3 presents an unambiguous 13 C NMR assignment of melibiose. Chapter 3 deals with work relating to the molting hormone of most arthropods, 20-hydroxyecdysone. Section 3.1 discusses the use of two-dimensional NMR (2D NMR) to assign the 1 H NMR spectrum of this biologically important compound. Section 3.2 presents a new application for Droplet countercurrent chromatography (DCCC). Chapter 4 presents a basic improvement to the commercial DCCC instrument that is currently being applied to future commercial instruments. Chapter 5 discusses a curious observation of the effects that two previously known compounds, nagilactone C and (-)-epicatechin, have on lettuce and rice and suggest a possible new role for the ubiquitous flavanol (-)-epicatechin in plants

  5. Natural Product Screening Reveals Naphthoquinone Complex I Bypass Factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott B Vafai

    Full Text Available Deficiency of mitochondrial complex I is encountered in both rare and common diseases, but we have limited therapeutic options to treat this lesion to the oxidative phosphorylation system (OXPHOS. Idebenone and menadione are redox-active molecules capable of rescuing OXPHOS activity by engaging complex I-independent pathways of entry, often referred to as "complex I bypass." In the present study, we created a cellular model of complex I deficiency by using CRISPR genome editing to knock out Ndufa9 in mouse myoblasts, and utilized this cell line to develop a high-throughput screening platform for novel complex I bypass factors. We screened a library of ~40,000 natural product extracts and performed bioassay-guided fractionation on a subset of the top scoring hits. We isolated four plant-derived 1,4-naphthoquinone complex I bypass factors with structural similarity to menadione: chimaphilin and 3-chloro-chimaphilin from Chimaphila umbellata and dehydro-α-lapachone and dehydroiso-α-lapachone from Stereospermum euphoroides. We also tested a small number of structurally related naphthoquinones from commercial sources and identified two additional compounds with complex I bypass activity: 2-methoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone and 2-methoxy-3-methyl-1,4,-naphthoquinone. The six novel complex I bypass factors reported here expand this class of molecules and will be useful as tool compounds for investigating complex I disease biology.

  6. Plants’ Natural Products as Alternative Promising Anti-Candida Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Sameh; Alnajdy, Dina; El-Keblawy, Ali A.; Mosa, Kareem A.; Khoder, Ghalia; Noreddin, Ayman M.

    2017-01-01

    Candida is a serious life-threatening pathogen, particularly with immunocompromised patients. Candida infections are considered as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in a broad range of immunocompromised patients. Candida infections are common in hospitalized patients and elderly people. The difficulty to eradicate Candida infections is owing to its unique switch between yeast and hyphae forms and more likely to biofilm formations that render resistance to antifungal therapy. Plants are known sources of natural medicines. Several plants show significant anti-Candida activities and some of them have lower minimum inhibitory concentration, making them promising candidates for anti-Candida therapy. However, none of these plant products is marketed for anti-Candida therapy because of lack of sufficient information about their efficacy, toxicity, and kinetics. This review revises major plants that have been tested for anti-Candida activities with recommendations for further use of some of these plants for more investigation and in vivo testing including the use of nanostructure lipid system. PMID:28989245

  7. Natural Products for the Treatment of Chlamydiaceae Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mika A. Brown

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to the global prevalence of Chlamydiae, exploring studies of diverse antichlamydial compounds is important in the development of effective treatment strategies and global infectious disease management. Chlamydiaceae is the most widely known bacterial family of the Chlamydiae order. Among the species in the family Chlamydiaceae, Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia pneumoniae cause common human diseases, while Chlamydia abortus, Chlamydia psittaci, and Chlamydia suis represent zoonotic threats or are endemic in human food sources. Although chlamydial infections are currently manageable in human populations, chlamydial infections in livestock are endemic and there is significant difficulty achieving effective treatment. To combat the spread of Chlamydiaceae in humans and other hosts, improved methods for treatment and prevention of infection are needed. There exist various studies exploring the potential of natural products for developing new antichlamydial treatment modalities. Polyphenolic compounds can inhibit chlamydial growth by membrane disruption, reestablishment of host cell apoptosis, or improving host immune system detection. Fatty acids, monoglycerides, and lipids can disrupt the cell membranes of infective chlamydial elementary bodies (EBs. Peptides can disrupt the cell membranes of chlamydial EBs, and transferrins can inhibit chlamydial EBs from attachment to and permeation through the membranes of host cells. Cellular metabolites and probiotic bacteria can inhibit chlamydial infection by modulating host immune responses and directly inhibiting chlamydial growth. Finally, early stage clinical trials indicate that polyherbal formulations can be effective in treating chlamydial infections. Herein, we review an important body of literature in the field of antichlamydial research.

  8. An analysis of FDA-approved drugs: natural products and their derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patridge, Eric; Gareiss, Peter; Kinch, Michael S; Hoyer, Denton

    2016-02-01

    Natural products contribute greatly to the history and landscape of new molecular entities (NMEs). An assessment of all FDA-approved NMEs reveals that natural products and their derivatives represent over one-third of all NMEs. Nearly one-half of these are derived from mammals, one-quarter from microbes and one-quarter from plants. Since the 1930s, the total fraction of natural products has diminished, whereas semisynthetic and synthetic natural product derivatives have increased. Over time, this fraction has also become enriched with microbial natural products, which represent a significant portion of approved antibiotics, including more than two-thirds of all antibacterial NMEs. In recent years, the declining focus on natural products has impacted the pipeline of NMEs from specific classes, and this trend is likely to continue without specific investment in the pursuit of natural products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The International Impact of US Unconventional Monetary Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lutz, Chandler

    2015-01-01

    Using a structural factor-augmented vector autoregression model and a large data set of daily time series, we study the impact of US unconventional monetary policy on British and German financial markets. Our findings indicate that a surprise US unconventional monetary policy easing leads...

  10. Geology and assessment of unconventional resources of Phitsanulok Basin, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) quantitatively assessed the potential for unconventional oil and gas resources within the Phitsanulok Basin of Thailand. Unconventional resources for the USGS include shale gas, shale oil, tight gas, tight oil, and coalbed gas. In the Phitsanulok Basin, only potential shale-oil and shale-gas resources were quantitatively assessed.

  11. Multiscale properties of unconventional reservoir rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, W. F.

    A multidisciplinary study of unconventional reservoir rocks is presented, providing the theory, forward modeling and Bayesian inverse modeling approaches, and laboratory protocols to characterize clay-rich, low porosity and permeability shales and mudstones within an anisotropic framework. Several physical models characterizing oil and gas shales are developed across multiple length scales, ranging from microscale phenomena, e.g. the effect of the cation exchange capacity of reactive clay mineral surfaces on water adsorption isotherms, and the effects of infinitesimal porosity compaction on elastic and electrical properties, to meso-scale phenomena, e.g. the role of mineral foliations, tortuosity of conduction pathways and the effects of organic matter (kerogen and hydrocarbon fractions) on complex conductivity and their connections to intrinsic electrical anisotropy, as well as the macro-scale electrical and elastic properties including formulations for the complex conductivity tensor and undrained stiffness tensor within the context of effective stress and poroelasticity. Detailed laboratory protocols are described for sample preparation and measurement of these properties using spectral induced polarization (SIP) and ultrasonics for the anisotropic characterization of shales for both unjacketed samples under benchtop conditions and jacketed samples under differential loading. An ongoing study of the effects of kerogen maturation through hydrous pyrolysis on the complex conductivity is also provided in review. Experimental results are catalogued and presented for various unconventional formations in North America including the Haynesville, Bakken, and Woodford shales.

  12. Unconventional Protein Secretion in Animal Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Fanny; Tang, Bor Luen

    2016-01-01

    All eukaryotic cells secrete a range of proteins in a constitutive or regulated manner through the conventional or canonical exocytic/secretory pathway characterized by vesicular traffic from the endoplasmic reticulum, through the Golgi apparatus, and towards the plasma membrane. However, a number of proteins are secreted in an unconventional manner, which are insensitive to inhibitors of conventional exocytosis and use a route that bypasses the Golgi apparatus. These include cytosolic proteins such as fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and membrane proteins that are known to also traverse to the plasma membrane by a conventional process of exocytosis, such as α integrin and the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductor (CFTR). Mechanisms underlying unconventional protein secretion (UPS) are actively being analyzed and deciphered, and these range from an unusual form of plasma membrane translocation to vesicular processes involving the generation of exosomes and other extracellular microvesicles. In this chapter, we provide an overview on what is currently known about UPS in animal cells.

  13. Modeling electron fractionalization with unconventional Fock spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobanera, Emilio

    2017-08-02

    It is shown that certain fractionally-charged quasiparticles can be modeled on D-dimensional lattices in terms of unconventional yet simple Fock algebras of creation and annihilation operators. These unconventional Fock algebras are derived from the usual fermionic algebra by taking roots (the square root, cubic root, etc) of the usual fermionic creation and annihilation operators. If the fermions carry non-Abelian charges, then this approach fractionalizes the Abelian charges only. In particular, the mth-root of a spinful fermion carries charge e/m and spin 1/2. Just like taking a root of a complex number, taking a root of a fermion yields a mildly non-unique result. As a consequence, there are several possible choices of quantum exchange statistics for fermion-root quasiparticles. These choices are tied to the dimensionality [Formula: see text] of the lattice by basic physical considerations. One particular family of fermion-root quasiparticles is directly connected to the parafermion zero-energy modes expected to emerge in certain mesoscopic devices involving fractional quantum Hall states. Hence, as an application of potential mesoscopic interest, I investigate numerically the hybridization of Majorana and parafermion zero-energy edge modes caused by fractionalizing but charge-conserving tunneling.

  14. An Improved Approach for Forecasting Ecological Impacts from Future Drilling in Unconventional Shale Oil and Gas Plays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolaver, Brad D; Pierre, Jon Paul; Ikonnikova, Svetlana A; Andrews, John R; McDaid, Guinevere; Ryberg, Wade A; Hibbitts, Toby J; Duran, Charles M; Labay, Benjamin J; LaDuc, Travis J

    2018-04-13

    Directional well drilling and hydraulic fracturing has enabled energy production from previously inaccessible resources, but caused vegetation conversion and landscape fragmentation, often in relatively undisturbed habitats. We improve forecasts of future ecological impacts from unconventional oil and gas play developments using a new, more spatially-explicit approach. We applied an energy production outlook model, which used geologic and economic data from thousands of wells and three oil price scenarios, to map future drilling patterns and evaluate the spatial distribution of vegetation conversion and habitat impacts. We forecast where future well pad construction may be most intense, illustrating with an example from the Eagle Ford Shale Play of Texas. We also illustrate the ecological utility of this approach using the Spot-tailed Earless Lizard (Holbrookia lacerata) as the focal species, which historically occupied much of the Eagle Ford and awaits a federal decision for possible Endangered Species Act protection. We found that ~17,000-45,500 wells would be drilled 2017‒2045 resulting in vegetation conversion of ~26,485-70,623 ha (0.73-1.96% of pre-development vegetation), depending on price scenario ($40-$80/barrel). Grasslands and row crop habitats were most affected (2.30 and 2.82% areal vegetation reduction). Our approach improves forecasts of where and to what extent future energy development in unconventional plays may change land-use and ecosystem services, enabling natural resource managers to anticipate and direct on-the-ground conservation actions to places where they will most effectively mitigate ecological impacts of well pads and associated infrastructure.

  15. Risks Associated with Unconventional Gas Extraction Projects. Induced Seismicity, NORM and Ecological Risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigo-Naharro, J.; Hurtado, A.; Eguilior, S.; Recreo, F.

    2015-01-01

    The latest technological advances in hydraulic fracturing (fracking) and horizontal drilling are globally driving the commercial extraction of unconventional resources. Although there is still no commercial exploitation of these resources within the EU, the fact that there are potential reserves in some countries, such as Spain, stimulates the need of performing preliminary studies to define the characteristics that an unconventional gas extraction project should consider. The object of these features are the safety of the project, thus minimizing the probabilities of negative environmental impacts, and especially since there is not any EU Framework Directive focusing on the regulation of the operation of such fossil fuels. A project of this nature, involving natural systems, must start from the knowledge of these systems and from an assessment of its features in order to reach the environmental safety of the operations. Moreover, the implementation of risk management systems, along with the existence of an appropriate legislation and supervision are key elements in the development of unconventional gas extraction projects that are environmentally friendly. The present report includes, among the overall risks associated with such projects, those related to: i) the induced seismicity; ii) the Naturally-Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM); and iii) the ecology.

  16. USU Alternative and Unconventional Energy Research and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behunin, Robert [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States); Wood, Byard [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States); Heaslip, Kevin [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States); Zane, Regan [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States); Lyman, Seth [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States); Simmons, Randy [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States); Christensen, David [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States)

    2014-01-29

    The purpose and rationale of this project has been to develop enduring research capabilities at Utah State University (USU) and the Utah State University Research Foundation (USURF) in a number of energy efficient and renewable energy areas including primarily a) algae energy systems, b) solar lighting, c) intuitive buildings, d) electric transportation, 3) unconventional energy environmental monitoring and beneficial reuse technologies (water and CO2), f) wind energy profiling, and g) land use impacts. The long-term goal of this initiative has been to create high-wage jobs in Utah and a platform for sustained faculty and student engagement in energy research. The program’s objective has been to provide a balanced portfolio of R&D conducted by faculty, students, and permanent staff. This objective has been met. While some of the project’s tasks met with more success than others, as with any research project of this scope, overall the research has contributed valuable technical insight and broader understanding in key energy related areas. The algae energy systems research resulted in a highly productive workforce development enterprise as it graduated a large number of well prepared students entering alternative energy development fields and scholarship. Moreover, research in this area has demonstrated both the technological and economic limitations and tremendous potential of algae feedstock-based energy and co-products. Research conducted in electric transportation, specifically in both stationary and dynamic wireless inductive coupling charging technologies, has resulted in impactful advances. The project initiated the annual Conference on Electric Roads and Vehicles (http://www.cervconference.org/), which is growing and attracts more than 100 industry experts and scholars. As a direct result of the research, the USU/USURF spin-out startup, WAVE (Wireless Advanced Vehicle Electrification), continues work in wirelessly charged bus transit systems

  17. Effective Stress Law in Unconventional Reservoirs under Different Boundary Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saurabh, S.; Harpalani, S.

    2017-12-01

    Unconventional reservoirs have attracted a great deal of research interest worldwide during the past two decades. Low permeability and specialized techniques required to exploit these resources present opportunities for improvement in both production rates and ultimate recovery. Understanding subsurface stress modifications and permeability evolution are valuable when evaluating the prospects of unconventional reservoirs. These reservoir properties are functions of effective stress. As a part of this study, effective stress law, specifically the variation of anisotropic Biot's coefficient under various boundary conditions believed to exist in gas reservoirs by different researchers, has been established. Pressure-dependent-permeability (PdK) experiments were carried out on San Juan coal under different boundary conditions, that is, uniaxial strain condition and constant volume condition. Stress and strain in the vertical and horizontal directions were monitored throughout the experiment. Data collected during the experiments was used to determine the Biot's coefficient in vertical and horizontal directions under these two boundary conditions, treating coal as transversely isotropic. The variation of Biot's coefficient was found to be well correlated with the variation in coal permeability. Based on the estimated values of Biot's coefficients, a theory of variation in its value is presented for other boundary conditions. The findings of the study shed light on the inherent behavior of Biot's coefficient under different reservoir boundary conditions. This knowledge can improve the modeling work requiring estimation of effective stress in reservoirs, such as, pressure-/stress- dependent permeability. At the same time, if the effective stresses are known with more certainty by other methods, it enables assessment of the unknown reservoir boundary conditions.

  18. Ethanol production by recombinant and natural xylose-utilising yeasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliasson, Anna

    2000-07-01

    The xylose-fermenting capacity of recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae carrying XYL1 and XYL2 from Pichia stipitis, which encode xylose reductase (XR) and xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH), respectively, is poor due to high xylitol formation. Whereas, P. stipitis exhibits high ethanol yield on xylose, the tolerance towards inhibitors in the lignocellulosic hydrolysate is low. A recombinant strain possessing the advantageous characteristics of both S. cerevisiae and P. stipitis would constitute a biocatalyst capable of efficient ethanol production from lignocellulosic hydrolysate. In the work presented in this thesis, factors influencing xylose fermentation in recombinant S. cerevisiae and in the natural xylose-fermenting yeast P. stipitis have been identified and investigated. Anaerobic xylulose fermentation was compared in strains of Zygosaccharomyces and S. cerevisiae, mutants and wild-type strains to identify host strain background and genetic modifications beneficial for xylose fermentation. The greatest positive effect was found for over-expression of the gene XKS1 for the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) enzyme xylulokinase (XK), which increased the ethanol yield by almost 85%. The Zygosaccharomyces strains tested formed large amounts of polyols, making them unsuitable as host strains. The XR/XDH/XK ratio was found to determine whether carbon accumulated in a xylitol pool or was further utilised for ethanol production in recombinant xylose-utilising S. cerevisiae. Simulations, based on a kinetic model, and anaerobic xylose cultivation experiments implied that a 1:{>=}10:{>=}4 relation was optimal in minimising xylitol formation. Ethanol formation increased with decreasing XR/XDH ratio, whereas xylitol formation decreased and XK overexpression was necessary for adequate ethanol formation. Based on the knowledge of optimal enzyme ratios, a stable, xylose-utilising strain, S. cerevisiae TMB 3001, was constructed by chromosomal integration of the XYL1 and XYL2 genes

  19. Forecasting world natural gas supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Fattah, S. M.; Startzman, R. A.

    2000-01-01

    Using the multi-cyclic Hubert approach, a 53 country-specific gas supply model was developed which enables production forecasts for virtually all of the world's gas. Supply models for some organizations such as OPEC, non-OPEC and OECD were also developed and analyzed. Results of the modeling study indicate that the world's supply of natural gas will peak in 2014, followed by an annual decline at the rate of one per cent per year. North American gas production is reported to be currently at its peak with 29 Tcf/yr; Western Europe will reach its peak supply in 2002 with 12 Tcf. According to this forecast the main sources of natural gas supply in the future will be the countries of the former Soviet Union and the Middle East. Between them, they possess about 62 per cent of the world's ultimate recoverable natural gas (4,880 Tcf). It should be noted that these estimates do not include unconventional gas resulting from tight gas reservoirs, coalbed methane, gas shales and gas hydrates. These unconventional sources will undoubtedly play an important role in the gas supply in countries such as the United States and Canada. 18 refs., 2 tabs., 18 figs

  20. Deposits of naturally occurring radioactivity in production of oil and natural gas; Radioaktive avleiringer i olje- og gassproduksjon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strand, T; Lysebo, I; Kristensen, D; Birovljev, A

    1997-01-01

    Deposits of naturally occurring radioactive materials is an increasing problem in Norwegian oil and gas production. Activity concentration in solid-state samples and production water, and doses to workers involved in different operations off-shore, have been measured. The report also includes a discussion of different methods of monitoring and alternatives for final disposal of wastes. 154 refs.

  1. High folate production by naturally occurring Lactobacillus sp. with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Biotechnology. Journal Home ... Milk products are good sources of such vitamins which are produced by probiotics. In order to ... Therefore, two new strains with an ability of high folate production were isolated and identified.

  2. On the nature of the new product strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, Flemming

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore the concept of a new product strategy and its relation to portfolio management for product development. Based on a literature review this research adheres to one perception of the new product strategy proposed by literature complemented with a component adressing...... the risk-dimension. Next, it is suggested that the new product strategy is embedded in the product development strategy. Subsequently, it is advocated that companies try to achieve a base for realizing integration, synchronization and strategic alignment by means of a new product strategy. These three...... themes are explicated in a model, which also indicates the relation between the new product strategy and the product development process. Finally, implications for management practice are devised....

  3. Use of natural zeolite-supplemented litter increased broiler production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    smyo

    aimed at elucidating the effects of combinations of these products as litter on poultry production, such as .... The bulbs on the ceiling were used ... sample, curved fibrous and acicular mordenites were derived from volcanic glass (Figure 2b).

  4. Dependence of the Josephson coupling of unconventional superconductors on the properties of the tunneling barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledvij, M.; Klemm, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    The Josephson coupling between a conventional and an unconventional superconductor is investigated as a function of the properties of the tunneling barrier. A simple model is adopted for the tunneling probability and it is shown that its variation dramatically affects the I c R n product of an s-d, as opposed to an s-s junction. Based on these conclusions, experiments are proposed to probe the symmetry of the order parameter in high temperature superconductors

  5. Using Natural Products to Treat Resistant and Persistent Bacterial Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deering, Robert W.

    Antimicrobial resistance is a growing threat to human health both worldwide and in the United States. Most concerning is the emergence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacterial pathogens, especially the 'ESKAPE' pathogens for which treatment options are dwindling. To complicate the problem, approvals of antibiotic drugs are extremely low and many research and development efforts in the pharmaceutical industry have ceased, leaving little certainty that critical new antibiotics are nearing the clinic. New antibiotics are needed to continue treating these evolving infections. In addition to antibiotics, approaches that aim to inhibit or prevent antimicrobial resistance could be useful. Also, studies that improve our understanding of bacterial pathophysiology could lead to new therapies for infectious disease. Natural products, especially those from the microbial world, have been invaluable as resources for new antibacterial compounds and as insights into bacterial physiology. The goal of this dissertation is to find new ways to treat resistant bacterial infections and learn more about the pathophysiology of these bacteria. Investigations of natural products to find molecules able to be used as new antibiotics or to modulate resistance and other parts of bacterial physiology are crucial aspects of the included studies. The first included study, which is reported in chapter two, details a chemical investigation of a marine Pseudoalteromonas sp. Purification efforts of the microbial metabolites were guided by testing against a resistance nodulation of cell division model of efflux pumps expressed in E. coli. These pumps play an important role in the resistance of MDR Gram negative pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacteriaceae. Through this process, 3,4-dibromopyrrole-2,5-dione was identified as a potent inhibitor of the RND efflux pumps and showed synergistic effects against the E. coli strain with common antibiotics including fluoroquinolones, beta

  6. Pilot Scale Production of Irradiated Natural Rubber Latex and its Dipping Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Utama

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and fifty kg natural rubber latex (NRL before and after concentration were added with 3 phr (part hundred ratio of rubber normal butyl acrylate, then the mixture were irradiated at 25 kGy by gamma rays of 60Co in pilot scale. The irradiated natural rubber latex (INRL were then being to use for producing rubber products such as condom, surgical gloves, and spygmomanometer in factory scale. The quality of INRL and rubber products such as : total solid content (TSC, dry rubber content (DRC, KOH, VFA and MST number, tensile strength, modulus, elongation at break, extractable protein content, and response against Type I allergy etc. were evaluated. The economic aspect for producing INRL by means of Gamma Irradiator (GI and Electron Beam Machine (EBM such as payback period (PP, net present value (NPV and internal rate return (IRR were calculated. The results showed that the latex properties of INRL such as DRC, TSC, KOH, VFA, and MST number are not only found to the requirement of the ISO 2004 standard but also the latex has low protein, lipid, and carbohydrate content. The physical and mechanical properties (tensile strength, modulus, and elongation at break of rubber dipping products such as condom, gloves, and sphygmomanometer are not only found to the requirement of ISO 4074, ISO 10282, and ANSI/AAMI SP-1994 standards, but also the allergic response tested clinical latex-sensitive protein allergen by ELISA test on gloves, and by SPT test on condom are found to be negative. It indicates that production of INRL or PVNRL or RVNRL by EBM 250 keV/10 mA, was more cheap than by using gamma γ irradiator 200 kCi, or sulfur vulcanization. The value of PBP (payback period was 2,1 years, NPV (net present value was 4,250 US $, PI (profitability index 1,06 and IRR (internal rate of returns was 25,0%.

  7. Liberation play : technology and prices help release shale gas from unconventional status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, P.

    2006-01-01

    Shale gas production is set to increase in Canada. The British Columbia (BC) Oil and Gas Commission has approved more than 20 blocks of potential shale lands as experimental scheme areas targeting Cretaceous-age and Devonian-age shales. The BC government is currently working on a royalty scheme to benefit shale gas producers by allowing them to defer the bulk of the royalty collection until projects have reached a certain economic payout point. Interest in unconventional gas has spawned activity in previously unexplored areas of BC. Coals and shales are currently being evaluated near the community of Hudson's Hope, which has an estimated 1.8 tcf of shale gas. Canadian Spirit Resources Inc., who have leased the land, are now focusing on optimizing production processes to improve the economics of shale gas recovery. In Saskatchewan, shale gas exploration is occurring in the central region of the province, far from existing oil and gas production. PanTerra Resources Corp. has recently drilled 16 wells on its Foam Lake project, and detailed core and log analyses are being conducted to improve the understanding of the lithology and rock fabric and allow the company to design completion and stimulation programs. Stealth Ventures Ltd. is concentrating on developing the tight, biogenic Colorado Shale, which extends from Manitoba to the foothills of Alberta. Because of the shallow depths, the initial drilling costs are lower for biogenic gas than for thermogenic gas. Success will depend on the right drilling and completion methods. Junior explorers are also exploring for shale gas in an area straddling the St. Lawrence River between Quebec City and Montreal. Several large companies are examining the economic potential of shale gas production throughout North America. It was concluded that oil and gas operators are becoming more confident that domestic shale gas resources will be cheaper in future than imported liquefied natural gas (LNG), which requires special ships

  8. Engineering microbial cell factories for the production of plant natural products: from design principles to industrial-scale production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaonan; Ding, Wentao; Jiang, Huifeng

    2017-07-19

    Plant natural products (PNPs) are widely used as pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, seasonings, pigments, etc., with a huge commercial value on the global market. However, most of these PNPs are still being extracted from plants. A resource-conserving and environment-friendly synthesis route for PNPs that utilizes microbial cell factories has attracted increasing attention since the 1940s. However, at the present only a handful of PNPs are being produced by microbial cell factories at an industrial scale, and there are still many challenges in their large-scale application. One of the challenges is that most biosynthetic pathways of PNPs are still unknown, which largely limits the number of candidate PNPs for heterologous microbial production. Another challenge is that the metabolic fluxes toward the target products in microbial hosts are often hindered by poor precursor supply, low catalytic activity of enzymes and obstructed product transport. Consequently, despite intensive studies on the metabolic engineering of microbial hosts, the fermentation costs of most heterologously produced PNPs are still too high for industrial-scale production. In this paper, we review several aspects of PNP production in microbial cell factories, including important design principles and recent progress in pathway mining and metabolic engineering. In addition, implemented cases of industrial-scale production of PNPs in microbial cell factories are also highlighted.

  9. Isotope reversals in hydrocarbon gases of natural shale systems and well head production data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berner, U.; Schloemer, S.; Stiller, E. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), Hannover (Germany); Marquardt, D. [Rijksuniversiteit Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2013-08-01

    Relationships between gas geochemical signatures and the thermal maturity of source rocks containing aquatic organic matter are based on on pyrolysis experiments and have been successfully used in conventional hydrocarbon exploration since long. We demonstrate how these models can be applied to the evaluation of unconventional shale resources. For this purpose hydrocarbon gases have been extracted from low and high mature source rocks (type II kerogens) using laboratory desorption techniques. We determined the molecular composition of the gases as well as the carbon isotope ratios of methane to propane. In the extracted gases we observe an increase of {sup 13}C content in methane with increasing dry gas ratio (C1/{Sigma}C1-6). The carbon isotope ratios of ethane and propane initially increase with increasing dryness but start to become isotopically lighter above a dry gas ratio of 0.8. We show that oil-to-gas cracking explains the observed gas geochemical data, and that mixing between gases from different processes is a key factor to describe natural hydrocarbon systems of shales. However, data from published case studies using well head gases which show 'isotope roll-over' effects indicate that the isotopic reversal observed in well head samples deviate from those observed in natural shale systems in a fundamental way. We show that isotope reversals related to well head gases are best explained by an additional isotope fractionation effect induced through hydraulic fracturing and gas migration from the shale to the well head. Although, this induced isotope fractionation is an artifact which obscures isotopic information of natural systems to a large extend, we suggest a simple classification scheme which allows distinguishing between hot and cool spot areas using well head or mud line gas data. (orig.)

  10. Natural personal care products-analysis of ingredient lists and legal situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaschka, Ursula

    2016-01-01

    Many natural substances are classified as dangerous substances according to the European regulation on classification and labelling. Are they used in natural personal care products today? One hundred ingredient lists were analyzed to find this out. All products with natural substances contained dangerous natural substances or they contained natural substances, for which the information about their classification as dangerous substances is not available. 54 natural substances quoted in the ingredient lists were found to be classified, with 37 substances being classified due to hazardous effects for skin and eyes. However, the most frequently used natural substances are not classified as dangerous. Natural substances are multi-constituent compounds, leading to two main problems in personal care products: the potential interactions of a multitude of substances and the fact that dangerous constituents are not disclosed in the ingredient lists. For example, the fragrance allergens citral, farnesol, limonene, and linalool are frequent components of the natural substances employed. In addition, 82 products listed allergenic fragrance ingredients as single substances in their ingredient lists. Recommendations for sensitive skin in a product's name do not imply that the '26 fragrance allergens' are omitted. Furthermore, 80 products listed 'parfum'/'aroma', and 50 products listed ethanol. The data show that the loopholes for natural substances and for personal care products in the present European chemical legislation (e.g. the exception for classification and labelling of cosmetic products and the exception for information transfer in the supply chain) are not in line with an adequate consumer and environmental protection.

  11. Comparative analysis of chemical similarity methods for modular natural products with a hypothetical structure enumeration algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinnider, Michael A; Dejong, Chris A; Franczak, Brian C; McNicholas, Paul D; Magarvey, Nathan A

    2017-08-16

    Natural products represent a prominent source of pharmaceutically and industrially important agents. Calculating the chemical similarity of two molecules is a central task in cheminformatics, with applications at multiple stages of the drug discovery pipeline. Quantifying the similarity of natural products is a particularly important problem, as the biological activities of these molecules have been extensively optimized by natural selection. The large and structurally complex scaffolds of natural products distinguish their physical and chemical properties from those of synthetic compounds. However, no analysis of the performance of existing methods for molecular similarity calculation specific to natural products has been reported to date. Here, we present LEMONS, an algorithm for the enumeration of hypothetical modular natural product structures. We leverage this algorithm to conduct a comparative analysis of molecular similarity methods within the unique chemical space occupied by modular natural products using controlled synthetic data, and comprehensively investigate the impact of diverse biosynthetic parameters on similarity search. We additionally investigate a recently described algorithm for natural product retrobiosynthesis and alignment, and find that when rule-based retrobiosynthesis can be applied, this approach outperforms conventional two-dimensional fingerprints, suggesting it may represent a valuable approach for the targeted exploration of natural product chemical space and microbial genome mining. Our open-source algorithm is an extensible method of enumerating hypothetical natural product structures with diverse potential applications in bioinformatics.

  12. Natural fibers for hydrogels production and their applications in agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Serna Cock

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a review on hydrogels applied to agriculture emphasizing on the use of natural fibers. The objectives were to examine, trends in research addressed to identify natural fibers used in hydrogels development and methods for modifying natural fibers, understand factors which determine the water retention capacity of a hydrogel. Consequently, this paper shows some methodologies used to evaluate the hydrogels efficiency and to collect in tables, relevant information in relation to methods of natural fibers modification and hydrogel synthesis. It was found that previous research focused on hydrogels development processed with biodegradable polymers such as starch, chitosan and modified natural fibers, cross-linked with potassium acrylate and acrylamide, respectively. In addition, current researches aimed to obtaining hydrogels with improved properties, which have allowed a resistance to climatic variations and soil physicochemical changes, such as pH, presence of salts, temperature and composition. In fact, natural fibers such as sugarcane, agave fiber and kapok fiber, modified with maleic anhydride, are an alternative to obtain hydrogels due to an increasing of mechanical properties and chemically active sites. However, the use of natural nanofibers in hydrogels, has been a successful proposal to improve hydrogels mechanical and swelling properties, since they give to material an elasticity and rigidity properties. A hydrogel efficiency applied to soil, is measured throughout properties as swellability, mechanical strength, and soil water retention. It was concluded that hydrogels, are an alternative to the current needs for the agricultural sector.

  13. Current perspectives on unconventional shale gas extraction in the Appalachian Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampe, David J; Stolz, John F

    2015-01-01

    The Appalachian Basin is home to three major shales, the Upper Devonian, Marcellus, and Utica. Together, they contain significant quantities of tight oil, gas, and mixed hydrocarbons. The Marcellus alone is estimated to contain upwards of 500 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. The extraction of these deposits is facilitated by a combination of horizontal drilling and slick water stimulation (e.g., hydraulic fracturing) or "fracking." The process of fracking requires large volumes of water, proppant, and chemicals as well as a large well pad (3-7 acres) and an extensive network of gathering and transmission pipelines. Drilling can generate about 1,000 tons of drill cuttings depending on the depth of the formation and the length of the horizontal bore. The flowback and produced waters that return to the surface during production are high in total dissolved solids (TDS, 60,000-350,000 mg L(-1)) and contain halides (e.g., chloride, bromide, fluoride), strontium, barium, and often naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) as well as organics. The condensate tanks used to store these fluids can off gas a plethora of volatile organic compounds. The waste water, with its high TDS may be recycled, treated, or disposed of through deep well injection. Where allowed, open impoundments used for recycling are a source of air borne contamination as they are often aerated. The gas may be "dry" (mostly methane) or "wet," the latter containing a mixture of light hydrocarbons and liquids that need to be separated from the methane. Although the wells can produce significant quantities of natural gas, from 2-7 bcf, their initial decline rates are significant (50-75%) and may cease to be economic within a few years. This review presents an overview of unconventional gas extraction highlighting the environmental impacts and challenges.

  14. Unconventional superconductors. Anisotropy and multiband effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Askerzade, Iman [Ankara Univ. (Turkey). Center of Excellence of Superconductivity Research of Turkey; Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences (Azerbaijan). Inst. of Physics

    2012-07-01

    This book deals with the new class of materials unconventional superconductors, cuprate compounds, borocarbides, magnesium-diboride and oxypnictides. It gives a systematical review of physical properties of novel superconductors. There is an increasing number of fundamental properties of these compounds which are relevant to future applications, opening new possibilities. The theoretical explanation is presented as generalization of Ginzburg-Landau phenomenology and microscopical Eliashberg theory for multiband and anisotropic superconductors. Various applications of this approaches and time dependent version of two-band Ginzburg-Landau theory are considered. An important topic are fluctuations in two-band and anisotropic superconductors. Significant new results on current problems are presented to stimulate further research. Numerous illustrations, diagrams and tables make this book useful as a reference for students and researchers. (orig.)

  15. Unconventional superconductors anisotropy and multiband effects

    CERN Document Server

    Askerzade, Iman

    2012-01-01

    This book deals with the new class of materials unconventional superconductors, cuprate compounds, borocarbides, magnesium-diboride and oxypnictides. It gives a systematical review of physical properties of novel  superconductors. There is an increasing number of fundamental properties of these compounds which are relevant to future applications, opening new possibilities. The theoretical explanation is presented as generalization of Ginzburg-Landau phenomenology and microscopical Eliashberg theory for multiband and anisotropic superconductors. Various applications of this approachs and time dependent version of two-band Ginzburg-Landau theory are considered. An important topic are fluctuations in two-band and anisotropic superconductors. Significant  new results on current problems are presented to stimulate further research. Numerous illustrations, diagrams and tables make this book useful as a reference for students and researchers.

  16. Brave new world of unconventional density waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maki, K.; Dora, B.; Korin-Hamzic, B.; Basletic, M.; Virosztek, A.; Kartsovnik, M.V.

    2003-10-01

    Recently many people have discussed unconventional density wave (i.e. UCDW and USDW). Unlike in conventional density waves, the quasiparticle excitations in these systems are gapless. The appearance of these systems suggests paradigm shift from quasi 1D system to quasi 2D and 3D systems. Here we limit ourselves to the angular dependent magnetoresistance (ADMR) observed in the low temperature phase (LTP) of α-(BEDT-TTF) 2 KHg(SCN) 4 . Here we show that UCDW describes successfully many features of ADMR as manifestation of the Landau quantization of the quasiparticle spectrum in magnetic field. Indeed ADMR will provide a unique window to access UDW like the AF phase in URu 2 Si 2 , the pseudogap phase in high T c cuprates and the glassy phase in organic superconductor k-(ET) 2 salts. (author)

  17. Scaffold architecture and pharmacophoric properties of natural products and trade drugs: application in the design of natural product-based combinatorial libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M L; Schneider, G

    2001-01-01

    Natural products were analyzed to determine whether they contain appealing novel scaffold architectures for potential use in combinatorial chemistry. Ring systems were extracted and clustered on the basis of structural similarity. Several such potential scaffolds for combinatorial chemistry were identified that are not present in current trade drugs. For one of these scaffolds a virtual combinatorial library was generated. Pharmacophoric properties of natural products, trade drugs, and the virtual combinatorial library were assessed using a self-organizing map. Obviously, current trade drugs and natural products have several topological pharmacophore patterns in common. These features can be systematically explored with selected combinatorial libraries based on a combination of natural product-derived and synthetic molecular building blocks.

  18. Textbook for nature entrepreneurship : product of the WURKS project Nature Entrepreneurship and Tourism within Green Education (NatureToGo)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Felder, M.; Pellis, A.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, government funding for nature conservation and development has declined. As a result, links between nature conservation and entrepreneurship are increasingly being made in both practice and education. This comes with many questions and challenges. In Green Secondary Vocational

  19. Nature is the best source of anti-inflammatory drugs: indexing natural products for their anti-inflammatory bioactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aswad, Miran; Rayan, Mahmoud; Abu-Lafi, Saleh; Falah, Mizied; Raiyn, Jamal; Abdallah, Ziyad; Rayan, Anwar

    2018-01-01

    The aim was to index natural products for less expensive preventive or curative anti-inflammatory therapeutic drugs. A set of 441 anti-inflammatory drugs representing the active domain and 2892 natural products representing the inactive domain was used to construct a predictive model for bioactivity-indexing purposes. The model for indexing the natural products for potential anti-inflammatory activity was constructed using the iterative stochastic elimination algorithm (ISE). ISE is capable of differentiating between active and inactive anti-inflammatory molecules. By applying the prediction model to a mix set of (active/inactive) substances, we managed to capture 38% of the anti-inflammatory drugs in the top 1% of the screened set of chemicals, yielding enrichment factor of 38. Ten natural products that scored highly as potential anti-inflammatory drug candidates are disclosed. Searching the PubMed revealed that only three molecules (Moupinamide, Capsaicin, and Hypaphorine) out of the ten were tested and reported as anti-inflammatory. The other seven phytochemicals await evaluation for their anti-inflammatory activity in wet lab. The proposed anti-inflammatory model can be utilized for the virtual screening of large chemical databases and for indexing natural products for potential anti-inflammatory activity.

  20. Informatic search strategies to discover analogues and variants of natural product archetypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Chad W; Connaty, Alex D; Skinnider, Michael A; Li, Yong; Grunwald, Alyssa; Wyatt, Morgan A; Kerr, Russell G; Magarvey, Nathan A

    2016-03-01

    Natural products are a crucial source of antimicrobial agents, but reliance on low-resolution bioactivity-guided approaches has led to diminishing interest in discovery programmes. Here, we demonstrate that two in-house automated informatic platforms can be used to target classes of biologically active natural products, specifically, peptaibols. We demonstrate that mass spectrometry-based informatic approaches can be used to detect natural products with high sensitivity, identifying desired agents present in complex microbial extracts. Using our specialised software packages, we could elaborate specific branches of chemical space, uncovering new variants of trichopolyn and demonstrating a way forward in mining natural products as a valuable source of potential pharmaceutical agents.

  1. The Water-Energy-Food Nexus of Unconventional Fossil Fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, L.; Davis, K. F.; Rulli, M. C.; D'Odorico, P.

    2017-12-01

    Extraction of unconventional fossil fuels has increased human pressure on freshwater resources. Shale formations are globally abundant and widespread. Their extraction through hydraulic fracturing, a water-intensive process, may be limited by water availability, especially in arid and semiarid regions where stronger competition is expected to emerge with food production. It is unclear to what extent and where shale resource extraction could compete with local water and food security. Although extraction of shale deposits materializes economic gains and increases energy security, in some regions it may exacerbate the reliance on food imports, thereby decreasing regional food security. We consider the global distribution of known shale deposits suitable for oil and gas extraction and evaluate their impacts on water resources for food production and other human and environmental needs. We find that 17% of the world's shale deposits are located in areas affected by both surface water and groundwater stress, 50% in areas with surface water stress, and about 30% in irrigated areas. In these regions shale oil and shale gas production will likely threaten water and food security. These results highlight the importance of hydrologic analyses in the extraction of fossil fuels. Indeed, neglecting water availability as one of the possible factors constraining the development of shale deposits around the world could lead to unaccounted environmental impacts and business risks for firms and investors. Because several shale deposits in the world stretch across irrigated agricultural areas in arid regions, an adequate development of these resources requires appropriate environmental, economic and political decisions.

  2. Unconventional superconductivity in Sr{sub 2}RuO{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ying [Department of Physics and Materials Research Institute, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Key Laboratory of Artificial Structures and Quantum Control (Ministry of Education), Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing 210093 (China); Mao, Zhi-Qiang [Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70118 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Constraints on and experimental support to unconventional superconductivity in Sr{sub 2}RuO{sub 4}. • Phase-sensitive determination of the pairing symmetry in Sr{sub 2}RuO{sub 4}. • Response of superconductivity to mechanical perturbations. • Superconductivity in non-bulk Sr{sub 2}RuO{sub 4}. • Unresolved issues and outlook in Sr{sub 2}RuO{sub 4} research. - Abstract: Sr{sub 2}RuO{sub 4}, featuring a layered perovskite crystalline and quasi-two-dimensional electronic structure, was first synthesized in 1959. Unconventional, p-wave pairing was predicted for Sr{sub 2}RuO{sub 4} by Rice and Sigrist and Baskaran shortly after superconductivity in this material was discovered in 1994. Experimental evidence for unconventional superconductivity in Sr{sub 2}RuO{sub 4} has been accumulating in the past two decades and reviewed previously. In this article, we will first discuss constraints on the pairing symmetry of superconductivity in Sr{sub 2}RuO{sub 4} and summarize experimental evidence supporting the unconventional pairing symmetry in this material. We will then present several aspects of the experimental determination of the unconventional superconductivity in Sr{sub 2}RuO{sub 4} in some detail. In particular, we will discuss the phase-sensitive measurements that have played an important role in the determination of the pairing symmetry in Sr{sub 2}RuO{sub 4}. The responses of superconductivity to the mechanical perturbations and their implications on the mechanism of superconductivity will be discussed. A brief survey of various non-bulk Sr{sub 2}RuO{sub 4} will also be included to illustrate the many unusual features resulted from the unconventional nature of superconductivity in this material system. Finally, we will discuss some outstanding unresolved issues on Sr{sub 2}RuO{sub 4} and provide an outlook of the future work on Sr{sub 2}RuO{sub 4}.

  3. Contact heating of water products of combustion of natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aronov, I Z

    1978-01-01

    The USSR's NIIST examined the processes and equipment for heating water by submerged combustion using natural gas. Written for engineers involved with the design and application of thermal engineering equipment operating with natural gas, the book emphasizes equipment, test results, and methods of calculating heat transfer for contact gas economizers developed by Scientific Research Institute of Sanitary Engineering and other Soviet organizations. The economic effectiveness of submerged-combustion heating depends on several factors, including equipment design. Recommendations cover cost-effective designs and applications of contact economizers and boilers.

  4. Voracious transformation of a common natural resource into productive capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ploeg, F.

    2010-01-01

    I analyze a power struggle where competing factions have private financial assets and deplete a common stock of natural resources with no private property rights. I obtain a feedback Nash equilibrium to the dynamic common-pool problem and obtain political variants of the Hotelling depletion rule and

  5. Use of natural zeolite-supplemented litter increased broiler production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to ascertain the influence of natural zeolite, consisting mainly of clinoptilolite and mordenite, as a component of the litter material in broiler houses on the performance of the broilers and on some litter characteristics. Live weight gain, feed consumption, feed efficiency, viability and leg and body ...

  6. Structural modeling of natural citrus products as potential cross ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are four serotypes of Dengue virus and there are existing drugs used against specific serotype. There is no drug that is effective against all strains of this virus. In this research, bioinformatics tools were used to predict the affinity of natural ligands for the glycoprotein E of Dengue virus by considering the conserved ...

  7. Nature Relation Between Climatic Variables and Cotton Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakaria M. Sawan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of climatic variables on flower and boll production and retention in cotton (Gossypium barbadense. Also, this study investigated the relationship between climatic factors and production of flowers and bolls obtained during the development periods of the flowering and boll stage, and to determine the most representative period corresponding to the overall crop pattern. Evaporation, sunshine duration, relative humidity, surface soil temperature at 1800 h, and maximum air temperature, are the important climatic factors that significantly affect flower and boll production. The least important variables were found to be surface soil temperature at 0600 h and minimum temperature. There was a negative correlation between flower and boll production and either evaporation or sunshine duration, while that correlation with minimum relative humidity was positive. Higher minimum relative humidity, short period of sunshine duration, and low temperatures enhanced flower and boll formation.

  8. High folate production by naturally occurring Lactobacillus sp. with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-08-16

    Aug 16, 2010 ... high folate production, isolation and identification of Lactobacilli in traditional fermented milk ... mended for pregnant women (Van Der Put et al., 2001; ...... utilization of folic acid and vitamin B12 by lactic cultures in skim milk.

  9. Natural Gas and Cellulosic Biomass: A Clean Fuel Combination? Determining the Natural Gas Blending Wall in Biofuel Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M Wright, Mark; Seifkar, Navid; Green, William H; Román-Leshkov, Yuriy

    2015-07-07

    Natural gas has the potential to increase the biofuel production output by combining gas- and biomass-to-liquids (GBTL) processes followed by naphtha and diesel fuel synthesis via Fischer-Tropsch (FT). This study reflects on the use of commercial-ready configurations of GBTL technologies and the environmental impact of enhancing biofuels with natural gas. The autothermal and steam-methane reforming processes for natural gas conversion and the gasification of biomass for FT fuel synthesis are modeled to estimate system well-to-wheel emissions and compare them to limits established by U.S. renewable fuel mandates. We show that natural gas can enhance FT biofuel production by reducing the need for water-gas shift (WGS) of biomass-derived syngas to achieve appropriate H2/CO ratios. Specifically, fuel yields are increased from less than 60 gallons per ton to over 100 gallons per ton with increasing natural gas input. However, GBTL facilities would need to limit natural gas use to less than 19.1% on a LHV energy basis (7.83 wt %) to avoid exceeding the emissions limits established by the Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS2) for clean, advanced biofuels. This effectively constitutes a blending limit that constrains the use of natural gas for enhancing the biomass-to-liquids (BTL) process.

  10. Exploitation of unconventional protein sources in the feed of weaner ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exploitation of unconventional protein sources in the feed of weaner rabbits ... as protein sources for feeding ruminants but rarely considered as feed for micro ... 26.88 g/100g DM in Centrosema pubescens and Moringa oleifera, respectively.

  11. Experts discuss unconventional conflicts in the Americas | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2015-07-10

    Jul 10, 2015 ... Experts discuss unconventional conflicts in the Americas ... in illicit activities — like drug smuggling and illegal mining — that destabilize societies and ruin lives. ... Social exclusion and "violences" in Central American cities.

  12. Unconventional Military Advising Mission Conducted by Conventional US Military Forces

    OpenAIRE

    Hajjar, Remi M.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines how and why many contemporary US mainstream military advisors—as compared to Special Forces advisors—often work from a position of disadvantage when conducting unconventional advising missions. Post-9/11 deployments to Iraq and Afghanistan have caused the US military to adapt to myriad complexities, including a renewed need for the widespread execution of the unconventional military advising mission by the Special Forces and conventional units. Although Special Forces ty...

  13. Production of mycotoxins on artificially and naturally infested building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Gravesen, S.; Nielsen, P.A.

    1999-01-01

    , especially Asp. ustus and Asp. niger produced many unknown secondary metabolites on the building materials. Analyses of wallpaper and glass-fibre wallpaper naturally infested with Asp. versicolor revealed sterigmatocystin and 5-methoxysterigmatocystin. Analyses of naturally infested wallpaper showed that C......In this study, the ability to produce mycotoxins during growth on artificially infested building materials was investigated for Penicillium chrysogenum, Pen. polonicum, Pen. brevicompactum, Chaetomium spp., Aspergillus ustus, Asp. niger, Ulocladium spp., Alternaria spp., and Paecilomyces spp., all...... isolated from water-damaged building materials. Spores from the different isolates of the above mentioned species were inoculated on gypsum board with and without wallpaper and on chipboard with and without wallpaper. Fungal material was scraped off the materials, extracted, and analyzed using high...

  14. Improving Agricultural Productivity with Radiation Processed Natural Polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriques, Sasha

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Through the power of irradiation to break and create chemical bonds, the natural polymer cassava starch is used to make super water absorbents (SWA), 1kg of which can absorb and hold 200 litres of water and release it slowly over time. Placed in the soil near plants’ roots, SWA can be used where there is little rain or frequent drought. After 9 months the crystals, which resemble sugar crystals, completely disintegrate, leaving no residue. (author)

  15. Application of natural and synthetic polymers in a production of paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Slobodan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This work gives the review of most frequently used natural and synthetic polymers in production of paper, board and cardboard. Physical and chemical interaction of natural and synthetic polymers with cellulose fibers, and thus the way these polymers influence the improvement of both production process and the paper characteristics, have been presented.

  16. Natural Products Research in South Africa: End of an Era on Land or ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    single era of natural product chemistry research in South Africa but rather three ... The Specialization Era (ca. 1960–1990) ... South African Natural Products in the International Drug. Discovery .... subsequently proposed that 24 was formed through an initial ... complete elimination of M. grisea infestation by the commercial.

  17. Defining "natural product" between public health and business, 17th to 21st centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanziani, Alessandro

    2008-07-01

    The historical definition of a natural product stands at the crossroads of business, health, and the symbolic order of things. Until the end of the 19th century, "natural product" was a synonym of perishable. The emergency of organic chemistry made perishability be replaced with "toxicity". Nowadays, genetics is provoking a radical change in the notion and practises of "natural product". However, these concerns are never entirely opposed to "naturality" as a synonym for sacred and symbolic order. Traceability is largely based upon kosher practices and the association between organic and good for health is hardly based upon sound scientific arguments.

  18. The encounter and analysis of naturally occurring radionuclides in gas and oil production and processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartog, F.A.; Jonkers, G.; Knaepen, W.A.I.

    1996-01-01

    As a result of oil and gas production, radioactive daughter elements from the uranium and thorium decay series can be mobilized and transported away from the reservoir. Due to changes in flow regime, temperature, pressure or chemical environment NORs (Naturally Occurring Radionuclides) may build up in products, by-products or waste streams from gas and oil production and processing facilities. Products containing NORs are commonly denoted by the acronym NORM (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials). Main topics of this paper are: E and P (Exploration and Production) NORM characteristics; incentives for NORM analysis; NORM analysis; interlaboratory test programme; analysis techniques; results and conclusions of the test programme. 4 figs., 2 tabs

  19. METHANOL PRODUCTION FROM BIOMASS AND NATURAL GAS AS TRANSPORTATION FUEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two processes are examined for production of methanol. They are assessed against the essential requirements of a future alternative fuel for road transport: that it (i) is producible in amounts comparable to the 19 EJ of motor fuel annually consumed in the U.S., (ii) minimizes em...

  20. Experience curve for natural gas production by hydraulic fracturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fukui, R.; Greenfield, C.; Pogue, K.; van der Zwaan, B.

    From 2007 to 2012 shale gas production in the US expanded at an astounding average growth rate of over 50yr, and thereby increased nearly tenfold over this short time period alone. Hydraulic fracturing technology, or ``fracking'', as well as new directional drilling techniques, played key roles in

  1. Proceedings of fuel strategies for conventional and unconventional fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahr, D.; Nechvatal, T.T.

    1991-01-01

    Fuel selection is a major decision for a power engineer. It is the single largest item in the power plant operating budget and has a major effect on power plant economics. Fuel determines plant design requirements and the types of systems that are provided. As a result, it affects capital budgets and financing requirements. In the last few decades, we have seen different fuels of choice at any one time. Coal has always been a staple for power generation. During the 1950s and 1960s, oil became an attractive alternative. Nuclear fuel became a popular choice due to its very low energy cost. After Three-Mile-Island, however, capital budgets went through the roof, resulting in severe financial constraints. Natural gas, which was rationed in some regions a few years ago, is now a popular choice. Some sources predict that its cost will increase faster than other fuels. To mitigate the relative variations in energy cost for different fuels, a balanced energy plan is required. A balanced power generation plan with fuel options provides the flexibility to react to unpredictable changes. The papers in this book are a continuation of the Fuel Strategies theme. Three technical topics are covered: Converting to Orimulsion, A Replacement Fuel for Heavy Oil; Innovations in Handling Conventional and Unconventional Fuels for Power Plants; and Pacific Rim Experience With Coal

  2. Unconventional strain-dependent conductance oscillations in pristine phosphorene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, S J; Kamalakar, M Venkata

    2018-05-16

    Phosphorene is a single elemental, two-dimensional semiconductor that has quickly emerged as a high mobility material for transistors and optoelectronic devices. In addition, being a 2D material it can sustain high levels of strain, enabling sensitive modification of its electronic properties. In this paper, we investigate the strain dependent electronic properties of phosphorene nanocrystals. By performing extensive calculations we determine the electrical conductance as a function of uniaxial, as well as biaxial strain stimuli and uncover a unique zone phase diagram. This enables us to uncover conductance oscillations in pristine phosphorene for the first time, by the simple application of strain. We show that such unconventional current-voltage behaviour is tuneable by the nature of strain, and that an additional gate voltage can modulate the amplitude (peak to valley ratio) of the observed phenomena and its switching efficiency. Furthermore, we show that the switching is highly robust against doping and defects. Our detailed results present new leads for innovation in strain based gauging and high-frequency nanoelectronic switches of phosphorene.

  3. Analysis of Specific Features of the Ukrainian Market of Natural Gas Production and Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lelyuk Oleksiy V.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article provides results of the study of specific features of the Ukrainian market of natural gas production and consumption. It analyses dynamics of the specific weight of Ukraine in general volumes of natural gas consumption in the world, dynamics of natural gas consumption in Ukraine during 1990 – 2012 and dependence of natural gas consumption on GDP volumes by the purchasing power parity. It studies the structure of natural gas consumption by regions in 2012 and sectors of economy, resource base of natural gas in Ukraine and also dynamics of established resources of natural gas in Ukraine and dynamics of natural gas production. It analyses base rates of growth of natural gas resources and production in Ukraine. It considers dynamics of import of natural gas into Ukraine and its import prices and also the structure of natural gas import. It identifies the balance of the natural gas market in Ukraine. On the basis of the conducted analysis the article proves that Ukraine is a gas-deficit country of the world, which depends on natural gas import supplies.

  4. Exploring the production of natural gas through the lenses of the ACEGES model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voudouris, Vlasios; Matsumoto, Ken'ichi; Sedgwick, John; Rigby, Robert; Stasinopoulos, Dimitrios; Jefferson, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Due to the increasing importance of natural gas for modern economic activity, and gas's non-renewable nature, it is extremely important to try to estimate possible trajectories of future natural gas production while considering uncertainties in resource estimates, demand growth, production growth and other factors that might limit production. In this study, we develop future scenarios for natural gas supply using the ACEGES computational laboratory. Conditionally on the currently estimated ultimate recoverable resources, the ‘Collective View’ and ‘Golden Age’ Scenarios suggest that the supply of natural gas is likely to meet the increasing demand for natural gas until at least 2035. The ‘Golden Age’ Scenario suggests significant ‘jumps’ of natural gas production – important for testing the resilience of long-term strategies. - Highlights: • We present the ‘Collective View’ and ‘Golden Age’ Scenarios for natural gas production. • We do not observe any significant supply demand pressure of natural gas until 2035. • We do observe ‘jumps’ in natural gas supply until 2035. • The ACEGES-based scenarios can assess the resilience of longterm strategies

  5. Unconventional Use of Intense Pulsed Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Piccolo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the literature, intense pulsed light (IPL represents a versatile tool in the treatment of some dermatological conditions (i.e., pigmentation disorders, hair removal, and acne, due to its wide range of wavelengths. The authors herein report on 58 unconventional but effective uses of IPL in several cutaneous diseases, such as rosacea (10 cases, port-wine stain (PWS (10 cases, disseminated porokeratosis (10 cases, pilonidal cyst (3 cases, seborrheic keratosis (10 cases, hypertrophic scar (5 cases and keloid scar (5 cases, Becker’s nevus (2 cases, hidradenitis suppurativa (2 cases, and sarcoidosis (1 case. Our results should suggest that IPL could represent a valid therapeutic support and option by providing excellent outcomes and low side effects, even though it should be underlined that the use and the effectiveness of IPL are strongly related to the operator’s experience (acquired by attempting at least one specific course on the use of IPL and one-year experience in a specialized centre. Moreover, the daily use of these devices will surely increase clinical experience and provide new information, thus enhancing long-term results and improving IPL effectiveness.

  6. Unconventional use of intense pulsed light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccolo, D; Di Marcantonio, D; Crisman, G; Cannarozzo, G; Sannino, M; Chiricozzi, A; Chimenti, S

    2014-01-01

    According to the literature, intense pulsed light (IPL) represents a versatile tool in the treatment of some dermatological conditions (i.e., pigmentation disorders, hair removal, and acne), due to its wide range of wavelengths. The authors herein report on 58 unconventional but effective uses of IPL in several cutaneous diseases, such as rosacea (10 cases), port-wine stain (PWS) (10 cases), disseminated porokeratosis (10 cases), pilonidal cyst (3 cases), seborrheic keratosis (10 cases), hypertrophic scar (5 cases) and keloid scar (5 cases), Becker's nevus (2 cases), hidradenitis suppurativa (2 cases), and sarcoidosis (1 case). Our results should suggest that IPL could represent a valid therapeutic support and option by providing excellent outcomes and low side effects, even though it should be underlined that the use and the effectiveness of IPL are strongly related to the operator's experience (acquired by attempting at least one specific course on the use of IPL and one-year experience in a specialized centre). Moreover, the daily use of these devices will surely increase clinical experience and provide new information, thus enhancing long-term results and improving IPL effectiveness.

  7. Mean-field approach to unconventional superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacks, William; Mauger, Alain; Noat, Yves

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A model Hamiltonian for unconventional superconductivity (SC) is proposed. • The pseudogap (PG) state is described in terms of pair fluctuations. • SC coherence is restored by a new pair–pair interaction, which counteracts fluctuations. • Given the temperature dependence of the parameters, the SC to PG transition is examined. • The theory fits the ‘peak–dip–hump’ features of cuprate and pnictide excitation spectra. - Abstract: We propose a model that connects the quasiparticle spectral function of high-T c superconductors to the condensation energy. Given the evidence for pair correlations above T c , we consider a coarse-grain Hamiltonian of fluctuating pairs describing the incoherent pseudogap (PG) state, together with a novel pair–pair interaction term that restores long-range superconducting (SC) coherence below T c . A mean-field solution then leads to a self-consistent gap equation containing the new pair–pair coupling. The corresponding spectral function A(k,E) reveals the characteristic peak–dip–hump features of cuprates, now observed on iron pnictides (LiFeAs). The continuous transition from SC to PG states is discussed

  8. Antiviral Activity of Natural Products Extracted from Marine Organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobia Tabassum

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Many epidemics have broken out over the centuries. Hundreds and thousands of humans have died over a disease. Available treatments for infectious diseases have always been limited. Some infections are more deadly than the others, especially viral pathogens. These pathogens have continuously resisted all kinds of medical treatment, due to a need for new treatments to be developed. Drugs are present in nature and are also synthesized in vitro and they help in combating diseases and restoring health. Synthesizing drugs is a hard and time consuming task, which requires a lot of man power and financial aid. However, the natural compounds are just lying around on the earth, may it be land or water. Over a thousand novel compounds isolated from marine organisms are used as antiviral agents. Others are being pharmacologically tested. Today, over forty antiviral compounds are present in the pharmacological market. Some of these compounds are undergoing clinical and pre-clinical stages. Marine compounds are paving the way for a new trend in modern medicine.

  9. The utility of N-15 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for the study of natural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randall, E.W.

    1978-01-01

    The utility of 15 N NMR spectroscopy for the study of natural products and the difficulties which must be overcome arte discussed. The widespread use of pulse Fourier techniques, decouplings, larger magnetic fields and large tube sizes allows a large number of 15 N studies of natural products, the more recent and important of these being peptides, nucleosides and nucleotides. Sites of protonation, tautomerism, sites of nitrosation and proton exchange behaviour for some of these natrual products have been studied. (A.G.)

  10. From Target Selection to Post-Stimulation Analysis: Example of an Unconventional Faulted Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeCalvez, J. H.; Williams, M.; Xu, W.; Stokes, J.; Moros, H.; Maxwell, S. C.; Conners, S.

    2011-12-01

    As the global balance of supply and demand forces the hydrocarbon industry toward unconventional resources, technology- and economics-driven shale oil and gas production is gaining momentum throughout many basins worldwide. Production from such unconventional plays is facilitated by massive hydraulic fracturing treatments aimed at increasing permeability and reactivating natural fractures. Large-scale faulting and fracturing partly control stress distribution, hence stimulation-derived hydraulically-induced fracture systems development. Therefore, careful integrated approaches to target selection, treatment staging, and stimulation methods need to be used to economically maximize ultimate hydrocarbon recovery. We present a case study of a multistage, multilateral stimulation project in the Fort Worth Basin, Texas. Wells had to be drilled within city limits in a commercially developing building area. Well locations and trajectories were determined in and around large-scale faults using 3D surface seismic with throws varying from seven to thirty meters. As a result, three horizontal wells were drilled in the Lower Barnett Shale section, 150 m apart with the central well landed about 25 m shallower than the outside laterals. Surface seismic indicates that the surface locations are on top of a major fault complex with the lateral sections drilling away from the major fault system and through a smaller fault. Modeling of the borehole-based microseismic monitoring options led to the selection of an optimum set of configurations given the operational restrictions faced: monitoring would mainly take place using a horizontal array to be tractored downhole and moved according to the well and stage to be monitored. Wells were completed using a perf-and-plug approach allowing for each stimulation stage to obtain a precise orientation of the various three-component accelerometers of the monitoring array as well as the calibration of the velocity model used to process the

  11. Patented installations for the production of methane and natural manures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milquet, F

    1951-12-01

    Current processes are reviewed and a new technique is described which maintains economically a constant temperature of 40/sup 0/C in the tanks by complete isolation in winter as in summer and periodic reheating of the mass. The tanks were buried underground and had double metal walls with low density cellular concrete between them. The covers were of thick cork, permanently fixed, and coated with an impermeable substance. Reheating was necessary only once during the fermentation, whereas with tanks above ground it had to be carried out more often and more vigorously. Straw was the raw material and the products were highly profitable quantities of methane and artificial manure.

  12. Prelysosomal Compartments in the Unconventional Secretion of Amyloidogenic Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Borland

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A mechanistic link between neuron-to-neuron transmission of secreted amyloid and propagation of protein malconformation cytopathology and disease has recently been uncovered in animal models. An enormous interest in the unconventional secretion of amyloids from neurons has followed. Amphisomes and late endosomes are the penultimate maturation products of the autophagosomal and endosomal pathways, respectively, and normally fuse with lysosomes for degradation. However, under conditions of perturbed membrane trafficking and/or lysosomal deficiency, prelysosomal compartments may instead fuse with the plasma membrane to release any contained amyloid. After a brief introduction to the endosomal and autophagosomal pathways, we discuss the evidence for autophagosomal secretion (exophagy of amyloids, with a comparative emphasis on Aβ1–42 and α-synuclein, as luminal and cytosolic amyloids, respectively. The ESCRT-mediated import of cytosolic amyloid into late endosomal exosomes, a known vehicle of transmission of macromolecules between cells, is also reviewed. Finally, mechanisms of lysosomal dysfunction, deficiency, and exocytosis are exemplified in the context of genetically identified risk factors, mainly for Parkinson’s disease. Exocytosis of prelysosomal or lysosomal organelles is a last resort for clearance of cytotoxic material and alleviates cytopathy. However, they also represent a vehicle for the concentration, posttranslational modification, and secretion of amyloid seeds.

  13. Unconventional Political Campaigns in Romania: Presidential Impeachment Referendum (2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia Cmeciu

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Every referendum brings forth a crisis of legitimacy. Traian Băsescu experienced this political situation in 2007 when he was suspended by the Romanian Parliament. Having as theoretical background social semiotics (Kress, van Leeuwen [1996] 2006; van Leeuwen, 2005, our paper focuses on four semiotic systems (represented participants, composition, multimodality, interactive participants applied to the images produced by the Romanian citizens, who had been “called up” to an unconventional political campaign through a personal production of a digital guerilla. Beyond its mere iconic function, number “322” has an indexical function of pinpointing the MPs who voted for Traian Băsescu’s impeachment. This number constitutes the main reason for the embodiment of these Romanian MPs in pictorial metaphors. Metaphors activate the semiotic system of multimodality because they become a sign of creativity by combining layers belonging to different iconic isotopic clusters. The humour comes from the allotopies (Greimas 1966 created through the surprising interweaving of politicians and animals, fairy-tales characters or evil/ good heroes.

  14. Catalyst-controlled oligomerization for the collective synthesis of polypyrroloindoline natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamison, Christopher R; Badillo, Joseph J; Lipshultz, Jeffrey M; Comito, Robert J; MacMillan, David W C

    2017-12-01

    In nature, many organisms generate large families of natural product metabolites that have related molecular structures as a means to increase functional diversity and gain an evolutionary advantage against competing systems within the same environment. One pathway commonly employed by living systems to generate these large classes of structurally related families is oligomerization, wherein a series of enzymatically catalysed reactions is employed to generate secondary metabolites by iteratively appending monomers to a growing serial oligomer chain. The polypyrroloindolines are an interesting class of oligomeric natural products that consist of multiple cyclotryptamine subunits. Herein we describe an iterative application of asymmetric copper catalysis towards the synthesis of six distinct oligomeric polypyrroloindoline natural products: hodgkinsine, hodgkinsine B, idiospermuline, quadrigemine H and isopsychotridine B and C. Given the customizable nature of the small-molecule catalysts employed, we demonstrate that this strategy is further amenable to the construction of quadrigemine H-type alkaloids not isolated previously from natural sources.

  15. Insects: an underrepresented resource for the discovery of biologically active natural products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Seabrooks

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Nature has been the source of life-changing and -saving medications for centuries. Aspirin, penicillin and morphine are prime examples of Nature׳s gifts to medicine. These discoveries catalyzed the field of natural product drug discovery which has mostly focused on plants. However, insects have more than twice the number of species and entomotherapy has been in practice for as long as and often in conjunction with medicinal plants and is an important alternative to modern medicine in many parts of the world. Herein, an overview of current traditional medicinal applications of insects and characterization of isolated biologically active molecules starting from approximately 2010 is presented. Insect natural products reviewed were isolated from ants, bees, wasps, beetles, cockroaches, termites, flies, true bugs, moths and more. Biological activities of these natural products from insects include antimicrobial, antifungal, antiviral, anticancer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects.

  16. [Elaboration of Pseudo-natural Products Using Artificial In Vitro Biosynthesis Systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Yuki

    2018-01-01

     Peptidic natural products often consist of not only proteinogenic building blocks but also unique non-proteinogenic structures such as macrocyclic scaffolds and N-methylated backbones. Since such non-proteinogenic structures are important structural motifs that contribute to diverse bioactivity, we have proposed that peptides with non-proteinogenic structures should be attractive candidates as artificial bioactive peptides mimicking natural products, or so-called pseudo-natural products. We previously devised an engineered translation system for pseudo-natural peptides, referred to as the flexible in vitro translation (FIT) system. This system enabled "one-pot" synthesis of highly diverse pseudo-natural peptide libraries, which can be rapidly screened by mRNA display technology for the discovery of pseudo-natural peptides with diverse bioactivities.

  17. Sustainability, natural and organic cosmetics: consumer, products, efficacy, toxicological and regulatory considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Fonseca-Santos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The interest in sustainable products has increased along the years, since the choice of products, packaging and production processes have a great impact on the environment. These products are classified by regulatory agencies in different categories, aggregating advantages to the product and increasing the demand by consumers. However, there is no harmonization in guidelines of these certifying agencies and each cosmetic industry formulates their product and packaging in a more rational way, which causes less damage to the environment. Many cosmetic products have in their formulation natural products that perform a specific biological function, but these products should be evaluated on efficacy and toxicological aspects. The aim of this article is to approach sustainability, natural and organic cosmetics, considering the consumer and the efficacy, toxicological and regulatory aspects.

  18. Management of natural health products in pediatrics: a provider-focused quality improvement project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Emily; Silbert-Flagg, JoAnne; Vohra, Sunita

    2015-01-01

    The use of natural health products by pediatric patients is common, yet health care providers often do not provide management guidance. The purpose of this project was to improve management of natural health products by pediatric nurse practitioners. Pediatric nurse practitioners from large metropolitan city were recruited (n = 32). A paired pretest-posttest design was used. Study participants were engaged to improve knowledge of natural health products, and a management toolkit was created and tested. Mean knowledge scores increased from 59.19 to 76.3 (p improved with regard to patient guidance (p product use (p = .51) and drug/herb interactions (p = .35) were not significant. This investigation is the first known study to improve knowledge and management of natural health products in pediatric clinical practice. Copyright © 2015 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Transporter-mediated natural product-drug interactions for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Weibin

    2018-04-01

    The growing use of natural products in cardiovascular (CV) patients has been greatly raising the concerns about potential natural product-CV drug interactions. Some of these may lead to unexpected cardiovascular adverse effects and it is, therefore, essential to identify or predict potential natural product-CV drug interactions, and to understand the underlying mechanisms. Drug transporters are important determinants for the pharmacokinetics of drugs and alterations of drug transport has been recognized as one of the major causes of natural product-drug interactions. In last two decades, many CV drugs (e.g., angiotensin II receptor blockers, beta-blockers and statins) have been identified to be substrates and inhibitors of the solute carrier (SLC) transporters and the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, which are two major transporter superfamilies. Meanwhile, in vitro and in vivo studies indicate that a growing number of natural products showed cardioprotective effects (e.g., gingko biloba, danshen and their active ingredients) are also substrates and inhibitors of drug transporters. Thus, to understand transporter-mediated natural product-CV drug interactions is important and some transporter-mediated interactions have already shown to have clinical relevance. In this review, we review the current knowledge on the role of ABC and SLC transporters in CV therapy, as well as transporter modulation by natural products used in CV diseases and their induced natural product-CV drug interactions through alterations of drug transport. We hope our review will aid in a comprehensive summary of transporter-mediated natural product-CV drug interactions and help public and physicians understand these type of interactions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Application of phase-trafficking methods to natural products research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya, Juan J; Montenegro, Gloria; Mitscher, Lester A; Timmermann, Barbara N

    2010-09-24

    A novel simultaneous phase-trafficking approach using spatially separated solid-supported reagents for rapid separation of neutral, basic, and acidic compounds from organic plant extracts with minimum labor is reported. Acidic and basic ion-exchange resins were physically separated into individual sacks ("tea bags") for trapping basic and acidic compounds, respectively, leaving behind in solution neutral components of the natural mixtures. Trapped compounds were then recovered from solid phase by appropriate suspension in acidic or basic solutions. The feasibility of the proposed separation protocol was demonstrated and optimized with an "artificial mixture" of model compounds. In addition, the utility of this methodology was illustrated with the successful separation of the alkaloid skytanthine from Skytanthus acutus Meyen and the main catechins and caffeine from Camellia sinensis L. (Kuntze). This novel approach offers multiple advantages over traditional extraction methods, as it is not labor intensive, makes use of only small quantities of solvents, produces fractions in adequate quantities for biological assays, and can be easily adapted to field conditions for bioprospecting activities.

  1. Natural Products for the Treatment of Trachoma and Chlamydia trachomatis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G. Potroz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The neglected tropical disease (NTD trachoma is currently the leading cause of eye disease in the world, and the pathogenic bacteria causing this condition, Chlamydia trachomatis, is also the most common sexually transmitted pathogenic bacterium. Although the serovars of this bacterial species typically vary between ocular and genital infections there is a clear connection between genital C. trachomatis infections and the development of trachoma in infants, such that the solutions to these infections are closely related. It is the unique life cycle of the C. trachomatis bacteria which primarily leads to chronic infections and challenges in treatment using conventional antibiotics. This life cycle involves stages of infective elementary bodies (EBs and reproductive reticulate bodies (RBs. Most antibiotics only target the reproductive RBs and this often leads to the need for prolonged therapy which facilitates the development of drug resistant pathogens. It is through combining several compounds to obtain multiple antimicrobial mechanisms that we are most likely to develop a reliable means to address all these issues. Traditional and ethnobotanical medicine provides valuable resources for the development of novel formulations and treatment regimes based on synergistic and multi-compound therapy. In this review we intend to summarize the existing literature on the application of natural compounds for controlling trachoma and inhibiting chlamydial bacteria and explore the potential for the development of new treatment modalities.

  2. NMR structural studies of oligosaccharides and other natural products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærulff, Louise

    produce secondary metabolites for signaling and competing against other organisms, and these molecules are important in drug discovery due to their inherent biological activities. From a marine Photobacterium (P. halotolerans) we isolated the solonamides and the ngercheumicins, two families of cyclic...... through the nJCH correlation, this experiment has exciting applications for configurational assignment of e.g. carbohydrates and for residual dipolar couplings. Identification of known molecules and discovery of novel molecules are other important applications of NMR spectroscopy. Bacteria and fungi....... fijiensis, was also investigated for production of novel secondary metabolites, and a new pyranonigrin (E) was isolated and structure elucidated by NMR spectroscopy along with JBIR-74 and decumbenone A, two known metabolites previously isolated from Aspergillus and Penicillium species. Oligosaccharides...

  3. Direct capture and heterologous expression of Salinispora natural product genes for the biosynthesis of enterocin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonet, Bailey; Teufel, Robin; Crüsemann, Max; Ziemert, Nadine; Moore, Bradley S

    2015-03-27

    Heterologous expression of secondary metabolic pathways is a promising approach for the discovery and characterization of bioactive natural products. Herein we report the first heterologous expression of a natural product from the model marine actinomycete genus Salinispora. Using the recently developed method of yeast-mediated transformation-associated recombination for natural product gene clusters, we captured a type II polyketide synthase pathway from Salinispora pacifica with high homology to the enterocin pathway from Streptomyces maritimus and successfully produced enterocin in two different Streptomyces host strains. This result paves the way for the systematic interrogation of Salinispora's promising secondary metabolome.

  4. Exploring fungal biodiversity for the production of water-soluble pigments as potential natural food colorants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mapari, Sameer Shamsuddin; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld

    2005-01-01

    The production of many currently authorized natural food colorants has a number of disadvantages, including a dependence on the supply of raw materials and variations in pigment extraction. Fungi provide a readily available alternative source of naturally derived food colorants that could easily...... be produced in high yields. The recent authorization of a fungal food colorant has fuelled research to explore the extraordinary chemical diversity and biodiversity of fungi for the biotechnological production of pigments as natural food colorants. These studies require an appropriate use of chernotaxonomic...... technology, in the future it should be possible to employ metabolic engineering to create microbial cell factories for the production of food colorants....

  5. Synthetic Strategies toward Natural Products Containing Contiguous Stereogenic Quaternary Carbon Atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büschleb, Martin; Dorich, Stéphane; Hanessian, Stephen; Tao, Daniel; Schenthal, Kyle B; Overman, Larry E

    2016-03-18

    Strategies for the total synthesis of complex natural products that contain two or more contiguous stereogenic quaternary carbon atoms in their intricate structures are reviewed with 12 representative examples. Emphasis has been put on methods to create quaternary carbon stereocenters, including syntheses of the same natural product by different groups, thereby showcasing the diversity of thought and individual creativity. A compendium of selected natural products containing two or more contiguous stereogenic quaternary carbon atoms and key reactions in their total or partial syntheses is provided in the Supporting Information. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Quasiparticle interference in unconventional 2D systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lan; Cheng, Peng; Wu, Kehui

    2017-03-15

    At present, research of 2D systems mainly focuses on two kinds of materials: graphene-like materials and transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs). Both of them host unconventional 2D electronic properties: pseudospin and the associated chirality of electrons in graphene-like materials, and spin-valley-coupled electronic structures in the TMDs. These exotic electronic properties have attracted tremendous interest for possible applications in nanodevices in the future. Investigation on the quasiparticle interference (QPI) in 2D systems is an effective way to uncover these properties. In this review, we will begin with a brief introduction to 2D systems, including their atomic structures and electronic bands. Then, we will discuss the formation of Friedel oscillation due to QPI in constant energy contours of electron bands, and show the basic concept of Fourier-transform scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (FT-STM/STS), which can resolve Friedel oscillation patterns in real space and consequently obtain the QPI patterns in reciprocal space. In the next two parts, we will summarize some pivotal results in the investigation of QPI in graphene and silicene, in which systems the low-energy quasiparticles are described by the massless Dirac equation. The FT-STM experiments show there are two different interference channels (intervalley and intravalley scattering) and backscattering suppression, which associate with the Dirac cones and the chirality of quasiparticles. The monolayer and bilayer graphene on different substrates (SiC and metal surfaces), and the monolayer and multilayer silicene on a Ag(1 1 1) surface will be addressed. The fifth part will introduce the FT-STM research on QPI in TMDs (monolayer and bilayer of WSe 2 ), which allow us to infer the spin texture of both conduction and valence bands, and present spin-valley coupling by tracking allowed and forbidden scattering channels.

  7. NATURAL PRODUCTS AS PRESERVATIVES FOR FAST GROWTH WOODS - A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Marques Barreiros

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabela normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Wood is a universal material, economic, historic and sustainable. The paucity of species resistant to biological degradation forced man to use other less durable, especially fast growing, from reforestation, as some species of Eucalyptus and Pinus. These species have moderate or no resistance to wood decay organisms need special treatment and preservatives. The products currently used preservatives are highly toxic and are potential environmental hazards and human health. Thus, there is a growing need to develop effective chemicals, non-toxic to humans and the environment. The direction of research has aimed to develop environmentally friendly products and economic viability, and an alternative is the use of Crude Tall Oil (CTO, which is a waste processing coniferous softwood pulp for the production of kraft paper. The tall oil as a protective agent, has been considered a promising method for significantly reducing the capillary water absorption of sapwood, thereby removing one of the factors that favor the wood being attacked by fungi and insects: water, oxygen and nutrients. Research shows that the tall oil can be used neat, either fresh or distilled, or in combination with biocides.A madeira é um material universal, econ

  8. Natural products for chronic cough: Text mining the East Asian historical literature for future therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shergis, Johannah Linda; Wu, Lei; May, Brian H; Zhang, Anthony Lin; Guo, Xinfeng; Lu, Chuanjian; Xue, Charlie Changli

    2015-08-01

    Chronic cough is a significant health burden. Patients experience variable benefits from over the counter and prescribed products, but there is an unmet need to provide more effective treatments. Natural products have been used to treat cough and some plant compounds such as pseudoephedrine from ephedra and codeine from opium poppy have been developed into drugs. Text mining historical literature may offer new insight for future therapeutic development. We identified natural products used in the East Asian historical literature to treat chronic cough. Evaluation of the historical literature revealed 331 natural products used to treat chronic cough. Products included plants, minerals and animal substances. These natural products were found in 75 different books published between AD 363 and 1911. Of the 331 products, the 10 most frequently and continually used products were examined, taking into consideration findings from contemporary experimental studies. The natural products identified are promising and offer new directions in therapeutic development for treating chronic cough. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. EFFECTS OF OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRICES ON INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION IN THE EUROZONE MEMBER COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yılmaz BAYAR

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Industrial production is one of the leading indicators of gross domestic product which reflects the overall economic performance of a country. In other words decreases or increases in industrial production point out a contracting or expanding economy. Therefore, changes in prices of oil and natural gas which are the crucial inputs to the industrial production are also important for the overall economy. This study examines the effects of changes in oil and natural gas prices on the industrial production in the 18 Eurozone member countries during the period January 2001-September 2013 by using panel regression. We found that oil prices and natural gas prices had negative effect on industrial production in the Eurozone member countries.

  10. Products of steel slags an opportunity to save natural resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motz, H; Geiseler, J

    2001-01-01

    already accepted as a CEN standard and are used for a continuous quality control. Usually the suitability of steel slags is stated by fulfilling the requirements of national and/or international standards and regulations. Based on these standards and regulations in Germany in 1998 about 97% of the produced steel slags have been used as aggregates for road construction (e.g. as surface layer, road base and sub base for high trafficked roads), ways, earthworks, and armourstones for hydraulic structures. Consistent to the successful long-term experience not only products of steel slags but also products of blast furnace slags have been eliminated from the European Waste Catalogue and the European Shipment of Waste Regulation of the European Community, as well as from the lists of OECD for transfrontier movements by the decision of the OECD-Council from 21 September, 1995.

  11. Soil Properties and Plant Biomass Production in Natural Rangeland Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeu de Souza Werner

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Improper management of rangelands can cause land degradation and reduce the economic efficiency of livestock activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate soil properties and quantify plant biomass production in four natural rangeland management systems in the Santa Catarina Plateau (Planalto Catarinense of Brazil. The treatments, which included mowed natural rangeland (NR, burned natural rangeland (BR, natural rangeland improved through the introduction of plant species after harrowing (IH, and natural rangeland improved through the introduction of plant species after chisel plowing (IC, were evaluated in a Nitossolo Bruno (Nitisol. In the improved treatments, soil acidity was corrected, phosphate fertilizer was applied, and intercropped annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum, velvet grass (Holcus lanatus, and white clover (Trifolium repens were sown. Management systems with harrowed or chisel plowed soil showed improved soil physical properties; however, the effect decreased over time and values approached those of burned and mowed natural rangelands. Natural rangeland systems in the establishment phase had little influence on soil organic C. The mowed natural rangeland and improved natural rangeland exhibited greater production of grazing material, while burning the field decreased production and increased the proportion of weeds. Improvement of the natural rangelands increased leguminous biomass for pasture.

  12. Importance of microbial natural products and the need to revitalize their discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demain, Arnold L

    2014-02-01

    Microbes are the leading producers of useful natural products. Natural products from microbes and plants make excellent drugs. Significant portions of the microbial genomes are devoted to production of these useful secondary metabolites. A single microbe can make a number of secondary metabolites, as high as 50 compounds. The most useful products include antibiotics, anticancer agents, immunosuppressants, but products for many other applications, e.g., antivirals, anthelmintics, enzyme inhibitors, nutraceuticals, polymers, surfactants, bioherbicides, and vaccines have been commercialized. Unfortunately, due to the decrease in natural product discovery efforts, drug discovery has decreased in the past 20 years. The reasons include excessive costs for clinical trials, too short a window before the products become generics, difficulty in discovery of antibiotics against resistant organisms, and short treatment times by patients for products such as antibiotics. Despite these difficulties, technology to discover new drugs has advanced, e.g., combinatorial chemistry of natural product scaffolds, discoveries in biodiversity, genome mining, and systems biology. Of great help would be government extension of the time before products become generic.

  13. Investigation on natural radioactive nuclide contents of rock products in Xi'an construction materials market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Chunlin; Han Feng; Shang Aiguo; Li Tiantuo; Guo Huiping; Yie Lichao; Li Guifang

    2001-01-01

    The author reports the investigation results on natural radioactive nuclide contents of rock products from Xi'an construction materials market. The products were classified according to the national standard. The results show that natural radioactive nuclide contents in sampled rock products are in normal radioactive background levels. The radio-activity ranges of 238 U, 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K are 2.7 - 181.8, 0.92 - 271.0, 0.63 - 148.0, 1.8 - 1245 Bq·kg -1 , respectively. According to the national standard (JC 518-93), the application of some rock products must be limited

  14. Expanding Canadian natural gas production will strengthen growth of LP-gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, D.J.

    1994-01-01

    In 1992, over 86% of Canadian propane and 70% of Canadian butane production originated in gas plants. Propane and butane production not recovered at gas plants is recovered in other processing facilities, primarily refineries and heavy oil upgraders. As a result, supplies of both products are largely tied to natural gas production, and the outlook for natural gas therefore provides the basis for any discussion on the outlook for gas processing and NGL industry infrastructure. The paper discusses gas processing, economies of scale, NGL supply, expected declines, industry structure and infrastructure, the two major centers of the Canadian NGL industry, new shippers, and required pipeline expansion

  15. Cyclic Sulfamidate Enabled Syntheses of Amino Acids, Peptides, Carbohydrates, and Natural Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article reviews the emergence of cyclic sulfamidates as versatile intermediatesfor the synthesis of unnatural amino acids, chalcogen peptides, modified sugars, drugs and drug candidates, and important natural products.

  16. Evaluation of natural products as potential agrochemical agents with insecticide, fungicide and herbicide activities

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dumontet, V

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to identify new promising plant sources, which could be exploited for their agrochemical properties. A total of 484 natural products from academic libraries were selected for screening against four fungal pathogens, five...

  17. Synthesis of most polyene natural product motifs using just 12 building blocks and one coupling reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woerly, Eric M; Roy, Jahnabi; Burke, Martin D

    2014-06-01

    The inherent modularity of polypeptides, oligonucleotides and oligosaccharides has been harnessed to achieve generalized synthesis platforms. Importantly, like these other targets, most small-molecule natural products are biosynthesized via iterative coupling of bifunctional building blocks. This suggests that many small molecules also possess inherent modularity commensurate with systematic building block-based construction. Supporting this hypothesis, here we report that the polyene motifs found in >75% of all known polyene natural products can be synthesized using just 12 building blocks and one coupling reaction. Using the same general retrosynthetic algorithm and reaction conditions, this platform enabled both the synthesis of a wide range of polyene frameworks that covered all of this natural-product chemical space and the first total syntheses of the polyene natural products asnipyrone B, physarigin A and neurosporaxanthin b-D-glucopyranoside. Collectively, these results suggest the potential for a more generalized approach to making small molecules in the laboratory.

  18. Synthesis of most polyene natural product motifs using just twelve building blocks and one coupling reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woerly, Eric M.; Roy, Jahnabi; Burke, Martin D.

    2014-01-01

    The inherent modularity of polypeptides, oligonucleotides, and oligosaccharides has been harnessed to achieve generalized building block-based synthesis platforms. Importantly, like these other targets, most small molecule natural products are biosynthesized via iterative coupling of bifunctional building blocks. This suggests that many small molecules also possess inherent modularity commensurate with systematic building block-based construction. Supporting this hypothesis, here we report that the polyene motifs found in >75% of all known polyene natural products can be synthesized using just 12 building blocks and one coupling reaction. Using the same general retrosynthetic algorithm and reaction conditions, this platform enabled the synthesis of a wide range of polyene frameworks covering all of this natural product chemical space, and first total syntheses of the polyene natural products asnipyrone B, physarigin A, and neurosporaxanthin β-D-glucopyranoside. Collectively, these results suggest the potential for a more generalized approach for making small molecules in the laboratory. PMID:24848233

  19. Design of compound libraries based on natural product scaffolds and protein structure similarity clustering (PSSC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balamurugan, Rengarajan; Dekker, Frank J; Waldmann, Herbert; Dekker, Frans

    Recent advances in structural biology, bioinformatics and combinatorial chemistry have significantly impacted the discovery of small molecules that modulate protein functions. Natural products which have evolved to bind to proteins may serve as biologically validated starting points for the design

  20. Inhibition of aflatoxin B production of Aspergillus flavus, isolated from soybean seeds by certain natural plant products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Y L; Shashikala, J

    2006-11-01

    The inhibitory effect of cowdung fumes, Captan, leaf powder of Withania somnifera, Hyptis suaveolens, Eucalyptus citriodora, peel powder of Citrus sinensis, Citrus medica and Punica granatum, neem cake and pongamia cake and spore suspension of Trichoderma harzianum and Aspergillus niger on aflatoxin B(1) production by toxigenic strain of Aspergillus flavus isolated from soybean seeds was investigated. Soybean seed was treated with different natural products and fungicide captan and was inoculated with toxigenic strain of A. flavus and incubated for different periods. The results showed that all the treatments were effective in controlling aflatoxin B(1) production. Captan, neem cake, spore suspension of T. harzianum, A. niger and combination of both reduced the level of aflatoxin B(1) to a great extent. Leaf powder of W. somnifera, H. suaveolens, peel powder of C. sinensis, C. medica and pongamia cake also controlled the aflatoxin B(1) production. All the natural product treatments applied were significantly effective in inhibiting aflatoxin B(1) production on soybean seeds by A. flavus. These natural plant products may successfully replace chemical fungicides and provide an alternative method to protect soybean and other agricultural commodities from aflatoxin B(1) production by A. flavus.

  1. Integrated Approach to Drilling Project in Unconventional Reservoir Using Reservoir Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stopa, Jerzy; Wiśniowski, Rafał; Wojnarowski, Paweł; Janiga, Damian; Skrzypaszek, Krzysztof

    2018-03-01

    Accumulation and flow mechanisms in unconventional reservoir are different compared to conventional. This requires a special approach of field management with drilling and stimulation treatments as major factor for further production. Integrated approach of unconventional reservoir production optimization assumes coupling drilling project with full scale reservoir simulation for determine best well placement, well length, fracturing treatment design and mid-length distance between wells. Full scale reservoir simulation model emulate a part of polish shale - gas field. The aim of this paper is to establish influence of technical factor for gas production from shale gas field. Due to low reservoir permeability, stimulation treatment should be direct towards maximizing the hydraulic contact. On the basis of production scenarios, 15 stages hydraulic fracturing allows boost gas production over 1.5 times compared to 8 stages. Due to the possible interference of the wells, it is necessary to determine the distance between the horizontal parts of the wells trajectories. In order to determine the distance between the wells allowing to maximize recovery factor of resources in the stimulated zone, a numerical algorithm based on a dynamic model was developed and implemented. Numerical testing and comparative study show that the most favourable arrangement assumes a minimum allowable distance between the wells. This is related to the volume ratio of the drainage zone to the total volume of the stimulated zone.

  2. Evaluation of antioxidant activity of natural products; Kosanka seibun no kino hyokaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyazawa, T.; Nakagawa, K. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan)

    1998-10-20

    The methods for evaluating antioxidant property of natural products in in vitro and in vivo lipid peroxidation systems are reviewed. Antioxidant activity of tocopherols, carotenoids, flavonoids and curcuminoids have been demonstrated against lipid peroxidation induced in microsomes, erythrocytes, plasma lipoproteins and in animal trials. Recently, in vivo antioxidant function of natural products was extensively investigated in humans together with explanation of their absorbability and metabolic fate. 35 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Study on preparation of new antioxidants for radiation vulcanized natural rubber latex product. Antioxidant from keratin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Quoc Hien; Nguyen Van Toan; Vo Tan Thien; Le Hai

    2000-01-01

    The thermo-oxidative aging resistance of radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex (RVNRL) products should be adequately by using suitable antioxidants or new kind of effective antioxidant. This work presents the results of preparation of natural antioxidant from hair keratin. Characteristics and effectiveness of resultant antioxidant are also presented. The results obtained indicates that antioxidant made from hair keratin is safe and effective for rubber products from RVNRL. (author)

  4. Collision-Induced Dissociation Mass Spectrometry: A Powerful Tool for Natural Product Structure Elucidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Andrew R; Carlson, Erin E

    2015-11-03

    Mass spectrometry is a powerful tool in natural product structure elucidation, but our ability to directly correlate fragmentation spectra to these structures lags far behind similar efforts in peptide sequencing and proteomics. Often, manual data interpretation is required and our knowledge of the expected fragmentation patterns for many scaffolds is limited, further complicating analysis. Here, we summarize advances in natural product structure elucidation based upon the application of collision induced dissociation fragmentation mechanisms.

  5. Tolerance of natural baby skin-care products on healthy, full-term infants and toddlers

    OpenAIRE

    Coret, Catherine D; Suero, Michael B; Tierney, Neena K

    2014-01-01

    Catherine D Coret, Michael B Suero, Neena K Tierney Johnson & Johnson Consumer Companies, Inc, Skillman, NJ, USA Purpose: To evaluate the tolerance of baby skin-care products with at least 95% naturally derived ingredients on infants and toddlers. Materials and methods: Healthy, full-term infants and toddlers aged 1–36 months were enrolled. In study 1, a lightly fragranced natural baby hair and body wash (n=30), a lightly fragranced natural baby shampoo (n=30), or a lightly...

  6. Recent Advances in Substrate-Controlled Asymmetric Cyclization for Natural Product Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeyun Jo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetric synthesis of naturally occurring diverse ring systems is an ongoing and challenging research topic. A large variety of remarkable reactions utilizing chiral substrates, auxiliaries, reagents, and catalysts have been intensively investigated. This review specifically describes recent advances in successful asymmetric cyclization reactions to generate cyclic architectures of various natural products in a substrate-controlled manner.

  7. Repopulation response of mouse oral mucosa during unconventional radiotherapy protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerr, Wolfgang; Weber-Frisch, Marion

    1995-01-01

    Repopulation in mouse tongue epithelium was determined during unconventional fractionation schedules, i.e., hyperfractionation (2 x 1.5 and 2 x 1.75 Gy/day) and accelerated treatment (2 x 3 Gy/day). The residual tolerance of the epithelium at defined days of the fractionated treatment was tested by graded single test doses (top-up design). The dose required to induce complete epithelial denudation in 50% of the animals (ED50) was used to calculate the number of fractions repopulated during the preceding treatment. After the first week of hyperfractionation, tolerance was reduced compared to untreated epithelium. However, subsequently no further change was observed, indicating complete compensation of the weekly dose with all doses per fraction used. Epithelial cell density, defined by histological examination in additional experiments, in all fractionation arms decreased similarly by ∼40% during the first week and remained constant at 60-80% in the subsequent 2 weeks. During accelerated fractionation, the residual mucosal tolerance decreased continuously with treatment time and resulted in epithelial denudation after 12 fractions. However, a substantial repopulation effect was observed, compensating 1.5 fractions by day 2, and 5 fractions by day 5, respectively. After cessation of the therapy the repopulation rate clearly decelerated to compensate a dose equivalent to about 0.5 fractions per day. Cell density decreased linearly during the treatment with 5, 10 or 12 fractions at a rate close to normal cell loss. Marked cell production, dependent on the total fractionated dose, was seen from one day after the last fraction in each experimental arm. These results indicate that maximum stem cell repopulation occurs predominantly during treatment, while major production of differentiating cells takes place in treatment splits

  8. Unconventional superfluids of fermionic polar molecules in a bilayer system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boudjemâa, Abdelâali, E-mail: a.boudjemaa@univhb-chlef.dz

    2017-05-25

    We study unconventional superfluids of fermionic polar molecules in a two-dimensional bilayer system with dipoles are head-to-tail across the layers. We analyze the critical temperature of several unconventional pairings as a function of different system parameters. The peculiar competition between the d- and the s-wave pairings is discussed. We show that the experimental observation of such unconventional superfluids requires ultralow temperatures, which opens up new possibilities to realize several topological phases. - Highlights: • Investigation of novel superfluids of fermionic polar molecules in a bilayer geometry. • Solving the gap equation and the l-wave interlayer scattering problem. • Calculation of the critical temperature of several competing pairings using the BCS approach.

  9. Characterization of unconventional gas play in the lower Beluga

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorney, David [Marathon Oil Company (United States); Jetubu, Segun; Li, Weidong; Del Cairo, Rolando; Woods, James; Manuel, Ela [Baker Hughes (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Since the 1950's, the Cook Inlet basin, situated in Alaska, has been an important oil and gas provider to the state; the Beluga formation, located within the Cook Inlet basin, is an unconventional gas play. NMR measurements have been conducted in the Beluga formation and results were found to differ from the conventional predicted pressure and temperature model. The aim of this paper is to provide insights and results on the use of NMR in unconventional low pressure hydrocarbon formations. Experiments were carried out in the reservoir sands of Ninilchik at depths of 1500 to 3200 feet. Results showed that there is a need for combined petrophysics and petrofacies interpretation and that uncertainty can be lowered using MagTrak NMR data. This paper provided useful information on the use of NMR in unconventional low pressure hydrocarbon formations.

  10. CONTRIBUTIONS ON THE DESIGN OF UNCONVENTIONAL CORRUGATED BOARD STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEIDONI Nadina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper depicts a few contributions on the design of several unconventional corrugated board structures. In general, cardboard and corrugated cardboard is strongly linked to packaging. However, limiting these materials to their primary use does nothing else but to restrict the possibilities of using them in other interesting areas. Consequently, new structures built from cardboard have been imagined and in the paper there are presented a few unconventional uses of the corrugated fiberboard, namely as furniture elements, along with the technology used in the design and the manufacturing process.

  11. Influence of natural organic matter fouling and osmotic backwash on pressure retarded osmosis energy production from natural salinity gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Ngai Yin; Elimelech, Menachem

    2013-01-01

    Pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) has the potential to produce clean, renewable energy from natural salinity gradients. However, membrane fouling can lead to diminished water flux productivity, thus reducing the extractable energy. This study investigates organic fouling and osmotic backwash cleaning in PRO and the resulting impact on projected power generation. Fabricated thin-film composite membranes were fouled with model river water containing natural organic matter. The water permeation carried foulants from the feed river water into the membrane porous support layer and caused severe water flux decline of ∼46%. Analysis of the water flux behavior revealed three phases in membrane support layer fouling. Initial foulants of the first fouling phase quickly adsorbed at the active-support layer interface and caused a significantly greater increase in hydraulic resistance than the subsequent second and third phase foulants. The water permeability of the fouled membranes was lowered by ∼39%, causing ∼26% decrease in projected power density. A brief, chemical-free osmotic backwash was demonstrated to be effective in removing foulants from the porous support layer, achieving ∼44% recovery in projected power density. The substantial performance recovery after cleaning was attributed to the partial restoration of the membrane water permeability. This study shows that membrane fouling detrimentally impacts energy production, and highlights the potential strategies to mitigate fouling in PRO power generation with natural salinity gradients.

  12. Diversity of governance arrangements for indigenous natural products in communal areas of Namibia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ndeinoma, A.; Wiersum, K.F.

    2017-01-01

    In several countries, it has been observed that development of policies and regulations for non-timber forest products (NTFPs) rarely follows a systematic approach. This paper characterises the diversity of governance arrangements for accessing and marketing indigenous natural products in communal

  13. Natural radiation - a perspective to radiological risk factors of nuclear energy production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mustonen, R.; Christensen, T.; Stranden, E.

    1992-01-01

    Radiation doses from natural radiation and from man-made modifications on natural radiation, and different natural radiological environments in the Nordic countries are summarized and used as a perspective for the radiological consequences of nuclear energy production. The significance of different...... radiation sources can be judged against the total collective effective dose equivalent from natural radiation in the Nordic countries, 92 000 manSv per year. The collective dose from nuclear energy production during normal operation is estimated to 20 manSv per year and from non-nuclear energy production...... to 80 manSv per year. The increase in collective dose due to the conservation of heating energy in Nordic dwellings is estimated to 23 000 manSv per year, from 1973 to 1984. An indirect radiological danger index is defined in order to be able to compare the significance of estimated future releases...

  14. Regional air quality impacts of increased natural gas production and use in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacsi, Adam P; Alhajeri, Nawaf S; Zavala-Araiza, Daniel; Webster, Mort D; Allen, David T

    2013-04-02

    Natural gas use in electricity generation in Texas was estimated, for gas prices ranging from $1.89 to $7.74 per MMBTU, using an optimal power flow model. Hourly estimates of electricity generation, for individual electricity generation units, from the model were used to estimate spatially resolved hourly emissions from electricity generation. Emissions from natural gas production activities in the Barnett Shale region were also estimated, with emissions scaled up or down to match demand in electricity generation as natural gas prices changed. As natural gas use increased, emissions decreased from electricity generation and increased from natural gas production. Overall, NOx and SO2 emissions decreased, while VOC emissions increased as natural gas use increased. To assess the effects of these changes in emissions on ozone and particulate matter concentrations, spatially and temporally resolved emissions were used in a month-long photochemical modeling episode. Over the month-long photochemical modeling episode, decreases in natural gas prices typical of those experienced from 2006 to 2012 led to net regional decreases in ozone (0.2-0.7 ppb) and fine particulate matter (PM) (0.1-0.7 μg/m(3)). Changes in PM were predominantly due to changes in regional PM sulfate formation. Changes in regional PM and ozone formation are primarily due to decreases in emissions from electricity generation. Increases in emissions from increased natural gas production were offset by decreasing emissions from electricity generation for all the scenarios considered.

  15. In-use product stocks link manufactured capital to natural capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Qiang; Graedel, T E

    2015-05-19

    In-use stock of a product is the amount of the product in active use. In-use product stocks provide various functions or services on which we rely in our daily work and lives, and the concept of in-use product stock for industrial ecologists is similar to the concept of net manufactured capital stock for economists. This study estimates historical physical in-use stocks of 91 products and 9 product groups and uses monetary data on net capital stocks of 56 products to either approximate or compare with in-use stocks of the corresponding products in the United States. Findings include the following: (i) The development of new products and the buildup of their in-use stocks result in the increase in variety of in-use product stocks and of manufactured capital; (ii) substitution among products providing similar or identical functions reflects the improvement in quality of in-use product stocks and of manufactured capital; and (iii) the historical evolution of stocks of the 156 products or product groups in absolute, per capita, or per-household terms shows that stocks of most products have reached or are approaching an upper limit. Because the buildup, renewal, renovation, maintenance, and operation of in-use product stocks drive the anthropogenic cycles of materials that are used to produce products and that originate from natural capital, the determination of in-use product stocks together with modeling of anthropogenic material cycles provides an analytic perspective on the material linkage between manufactured capital and natural capital.

  16. Hydrogen Production by Steam Reforming of Natural Gas Over Vanadium-Nickel-Alumina Catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jaekyeong; Park, Seungwon; Song, Ji Hwan; Song, In Kyu

    2018-09-01

    A series of vanadium-nickel-alumina (xVNA) catalysts were prepared by a single-step sol-gel method with a variation of vanadium content (x, wt%) for use in the hydrogen production by steam reforming of natural gas. The effect of vanadium content on the physicochemical properties and catalytic activities of xVNA catalysts in the steam reforming of natural gas was investigated. It was found that natural gas conversion and hydrogen yield showed volcano-shaped trends with respect to vanadium content. It was also revealed that natural gas conversion and hydrogen yield increased with decreasing nickel crystallite size.

  17. Functional Reconstitution of a Fungal Natural Product Gene Cluster by Advanced Genome Editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Jakob; Valiante, Vito; Nødvig, Christina S; Mattern, Derek J; Slotkowski, Rebecca A; Mortensen, Uffe H; Brakhage, Axel A

    2017-01-20

    Filamentous fungi produce varieties of natural products even in a strain dependent manner. However, the genetic basis of chemical speciation between strains is still widely unknown. One example is trypacidin, a natural product of the opportunistic human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus, which is not produced among different isolates. Combining computational analysis with targeted gene editing, we could link a single nucleotide insertion in the polyketide synthase of the trypacidin biosynthetic pathway and reconstitute its production in a nonproducing strain. Thus, we present a CRISPR/Cas9-based tool for advanced molecular genetic studies in filamentous fungi, exploiting selectable markers separated from the edited locus.

  18. Discovery and characterization of natural products that act as pheromones in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ke; Buchinger, Tyler J; Li, Weiming

    2018-06-20

    Covering: up to 2018 Fish use a diverse collection of molecules to communicate with conspecifics. Since Karlson and Lüscher termed these molecules 'pheromones', chemists and biologists have joined efforts to characterize their structures and functions. In particular, the understanding of insect pheromones developed at a rapid pace, set, in part, by the use of bioassay-guided fractionation and natural product chemistry. Research on vertebrate pheromones, however, has progressed more slowly. Initially, biologists characterized fish pheromones by screening commercially available compounds suspected to act as pheromones based upon their physiological function. Such biology-driven screening has proven a productive approach to studying pheromones in fish. However, the many functions of fish pheromones and diverse metabolites that fish release make predicting pheromone identity difficult and necessitate approaches led by chemistry. Indeed, the few cases in which pheromone identification was led by natural product chemistry indicated novel or otherwise unpredicted compounds act as pheromones. Here, we provide a brief review of the approaches to identifying pheromones, placing particular emphasis on the promise of using natural product chemistry together with assays of biological activity. Several case studies illustrate bioassay-guided fractionation as an approach to pheromone identification in fish and the unexpected diversity of pheromone structures discovered by natural product chemistry. With recent advances in natural product chemistry, bioassay-guided fractionation is likely to unveil an even broader collection of pheromone structures and enable research that spans across disciplines.

  19. Marine actinobacteria associated with marine organisms and their potentials in producing pharmaceutical natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valliappan, Karuppiah; Sun, Wei; Li, Zhiyong

    2014-09-01

    Actinobacteria are ubiquitous in the marine environment, playing an important ecological role in the recycling of refractory biomaterials and producing novel natural products with pharmic applications. Actinobacteria have been detected or isolated from the marine creatures such as sponges, corals, mollusks, ascidians, seaweeds, and seagrass. Marine organism-associated actinobacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences, i.e., 3,003 sequences, deposited in the NCBI database clearly revealed enormous numbers of actinobacteria associated with marine organisms. For example, RDP classification of these sequences showed that 112 and 62 actinobacterial genera were associated with the sponges and corals, respectively. In most cases, it is expected that these actinobacteria protect the host against pathogens by producing bioactive compounds. Natural products investigation and functional gene screening of the actinobacteria associated with the marine organisms revealed that they can synthesize numerous natural products including polyketides, isoprenoids, phenazines, peptides, indolocarbazoles, sterols, and others. These compounds showed anticancer, antimicrobial, antiparasitic, neurological, antioxidant, and anti-HIV activities. Therefore, marine organism-associated actinobacteria represent an important resource for marine drugs. It is an upcoming field of research to search for novel actinobacteria and pharmaceutical natural products from actinobacteria associated with the marine organisms. In this review, we attempt to summarize the present knowledge on the diversity and natural products production of actinobacteria associated with the marine organisms, based on the publications from 1991 to 2013.

  20. Recent advances in the elucidation of enzymatic function in natural product biosynthesis [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao-Yi Tan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available With the successful production of artemisinic acid in yeast, the promising potential of synthetic biology for natural product biosynthesis is now being realized. The recent total biosynthesis of opioids in microbes is considered to be another landmark in this field. The importance and significance of enzymes in natural product biosynthetic pathways have been re-emphasized by these advancements. Therefore, the characterization and elucidation of enzymatic function in natural product biosynthesis are undoubtedly fundamental for the development of new drugs and the heterologous biosynthesis of active natural products. Here, discoveries regarding enzymatic function in natural product biosynthesis over the past year are briefly reviewed.