WorldWideScience

Sample records for production transmission distribution

  1. THE MAIN DIRECTIONS OF IMPROVING THE EFFICIENCY OF PRODUCTION, TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Zhezhelenko

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The main directions of increase of efficiency of production, transmission and distribution of electric energy have been formulated. The relation between the values of electricity losses during transmission via power grids of different countries and the level of the economies of these countries characterized by the value of gross domestic product at purchasing power parity per capita has been established. In the countries with a gross domestic product at purchasing power parity per capita less than 20 thousand US dollars electricity losses during its transmission via power grids are 1.5–2.5 times more than the ones transmitted via power grids of the industrialized countries where the specified purchasing power parity is in the range of 30.4–54.5 thousand US dollars. In the countries with more developed economies the technical culture of production, transmission and distribution of electricity is higher; the modern control systems of operation modes of electrical networks are used as well as of monitoring and accounting of electricity; also there are solvent and disciplined consumers in such countries as well as clear regulatory framework and tariff regulation system. However, the process of transmission and distribution of electricity is effective if not only low relative losses take place, but the normal (contractual requirements for carrying capacity, quality and reliability of electricity supply are provided. The possibility of analytical determination of the optimum value of reserve capacity of power plants providing the required level of reliability of the power system has been considered.

  2. Integrated Transmission and Distribution Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalsi, Karanjit [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fuller, Jason C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tuffner, Francis K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lian, Jianming [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhang, Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Marinovici, Laurentiu D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fisher, Andrew R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chassin, Forrest S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hauer, Matthew L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Distributed, generation, demand response, distributed storage, smart appliances, electric vehicles and renewable energy resources are expected to play a key part in the transformation of the American power system. Control, coordination and compensation of these smart grid assets are inherently interlinked. Advanced control strategies to warrant large-scale penetration of distributed smart grid assets do not currently exist. While many of the smart grid technologies proposed involve assets being deployed at the distribution level, most of the significant benefits accrue at the transmission level. The development of advanced smart grid simulation tools, such as GridLAB-D, has led to a dramatic improvement in the models of smart grid assets available for design and evaluation of smart grid technology. However, one of the main challenges to quantifying the benefits of smart grid assets at the transmission level is the lack of tools and framework for integrating transmission and distribution technologies into a single simulation environment. Furthermore, given the size and complexity of the distribution system, it is crucial to be able to represent the behavior of distributed smart grid assets using reduced-order controllable models and to analyze their impacts on the bulk power system in terms of stability and reliability.

  3. Transmission and distribution electrical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Bayliss, Colin

    2003-01-01

    This comprehensive treatment of the theory and practice encountered in the installation and design of transmission and distribution systems for electrical power has been updated and revised to provide the project engineer with all the latest, relevant information to design and specify the correct system for a particular application.Thoroughly updated and revised to include latest developmentsLearn from and Author with extensive experience in managing international projectsFind out the reasoning and implicatons behind the different specifications and methods

  4. Storage, transmission and distribution of hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, J. H.; Hagler, R., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Current practices and future requirements for the storage, transmission and distribution of hydrogen are reviewed in order to identify inadequacies to be corrected before hydrogen can achieve its full potential as a substitute for fossil fuels. Consideration is given to the storage of hydrogen in underground solution-mined salt caverns, portable high-pressure containers and dewars, pressure vessels and aquifers and as metal hydrides, hydrogen transmission in evacuated double-walled insulated containers and by pipeline, and distribution by truck and internal distribution networks. Areas for the improvement of these techniques are indicated, and these technological deficiencies, including materials development, low-cost storage and transmission methods, low-cost, long-life metal hydrides and novel methods for hydrogen storage, are presented as challenges for research and development.

  5. Long distance transmission through distributed erbium-doped fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rottwitt, Karsten; Povlsen, Jørn Hedegaard; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard

    1993-01-01

    High bit rate, all-optical long-distance transmission could be created through the combined use of loss-compensating gain in erbium-doped fibers and solitons. A detailed analysis of the distributed erbium-doped fiber, including the spectral-gain dependency, is combined with an optimum design...... of the transmission fiber and general bit-error-rate calculations. Changes in wavenumber, group velocity, and fiber dispersion due to erbium doping in a single-mode fiber are evaluated, and a reduction in bit-error rates due to the erbium spectral-gain profile is shown. Transmission through distributed erbium......-doped fiber with 100-km separation between each pump-power station is shown, with a total bit-rate distance product of 55 Gb/s · Mm...

  6. Subcellular Nanoparticle Distribution from Light Transmission Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deatsch, Alison; Sun, Nan; Johnson, Jeffrey; Stack, Sharon; Tanner, Carol; Ruggiero, Steven

    We have measured the particle-size distribution (PSD) of subcellular structures in plant and animal cells. We have employed a new technique developed by our group, Light Transmission Spectroscopy-combined with cell fractionation-to accurately measure PSDs over a wide size range: from 10 nm to 3000nm, which includes objects from the size of individual proteins to organelles. To date our experiments have included cultured human oral cells and spinach cells. These results show a power-law dependence of particle density with particle diameter, implying a universality of the packing distribution. We discuss modeling the cell as a self-similar (fractal) body comprised of spheres on all size scales. This goal of this work is to obtain a better understanding of the fundamental nature of particle packing within cells in order to enrich our knowledge of the structure, function, and interactions of sub-cellular nanostructures across cell types.

  7. Malaria transmission in Tripura: Disease distribution & determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dev, Vas; Adak, Tridibes; Singh, Om P; Nanda, Nutan; Baidya, Bimal K

    2015-12-01

    Malaria is a major public health problem in Tripura and focal disease outbreaks are of frequent occurrence. The state is co-endemic for both Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax and transmission is perennial and persistent. The present study was aimed to review data on disease distribution to prioritize high-risk districts, and to study seasonal prevalence of disease vectors and their bionomical characteristics to help formulate vector species-specific interventions for malaria control. Data on malaria morbidity in the State were reviewed retrospectively (2008-2012) for understanding disease distribution and transmission dynamics. Cross-sectional mass blood surveys were conducted in malaria endemic villages of South Tripura district to ascertain the prevalence of malaria and proportions of parasite species. Mosquito collections were made in human dwellings of malaria endemic villages aiming at vector incrimination and to study relative abundance, resting and feeding preferences, and their present susceptibility status to DDT. The study showed that malaria was widely prevalent and P. falciparum was the predominant infection (>90%), the remaining were P. vivax cases. The disease distribution, however, was uneven with large concentration of cases in districts of South Tripura and Dhalai coinciding with vast forest cover and tribal populations. Both Anopheles minimus s.s. and An. baimaii were recorded to be prevalent and observed to be highly anthropophagic and susceptible to DDT. Of these, An. minimus was incriminated (sporozoite infection rate 4.92%), and its bionomical characteristics revealed this species to be largely indoor resting and endophagic. For effective control of malaria in the state, it is recommended that diseases surveillance should be robust, and vector control interventions including DDT spray coverage, mass distribution of insecticide-treated nets/ long-lasting insecticidal nets should be intensified prioritizing population groups most at risk to

  8. 47 CFR 73.626 - DTV distributed transmission systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false DTV distributed transmission systems. 73.626... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Television Broadcast Stations § 73.626 DTV distributed transmission systems. (a... distributed transmission system (DTS). Except as expressly provided in this section, DTV stations operating a...

  9. 47 CFR 73.6023 - Distributed transmission systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Distributed transmission systems. 73.6023... distributed transmission system. [73 FR 74064, Dec. 5, 2008] ... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Class A Television Broadcast Stations § 73.6023 Distributed transmission...

  10. Wild edible plant knowledge, distribution and transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turreira Garcia, Nerea; Theilade, Ida; Meilby, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    the distribution, transmission and loss of traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) concerning WEPs used by a Mayan community of Guatemala and to enumerate such plants. Methods: The case study was carried out in a semi-isolated community where part of the population took refuge in the mountains in 1982...... key informants. Information about the theoretical dimension of knowledge was gathered through free listing and a questionnaire survey, while practical skills were assessed using a plant identification test with photographs. All villagers older than 7 years participated in the research (n = 62......% of the cases, which led to increased knowledge of plants and ability to recognise them. Conclusions: The WEP survey may serve as a reference point and as a useful compilation of knowledge for the community for their current and future generations. This study shows that the elder and the refugees living...

  11. Controlling Methane Emissions in the Natural Gas Sector. A Review of Federal and State Regulatory Frameworks Governing Production, Gathering, Processing, Transmission, and Distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paranhos, Elizabeth [Energy Innovation Partners, Seoul (South Korea); Kozak, Tracy G. [Energy Innovation Partners, Seoul (South Korea); Boyd, William [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Bradbury, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Steinberg, D. C. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Arent, D. J. [Joint Inst. for Strategic Energy Alaysis, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-04-23

    This report provides an overview of the regulatory frameworks governing natural gas supply chain infrastructure siting, construction, operation, and maintenance. Information was drawn from a number of sources, including published analyses, government reports, in addition to relevant statutes, court decisions and regulatory language, as needed. The scope includes all onshore facilities that contribute to methane emissions from the natural gas sector, focusing on three areas of state and federal regulations: (1) natural gas pipeline infrastructure siting and transportation service (including gathering, transmission, and distribution pipelines), (2) natural gas pipeline safety, and (3) air emissions associated with the natural gas supply chain. In addition, the report identifies the incentives under current regulatory frameworks to invest in measures to reduce leakage, as well as the barriers facing investment in infrastructure improvement to reduce leakage. Policy recommendations regarding how federal or state authorities could regulate methane emissions are not provided; rather, existing frameworks are identified and some of the options for modifying existing regulations or adopting new regulations to reduce methane leakage are discussed.

  12. Solutions to operate transmission and distribution gas networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neacsu Sorin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to respect the actual and future regulations, besides SCADA, there is a need for further modern operating solutions for the transmission and distribution gas network. The paper presents the newest operating principles and modern software solutions that represent a considerable help to operate the transmission and distribution gas networks.

  13. Facts controllers in power transmission and distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Padiyar, KR

    2007-01-01

    About the Book: The emerging technology of Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) enables planning and operation of power systems at minimum costs, without compromising security. This is based on modern high power electronic systems that provide fast controllability to ensure ''flexible'' operation under changing system conditions. This book presents a comprehensive treatment of the subject by discussing the operating principles, mathematical models, control design and issues that affect the applications. The concepts are explained often with illustrative examples and case studies. In partic

  14. towards solving the problem of transmission and distribution of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER IN NIGERIA VIA. SUPERCONDUCTOR POWER ... that Nigerian power transmission network is characterized by prolonged and .... (a) The design of superconducting cables generally includes flexibility ...

  15. Competition and regulation of transmission and distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austvik, Ole Gunnar

    2003-01-01

    Searching for natural gas and production is quite similar to the corresponding oil activities. Gas and oil products also compete in the end-user markets as substitutes for each other, which is the main reason why prices on natural gas in the European market largely have been indexed against prices on alternative oil products. The difference between oil and natural gas markets is particularly linked to transportation costs. Natural monopolies are discussed in general and in the European gas market. Finally there is a section on the comprehensive system for transport of gas on and from the Norwegian shelf

  16. Impact of embedded renewable on transmission and distribution network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pistora, M.; Maslo, K.

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with impact of renewable energy sources on both interconnected transmission systems and distribution networks. It evaluates the role of phase-shifting transformers in controlling active power flows created by renewable as well as embedded renewable' role in is landing operation in distribution network. Model of photovoltaic power plant from MODES simulation software is described as well. (Authors)

  17. A High Gain-Bandwidth Product Distributed Transimpedance Amplifier IC for High-Speed Optical Transmission Using Low-Cost GaAs Technology.

    OpenAIRE

    Giannini, F.; Limiti, E.; Orengo, G.; Serino, A.; De Dominicis, M.

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports a distributed baseband transimpedance amplifier for optical links up to 10 Gb/s. The amplifier operates as a baseband amplifier with a transimpedance gain of 48 dB Ω and a DC-to-9 GHz bandwidth. Some innovative design techniques to improve gain-bandwidth performance at low and high frequency with an available low-cost GaAs MESFET technology have been developed.

  18. Optimal pricing of transmission and distribution services in electricity supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farmer, E.D.; Cory, B.J.; Perera, B.L.P.P.

    1995-01-01

    A new strategy for the separate pricing of transmission and distribution services in electricity supply is formulated and evaluated. The proposed methodology is a multivariate transmission generalisation of the method of peak load pricing previously applied to the optimal time-of-use pricing of generation on a power system with diverse generation technologies and with elastic demand. The method allocates both capacity and operational costs on a time-of-use basis, in an optimal manner, that avoids cross-subsidisation both between differing supply system participants and differing times of usage. The method is shown to promote the optimal development of the transmission, distribution or interconnecting systems, rewarding justified investments in transmission capacity and discouraging overinvestment. It also leads to appropriate returns on invested capital without significant 'revenue reconciliation'. This contrasts with SRMC pricing as is shown by a comparative revenue evaluation. It is concluded that the method has wide potential application in electricity supply. (author)

  19. Electricity transmission and distribution in Ontario : a look ahead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This paper addressed changes and challenges that can guide the Ontario government in developing a policy framework for sustainable development in the electric power industry, particularly the power distribution and transmission sector. The government is taking action to adopt a balanced approach to energy policy that combines features of both regulated and competitive industries. It is taking a more responsible approach to electricity pricing that ends subsidies in order to reflect the true cost of electricity. The major issues facing the wires sector are: improving efficiencies by consolidating activities, streamlining operations and unbundling power transmission and distribution into separate entities; developing distributed generation; and, investing in new transmission to relieve congestion. It was noted that distributed generation will become more important as coal-fired generation facilities are replaced. Distributed generation offers many benefits for the wires sector, including delaying the need to upgrade the existing wires network, offering local solutions to transmission constraints, reducing system losses, improving load factor and improving the reliability of supply. An increase in distributed generation will likely mean that more of Ontario's electricity supply will come from small-scale renewable generation facilities. The government promotes private sector investment to assist in the rebuilding of the electricity sector

  20. Proceedings of the North American Transmission and Distribution Conference and Expo. CD ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This conference provided power suppliers with technology information regarding the transmission and distribution marketplace. It profiled industry solutions, information and education regarding the latest products and technologies to help utility professionals in their design, specifications, planning and reliability efforts. More than 1200 decision makers, suppliers and utility professionals attended the conference, including electrical utility chief executive officers, presidents, operations managers, billing experts, customer care facility managers, system planners, transmission/distribution managers, asset management, system operations management, and engineering consultants. Vendors also demonstrated the latest equipment, software and technology for the transmission and distribution market. Transmission was the focal point of core business activities with emphasis on energy management, new technologies, operations, maintenance, and planning and design. Topics of discussion ranged from load response strategies, metering systems, modernization of large industrial plants for interconnection with utilities, streetlight management systems, improvements to circuit utilization, energy fraud detection, power surge protection, de-icing systems, cyber security, and the Canadian electricity workforce. tabs., figs

  1. The future of power transmission and distribution in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parakh, S.C.

    1995-01-01

    India's growing economy requires considerable investment in the power sector. Though rapid strides have been made, the power sector has been unable to supply quality power and demand is continuously outstripping supply. The future of power transmission and distribution in India is discussed. 2 tabs

  2. A Degree Distribution Optimization Algorithm for Image Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei; Yang, Junjie

    2016-09-01

    Luby Transform (LT) code is the first practical implementation of digital fountain code. The coding behavior of LT code is mainly decided by the degree distribution which determines the relationship between source data and codewords. Two degree distributions are suggested by Luby. They work well in typical situations but not optimally in case of finite encoding symbols. In this work, the degree distribution optimization algorithm is proposed to explore the potential of LT code. Firstly selection scheme of sparse degrees for LT codes is introduced. Then probability distribution is optimized according to the selected degrees. In image transmission, bit stream is sensitive to the channel noise and even a single bit error may cause the loss of synchronization between the encoder and the decoder. Therefore the proposed algorithm is designed for image transmission situation. Moreover, optimal class partition is studied for image transmission with unequal error protection. The experimental results are quite promising. Compared with LT code with robust soliton distribution, the proposed algorithm improves the final quality of recovered images obviously with the same overhead.

  3. Use of FACTS for enhanced flexibility and efficiency in power transmission and distribution grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunbaum, Rolf; Wahlberg, Conny; Sannino, Ambra

    2010-09-15

    The paper shows how the use of FACTS increases flexibility in power transmission and distribution, improving capacity of transmission corridors to integrate renewable power production. Examples included are 69 kV directly connected SVCs for grid stabilization in conjunction with a high degree of wind power penetration; series compensation to evacuate power from the largest wind power installation in USA; SVC to increase the reliability and reduce congestion over a heavily loaded power corridor; thyristor controlled series compensation to increase the dynamic stability and power transmission capability of a power inter-connector. Finally, some applications of Dynamic energy storage are highlighted.

  4. Understanding transmission and distribution pricing options and proposals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shalaby, A.

    1998-01-01

    Issues regarding power transmission and distribution pricing were addressed in view of the importance of pricing to electricity restructuring and policy developments. Specific facts, policy directions, options and challenges peculiar to Ontario were highlighted, and recent Ontario legislation affecting the electricity industry was updated. The importance of transmission tariffs to open markets was reviewed with special reference to Canada because of their role in internal restructuring and in gaining fuller access to U.S. markets. The objectives of transmission and distribution pricing, the principles for network pricing, and the range of available options were considered with specific reference to Ontario. In comparing Ontario to other jurisdictions, it was acknowledged that the same problems that plagued other jurisdictions introducing deregulation, are also prominent in Ontario. As has been observed elsewhere, there has been no progress on transmission and distribution pricing options. There are significant implementation and transition challenges waiting for solutions. Issues beyond Ontario, such as trading with the United States, wider reach of the Independent Market Operator, agreements with other IMOs, etc., are still largely unresolved

  5. Independent production and Poisson distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golokhvastov, A.I.

    1994-01-01

    The well-known statement of factorization of inclusive cross-sections in case of independent production of particles (or clusters, jets etc.) and the conclusion of Poisson distribution over their multiplicity arising from it do not follow from the probability theory in any way. Using accurately the theorem of the product of independent probabilities, quite different equations are obtained and no consequences relative to multiplicity distributions are obtained. 11 refs

  6. Optimal Operation of Energy Storage in Power Transmission and Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhavan Hejazi, Seyed Hossein

    In this thesis, we investigate optimal operation of energy storage units in power transmission and distribution grids. At transmission level, we investigate the problem where an investor-owned independently-operated energy storage system seeks to offer energy and ancillary services in the day-ahead and real-time markets. We specifically consider the case where a significant portion of the power generated in the grid is from renewable energy resources and there exists significant uncertainty in system operation. In this regard, we formulate a stochastic programming framework to choose optimal energy and reserve bids for the storage units that takes into account the fluctuating nature of the market prices due to the randomness in the renewable power generation availability. At distribution level, we develop a comprehensive data set to model various stochastic factors on power distribution networks, with focus on networks that have high penetration of electric vehicle charging load and distributed renewable generation. Furthermore, we develop a data-driven stochastic model for energy storage operation at distribution level, where the distribution of nodal voltage and line power flow are modelled as stochastic functions of the energy storage unit's charge and discharge schedules. In particular, we develop new closed-form stochastic models for such key operational parameters in the system. Our approach is analytical and allows formulating tractable optimization problems. Yet, it does not involve any restricting assumption on the distribution of random parameters, hence, it results in accurate modeling of uncertainties. By considering the specific characteristics of random variables, such as their statistical dependencies and often irregularly-shaped probability distributions, we propose a non-parametric chance-constrained optimization approach to operate and plan energy storage units in power distribution girds. In the proposed stochastic optimization, we consider

  7. Proceedings of the North American transmission and distribution conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This conference profiled new transmission and distribution technologies and solutions designed for electric utility operators. Emerging trends in transmission and distribution systems were reviewed. New directions in energy management were discussed in relation to aging infrastructure and anticipated manpower shortages. Computerized control strategies were described, as well as recent advances in monitoring technologies. Issues related to alternative energy and grid interconnections were also discussed. The conference was divided into the following 6 sections, along with a special session for keynote presentations: (1) cybersecurity panel; (2) equipment and apparatus; (3) asset management and network technologies; (4) business solutions; (5) information technology; and (6) workforce panel. The conference featured 57 presentations, of which 13 have been indexed separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

  8. Proceedings of the North American transmission and distribution conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This conference profiled new transmission and distribution technologies and solutions designed for electric utility operators. Emerging trends in transmission and distribution systems were reviewed. New directions in energy management were discussed in relation to aging infrastructure and anticipated manpower shortages. Computerized control strategies were described, as well as recent advances in monitoring technologies. Issues related to alternative energy and grid interconnections were also discussed. The conference was divided into the following 6 sections, along with a special session for keynote presentations: (1) cybersecurity panel; (2) equipment and apparatus; (3) asset management and network technologies; (4) business solutions; (5) information technology; and (6) workforce panel. The conference featured 57 presentations, of which 13 have been indexed separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  9. Correction of bubble size distributions from transmission electron microscopy observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkegaard, P.; Eldrup, M.; Horsewell, A.; Skov Pedersen, J.

    1996-01-01

    Observations by transmission electron microscopy of a high density of gas bubbles in a metal matrix yield a distorted size distribution due to bubble overlap and bubble escape from the surface. A model is described that reconstructs 3-dimensional bubble size distributions from 2-dimensional projections on taking these effects into account. Mathematically, the reconstruction is an ill-posed inverse problem, which is solved by regularization technique. Extensive Monte Carlo simulations support the validity of our model. (au) 1 tab., 32 ills., 32 refs

  10. Dynamic models for transient stability analysis of transmission and distribution systems with distributed generation : an overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boemer, J.C.; Gibescu, M.; Kling, W.L.

    2009-01-01

    Distributed Generation is increasing in nowadays power systems. Small scale systems such as photovoltaic, biomass or small cogeneration plants are connected to the distribution level, while large wind farms will be connected to the transmission level. Both trends lead to a replacement of large

  11. Economic assessment group on power transmission and distribution networks tariffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-06-01

    Facing the new law on the electric power market liberalization, the french government created an experts group to analyze solutions and assessment methods of the electrical networks costs and tariffs and to control their efficiency. This report presents the analysis and the conclusions of the group. It concerns the three main subjects: the regulation context, the tariffing of the electric power transmission and distribution (the cost and efficiency of the various options) and the tariffing of the electric power supply to the eligible consumers. The authors provide a guideline for a tariffing policy. (A.L.B.)

  12. Electric power transmission and distribution in Germany - an NTPA success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staschus, K.

    2002-01-01

    The German Energy Law of April 1998 opened 100 percent of the German electricity market to competition without any transition phase. Over four years later, the degree of market opening is still ahead of that in many other European countries. Transition phases elsewhere have been dominated by the need to develop detailed rules not only for the functioning of the power markets - e.g. in power exchanges - but also for the transmission and distribution system operators and for the data exchange between market participants. Especially the data exchange needs for the handling of household customers switching suppliers has been a challenge in all the countries that have opened the household customer market. But also the network access fees on both transmission and distribution level are still being debated in many countries. The German governments have so far chosen to let the network operators develop the access rules, pricing rules and data exchange standards in intense - and intensely observed - negotiations with the network users. Important outcomes of such negotiations include the well-known A ssociations' Agreements , GridCode, DistributionCode, MeteringCode as well as the government's Best Practice Recommendations on data exchange standards for the switching between suppliers. One important advantage of this negotiation-based rather than regulatory approach is its speed and flexibility. For example, the Associations' Agreement on network access fees is now valid in its third version, and each successive version included important learning from the experience of both network operators and network users with the previous agreement. This paper will summarise the legal framework of the liberalised power market in Germany and focus on the current state of pricing rules in the Associations' Agreement, of well advanced comparisons run by VDN, of the network access fees of hundreds of distribution system operators including specific data on structural differences of their

  13. Model documentation: Natural gas transmission and distribution model of the National Energy Modeling System. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-17

    The Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model (NGTDM) is the component of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) that is used to represent the domestic natural gas transmission and distribution system. NEMS was developed in the Office of integrated Analysis and Forecasting of the Energy information Administration (EIA). NEMS is the third in a series of computer-based, midterm energy modeling systems used since 1974 by the EIA and its predecessor, the Federal Energy Administration, to analyze domestic energy-economy markets and develop projections. The NGTDM is the model within the NEMS that represents the transmission, distribution, and pricing of natural gas. The model also includes representations of the end-use demand for natural gas, the production of domestic natural gas, and the availability of natural gas traded on the international market based on information received from other NEMS models. The NGTDM determines the flow of natural gas in an aggregate, domestic pipeline network, connecting domestic and foreign supply regions with 12 demand regions. The methodology employed allows the analysis of impacts of regional capacity constraints in the interstate natural gas pipeline network and the identification of pipeline capacity expansion requirements. There is an explicit representation of core and noncore markets for natural gas transmission and distribution services, and the key components of pipeline tariffs are represented in a pricing algorithm. Natural gas pricing and flow patterns are derived by obtaining a market equilibrium across the three main elements of the natural gas market: the supply element, the demand element, and the transmission and distribution network that links them. The NGTDM consists of four modules: the Annual Flow Module, the Capacity F-expansion Module, the Pipeline Tariff Module, and the Distributor Tariff Module. A model abstract is provided in Appendix A.

  14. Model documentation: Natural gas transmission and distribution model of the National Energy Modeling System. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model (NGTDM) is the component of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) that is used to represent the domestic natural gas transmission and distribution system. NEMS was developed in the Office of integrated Analysis and Forecasting of the Energy information Administration (EIA). NEMS is the third in a series of computer-based, midterm energy modeling systems used since 1974 by the EIA and its predecessor, the Federal Energy Administration, to analyze domestic energy-economy markets and develop projections. The NGTDM is the model within the NEMS that represents the transmission, distribution, and pricing of natural gas. The model also includes representations of the end-use demand for natural gas, the production of domestic natural gas, and the availability of natural gas traded on the international market based on information received from other NEMS models. The NGTDM determines the flow of natural gas in an aggregate, domestic pipeline network, connecting domestic and foreign supply regions with 12 demand regions. The methodology employed allows the analysis of impacts of regional capacity constraints in the interstate natural gas pipeline network and the identification of pipeline capacity expansion requirements. There is an explicit representation of core and noncore markets for natural gas transmission and distribution services, and the key components of pipeline tariffs are represented in a pricing algorithm. Natural gas pricing and flow patterns are derived by obtaining a market equilibrium across the three main elements of the natural gas market: the supply element, the demand element, and the transmission and distribution network that links them. The NGTDM consists of four modules: the Annual Flow Module, the Capacity F-expansion Module, the Pipeline Tariff Module, and the Distributor Tariff Module. A model abstract is provided in Appendix A

  15. Zero emission distributed hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maddaloni, J.; Rowe, A.; Bailey, R.; McDonald, J.D.

    2004-01-01

    The need for distributed production facilities has become a critical issue in developing a hydrogen infrastructure. Hydrogen generation using processes that make effective use of what would normally be considered waste streams or process inefficiencies can have more favorable economics than stand-alone technologies. Currently, natural gas is distributed to industrial and residential customers through a network of pipelines. High pressure main lines move gas to the vicinity of consumers where the pressure is reduced for local, low pressure distribution. Often, the practice is to use an isenthalpic expansion which results in a cooling of the gas stream. Some of the natural gas is burned to preheat the fuel so that the temperature after the expansion is near ambient. This results in the destruction of exergy in the high pressure gas stream and produces CO 2 in the process. If, instead, a turbo-expander is used to reduce the stream pressure, work can be recovered using a generator and hydrogen can be produced via electrolysis. This method of hydrogen production is free of green-house gas emissions, makes use of existing gas distribution facilities, and uses exergy that would otherwise be destroyed. Pressure reduction using the work producing process (turbo-expander) is accompanied by a large drop in temperature, on the average of 70 K. The local gas distributor requires the gas temperature to be raised again to near 8 o C to prevent damage to valve assemblies. The required heating power after expansion can be on the order of megawatts (site dependent.) Supplying the heat can be seen as a cost if energy is taken from the system to reheat the fuel; however, the low temperature stream may also be considered an asset if the cooling power can be used for a local process. This analysis is the second stage of a study to examine the technical and economic feasibility of using pressure let-down sites as hydrogen production facilities. This paper describes a proposed

  16. Productivity improvements in gas distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, M.R.

    1997-01-01

    In 1993, the Hilmer Report resulted in the introduction of the National Competition Policy which, in the case of the gas industry, aims to promote gas-on-gas competition where to date it has been excluded. In response, and to prepare for wide gas industry reform, Gas and Fuel formed three fundamentally different core businesses on 1 July 1996 - Energy Retail, Network, and Contestable Services. In one productivity improvement initiative which is believed to be unique, Gas and Fuel appointed three companies as strategic alliance partners for distribution system maintenance. Gas and Fuel can now concentrate on its core role as asset manager which owns and operates the distribution system while procuring all services from what will become non-regulated businesses. This Paper details this initiative and the benefits which have resulted from overall changes and improvements, and outlines the challenges facing Gas and Fuel in the future. (au)

  17. Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model of the National Energy Modeling System. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    The Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model (NGTDM) is the component of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) that is used to represent the domestic natural gas transmission and distribution system. The NGTDM is the model within the NEMS that represents the transmission, distribution, and pricing of natural gas. The model also includes representations of the end-use demand for natural gas, the production of domestic natural gas, and the availability of natural gas traded on the international market based on information received from other NEMS models. The NGTDM determines the flow of natural gas in an aggregate, domestic pipeline network, connecting domestic and foreign supply regions with 12 demand regions. The purpose of this report is to provide a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public that defines the objectives of the model, describes its basic design, provides detail on the methodology employed, and describes the model inputs, outputs, and key assumptions. Subsequent chapters of this report provide: an overview of NGTDM; a description of the interface between the NEMS and NGTDM; an overview of the solution methodology of the NGTDM; the solution methodology for the Annual Flow Module; the solution methodology for the Distributor Tariff Module; the solution methodology for the Capacity Expansion Module; the solution methodology for the Pipeline Tariff Module; and a description of model assumptions, inputs, and outputs.

  18. Knowledge production and transmission in a changing society ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge production and transmission in a changing society: challenges facing law lecturers in a distance education environment in South Africa. S Scott. Abstract. In this article I highlight the challenges facing a law lecturer in a multicultural society in transformation where the student is being prepared to serve society in ...

  19. Electric Utility Transmission and Distribution Line Engineering Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter McKenny

    2010-08-31

    Economic development in the United States depends on a reliable and affordable power supply. The nation will need well educated engineers to design a modern, safe, secure, and reliable power grid for our future needs. An anticipated shortage of qualified engineers has caused considerable concern in many professional circles, and various steps are being taken nationwide to alleviate the potential shortage and ensure the North American power system's reliability, and our world-wide economic competitiveness. To help provide a well-educated and trained workforce which can sustain and modernize the nation's power grid, Gonzaga University's School of Engineering and Applied Science has established a five-course (15-credit hour) Certificate Program in Transmission and Distribution (T&D) Engineering. The program has been specifically designed to provide working utility engineering professionals with on-line access to advanced engineering courses which cover modern design practice with an industry-focused theoretical foundation. A total of twelve courses have been developed to-date and students may select any five in their area of interest for the T&D Certificate. As each course is developed and taught by a team of experienced engineers (from public and private utilities, consultants, and industry suppliers), students are provided a unique opportunity to interact directly with different industry experts over the eight weeks of each course. Course material incorporates advanced aspects of civil, electrical, and mechanical engineering disciplines that apply to power system design and are appropriate for graduate engineers. As such, target students for the certificate program include: (1) recent graduates with a Bachelor of Science Degree in an engineering field (civil, mechanical, electrical, etc.); (2) senior engineers moving from other fields to the utility industry (i.e. paper industry to utility engineering or project management positions); and (3) regular

  20. Fault and load flows analysis of electricity transmission and distribution system in Casanare (Colombia)

    OpenAIRE

    Castro-Galeano, Juan Carlos; Cabra-Sarmiento, Wilson Javier; Ortiz-Portilla, Jhony Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This article describes a simulation of the electrical local distribution and regional transmission system of Enerca S.A. E.S.P. at 34.5 kV and 115 kV, identifying the most critical circuits and substations. The company is located in one of the major petroleum production areas in Colombia, and because of a massive growth in this sector, the electrical company expanded its networks in a radial way. This expansion was improvised and poorly planned due to the accelerated need to meet the...

  1. Towards a renewal of transmission & distribution infrastructures to meet EU 2020 goals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monizza, Giuliano; Delfino, F.; Denegri, G.B.; Invernizzi, M.; Pampararo, F.; Amann, G.; Bessede, J.-L.; Luxa, A.

    2010-09-15

    This paper is the outcome of a collaboration between T&D Europe - The European Association of the Electricity Transmission and Distribution Equipment and Services Industry and the Electrical Engineering Department of the University of Genoa. It presents a scientific analysis of how much modern products and systems from the electric industry contribute to the European Union's efforts to mitigate climate change. A methodology is proposed in order to quantify the environmental benefits in terms of efficiency increase, CO2 reduction and a wider employ of renewable energy resources and of power quality improvement provided by a renewal of the T&D infrastructures.

  2. Identification of Conflicts between Transmission and Distribution System Operators when Acquiring Ancillary Services from Electric Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zecchino, Antonio; Knezovic, Katarina; Marinelli, Mattia

    2017-01-01

    ancillary services from flexible units. The investigation is carried out considering a 3-area power system which allows to take into account local constraints as well as system-wide needs. As outcome, this paper identifies the conflicts from both a theoretical and a practical point of view, by means...... products according to requests coming from both distribution and transmission system operators. The goal of this paper is to provide an identification procedure that is able to detect, identify and catalogue possible conflicts among the involved stakeholders that take place when requesting and/or acquiring...

  3. Geographically determined Interactions of Distributed Generation, Consumption and the Transmission Network in the Case of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd

    2002-01-01

    In the past decade, Denmark has dramatically increased the share of distributed power generation from wind power and decentralised co-generation of heat and power (DCHP). This trend will conti-nue, with the consequence that the power transmission network will face capacity problems in the future....... At some times electricity has to be exported to neighbouring countries at market prices pro-bably lower than the costs of generation. To match production and consumption in the future, and at the same time maintain a good economy, alternative regulation instruments have to be found. These could consist...... electricity markets....

  4. Final Technical Report: Integrated Distribution-Transmission Analysis for Very High Penetration Solar PV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmintier, Bryan [NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)); Hale, Elaine [NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)); Hansen, Timothy M. [NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)); Jones, Wesley [NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)); Biagioni, David [NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)); Baker, Kyri [NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)); Wu, Hongyu [NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)); Giraldez, Julieta [NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)); Sorensen, Harry [NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)); Lunacek, Monte [NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)); Merket, Noel [NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)); Jorgenson, Jennie [NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)); Hodge, Bri-Mathias [NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States))

    2016-01-29

    Transmission and distribution simulations have historically been conducted separately, echoing their division in grid operations and planning while avoiding inherent computational challenges. Today, however, rapid growth in distributed energy resources (DERs)--including distributed generation from solar photovoltaics (DGPV)--requires understanding the unprecedented interactions between distribution and transmission. To capture these interactions, especially for high-penetration DGPV scenarios, this research project developed a first-of-its-kind, high performance computer (HPC) based, integrated transmission-distribution tool, the Integrated Grid Modeling System (IGMS). The tool was then used in initial explorations of system-wide operational interactions of high-penetration DGPV.

  5. Photovoltaic production and distribution network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraisse, J.L.

    2010-01-01

    The rapid development of photovoltaics boosted by attractive feed-in tariffs caused a sharp increase in requests for connection to public distribution grids, which were originally designed to serve consumers. ERDF, main distribution network operator in France, is facing a challenge in terms of capacity for handling requests for connection and in terms of public distribution network operation and management. (author)

  6. Getting to Gender Equality in Energy Infrastructure : Lessons from Electricity Generation, Transmission, and Distribution Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Orlando, Maria Beatriz; Janik, Vanessa Lopes; Vaidya, Pranav; Angelou, Nicolina; Zumbyte, Ieva; Adams, Norma

    2018-01-01

    Getting to Gender Equality in Electricity Infrastructure: Lessons from Electricity Generation, Transmission, and Distribution Projects examines the social and gender footprint of large-scale electricity generation, transmission, and distribution projects to establish a foundation on which further research and replication of good practices can be built. The main impact pathways analyzed are...

  7. Modelling the geographic distribution of wind power and the impact on transmission needs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2003-01-01

    Through energy systems modelling, transmission systems modelling and geographical modelling, the article examines the sensitivity of the response of the transmission system to the geographic distributions of wind power and in particular the sensitivity of the results to the accuracy...... of the distributed modelled. The results show that accuracy of the geographic modelling while important for the analysis of specific single transmission lines is not important for the analysis of the general response of the transmission system. The analyses thus corroborate previous analyses that demonstrated...

  8. Optimal Value of Series Capacitors for Uniform Field Distribution in Transmission Line MRI Coils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy

    2016-01-01

    Transmission lines are often used as coils in high field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Due to the distributed nature of transmission lines, coils based on them produce inhomogeneous field. This work investigates application of series capacitors to improve field homogeneity along the coil....... The equations for optimal values of evenly distributed capacitors are derived and expressed in terms of the implemented transmission line parameters.The achieved magnetic field homogeneity is estimated under quasistatic approximation and compared to the regular transmission line resonator. Finally, a more...... practical case of a microstrip line coil with two series capacitors is considered....

  9. Studying the Impact of Distributed Solar PV on Power Systems using Integrated Transmission and Distribution Models: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Himanshu [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Palmintier, Bryan S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Krad, Ibrahim [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Krishnamurthy, Dheepak [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-24

    This paper presents the results of a distributed solar PV impact assessment study that was performed using a synthetic integrated transmission (T) and distribution (D) model. The primary objective of the study was to present a new approach for distributed solar PV impact assessment, where along with detailed models of transmission and distribution networks, consumer loads were modeled using the physics of end-use equipment, and distributed solar PV was geographically dispersed and connected to the secondary distribution networks. The highlights of the study results were (i) increase in the Area Control Error (ACE) at high penetration levels of distributed solar PV; and (ii) differences in distribution voltages profiles and voltage regulator operations between integrated T&D and distribution only simulations.

  10. Transmission factors for neutrons produced by radioisotopes production used in PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez G, D.; Cruzate, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    The dose transmission factor for normal concrete and the neutrons produced in the 18 O(p,n) 18 F and 13 C(p,n) 13 N reactions are presented in this paper. These transmission factors permit to simplify the calculation of the necessary accelerator shielding to be used in the radioisotope production for positron emission tomography. The energy distributions of the neutrons resulting from the irradiation of thick targets, with 10 to 13 MeV protons, were determined using the thin target cross sections, the energy loss per path length and the energy balance of the reaction (Q-equation). The one dimensional discrete ordinate transport code ANISN and the conversion coefficients from fluence to dose, presented in the ICRP Publication 51 were employed to obtain the transmission factors. (authors). 12 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  11. A Hierarchical Modeling for Reactive Power Optimization With Joint Transmission and Distribution Networks by Curve Fitting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Tao; Li, Cheng; Huang, Can

    2018-01-01

    –slave structure and improves traditional centralized modeling methods by alleviating the big data problem in a control center. Specifically, the transmission-distribution-network coordination issue of the hierarchical modeling method is investigated. First, a curve-fitting approach is developed to provide a cost......In order to solve the reactive power optimization with joint transmission and distribution networks, a hierarchical modeling method is proposed in this paper. It allows the reactive power optimization of transmission and distribution networks to be performed separately, leading to a master...... optimality. Numerical results on two test systems verify the effectiveness of the proposed hierarchical modeling and curve-fitting methods....

  12. Transmission comb of a distributed Bragg reflector with two surface dielectric gratings

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Xiaobo; Zhang, Yongyou; Zhang, Qingyun; Zou, Bingsuo; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2016-01-01

    The transmission behaviour of a distributed Bragg reector (DBR) with surface dielectric gratings on top and bottom is studied. The transmission shows a comb-like spectrum in the DBR band gap, which is explained in the Fano picture. The number

  13. Parvovirus transmission by blood products - a cause for concern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norja, Päivi; Lassila, Riitta; Makris, Mike

    2012-11-01

    The introduction of dual viral inactivation of clotting factor concentrates has practically eliminated infections by viruses associated with significant pathogenicity over the last 20 years. Despite this, theoretical concerns about transmission of infection have remained, as it is known that currently available viral inactivation methods are unable to eliminate parvovirus B19 or prions from these products. Recently, concern has been raised following the identification of the new parvoviruses, human parvovirus 4 (PARV4) and new genotypes of parvovirus B19, in blood products. Parvoviruses do not cause chronic pathogenicity similar to human immunodeficiency virus or hepatitis C virus, but nevertheless may cause clinical manifestations, especially in immunosuppressed patients. Manufacturers should institute measures, such as minipool polymerase chain reaction testing, to ensure that their products contain no known viruses. So far, human bocavirus, another new genus of parvovirus, has not been detected in fractionated blood products, and unless their presence can be demonstrated, routine testing during manufacture is not essential. Continued surveillance of the patients and of the safety of blood products remains an important ongoing issue. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Minimization of transmission loss using distributed generation approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamin Chaantrea Miky

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this work is to calculate the total loss in the system and minimize this loss by implementation of distributed generation (DG technology. In this paper, load flow analysis method is followed to calculate the loss in the system in conjunction with the line flows. A simple 5 bus system with the main bus of the substation as the slack bus, three Plant generators at the generator bus and three load buses are taken for analysis. For loss minimization two distributed generators at two load buses are connected. One generator is a synchronous type model and the other is asynchronous type model. We searched for the most economical penetration level and the ratings of the distributed generators are decided by the magnitude of penetration power at each load bus. Using software, power system simulation for electrical (PSSE, the system with and without DG technology is modeled and the output from the PSSE is observed.

  15. Network cost in transmission and distribution of electric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindahl, A.; Naeslund, B.; Oettinger-Biberg, C.; Olander, H.; Wuolikainen, T.; Fritz, P.

    1994-01-01

    This report is divided in two parts, where part 1 treats the charges on the regional nets with special emphasis on the net owners tariffs on a deregulated market. Part 2 describes the development of the network costs in electric power distribution for the period 1991-1993. 11 figs, 33 tabs

  16. Tetherin restricts productive HIV-1 cell-to-cell transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoletta Casartelli

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The IFN-inducible antiviral protein tetherin (or BST-2/CD317/HM1.24 impairs release of mature HIV-1 particles from infected cells. HIV-1 Vpu antagonizes the effect of tetherin. The fate of virions trapped at the cell surface remains poorly understood. Here, we asked whether tetherin impairs HIV cell-to-cell transmission, a major means of viral spread. Tetherin-positive or -negative cells, infected with wild-type or DeltaVpu HIV, were used as donor cells and cocultivated with target lymphocytes. We show that tetherin inhibits productive cell-to-cell transmission of DeltaVpu to targets and impairs that of WT HIV. Tetherin accumulates with Gag at the contact zone between infected and target cells, but does not prevent the formation of virological synapses. In the presence of tetherin, viruses are then mostly transferred to targets as abnormally large patches. These viral aggregates do not efficiently promote infection after transfer, because they accumulate at the surface of target cells and are impaired in their fusion capacities. Tetherin, by imprinting virions in donor cells, is the first example of a surface restriction factor limiting viral cell-to-cell spread.

  17. Distributed team innovation - a framework for distributed product development

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, Andreas; Törlind, Peter; Karlsson, Lennart; Mabogunje, Ade; Leifer, Larry; Larsson, Tobias; Elfström, Bengt-Olof

    2003-01-01

    In response to the need for increased effectivity in global product development, the Polhem Laboratory at Luleå University of Technology, Sweden, and the Center for Design Research at Stanford University, USA, have created the concept of Distributed Team Innovation (DTI). The overall aim of the DTI framework is to decrease the negative impact of geographic distance on product development efforts and to further enhance current advantages of worldwide, multidisciplinary collaboration. The DTI ...

  18. Guidelines for transient analysis in water transmission and distribution systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pothof, I.W.M.; Karney, B.W.

    2012-01-01

    All water systems leak, and many supply systems do so considerably, with water losses typically of approximately 20% of the water production. The IWA Water Loss Task Force aims for a significant reduction of annual water losses by drafting documents to assist practitioners and others to prevent,

  19. Transmission and distribution of information in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinkernell, H.

    1978-01-01

    Operation of modern large-site power plants is no longer imaginable without facilities for automatic control. Brown-Boveri Company has developed a promising control system for power plants called Procontrol k. An essential piece of the system is DATRAS k, a digital bus-oriented data transport system for transmitting and distributing signals in power plants. DATRAS will save a large amount of cables and reduce the constructional effect. It offers opportunities for diagnosis and service and by means of continuous monitoring of all system components it will essentially improve plant availability. (orig.) [de

  20. Electrical power transmission and distribution aging and life extension techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Chudnovsky, Bella H

    2012-01-01

    ""The focus of this unique reference book is four critical areas in the manufacturing of power distribution components. These areas are plating, lubrication, insulator failure, and maintenance. ... The many SEM images, x-ray studies, photos, and tabular data make for a very convenient reference source for diagnosing plating problems. ... Examples often help to drive home a point, and many case studies illustrating the various failure modes described throughout the book are included. These could prove to be an invaluable source of information when trying to diagnose unknown field failures. ...

  1. Condition Assessment of Ferrous Water Transmission and Distribution Systems State of Technology Review Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    This White Paper was developed to serve as the basis for discussion at a Technology Forum on Condition Assessment of Water Transmission and Distribution Systems that was held on September 9 and 10, 2008, at Edison, NJ. It was distributed to the Forum participants for review in a...

  2. Spatial Distribution of Infection Risk of SARS Transmission in a Hospital Ward

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qian, Hua; Li, Yuguo; Nielsen, Peter V.

    2009-01-01

    The classical Wells-Riley model for predicting risk of airborne transmission of diseases assumes a uniform spatial distribution of the infected cases in an enclosed space. A new mathematical model is developed here for predicting the spatial distribution of infection risk of airborne transmitted ......, such as inpatients in a hospital ward, passengers in an airplane etc....

  3. Aggregated Representation of Distribution Networks for Large-Scale Transmission Network Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Göksu, Ömer; Altin, Müfit; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    2014-01-01

    As a common practice of large-scale transmission network analysis the distribution networks have been represented as aggregated loads. However, with increasing share of distributed generation, especially wind and solar power, in the distribution networks, it became necessary to include...... the distributed generation within those analysis. In this paper a practical methodology to obtain aggregated behaviour of the distributed generation is proposed. The methodology, which is based on the use of the IEC standard wind turbine models, is applied on a benchmark distribution network via simulations....

  4. Productivity in Swedish electricity retail distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjalmarsson, L.; Veiderpass, A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper examines productivity growth in electricity retail distribution in Sweden in a multiple output-multiple input framework. The approach used is nonparametric Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). Productivity is measured by means of the Malmquist index. Productivity comparisons are made between different types of ownership and between different service areas. The study indicates a high rate of productivity growth, due to economics of density, when measured over a period of 17 years. The results show no significant differences in productivity growth between different types of ownership or economic organization. (20 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.)

  5. Transmission comb of a distributed Bragg reflector with two surface dielectric gratings

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Xiaobo

    2016-02-19

    The transmission behaviour of a distributed Bragg reector (DBR) with surface dielectric gratings on top and bottom is studied. The transmission shows a comb-like spectrum in the DBR band gap, which is explained in the Fano picture. The number density of the transmission peaks increases with increasing number of cells of the DBR, while the ratio of the average full width at half maximum to the corresponding average free spectral range, being only few percent for both transversal electric and magnetic waves, is almost invariant. The transmission peaks can be narrower than 0.1 nm and are fully separated from each other in certain wavebands. We further prove that the transmission combs are robust against randomness in the heights of the DBR layers. Therefore, the proposed structure is a candidate for an ultra-narrow-band multichannel filter or polarizer.

  6. Impact of Utility-Scale Distributed Wind on Transmission-Level System Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brancucci Martinez-Anido, C.; Hodge, B. M.

    2014-09-01

    This report presents a new renewable integration study that aims to assess the potential for adding distributed wind to the current power system with minimal or no upgrades to the distribution or transmission electricity systems. It investigates the impacts of integrating large amounts of utility-scale distributed wind power on bulk system operations by performing a case study on the power system of the Independent System Operator-New England (ISO-NE).

  7. Prediction of the Voltage Quality in an Overhead Transmission Line with Distributed Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Bulyga Leonid L.; Tarasov Evgeniy V.; Ushakov Vasily Ya.; Kharlov Nikolay N.

    2015-01-01

    The present work is devoted to investigation of an electrical transmission line with allowance for distributed parameters. From the results of voltage measurements at terminals of an actual transmission line, effective values of the voltage are calculated for every line section. Special attention is given to higher harmonics and asymmetry. Spectral composition of the voltage is presented and changes in values of harmonic components are analyzed. The effect of higher harmonics on the equipment...

  8. Prediction of the Voltage Quality in an Overhead Transmission Line with Distributed Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulyga Leonid L.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work is devoted to investigation of an electrical transmission line with allowance for distributed parameters. From the results of voltage measurements at terminals of an actual transmission line, effective values of the voltage are calculated for every line section. Special attention is given to higher harmonics and asymmetry. Spectral composition of the voltage is presented and changes in values of harmonic components are analyzed. The effect of higher harmonics on the equipment operation is analyzed.

  9. A literature survey on asset management in electrical power [transmission and distribution] system

    OpenAIRE

    Khuntia, S.R.; Rueda Torres, José L.; Bouwman, S.; van der Meijden, M.A.M.M.

    2016-01-01

    Asset management is one of the key components in a transforming electric power industry. Electric power industry is undergoing significant changes because of technical, socio-economical and environmental developments. Also, because of restructuring and deregulation, the focus has been on transmission and distribution assets that include transmission lines, power transformers, protection devices, substation equipment and support structures. This study aims to provide a detailed exposure to ass...

  10. Distributed Generation Management in Distribution Networks; Gestion de la production decentralisee dans les reseaux de distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caire, R.

    2004-04-15

    Deregulations of the energy market, followed by many privatizations, and vertical disintegrations brought a complete reorganization of the electric sector. The opening of the energy markets as well as the technological developments of the means of production of small and average power strongly encourage this evolution. A systematic methodology to study the transmission of impacts between the Low and Medium Voltage is initially proposed, after a quick state of the art of the various possible impacts. The voltage deviation is then identified as the most critical impact. This criticality is supported by quantitative studies on French typical networks, and is confirmed by the related literature. In order to solve this impact, a research of the means of action within tension of the distribution network and their modeling is carried out. As the manipulated variables of the means of adjustment available are discrete or continuous, specific tools are then developed to coordinate them. This coordination is pressed on optimization algorithms developed by holding account of inherent specificity with the manipulated variables. A methodology for the choice or optimal location of the adjustment means associated with a management of the voltage deviation is presented. Lastly, 'decentralized' strategies of coordination for the means of adjustment and a proposal for an experimental validation are presented, thanks to a real time simulator, making it possible to test the strategies of coordination and the necessary means of communication. (author)

  11. Distributed Generation Management in Distribution Networks; Gestion de la production decentralisee dans les reseaux de distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caire, R

    2004-04-15

    Deregulations of the energy market, followed by many privatizations, and vertical disintegrations brought a complete reorganization of the electric sector. The opening of the energy markets as well as the technological developments of the means of production of small and average power strongly encourage this evolution. A systematic methodology to study the transmission of impacts between the Low and Medium Voltage is initially proposed, after a quick state of the art of the various possible impacts. The voltage deviation is then identified as the most critical impact. This criticality is supported by quantitative studies on French typical networks, and is confirmed by the related literature. In order to solve this impact, a research of the means of action within tension of the distribution network and their modeling is carried out. As the manipulated variables of the means of adjustment available are discrete or continuous, specific tools are then developed to coordinate them. This coordination is pressed on optimization algorithms developed by holding account of inherent specificity with the manipulated variables. A methodology for the choice or optimal location of the adjustment means associated with a management of the voltage deviation is presented. Lastly, 'decentralized' strategies of coordination for the means of adjustment and a proposal for an experimental validation are presented, thanks to a real time simulator, making it possible to test the strategies of coordination and the necessary means of communication. (author)

  12. A Study of Transmission Control Method for Distributed Parameters Measurement in Large Factories and Storehouses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shujing Su

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For the characteristics of parameters dispersion in large factories, storehouses, and other applications, a distributed parameter measurement system is designed that is based on the ring network. The structure of the system and the circuit design of the master-slave node are described briefly. The basic protocol architecture about transmission communication is introduced, and then this paper comes up with two kinds of distributed transmission control methods. Finally, the reliability, extendibility, and control characteristic of these two methods are tested through a series of experiments. Moreover, the measurement results are compared and discussed.

  13. Inference of R 0 and Transmission Heterogeneity from the Size Distribution of Stuttering Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, Seth; Lloyd-Smith, James O.

    2013-01-01

    For many infectious disease processes such as emerging zoonoses and vaccine-preventable diseases, and infections occur as self-limited stuttering transmission chains. A mechanistic understanding of transmission is essential for characterizing the risk of emerging diseases and monitoring spatio-temporal dynamics. Thus methods for inferring and the degree of heterogeneity in transmission from stuttering chain data have important applications in disease surveillance and management. Previous researchers have used chain size distributions to infer , but estimation of the degree of individual-level variation in infectiousness (as quantified by the dispersion parameter, ) has typically required contact tracing data. Utilizing branching process theory along with a negative binomial offspring distribution, we demonstrate how maximum likelihood estimation can be applied to chain size data to infer both and the dispersion parameter that characterizes heterogeneity. While the maximum likelihood value for is a simple function of the average chain size, the associated confidence intervals are dependent on the inferred degree of transmission heterogeneity. As demonstrated for monkeypox data from the Democratic Republic of Congo, this impacts when a statistically significant change in is detectable. In addition, by allowing for superspreading events, inference of shifts the threshold above which a transmission chain should be considered anomalously large for a given value of (thus reducing the probability of false alarms about pathogen adaptation). Our analysis of monkeypox also clarifies the various ways that imperfect observation can impact inference of transmission parameters, and highlights the need to quantitatively evaluate whether observation is likely to significantly bias results. PMID:23658504

  14. Impacts on investments, and transmission/distribution loss through power sector reforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagayama, Hiroaki

    2010-01-01

    This study analyses original panel data from 86 countries between 1985 and 2006. Econometric methods were used to identify the effects of different policy devices of power sector reforms on performance indicators (installed capacity per capita, transmission and distribution loss) in the countries analyzed. The research findings suggest that reform variables such as the entry of independent power producers (IPPs), unbundling of generation and transmission, establishment of regulatory agencies, and the introduction of a wholesale spot market are the driving forces of increasing generation capacity, as well as reducing transmission and distribution loss in the respective regions. In this study, we can assume that, firstly, different electric industry's reform policies/measures have different impacts on geographically and economically diverse countries. Secondly, a country's state of economic development has a different impact on policy effects of reforms. Thirdly, coexistent with independent regulatory agencies, reform policy becomes more powerful in realizing sector performances.

  15. Asymmetric transmission of acoustic waves in a layer thickness distribution gradient structure using metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-San Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This research presents an innovative asymmetric transmission design using alternate layers of water and metamaterial with complex mass density. The directional transmission behavior of acoustic waves is observed numerically inside the composite structure with gradient layer thickness distribution and the rectifying performance of the present design is evaluated. The layer thickness distributions with arithmetic and geometric gradients are considered and the effect of gradient thickness on asymmetric wave propagation is systematically investigated using finite element simulation. The numerical results indicate that the maximum pressure density and transmission through the proposed structure are significantly influenced by the wave propagation direction over a wide range of audible frequencies. Tailoring the thickness of the layered structure enables the manipulation of asymmetric wave propagation within the desired frequency range. In conclusion, the proposed design offers a new possibility for developing directional-dependent acoustic devices.

  16. Optimal Capacity Proportion and Distribution Planning of Wind, Photovoltaic and Hydro Power in Bundled Transmission System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, X.; Tang, Q.; Li, T.; Wang, Y. L.; Zhang, X.; Ye, S. Y.

    2017-05-01

    The wind, photovoltaic and hydro power bundled transmission system attends to become common in Northwest and Southwest of China. To make better use of the power complementary characteristic of different power sources, the installed capacity proportion of wind, photovoltaic and hydro power, and their capacity distribution for each integration node is a significant issue to be solved in power system planning stage. An optimal capacity proportion and capacity distribution model for wind, photovoltaic and hydro power bundled transmission system is proposed here, which considers the power out characteristic of power resources with different type and in different area based on real operation data. The transmission capacity limit of power grid is also considered in this paper. Simulation cases are tested referring to one real regional system in Southwest China for planning level year 2020. The results verify the effectiveness of the model in this paper.

  17. Entangled-Pair Transmission Improvement Using Distributed Phase-Sensitive Amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Agarwal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate the transmission of time-bin entangled photon pairs through a distributed optical phase-sensitive amplifier (OPSA. We utilize four-wave mixing at telecom wavelengths in a 5-km dispersion-shifted fiber OPSA operating in the low-gain limit. Measurements of two-photon interference curves show no statistically significant degradation in the fringe visibility at the output of the OPSA. In addition, coincidence counting rates are higher than direct passive transmission because of constructive interference between amplitudes of input photon pairs and those generated in the OPSA. Our results suggest that application of distributed phase-sensitive amplification to transmission of entangled photon pairs could be highly beneficial towards advancing the rate and scalability of future quantum communications systems.

  18. Comprehensive evaluation of power grid projects' investment benefits under the reform of transmission and distribution price

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongli; Wang, Gang; Zuo, Yi; Fan, Lisha; Ling, Yunpeng

    2017-03-01

    On March 15, 2015, the Central Office issued the "Opinions on Further Deepening the Reform of Electric Power System" (Zhong Fa No. 9). This policy marks the central government officially opened a new round of electricity reform. As a programmatic document under the new situation to comprehensively promote the reform of the power system, No. 9 document will be approved as a separate transmission and distribution of electricity prices, which is the first task of promoting the reform of the power system. Grid tariff reform is not only the transmission and distribution price of a separate approval, more of the grid company input-output relationship and many other aspects of deep-level adjustments. Under the background of the reform of the transmission and distribution price, the main factors affecting the input-output relationship, such as the main business, electricity pricing, and investment approval, financial accounting and so on, have changed significantly. The paper designed the comprehensive evaluation index system of power grid projects' investment benefits under the reform of transmission and distribution price to improve the investment efficiency of power grid projects after the power reform in China.

  19. Comprehensive evaluation of power grid enterprises' credit rating under the reform of transmission and distribution price

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongli; Wang, Gang; Zuo, Yi; Fan, Lisha; Wei, Jiaxiang

    2017-03-01

    On March 15, 2015, the central office issued the "Opinions on Further Deepening the Reform of Electric Power System" (in the 2015 No. 9). This policy marks the central government officially opened a new round of electricity reform. As a programmatic document under the new situation to comprehensively promote the reform of the power system, No. 9 document will be approved as a separate transmission and distribution of electricity prices, which is the first task of promoting the reform of the power system. Grid tariff reform is not only the transmission and distribution price of a separate approval, more of the grid company input-output relationship and many other aspects of deep-level adjustments. Under the background of the reform of the transmission and distribution price, the main factors affecting the input-output relationship, such as the main business, electricity pricing, and investment approval, financial accounting and so on, have changed significantly. The paper designed the comprehensive evaluation index system of power grid enterprises' credit rating under the reform of transmission and distribution price to reduce the impact of the reform on the company's international rating results and the ability to raise funds.

  20. Current Knowledge of Leishmania Vectors in Mexico: How Geographic Distributions of Species Relate to Transmission Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Camila; Rebollar-Téllez, Eduardo A.; Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio; Becker-Fauser, Ingeborg; Martínez-Meyer, Enrique; Peterson, A. Townsend; Sánchez-Cordero, Víctor

    2011-01-01

    Leishmaniases are a group of vector-borne diseases with different clinical manifestations caused by parasites transmitted by sand fly vectors. In Mexico, the sand fly Lutzomyia olmeca olmeca is the only vector proven to transmit the parasite Leishmania mexicana to humans, which causes leishmaniasis. Other vector species with potential medical importance have been obtained, but their geographic distributions and relation to transmission areas have never been assessed. We modeled the ecological niches of nine sand fly species and projected niches to estimate potential distributions by using known occurrences, environmental coverages, and the algorithms GARP and Maxent. All vector species were distributed in areas with known recurrent transmission, except for Lu. diabolica, which appeared to be related only to areas of occasional transmission in northern Mexico. The distribution of Lu. o. olmeca does not overlap with all reported cutaneous leishmaniasis cases, suggesting that Lu. cruciata and Lu. shannoni are likely also involved as primary vectors in those areas. Our study provides useful information of potential risk areas of leishmaniasis transmission in Mexico. PMID:22049037

  1. A transmission probability method for calculation of neutron flux distributions in hexagonal geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasastjerna, F.; Lux, I.

    1980-03-01

    A transmission probability method implemented in the program TPHEX is described. This program was developed for the calculation of neutron flux distributions in hexagonal light water reactor fuel assemblies. The accuracy appears to be superior to diffusion theory, and the computation time is shorter than that of the collision probability method. (author)

  2. Tritium production distribution in the accelerator production of tritium device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kidman, R.B.

    1997-11-01

    Helium-3 ( 3 He) gas is circulated throughout the accelerator production of tritium target/blanket (T/B) assembly to capture neutrons and convert 3 He to tritium. Because 3 He is very expensive, it is important to know the tritium producing effectiveness of 3 He at all points throughout the T/B. The purpose of this paper is to present estimates of the spatial distributions of tritium production, 3 He inventory, and the 3 He FOM

  3. DRDT: distributed and reliable data transmission with cooperative nodes for lossy wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jaewan; Kim, Moonseong; Hur, In; Choi, Wook; Choo, Hyunseung

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that in realistic wireless sensor network environments links are extremely unreliable. To recover from corrupted packets, most routing schemes with an assumption of ideal radio environments use a retransmission mechanism, which may cause unnecessary retransmissions. Therefore, guaranteeing energy-efficient reliable data transmission is a fundamental routing issue in wireless sensor networks. However, it is not encouraged to propose a new reliable routing scheme in the sense that every existing routing scheme cannot be replaced with the new one. This paper proposes a Distributed and Reliable Data Transmission (DRDT) scheme with a goal to efficiently guarantee reliable data transmission. In particular, this is based on a pluggable modular approach so that it can be extended to existing routing schemes. DRDT offers reliable data transmission using neighbor nodes, i.e., helper nodes. A helper node is selected among the neighbor nodes of the receiver node which overhear the data packet in a distributed manner. DRDT effectively reduces the number of retransmissions by delegating the retransmission task from the sender node to the helper node that has higher link quality to the receiver node when the data packet reception fails due to the low link quality between the sender and the receiver nodes. Comprehensive simulation results show that DRDT improves end-to-end transmission cost by up to about 45% and reduces its delay by about 40% compared to existing schemes.

  4. DRDT: Distributed and Reliable Data Transmission with Cooperative Nodes for LossyWireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaewan Seo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that in realistic wireless sensor network environments links are extremely unreliable. To recover from corrupted packets, most routing schemes with an assumption of ideal radio environments use a retransmission mechanism, which may cause unnecessary retransmissions. Therefore, guaranteeing energy-efficient reliable data transmission is a fundamental routing issue in wireless sensor networks. However, it is not encouraged to propose a new reliable routing scheme in the sense that every existing routing scheme cannot be replaced with the new one. This paper proposes a Distributed and Reliable Data Transmission (DRDT scheme with a goal to efficiently guarantee reliable data transmission. In particular, this is based on a pluggable modular approach so that it can be extended to existing routing schemes. DRDT offers reliable data transmission using neighbor nodes, i.e., helper nodes. A helper node is selected among the neighbor nodes of the receiver node which overhear the data packet in a distributed manner. DRDT effectively reduces the number of retransmissions by delegating the retransmission task from the sender node to the helper node that has higher link quality to the receiver node when the data packet reception fails due to the low link quality between the sender and the receiver nodes. Comprehensive simulation results show that DRDT improves end-to-end transmission cost by up to about 45% and reduces its delay by about 40% compared to existing schemes.

  5. Radioisotope production and distribution in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brough, J.

    1986-01-01

    The high quality of radioactive products and services, provided by the Commercial Products Unit of Australian Atomic Energy Agency for industrial and medical applications are discussed. The production program has changed from research driven to being market driven. The Commission in fact not only manufactures radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals but also acts as a Centralized Dispensing Service for over sea products. The advantages associated with centralize distribution are discussed. The delivery arrangements and the existed problems are explained. With the unique experience, assistance and advice are provided for many years now to Nuclear Energy Unit at PUSPATI via staff training programs and many visits by the Commission staff to assist in the commissioning of the facilities in which enables PUSPATI to provide Malaysia and surrounding neighbour countries (on a smaller scale) with the similar type of service that the Commission does within Australia. (A.J.)

  6. Estimating the transmission potential of supercritical processes based on the final size distribution of minor outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiura, Hiroshi; Yan, Ping; Sleeman, Candace K; Mode, Charles J

    2012-02-07

    Use of the final size distribution of minor outbreaks for the estimation of the reproduction numbers of supercritical epidemic processes has yet to be considered. We used a branching process model to derive the final size distribution of minor outbreaks, assuming a reproduction number above unity, and applying the method to final size data for pneumonic plague. Pneumonic plague is a rare disease with only one documented major epidemic in a spatially limited setting. Because the final size distribution of a minor outbreak needs to be normalized by the probability of extinction, we assume that the dispersion parameter (k) of the negative-binomial offspring distribution is known, and examine the sensitivity of the reproduction number to variation in dispersion. Assuming a geometric offspring distribution with k=1, the reproduction number was estimated at 1.16 (95% confidence interval: 0.97-1.38). When less dispersed with k=2, the maximum likelihood estimate of the reproduction number was 1.14. These estimates agreed with those published from transmission network analysis, indicating that the human-to-human transmission potential of the pneumonic plague is not very high. Given only minor outbreaks, transmission potential is not sufficiently assessed by directly counting the number of offspring. Since the absence of a major epidemic does not guarantee a subcritical process, the proposed method allows us to conservatively regard epidemic data from minor outbreaks as supercritical, and yield estimates of threshold values above unity. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A distributed parameter model of transmission line transformer for high voltage nanosecond pulse generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiangtao; Zhao, Zheng; Li, Longjie; He, Jiaxin; Li, Chenjie; Wang, Yifeng; Su, Can

    2017-09-01

    A transmission line transformer has potential advantages for nanosecond pulse generation including excellent frequency response and no leakage inductance. The wave propagation process in a secondary mode line is indispensable due to an obvious inside transient electromagnetic transition in this scenario. The equivalent model of the transmission line transformer is crucial for predicting the output waveform and evaluating the effects of magnetic cores on output performance. However, traditional lumped parameter models are not sufficient for nanosecond pulse generation due to the natural neglect of wave propagations in secondary mode lines based on a lumped parameter assumption. In this paper, a distributed parameter model of transmission line transformer was established to investigate wave propagation in the secondary mode line and its influential factors through theoretical analysis and experimental verification. The wave propagation discontinuity in the secondary mode line induced by magnetic cores is emphasized. Characteristics of the magnetic core under a nanosecond pulse were obtained by experiments. Distribution and formation of the secondary mode current were determined for revealing essential wave propagation processes in secondary mode lines. The output waveform and efficiency were found to be affected dramatically by wave propagation discontinuity in secondary mode lines induced by magnetic cores. The proposed distributed parameter model was proved more suitable for nanosecond pulse generation in aspects of secondary mode current, output efficiency, and output waveform. In depth, comprehension of underlying mechanisms and a broader view of the working principle of the transmission line transformer for nanosecond pulse generation can be obtained through this research.

  8. Adaptive Metropolis Sampling with Product Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolpert, David H.; Lee, Chiu Fan

    2005-01-01

    The Metropolis-Hastings (MH) algorithm is a way to sample a provided target distribution pi(z). It works by repeatedly sampling a separate proposal distribution T(x,x') to generate a random walk {x(t)}. We consider a modification of the MH algorithm in which T is dynamically updated during the walk. The update at time t uses the {x(t' less than t)} to estimate the product distribution that has the least Kullback-Leibler distance to pi. That estimate is the information-theoretically optimal mean-field approximation to pi. We demonstrate through computer experiments that our algorithm produces samples that are superior to those of the conventional MH algorithm.

  9. Multiagent System-Based Distributed Coordinated Control for Radial DC Microgrid Considering Transmission Time Delays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dou, Chun-Xia; Yue, Dong; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on a multi-agent based distributed coordinated control for radial DC microgrid considering trans-mission time delays. Firstly, a two-level multi-agent system is constructed, where local control is formulated based on local states and executed by means of the first-level agent......, and dis-tributed coordinated control law is formulated based on wide-area information and executed by means of the secondary- level agent in order to improve the voltage control performances. Afterwards, the research mainly focuses on designing the local controller and the distributed coordinated...

  10. Inference of R(0 and transmission heterogeneity from the size distribution of stuttering chains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth Blumberg

    Full Text Available For many infectious disease processes such as emerging zoonoses and vaccine-preventable diseases, [Formula: see text] and infections occur as self-limited stuttering transmission chains. A mechanistic understanding of transmission is essential for characterizing the risk of emerging diseases and monitoring spatio-temporal dynamics. Thus methods for inferring [Formula: see text] and the degree of heterogeneity in transmission from stuttering chain data have important applications in disease surveillance and management. Previous researchers have used chain size distributions to infer [Formula: see text], but estimation of the degree of individual-level variation in infectiousness (as quantified by the dispersion parameter, [Formula: see text] has typically required contact tracing data. Utilizing branching process theory along with a negative binomial offspring distribution, we demonstrate how maximum likelihood estimation can be applied to chain size data to infer both [Formula: see text] and the dispersion parameter that characterizes heterogeneity. While the maximum likelihood value for [Formula: see text] is a simple function of the average chain size, the associated confidence intervals are dependent on the inferred degree of transmission heterogeneity. As demonstrated for monkeypox data from the Democratic Republic of Congo, this impacts when a statistically significant change in [Formula: see text] is detectable. In addition, by allowing for superspreading events, inference of [Formula: see text] shifts the threshold above which a transmission chain should be considered anomalously large for a given value of [Formula: see text] (thus reducing the probability of false alarms about pathogen adaptation. Our analysis of monkeypox also clarifies the various ways that imperfect observation can impact inference of transmission parameters, and highlights the need to quantitatively evaluate whether observation is likely to significantly bias results.

  11. [School meals: planning, production, distribution, and adequacy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Raquel Carvalho; Moraes, Letícia Freitas; Francisco, Raquel Rocha Jabour; dos Santos, Luana Caroline; dos Anjos, Adriana Fernandez Versiani; Pereira, Simone Cardoso Lisboa

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate the planning, production, distribution, and nutritional adequacy of meals served at city schools. This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted between March 2011 and April 2012 and included a representative sample (n = 42 schools) of extended shift city schools from Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Five meals from each school were randomly selected and analyzed by direct weighing. Production indicators and nutritional adequacy were evaluated in contrast to the recommendations of the city food security bureau and the Brazilian National Program of School Meals (PNAE). Seventy-nine percent of the analyzed meals did not meet the recommendations of the city food security bureau. The rate of waste (food left on plates) was acceptable at 4,90%, but the rates of cooked and not served food (7,06%) and counter leftovers (5,30%) were high. Both the city planned meals and the meals served in the schools were nutritionally inadequate in terms of the PNAE, particularly for children aged 11-15 years. There was a relationship between consumption by school staff and the amount of food that was cooked (r = 0.353; P planning, production, and distribution of school meals and of food and nutrition education in order to improve the quality of food and to reduce waste in schools.

  12. Performance Analysis of 5G Transmission over Fading Channels with Random IG Distributed LOS Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Jaksic

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical modelling of the behavior of the radio propagation at mmWave bands is crucial to the development of transmission and reception algorithms of new 5G systems. In this study we will model 5G propagation in nondeterministic line-of-sight (LOS conditions, when the random nature of LOS component ratio will be observed as Inverse Gamma (IG distributed process. Closed-form expressions will be presented for the probability density function (PDF and cumulative distribution function (CDF of such random process. Further, closed-form expressions will be provided for important performance measures such as level crossing rate (LCR and average fade duration (AFD. Capitalizing on proposed expressions, LCR and AFD will be discussed in the function of transmission parameters.

  13. Investigation of superthermal asymmetric electron distributions using electron cyclotron wave transmission in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giruzzi, G.; Fidone, I.; Marcha, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    The asymmetric electron distribution generated during lower hybrid current drive has been computed using a 3-D Fokker-Planck code. The superthermal tail and the resulting current are generally a combination of two components streaming in opposite toroidal directions. An appropriate diagnostic method for experimental investigation of the two superthermal populations is wave transmission of two equivalent rays with equal and opposite values of the refractive index. These equivalent rays can be realized by launching the waves from symmetric positions with respect ot the equatorial plane at equal and opposite angles in the toroidal direction. Using an appropriate ray tracing code, the damping of the two rays is computed and it is shown that it results from electrons with opposite parallel velocities. The differential transmission is then a measure of the overall asymmetry of the electron momentum distribution. (author). 12 refs, 8 figs

  14. Rényi entropies of electrical transmission lines with Fibonacci distribution of inductances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazo, E., E-mail: elazo@uta.cl [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Tarapacá, Arica (Chile); Mellado, F. [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Tarapacá, Arica (Chile); Escuela Universitaria de Ingeniería Eléctrica-Electrónica, Universidad de Tarapacá, Arica (Chile); Saavedra, E. [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Tarapacá, Arica (Chile)

    2012-10-01

    We study classical dual transmission lines with constant capacitances C{sub j}=C{sub 0}, ∀j, when we distribute two inductance values L{sub A} and L{sub B} according to the Fibonacci sequence. Using the electric current function I{sub j}(ω), we study the normalized localization length Λ(ω), the Rényi entropies R{sub m}(ω) and the normalized information length β(ω). We found three kinds of behavior of the I{sub j}(ω) function: localized, extended and intermediate. In addition, it is found that the transmission line with Fibonacci distribution of inductances shows a behavior characteristic of quasi-periodic systems, namely, a self-similar frequency spectrum, where each subband is divided into three subbands, but the number of global subbands is greater than four.

  15. Distributed Monte Carlo production for D0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snow, Joel

    2010-01-01

    The D0 collaboration uses a variety of resources on four continents to pursue a strategy of flexibility and automation in the generation of simulation data. This strategy provides a resilient and opportunistic system which ensures an adequate and timely supply of simulation data to support D0's physics analyses. A mixture of facilities, dedicated and opportunistic, specialized and generic, large and small, grid job enabled and not, are used to provide a production system that has adapted to newly developing technologies. This strategy has increased the event production rate by a factor of seven and the data production rate by a factor of ten in the last three years despite diminishing manpower. Common to all production facilities is the SAM (Sequential Access to Metadata) data-grid. Job submission to the grid uses SAMGrid middleware which may forward jobs to the OSG, the WLCG, or native SAMGrid sites. The distributed computing and data handling system used by D0 will be described and the results of MC production since the deployment of grid technologies will be presented.

  16. A three-layer distributed RC network with two transmission zeros

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huelsman, L. P.

    1974-01-01

    This report describes the properties of a three-layer distributed RC network consisting of two resistive layers separated by a dielectric which may be used to realize two zeros of transmission on the j-omega axis of the complex frequency plane. The relative location of the two zeros is controlled by the location of a contact placed on one of the resistive layers.

  17. The electric power engineering handbook electric power generation, transmission, and distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Grigsby, Leonard L

    2012-01-01

    Featuring contributions from worldwide leaders in the field, the carefully crafted Electric Power Generation, Transmission, and Distribution, Third Edition (part of the five-volume set, The Electric Power Engineering Handbook) provides convenient access to detailed information on a diverse array of power engineering topics. Updates to nearly every chapter keep this book at the forefront of developments in modern power systems, reflecting international standards, practices, and technologies. Topics covered include: * Electric Power Generation: Nonconventional Methods * Electric Power Generation

  18. Network cost in transmission and distribution of electric power; Naetkostnader i oeverfoering och distribution av el

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindahl, A; Naeslund, B; Oettinger-Biberg, C; Olander, H; Wuolikainen, T; Fritz, P

    1994-12-31

    This report is divided in two parts, where part 1 treats the charges on the regional nets with special emphasis on the net owners tariffs on a deregulated market. Part 2 describes the development of the network costs in electric power distribution for the period 1991-1993. 11 figs, 33 tabs

  19. Prediction of sound transmission loss through multilayered panels by using Gaussian distribution of directional incident energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang; Ih; Kim; Kim

    2000-03-01

    In this study, a new prediction method is suggested for sound transmission loss (STL) of multilayered panels of infinite extent. Conventional methods such as random or field incidence approach often given significant discrepancies in predicting STL of multilayered panels when compared with the experiments. In this paper, appropriate directional distributions of incident energy to predict the STL of multilayered panels are proposed. In order to find a weighting function to represent the directional distribution of incident energy on the wall in a reverberation chamber, numerical simulations by using a ray-tracing technique are carried out. Simulation results reveal that the directional distribution can be approximately expressed by the Gaussian distribution function in terms of the angle of incidence. The Gaussian function is applied to predict the STL of various multilayered panel configurations as well as single panels. The compared results between the measurement and the prediction show good agreements, which validate the proposed Gaussian function approach.

  20. Marginal cost calculation of energy production in hydro thermoelectric systems considering the transmission system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, M.V.F.; Gorenstin, B.G.; Alvarenga Filho, S.

    1989-01-01

    The alternatives for calculation of energy marginal cost in hydroelectric systems, considering the transmission one, was analysed, including fundamental concepts; generation/transmission systems, represented by linear power flow model; production marginal costs in hydrothermal systems and computation aspects. (C.G.C.). 11 refs, 5 figs

  1. Differentiating gold nanorod samples using particle size and shape distributions from transmission electron microscope images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grulke, Eric A.; Wu, Xiaochun; Ji, Yinglu; Buhr, Egbert; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Song, Nam Woong; Stefaniak, Aleksandr B.; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Burchett, Woodrow W.; Lambert, Joshua; Stromberg, Arnold J.

    2018-04-01

    Size and shape distributions of gold nanorod samples are critical to their physico-chemical properties, especially their longitudinal surface plasmon resonance. This interlaboratory comparison study developed methods for measuring and evaluating size and shape distributions for gold nanorod samples using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images. The objective was to determine whether two different samples, which had different performance attributes in their application, were different with respect to their size and/or shape descriptor distributions. Touching particles in the captured images were identified using a ruggedness shape descriptor. Nanorods could be distinguished from nanocubes using an elongational shape descriptor. A non-parametric statistical test showed that cumulative distributions of an elongational shape descriptor, that is, the aspect ratio, were statistically different between the two samples for all laboratories. While the scale parameters of size and shape distributions were similar for both samples, the width parameters of size and shape distributions were statistically different. This protocol fulfills an important need for a standardized approach to measure gold nanorod size and shape distributions for applications in which quantitative measurements and comparisons are important. Furthermore, the validated protocol workflow can be automated, thus providing consistent and rapid measurements of nanorod size and shape distributions for researchers, regulatory agencies, and industry.

  2. An improved IEEE 802.11 protocol for reliable data transmission in power distribution fault diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campoccia, F.; Di Silvestre, M.L.; Sanseverino, E.R.; Zizzo, G. [Palermo Univ., Palermo (Italy)

    2010-10-15

    In power systems, on-line transmission between local units and the central unit can be done by means of power line communications or wireless technology. During an electrical fault, the reliability of the distribution system depends on the security of the timely protective and restorative actions on the network. This paper focused on the WiFi system because of its economy and ease of installation. However, WiFi systems are typically managed by the IEEE 802.11 protocol, which is not reliable in terms of security in data communication. In WiFi networks, data is divided into packets and sent in succession to reduce errors within the radio channel. The IEEE 802.11 protocol has high probability for loss of packets or delay in their transmission. In order to ensure the reliability of data transmission times between two terminal units connected by WiFi stations, a new protocol was derived by modifying the IEEE 802.11. The improvements of the new protocol were highlighted and its capability for the diagnostic service was verified. The modified protocol eliminates the danger of collisions between packets and optimizes the transmission time for sending information. 6 refs., 7 tabs., 8 figs.

  3. Methods to Regulate Unbundled Transmission and Distribution Business on Electricity Markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, Kaj; Fritz, Peter

    2003-11-01

    The regulation of distribution utilities is evolving from the traditional approach based on a cost of service or rate of return remuneration, to ways of regulation more specifically focused on providing incentives for improving efficiency, known as performance-based regulation or ratemaking. Modern regulation systems are also, to a higher degree than previously, intended to simulate competitive market conditions. The Market Design 2003-conference gathered people from 18 countries to discuss 'Methods to regulate unbundled transmission and distribution business on electricity markets'. Speakers from nine different countries and backgrounds (academics, industry and regulatory) presented their experiences and most recent works on how to make the regulation of unbundled distribution business as accurate as possible. This paper does not claim to be a fully representative summary of everything that was presented or discussed during the conference. Rather, it is a purposely restricted document where we focus on a few central themes and experiences from different countries

  4. Nanoparticle Distributions in Cancer and other Cells from Light Transmission Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deatsch, Alison; Sun, Nan; Johnson, Jeffery; Stack, Sharon; Tanner, Carol; Ruggiero, Steven

    We have measured the optical properties of whole cells and lysates using light transmission spectroscopy (LTS). LTS provides both the optical extinction coefficient in the wavelength range from 220 to 1100 nm and (by spectral inversion using a Mie model) the particle distribution density in the size range from 1 to 3000 nm. Our current work involves whole cells and lysates of cultured human oral cells and other plant and animal cells. We have found systematic differences in the optical extinction between cancer and normal whole cells and lysates, which translate to different particle size distributions (PSDs) for these materials. We have also found specific power-law dependences of particle density with particle diameter for cell lysates. This suggests a universality of the packing distribution in cells that can be compared to ideal Apollonian packing, with the cell modeled as a fractal body comprised of spheres on all size scales.

  5. Methods to Regulate Unbundled Transmission and Distribution Business on Electricity Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsberg, Kaj; Fritz, Peter

    2003-11-01

    The regulation of distribution utilities is evolving from the traditional approach based on a cost of service or rate of return remuneration, to ways of regulation more specifically focused on providing incentives for improving efficiency, known as performance-based regulation or ratemaking. Modern regulation systems are also, to a higher degree than previously, intended to simulate competitive market conditions. The Market Design 2003-conference gathered people from 18 countries to discuss 'Methods to regulate unbundled transmission and distribution business on electricity markets'. Speakers from nine different countries and backgrounds (academics, industry and regulatory) presented their experiences and most recent works on how to make the regulation of unbundled distribution business as accurate as possible. This paper does not claim to be a fully representative summary of everything that was presented or discussed during the conference. Rather, it is a purposely restricted document where we focus on a few central themes and experiences from different countries.

  6. A robust control strategy for a class of distributed network with transmission delays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vahid Naghavi, S.; A. Safavi, A.; Khooban, Mohammad Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to concern the design of a robust model predictive controller for distributed networked systems with transmission delays. Design/methodology/approach The overall system is composed of a number of interconnected nonlinear subsystems with time-varying transmission...... as an optimization problem of a “worst-case” objective function over an infinite moving horizon. Findings The aim is to propose control synthesis approach that depends on nonlinearity and time varying delay characteristics. The MPC problem is represented in a time varying delayed state feedback structure....... Then the synthesis sufficient condition is provided in the form of a linear matrix inequality (LMI) optimization and is solved online at each time instant. In the rest, an LMI-based decentralized observer-based robust model predictive control strategy is proposed. Originality/value The authors develop RMPC...

  7. Transmission and Distribution: AREVA takes further action to reinforce its presence in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-05-01

    Following the recent opening of its new gas-insulated switchgear factory last month in Suzhou, China, AREVA's Transmission and Distribution (T and D) division has announced additional actions to increase its market share in the country. The division has just signed an agreement to form a 50/50 joint venture with the Chinese company, Sunten Electric Co. Ltd., a leading manufacturer of distribution transformers, whose 2006 annual sales reached circa euro 120 million. Through this joint venture, AREVA T and D will become No 1 in China for dry-type transformers, Sunten Electric Co. Ltd.'s specialization. AREVA T and D has also established a partnership with the China Electric Power Research Institute (C-EPRI), a leading Chinese organization specialized in electrical technologies. Under the agreement, C-EPRI will be the official licensee for AREVA T and D's H-400 high-voltage direct current (HVDC) Thyristor valves in China. The partnership will enable AREVA T and D to enter the fast-growing domestic HVDC market. The T and D sector in China represents 24% of the worldwide transmission and distribution market. AREVA T and D's turnover in China, where demand for T and D equipment is growing strongly, should significantly contribute to the division's objective to reach euro 5 billion in sales by 2010

  8. Critical Assessment of the Foundations of Power Transmission and Distribution Reliability Metrics and Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nateghi, Roshanak; Guikema, Seth D; Wu, Yue Grace; Bruss, C Bayan

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. federal government regulates the reliability of bulk power systems, while the reliability of power distribution systems is regulated at a state level. In this article, we review the history of regulating electric service reliability and study the existing reliability metrics, indices, and standards for power transmission and distribution networks. We assess the foundations of the reliability standards and metrics, discuss how they are applied to outages caused by large exogenous disturbances such as natural disasters, and investigate whether the standards adequately internalize the impacts of these events. Our reflections shed light on how existing standards conceptualize reliability, question the basis for treating large-scale hazard-induced outages differently from normal daily outages, and discuss whether this conceptualization maps well onto customer expectations. We show that the risk indices for transmission systems used in regulating power system reliability do not adequately capture the risks that transmission systems are prone to, particularly when it comes to low-probability high-impact events. We also point out several shortcomings associated with the way in which regulators require utilities to calculate and report distribution system reliability indices. We offer several recommendations for improving the conceptualization of reliability metrics and standards. We conclude that while the approaches taken in reliability standards have made considerable advances in enhancing the reliability of power systems and may be logical from a utility perspective during normal operation, existing standards do not provide a sufficient incentive structure for the utilities to adequately ensure high levels of reliability for end-users, particularly during large-scale events. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  9. Trends in transmission, distribution, and administration costs for U.S. investor-owned electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fares, Robert L.; King, Carey W.

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyzes the cost of transmission, distribution, and administration for U.S. investor-owned electric utilities. We analyze data reported to the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) from 1994 to 2014 using linear regression to understand how the number of customers in a utility's territory, annual peak demand, and annual energy sales affect annual TD&A spending. Then, we use Edison Electric Institute data for 1960 to 1992 to show trends in TD&A spending between 1960 and 2014. We find that the number of customers in a utility's territory is the single best predictor for annual TD&A costs. Between 1994 and 2014, the average cost per customer was $119/Customer-Year for transmission, $291/Customer-Year for distribution, and $333/Customer-Year for utility administration. Total TD&A costs per customer have been approximately $700–$800/Customer-Year since 1960, but the cost per kWh of energy sold was significantly higher in the 1960s because the average customer used less than half as much energy annually versus 2014. Thus, TD&A costs per kWh are likely to increase if kWh energy sales decline in the future unless cost recovery is transitioned to a mechanism not based solely on kWh sales. - Highlights: • U.S. investor-owned electric utility delivery costs from 1960? 2014 are investigated. • Transmission, distribution, and utility administrative costs are analyzed separately. • The number of utility customers is the best predictor for annual delivery costs. • Delivery costs per kWh are likely to increase if kWh sales decrease in the future.

  10. Recovery Act-SmartGrid regional demonstration transmission and distribution (T&D) Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedges, Edward T. [Kansas City Power & Light Company, Kansas City, MO (United States)

    2015-01-31

    This document represents the Final Technical Report for the Kansas City Power & Light Company (KCP&L) Green Impact Zone SmartGrid Demonstration Project (SGDP). The KCP&L project is partially funded by Department of Energy (DOE) Regional Smart Grid Demonstration Project cooperative agreement DE-OE0000221 in the Transmission and Distribution Infrastructure application area. This Final Technical Report summarizes the KCP&L SGDP as of April 30, 2015 and includes summaries of the project design, implementation, operations, and analysis performed as of that date.

  11. Opportunities for Efficiency Improvements in the U.S. Electricity Transmission and Distribution System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, Roderick K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Onar, Omer C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kirkham, Harold [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fisher, Emily [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Burkes, Klaehn [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Starke, Michael R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mohammed, Olama [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Weeks, George [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-04-01

    Since 2000, more than 172 quads of electricity have been transmitted on the US transmission and distribution (T&D) grid. Given this significant amount of energy flow, establishing and maintaining an efficient T&D grid is paramount. As shown in the figure below, the total percentage of overall losses in the US electric grid is approximately 6% (5.12% in 2012) (30% lower than the world average since 2000). While these efficiency losses appear to be relatively small from a percentage perspective, the total estimated electricity loss during this time is 10.8 quads.

  12. Electron Source Brightness and Illumination Semi-Angle Distribution Measurement in a Transmission Electron Microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börrnert, Felix; Renner, Julian; Kaiser, Ute

    2018-05-21

    The electron source brightness is an important parameter in an electron microscope. Reliable and easy brightness measurement routes are not easily found. A determination method for the illumination semi-angle distribution in transmission electron microscopy is even less well documented. Herein, we report a simple measurement route for both entities and demonstrate it on a state-of-the-art instrument. The reduced axial brightness of the FEI X-FEG with a monochromator was determined to be larger than 108 A/(m2 sr V).

  13. Distribution and transmission of the highly pathogenic parasite Ichthyophonus in marine fishes of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Jacob L.; Grady, Courtney A.; Thompson, Rachel L.; Purcell, Maureen K.; Friedman, Carolyn S.; Hershberger, Paul K.

    2014-01-01

    A combination of field surveys, molecular typing, and laboratory experiments were used to improve our understanding of the distribution and transmission mechanisms of fish parasites in the genus Ichthyophonus. Ichthyophonus spp. infections were detected from the Bering Sea to the coast of Oregon in 10 of 13 host species surveyed. Sequences of rDNA extracted from these isolates indicate that a ubiquitous Ichthyophonus type occurs in the NE Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea and accounts for nearly all the infections encountered. Among NE Pacific isolates, only parasites from yellowtail rockfish and Puget Sound rockfish varied at the DNA locus examined. These data suggest that a single source population of these parasites is available to fishes in diverse niches across a wide geographic range. A direct life cycle within a common forage species could account for the relatively low parasite diversity we encountered. In the laboratory we tested the hypothesis that waterborne transmission occurs among Pacific herring, a common NE Pacific forage species. No horizontal transmission occurred during a four-month cohabitation experiment involving infected herring and conspecific sentinels. The complete life cycle of Ichthyophonus spp. is not known, but these results suggest that system-wide processes maintain a relatively homogenous parasite population.

  14. Spatial Distribution of Sand Fly Vectors and Eco-Epidemiology of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Transmission in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Cristina; López, Marla; Fuya, Patricia; Lugo, Ligia; Cordovez, Juan Manuel; González, Camila

    2015-01-01

    Leishmania is transmitted by Phlebotominae insects that maintain the enzootic cycle by circulating between sylvatic and domestic mammals; humans enter the cycles as accidental hosts due to the vector's search for blood source. In Colombia, leishmaniasis is an endemic disease and 95% of all cases are cutaneous (CL), these cases have been reported in several regions of the country where the intervention of sylvatic areas by the introduction of agriculture seem to have an impact on the rearrangement of new transmission cycles. Our study aimed to update vector species distribution in the country and to analyze the relationship between vectors' distribution, climate, land use and CL prevalence. A database with geographic information was assembled, and ecological niche modeling was performed to explore the potential distribution of each of the 21 species of medical importance in Colombia, using thirteen bioclimatic variables, three topographic and three principal components derived from NDVI. Binary models for each species were obtained and related to both land use coverage, and a CL prevalence map with available epidemiological data. Finally, maps of species potential distribution were summed to define potential species richness in the country. In total, 673 single records were obtained with Lutzomyia gomezi, Lutzomyia longipalpis, Psychodopygus panamensis, Psathyromyia shannoni and Pintomyia evansi the species with the highest number of records. Eighteen species had significant models, considering the area under the curve and the jackknife results: L. gomezi and P. panamensis had the widest potential distribution. All sand fly species except for Nyssomyia antunesi are mainly distributed in regions with rates of prevalence between 0.33 to 101.35 cases per 100,000 inhabitants and 76% of collection data points fall into transformed ecosystems. Distribution ranges of sand flies with medical importance in Colombia correspond predominantly to disturbed areas, where the

  15. Elemental distribution imaging by energy-filtering transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurata, Hiroki

    1996-01-01

    EFTEM is new microscopy with the object of visualizing high resolution quantitative elemental distribution. The measurement principles and the present state of EFTEM studies are explained by the examples of measurement of the elemental distributions. EFTEM is a combination of the transmission electron microscope with the electron energy loss spectroscopy (EFLS). EFTEM method sets the slit in the specific energy field and put the electron passing the slit back in the microscopic image. The qualitative elemental analysis is obtained by observing the position of the absorption end of core electronic excitation spectrum and the quantitative one by determining the core electronic excitation strength of the specific atom depend on filtering with energy selector slit. The binding state and the local structure in the neighborhood of excited atom is determined by the fine structure of absorption end. By the chemical mapping method, the distribution image of chemical binding state is visualized by the imaging chemical map obtained by filtering the specific peak strength of fine structure with the narrow energy selector slit. The fine powder of lead chromate (PbCrO 4 ) covered with silica glass was shown as a typical example of the elemental distribution image of core electronic excitation spectrum. The quantitative analysis method of elemental distribution image is explained. The possibility of single atom analysis at nanometer was shown by the example of nanotube observed by EFTEM. (S.Y.)

  16. Integrating Renewable Energy into the Transmission and Distribution System of the U. S. Virgin Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burman, K.; Olis, D.; Gevorgian, V.; Warren, A.; Butt, R.; Lilienthal, P.; Glassmire, J.

    2011-09-01

    This report focuses on the economic and technical feasibility of integrating renewable energy technologies into the U.S. Virgin Islands transmission and distribution systems. The report includes three main areas of analysis: 1) the economics of deploying utility-scale renewable energy technologies on St. Thomas/St. John and St. Croix; 2) potential sites for installing roof- and ground-mount PV systems and wind turbines and the impact renewable generation will have on the electrical subtransmission and distribution infrastructure, and 3) the feasibility of a 100- to 200-megawatt power interconnection of the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA), Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority (WAPA), and British Virgin Islands (BVI) grids via a submarine cable system.

  17. The Kellogg Company Optimizes Production, Inventory, and Distribution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brown, Gerald; Keegan, Joseph; Vigus, Brian; Wood, Kevin

    2001-01-01

    .... An operational version of KPS, at a weekly level of detail, helps determine where products are produced and how finished products and in-process products are shipped between plants and distribution centers...

  18. Evaluation of light transmission and distribution materials for Lunar and Martian bioregenerative life support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuello, J L; Sadler, P; Jack, D; Ono, E; Jordan, K A

    1998-01-01

    The materials that were selected and evaluated in this study in the context of bioregenerative advanced life support included polymer optical cables, for transmission of photosynthetic photon flux (PPF), and light pipe, woven optical pad and light-emitting fiber (LEF) for PPF distribution. All materials exhibited significant fidelity in transmitting the spectral characteristics of the artificial lluminator's Xenon-Metal Halide lamp. The PPF attenuation values for the polymer cables EL-200, EL-300, EL-400, and EL-500 were not significantly distinguishable from one another nor from that of the fused-silica cable of 0.34 dB/m. With the exception of EL-100 and EL-700, which had significantly lower PPF transmission efficiencies of 54.9%/m and 66.6%/m, respectively, all the other polymer cables had PPF transmission efficiencies of over 85%/m which, except for EL-300, were not significantly different from one another nor from that of the fused-silica cable of 93.2%/m. The highest PPF output efficiency achieved for the 7.1-cm light pipe 14.7%, for its maximum pipe length of 100 cm. At a constant pipe length of 50 cm, the PPF output efficiency of the 10-cm light pipe of 0.71% was significantly lower than that of the 7.1-cm light pipe of 10.54%. The PPF output for the woven optical pad was determined to be 36.3%. The PPF output efficiency for the LEF without the optic fastener was determined to be 27.1%, whereas that for the LEF with the optic fastener was 50.3%, that is, the maximum value of PPF output efficiency in the study. The polymer optical cables, light pipe, woven optical pad, and LEF exhibited significant regularity and symmetry in their PPF output spatial distributions.

  19. Distributed Space-Time Block Coded Transmission with Imperfect Channel Estimation: Achievable Rate and Power Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Aïssa

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effects of channel estimation error at the receiver on the achievable rate of distributed space-time block coded transmission. We consider that multiple transmitters cooperate to send the signal to the receiver and derive lower and upper bounds on the mutual information of distributed space-time block codes (D-STBCs when the channel gains and channel estimation error variances pertaining to different transmitter-receiver links are unequal. Then, assessing the gap between these two bounds, we provide a limiting value that upper bounds the latter at any input transmit powers, and also show that the gap is minimum if the receiver can estimate the channels of different transmitters with the same accuracy. We further investigate positioning the receiving node such that the mutual information bounds of D-STBCs and their robustness to the variations of the subchannel gains are maximum, as long as the summation of these gains is constant. Furthermore, we derive the optimum power transmission strategy to achieve the outage capacity lower bound of D-STBCs under arbitrary numbers of transmit and receive antennas, and provide closed-form expressions for this capacity metric. Numerical simulations are conducted to corroborate our analysis and quantify the effects of imperfect channel estimation.

  20. Natural gas transmission and distribution model of the National Energy Modeling System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-02-01

    The Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model (NGTDM) is the component of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) that is used to represent the domestic natural gas transmission and distribution system. NEMS was developed in the Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting of the Energy Information Administration (EIA). NEMS is the third in a series of computer-based, midterm energy modeling systems used since 1974 by the EIA and its predecessor, the Federal Energy Administration, to analyze domestic energy-economy markets and develop projections. From 1982 through 1993, the Intermediate Future Forecasting System (IFFS) was used by the EIA for its analyses, and the Gas Analysis Modeling System (GAMS) was used within IFFS to represent natural gas markets. Prior to 1982, the Midterm Energy Forecasting System (MEFS), also referred to as the Project Independence Evaluation System (PIES), was employed. NEMS was developed to enhance and update EIA's modeling capability by internally incorporating models of energy markets that had previously been analyzed off-line. In addition, greater structural detail in NEMS permits the analysis of a broader range of energy issues. The time horizon of NEMS is the midterm period (i.e., through 2015). In order to represent the regional differences in energy markets, the component models of NEMS function at regional levels appropriate for the markets represented, with subsequent aggregation/disaggregation to the Census Division level for reporting purposes

  1. Using SMES as a multi-purpose interface in power generation, transmission and distribution systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tam, K.S.; Zhang, X.; Yarali, A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a new SMES schemes, the MSMES system, which significantly broadens the ways in which SMES can be applied to electric power systems. On the generation side, the SMES system can convert low-quality power into high-quality power and enhances the utilization of all energy sources available to the power systems. Acting both as an energy storage device and a power flow control device, a MSMES system can act as a hub in a power transmission system. The use of multiple MSMES systems can provide many new solutions to the problems facing the transmission networks of the United States today. On the distribution side, MSMES systems can be used as advanced power distribution centers that supply high-quality power to the customers while providing desirable load shapes to the power systems. In addition to these functions, a MSMES unit can also perform functions such as damping of power oscillation, stability and dynamic performance improvement and other recognized benefits of the conventional SMES system. Functioning as a multi-purpose power processing units, the MSMES systems improve the economics of SMES system. Functioning as a multi-purpose power processing units, the MSMES systems improve the economics of SMES technology and expand its potential market

  2. Natural gas transmission and distribution model of the National Energy Modeling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    The Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model (NGTDM) is the component of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) that is used to represent the domestic natural gas transmission and distribution system. NEMS was developed in the Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting of the Energy Information Administration (EIA). NEMS is the third in a series of computer-based, midterm energy modeling systems used since 1974 by the EIA and its predecessor, the Federal Energy Administration, to analyze domestic energy-economy markets and develop projections. From 1982 through 1993, the Intermediate Future Forecasting System (IFFS) was used by the EIA for its analyses, and the Gas Analysis Modeling System (GAMS) was used within IFFS to represent natural gas markets. Prior to 1982, the Midterm Energy Forecasting System (MEFS), also referred to as the Project Independence Evaluation System (PIES), was employed. NEMS was developed to enhance and update EIA`s modeling capability by internally incorporating models of energy markets that had previously been analyzed off-line. In addition, greater structural detail in NEMS permits the analysis of a broader range of energy issues. The time horizon of NEMS is the midterm period (i.e., through 2015). In order to represent the regional differences in energy markets, the component models of NEMS function at regional levels appropriate for the markets represented, with subsequent aggregation/disaggregation to the Census Division level for reporting purposes.

  3. Supply of FDG : production and distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilloy, W.J.; Fallais, A.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Aim: To review the means of production of PET tracers and the logistIcs of their distribution, with special emphasis on 18 FDG - from an end-user point of view. Material and method: The experience of a satellite center (i.e. without in-house cyclotron) over one year. Results: The following topics are presented: Basic introduction to FDG and its radio-synthesis; properties of cyclotrons and linear accelerators; the economics of buying and running a cyclotron to produce FDG; satellite facilities (availability from radiopharmacies; fraction of FDG in the cost of running a PET center; recent developments in PET cameras, and their implications of FDG supply; diversification in the offer of commercial PET tracers; regulatory issues, and their influence on FDG supply; possible developments in onco-PET, neuro-PET, cardio-PET; generators and full PET Nuclear Medicine. Conclusion: The European experience is not necessarily completely applicable to a large country like South Africa; the question can be raised whether it is advisable to move the patients, the FDG or the camera around the country or its provinces. (author)

  4. Improving the maximum transmission distance of continuous-variable quantum key distribution with noisy coherent states using a noiseless amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Tianyi; Yu, Song; Zhang, Yi-Chen; Gu, Wanyi; Guo, Hong

    2014-01-01

    By employing a nondeterministic noiseless linear amplifier, we propose to increase the maximum transmission distance of continuous-variable quantum key distribution with noisy coherent states. With the covariance matrix transformation, the expression of secret key rate under reverse reconciliation is derived against collective entangling cloner attacks. We show that the noiseless linear amplifier can compensate the detrimental effect of the preparation noise with an enhancement of the maximum transmission distance and the noise resistance. - Highlights: • Noiseless amplifier is applied in noisy coherent state quantum key distribution. • Negative effect of preparation noise is compensated by noiseless amplification. • Maximum transmission distance and noise resistance are both enhanced

  5. Price transmission between products at different stages of manufacturing in forest industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo Zhou; Joseph Buongiorno

    2005-01-01

    The theory of demand and supply implies a positive relationship, or "price transmission" between the prices of products at different stages of manufacturing, This relationship was investigated with quarterly prices of softwood stumpage in the US South, and national prices of forest products, from 1977 to 2002. All prices, net of inflation, were found to be...

  6. Negative binomial multiplicity distribution from binomial cluster production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iso, C.; Mori, K.

    1990-01-01

    Two-step interpretation of negative binomial multiplicity distribution as a compound of binomial cluster production and negative binomial like cluster decay distribution is proposed. In this model we can expect the average multiplicity for the cluster production increases with increasing energy, different from a compound Poisson-Logarithmic distribution. (orig.)

  7. Spatial distribution of infection risk of SARS transmission in a hospital ward

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, Hua; Li, Yuguo [School of Energy and Environment, Southeast University, Nanjing, JiangSu (China); Nielsen, Peter V. [Department of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University, DK-9000 Aalborg (Denmark); Huang, Xinhua [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics Engineering, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai (China)

    2009-08-15

    The classical Wells-Riley model for predicting risk of airborne transmission of diseases assumes a uniform spatial distribution of the infected cases in an enclosed space. A new mathematical model is developed here for predicting the spatial distribution of infection risk of airborne transmitted diseases by integrating the Wells-Riley equation into computational fluid dynamics. We applied our new integrated model to analyze a large nosocomial SARS outbreak in Hong Kong during the 2003 SARS epidemics, which was studied in the literature with regard to the association between airflow and SARS infection. The predicted numbers of infected cases of medical students in the same cubicle, the adjacent cubicle and the distant cubicle were 6.39, 0.78 and 0.2 respectively while the observed numbers of infected medical students in the three cubicles were 7, 0 and 0 respectively during the morning of March 6th, which was the highest attack period. The predicted numbers of infected cases of inpatients during the morning of March 6th in the same cubicle, the adjacent cubic and the distance cubicle were 7.8, 5.1, and 4.8 respectively which also agree well with the observed distribution of the infected inpatients during the entire infection period. The new developed model provides a new modelling tool for investigating the airborne transmission of diseases in enclosed spaces. The model is applicable when the susceptible stays mostly at the same location in an enclosed space during the infectious period, such as inpatients in a hospital ward, passengers in an airplane etc. (author)

  8. Expected Range of Cooperation Between Transmission System Operators and Distribution System Operators After Implementation of ENTSO-E Grid Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Pakulski

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors present the prospects of cooperation between transmission system operators (TSO and distribution system operators (DSO after entry into force ENTSO-E (European Network of Transmission System Operators for Electricity grid codes. New areas of DSO activities, associated with offering TSO aggregated services for national power system regulation based on the regulation resources connected to the distribution grid, and services on the distribution system level as part of the creation of local balancing areas (LBA are presented. The paper also presents the possibilities of providing ancillary services by different types of distributed generation sources in the distribution network. The LBA concept, which involves integrated management of local regulation resources including generation, demand, and energy storage is described. The options of the renewable energy sources (RES using for voltage and reactive power control in the distribution network with the use of wind farms (WF connected to the distribution system are characterized.

  9. Product code optimization for determinate state LDPC decoding in robust image transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomos, Nikolaos; Boulgouris, Nikolaos V; Strintzis, Michael G

    2006-08-01

    We propose a novel scheme for error-resilient image transmission. The proposed scheme employs a product coder consisting of low-density parity check (LDPC) codes and Reed-Solomon codes in order to deal effectively with bit errors. The efficiency of the proposed scheme is based on the exploitation of determinate symbols in Tanner graph decoding of LDPC codes and a novel product code optimization technique based on error estimation. Experimental evaluation demonstrates the superiority of the proposed system in comparison to recent state-of-the-art techniques for image transmission.

  10. Three-Phase Time-Multiplexed Planar Power Transmission to Distributed Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byunghun; Ahn, Dukju; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2016-03-01

    A platform has been presented for wireless powering of receivers (Rx's) that are arbitrarily distributed over a large area. A potential application could be powering of small Rx implants, distributed over large areas of the brain. The transmitter (Tx) consists of three overlapping layers of hexagonal planar spiral coils (hex-PSC) that are horizontally shifted to provide the strongest and most homogeneous electromagnetic flux coverage. The three-layer hex-PSC array is driven by a three-phase time-division-multiplexed power Tx that takes the advantage of the carrier phase shift, coil geometries, and Rx time constant to homogeneously power the arbitrarily distributed Rx's regardless of their misalignments. The functionality of the proposed three-phase power transmission concept has been verified in a detailed scaled-up high-frequency structure simulator Advanced Design System simulation model and measurement setup, and compared with a conventional Tx. The new Tx delivers 5.4 mW to each Rx and achieves, on average, 5.8% power transfer efficiency to the Rx at the worst case 90° angular misalignment, compared with 1.4% by the conventional Tx.

  11. Fine tuning of transmission features in nanoporous anodic alumina distributed Bragg reflectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Siew Yee; Law, Cheryl Suwen; Santos, Abel

    2018-01-01

    This study introduces an innovative apodisation strategy to tune the filtering features of distributed Bragg reflectors based on nanoporous anodic alumina (NAA-DBRs). The effective medium of NAA-DBRs, which is modulated in a stepwise fashion by a pulse-like anodisation approach, is apodised following a logarithmic negative function to engineer the transmission features of NAA-DBRs. We investigate the effect of various apodisation parameters such as apodisation amplitude difference, anodisation period, current density offset and pore widening time, to tune and optimise the optical properties of NAA-DBRs in terms of central wavelength position, full width at half maximum and quality of photonic stop band. The transmission features of NAA-DBRs are shown to be fully controllable with precision across the spectral regions by means of the apodisation parameters. Our study demonstrates that an apodisation strategy can significantly narrow the width and enhance the quality of the characteristic photonic stop band of NAA-DBRs. This rationally designed anodisation approach based on the combination of apodisation and stepwise pulse anodisation enables the development of optical filters with tuneable filtering features to be integrated into optical technologies acting as essential photonic elements in devices such as optical sensors and biosensors.

  12. Modelling the distribution of pig production and diseases in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Thanapongtharm, Weerapong

    2015-01-01

    This thesis, entitled “Modelling the distribution of pig production and diseases in Thailand”, presents many aspects of pig production in Thailand including the characteristics of pig farming system, distribution of pig population and pig farms, spatio-temporal distribution and risk of most important diseases in pig at present, and the suitability area for pig farming. Spatial distribution and characteristics of pig farming in Thailand were studied using time-series pig population data to des...

  13. The Government Incentive Regulation Model and Pricing Mechanism in Power Transmission and Distribution Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The power transmission and distribution (T&D market’s natural monopoly and individual information have been the impediment to improving the energy efficiency in the whole T&D market. In order to improve the whole social welfare, T&D market should be controlled by government. An incentive regulation model with the target of maximizing social welfare has been studied. A list of contracts with transferring payment and quantity of T&D are given to motivate the corporation to reveal the true technical parameter and input the optimal investment. The corporate revenue, optimal investment, and effort are proved to depend on its own technical parameter. The part of incentive regulation model ends with the optimal pricing mechanism of T&D market. At the end of this paper, we give a numerical example to explain our research and confirm its function graphically.

  14. Glass fiber -reinforced plastic tapered poles for transmission and distribution lines: development and experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, S.; Burachysnsky, V.; Polyzois, D.

    1999-01-01

    A research project to develop lightweight poles for use in power transmission and distribution lines and involving the use of glass fiber-reinforced plastic using the filament winding process is described. Twelve full scale specimen poles were designed, fabricated and subjected to cantilever bending to test failure modes. The test parameters included fiber orientation, ratio of longitudinal-to-circumferential fiber, and the number of layers. Results showed that local buckling was the most dominant failure mode, attributable to the high radius-to-thickness ratio of the specimen poles. Overall, however, these fiber-reinforced plastic poles compared favourably to wooden poles in carrying capacity with significant weight reduction. Lateral displacement at ultimate loads did not exceed the acceptable limit of 10 per cent of the specimen free length. 7 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs

  15. Model documentation Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model of the National Energy Modeling System. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model (NGTDM) of the National Energy Modeling System is developed and maintained by the Energy Information Administration (EIA), Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting. This report documents the archived version of the NGTDM that was used to produce the natural gas forecasts presented in the Annual Energy Outlook 1996, (DOE/EIA-0383(96)). The purpose of this report is to provide a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public that defines the objectives of the model, describes its basic approach, and provides detail on the methodology employed. Previously this report represented Volume I of a two-volume set. Volume II reported on model performance, detailing convergence criteria and properties, results of sensitivity testing, comparison of model outputs with the literature and/or other model results, and major unresolved issues

  16. Model documentation Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model of the National Energy Modeling System. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-26

    The Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model (NGTDM) of the National Energy Modeling System is developed and maintained by the Energy Information Administration (EIA), Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting. This report documents the archived version of the NGTDM that was used to produce the natural gas forecasts presented in the Annual Energy Outlook 1996, (DOE/EIA-0383(96)). The purpose of this report is to provide a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public that defines the objectives of the model, describes its basic approach, and provides detail on the methodology employed. Previously this report represented Volume I of a two-volume set. Volume II reported on model performance, detailing convergence criteria and properties, results of sensitivity testing, comparison of model outputs with the literature and/or other model results, and major unresolved issues.

  17. Model documentation: Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model of the National Energy Modeling System; Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-02-24

    The Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model (NGTDM) is a component of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) used to represent the domestic natural gas transmission and distribution system. NEMS is the third in a series of computer-based, midterm energy modeling systems used since 1974 by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) and its predecessor, the Federal Energy Administration, to analyze domestic energy-economy markets and develop projections. This report documents the archived version of NGTDM that was used to produce the natural gas forecasts used in support of the Annual Energy Outlook 1994, DOE/EIA-0383(94). The purpose of this report is to provide a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public that defines the objectives of the model, describes its basic design, provides detail on the methodology employed, and describes the model inputs, outputs, and key assumptions. It is intended to fulfill the legal obligation of the EIA to provide adequate documentation in support of its models (Public Law 94-385, Section 57.b.2). This report represents Volume 1 of a two-volume set. (Volume 2 will report on model performance, detailing convergence criteria and properties, results of sensitivity testing, comparison of model outputs with the literature and/or other model results, and major unresolved issues.) Subsequent chapters of this report provide: (1) an overview of the NGTDM (Chapter 2); (2) a description of the interface between the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) and the NGTDM (Chapter 3); (3) an overview of the solution methodology of the NGTDM (Chapter 4); (4) the solution methodology for the Annual Flow Module (Chapter 5); (5) the solution methodology for the Distributor Tariff Module (Chapter 6); (6) the solution methodology for the Capacity Expansion Module (Chapter 7); (7) the solution methodology for the Pipeline Tariff Module (Chapter 8); and (8) a description of model assumptions, inputs, and outputs (Chapter 9).

  18. Interpretations and implications of negative binomial distributions of multiparticle productions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arisawa, Tetsuo

    2006-01-01

    The number of particles produced in high energy experiments is approximated by a negative binomial distribution. Deriving a representation of the distribution from a stochastic equation, conditions for the process to satisfy the distribution are clarified. Based on them, it is proposed that multiparticle production consists of spontaneous and induced production. The rate of the induced production is proportional to the number of existing particles. The ratio of the two production rates remains constant during the process. The ''NBD space'' is also defined where the number of particles produced in its subspaces follows negative binomial distributions with different parameters

  19. Big Pylons: Mixed signals for transmission. Spatial planning for energy distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, Heather; Hardy, Maelíosa; Lloyd, M. Greg; McGreal, Stanley

    2013-01-01

    The effective delivery of a sustainable energy future raises many challenges in relation to energy distribution where a new understanding of spatial planning is needed in relation to energy production, consumption and storage. Understanding the emergent low carbon energy economy in terms of its production, distribution and consumption characteristics has prompted a deliberate spatial planning interest. This paper examines issues relating to spatial planning, regulation, political legitimacy and accountability in the current and future systems for energy distribution. In particular it examines the Beauly Denny public inquiry in Scotland as a case study in terms of demonstrating the changing state–market–civil relations in an energy transition context with differentiated values and interests. The case study highlights implications for the regulation in the public interest of highly contested spaces, places and development schemes, together with a synopsis of government structure and change that is influencing the future of spatial planning and energy distribution in particular. - Highlights: • We examine links between spatial planning and regulation of energy distribution. • We examine the Beauly Denny public inquiry in Scotland. • We highlight challenges surrounding the development of a resilient energy system. • We highlight links between spatial planning and infrastructural development

  20. Transmission History Based Distributed Adaptive Contention Window Adjustment Algorithm Cooperating with Automatic Rate Fallback for Wireless LANs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Masakatsu; Hiraguri, Takefumi; Nishimori, Kentaro; Takaya, Kazuhiro; Murakawa, Kazuo

    This paper proposes and investigates a distributed adaptive contention window adjustment algorithm based on the transmission history for wireless LANs called the transmission-history-based distributed adaptive contention window adjustment (THAW) algorithm. The objective of this paper is to reduce the transmission delay and improve the channel throughput compared to conventional algorithms. The feature of THAW is that it adaptively adjusts the initial contention window (CWinit) size in the binary exponential backoff (BEB) algorithm used in the IEEE 802.11 standard according to the transmission history and the automatic rate fallback (ARF) algorithm, which is the most basic algorithm in automatic rate controls. This effect is to keep CWinit at a high value in a congested state. Simulation results show that the THAW algorithm outperforms the conventional algorithms in terms of the channel throughput and delay, even if the timer in the ARF is changed.

  1. The Kellogg Company Optimizes Production, Inventory, and Distribution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brown, Gerald; Keegan, Joseph; Vigus, Brian; Wood, Kevin

    2001-01-01

    .... Operational KPS reduced production, inventory, and distribution costs by an estimated $4.5 million in 1995. Tactical KPS recently guided a consolidation of production capacity with a projected savings of $35 to $40 million per year.

  2. Transmission of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris in seed production crops of cauliflower

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kastelein, P.; Krijger, M.C.; Zouwen, van der P.S.; Steen, van der J.J.M.; Stevens, L.H.; Wolf, van der J.M.; Fernandes Vieira, J.; Amaral Villela, F.

    2014-01-01

    n 2011, two polytunnel greenhouse experiments were conducted on seed production farms, one under conventional conditions in the South-West (Rilland) and the other under organic conditions in the East (Voorst) of the Netherlands, to study transmission routes of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris

  3. The production and transmission of covariance in the evaluation processing of fission yield data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Tingjin

    2001-01-01

    The production and transmission of correlation in the evaluation processing of fission yield data, including average with weight, ratio and sum consistence adjusting, are researched. The variation of the averaged and adjusted yields and/or rations with the correlation coefficient of the input data are investigated. The results obtained are reasonable in physics

  4. 21 CFR 225.202 - Formula, production, and distribution records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR MEDICATED FEEDS Records § 225.202 Formula, production, and distribution records. Records shall be maintained identifying the... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula, production, and distribution records. 225...

  5. Stability analysis of transmission system with high penetration of distributed generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reza, M.

    2006-12-21

    Nowadays, interest in generating electricity using decentralized generators of relatively small scale ('distributed generation', DG) is increasing. This work deals with the impact of implementing DG on the transmission system transient stability, with the emphasis on a potential transition from a 'vertical power system' to a 'horizontal power system. A problem in power systems is maintaining synchronous operation of all (centralized) synchronous machines. This stability problem associated is called rotor angle stability. In this work, the impact of the DG implementation on this is investigated. The impact of DG levels on the system transient stability when the increasing DG level is followed by a reduction of centralized generators in service resulting in a 'vertical to horizontal' transformation of the power system is also investigated. Furthermore, a stochastic analysis is used to study the transient stability of the power systems. The results show that including the stochastic behavior of DG leads to a more complete and detailed view of the system performance. Finally, the situation when the power system is pushed towards a scenario, where DG penetration reaches a level that covers the total load of the original power system (100% DG level) is investigated. The research performed in this work indicates that from the transmission system stability point of view, if higher DG penetration levels are coming up, sufficient inertia and voltage support must be installed. Furthermore, one should be aware of the fact that the system behaves stochastically, especially with DG. To a certain extent regional balancing of power can be performed by local voltage control.

  6. Intergenerational transmission of alloparental behavior and oxytocin and vasopressin receptor distribution in the prairie vole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison M Perkeybile

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Variation in the early environment has the potential to permanently alter offspring behavior and development. We have previously shown that naturally occurring variation in biparental care of offspring in the prairie vole is related to differences in social behavior of the offspring. It was not, however, clear whether the behavioral differences seen between offspring receiving high compared to low amounts of parental care were the result of different care experiences or were due to shared genetics with their high-contact or low-contact parents. Here we use cross-fostering methods to determine the mode of transmission of alloparental behavior and oxytocin receptor (OTR and vasopressin V1a receptor (V1aR binding from parent to offspring. Offspring were cross-fostered or in-fostered on postnatal day 1 and parental care received was quantified in the first week postpartum. At weaning, offspring underwent an alloparental care test and brains were then collected from all parents and offspring to examine OTR and V1aR binding. Results indicate that alloparental behavior of offspring was predicted by the parental behavior of their rearing parents. Receptor binding for both OTR and V1aR tended to be predicted by the genetic mothers for female offspring and by the genetic fathers for male offspring. These findings suggest a different role of early experience and genetics in shaping behavior compared to receptor distribution and support the notion of sex-dependent outcomes, particularly in the transmission of receptor binding patterns.

  7. DISTRIBUTION OF BANKING PRODUCTS AND SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BULGAREA CATALIN NICOLAE

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Starting with the 90s, retails banks have faced several challenges. One of them is how to efficiently deliver their products and services to the customers. In fact, the most important challenge of a bank is how to efficiently reach the customer, with the right product or service, at the right time. Today, they can choose between branches, contact centers, ATMs, online channels, portals and web banks. Multichannel banking is, therefore, more relevant than ever. Multichannel banking is more than just offering multiple channels, but offering integrated channels, with the optimal balance of services, prices and offer across channels. Banks should have the ability to deliver the right service at the right time in the right channel. The bank should define exactly how they are going to use each channels, which services and products in which channels, how to mix and integrate the channels and how to support the channels

  8. Customer system efficiency improvement assessment: Supply curves for transmission and distribution conservation options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tepel, R.C.; Callaway, J.W.; De Steese, J.G.

    1987-11-01

    This report documents the results of Task 6 in the Customer System Efficiency Improvement (CSEI) Assessment Project. A principal objective of this project is to assess the potential for energy conservation in the transmission and distribution (TandD) systems of electric utilities in the BPA service area. The scope of this assessment covers BPA customers in the Pacific Northwest region and all non-federal TandD systems, including those that currently place no load on the BPA system. Supply curves were developed to describe the conservation resource potentially available from TandD-system efficiency improvements. These supply curves relate the levelized cost of upgrading existing equipment to the estimated amount of energy saved. Stated in this form, the resource represented by TandD loss reductions can be compared with other conservation options and regional electrical generation resources to determine the most cost-effective method of supplying power to the Pacific Northwest. The development of the supply curves required data acquisition and methodology development that are also described in this report. 11 refs., 11 figs., 16 tabs.

  9. Robust Wireless Power Transmission to mm-Sized Free-Floating Distributed Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirbozorgi, S Abdollah; Yeon, Pyungwoo; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents an inductive link for wireless power transmission (WPT) to mm-sized free-floating implants (FFIs) distributed in a large three-dimensional space in the neural tissue that is insensitive to the exact location of the receiver (Rx). The proposed structure utilizes a high-Q resonator on the target wirelessly powered plane that encompasses randomly positioned multiple FFIs, all powered by a large external transmitter (Tx). Based on resonant WPT fundamentals, we have devised a detailed method for optimization of the FFIs and explored design strategies and safety concerns, such as coil segmentation and specific absorption rate limits using realistic finite element simulation models in HFSS including head tissue layers, respectively. We have built several FFI prototypes to conduct accurate measurements and to characterize the performance of the proposed WPT method. Measurement results on 1-mm receivers operating at 60 MHz show power transfer efficiency and power delivered to the load at 2.4% and 1.3 mW, respectively, within 14-18 mm of Tx-Rx separation and 7 cm 2 of brain surface.

  10. On the Impact of User Distribution on Cooperative Spectrum Sensing and Data Transmission with Multiuser Diversity

    KAUST Repository

    Rao, Anlei

    2011-07-01

    In this thesis, we investigate the independent but not identically distributed (i.n.i.d.) situations for spectrum sensing and data transmission. In particular, we derive the false-alarm probability and the detection probability of cooperative spectrum sensing with the scheme of energy fusion over i.n.i.d. Nakagami fading channels. Then, the performance of adaptive modulation with single-cell multiuser scheduling over i.n.i.d. Nakagami fading channels is analyzed. Closed-form expressions are derived for the average channel capacity, spectral efficiency, and bit-error-rate (BER) for both constant-power variable-rate and variable-power variable-rate uncoded M- ary quadrature amplitude modulation (M-QAM) schemes. In addition, we study the impact of time delay on the average BER of adaptive M-QAM. From the selected numerical results, we can see that cooperative spectrum sensing and multiuser diversity brings considerably better performance even over i.n.i.d. fading environments.

  11. Impact of distributed generators on the power loss and voltage profile of sub-transmission network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S.O. Ogunjuyigbe

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the impact of distributed generator (DG on the power loss and voltage profile of sub-transmission network at different penetration levels (PLs. The various DG technologies are modeled based on their electrical output characteristics. Voltage profile index which allows a single value to represent how well the voltage matches the ideal value is developed. The index allows a fair comparison of the voltage profile obtained from different scenarios. The extent to which DGs affect power losses and voltage profile depend on the type of DG technology, PL and the location in which the DG is connected to the grid. The integration of DGs reduces power losses on the network, however, as the PL increases, the power losses begin to increase. A PL of 50–75% is achieved on 69 kV voltage level and 25–50% penetration on 13.8 kV voltage level without an increase in the power loss. Also more DG can be integrated into the network at point of common connection of higher voltage level compared to the low voltage level.

  12. Transmission of Salmonella between wildlife and meat-production animals in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, M. N.; Madsen, J. J.; Rahbek, C.

    2008-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the transmission of Salmonella spp. between production animals (pigs and cattle) and wildlife on production animal farms in Denmark. Methods and Results: In the winter and summer of 2001 and 2002, 3622 samples were collected from Salmonella-infected and noninfected herds...... of pigs and cattle and surrounding wildlife. Salmonella was detected in wildlife on farms carrying Salmonella-positive production animals and only during the periods when Salmonella was detected in the production animals. The presence of Salmonella Typhimurium in wild birds significantly correlated...... to their migration pattern and food preference. Conclusions: Salmonella was transmitted from infected herds of production animals (cattle and pigs) to wildlife that lived amongst or in close proximity to them. Significance and Impact of the Study: Salmonella in animal food products is associated with the occurrence...

  13. Exact probability distribution function for the volatility of cumulative production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadourian, Rubina; Klümper, Andreas

    2018-04-01

    In this paper we study the volatility and its probability distribution function for the cumulative production based on the experience curve hypothesis. This work presents a generalization of the study of volatility in Lafond et al. (2017), which addressed the effects of normally distributed noise in the production process. Due to its wide applicability in industrial and technological activities we present here the mathematical foundation for an arbitrary distribution function of the process, which we expect will pave the future research on forecasting of the production process.

  14. Commercial milk distribution profiles and production locations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deonigi, D.E.; Anderson, D.M.; Wilfert, G.L.

    1994-04-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project was established to estimate radiation doses that people could have received from nuclear operations at the Hanford Site since 1944. For this period iodine-131 is the most important offsite contributor to radiation doses from Hanford operations. Consumption of milk from cows that ate vegetation contaminated by iodine-131 is the dominant radiation pathway for individuals who drank milk (Napier 1992). Information has been developed on commercial milk cow locations and commercial milk distribution during 1945 and 1951. The year 1945 was selected because during 1945 the largest amount of iodine-131 was released from Hanford facilities in a calendar year (Heeb 1993); therefore, 1945 was the year in which an individual was likely to have received the highest dose. The year 1951 was selected to provide data for comparing the changes that occurred in commercial milk flows (i.e., sources, processing locations, and market areas) between World War II and the post-war period. To estimate the doses people could have received from this milk flow, it is necessary to estimate the amount of milk people consumed, the source of the milk, the specific feeding regime used for milk cows, and the amount of iodine-131 contamination deposited on feed

  15. Summary of procedures used to transport and distribute consumer products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etnier, E.L.; O'Donnell, F.R.

    1979-02-01

    A wide variety of consumer products that contain radionuclides are available to the general public. Estimation of radiation doses to man from exposures to these products requires that the entire life span of each product be defined in a manner that identifies persons who may be exposed and quantifies the conditions under which exposures may occur. This paper presents models of steps which make up the paths for transportation and distribution of consumer products. Fire probabilities and damage rates to parcels during transportation are included. Transportation steps considered include those used to move parcels via truck, air, first-class mail, and parcel delivery. Distribution steps include handling in distribution centers, warehouses, and retail stores. A hypothetical distribution scheme is presented to illustrate application of the exposure scenarios described in model

  16. The Kellogg Company Optimizes Production, Inventory, and Distribution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brown, Gerald; Keegan, Joseph; Vigus, Brian; Wood, Kevin

    2001-01-01

    For over a decade, the Kellogg Company has used its planning system (KPS), a large-scale, multiperiod linear program, to guide production and distribution decisions for its cereal and convenience foods business...

  17. High Resolution Separations and Improved Ion Production and Transmission in Metabolomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metz, Thomas O.; Page, Jason S.; Baker, Erin Shammel; Tang, Keqi; Ding, Jie; Shen, Yufeng; Smith, Richard D.

    2008-03-31

    The goal of metabolomics experiments is the detection and quantitation of as many sample components as reasonably possible in order to identify “features” that can be used to characterize the samples under study. When utilizing electrospray ionization to produce ions for analysis by mass spectrometry (MS), it is imperative that metabolome sample constituents be efficiently separated prior to ion production, in order to minimize the phenomenon of ionization suppression. Similarly, optimization of the MS inlet can lead to increased measurement sensitivity. This review will focus on the role of high resolution liquid chromatography (LC) separations in conjunction with improved ion production and transmission for LC-MS-based metabolomics.

  18. Pump RIN-induced impairments in unrepeatered transmission systems using distributed Raman amplifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jingchi; Tang, Ming; Lau, Alan Pak Tao; Lu, Chao; Wang, Liang; Dong, Zhenhua; Bilal, Syed Muhammad; Fu, Songnian; Shum, Perry Ping; Liu, Deming

    2015-05-04

    High spectral efficiency modulation format based unrepeatered transmission systems using distributed Raman amplifier (DRA) have attracted much attention recently. To enhance the reach and optimize system performance, careful design of DRA is required based on the analysis of various types of impairments and their balance. In this paper, we study various pump RIN induced distortions on high spectral efficiency modulation formats. The vector theory of both 1st and higher-order stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) effect using Jones-matrix formalism is presented. The pump RIN will induce three types of distortion on high spectral efficiency signals: intensity noise stemming from SRS, phase noise stemming from cross phase modulation (XPM), and polarization crosstalk stemming from cross polarization modulation (XPolM). An analytical model for the statistical property of relative phase noise (RPN) in higher order DRA without dealing with complex vector theory is derived. The impact of pump RIN induced impairments are analyzed in polarization-multiplexed (PM)-QPSK and PM-16QAM-based unrepeatered systems simulations using 1st, 2nd and 3rd-order forward pumped Raman amplifier. It is shown that at realistic RIN levels, negligible impairments will be induced to PM-QPSK signals in 1st and 2nd order DRA, while non-negligible impairments will occur in 3rd order case. PM-16QAM signals suffer more penalties compared to PM-QPSK with the same on-off gain where both 2nd and 3rd order DRA will cause non-negligible performance degradations. We also investigate the performance of digital signal processing (DSP) algorithms to mitigate such impairments.

  19. Second Order Cone Programming (SOCP) Relaxation Based Optimal Power Flow with Hybrid VSC-HVDC Transmission and Active Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Tao; Li, Cheng; Yang, Yongheng

    2017-01-01

    The detailed topology of renewable resource bases may have the impact on the optimal power flow of the VSC-HVDC transmission network. To address this issue, this paper develops an optimal power flow with the hybrid VSC-HVDC transmission and active distribution networks to optimally schedule...... the generation output and voltage regulation of both networks, which leads to a non-convex programming model. Furthermore, the non-convex power flow equations are based on the Second Order Cone Programming (SOCP) relaxation approach. Thus, the proposed model can be relaxed to a SOCP that can be tractably solved...

  20. MILP approaches to sustainable production and distribution of meal elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akkerman, Renzo; Wang, Yang; Grunow, Martin

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies the production and distribution system for professionally prepared meals, in which a new innovative concept is applied. The concept aims to improve the sustainability of the system by distributing meal elements super-chilled in the conventional cold chain. Here, sustainability...

  1. Photovoltaic production and distribution network; La production photovoltaique et les reseaux de distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraisse, J.L. [ERDF, 75 - Paris (France)

    2010-04-15

    The rapid development of photovoltaics boosted by attractive feed-in tariffs caused a sharp increase in requests for connection to public distribution grids, which were originally designed to serve consumers. ERDF, main distribution network operator in France, is facing a challenge in terms of capacity for handling requests for connection and in terms of public distribution network operation and management. (author)

  2. Mass formula dependence of calculated spallation reaction product distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishida, Takahiko; Nakahara, Yasuaki

    1990-01-01

    A new version of the spallation reaction simulation code NUCLEUS was developed by incorporating Uno and Yamada's mass formula. This version was used to calculate the distribution of products from the spallation of uranium nuclei by high-energy protons. The dependence of the distributions on the mass formula was examined by comparing the results with those from the original version, which is based on Cameron's mass formula and the mass table compiled by Wapstra et al. As regards the fission component of spallation products, the new version reproduces the reaction product data obtained from thin foil experiments much better, especially on the neutron excess side. (orig.) [de

  3. Parton Distributions and the LHC W and Z Production

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, A D; Stirling, William James; Thorne, R S

    2000-01-01

    W and Z bosons will be produced copiously at the LHC proton-proton collider. We study the parton distribution dependence of the total production cross sections and rapidity distributions, paying particular attention to the uncertainties arising from uncertainties in the parton distributions themselves. Variations in the gluon, the strong coupling, the sea quarks and the overall normalisation are shown to lead to small but non-negligible variations in the cross section predictions. Ultimately, therefore, the measurement of these cross sections will provide a powerful cross check on our knowledge of parton distributions and their evolution.

  4. Particle size distribution of selected electronic nicotine delivery system products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldham, Michael J; Zhang, Jingjie; Rusyniak, Mark J; Kane, David B; Gardner, William P

    2018-03-01

    Dosimetry models can be used to predict the dose of inhaled material, but they require several parameters including particle size distribution. The reported particle size distributions for aerosols from electronic nicotine delivery system (ENDS) products vary widely and don't always identify a specific product. A low-flow cascade impactor was used to determine the particle size distribution [mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD); geometric standard deviation (GSD)] from 20 different cartridge based ENDS products. To assess losses and vapor phase amount, collection efficiency of the system was measured by comparing the collected mass in the impactor to the difference in ENDS product mass. The levels of nicotine, glycerin, propylene glycol, water, and menthol in the formulations of each product were also measured. Regardless of the ENDS product formulation, the MMAD of all tested products was similar and ranged from 0.9 to 1.2 μm with a GSD ranging from 1.7 to 2.2. There was no consistent pattern of change in the MMAD and GSD as a function of number of puffs (cartridge life). The collection efficiency indicated that 9%-26% of the generated mass was deposited in the collection system or was in the vapor phase. The particle size distribution data are suitable for use in aerosol dosimetry programs. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Analysis of a yearly multi-round, multi-period, multi-product transmission rights auction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziogos, N.P.; Bakirtzis, A.G.

    2008-01-01

    A yearly multi-round, multi-period, multi-product transmission rights (TR) auction issuing both point-to-point Financial Transmission Rights (FTRs) and Flow-Gate Rights (FGRs) is studied in this paper. In each round the TR market participants (buyers or sellers) submit their bid or offer prices based on past energy market performance. A Locational Marginal Pricing (LMP) based energy market is assumed. The TR market participants' bid or offer prices reflect their expectation of the average annual LMP differences between withdrawal and injections points for FTRs and of the transmission link capacity prices for FGRs. The TR auction is performed in four rounds; in each round 25% of the entire system capability is awarded. TRs that are awarded in one round are modeled as fixed injections in subsequent rounds. Market participants that have acquired TRs in one round can sell them in subsequent rounds. A market participant can submit bids or offers for on-peak, off-peak or 24-h TRs. A three-area, nine-bus test system with six TR market participants is used for the analysis of the TR auction. (author)

  6. Transmission line theory for long plasma production by radio frequency discharges between parallel-plate electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonaka, S.

    1991-01-01

    In order to seek for a radio frequency (RF) eigen-mode of waves in producing a plasma between a pair of long dielectric-covered parallel-plate RF electrodes, this paper analyzed all normal modes propagating along the electrodes by solving Maxwell's equations. The result showed that only an odd surface wave mode will produce the plasma in usual experimental conditions, which will become a basic transmission line theory when use of such long electrodes for on-line mass-production of amorphous silicon solar cells

  7. Bragg transmission phase plates for the production of circularly polarized x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, J.C.; Srajer, G.

    1994-01-01

    A thin-crystal Si (400) Bragg transmission x-ray phase plate has been constructed for the production of 5 to 12 keV circularly polarized x-rays. Using multiple beam diffraction from a GaAs crystal, a direct measurement of the degree of circular polarization as a function of off-Bragg position was made. These measurements indicated nearly complete circular polarization (|P c | ≥ 0.95) and full helicity reversal on opposite sides of the rocking curve

  8. Product of Ginibre matrices: Fuss-Catalan and Raney distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penson, Karol A.; Życzkowski, Karol

    2011-06-01

    Squared singular values of a product of s square random Ginibre matrices are asymptotically characterized by probability distributions Ps(x), such that their moments are equal to the Fuss-Catalan numbers of order s. We find a representation of the Fuss-Catalan distributions Ps(x) in terms of a combination of s hypergeometric functions of the type sFs-1. The explicit formula derived here is exact for an arbitrary positive integer s, and for s=1 it reduces to the Marchenko-Pastur distribution. Using similar techniques, involving the Mellin transform and the Meijer G function, we find exact expressions for the Raney probability distributions, the moments of which are given by a two-parameter generalization of the Fuss-Catalan numbers. These distributions can also be considered as a two-parameter generalization of the Wigner semicircle law.

  9. Unintegrated parton distributions and electroweak boson production at hadron colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Watt, G; Ryskin, M G

    2004-01-01

    We describe the use of doubly-unintegrated parton distributions in hadron-hadron collisions, using the (z,k_t)-factorisation prescription where the transverse momentum of the incoming parton is generated in the last evolution step. We apply this formalism to calculate the transverse momentum (P_T) distributions of produced W and Z bosons and compare the predictions to Tevatron Run 1 data. We find that the observed P_T distributions can be generated almost entirely by the leading order q_1 q_2 -> W,Z subprocesses, using known and universal doubly-unintegrated quark distributions. We also calculate the P_T distribution of the Standard Model Higgs boson at the LHC, where the dominant production mechanism is by gluon-gluon fusion.

  10. Terminological dictionary of electrical power industry in range of generation, transmission and distribution of electric energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biernacki, T.; Cegla, S.; Ciszewski, W.

    1990-08-01

    The dictionary contains about 5000 terms about conventional and nuclear power plants, energy sources, transmission lines, automation, power systems, environment protection, statistics etc. Each term is given with definition and its equivalents in English, French, German and Russian. Indexes of Polish, English, French, German and Russian terms are provided at the back of dictionary. (A.S.)

  11. Can generalized distribution factors lead to ''objective'' transmission toll allocations? Some lessons from the recent Chilean experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galetovic, Alexander; Palma-Behnke, Rodrigo

    2008-01-01

    How to charge for transmission lines in a liberalized electricity market is still a conceptually unresolved issue and the literature offers many methods to determine who ''uses'' a given line and how to allocate tolls among users. But there seems to be some agreement that once a given method is chosen, calculating use and toll allocations is a mere technical matter. We suggest, by contrast that this belief is not warranted. We apply one power flow identification method - generalized load distribution factors - to allocate transmission tolls among the users of the Chilean transmission system and show that almost any allocation of tolls can be achieved by suitably choosing parameter values. Essentially, the method affords many degrees of freedom to the person responsible for setting the parameters needed to apply it. We argue that this suggests that setting parameter values is a central feature of transmission regulation. Moreover, our results suggest that an allocation method cannot answer the key unresolved question in the literature: what is the structure of tolls that gives economically adequate expansion incentives. (author)

  12. A Flexible Load Control Strategy for Distribution Network to Reduce the Line Losses and to Eliminate the Transmission Congestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beibei Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many uncertain factors in the modern distribution network, including the access of renewable energy sources and the heavy load level. The existence of these factors has brought challenges to the stability of the power distribution network, as well as increasing the risk of exceeding transmission capacity of distribution lines. The appearance of flexible load control technology provides a new idea to solve the above problems. Air conditioners (ACs account for a great proportion of all loads. In this paper, the model of dispatching AC loads in the regional power grid is constructed, and the direct load control (DLC method is adopted to reduce the load of ACs. An improved tabu search technique is proposed to solve the problem of network dispatch in distribution systems in order to reduce the resistive line losses and to eliminate the transmission congestion in lines under normal operating conditions. The optimal node solution is obtained to find the best location and reduction capacity of ACs for load control. To demonstrate the validity and effectiveness of the proposed method, a test system is studied. The numerical results are also given in this article, which reveal that the proposed method is promising.

  13. Sequestration, tissue distribution and developmental transmission of cyanogenic glucosides in a specialist insect herbivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagrobelny, Mika; Olsen, Carl Erik; Pentzold, Stefan; Fürstenberg-Hägg, Joel; Jørgensen, Kirsten; Bak, Søren; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Motawia, Mohammed Saddik

    2014-01-01

    Considering the staggering diversity of bioactive natural products present in plants, insects are only able to sequester a small number of phytochemicals from their food plants. The mechanisms of how only some phytochemicals are sequestered and how the sequestration process takes place remains largely unknown. In this study the model system of Zygaena filipendulae (Lepidoptera) and their food plant Lotus corniculatus is used to advance the knowledge of insect sequestration. Z. filipendulae larvae are dependent on sequestration of the cyanogenic glucosides linamarin and lotaustralin from their food plant, and have a much lower fitness if reared on plants without these compounds. This study investigates the fate of the cyanogenic glucosides during ingestion, sequestration in the larvae, and in the course of insect ontogeny. To this purpose, double-labeled linamarin and lotaustralin were chemically synthesized carrying two stable isotopes, a (2)H labeled aglucone and a (13)C labeled glucose moiety. In addition, a small amount of (14)C was incorporated into the glucose residue. The isotope-labeled compounds were applied onto cyanogenic L. corniculatus leaves that were subsequently presented to the Z. filipendulae larvae. Following ingestion by the larvae, the destiny of the isotope labeled cyanogenic glucosides was monitored in different tissues of larvae and adults at selected time points, using radio-TLC and LC-MS analyses. It was shown that sequestered compounds are taken up intact, contrary to earlier hypotheses where it was suggested that the compounds would have to be hydrolyzed before transport across the gut. The uptake from the larval gut was highly stereo selective as the β-glucosides were retained while the α-glucosides were excreted and recovered in the frass. Sequestered compounds were rapidly distributed into all analyzed tissues of the larval body, partly retained throughout metamorphosis and transferred into the adult insect where they were

  14. DISTRIBUTED ELECTRICAL POWER PRODUCTION SYSTEM AND METHOD OF CONTROL THEREOF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to a distributed electrical power production system wherein two or more electrical power units comprise respective sets of power supply attributes. Each set of power supply attributes is associated with a dynamic operating state of a particular electrical power unit....

  15. Health workforce in India: assessment of availability, production and distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, Indrajit

    2013-01-01

    India faces an acute shortage of health personnel. Together with inequalities in distribution of health workers, this shortfall impedes progress towards achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. The aim of this study was to assess health-workforce distribution, identify inequalities in health-worker provision and estimate the impact of this maldistribution on key health outcomes in India. Health-workforce availability and production were assessed by use of year-end data for 2009 obtained from the Indian Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation. Inequalities in the distribution of doctors, dentists, nurses and midwives were estimated by use of the Gini coefficient and the relation between health-worker density and selected health outcomes was assessed by linear regression. Inequalities in the availability of health workers exist in India. Certain states are experiencing an acute shortage of health personnel. Inequalities in the distribution of health workers are highest for doctors and dentists and have a significant effect on health outcomes. Although the production of health workers has expanded greatly in recent years, the problems of imbalances in their distribution persist. As India seeks to achieve universal health coverage by 2020, the realization of this goal remains challenged by the current lack of availability and inequitable distribution of appropriately trained, motivated and supported health workers.

  16. Pair distribution functions of amorphous organic thin films from synchrotron X-ray scattering in transmission mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenyang Shi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Using high-brilliance high-energy synchrotron X-ray radiation, for the first time the total scattering of a thin organic glass film deposited on a strongly scattering inorganic substrate has been measured in transmission mode. The organic thin film was composed of the weakly scattering pharmaceutical substance indomethacin in the amorphous state. The film was 130 µm thick atop a borosilicate glass substrate of equal thickness. The atomic pair distribution function derived from the thin-film measurement is in excellent agreement with that from bulk measurements. This ability to measure the total scattering of amorphous organic thin films in transmission will enable accurate in situ structural studies for a wide range of materials.

  17. Link adaptation algorithm for distributed coded transmissions in cooperative OFDMA systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varga, Mihaly; Badiu, Mihai Alin; Bota, Vasile

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a link adaptation algorithm for cooperative transmissions in the down-link connection of an OFDMA-based wireless system. The algorithm aims at maximizing the spectral efficiency of a relay-aided communication link, while satisfying the block error rate constraints at both...... adaptation algorithm has linear complexity with the number of available resource blocks, while still provides a very good performance, as shown by simulation results....

  18. Differential distributions for heavy flavour production at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Frixione, Stefano; Ridolfi, G C

    1995-01-01

    We compute pseudorapidity and transverse momentum distributions for charm and bottom production at HERA. We examine the effect of next-to-leading order QCD corrections, the effect of possible intrinsic transverse momenta of the incoming partons, and of fragmentation. We compare our results with full Monte Carlo simulation using HERWIG. The importance of the hadronic component of the photon is also studied. We examine the possibility to distinguish among different parametrizations of the photon parton densities using charm production data, and the possibilty to extract information about the small-x behaviour of the gluon density of the proton. We also give a prediction for the transverse momentum and pseudorapidity distributions for bottom production at HERA.

  19. Differential distributions for heavy flavour production at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frixione, S.; Ridolfi, G.

    1995-01-01

    We compute pseudorapidity and transverse momentum distributions for charm and bottom production at HERA. We examine the effect of next-to-leading order QCD corrections, the effect of possible intrinsic transverse momenta of the incoming partons, and of fragmentation. We compare our results with those of a full Monte Carlo simulation using HERWIG. The importance of the hadronic component of the photon is also studied. We examine the possibility of distinguishing between different parametrizations of the photon parton densities using charm production data, and the possibility of extracting information about the small-x behaviour of the gluon density of the proton. We also give a prediction for the transverse momentum and pseudorapidity distributions for bottom production at HERA. (orig.)

  20. Reduced ultraviolet light transmission increases insecticide longevity in protected culture raspberry production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Heather; Wise, John C; Isaacs, Rufus

    2017-12-01

    High tunnels are large protective structures used for season extension of many crops, including raspberries. These structures are often covered in plastic films to reduce and diffuse ultraviolet light transmission for pest and disease control, but this may also affect the photodegradation and efficacy of pesticides applied under these tunnels. We compared the residue levels of ten insecticides under three tunnel plastics with varying levels of UV transmission and open field conditions. Raspberry plants placed in research-scale tunnels were treated with insecticides and residues on fruit and foliage were monitored for one or two weeks in early 2015 and early and late 2016. Plastics that reduce UV transmission resulted in 50% greater residues of some insecticides compared to transparent plastics, and 60% compared to uncovered tunnels. This increased persistence of residues was evident within 1 day and remained consistently higher for up to 14 days. This pattern was demonstrated for multiple insecticides, including bifenthrin, esfenvalerate, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, and spinosad. In contrast, the insecticide malathion degraded rapidly regardless of the plastic treatment, indicating less sensitivity to photodegradation. Bioassays using insecticide-treated leaves that were under UV-blocking plastic revealed higher mortality of the invasive fruit pest, Drosophila suzukii, compared to leaves that were uncovered. This indicates that the activity of pesticides under high tunnels covered in UV-reducing plastics may be prolonged, allowing for fewer insecticide applications and longer intervals between sprays. This information can be used to help optimize pest control in protected culture berry production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Flow distribution in the accelerator-production-of-tritium target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siebe, D.A.; Spatz, T.L.; Pasamehmetoglu, K.O.; Sherman, M.P.

    1999-01-01

    Achieving nearly uniform flow distributions in the accelerator production of tritium (APT) target structures is an important design objective. Manifold effects tend to cause a nonuniform distribution in flow systems of this type, although nearly even distribution can be achieved. A program of hydraulic experiments is underway to provide a database for validation of calculational methodologies that may be used for analyzing this problem and to evaluate the approach with the most promise for achieving a nearly even flow distribution. Data from the initial three tests are compared to predictions made using four calculational methods. The data show that optimizing the ratio of the supply-to-return-manifold areas can produce an almost even flow distribution in the APT ladder assemblies. The calculations compare well with the data for ratios of the supply-to-return-manifold areas spanning the optimum value. Thus, the results to date show that a nearly uniform flow distribution can be achieved by carefully sizing the supply and return manifolds and that the calculational methods available are adequate for predicting the distributions through a range of conditions

  2. Correlated Sources in Distributed Networks--Data Transmission, Common Information Characterization and Inferencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Correlation is often present among observations in a distributed system. This thesis deals with various design issues when correlated data are observed at distributed terminals, including: communicating correlated sources over interference channels, characterizing the common information among dependent random variables, and testing the presence of…

  3. Mnemonic transmission, social contagion, and emergence of collective memory: Influence of emotional valence, group structure, and information distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hae-Yoon; Kensinger, Elizabeth A; Rajaram, Suparna

    2017-09-01

    Social transmission of memory and its consequence on collective memory have generated enduring interdisciplinary interest because of their widespread significance in interpersonal, sociocultural, and political arenas. We tested the influence of 3 key factors-emotional salience of information, group structure, and information distribution-on mnemonic transmission, social contagion, and collective memory. Participants individually studied emotionally salient (negative or positive) and nonemotional (neutral) picture-word pairs that were completely shared, partially shared, or unshared within participant triads, and then completed 3 consecutive recalls in 1 of 3 conditions: individual-individual-individual (control), collaborative-collaborative (identical group; insular structure)-individual, and collaborative-collaborative (reconfigured group; diverse structure)-individual. Collaboration enhanced negative memories especially in insular group structure and especially for shared information, and promoted collective forgetting of positive memories. Diverse group structure reduced this negativity effect. Unequally distributed information led to social contagion that creates false memories; diverse structure propagated a greater variety of false memories whereas insular structure promoted confidence in false recognition and false collective memory. A simultaneous assessment of network structure, information distribution, and emotional valence breaks new ground to specify how network structure shapes the spread of negative memories and false memories, and the emergence of collective memory. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Large-scale distribution of tritium in a commercial product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combs, F.; Doda, R.J.

    1979-01-01

    Tritium enters the environment from various sources including nuclear reactor operations, weapons testing, natural production, and from the manufacture, use and ultimate disposal of commercial products containing tritium. A recent commercial application of tritium in the United States of America involves the backlighting of liquid crystal displays (LCD) in digital electronic watches. These watches are distributed through normal commercial channels to the general public. One million curies (MCi) of tritium were distributed in 1977 in this product. This is a significant quantity of tritium compared with power reactor-produced tritium (3MCi yearly) or with naturally produced tritium (6MCi yearly). This is the single largest commercial application involving tritium to date. The final disposition of tritium from large quantities of this product, after its useful life, must be estimated by considering the means of disposal and the possibility of dispersal of tritium concurrent with disposal. The most likely method of final disposition of this product will be disposal in solid refuse; this includes burial in land fills and incineration. Burial in land fills will probably contain the tritium for its effective lifetime, whereas incineration will release all the tritium gas (as the oxide) to the atmosphere. The use and disposal of this product will be studied as part of an environmental study that is at present being prepared for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. (author)

  5. Network connection of distributed electricity production - a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pleym, Anngjerd; Mogstad, Olve

    2002-01-01

    It will be necessary to lower the barriers for utilisation of distributed energy sources in order to increase the use of such sources in Norway. A relatively extensive R and D activity would be required for reaching this goal. Available Norwegian and international guidelines and technical requirements with respect to network connection of the distributed energy sources are studied with the aim of exposing needs for further R and D initiatives. A limited monitor is also carried out among the Norwegian network businesses with distributed units in their networks. The results show that the main focus in the R and D activities has drifted away from establishing guidelines for technical requirements for network coupling. Some verification work remains in investigating the usefulness of the existing international and the specific commercial network guidelines. For the network industry the main focus must be on the two following areas: 1) How will large concentrations of distributed production units connected to the same network influence the voltage quality and the delivery reliability in the networks. 2) How can the network businesses employ the distributed production units in their networks. A Nordic project (Finland, Sweden, Norway) which will study these problems is being established. Large national scientific institutions will be involved. The executive committee will consist of representatives from Finenergy, Elforsk and EBL Kompetanse and other financing institutions and industries. A Finnish business Merinova, is to be appointed to the project leadership

  6. Validity of the negative binomial distribution in particle production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cugnon, J.; Harouna, O.

    1987-01-01

    Some aspects of the clan picture for particle production in nuclear and in high-energy processes are examined. In particular, it is shown that the requirement of having logarithmic distribution for the number of particles within a clan in order to generate a negative binomial should not be taken strictly. Large departures are allowed without distorting too much the negative binomial. The question of the undetected particles is also studied. It is shown that, under reasonable circumstances, the latter do not affect the negative binomial character of the multiplicity distribution

  7. Leishmaniasis transmission: distribution and coarse-resolution ecology of two vectors and two parasites in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah M. Samy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In past decades, leishmaniasis burden has been low across Egypt; however, changing environment and land use has placed several parts of the country at risk. As a consequence, leishmaniasis has become a particularly difficult health problem, both for local inhabitants and for multinational military personnel. Methods: To evaluate coarse-resolution aspects of the ecology of leishmaniasis transmission, collection records for sandflies and Leishmania species were obtained from diverse sources. To characterize environmental variation across the country, we used multitemporal Land Surface Temperature (LST and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS for 2005-2011. Ecological niche models were generated using MaxEnt, and results were analyzed using background similarity tests to assess whether associations among vectors and parasites (i.e., niche similarity can be detected across broad geographic regions. Results: We found niche similarity only between one vector species and its corresponding parasite species (i.e., Phlebotomus papatasi with Leishmania major, suggesting that geographic ranges of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis and its potential vector may overlap, but under distinct environmental associations. Other associations (e.g., P. sergenti with L. major were not supported. Mapping suitable areas for each species suggested that northeastern Egypt is particularly at risk because both parasites have potential to circulate. Conclusions: Ecological niche modeling approaches can be used as a first-pass assessment of vector-parasite interactions, offering useful insights into constraints on the geography of transmission patterns of leishmaniasis.

  8. Regulatory Impacts on Distributed Generation and Upstream Transmission Substation Expansion Planning: A Novel Stochastic Bi-level Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Misaghi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel framework is proposed to study impacts of regulatory incentive on distributed generation (DG investment in sub-transmission substations, as well as upgrading of upstream transmission substations. Both conventional and wind power technologies are considered here. Investment incentives are fuel cost, firm contracts, capacity payment and investment subsidy relating to wind power. The problem is modelled as a bi-level stochastic optimization problem, where the upper level consists of investor's decisions maximizing its own profit. Both market clearing and decision on upgrading of transmission substation aiming at minimizing the total cost are considered in the lower level. Due to non-convexity of the lower level and impossibility of converting to single level problem (i.e. mathematical programming with equilibrium constraints (MPEC, an algorithm combing enumeration and mathematical optimization is used to tackle with the non-convexity. For each upgrading strategy of substations, a stochastic MPEC, converted to a mixed integer linear programming (MILP is solved. The proposed model is examined on a six-bus and an actual network. Numerical studies confirm that the proposed model can be used for analysing investment behaviour of DGs and substation expansion.

  9. DIRAC - The Distributed MC Production and Analysis for LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Tsaregorodtsev, A

    2004-01-01

    DIRAC is the LHCb distributed computing grid infrastructure for MC production and analysis. Its architecture is based on a set of distributed collaborating services. The service decomposition broadly follows the ARDA project proposal, allowing for the possibility of interchanging the EGEE/ARDA and DIRAC components in the future. Some components developed outside the DIRAC project are already in use as services, for example the File Catalog developed by the AliEn project. An overview of the DIRAC architecture will be given, in particular the recent developments to support user analysis. The main design choices will be presented. One of the main design goals of DIRAC is the simplicity of installation, configuring and operation of various services. This allows all the DIRAC resources to be easily managed by a single Production Manager. The modular design of the DIRAC components allows its functionality to be easily extended to include new computing and storage elements or to handle new tasks. The DIRAC system al...

  10. Electricité, de la production à la distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Pierlot, J

    2002-01-01

    La production, le transport et la distribution de l'énergie électrique étant devenus très abstraits et réservés aux initiés, cet article est destiné à donner une approche simpliste et une vision générale des réseaux, compréhensible de tous. Depuis la centrale de production d'électricité, au travers des lignes de transfert haute-tension, l'abaissement par transformateur et la distribution, une explication simple et schématisée permettra de comprendre de manière générale le fonctionnement de ces installations trop souvent considérées comme occultes.

  11. Production, depreciation and the size distribution of firms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qi; Chen, Yongwang; Tong, Hui; Di, Zengru

    2008-05-01

    Many empirical researches indicate that firm size distributions in different industries or countries exhibit some similar characters. Among them the fact that many firm size distributions obey power-law especially for the upper end has been mostly discussed. Here we present an agent-based model to describe the evolution of manufacturing firms. Some basic economic behaviors are taken into account, which are production with decreasing marginal returns, preferential allocation of investments, and stochastic depreciation. The model gives a steady size distribution of firms which obey power-law. The effect of parameters on the power exponent is analyzed. The theoretical results are given based on both the Fokker-Planck equation and the Kesten process. They are well consistent with the numerical results.

  12. Optimization of neutron flux distribution in Isotope Production Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valladares, G.L.

    1988-01-01

    In order to optimize the thermal neutrons flux distribution in a Radioisotope Production and Research Reactor, the influence of two reactor parameters was studied, namely the Vmod / Vcomb ratio and the core volume. The reactor core is built with uranium oxide pellets (UO 2 ) mounted in rod clusters, with an enrichment level of ∼3 %, similar to LIGHT WATER POWER REATOR (LWR) fuel elements. (author) [pt

  13. Analysis to Inform CA Grid Integration Rules for PV: Final Report on Inverter Settings for Transmission and Distribution System Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Jeff [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA (United States); Rylander, Matthew [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA (United States); Boemer, Jens [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA (United States); Broderick, Robert Joseph [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Reno, Matthew J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mather, Barry [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    The fourth solicitation of the California Solar Initiative (CSI) Research, Development, Demonstration and Deployment (RD&D) Program established by the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) supported the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) with data provided from Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E), Southern California Edison (SCE), and San Diego Gas and Electric (SDG&E) conducted research to determine optimal default settings for distributed energy resource advanced inverter controls. The inverter functions studied are aligned with those developed by the California Smart Inverter Working Group (SIWG) and those being considered by the IEEE 1547 Working Group. The advanced inverter controls examined to improve the distribution system response included power factor, volt-var, and volt-watt. The advanced inverter controls examined to improve the transmission system response included frequency and voltage ride-through as well as Dynamic Voltage Support. This CSI RD&D project accomplished the task of developing methods to derive distribution focused advanced inverter control settings, selecting a diverse set of feeders to evaluate the methods through detailed analysis, and evaluating the effectiveness of each method developed. Inverter settings focused on the transmission system performance were also evaluated and verified. Based on the findings of this work, the suggested advanced inverter settings and methods to determine settings can be used to improve the accommodation of distributed energy resources (PV specifically). The voltage impact from PV can be mitigated using power factor, volt-var, or volt-watt control, while the bulk system impact can be improved with frequency/voltage ride-through.

  14. Consequences of the expanding global distribution of Aedes albopictus for dengue virus transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Lambrechts

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The dramatic global expansion of Aedes albopictus in the last three decades has increased public health concern because it is a potential vector of numerous arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses, including the most prevalent arboviral pathogen of humans, dengue virus (DENV. Ae. aegypti is considered the primary DENV vector and has repeatedly been incriminated as a driving force in dengue's worldwide emergence. What remains unresolved is the extent to which Ae. albopictus contributes to DENV transmission and whether an improved understanding of its vector status would enhance dengue surveillance and prevention. To assess the relative public health importance of Ae. albopictus for dengue, we carried out two complementary analyses. We reviewed its role in past dengue epidemics and compared its DENV vector competence with that of Ae. aegypti. Observations from "natural experiments" indicate that, despite seemingly favorable conditions, places where Ae. albopictus predominates over Ae. aegypti have never experienced a typical explosive dengue epidemic with severe cases of the disease. Results from a meta-analysis of experimental laboratory studies reveal that although Ae. albopictus is overall more susceptible to DENV midgut infection, rates of virus dissemination from the midgut to other tissues are significantly lower in Ae. albopictus than in Ae. aegypti. For both indices of vector competence, a few generations of mosquito colonization appear to result in a relative increase of Ae. albopictus susceptibility, which may have been a confounding factor in the literature. Our results lead to the conclusion that Ae. albopictus plays a relatively minor role compared to Ae. aegypti in DENV transmission, at least in part due to differences in host preferences and reduced vector competence. Recent examples of rapid arboviral adaptation to alternative mosquito vectors, however, call for cautious extrapolation of our conclusion. Vector status is a dynamic

  15. Interruption of infection transmission in the onchocerciasis focus of Ecuador leading to the cessation of ivermectin distribution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Lovato

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: A clinically significant endemic focus of onchocerciasis existing in Esmeraldas Province, coastal Ecuador has been under an ivermectin mass drug administration program since 1991. The main transmitting vector in this area is the voracious blackfly, Simulium exiguum. This paper describes the assessments made that support the decision to cease mass treatment. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: Thirty-five rounds of ivermectin treatment occurred between 1991-2009 with 29 of these carrying >85% coverage. Following the guidelines set by WHO for ceasing ivermectin distribution the impact on parasite transmission was measured in the two vector species by an O-150 PCR technique standard for assessing for the presence of Onchocerca volvulus. Up to seven collection sites in three major river systems were tested on four occasions between 1995 and 2008. The infectivity rates of 65.0 (CI 39-101 and 72.7 (CI 42-116 in 1995 dropped to zero at all seven collection sites by 2008. Assessment for the presence of antibodies against O. volvulus was made in 2001, 2006, 2007 and 2008 using standard ELISA assays for detecting anti-Ov16 antibodies. None of total of 1810 children aged 1-15 years (between 82 and 98% of children present in the surveyed villages tested in the above years were found to be carrying antibodies to this antigen. These findings were the basis for the cessation of mass drug treatment with ivermectin in 2009. SIGNIFICANCE: This fulfillment of the criteria for cessation of mass distribution of ivermectin in the only known endemic zone of onchocerciasis in Ecuador moves the country into the surveillance phase of official verification for national elimination of transmission of infection. These findings indicate that ivermectin given twice a year with greater than 85% of the community can move a program to the final stages of verification of transmission interruption.

  16. Interruption of infection transmission in the onchocerciasis focus of Ecuador leading to the cessation of ivermectin distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovato, Raquel; Guevara, Angel; Guderian, Ronald; Proaño, Roberto; Unnasch, Thomas; Criollo, Hipatia; Hassan, Hassan K; Mackenzie, Charles D

    2014-05-01

    A clinically significant endemic focus of onchocerciasis existing in Esmeraldas Province, coastal Ecuador has been under an ivermectin mass drug administration program since 1991. The main transmitting vector in this area is the voracious blackfly, Simulium exiguum. This paper describes the assessments made that support the decision to cease mass treatment. Thirty-five rounds of ivermectin treatment occurred between 1991-2009 with 29 of these carrying >85% coverage. Following the guidelines set by WHO for ceasing ivermectin distribution the impact on parasite transmission was measured in the two vector species by an O-150 PCR technique standard for assessing for the presence of Onchocerca volvulus. Up to seven collection sites in three major river systems were tested on four occasions between 1995 and 2008. The infectivity rates of 65.0 (CI 39-101) and 72.7 (CI 42-116) in 1995 dropped to zero at all seven collection sites by 2008. Assessment for the presence of antibodies against O. volvulus was made in 2001, 2006, 2007 and 2008 using standard ELISA assays for detecting anti-Ov16 antibodies. None of total of 1810 children aged 1-15 years (between 82 and 98% of children present in the surveyed villages) tested in the above years were found to be carrying antibodies to this antigen. These findings were the basis for the cessation of mass drug treatment with ivermectin in 2009. This fulfillment of the criteria for cessation of mass distribution of ivermectin in the only known endemic zone of onchocerciasis in Ecuador moves the country into the surveillance phase of official verification for national elimination of transmission of infection. These findings indicate that ivermectin given twice a year with greater than 85% of the community can move a program to the final stages of verification of transmission interruption.

  17. Interruption of Infection Transmission in the Onchocerciasis Focus of Ecuador Leading to the Cessation of Ivermectin Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovato, Raquel; Guevara, Angel; Guderian, Ronald; Proaño, Roberto; Unnasch, Thomas; Criollo, Hipatia; Hassan, Hassan K.; Mackenzie, Charles D.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: A clinically significant endemic focus of onchocerciasis existing in Esmeraldas Province, coastal Ecuador has been under an ivermectin mass drug administration program since 1991. The main transmitting vector in this area is the voracious blackfly, Simulium exiguum. This paper describes the assessments made that support the decision to cease mass treatment. Methodology and Principle Findings: Thirty-five rounds of ivermectin treatment occurred between 1991–2009 with 29 of these carrying >85% coverage. Following the guidelines set by WHO for ceasing ivermectin distribution the impact on parasite transmission was measured in the two vector species by an O-150 PCR technique standard for assessing for the presence of Onchocerca volvulus. Up to seven collection sites in three major river systems were tested on four occasions between 1995 and 2008. The infectivity rates of 65.0 (CI 39–101) and 72.7 (CI 42–116) in 1995 dropped to zero at all seven collection sites by 2008. Assessment for the presence of antibodies against O. volvulus was made in 2001, 2006, 2007 and 2008 using standard ELISA assays for detecting anti-Ov16 antibodies. None of total of 1810 children aged 1–15 years (between 82 and 98% of children present in the surveyed villages) tested in the above years were found to be carrying antibodies to this antigen. These findings were the basis for the cessation of mass drug treatment with ivermectin in 2009. Significance: This fulfillment of the criteria for cessation of mass distribution of ivermectin in the only known endemic zone of onchocerciasis in Ecuador moves the country into the surveillance phase of official verification for national elimination of transmission of infection. These findings indicate that ivermectin given twice a year with greater than 85% of the community can move a program to the final stages of verification of transmission interruption. PMID:24853587

  18. Energy and angular distribution of electrons after transmission of thick layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreyling, H.

    1975-01-01

    In this work, the behaviour of electrons going through material-layers is studied. For a layer-thickness where the theories of multiple-scattering are no longer valid, a Monte-Carlo-method is presented for the calculation of energy distributions as a function of scattering-angle. Plastic-scintillator-material (NE 102 A produced by Nuclear Enterprises Ltd.) was bombarded by electrons with energies between 0.5 and 2.0 MeV and the energy-distributions of the electrons, scatterd in the layer, were measured as a function of the scattering-angle. With the aid of the Monte-Carlo-method developed in this paper, energy distributions were calculated as a function of scattering-angle for the two absorber materials aluminium (single-element material) and NE 102 A (chemical compound of C, N, H, O). (orig./WL) [de

  19. Petroleum product scarcity: a review of the supply and distribution of petroleum products in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akpoghomeh, Osi S.; Badejo, Dele

    2006-01-01

    Nigeria ranks high among the comity of oil producers both at the world level and among the OPEC eleven. It is, therefore, paradoxical that the supply of all petroleum products is erratic and has declined sharply in the recent past. This paper thus reviews the petroleum product supply and distribution systems in the country to ascertain the extent to which the system may have contributed to the present product scarcity in Nigeria and, by extension, identify the causes of the present regime of petroleum product scarcity. The paper observes that the network density and connectivity of petroleum product distribution pipelines are low and both indicators consequently show the inadequacy/deficiency of the network in ensuring an efficient distribution system. The supply mode, on the other hand, has, over the years, demonstrated its inability to guarantee adequate supply due to factors including sabotage, vandalism, banditry and poorly maintained infrastructure. Further, the federal government and the major and independent marketers could not sustain the importation of petroleum products because of the shortfall between the landed cost of imported products and their selling prices in Nigeria, which made the business unprofitable. Finally, the paper examines the withdrawal by the federal government of subsidies on the price of petroleum products consumed locally. All the above factors together occasioned increases in the cost of products. In conclusion, this paper supports the call for the privatization of refineries and the depot/pipeline system as a viable option to end the supply problems. (Author)

  20. Power Electronics for Distributed Energy Systems and Transmission and Distribution Applications: Assessing the Technical Needs for Utility Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolbert, L.M.

    2005-12-21

    Power electronics can provide utilities the ability to more effectively deliver power to their customers while providing increased reliability to the bulk power system. In general, power electronics is the process of using semiconductor switching devices to control and convert electrical power flow from one form to another to meet a specific need. These conversion techniques have revolutionized modern life by streamlining manufacturing processes, increasing product efficiencies, and increasing the quality of life by enhancing many modern conveniences such as computers, and they can help to improve the delivery of reliable power from utilities. This report summarizes the technical challenges associated with utilizing power electronics devices across the entire spectrum from applications to manufacturing and materials development, and it provides recommendations for research and development (R&D) needs for power electronics systems in which the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) could make a substantial impact toward improving the reliability of the bulk power system.

  1. Minutes of the Meeting - Pennsylvania Electric Association, Engineering Section, Transmission and Distribution Committee, Spring, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    Proceedings includes 8 papers dealing with underground and submarine crossings of electric power cables, underground fault locating equipment, lightning arresters, the current carrying capacity of conductors in distribution systems, emergency warning facilities in nuclear power plants, and the use of fiberglass/polyester materials in fiberglass poles

  2. Distributed Manufacturing of Flexible Products: Technical Feasibility and Economic Viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aubrey L. Woern

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Distributed manufacturing even at the household level is now well established with the combined use of open source designs and self-replicating rapid prototyper (RepRap 3-D printers. Previous work has shown substantial economic consumer benefits for producing their own polymer products. Now flexible filaments are available at roughly 3-times the cost of more conventional 3-D printing materials. To provide some insight into the potential for flexible filament to be both technically feasible and economically viable for distributed digital manufacturing at the consumer level this study investigates 20 common flexible household products. The 3-D printed products were quantified by print time, electrical energy use and filament consumption by mass to determine the cost to fabricate with a commercial RepRap 3-D printer. Printed parts were inspected and when necessary tested for their targeted application to ensure technical feasibility. Then, the experimentally measured cost to DIY manufacturers was compared to low and high market prices for comparable commercially available products. In addition, the mark-up and potential for long-term price declines was estimated for flexible filaments by converting thermoplastic elastomer (TPE pellets into filament and reground TPE from a local recycling center into filament using an open source recyclebot. This study found that commercial flexible filament is economically as well as technically feasible for providing a means of distributed home-scale manufacturing of flexible products. The results found a 75% savings when compared to the least expensive commercially equivalent products and 92% when compared to high market priced products. Roughly, 160 flexible objects must be substituted to recover the capital costs to print flexible materials. However, as previous work has shown the Lulzbot Mini 3-D printer used in this study would provide more than a 100% ROI printing one object a week from hard thermoplastics

  3. Natural radionuclide distribution in phosphate fertilizer and superphosphate production technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisachenko, Eh P; Ponikarova, T M; Lisitsyna, Yu Z

    1987-01-01

    The obtained data on the natural radionuclide distribution by phosphate fertilizer and superphosphate production process stages testify to phosphate fertilizer enrichment 2-4 times in relation to initial ore, depending in the raw material used. In this case uranium and thorium series element concentration value (in equilibrium with their decomposition products), proposed as a regulating one in phosphorus-containing fertilizers, is not achieved. However, the fact of lurichment as it is and the enrichment factor, stated in the course of the work, should be taken into account for evaluation of phosphorite new deposit raw material with higher concentrations of natural radionuclides. Natural radionuclide separation in the enrichment process and superphosphate production is not revealed.

  4. Precise estimation of HPHT nanodiamond size distribution based on transmission electron microscopy image analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řehoř, Ivan; Cígler, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 46, Jun (2014), s. 21-24 ISSN 0925-9635 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/12/0640; GA MŠk(CZ) LH11027 Grant - others:OPPK(CZ) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/24016 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : TEM * nanoparticles * nanodiamonds * size distribution * high-pressure high-temperature * image analysis Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.919, year: 2014

  5. Distributed decision-making in electric power system transmission maintenance scheduling using multi-agent systems (MAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhong

    In this work, motivated by the need to coordinate transmission maintenance scheduling among a multiplicity of self-interested entities in restructured power industry, a distributed decision support framework based on multiagent negotiation systems (MANS) is developed. An innovative risk-based transmission maintenance optimization procedure is introduced. Several models for linking condition monitoring information to the equipment's instantaneous failure probability are presented, which enable quantitative evaluation of the effectiveness of maintenance activities in terms of system cumulative risk reduction. Methodologies of statistical processing, equipment deterioration evaluation and time-dependent failure probability calculation are also described. A novel framework capable of facilitating distributed decision-making through multiagent negotiation is developed. A multiagent negotiation model is developed and illustrated that accounts for uncertainty and enables social rationality. Some issues of multiagent negotiation convergence and scalability are discussed. The relationships between agent-based negotiation and auction systems are also identified. A four-step MAS design methodology for constructing multiagent systems for power system applications is presented. A generic multiagent negotiation system, capable of inter-agent communication and distributed decision support through inter-agent negotiations, is implemented. A multiagent system framework for facilitating the automated integration of condition monitoring information and maintenance scheduling for power transformers is developed. Simulations of multiagent negotiation-based maintenance scheduling among several independent utilities are provided. It is shown to be a viable alternative solution paradigm to the traditional centralized optimization approach in today's deregulated environment. This multiagent system framework not only facilitates the decision-making among competing power system entities, but

  6. Electron cyclotron waves transmission: new approach for the characterization of electron distribution functions in Tokamak hot plasmas; La transmission d`ondes cyclotroniques electroniques: une approche nouvelle pour caracteriser les fonctions de distribution electronique des plasmas chauds de Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michelot, Y

    1995-10-01

    Fast electrons are one of the basic ingredients of plasma operations in many existing thermonuclear fusion research devices. However, the understanding of fast electrons dynamics during creation and sustainment of the superthermal electrons tail is far for being satisfactory. For this reason, the Electron Cyclotron Transmission (ECT) diagnostic was implemented on Tore Supra tokamak. It consists on a microwave transmission system installed on a vertical chord crossing the plasma center and working in the frequency range 77-109 GHz. Variations of the wave amplitude during the propagation across the plasma may be due to refraction and resonant absorption. For the ECT, the most common manifestation of refraction is a reduction of the received power density with respect to the signal detected in vacuum, due to the spreading and deflection of the wave beam. Wave absorption is observed in the vicinity of the electron cyclotron harmonics and may be due both to thermal plasma and to superthermal electron tails. It has a characteristic frequency dependence due to the relativistic mass variation in the wave-electron resonance condition. This thesis presents the first measurements of: the extraordinary mode optical depth at the third harmonics, the electron temperature from the width of a cyclotron absorption line and the relaxation times of the electron distribution during lower hybrid current drive from the ordinary mode spectral superthermal absorption line at the first harmonic. (J.S.). 175 refs., 110 figs., 9 tabs., 3 annexes.

  7. Productivity growth and price regulation of Slovenian water distribution utilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Zorić

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyse the price regulation method and performance of thewater industry in Slovenia. A stochastic cost frontier model is employed to estimate and decompose the total factor productivity (TFP growth of water distribution utilities in the 1997-2003 period. The main goal is to find out whether the lack of proper incentives to improve performance has resulted in the low TFP growth of Slovenian water distribution utilities. The evidence suggests that cost inefficiencies are present in water utilities, which indicates considerable cost saving potential in the analysed industry. Technical change is found to have positively affected the TFP growth over time, while cost inefficiency levels remained essentially unchanged. Overall, the average annual TFP growth in the analysed period is estimated to be only slightly above zero, which is a relatively poor result. This can largely be contributed to the present institutional and regulatory setting that does not stimulate utilities to improve productivity. Therefore, the introduction of an independent regulatory agency and an incentive-based price regulation scheme should be seriously considered in order to enhance the performance of Slovenian water distribution utilities.

  8. Sequestration, tissue distribution and developmental transmission of cyanogenic glucosides in a specialist insect herbivore

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zagrobelny, Mika; Olsen, Carl Erik; Pentzold, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Considering the staggering diversity of bioactive natural products present in plants, insects are only able to sequester a small number of phytochemicals from their food plants. The mechanisms of how only some phytochemicals are sequestered and how the sequestration process takes place remains la...

  9. Nuclear district heating. 1. Process heat reactors and transmission and distribution networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caizergues, R.

    1979-01-01

    Three kinds of production station are considered: joint electricity and heat-producing stations, heat-producing stations with CAS reactors and heat-producing stations with Thermos reactors. The thermal energy supply possibilities of these stations, the cost price of this energy and the cost price per therm produced by the district heating source and conveyed to the user are studied [fr

  10. Productivity growth and deregulation of Japanese electricity distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Mika; Sueyoshi, Toshiyuki

    2009-01-01

    Deregulation of Japanese electric power industry began in 1995. After the amendment of Electricity Utility Industry Law in 1995, competition was partially introduced in a generation sector and retail competition started from 2000. Eligibility to choose suppliers was gradually extended from larger to smaller customers. As of 2008, almost all customers except households can choose their electricity suppliers. Based upon both previous implementation result of competition policy and review on their achievement, Japanese government will begin new policy debate in 2013 to assess further retail competition which includes household customers. To prepare for policy suggestion on the future electric power industry, this study examines the cost structure of Japanese electricity distribution. For the purpose, we estimate a multi-product translog cost function of Japanese electricity distribution from 1983 to 2003. Using the estimated cost function, we calculate several economic measures such as productivity growth, technical change and economies of scale and scope. The empirical results of this study indicate the improvement in productivity growth after deregulation.

  11. Productivity, social expenditure and income distribution in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIO CIMOLI

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This paper discusses the role of institutions and structural change in shaping income inequality. It is argued that while social expenditure and direct redistribution are crucial for improving income distribution, sustainable equality requires structural change. The relative importance of these variables in different countries is analyzed and a typology suggested. It is argued that the most equal countries in the world combine strong institutions in favor of redistribution and knowledge-intensive production structures that sustain growth and employment in the long run. Both institutions and the production structure in Latin America fail to foster equality and this explains its extremely high levels of inequality. The paper presents empirical evidence that supports this view, based on a sample of developed and developing countries for the period 1990-2010. Institutions for redistribution are captured through social expenditures as a percentage of GDP, while the role of structural change is captured by indicators of the technological intensity of production and the evolution of labor productivity. The technological intensity of the production structure is proxied through two indicators, the Economic Complexity Index and the ECLAC Index of Technological Intensity.

  12. Fracture size and transmissivity correlations: Implications for transport simulations in sparse three-dimensional discrete fracture networks following a truncated power law distribution of fracture size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, J.; Aldrich, G. A.; Viswanathan, H. S.; Makedonska, N.; Karra, S.

    2016-12-01

    We characterize how different fracture size-transmissivity relationships influence flow and transport simulations through sparse three-dimensional discrete fracture networks. Although it is generally accepted that there is a positive correlation between a fracture's size and its transmissivity/aperture, the functional form of that relationship remains a matter of debate. Relationships that assume perfect correlation, semi-correlation, and non-correlation between the two have been proposed. To study the impact that adopting one of these relationships has on transport properties, we generate multiple sparse fracture networks composed of circular fractures whose radii follow a truncated power law distribution. The distribution of transmissivities are selected so that the mean transmissivity of the fracture networks are the same and the distributions of aperture and transmissivity in models that include a stochastic term are also the same.We observe that adopting a correlation between a fracture size and its transmissivity leads to earlier breakthrough times and higher effective permeability when compared to networks where no correlation is used. While fracture network geometry plays the principal role in determining where transport occurs within the network, the relationship between size and transmissivity controls the flow speed. These observations indicate DFN modelers should be aware that breakthrough times and effective permeabilities can be strongly influenced by such a relationship in addition to fracture and network statistics.

  13. Toward distributed relay selection for opportunistic amplify-and-forward transmission

    KAUST Repository

    Tourki, Kamel

    2011-05-01

    Opportunistic relaying in cooperative communication depends on careful relay selection. However the traditional centralized method used for opportunistic Amplify-and-Forward (OAF) protocols requires precise measurements of channel state information (CSI) at the destination (CSI-OAF). In this paper, we propose a distributed relay selection framework for opportunistic AF (D-OAF) cooperative communications and offer an accurate performance analysis based on exact statistics of the local signalto- noise ratios of the best relay. Furthermore, we validate our analysis by showing that performance simulation results coincide with our analytical results over different network architectures, and we compare our new results with their CSI-based counterparts. © 2011 IEEE.

  14. A model for fission product distribution in CANDU fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muzumdar, A.P.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes a model to estimate the distribution of active fission products among the UO 2 grains, grain-boundaries, and the free void spaces in CANDU fuel elements during normal operation. This distribution is required for the calculation of the potential release of activity from failed fuel sheaths during a loss-of-coolant accident. The activity residing in the free spaces (''free'' inventory) is available for release upon sheath rupture, whereas relatively high fuel temperatures and/or thermal shock are required to release the activity in the grain boundaries or grains. A preliminary comparison of the model with the data from in-reactor sweep-gas experiments performed in Canada yields generally good agreement, with overprediction rather than under prediction of radiologically important isotopes, such as I 131 . The model also appears to generally agree with the ''free'' inventory release calculated using ANS-5.4. (author)

  15. A review of electrical generation, transmission and distribution in the Northwest Territories: a design for tomorrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-12-06

    This report was commissioned by the Government of the Northwest Territories to determine whether current approaches to electrical system management in the NWT serve the public interest with respect to assuring security of supply, quality, reliability and cost of service, affordability of rates, responsiveness to client needs, adaptability to changing service conditions, and return on public investment. In assessing the ability of the current regime to serve the evolving needs of the people of the NWT, authors of the report also examined recent developments in other jurisdictions, significant issues affecting operation of the Northwest Territories Power Corporation (NTPC), the feasibility of privatization, alternative energy sources, the potential impact of the Mackenzie Valley gas pipeline and hydro resource development. Recommendations include (1) restructuring the NTPC, (2) giving the NTPC a distribution monopoly for all currently served locations, (3) requiring the purchase of alternative energy, (4) repealing the Public Utilities Act, (5) resolving stranded asset issues by amending the Cities, Towns and Villages Act, (6) establishing two rate zones (hydro and other) and the appropriate rates for each, (7) awarding natural gas distribution franchise rights to the NTPC for all NWT communities not currently serviced by others, (8) opening future and additional electric power generation to competition, provided that all technical requirements established by the operating utilities are met, and (9) ensuring that any and all debts associated with Nunavut be removed from NTPC books before the end of FY 2001. 19 refs., tabs., 5 appendices.

  16. Unitarity bounds on angular distribution in multiparticle production - II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Divakaran, P.P.; Kugler, M.; Soffer, J.

    1976-01-01

    Upper bounds which follow from unitarity are derived for the angular distribution of the detected particle C in the inclusive process AB→C+anything at a finite energy, in terms of the corresponding elastic amplitudes for a fixed value of the forward inelastic cross-section and for a fixed value of the total inelastic cross-section for the production of C. In comparison with the pp→p+anything data at 24GeV/c, some improvement on previous bounds is observed [fr

  17. Mechanism of J/PSI production: determining gluon distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandi, S.; Schneider, H.R.

    1978-01-01

    Assuming a generalised Drell-Yan type mechanism for hadronic PSI-production, the relative importance of the different possible contributions is estimated from the data. We find that about 80% of the pp → PSI X cross-section is due to gluons. Therefore, these data give some information on the gluon distribution G(x) in the proton. Assuming xG(x) approximately (1-x)sup(n), data restrict n to 4... 6, in agreement with dimensional counting rules. The energy dependence of sigma(anti p p → PSI X)/sigma(pp → PSIX) is predicted. (orig.) [de

  18. Analysis of the dopant distribution in Co-deposited organic thin films by scanning transmission electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paredes, Yolanda A.; Campos, Andrea P.C.; Achete, Carlos A.; Cremona, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Organic light-emitting diodes using phosphorescent dyes (PHOLEDs) have excellent performance, with internal quantum efficiencies approaching 100%. To maximize their performance, PHOLED devices use a conductive organic host material with a sufficiently dispersed phosphorescent guest to avoid concentration quenching. Fac-tris(2-phenylpyridine) iridium, [Ir(ppy)_3] is one of the most widely used green phosphorescent organic compounds. In this work, we used scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) equipped with HAADF (high-angle annular dark-field) and EDS (energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy) detectors to analyze the distribution of the [Ir(ppy)_3] concentration in the host material. This analysis technique, employed for the first time in co-deposited organic thin films, can simultaneously obtain an image and its respective chemical information, allowing for definitive characterization of the distribution and morphology of [Ir(ppy)_3]. The technique was also used to analyze the effect of the vibration of the substrate during thermal co-deposition of the [Ir(ppy)_3] molecules into an organic matrix. - Highlights: • We present a methodology to analyze the dopant distribution in organic thin films. • The method combines HAADF-STEM imaging and EDS X-ray spectroscopy. • Ir(ppy)_3 dopant was co-deposited into Spiro2-CBP organic matrix. • The dopant was co-deposited with and without substrate vibration. • Images and chemical information of the dopant were simultaneously obtained.

  19. Analysis of the dopant distribution in Co-deposited organic thin films by scanning transmission electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paredes, Yolanda A. [Center of Nanotechnology and Nanoscience, Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE, Sangolqui 171-5-31B (Ecuador); Campos, Andrea P.C.; Achete, Carlos A. [DIMAT—INMETRO, Xerém, Duque de Caxias, RJ 25250-020 (Brazil); Cremona, Marco [DIMAT—INMETRO, Xerém, Duque de Caxias, RJ 25250-020 (Brazil); Department of Physics, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro, PUC-Rio, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 22453-970 (Brazil)

    2015-12-01

    Organic light-emitting diodes using phosphorescent dyes (PHOLEDs) have excellent performance, with internal quantum efficiencies approaching 100%. To maximize their performance, PHOLED devices use a conductive organic host material with a sufficiently dispersed phosphorescent guest to avoid concentration quenching. Fac-tris(2-phenylpyridine) iridium, [Ir(ppy){sub 3}] is one of the most widely used green phosphorescent organic compounds. In this work, we used scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) equipped with HAADF (high-angle annular dark-field) and EDS (energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy) detectors to analyze the distribution of the [Ir(ppy){sub 3}] concentration in the host material. This analysis technique, employed for the first time in co-deposited organic thin films, can simultaneously obtain an image and its respective chemical information, allowing for definitive characterization of the distribution and morphology of [Ir(ppy){sub 3}]. The technique was also used to analyze the effect of the vibration of the substrate during thermal co-deposition of the [Ir(ppy){sub 3}] molecules into an organic matrix. - Highlights: • We present a methodology to analyze the dopant distribution in organic thin films. • The method combines HAADF-STEM imaging and EDS X-ray spectroscopy. • Ir(ppy){sub 3} dopant was co-deposited into Spiro2-CBP organic matrix. • The dopant was co-deposited with and without substrate vibration. • Images and chemical information of the dopant were simultaneously obtained.

  20. Electron cyclotron waves transmission: new approach for the characterization of electron distribution functions in Tokamak hot plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michelot, Y.

    1995-10-01

    Fast electrons are one of the basic ingredients of plasma operations in many existing thermonuclear fusion research devices. However, the understanding of fast electrons dynamics during creation and sustainment of the superthermal electrons tail is far for being satisfactory. For this reason, the Electron Cyclotron Transmission (ECT) diagnostic was implemented on Tore Supra tokamak. It consists on a microwave transmission system installed on a vertical chord crossing the plasma center and working in the frequency range 77-109 GHz. Variations of the wave amplitude during the propagation across the plasma may be due to refraction and resonant absorption. For the ECT, the most common manifestation of refraction is a reduction of the received power density with respect to the signal detected in vacuum, due to the spreading and deflection of the wave beam. Wave absorption is observed in the vicinity of the electron cyclotron harmonics and may be due both to thermal plasma and to superthermal electron tails. It has a characteristic frequency dependence due to the relativistic mass variation in the wave-electron resonance condition. This thesis presents the first measurements of: the extraordinary mode optical depth at the third harmonics, the electron temperature from the width of a cyclotron absorption line and the relaxation times of the electron distribution during lower hybrid current drive from the ordinary mode spectral superthermal absorption line at the first harmonic. (J.S.). 175 refs., 110 figs., 9 tabs., 3 annexes

  1. A Distributed Flow Rate Control Algorithm for Networked Agent System with Multiple Coding Rates to Optimize Multimedia Data Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Zeng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of wireless technologies, mobile communication applies more and more extensively in the various walks of life. The social network of both fixed and mobile users can be seen as networked agent system. At present, kinds of devices and access network technology are widely used. Different users in this networked agent system may need different coding rates multimedia data due to their heterogeneous demand. This paper proposes a distributed flow rate control algorithm to optimize multimedia data transmission of the networked agent system with the coexisting various coding rates. In this proposed algorithm, transmission path and upload bandwidth of different coding rate data between source node, fixed and mobile nodes are appropriately arranged and controlled. On the one hand, this algorithm can provide user nodes with differentiated coding rate data and corresponding flow rate. On the other hand, it makes the different coding rate data and user nodes networked, which realizes the sharing of upload bandwidth of user nodes which require different coding rate data. The study conducts mathematical modeling on the proposed algorithm and compares the system that adopts the proposed algorithm with the existing system based on the simulation experiment and mathematical analysis. The results show that the system that adopts the proposed algorithm achieves higher upload bandwidth utilization of user nodes and lower upload bandwidth consumption of source node.

  2. A vectorial capacity product to monitor changing malaria transmission potential in epidemic regions of Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccato, Pietro; Vancutsem, Christelle; Klaver, Robert; Rowland, James; Connor, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Rainfall and temperature are two of the major factors triggering malaria epidemics in warm semi-arid (desert-fringe) and high altitude (highland-fringe) epidemic risk areas. The ability of the mosquitoes to transmit Plasmodium spp. is dependent upon a series of biological features generally referred to as vectorial capacity. In this study, the vectorial capacity model (VCAP) was expanded to include the influence of rainfall and temperature variables on malaria transmission potential. Data from two remote sensing products were used to monitor rainfall and temperature and were integrated into the VCAP model. The expanded model was tested in Eritrea and Madagascar to check the viability of the approach. The analysis of VCAP in relation to rainfall, temperature and malaria incidence data in these regions shows that the expanded VCAP correctly tracks the risk of malaria both in regions where rainfall is the limiting factor and in regions where temperature is the limiting factor. The VCAP maps are currently offered as an experimental resource for testing within Malaria Early Warning applications in epidemic prone regions of sub-Saharan Africa. User feedback is currently being collected in preparation for further evaluation and refinement of the VCAP model.

  3. Using egg production data to quantify within-flock transmission of low pathogenic avian influenza virus in commercial layer chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzales, J.L.; Elbers, A.R.W.; Goot, van der J.A.; Bontje, D.M.; Koch, G.; Wit, de J.J.; Stegeman, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Even though low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIv) affect the poultry industry of several countries in the world, information about their transmission characteristics in poultry is sparse. Outbreak reports of LPAIv in layer chickens have described drops in egg production that appear to be

  4. Expansion of transmission networks considering incentives the addition of distributed generation; Expansao de redes de transmissao considerando incentivos a adicao de geracao distribuida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lotero, Roberto Cayetano; Rocha, Carlos Roberto Mendonca da [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Parana (Brazil)], emails: e-lotero@unioeste.br, rrocha41@hotmail.com

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents a model that allows to evaluate the impact of distributed generation (DG) in the expansion of high voltage transmission grid. By applying the model it is possible to determine the size and location of small range generation that can grow incrementally, avoiding or delaying large investments in transmission lines. Whereas the cost of distributed generation for the system is associated with the cost of the incentives offered for that installation, it is also possible to determine the maximum value of this incentive to stimulate the installation of some quantity of DG that postponing the expansion of the transmission grid. The results show the need to consider explicitly the introduction of DG in the expansion planning since the impact it can have on the formation of tariffs for using the transmission system is meaningful. (author)

  5. Calculation of the spallation product distribution in the evaporation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishida, T.; Kanno, I.; Nakahara, Y.; Takada, H.

    1989-01-01

    Some investigations are performed for the calculational model of nuclear spallation reaction in the evaporation process. A new version of a spallation reaction simulation code NUCLEUS has been developed by incorporating the newly revised Uno ampersand Yamada's mass formula and extending the counting region of produced nuclei. The differences between the new and original mass formulas are shown in the comparisons of mass excess values. The distributions of spallation products of a uranium target nucleus bombarded by energy (0.38 - 2.9 GeV) protons have been calculated with the new and original versions of NUCLEUS. In the fission component Uno ampersand Yamada's mass formula reproduces the measured data obtained from thin foil experiments significantly better, especially in the neutron excess side, than the combination of the Cameron's mass formula and the mass table compiled by Wapstra, et al., in the original version of NUCLEUS. Discussions are also made on how the mass-yield distribution of products varies dependent on the level density parameter a characterizing the particle evaporation. 16 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  6. Calculation of the spallation product distribution in the evaporation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishida, T.; Kanno, I.; Nakahara, Y.; Takada, H.

    1989-01-01

    Some investigations are performed for the calculational model of nuclear spallation reaction in the evaporation process. A new version of a spallation reaction simulation code NUCLEUS has been developed by incorporating the newly revised Uno and Yamada's mass formula and extending the counting region of produced nuclei. The differences between the new and original mass formulas are shown in the comparisons of mass excess values. The distributions of spallation products of a uranium target nucleus bombarded by energy (0.38 - 2.9 GeV) protons have been calculated with the new and original versions of NUCLEUS. In the fission component Uno and Yamada's mass formula reproduces the measured data obtained from thin foil experiments significantly better, especially in the neutron excess side, than the combination of the Cameron's mass formula and the mass table compiled by Wapstra, et al., in the original version of NUCLEUS. Discussions are also made on how the mass-yield distribution of products varies dependent on the level density parameter α characterizing the particle evaporation. (author)

  7. Fast pyrolysis product distribution of biopretreated corn stalk by methanogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tipeng; Ye, Xiaoning; Yin, Jun; Jin, Zaixing; Lu, Qiang; Zheng, Zongming; Dong, Changqing

    2014-10-01

    After pretreated by methanogen for 5, 15 and 25 days, corn stalk (CS) were pyrolyzed at 250, 300, 350, 400, 450 and 500 °C by Py-GC/MS and product distribution in bio-oil was analyzed. Results indicated that methanogen pretreatment changed considerably the product distribution: the contents of sugar and phenols increased; the contents of linear carbonyls and furans decreased; the contents of linear ketones and linear acids changed slightly. Methanogen pretreatment improved significantly the pyrolysis selectivity of CS to phenols especially 4-VP. At 250 °C, the phenols content increased from 42.25% for untreated CS to 79.32% for biopretreated CS for 5 days; the 4-VP content increased from 28.6% to 60.9%. Increasing temperature was contributed to convert more lignin into 4-VP, but decreased its content in bio-oil due to more other chemicals formed. The effects of biopretreatment time on the chemicals contents were insignificant. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Productivity and value added distribution in family-owned businesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Luis Gallizo Larraz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Identify similarities and/or differences in the distribution of Value Added characterizing family businesses as opposed to non-family held firms, and analyse productivity by linking the distribution of the wealth generated by the company to a variety of related agents or stakeholders (employees, providers of loan capital, and shareholders. Design/methodology: A data series consisting of VA distribution in a sample of 8,609 Spanish companies, of which 5,109 are family firms and another 3,500 companies which are not, for the period comprising 2008 to 2013 was employed for this study. The data from the financial statements pertaining to these companies was taken from the SABI system (a privately-funded database analysing the financials of Spanish and Portuguese firms, operated by INFORMA, SA, selecting only those companies that employ standardized financial reporting practices. Findings and results: The work shows the existence of significant differences between family and non-family businesses in the distribution of value added among the different stakeholders. Given that, although both types of company spend most of the value added to remunerate staff, the family company spends a higher proportion thereof on self-financing as compared to non-family businesses, which spend a higher percentage on the remuneration of firm ownership. On the other hand, the lower labour productivity of family businesses is apparent, a result that can be explained both by the lower staff monetary remuneration, as well as the use of production technologies that are also less capital-intensive. Limitations: The study included only medium and large companies. These are companies that report financial statements offering more disaggregated data (through use of the standard forms. This owes to the legal requirement of these companies to file a cash flow statement, a necessary source for deriving information on dividends paid by the company. Added value: This is

  9. Product Distribution Theory for Control of Multi-Agent Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chia Fan; Wolpert, David H.

    2004-01-01

    Product Distribution (PD) theory is a new framework for controlling Multi-Agent Systems (MAS's). First we review one motivation of PD theory, as the information-theoretic extension of conventional full-rationality game theory to the case of bounded rational agents. In this extension the equilibrium of the game is the optimizer of a Lagrangian of the (probability distribution of) the joint stare of the agents. Accordingly we can consider a team game in which the shared utility is a performance measure of the behavior of the MAS. For such a scenario the game is at equilibrium - the Lagrangian is optimized - when the joint distribution of the agents optimizes the system's expected performance. One common way to find that equilibrium is to have each agent run a reinforcement learning algorithm. Here we investigate the alternative of exploiting PD theory to run gradient descent on the Lagrangian. We present computer experiments validating some of the predictions of PD theory for how best to do that gradient descent. We also demonstrate how PD theory can improve performance even when we are not allowed to rerun the MAS from different initial conditions, a requirement implicit in some previous work.

  10. Provenance-aware optimization of workload for distributed data production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makatun, Dzmitry; Lauret, Jérôme; Rudová, Hana; Šumbera, Michal

    2017-10-01

    Distributed data processing in High Energy and Nuclear Physics (HENP) is a prominent example of big data analysis. Having petabytes of data being processed at tens of computational sites with thousands of CPUs, standard job scheduling approaches either do not address well the problem complexity or are dedicated to one specific aspect of the problem only (CPU, network or storage). Previously we have developed a new job scheduling approach dedicated to distributed data production - an essential part of data processing in HENP (preprocessing in big data terminology). In this contribution, we discuss the load balancing with multiple data sources and data replication, present recent improvements made to our planner and provide results of simulations which demonstrate the advantage against standard scheduling policies for the new use case. Multi-source or provenance is common in computing models of many applications whereas the data may be copied to several destinations. The initial input data set would hence be already partially replicated to multiple locations and the task of the scheduler is to maximize overall computational throughput considering possible data movements and CPU allocation. The studies have shown that our approach can provide a significant gain in overall computational performance in a wide scope of simulations considering realistic size of computational Grid and various input data distribution.

  11. PanDA: distributed production and distributed analysis system for ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeno, T

    2008-01-01

    A new distributed software system was developed in the fall of 2005 for the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. This system, called PANDA, provides an integrated service architecture with late binding of jobs, maximal automation through layered services, tight binding with ATLAS Distributed Data Management system [1], advanced error discovery and recovery procedures, and other features. In this talk, we will describe the PANDA software system. Special emphasis will be placed on the evolution of PANDA based on one and half year of real experience in carrying out Computer System Commissioning data production [2] for ATLAS. The architecture of PANDA is well suited for the computing needs of the ATLAS experiment, which is expected to be one of the first HEP experiments to operate at the petabyte scale

  12. Using ALFA for high throughput, distributed data transmission in the ALICE O2 system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegrzynek, A.; ALICE Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is a heavy-ion detector designed to study the physics of strongly interacting matter (the Quark-Gluon Plasma at the CERN LHC (Large Hadron Collider). ALICE has been successfully collecting physics data in Run 2 since spring 2015. In parallel, preparations for a major upgrade of the computing system, called O2 (Online-Offline), scheduled for the Long Shutdown 2 in 2019-2020, are being made. One of the major requirements of the system is the capacity to transport data between so-called FLPs (First Level Processors), equipped with readout cards, and the EPNs (Event Processing Node), performing data aggregation, frame building and partial reconstruction. It is foreseen to have 268 FLPs dispatching data to 1500 EPNs with an average output of 20 Gb/s each. In overall, the O2 processing system will operate at terabits per second of throughput while handling millions of concurrent connections. The ALFA framework will standardize and handle software related tasks such as readout, data transport, frame building, calibration, online reconstruction and more in the upgraded computing system. ALFA supports two data transport libraries: ZeroMQ and nanomsg. This paper discusses the efficiency of ALFA in terms of high throughput data transport. The tests were performed with multiple FLPs pushing data to multiple EPNs. The transfer was done using push-pull communication patterns and two socket configurations: bind, connect. The set of benchmarks was prepared to get the most performant results on each hardware setup. The paper presents the measurement process and final results - data throughput combined with computing resources usage as a function of block size. The high number of nodes and connections in the final set up may cause race conditions that can lead to uneven load balancing and poor scalability. The performed tests allow us to validate whether the traffic is distributed evenly over all receivers. It also measures the behaviour of

  13. Radiation research contracts: Distribution of fission products in the biosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenfeld, T.

    1959-01-01

    According to its Statute the IAEA has to fulfil a dual function - to help individual countries in solving their specific problems and to undertake tasks in the common interest of all its Member States. With this latter aim in mind the Agency has placed a number of research contracts with national research institutes. One of them deals with the distribution of fission products in the biosphere. The Agency has contributed to this work by putting at the institutes' disposal scientists from its own staff apparatus and financial aid. Protection against ionizing radiation given off in nuclear transformations is one of the foremost safety problems in all atomic energy operations. While every effort is being made to prevent reactors, processing plants and all other installations from releasing radioactive materials into the biosphere - air, water and earth - under any foreseeable conditions, small amounts of it are actually released into man's living space. Undoubtedly, this will continue to be so, at least for the time being. For example, low activity liquid wastes from some chemical processing plants are decontaminated in special processes, but traces of fission products remain in the liquids finally discharged on the ground or to nearby waterways. In some installations low and medium activity liquid wastes are even released on the ground or into swamps without prior decontamination. It is also to be expected that in accidents larger amounts of fission products may occasionally be released. (author)

  14. Alternating current loss calculation in a high-TC superconducting transmission cable considering the magnetic field distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noji, H; Haji, K; Hamada, T

    2003-01-01

    We have calculated the alternating current (ac) losses of a 114 MVA high-T C superconducting (HTS) transmission cable using an electric-circuit (EC) model. The HTS cable is fabricated by Tokyo Electric Power Company and Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. The EC model is comprised of a resistive part and an inductive part. The resistive part is obtained by the approximated Norris equation for a HTS tape. The Norris equation indicates hysteresis losses due to self-fields. The inductive part has two components, i.e. inductances related to axial fields and those related to circumferential fields. The layer currents and applied fields of each layer were calculated by the EC model. By using both values, the ac losses of the one-phase HTS cable were obtained by calculation considering the self-field, the axial field and the circumferential field of the HTS tape. The measured ac loss transporting 1 kA rms is 0.7 W m -1 ph -1 , which is equal to the calculation. The distribution of each layer loss resembles in shape the distribution of the circumferential field in each layer, which indicates that the circumferential fields strongly influence the ac losses of the HTS cable

  15. Determination of water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of HDPE bottles for pharmaceutical products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yisheng; Li, Yanxia

    2008-06-24

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of experimental conditions for measuring the water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) bottles using a steady-state sorption method. Bottles were filled with desiccant, closed with caps and heat induction sealed, and then stored in stability chambers at controlled temperature and relative humidity. Weight gain of the bottles was determined every 1 or 2 weeks until a linear weight gain profile was obtained. WVTR of the bottles was determined from the slope of the linear portion of the weight gain versus time profile. The effects of desiccants and temperature/humidity were studied. Results show that, with a sufficient amount of anhydrous calcium chloride in bottles, a negligibly low and sufficiently constant headspace humidity is maintained, and a steady-state permeation rate is achieved. For all 8 sizes of bottles used in this study, steady-state was achieved in 1 or 2 weeks after the experiment was started. This method provided reproducible WVTR data for HDPE bottles. Apparent moisture permeability of all 8 sizes of bottles was (2.3+/-0.3)x10(-7), (2.6+/-0.2)x10(-7), and (3.4+/-0.2)x10(-7)cm(2)/s at 25 degrees C, 30 degrees C, 40 degrees C, respectively. Moisture permeability determined from the current study was similar to data reported in the literature, indicating that the steady-state weight gain method can be used to obtain reliable WVTR of containers for pharmaceutical products.

  16. Production and distribution of livestock products in Aomori prefecture: Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyogi, Takashi; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi; Inaba, Jiro

    2000-01-01

    We have collected natural and sociological environmental data related to the estimation of radiation dose by radionuclides which will be released from nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Published data concerning production and distribution of livestock products in Aomori Prefecture were collected and compiled. We tried to estimate market dilution coefficient, which is the ratio of local products to total consumption by people in a target area, for the livestock products from the compiled data under some assumptions. Production weight per unit field area (production density) and consumption rates of grass and feed by the domestic animals were also estimated by using the collected data. Estimated means of the market dilution coefficients for livestock products and production density of grass were lower than those used in the environmental assessment for a reprocessing plant now under construction in Rokkasho Village. Consumption rates of grass and feed by milk cows and beef cattle were higher than those used in the assessment. Since we assumed that milk cows and beef cattle of Aomori Prefecture consume only grass and feed produced in Aomori Prefecture, the rates may be overestimated. Further study is required to clarify this point. We collected 52 reports in the literature related to transfer reduction of radionuclides to livestock products and decontamination of the radionuclides. (author)

  17. Development of malaria transmission-blocking vaccines: from concept to product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yimin; Sinden, Robert E; Churcher, Thomas S; Tsuboi, Takafumi; Yusibov, Vidadi

    2015-06-01

    Despite decades of effort battling against malaria, the disease is still a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Transmission-blocking vaccines (TBVs) that target sexual stage parasite development could be an integral part of measures for malaria elimination. In the 1950s, Huff et al. first demonstrated the induction of transmission-blocking immunity in chickens by repeated immunizations with Plasmodium gallinaceum-infected red blood cells. Since then, significant progress has been made in identification of parasite antigens responsible for transmission-blocking activity. Recombinant technologies accelerated evaluation of these antigens as vaccine candidates, and it is possible to induce effective transmission-blocking immunity in humans both by natural infection and now by immunization with recombinant vaccines. This chapter reviews the efforts to produce TBVs, summarizes the current status and advances and discusses the remaining challenges and approaches. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Prospective single and multi-phase short-circuit current levels in the Dutch transmission, sub-transmission and distribution grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, A.L.J.; van Riet, M.J.M.; Smeets, R.P.P.; Kanters, J.; van den Akker, W.F.; Aanhaanen, G.L.P.

    2012-01-01

    As elsewhere in the world, also in the Netherlands utilities face an increase in the actual and future short-circuit current levels at all voltages. This development is provoked by the required increase in transmission capacity as well as the concentration of power generation capacity. Large

  19. 78 FR 15009 - Consideration of Withdrawal From Commercial Production and Distribution of the Radioisotope...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Consideration of Withdrawal From Commercial Production and Distribution of... its consideration of DOE withdrawal from the commercial production and distribution of germanium-68... Statement of Policy, referenced above. In summary, DOE's evaluation will include consideration of: a...

  20. PKA distributions: Contributions from transmutation products and from radioactive decay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Gilbert

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The neutrons generated in fusion plasmas interact with materials via nuclear reactions. The resulting transmutations and atomic displacements have life-limiting consequences for fusion reactor components. A detailed understanding of the production, evolution and material consequences of the damage created by cascades of atomic displacements requires, as a vital primary input, a complete description of the energy-spectrum of initial (prompt atomic displacement events (the primary knock on atoms or PKAs produced by direct neutron nuclear interactions. There is also the possibility that the radionuclides produced under transmutation will create further PKAs as they decay, and so the rate of these must also be quantified. This paper presents the latest results from the analysis of PKA spectra under neutron irradiation, focussing particularly on the variation in PKA distributions due to changes in composition under transmutation, but also on the PKA contributions from radioactive decay of materials that become activated under irradiation.

  1. Cost minimisation of product transhipment for physical distribution management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obioma R. Nwaogbe

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the optimal allocation of shipments (least cost of two manufactured products between depots and places of consumption. In this study, the least-cost method was used in solving the transportation algorithm using Tora 2.0 version software. The study was necessary because of the high operating costs associated with physical distribution when deliveries are not properly planned and considered with reference to alternative strategies. In contrast, significant savings can be achieved by using techniques available for determining the cheapest methods of transporting goods from several origins to several destinations. Cost minimisation is a very useful approach to the solution of transportation problems.

  2. Distribution of sulphur into products from waste tire pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susa, D.; Haydary, J.; Markos, J.

    2012-01-01

    Tire pyrolysis is getting growing attention as an effective waste tire disposal method in comparison to environmentally less friendly methods like dumping or incineration. But the scrap tire sulphur content can be a potential obstacle to scrap tire utilization as a fuel. In this paper the distribution of sulphur into tire pyrolysis yields, solid (char) and liquid (tar), was investigated. The pyrolysis experiments were carried out under different conditions to determine the partitioning of sulphur into pyrolysis products. The influence of different temperatures and reaction times was investigated in a laboratory flow reactor under nitrogen atmosphere. Solid and liquid residues were collected and analyzed by elemental analysis. The sulphur content in residual char and tar was determined using an elemental analyzer and the sulphur forms in tar were characterized by the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). (Authors)

  3. Mass and Angular Distributions of Charged Dihadron Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummings, Mary Clare [Michigan U.

    1990-01-01

    Experiment 711, conducted at Fermilab. provided a unique handle towards understanding valence quark scattering by studying pairs of single. charged, high transverse momentum hadrons produced in collisions of 800 GeV /c protons on fixed metal targets. The apparatus consisted of a double-arm spectrometer. calorimetrically triggered. with high momentum resolution and a large angular acceptance for all charge states of particle pairs. The experiment was designed to select those hadron pairs that carrted most of the momentum and energy of the underlying scattered quarks and gluons. The charge of such "leading" hadrons is correlated with the charge of the quark that produced it. Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) assumes that the scattering behavior of quarks ts independent of their charge, or "flavour": Experiment 711 could test this assumption. Tilis dissertation descrtbes the analysis of the mass and angular distributions of hadron pair production for three separate charge states: +-, ++ and --. The angular distributions are found to deviate from theory predictions of flavour symmetry. Also. the mass cross sections indicate ratios of positive to negative hard-scattered particles that are larger than expected from theory. These results could warrant reconsideration of the assumptions and approximations currently made in leading-order QCD calculations.

  4. Integrated Production-Distribution Scheduling Problem with Multiple Independent Manufacturers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhong Hao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the nonstandard parts supply chain with a public service platform for machinery integration in China. The platform assigns orders placed by a machinery enterprise to multiple independent manufacturers who produce nonstandard parts and makes production schedule and batch delivery schedule for each manufacturer in a coordinate manner. Each manufacturer has only one plant with parallel machines and is located at a location far away from other manufacturers. Orders are first processed at the plants and then directly shipped from the plants to the enterprise in order to be finished before a given deadline. We study the above integrated production-distribution scheduling problem with multiple manufacturers to maximize a weight sum of the profit of each manufacturer under the constraints that all orders are finished before the deadline and the profit of each manufacturer is not negative. According to the optimal condition analysis, we formulate the problem as a mixed integer programming model and use CPLEX to solve it.

  5. Impact of Climate Change on Energy Production, Distribution, and Consumption in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimenko, V. V.; Klimenko, A. V.; Tereshin, A. G.; Fedotova, E. V.

    2018-05-01

    An assessment of the overall impact of the observed and expected climatic changes on energy production, distribution, and consumption in Russia is presented. Climate model results of various complexity and evaluation data on the vulnerability of various energy production sectors to climate change are presented. It is shown that, due to the increase of air temperature, the efficiency of electricity production at thermal and nuclear power plants declines. According to the climate model results, the production of electricity at TPPs and NPPs by 2050 could be reduced by 6 billion kW h due to the temperature increase. At the same time, as a result of simulation, the expected increase in the rainfall amount and river runoff in Russia by 2050 could lead to an increase in the output of HPP by 4-6% as compared with the current level, i.e., by 8 billion kW h. For energy transmission and distribution, the climate warming will mean an increase in transmission losses, which, according to estimates, may amount to approximately 1 billion kW h by 2050. The increase of air temperature in summer will require higher energy consumption for air conditioning, which will increase by approximately 6 billion kW h by 2050. However, in total, the optimal energy consumption in Russia, corresponding to the postindustrial level, will decrease by 2050 by approximately 150 billion kW h as a result of climate- induced changes. The maximum global warming impact is focused on the heat demand sector. As a result of a decrease in the heating degree-days by 2050, the need for space heating is expected to fall by 10-15%, which will cause a fuel conservation sufficient for generating approximately 140 billion kW h of electricity. Hence, a conclusion about the positive direct impact of climate change on the Russia's energy sector follows, which is constituted in the additional available energy resource of approximately 300 billion kW h per year.

  6. 3.125 Gb/s impulse radio ultra-wideband photonic generation and distribution Over a 50 km Fiber With Wireless Transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gibbon, Timothy Braidwood; Yu, Xianbin; Gamatham, Romeo

    2010-01-01

    A 3.125 Gb/s photonic impulse radio ultra-wideband signal is created using the incoherent optical field summation resulting from the cross gain modulation of an uncooled distributed feedback laser injected with an external cavity laser. After 50 km of fiber and wireless transmission over 2.9-3.3-m...

  7. Spatial variability in the density, distribution and vectorial capacity of anopheline species in a high transmission village (Equatorial Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buatiche Jesús N

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria transmission varies from one country to another and there are also local differences in time and space. An important variable when explaining the variability in transmission is the breeding behaviour of the different vector species and the availability of breeding sites. The aim of this study was to determine the geographical variability of certain entomological parameters: human biting rate (HBR, sporozoitic index (SI for Plasmodium falciparum and entomological inoculation rate (EIR. Methods The study was carried out in a small village in the mainland region of Equatorial Guinea. Adult mosquitoes were collected by CDC light traps. Polymerase Chain Reaction was employed to identify the species within the Anopheles gambiae complex and to detect P. falciparum sporozoites. The geographical position of all the dwellings in the village were taken using a global positioning system receiver unit. Data relating to the dwelling, occupants, use of bednets and the mosquitoes collection data were used to generate a geographical information system (GIS. This GIS allowed the minimum distance of the dwellings to the closest water point (potential breeding sites to be determined. Results A total of 1,173 anophelines were caught: 279 A. gambiae s.l. (217 A. gambiae s.s. and one Anopheles melas, 777 Anopheles moucheti and 117 Anopheles carnevalei. A. moucheti proved to be the main vector species and was responsible for 52.38 [95% IC: 33.7–71] night infective bites during this period. The highest SI was found in A. carnevalei (24%, even though the HBR was the lowest for this species. A significant association was found between the distance from the dwellings to the closest water point (River Ntem or secondary streams and the total HBR. Conclusion A clear association has been observed between the distance to potential breeding sites and the variability in the anopheline density, while the other parameters measured do not seem to

  8. Efficient distribution of toy products using ant colony optimization algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayat, S.; Nurpraja, C. A.

    2017-12-01

    CV Atham Toys (CVAT) produces wooden toys and furniture, comprises 13 small and medium industries. CVAT always attempt to deliver customer orders on time but delivery costs are high. This is because of inadequate infrastructure such that delivery routes are long, car maintenance costs are high, while fuel subsidy by the government is still temporary. This study seeks to minimize the cost of product distribution based on the shortest route using one of five Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) algorithms to solve the Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP). This study concludes that the best of the five is the Ant Colony System (ACS) algorithm. The best route in 1st week gave a total distance of 124.11 km at a cost of Rp 66,703.75. The 2nd week route gave a total distance of 132.27 km at a cost of Rp 71,095.13. The 3rd week best route gave a total distance of 122.70 km with a cost of Rp 65,951.25. While the 4th week gave a total distance of 132.27 km at a cost of Rp 74,083.63. Prior to this study there was no effort to calculate these figures.

  9. CLASSIFICATION, DISTRIBUTION AND PRODUCTION OF KNOWLEDGE: THEORETICAL SUMMARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Tchupin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to systemizing the main theoretical approaches to classification, distribution and production of knowledge in the global economy. The author focuses on F. Machlup’s knowledge classification and the concept of useful knowledge by J. Mokyr.The interpersonal and public channels of communication and acquisition of knowledge are observed taking into consideration the total changes caused by transition from industrial to postindustrial economy. The paper provides a comparative analysis of the given model and alternative concepts of knowledge generation: finalization of science, strategic research, post-normal science, academic capitalism, post-academic science, and the triple helix concept. The author maintains that the current concepts of knowledge generation reflect the fact of transformation of modern institutional technical environment due to the global technological changes, and increasing contribution of knowledge to the economic development. Accordingly, the roles of the main participants of the given process are changing along with the growing integration of education and science, state and businesses. 

  10. Efficient production of hot plasmas through multiple-wire implosion in transmission line generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloomberg, H.W.

    1980-01-01

    Model equations for the implosion of multiple-wire arrays mounted across the electrodes of a transmission line generator are used to obtain an expression for the energy-coupling efficiency. For a useful class of imploding loads, the efficiency is shown to depend on a single dimensionless parameter. Furthermore, the efficiency curve has a maximum, and this permits an explicit optimization of the wire load parameters in terms of the machine parameters

  11. Effect of the technology in transmission, distribution and in the final uses; Efecto de la tecnologia en transmision, distribucion y en los usos finales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivas, Elena [ed.; Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    At the moment one looks for the application of the superconductivity in the generation, transformation, transmission and storage of electrical energy. In this article recent technologies are briefly described , their advantages and their effects on the transmission and distribution networks. In some cases specific reference is made of the effect that they will have in Mexico. [Spanish] Actualmente se busca la aplicacion de la superconductividad en la generacion, transformacion, transmision y almacenamiento de energia eletrica. En este articulo se describen brevemente tecnologias recientes, sus ventajas y sus efectos sobre las redes de transmision y distribucion. En algunos casos se hace referencia especifica al efecto que tendran en Mexico.

  12. Exergy efficient production, storage and distribution of solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandnes, Bjoernar

    2003-07-01

    There are two main themes in this thesis. 1) Exergy efficient utilization of solar energy, where the introduction of alternative technologies such as photovoltaic/thermal collectors and phase change energy storage in a low temperature solar system is investigated. 2) The possibility of storing thermal energy in supercooled liquids is investigated. The introductory chapters introduce the concept of exergy, and focus on the use of solar heat as an inherently low quality source for covering low quality demands associated with space heating and hot water. The different stages of solar energy production, storage, and distribution of heat is discussed, with emphasis on exergy relevant issues. With the low temperature solar heating system as background, the introduction of some additional technologies that are investigated. A section of this thesis presents a study of a small scale PV/T collector as a possible component in a low temperature system. In another section the instrumentation that has been built for studies of full-size PV and thermal systems is described, and the possibility of using the PV unit outputs as parameters for controlling the thermal system operation is briefly discussed. It is suggested that the design of the PV/T unit in terms of whether priority should be given to electricity or heat production should be based on how consumption of high quality auxiliary energy is minimized, and not on adding up the combined exergy which is being produced. Solar combisystems require larger heat storage capacities compared to the more common solar hot water systems. Increased volumetric heat storage capacity can be achieved by latent heat storage systems where thermal energy is stored as heat of fusion in phase change materials (PCMs). A section presents a study where spherically encapsulated PCM is incorporated in a solar heat store. Solar combisystems are often complex, and have a relatively large number of interacting components. Another section describes a

  13. Production, Distribution, and Applications of Californium-252 Neutron Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balo, P.A.; Knauer, J.B.; Martin, R.C.

    1999-01-01

    The radioisotope 252 Cf is routinely encapsulated into compact, portable, intense neutron sources with a 2.6-year half-life. A source the size of a person's little finger can emit up to 10 11 neutrons/s. Californium-252 is used commercially as a reliable, cost-effective neutron source for prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) of coal, cement, and minerals, as well as for detection and identification of explosives, laud mines, and unexploded military ordnance. Other uses are neutron radiography, nuclear waste assays, reactor start-up sources, calibration standards, and cancer therapy. The inherent safety of source encapsulations is demonstrated by 30 years of experience and by U.S. Bureau of Mines tests of source survivability during explosions. The production and distribution center for the U. S Department of Energy (DOE) Californium Program is the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). DOE sells 252 Cf to commercial reencapsulators domestically and internationally. Sealed 252 Cf sources are also available for loan to agencies and subcontractors of the U.S. government and to universities for educational, research, and medical applications. The REDC has established the Californium User Facility (CUF) for Neutron Science to make its large inventory of 252 Cf sources available to researchers for irradiations inside uncontaminated hot cells. Experiments at the CUF include a land mine detection system, neutron damage testing of solid-state detectors, irradiation of human cancer cells for boron neutron capture therapy experiments, and irradiation of rice to induce genetic mutations

  14. Marketing channels and control the distribution of products in the meat industry.

    OpenAIRE

    Sidorchuk, Roman

    2010-01-01

    The article deals with the formation of distribution channels in the meat industry. Question of finding channels. Awareness of the problem-added customer value in the channel. The task of shaping the company's own distribution channel products. The procedure of forming a channel of distribution. The main problem in forming their own distribution channel. Prospects of development of different channels

  15. Questioning in Distributed Product Development Teams: Supporting Shared Understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cash, Philip; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2015-01-01

    globally distributed NPD activities. Poor shared understanding can ultimately result in delays and rework. One major antecedent of shared understanding development is question asking. This work uses a quasiexperimental study to test the impact of questioning support on different types of distributed teams...

  16. Risks of avian influenza transmission in areas of intensive free-ranging duck production with wild waterfowl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelle, Julien; Zhao, Delong; Gilbert, Marius; Newman, Scott H.; Takekawa, John Y.; Gaidet, Nicolas; Prosser, Diann J.; Liu, Ying; Li, Peng; Shu, Yuelong; Xiao, Xiangming

    2014-01-01

    For decades, southern China has been considered to be an important source for emerging influenza viruses since key hosts live together in high densities in areas with intensive agriculture. However, the underlying conditions of emergence and spread of avian influenza viruses (AIV) have not been studied in detail, particularly the complex spatiotemporal interplay of viral transmission between wild and domestic ducks, two major actors of AIV epidemiology. In this synthesis, we examine the risks of avian influenza spread in Poyang Lake, an area of intensive free-ranging duck production and large numbers of wild waterfowl. Our synthesis shows that farming of free-grazing domestic ducks is intensive in this area and synchronized with wild duck migration. The presence of juvenile domestic ducks in harvested paddy fields prior to the arrival and departure of migrant ducks in the same fields may amplify the risk of AIV circulation and facilitate the transmission between wild and domestic populations. We provide evidence associating wild ducks migration with the spread of H5N1 in the spring of 2008 from southern China to South Korea, Russia, and Japan, supported by documented wild duck movements and phylogenetic analyses of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 sequences. We suggest that prevention measures based on a modification of agricultural practices may be implemented in these areas to reduce the intensity of AIV transmission between wild and domestic ducks. This would require involving all local stakeholders to discuss feasible and acceptable solutions.

  17. Physical activity promotion through the mass media: inception, production, transmission and consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlay, Sara-Jane; Faulkner, Guy

    2005-02-01

    Evaluations of physical activity and health media campaigns have been limited and ignore the complex process of communication and the socially constructed nature of news messages. A systematic search strategy was conducted of the literature which was then assessed from two perspectives. First, studies since 1998 were reviewed for their success in impacting message recall and behavior change. Second, employing a critical media studies perspective the papers were assessed for the presence of a more sophisticated understanding of the media processes of inception, transmission and reception. Overall, recent studies support mass media interventions in influencing short-term physical activity message recall and to a lesser extent associated changes in physical activity knowledge. However, the majority of the papers were found to follow a social marketing or media advocacy theory of media promotion with little in-depth consideration of the comprehensive media processes involved in creating media messages and meaning. Simplistic understandings of media transmission dominate in assessing physical activity and health media campaigns. Fuller understandings of the success of media campaigns, the recall of media messages or associated behaviour change can only truly be understood through the application of a more sophisticated form of media analysis.

  18. Production and guide tube transmission of very cold neutrons from pulsed cold source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utsuro, Masahiko; Okumura, Kiyoshi

    1982-01-01

    The intensity and the energy spectra of Very Cold Neutrons (VCN) transmitted through a curved guide tube were measured by using the time-of-flight method of VCN. In the measurements, the curved guide tube having a characteristic neutron velocity of about 70 m/s is combined to a pulsed cold source of an electron linac in an internal target geometry. A space dependence of the VCN spectra was observed on the radial positions of a detector at the guide tube exit. A simple theoretical analysis on the transmission of VCN in the curved guide tube is also presented with taking into consideration about the effects of a finite size and a finite distance of the VCN-emitting source, and simple analytical formulas for the exit spectra of the guide tube are given. Comparisons between the experimental results and the theoretical calculations show good agreements, and the satisfactory performance of the present VCN guide tube assembly was ascertained. These results present also instructive features for understanding the structures and the space dependence of the exit spectra of a neutron guide tube. The VCN spectra at the guide tube exit can be divided into a few energy regions according to the transmission processes of VCN. Thus, the present study provides useful informations for the preparations of a VCN source with a curved guide tube. (author)

  19. On the angular distributions of the heavy products of (HI, xn) reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagajdak, R.N.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of neutron evaporation and scattering in the target on the angular distribution of the heavy products of (HI, xn) reactions is considered. Based on the analysis of the experimental angular distributions and their calculated parameters a simple phenomenological approach to the description of these distributions is proposed. The calculated distributions are compared with the experimental ones cited in the literature. The possibilities of using the proposed approach to calculate the integrated angular distributions of heavy products and to determine the efficiency of collecting (HI, xn) reaction products under the conditions of the kinematic separation of recoil nuclei are outlined. 28 refs.; 9 figs

  20. Measuring efficiency and productivity change (PTF) in the Peruvian electricity distribution companies after reforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Reyes, Raul [Organismo Supervisor de la Inversion en Energia y Mineria, Osinergmin (Peru); Tovar, Beatriz [Infrastructure and Transport Research Group (EIT), Department of Applied Economics, University of Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain)

    2009-06-15

    This paper analyzes the evolution of productivity of the electricity distribution companies in Peru, to assess whether reforms have improved the efficiency in this sector. The paper also identifies potential sources of productivity changes, based on market restructuring the electricity sector and changes in property. To do this, we rely on a set of data for 14 distribution companies, for the period 1996-2006. Our analysis suggests that improvements in the efficiency and productivity of electricity distribution in Peru have occurred, and that there is a relationship between the restructuring of distribution sector and the enhancement of productivity. (author)

  1. Measuring efficiency and productivity change (PTF) in the Peruvian electricity distribution companies after reforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Reyes, Raul; Tovar, Beatriz

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the evolution of productivity of the electricity distribution companies in Peru, to assess whether reforms have improved the efficiency in this sector. The paper also identifies potential sources of productivity changes, based on market restructuring the electricity sector and changes in property. To do this, we rely on a set of data for 14 distribution companies, for the period 1996-2006. Our analysis suggests that improvements in the efficiency and productivity of electricity distribution in Peru have occurred, and that there is a relationship between the restructuring of distribution sector and the enhancement of productivity. (author)

  2. Operation reliability analysis of independent power plants of gas-transmission system distant production facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piskunov, Maksim V.; Voytkov, Ivan S.; Vysokomornaya, Olga V.; Vysokomorny, Vladimir S.

    2015-01-01

    The new approach was developed to analyze the failure causes in operation of linear facilities independent power supply sources (mini-CHP-plants) of gas-transmission system in Eastern part of Russia. Triggering conditions of ceiling operation substance temperature at condenser output were determined with mathematical simulation use of unsteady heat and mass transfer processes in condenser of mini-CHP-plants. Under these conditions the failure probability in operation of independent power supply sources is increased. Influence of environmental factors (in particular, ambient temperature) as well as output electric capability values of power plant on mini-CHP-plant operation reliability was analyzed. Values of mean time to failure and power plant failure density during operation in different regions of Eastern Siberia and Far East of Russia were received with use of numerical simulation results of heat and mass transfer processes at operation substance condensation.

  3. Simulation and optimization of logistics distribution for an engine production line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, L.; Jin, S.; Tang, P.

    2016-07-01

    In order to analyze and study the factors about Logistics distribution system, solve the problems of out of stock on the production line and improve the efficiency of the assembly line. Using the method of industrial engineering, put forward the optimization scheme of distribution system. The simulation model of logistics distribution system for engine assembly line was build based on Witness software. The optimization plan is efficient to improve Logistics distribution efficiency, production of assembly line efficiency and reduce the storage of production line. Based on the study of the modeling and simulation of engine production logistics distribution system, the result reflects some influence factors about production logistics system, which has reference value to improving the efficiency of the production line. (Author)

  4. Simulation and optimization of logistics distribution for an engine production line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijun Song

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In order to analyze and study the factors about Logistics distribution system, solve the problems of out of stock on the production line and improve the efficiency of the assembly line. Design/methodology/approach: Using the method of industrial engineering, put forward the optimization scheme of distribution system. The simulation model of logistics distribution system for engine assembly line was build based on Witness software. Findings: The optimization plan is efficient to improve Logistics distribution efficiency, production of assembly line efficiency and reduce the storage of production line Originality/value: Based on the study of the modeling and simulation of engine production logistics distribution system, the result reflects some influence factors about production logistics system, which has reference value to improving the efficiency of the production line.

  5. Distributed Processing of Sentinel-2 Products using the BIGEARTH Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacu, Victor; Stefanut, Teodor; Nandra, Constantin; Mihon, Danut; Gorgan, Dorian

    2017-04-01

    The constellation of observational satellites orbiting around Earth is constantly increasing, providing more data that need to be processed in order to extract meaningful information and knowledge from it. Sentinel-2 satellites, part of the Copernicus Earth Observation program, aim to be used in agriculture, forestry and many other land management applications. ESA's SNAP toolbox can be used to process data gathered by Sentinel-2 satellites but is limited to the resources provided by a stand-alone computer. In this paper we present a cloud based software platform that makes use of this toolbox together with other remote sensing software applications to process Sentinel-2 products. The BIGEARTH software platform [1] offers an integrated solution for processing Earth Observation data coming from different sources (such as satellites or on-site sensors). The flow of processing is defined as a chain of tasks based on the WorDeL description language [2]. Each task could rely on a different software technology (such as Grass GIS and ESA's SNAP) in order to process the input data. One important feature of the BIGEARTH platform comes from this possibility of interconnection and integration, throughout the same flow of processing, of the various well known software technologies. All this integration is transparent from the user perspective. The proposed platform extends the SNAP capabilities by enabling specialists to easily scale the processing over distributed architectures, according to their specific needs and resources. The software platform [3] can be used in multiple configurations. In the basic one the software platform runs as a standalone application inside a virtual machine. Obviously in this case the computational resources are limited but it will give an overview of the functionalities of the software platform, and also the possibility to define the flow of processing and later on to execute it on a more complex infrastructure. The most complex and robust

  6. Transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from food production animals to humans: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broens, E.M.; Cleef, van B.A.G.L.; Graat, E.A.M.; Kluytmans, J.A.J.W.

    2008-01-01

    International surveillance of antimicrobial use in food animal production shows that methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), traditionally a human pathogen associated with hospitals, has emerged in the community and animals. Since 1961, MRSA has been causing human infections in hospitals

  7. Ion-cyclotron instability in plasmas described by product-bi-kappa distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, M. S. dos; Ziebell, L. F.; Gaelzer, R.

    2015-01-01

    The dispersion relation for parallel propagating waves in the ion-cyclotron branch is investigated numerically by considering that the velocity distribution of the ion population is a function of type product-bi-kappa. We investigate the effects of the non-thermal features and of the anisotropy associated with this type of distribution on the ion-cyclotron instability, as well as the influence of different forms of the electron distribution, by considering Maxwellian distributions, bi-kappa distributions, and product-bi-kappa distributions. The cases of ions described by either Maxwellian or bi-kappa distributions are also considered, for comparison. The results of the numerical analysis show that the increase in the non-thermal character associated with the anisotropic kappa distributions for ions contributes to enhance the instability as compared to that obtained in the Maxwellian case, in magnitude and in wave number range, with more significant enhancement for the case of ion product-bi-kappa distributions than for the case of ion bi-kappa distributions. It is also shown that the ion-cyclotron instability is decreased if the electrons are described by product-bi-kappa distributions, while electrons described by bi-kappa distributions lead to growth rates which are very similar to those obtained considering a Maxwellian distribution for the electron population

  8. Distributing flight dynamics products via the World Wide Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Mark; Matusow, David

    1996-01-01

    The NASA Flight Dynamics Products Center (FDPC), which make available selected operations products via the World Wide Web, is reported on. The FDPC can be accessed from any host machine connected to the Internet. It is a multi-mission service which provides Internet users with unrestricted access to the following standard products: antenna contact predictions; ground tracks; orbit ephemerides; mean and osculating orbital elements; earth sensor sun and moon interference predictions; space flight tracking data network summaries; and Shuttle transport system predictions. Several scientific data bases are available through the service.

  9. Concordance of mother-daughter diurnal cortisol production: Understanding the intergenerational transmission of risk for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeMoult, Joelle; Chen, Michael C; Foland-Ross, Lara C; Burley, Hannah W; Gotlib, Ian H

    2015-05-01

    A growing body of research is demonstrating concordance between mother and child diurnal cortisol production. In the context of maternal history of depression, intergenerational concordance of cortisol production could contribute to hypercortisolemia in children of depressed mothers, which has been shown to increase risk for MDD. The current study is the first to examine concordance in diurnal cortisol production between mothers with a history of depression and their never-depressed, but high-risk, children. We collected salivary cortisol across 2 days from mothers with (remitted; RMD) and without (CTL) a history of recurrent episodes of depression and their never-depressed daughters. As expected, RMD mothers and their daughters both exhibited higher cortisol production than did their CTL counterparts. Moreover, both across and within groups, mothers' and daughters' cortisol production were directly coupled. These findings suggest that there is an intergenerational concordance in cortisol dysregulation that may contribute to hypercortisolemia in girls at familial risk for depression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Asymptotic distribution of products of sums of independent random ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    integrable random variables (r.v.) are asymptotically log-normal. This fact ... the product of the partial sums of i.i.d. positive random variables as follows. .... Now define ..... by Henan Province Foundation and Frontier Technology Research Plan.

  11. Characteristic relation for the mass and energy distribution of the nuclear fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandru, G.

    1977-01-01

    The dispersion relation for nuclear fission is written in the two part fragmentation approach which allows to obtain the characteristic relation for the mass and energy distribution of the nuclear fission products. One explains the resonance approximation in the mass distribution of the fission products taking into account the high order resonances too. (author)

  12. Essays on Product Strategies through Consideration of Individual Distributions

    OpenAIRE

    Perry, Hagit

    2016-01-01

    Marketing literature and practitioners are in agreement that it is essential for brands in competitive markets to identify segments that should be targeted and to build rational product strategies that target these segments. It is essential because most markets include consumers with heterogeneous preferences and precise segmentation and targeting creates product differentiation, which prevents direct competition and allow the market to reach an optimal profit optimization equilibrium. In thi...

  13. Frequency domain analysis of the lightning current distribution to ground at the transmission line tower with cellular phone base station

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grcev, L.; Deursen, van A.P.J.; Waes, van J.B.M.

    2003-01-01

    Cellular phone base stations are often placed in the poles of power transmission lines. We consider the case when such base stations are powered from the low-voltage network. Of special concern is the current that might be led through the cable metallic shields to other customers' premises in case

  14. Industry sector analysis, Mexico: Electric power production and distribution equipment. Export Trade Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, J.S.; Miller, R.W.

    1988-09-01

    The Industry Sector Analyses (I.S.A.) for electric power production and distribution equipment contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users, receptivity of Mexican consumers to U.S. products, the competitive situation - Mexican production, total import market, U.S. market position, foreign competition, and competitive factors, and market access - Mexican tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes and distribution channels. The I.S.A. provides the United States industry with meaningful information regarding the Mexican market for electric power production and distribution equipment

  15. On interpretation of T-product extensions of possibility distributions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vejnarová, Jiřina

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 232, č. 1 (2013), s. 3-17 ISSN 0165-0114 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP402/11/0378 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Possibility theory * Extension * Triangular norm * Conditional independence * Sets of probability distributions Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.880, year: 2013 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/MTR/vejnarova-0427068.pdf

  16. Carbon and nitrogen distribution in oak-hickory forests distributed along a productivity gradient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reber, R.T.; Kaczmarek, D.J.; Pope, P.E.; Rodkey, K.S. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Biomass, carbon and nitrogen pools were determined for oak-hickory forests of varying productivity. Little information of this type is available for the central hardwood region. Six oak-hickory dominated forests were chosen to represent a range in potential site productivity as influenced by soil type, amount of recyclable nutrients and available water. Biomass, carbon and nitrogen storage were determined for the following components: above ground standing biomass, fine root biomass, forest floor organic layers and litterfall. As site sequestered at each site was dependent more on the amount of living biomass at each site Litterfall, to some extent, increased with increasing site productivity. As potential site productivity decreased, total fine root biomass increased. The data suggest that as site quality decreased fine root production and turnover may become as important in nutrient cycling as annual litterfall.

  17. Poultry food products--a source of avian influenza virus transmission to humans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, T C; Buda, S; Hengel, H; Beer, M; Mettenleiter, T C

    2016-02-01

    Global human mobility and intercontinental connectivity, expansion of livestock production and encroachment of wildlife habitats by invasive agricultural land use contribute to shape the complexity of influenza epidemiology. The OneHealth approach integrates these and further elements into considerations to improve disease control and prevention. Food of animal origin for human consumption is another integral aspect; if produced from infected livestock such items may act as vehicles of spread of animal pathogens, and, in case of zoonotic agents, as a potential human health hazard. Notifiable zoonotic avian influenza viruses (AIV) have become entrenched in poultry populations in several Asian and northern African countries since 2003. Highly pathogenic (HP) AIV (e.g. H5N1) cause extensive poultry mortality and severe economic losses. HPAIV and low pathogenic AIV (e.g. H7N9) with zoonotic propensities pose risks for human health. More than 1500 human cases of AIV infection have been reported, mainly from regions with endemically infected poultry. Intense human exposure to AIV-infected poultry, e.g. during rearing, slaughtering or processing of poultry, is a major risk factor for acquiring AIV infection. In contrast, human infections through consumption of AIV-contaminated food have not been substantiated. Heating poultry products according to kitchen standards (core temperatures ≥70°C, ≥10 s) rapidly inactivates AIV infectivity and renders fully cooked products safe. Nevertheless, concerted efforts must ensure that poultry products potentially contaminated with zoonotic AIV do not reach the food chain. Stringent and sustained OneHealth measures are required to better control and eventually eradicate, HPAIV from endemic regions. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Supply chain optimization in the newspaper industry: Integrated production allocation, scheduling and distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Furnes, Kaia Kristina; Ravlo, Espen Huse

    2014-01-01

    One of the defining characteristics of the newspaper industry is that the products are virtually worthless at the end of the day; nobody wants to pay for yesterday s news. In addition, strict delivery deadlines and no inventory lead to very short time frames for production and distribution. Consequently production and outbound distribution are intimately linked and should be coordinated in order to achieve the objective of on-time delivery performance at minimum total cost. The increase in on...

  19. Distribution, density, and productivity of accipiter hawks breeding in Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard T. Reynolds; Howard M. Wight

    1978-01-01

    Density of nests and productivity of Sharp-shinned Hawks (Accipiter striatus), Cooper's Hawks (A. cooperii), and Goshawks (A. gentilis) within Oregon are of interest because of recent declines of accipiter hawks in the eastern United States (Schriver 1969, Hackman and Henny 1971, Henny and Wight 1972). One...

  20. Parallel distributed computing in modeling of the nanomaterials production technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krzhizhanovskaya, V.V.; Korkhov, V.V.; Zatevakhin, M.A.; Gorbachev, Y.E.

    2008-01-01

    Simulation of physical and chemical processes occurring in the nanomaterial production technologies is a computationally challenging problem, due to the great number of coupled processes, time and length scales to be taken into account. To solve such complex problems with a good level of detail in a

  1. optimal scheduling of petroleum products distribution in nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

    The study reveals that any variation in supply, demand and ... and storage depots for easy shipment of the products from ... The system should be robust yet simple to support routine ..... (10)Klabjan, D. Topics in airline crew scheduling and ...

  2. A data Grid prototype for distributed data production in CMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafeez, Mehnaz; Samar, Asad; Stockinger, Heinz

    2001-01-01

    The CMS experiment at CERN is setting up a Grid infrastructure required to fulfill the needs imposed by Terabyte scale productions for the next few years. The goal is to automate the production and at the same time allow the users to interact with the system, if required, to make decisions which would optimize performance. We present the architecture, design and functionality of our first working Objectivity file replication prototype. The middle-ware of choice is the Globus toolkit that provides promising functionality. Our results prove the ability of the Globus toolkit to be used as an underlying technology for a world-wide Data Grid. The required data management functionality includes high speed file transfers, secure access to remote files, selection and synchronization of replicas and managing the meta information. The whole system is expected to be flexible enough to incorporate site specific policies. The data management granularity is the file rather than the object level. The first prototype is currently in use for the High Level Trigger (HLT) production (autumn 2000). Owing to these efforts, CMS is one of the pioneers to use the Data Grid functionality in a running production system. The project can be viewed as an evaluator of different strategies, a test for the capabilities of middle-ware tools and a provider of basic Grid functionalities

  3. Braille in the United States: Its Production, Distribution, and Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldish, Louis Harvey

    The braille production system in the United States is described. Aspects treated are the following: the need for braille (the braille system), the market for braille (size and characteristics), sources of braille (producers and braille book source information), and present methods and costs of producing braille. Technological advances are…

  4. Risk management system in the natural gas distribution of Lima and Callao according guidelines “Recommendations on transmission and distribution practice” and risk management of the PMI Project (2008)

    OpenAIRE

    Luján Ruiz, Roger Orlando

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research study is to analyze quantitative operational risk according to the guidelines of the practice recommendation “Recommendations on Transmission and Distribution Practice” , published by The Institution of Gas Engineers of Great Britain and the PMBOK . Chapter 11 , Managing Project Risk . This study was conducted in the Trunk pipeline system operated by Cálidda the Peru - Natural Gas from the City Gate located in Lurín , to Callao Terminal Station . The purpose of th...

  5. Model based simulation of alternative transmission concepts in early stages of product development process; Einsatz von Simulationsmodellen zur Beurteilung von alternativen Getriebekonzepten in fruehen Phasen des Produktentstehungsprozesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albers, A.; Ott, S.; Seifermann, A. [Karlsruhe Univ. (Germany). IPEK - Inst. fuer Produktentwicklung

    2006-07-01

    The contribution describes a method for assessing the new transmission concepts and investigate their advantages in alternative powertrain systems. Simulation models of different powertrains were used in order to make the different concepts comparable in an early stage of the product developmentprocess. Further, it is shown how the Contact and Channel Model (C and CM) can be used for modelling individual transmission concepts. These models can help to identify and assess interdependences between part systems and components. (orig.)

  6. A data grid prototype for distributed data production in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Hafeez, M; Stockinger, H E

    2001-01-01

    The CMS experiment at CERN is setting up a grid infrastructure required to fulfil the needs imposed by Terabyte scale productions for the next few years. The goal is to automate the production and at the same time allow the users to interact with the system, if required, to make decisions which would optimise performance. We present the architecture, design and functionality of our first working objectivity file replication prototype. The middle-ware of choice is the Globus toolkit that provides promising functionality. Our results prove the ability of the Globus toolkit to be used as an underlying technology for a world-wide Data Grid. The required data management functionality includes high speed file transfers, secure access to remote files, selection and synchronisation of replicas and managing the meta information. The whole system is expected to be flexible enough to incorporate site specific policies. The data management granularity is the file rather than the object level. The first prototype is curre...

  7. [Nonuniform distribution and contribution of the P- and P/Q-type calcium channels to short-term inhibitory synaptic transmission in cultured hippocampal neurons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizerna, O P; Fedulova, S A; Veselovs'kyĭ, M S

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the sensitivity of GABAergic short-term plasticity to the selective P- and P/Q-type calcium channels blocker omega-agatoxin-IVA. To block the P-type channels we used 30 nM of this toxin and 200 nM of the toxin was used to block the P/Q channel types. The evoked inhibitory postsynaptic currents (eIPSC) were studied using patch-clamp technique in whole-cell configuration in postsynaptic neuron and local extracellular stimulation of single presynaptic axon by rectangular pulse. The present data show that the contribution of P- and P/Q-types channels to GABAergic synaptic transmission in cultured hippocampal neurons are 30% and 45%, respectively. It was shown that the mediate contribution of the P- and P/Q-types channels to the amplitudes of eIPSC is different to every discovered neuron. It means that distribution of these channels is non-uniform. To study the short-term plasticity of inhibitory synaptic transmission, axons of presynaptic neurons were paired-pulse stimulated with the interpulse interval of 150 ms. Neurons demonstrated both the depression and facilitation. The application of 30 nM and 200 nM of the blocker decreased the depression and increased facilitation to 8% and 11%, respectively. In addition, we found that the mediate contribution of the P- and P/Q-types channels to realization of synaptic transmission after the second stimuli is 4% less compared to that after the first one. Therefore, blocking of both P- and P/Q-types calcium channels can change the efficiency of synaptic transmission. In this instance it facilitates realization of the transmission via decreased depression or increased facilitation. These results confirm that the P- and P/Q-types calcium channels are involved in regulation of the short-term inhibitory synaptic plasticity in cultured hippocampal neurons.

  8. The integrated network model of pipeline, sea and road distribution of petroleum product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Öztürkoğlu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nigeria ranks high among the community of oil producers both in the world. It is, therefore, paradoxical that Nigeria, with such profile in Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC statistics finds it difficult to optimize its supply distribution while spending so much money on transportation and distribution. This paper thus reviews the petroleum product supply and distribution systems in the country. Thus, we develop a single period, single product deterministic mathematical model to effectively distribute the product to the end user through the most effective channel to the interest of the economy of the country. In our model, we first consider a perfect condition in the petroleum industry irrespective of the production crises and conflicts like pipeline vandalism, communal instability. We then consider different scnearios that presumes several breakdown cases in pipeline connection to anaylze the survivability of the network of petroleum distribution.

  9. Radiation research contracts: Distribution of fission products in the biosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenfeld, T [Vienna University, First Chemical Institute, Vienna (Austria)

    1959-04-15

    Protection against ionizing radiation given off in nuclear transformations is one of the foremost safety problems in all atomic energy operations. While every effort is being made to prevent reactors, processing plants and all other installations from releasing radioactive materials into the biosphere - air, water and earth - under any foreseeable conditions, small amounts of it are actually released into man's living space. Undoubtedly, this will continue to be so, at least for the time being. For example, low activity liquid wastes from some chemical processing plants are decontaminated in special processes, but traces of fission products remain in the liquids finally discharged on the ground or to nearby waterways. In some installations low and medium activity liquid wastes are even released on the ground or into swamps without prior decontamination. It is also to be expected that in accidents larger amounts of fission products may occasionally be released. To make the routine release of small amounts of fission products safe and to be able to estimate the possible effect of larger releases in accidents, a considerable amount of information is required

  10. Radiation research contracts: Distribution of fission products in the biosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenfeld, T.

    1959-01-01

    Protection against ionizing radiation given off in nuclear transformations is one of the foremost safety problems in all atomic energy operations. While every effort is being made to prevent reactors, processing plants and all other installations from releasing radioactive materials into the biosphere - air, water and earth - under any foreseeable conditions, small amounts of it are actually released into man's living space. Undoubtedly, this will continue to be so, at least for the time being. For example, low activity liquid wastes from some chemical processing plants are decontaminated in special processes, but traces of fission products remain in the liquids finally discharged on the ground or to nearby waterways. In some installations low and medium activity liquid wastes are even released on the ground or into swamps without prior decontamination. It is also to be expected that in accidents larger amounts of fission products may occasionally be released. To make the routine release of small amounts of fission products safe and to be able to estimate the possible effect of larger releases in accidents, a considerable amount of information is required

  11. 9 CFR 381.191 - Distribution of inspected products to small lot buyers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... small lot buyers. 381.191 Section 381.191 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE...; Exportation; or Sale of Poultry or Poultry Products § 381.191 Distribution of inspected products to small lot... small lot buyers (such as small restaurants), distributors or jobbers may remove inspected and passed...

  12. Characterization of a transmission positron/positronium converter for antihydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghion, S.; Amsler, C.; Ariga, T.; Bonomi, G.; Brusa, R. S.; Caccia, M.; Caravita, R.; Castelli, F.; Cerchiari, G.; Comparat, D.; Consolati, G.; Demetrio, A.; Di Noto, L.; Doser, M.; Ereditato, A.; Evans, C.; Ferragut, R.; Fesel, J.; Fontana, A.; Gerber, S.; Giammarchi, M.; Gligorova, A.; Guatieri, F.; Haider, S.; Hinterberger, A.; Holmestad, H.; Kellerbauer, A.; Krasnický, D.; Lagomarsino, V.; Lansonneur, P.; Lebrun, P.; Malbrunot, C.; Mariazzi, S.; Matveev, V.; Mazzotta, Z.; Müller, S. R.; Nebbia, G.; Nedelec, P.; Oberthaler, M.; Pacifico, N.; Pagano, D.; Penasa, L.; Petracek, V.; Povolo, L.; Prelz, F.; Prevedelli, M.; Ravelli, L.; Resch, L.; Rienäcker, B.; Robert, J.; Røhne, O. M.; Rotondi, A.; Sacerdoti, M.; Sandaker, H.; Santoro, R.; Scampoli, P.; Simon, M.; Smestad, L.; Sorrentino, F.; Testera, G.; Tietje, I. C.; Widmann, E.; Yzombard, P.; Zimmer, C.; Zmeskal, J.; Zurlo, N.; Andersen, S. L.; Chevallier, J.; Uggerhøj, U. I.; Lyckegaard, F.

    2017-09-01

    In this work a characterization study of forward emission from a thin, meso-structured silica positron/positronium (Ps) converter following implantation of positrons in light of possible antihydrogen production is presented. The target consisted of a ∼1 μm thick ultraporous silica film e-gun evaporated onto a 20 nm carbon foil. The Ps formation and emission was studied via Single Shot Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy measurements after implantation of pulses with 3 - 4 ·107 positrons and 10 ns temporal width. The forward emission of implanted positrons and secondary electrons was investigated with a micro-channel plate - phosphor screen assembly, connected either to a CCD camera for imaging of the impinging particles, or to a fast photomultiplier tube to extract information about their time of flight. The maximum Ps formation fraction was estimated to be ∼10%. At least 10% of the positrons implanted with an energy of 3.3 keV are forward-emitted with a scattering angle smaller than 50° and maximum kinetic energy of 1.2 keV. At least 0.1-0.2 secondary electrons per implanted positron were also found to be forward-emitted with a kinetic energy of a few eV. The possible application of this kind of positron/positronium converter for antihydrogen production is discussed.

  13. Environmental Transmission Electron Microscopy Study of the Origins of Anomalous Particle Size Distributions in Supported Metal Catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benavidez, Angelica D.; Kovarik, Libor; Genc, Arda

    2012-01-01

    of the particle size distribution (PSD). The abundance of the larger particles did not fit the log-normal distribution. We can rule out sample nonuniformity as a cause for the growth of these large particles, since images were recorded prior to heat treatments. The anomalous growth of these particles may help...

  14. Distributed Solar Photovoltaic Power Production - Technology and Benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, Al [PSE& G; Stuby, Rick [Petra Solar

    2011-11-02

    As part of its nationally recognized Solar 4 All program, PSE&G has partnered with Petra Solar to deploy the world’s first and largest pole attached solar project. The project, based on Petra Solar’s distributed Smart Solar solution, will create a 40 megawatt solar “virtual power plant.” In deployment as 200,000 individual grid-connected solar power producers on utility poles in PSE&G territory, Petra Solar SunWave® solutions leverage Smart Grid communications and high-tech panel-level inverters to implement a robust system with many technical benefits over traditional solar photovoltaic solutions. The program overview, deployment model, smart grid communications and enabling inverter technology and safety features will be presented, as well the future challenges of, and solutions for, solar power intermittency as photovoltaic penetration on the electric grid increases.

  15. Parton distributions with the combined HERA charm production cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertone, Valerio; Rojo, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Heavy quark structure functions from HERA provide a direct handle on the medium and small-x gluon PDF. In this contribution, we discuss ongoing progress on the implementation of the FONLL General-Mass scheme with running heavy quark masses, and of its benchmarking with the HOPPET and OpenQCDrad codes, and then present the impact of the recently released combined HERA charm production cross sections in the NNPDF 2.3 analysis. We find that the combined charm data contribute to constraining the gluon and quarks at small values of Bjorken-x.

  16. Parton distributions with the combined HERA charm production cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertone, Valerio [Physikalisches Institut, Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Strasse 3, D-79104 Freiburg i. B (Germany); Rojo, Juan [PH Department, TH Unit, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2013-04-15

    Heavy quark structure functions from HERA provide a direct handle on the medium and small-x gluon PDF. In this contribution, we discuss ongoing progress on the implementation of the FONLL General-Mass scheme with running heavy quark masses, and of its benchmarking with the HOPPET and OpenQCDrad codes, and then present the impact of the recently released combined HERA charm production cross sections in the NNPDF 2.3 analysis. We find that the combined charm data contribute to constraining the gluon and quarks at small values of Bjorken-x.

  17. Diversity, distribution and quantification of antibiotic resistance genes in goat and lamb slaughterhouse surfaces and meat products.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyre Lavilla Lerma

    Full Text Available The distribution and quantification of tetracycline, sulfonamide and beta-lactam resistance genes were assessed in slaughterhouse zones throughout meat chain production and the meat products; this study represents the first to report quantitatively monitor antibiotic resistance genes (ARG in goat and lamb slaughterhouse using a culture independent approach, since most studies focused on individual bacterial species and their specific resistance types. Quantitative PCR (qPCR revealed a high prevalence of tetracycline resistance genes tetA and tetB in almost all slaughterhouse zones. Sulfonamide resistance genes were largely distributed, while beta-lactam resistance genes were less predominant. Statistical analysis revealed that resistant bacteria, in most cases, were spread by the same route in almost all slaughterhouse zones, except for tetB, blaCTX and blaTEM genes, which occurred in few zones as isolated 'hot spots.' The sum of all analyzed ARG indicated that slaughterhouse surfaces and end products act as reservoirs of ARG, mainly tet genes, which were more prevalent in slaughtering room (SR, cutting room (CR and commercial meat products (MP. Resistance gene patterns suggest they were disseminated throughout slaughterhouse zones being also detected in commercial meat products, with significant correlations between different sampling zones/end products and total resistance in SR, CR and white room (WR zones, and also refrigerator 4 (F4 and MP were observed. Strategically controlling key zones in slaughterhouse (SR, CR and WR by adequate disinfection methods could strategically reduce the risks of ARG transmission and minimize the issues of food safety and environment contamination.

  18. Diversity, distribution and quantification of antibiotic resistance genes in goat and lamb slaughterhouse surfaces and meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavilla Lerma, Leyre; Benomar, Nabil; Knapp, Charles W; Correa Galeote, David; Gálvez, Antonio; Abriouel, Hikmate

    2014-01-01

    The distribution and quantification of tetracycline, sulfonamide and beta-lactam resistance genes were assessed in slaughterhouse zones throughout meat chain production and the meat products; this study represents the first to report quantitatively monitor antibiotic resistance genes (ARG) in goat and lamb slaughterhouse using a culture independent approach, since most studies focused on individual bacterial species and their specific resistance types. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) revealed a high prevalence of tetracycline resistance genes tetA and tetB in almost all slaughterhouse zones. Sulfonamide resistance genes were largely distributed, while beta-lactam resistance genes were less predominant. Statistical analysis revealed that resistant bacteria, in most cases, were spread by the same route in almost all slaughterhouse zones, except for tetB, blaCTX and blaTEM genes, which occurred in few zones as isolated 'hot spots.' The sum of all analyzed ARG indicated that slaughterhouse surfaces and end products act as reservoirs of ARG, mainly tet genes, which were more prevalent in slaughtering room (SR), cutting room (CR) and commercial meat products (MP). Resistance gene patterns suggest they were disseminated throughout slaughterhouse zones being also detected in commercial meat products, with significant correlations between different sampling zones/end products and total resistance in SR, CR and white room (WR) zones, and also refrigerator 4 (F4) and MP were observed. Strategically controlling key zones in slaughterhouse (SR, CR and WR) by adequate disinfection methods could strategically reduce the risks of ARG transmission and minimize the issues of food safety and environment contamination.

  19. Determinants of the distribution and concentration of biogas production in Germany. A spatial econometric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholz, Lukas

    2015-01-01

    The biogas production in Germany is characterized by a heterogeneous distribution and the formation of regional centers. In the present study the determinants of the spatial distribution and concentration are analyzed with methods of spatial statistics and spatial econometrics. In addition to the consideration of ''classic'' site factors of agricultural production, the analysis here focuses on the possible relevance of agglomeration effects. The results of the work contribute to a better understanding of the regional distribution and concentration of the biogas production in Germany. [de

  20. The exact probability distribution of the rank product statistics for replicated experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisinga, Rob; Breitling, Rainer; Heskes, Tom

    2013-03-18

    The rank product method is a widely accepted technique for detecting differentially regulated genes in replicated microarray experiments. To approximate the sampling distribution of the rank product statistic, the original publication proposed a permutation approach, whereas recently an alternative approximation based on the continuous gamma distribution was suggested. However, both approximations are imperfect for estimating small tail probabilities. In this paper we relate the rank product statistic to number theory and provide a derivation of its exact probability distribution and the true tail probabilities. Copyright © 2013 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Bio-Inspired Distributed Transmission Power Control Considering QoS Fairness in Wireless Body Area Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chan-Jae; Jung, Ji-Young; Lee, Jung-Ryun

    2017-10-14

    Recently, the development of wireless body area sensor network (WBASN) has accelerated due to the rapid development of wireless technology. In the WBASN environment, many WBASNs coexist where communication ranges overlap with each other, resulting in the possibility of interference. Although nodes in a WBASN typically operate at a low power level, to avoid adversely affecting the human body, high transmission rates may be required to support some applications. In addition to this, since many varieties of applications exist in the WBASN environment, each prospective user may have different quality of service (QoS) requirements. Hence, the following issues should be considered in the WBASN environment: (1) interference between adjacent WBASNs, which influences the performance of a specific system, and (2) the degree of satisfaction on the QoS of each user, i.e., the required QoS such as user throughput should be considered to ensure that all users in the network are provided with a fair QoS satisfaction. Thus, in this paper, we propose a transmission power adjustment algorithm that addresses interference problems and guarantees QoS fairness between users. First, we use a new utility function to measure the degree of the satisfaction on the QoS for each user. Then, the transmission power of each sensor node is calculated using the Cucker-Smale model, and the QoS satisfaction of each user is synchronized dispersively. The results of simulations show that the proposed algorithm performs better than existing algorithms, with respect to QoS fairness and energy efficiency.

  2. Evolutionary algorithm for the problem of oil products distributions on oil pipeline network; Algoritmo evolucionario para distribuicao de produtos de petroleo por redes de polidutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcondes, Eduardo; Goldbarg, Elizabeth; Goldbarg, Marco; Cunha, Thatiana [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    A major problem about the planning of production in refinery is the determination of what should be done in each stage of production as a horizon of time. Among such problems, distribution of oil products through networks of pipelines is a very significant problem because of its economic importance. In this work, a problem of distribution of oil through a network of pipelines is modeled. The network studied is a simplification of a real network. There are several restrictions to be met, such as limits of storage, transmission or receipt of limits and limitations of transport. The model is adopted bi-goal where you want to minimize the fragmentation and the time of transmission, given the restrictions of demand and storage capacity. Whereas the occupancy rate of networks is increasingly high, is of great importance optimize its use. In this work, the technique of optimization by Cloud of particles is applied to the problem of distribution of oil products by networks of pipelines. (author)

  3. Estimating electricity storage power rating and discharge duration for utility transmission and distribution deferral :a study for the DOE energy storage program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eyer, James M. (Distributed Utility Associates, Livermore, CA); Butler, Paul Charles; Iannucci, Joseph J., Jr. (,.Distributed Utility Associates, Livermore, CA)

    2005-11-01

    This report describes a methodology for estimating the power and energy capacities for electricity energy storage systems that can be used to defer costly upgrades to fully overloaded, or nearly overloaded, transmission and distribution (T&D) nodes. This ''sizing'' methodology may be used to estimate the amount of storage needed so that T&D upgrades may be deferred for one year. The same methodology can also be used to estimate the characteristics of storage needed for subsequent years of deferral.

  4. Electric utility transmission and distribution upgrade deferral benefits from modular electricity storage : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eyer, James M. (Distributed Utility Associates, Inc., Livermore, CA)

    2009-06-01

    The work documented in this report was undertaken as part of an ongoing investigation of innovative and potentially attractive value propositions for electricity storage by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Electricity Storage Systems (ESS) Program. This study characterizes one especially attractive value proposition for modular electricity storage (MES): electric utility transmission and distribution (T&D) upgrade deferral. The T&D deferral benefit is characterized in detail. Also presented is a generalized framework for estimating the benefit. Other important and complementary (to T&D deferral) elements of possible value propositions involving MES are also characterized.

  5. Dose rate distribution for products irradiated in a semi-industrial irradiation plant. 1st stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangussi, J.

    2005-01-01

    The model of the bulk product absorbed dose rate distribution in a semi industrial irradiation plant is presented. In this plant the products are subject to a dynamic irradiation process: single-plaque, single-direction, four-passes. The additional two passes, also one on each side of the plaque, serve to minimize the lateral dose variation as well as the depth-dose non-uniformity. The first stage of this model takes only into account the direct absorbed dose rate; the model outputs are the depth-dose distribution and the lateral-dose distribution. The calculated absorbed dose in the bulk product and its uniformity-ratio after the dynamic irradiation process for different products is compared. The model results are in good agreement with the experimental measurements in a bulk of irradiated product; and the air absorbed dose rate in the irradiation chamber behind the product subject to the dynamic irradiation process. (author) [es

  6. Progressive Image Transmission Based on Joint Source-Channel Decoding Using Adaptive Sum-Product Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. Daut

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A joint source-channel decoding method is designed to accelerate the iterative log-domain sum-product decoding procedure of LDPC codes as well as to improve the reconstructed image quality. Error resilience modes are used in the JPEG2000 source codec making it possible to provide useful source decoded information to the channel decoder. After each iteration, a tentative decoding is made and the channel decoded bits are then sent to the JPEG2000 decoder. The positions of bits belonging to error-free coding passes are then fed back to the channel decoder. The log-likelihood ratios (LLRs of these bits are then modified by a weighting factor for the next iteration. By observing the statistics of the decoding procedure, the weighting factor is designed as a function of the channel condition. Results show that the proposed joint decoding methods can greatly reduce the number of iterations, and thereby reduce the decoding delay considerably. At the same time, this method always outperforms the nonsource controlled decoding method by up to 3 dB in terms of PSNR.

  7. Progressive Image Transmission Based on Joint Source-Channel Decoding Using Adaptive Sum-Product Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Weiliang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A joint source-channel decoding method is designed to accelerate the iterative log-domain sum-product decoding procedure of LDPC codes as well as to improve the reconstructed image quality. Error resilience modes are used in the JPEG2000 source codec making it possible to provide useful source decoded information to the channel decoder. After each iteration, a tentative decoding is made and the channel decoded bits are then sent to the JPEG2000 decoder. The positions of bits belonging to error-free coding passes are then fed back to the channel decoder. The log-likelihood ratios (LLRs of these bits are then modified by a weighting factor for the next iteration. By observing the statistics of the decoding procedure, the weighting factor is designed as a function of the channel condition. Results show that the proposed joint decoding methods can greatly reduce the number of iterations, and thereby reduce the decoding delay considerably. At the same time, this method always outperforms the nonsource controlled decoding method by up to 3 dB in terms of PSNR.

  8. Determination of High-Frequency Current Distribution Using EMTP-Based Transmission Line Models with Resulting Radiated Electromagnetic Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mork, B; Nelson, R; Kirkendall, B; Stenvig, N

    2009-11-30

    Application of BPL technologies to existing overhead high-voltage power lines would benefit greatly from improved simulation tools capable of predicting performance - such as the electromagnetic fields radiated from such lines. Existing EMTP-based frequency-dependent line models are attractive since their parameters are derived from physical design dimensions which are easily obtained. However, to calculate the radiated electromagnetic fields, detailed current distributions need to be determined. This paper presents a method of using EMTP line models to determine the current distribution on the lines, as well as a technique for using these current distributions to determine the radiated electromagnetic fields.

  9. The Distribution of the Product Explains Normal Theory Mediation Confidence Interval Estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisbu-Sakarya, Yasemin; MacKinnon, David P; Miočević, Milica

    2014-05-01

    The distribution of the product has several useful applications. One of these applications is its use to form confidence intervals for the indirect effect as the product of 2 regression coefficients. The purpose of this article is to investigate how the moments of the distribution of the product explain normal theory mediation confidence interval coverage and imbalance. Values of the critical ratio for each random variable are used to demonstrate how the moments of the distribution of the product change across values of the critical ratio observed in research studies. Results of the simulation study showed that as skewness in absolute value increases, coverage decreases. And as skewness in absolute value and kurtosis increases, imbalance increases. The difference between testing the significance of the indirect effect using the normal theory versus the asymmetric distribution of the product is further illustrated with a real data example. This article is the first study to show the direct link between the distribution of the product and indirect effect confidence intervals and clarifies the results of previous simulation studies by showing why normal theory confidence intervals for indirect effects are often less accurate than those obtained from the asymmetric distribution of the product or from resampling methods.

  10. Ongoing nationwide outbreak of Salmonella Agona associated with internationally distributed infant milk products, France, December 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourdan-da Silva, Nathalie; Fabre, Laetitia; Robinson, Eve; Fournet, Nelly; Nisavanh, Athinna; Bruyand, Mathias; Mailles, Alexandra; Serre, Estelle; Ravel, Magali; Guibert, Véronique; Issenhuth-Jeanjean, Sylvie; Renaudat, Charlotte; Tourdjman, Mathieu; Septfons, Alexandra; de Valk, Henriette; Le Hello, Simon

    2018-01-01

    On 1 December 2017, an outbreak of Salmonella Agona infections among infants was identified in France. To date, 37 cases (median age: 4 months) and two further international cases have been confirmed. Five different infant milk products manufactured at one facility were implicated. On 2 and 10 December, the company recalled the implicated products; on 22 December, all products processed at the facility since February 2017. Trace-forward investigations indicated product distribution to 66 countries.

  11. On Stability of Sustainable Power Systems : Network Fault Response of Transmission Systems with Very High Penetration of Distributed Generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boemer, J.

    2016-01-01

    Power systems are undergoing a historic structural and technological transformation. The increase of distributed generation (DG), recently mostly wind power park modules (WPPMs) and photovoltaic power park modules (PVPPMs), is already changing the way power systems are structured and operated.

  12. Delayed Fission Product Gamma-Ray Transmission Through Low Enriched UO2 Fuel Pin Lattices in Air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trumbull, TH [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States)

    2004-10-18

    The transmission of delayed fission-product gamma rays through various arrangements of low-enriched UO2 fuel pin lattices in an air medium was studied. Experimental measurements, point-kernel and Monte Carlo photon transport calculations were performed to demonstrate the shielding effect of ordered lattices of fuel pins on the resulting gamma-ray dose to a detector outside the lattice. The variation of the gamma-ray dose on the outside of the lattice as a function of radial position, the so-called “channeling” effect, was analyzed. Techniques for performing experimental measurements and data reduction at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute’s Reactor Critical Facility (RCF) were derived. An experimental apparatus was constructed to hold the arrangements of fuel pins for the measurements. A gamma-ray spectroscopy system consisting of a sodium-iodide scintillation detector was used to collect data. Measurements were made with and without a collimator installed. A point-kernel transport code was developed to map the radial dependence of the gamma-ray flux. Input files for the Monte Carlo code, MCNP, were also developed to accurately model the experimental measurements. The results of the calculations were compared to the experimental measurements. In order to determine the delayed fission-product gamma-ray source for the calculations, a technique was developed using a previously written code, DELBG and the reactor state-point data obtained during the experimental measurements. Calculations were performed demonstrating the effects of material homogenization on the gamma-ray transmission through the fuel pin lattice.Homogeneous and heterogeneous calculations were performed for all RCF fuel pin lattices as well as for a typical commercial pressurized water reactor fuel bundle. The results of the study demonstrated the effectiveness of the experimental measurements to isolate the channeling effect of delayed fission-product gamma-rays through lattices of RCF fuel pins

  13. Exact and Heuristic Solutions to Minimize Total Waiting Time in the Blood Products Distribution Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Salehipour

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel application of operations research to support decision making in blood distribution management. The rapid and dynamic increasing demand, criticality of the product, storage, handling, and distribution requirements, and the different geographical locations of hospitals and medical centers have made blood distribution a complex and important problem. In this study, a real blood distribution problem containing 24 hospitals was tackled by the authors, and an exact approach was presented. The objective of the problem is to distribute blood and its products among hospitals and medical centers such that the total waiting time of those requiring the product is minimized. Following the exact solution, a hybrid heuristic algorithm is proposed. Computational experiments showed the optimal solutions could be obtained for medium size instances, while for larger instances the proposed hybrid heuristic is very competitive.

  14. Improving food safety in the supply chain: Integrating traceability in production and distribution planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunow, Martin; Rong, Aiying; Akkerman, Renzo

    2008-01-01

    on production and distribution planning. Here, we develop a methodology for production and distribution planning in food supply chains which minimizes production and logistics costs and at the same time reduces food safety concerns, limits the size of potential recalls, and satisfies product quality...... with traceability from the viewpoint of information system development and technology development such as radio frequency identification (RFID) and DNA-based techniques. However, traceability and its implications for food safety are thus far not incorporated in the standard operations management literature...

  15. Clean Air Act Standards and Guidelines for Chemical Production and Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains the stationary sources of air pollution for the chemical production & distribution industries, and their corresponding air pollution regulations. To learn more about the regulations for each industry, click on the links below.

  16. idSpace Tooling and Training for collaborative distributed product innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutjens, Marjo; Bitter-Rijpkema, Marlies; Grube, Pascal; Heider, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Rutjens, M., Bitter-Rijpkema, M., Grube, P. P., & Heider, T. (2009). idSpace Tooling and Training for collaborative distributed product innovation. Workshop during the e-Learning Baltic conference. June, 17-19, 2009, Rostock, Germany.

  17. On the multiplicative product of the Dirac-delta distribution on the hyper-surface

    OpenAIRE

    Kananthai, A.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we give a sense to the distributional multiplicative product [Java Applet] where [Java Applet] is the Dirac-delta distribution, [Java Applet], [Java Applet], where [Java Applet] and [Java Applet] with [Java Applet] is the dimension of the Euclidean space [Java Applet], [Java Applet], [Java Applet], and [Java Applet] is a real number. On the certain conditions of [Java Applet] and [Java Applet] of such a multiplicative product, we obtain a formula related to the Green function i...

  18. Modeling and Optimization of Inventory-Distribution Routing Problem for Agriculture Products Supply Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Liao, Li; Li, Jianfeng; Wu, Yaohua

    2013-01-01

    Mathematical models of inventory-distribution routing problem for two-echelon agriculture products distribution network are established, which are based on two management modes, franchise chain and regular chain, one-to-many, interval periodic order, demand depending on inventory, deteriorating treatment cost of agriculture products, start-up costs of vehicles and so forth. Then, a heuristic adaptive genetic algorithm is presented for the model of franchise chain. For the regular chain model,...

  19. 3D analysis of synaptic vesicle density and distribution after acute foot-shock stress by using serial section transmission electron microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khanmohammadi, M; Darkner, S; Nava, N

    2017-01-01

    was employed to compare two groups of male rats: (1) rats subjected to foot-shock stress and (2) rats with sham stress as control group. Two-dimensional (2D) density measures are common in microscopic images and are estimated by following a 2D path in-section. However, this method ignores the slant...... in comparison to the 2D measures. Our results showed that acute foot-shock stress exposure significantly affected both the spatial distribution and density of the synaptic vesicles within the presynaptic terminal.......Behavioural stress has shown to strongly affect neurotransmission within the neocortex. In this study, we analysed the effect of an acute stress model on density and distribution of neurotransmitter-containing vesicles within medial prefrontal cortex. Serial section transmission electron microscopy...

  20. Seasonal and Spatial Environmental Influence on Opisthorchis viverrini Intermediate Hosts, Abundance, and Distribution: Insights on Transmission Dynamics and Sustainable Control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Sunyoung Kim

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Opisthorchis viverrini (Ov is a complex-life-cycle trematode affecting 10 million people in SEA (Southeast Asia. Human infection occurs when infected cyprinid fish are consumed raw or undercooked. Ov requires three hosts and presents two free-living parasitic stages. As a consequence Ov transmission and infection in intermediate and human hosts are strongly mediated by environmental factors and understanding how environmental variability influences intermediate host abundance is critical. The objectives of this study were 1 to document water parameters, intermediate hosts abundance and infection spatio-temporal variation, 2 to assess their causal relationships and identify windows of transmission risk.Fish and snails were collected monthly for one year at 12 sites in Lawa Lake, an Ov-endemic region of Khon Kaen Province in Northeast Thailand. Physicochemical water parameters [pH, temperature (Tp, dissolved oxygen (DO, Salinity, electrical conductivity (EC, total dissolved solid (TDS, nitrite nitrogen (NO2-N, lead (Pb, total coliform bacteria (TCB and fecal coliform bacteria (FCB] were measured. Multivariate analyses, linear models and kriging were used to characterize water parameter variation and its influence on host abundance and infection prevalence. We found that sampling sites could be grouped in three clusters and discriminated along a nitrogen-salinity gradient where higher levels in the lake's southern region predicted higher Bithynia relative abundance (P<0.05 and lower snail and fish species diversity (P<0.05. Highest Bithynia abundance occurred during rainy season (P<0.001, independently of site influence. Cyprinids were the most abundant fish family and higher cyprinid relative abundance was found in areas with higher Bithynia relative abundance (P<0.05. Ov infection in snails was anecdotal while Ov infection in fish was higher in the southern region (P<0.001 at sites showing high FCB.Our results indicate that water contamination

  1. Probing Transverse Momentum Dependent Parton Distributions in Charmonium and Bottomonium Production

    OpenAIRE

    Mukherjee, Asmita; Rajesh, Sangem

    2015-01-01

    We propose the study of unpolarized transverse momentum dependent gluon parton distributions as well as the effect of linearly polarized gluons on transverse momentum and rapidity distributions of $J/\\psi$ and $\\Upsilon$ production within the framework of transverse momentum dependent factorization employing color evaporation model (CEM) in unpolarized proton-proton collision. We estimate the transverse momentum and rapidity distributions of $J/\\psi$ and $\\Upsilon$ at LHCb, RHIC and AFTER ene...

  2. Eco-design of power transmissions systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, W.

    2011-01-01

    The demand to preserve the environment and form a sustainable development is greatly increasing in the recent decades all over the world, and this environmental concern is also merged in electrical power industry, resulting in many eco-design approaches in Transmission and Distribution (T and D) industries. As a method of eco-design, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a systematic tool that enables the assessment of the environmental impacts of a product or service throughout its entire life cycle, i.e. raw material production, manufacture, distribution, use and disposal including all intervening transportation steps necessary or caused by the product's existence. In T and D industries, LCA has been done for a lot of products individually, in order to see one product's environmental impacts and to seek for ways of improving its environmental performance. This eco-design for product approach is a rather well-developed trend, however, as only a single electrical product cannot provide the electrical power to users, electrical system consists of a huge number of components, in order to investigate system's environmental profile, the entire environmental profiles of different composing products has to be integrated systematically, that is to say, a system approach is needed. Under this philosophy, the study 'Eco-design of Power Transmission Systems' is conducted in this thesis, with the purpose of analysing the transmission systems' environmental impacts, locating the major environmental burden sources of transmission systems, selecting and/or developing methodologies of reducing its environmental impacts. (author)

  3. CONDOS-II, Radiation Dose from Consumer Product Distribution Chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: This code was developed under sponsorship of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to serve as a tool for assessing radiation doses that may be associated with consumer products that contain radionuclides. The code calculates radiation dose equivalents resulting from user-supplied scenarios of exposures to radionuclides contained in or released from sources that contain radionuclides. Dose equivalents may be calculated to total body, skin surface, skeletal bone, testes, ovaries, liver, kidneys, lungs, and maximally exposed segments of the gastrointestinal tract from exposures via (1) direct, external irradiation by photons (including Bremsstrahlung) emitted from the source, (2) external irradiation by photons during immersion in air containing photon-emitting radionuclides that have escaped from the source, (3) internal exposures by all radiations emitted by inhaled radionuclides that have escaped from the source, and (4) internal exposures by all radiations emitted by ingested radionuclides that have escaped from the source. 2 - Method of solution: Organ dose equivalents are approximated in two ways, depending on the exposure type. For external exposures, energy specific organ-to-skin-surface dose conversion ratios are used to approximate dose equivalents to specific organs from doses calculated to a point on the skin surface. The organ-to-skin ratios are incorporated in organ- and nuclide-specific dose rate factors, which are used to approximate doses during immersion in contaminated air. For internal exposures, 50 year dose equivalents are calculated using organ- and nuclide-specific, 50 year dose conversion factors. Doses from direct, external exposures are calculated using the energy-specific dose conversion ratios, user supplied exposure conditions, and photon flux approximations for eleven source geometries. Available source geometries include: point, shielded and unshielded; line, shielded and unshielded; disk, shielded

  4. The Determination of Production and Distribution Policy in Push-Pull Production Chain with Supply Hub as the Junction Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinaga, A. T.; Wangsaputra, R.

    2018-03-01

    The development of technology causes the needs of products and services become increasingly complex, diverse, and fluctuating. This causes the level of inter-company dependencies within a production chains increased. To be able to compete, efficiency improvements need to be done collaboratively in the production chain network. One of the efforts to increase efficiency is to harmonize production and distribution activities in the production chain network. This paper describes the harmonization of production and distribution activities by applying the use of push-pull system and supply hub in the production chain between two companies. The research methodology begins with conducting empirical and literature studies, formulating research questions, developing mathematical models, conducting trials and analyses, and taking conclusions. The relationship between the two companies is described in the MINLP mathematical model with the total cost of production chain as the objective function. Decisions generated by the mathematical models are the size of production lot, size of delivery lot, number of kanban, frequency of delivery, and the number of understock and overstock lot.

  5. Economics of long distance transmission, storage and distribution of heat from nuclear plants with existing and newer techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margen, Peter

    1977-01-01

    Nuclear plants can provide heat for district heating in mainly two ways. Central nuclear power plants sufficiently large to be economic as electricity producers could instead be designed for heat extraction at temperatures useful for district heating. The second promising way is to design simple low temperature reactors, so simple and safe that near urban location becomes feasible. The manner of transport distribution and storage of heat is discussed in this paper which are very important especially in the cost calculations. The economic objectives can often be attained already with conventional technigues even when transport distances are large. But newer techniques of transport promise to make even cities at greater distances from major nuclear power plants economically connectible whilst new techniques for small distribution pipes help to extend the economic distribution area to the less dense one-family house districts. (M.S.)

  6. Unusual distribution of Burkholderia cepacia complex species in Danish cystic fibrosis clinics may stem from restricted transmission between patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov-Lauritsen, Niels; Johansen, Helle Krogh; Fenger, Mette G

    2010-01-01

    Forty-four of 48 Burkholderia cepacia complex strains cultured from Danish cystic fibrosis patients were Burkholderia multivorans, a distribution of species that has not been reported before. Although cases of cross infections were demonstrated, no major epidemic clone was found. The species...

  7. Clock-distribution with instantaneous synchronisation for 160 Gbit/s optical time-domain multiplexed packet transmission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomez-Agis, F.; Calabretta, N.; Albores Mejia, A.; Dorren, H.J.S.

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate for the first time, to our knowledge, a clock-distribution method for ultra-high-speed optical time-domain multiplexed systems data packets that provides instantaneous synchronization, fast locking/unlocking times, and a highly stable bursty clock, enabling error-free operation of 160

  8. A Multiobjective Stochastic Production-Distribution Planning Problem in an Uncertain Environment Considering Risk and Workers Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. J. Mirzapour Al-e-Hashem

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A multi-objective two stage stochastic programming model is proposed to deal with a multi-period multi-product multi-site production-distribution planning problem for a midterm planning horizon. The presented model involves majority of supply chain cost parameters such as transportation cost, inventory holding cost, shortage cost, production cost. Moreover some respects as lead time, outsourcing, employment, dismissal, workers productivity and training are considered. Due to the uncertain nature of the supply chain, it is assumed that cost parameters and demand fluctuations are random variables and follow from a pre-defined probability distribution. To develop a robust stochastic model, an additional objective functions is added to the traditional production-distribution-planning problem. So, our multi-objective model includes (i the minimization of the expected total cost of supply chain, (ii the minimization of the variance of the total cost of supply chain and (iii the maximization of the workers productivity through training courses that could be held during the planning horizon. Then, the proposed model is solved applying a hybrid algorithm that is a combination of Monte Carlo sampling method, modified -constraint method and L-shaped method. Finally, a numerical example is solved to demonstrate the validity of the model as well as the efficiency of the hybrid algorithm.

  9. Productivity Levels in Distributive Trades : A New ICOP Dataset for OECD Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, Marcel P.; Ypma, Gerard

    2006-01-01

    This study provides a new dataset for international comparisons of labour productivity levels in distributive trade (retail and wholesale trade) between OECD countries. The productivity level comparisons are based on a harmonised set of Purchasing Power Parities (PPPs) for 1997 using the

  10. Application of Fuzzy Optimization to Production-Distribution Planning in Supply Chain Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ariafar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A production-distribution model has been developed that not only allocates the limited available resources and equipment to produce the products over the time periods, but also determines the economical distributors for dispatching the products to the distribution centers or retailers. The model minimizes production, inventory holding, backordering, and transportation cost while considering the time value of money. Since uncertainty is an inevitable issue of any real-world production system, then to provide a realistic model, the concept of fuzzy sets has been applied in the proposed mathematical modeling. To illustrate and show the feasibility and validity of the model, a real case analysis, which is pertaining to a mineral water bottling production factory, has been used. The case has been solved using a three-step solution approach developed in this study. The results show the feasibility and validity of the mathematical model, and also the solution procedure.

  11. Firm size and productivity. Evidence from the electricity distribution industry in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tovar, Beatriz; Javier Ramos-Real, Francisco; De Almeida, Edmar Fagundes

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we apply Stochastic Frontier Analysis through a distance function to investigate the impact of firm size on productivity development in electricity distribution. We use a sample of seventeen Brazilian firms from 1998 to 2005 and decompose productivity into technical efficiency, scale efficiency and technical change. Moreover, a further step is to decompose the technical change measurement into several components. The results indicate that firm size is important for industry's productivity, and therefore a key aspect to consider when making decisions that affect the market structure in the electricity distribution industry. (author)

  12. PARTICULARITIES AND MANAGEMENT OF THE DISTRIBUTION CHAIN FOR FISH AND FISHERY PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Georgeta NICOLAE

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The total quality principles implementation contributes to the improving in meeting the consumer needs, essential reduction of costs and increasing sales. The total quality is a concept that assures the total satisfaction of clients on the entire distribution chain, including all the actors in this chain. The aquaculture and fisheries are very diverse sectors which use different breeding and fishing technologies and provide a wide variety of specific products. This induces a real complexity of the supply and distribution chain for fish and fishery products, including the links from the production point (fishery or farm to the final consumer. The components of the distribution chain differ with the geographic areas, type of farms, transportation, information on the fishery market and management systems. Implementing the total food quality system for fishery products involves the quality specification in all marketing stages for all products, along the entire distribution chain. The present work was focused on identifying the distribution chain for fish and fishery products with the identification of the specificity of this type of chain form farm to end consumer, which is the first step in the implementation of total quality concept in aquaculture, with all the benefits that come with it.

  13. Factors affecting RFID adoption in the agricultural product distribution industry: empirical evidence from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ping; Yan, Bo

    2016-01-01

    We conducted an exploratory investigation of factors influencing the adoption of radio frequency identification (RFID) methods in the agricultural product distribution industry. Through a literature review and field research, and based on the technology-organization-environment (TOE) theoretical framework, this paper analyzes factors influencing RFID adoption in the agricultural product distribution industry in reference to three contexts: technological, organizational, and environmental contexts. An empirical analysis of the TOE framework was conducted by applying structural equation modeling based on actual data from a questionnaire survey on the agricultural product distribution industry in China. The results show that employee resistance and uncertainty are not supported by the model. Technological compatibility, perceived effectiveness, organizational size, upper management support, trust between enterprises, technical knowledge, competitive pressure and support from the Chinese government, which are supported by the model, have significantly positive effects on RFID adoption. Meanwhile, organizational size has the strongest positive effect, while competitive pressure levels have the smallest effect. Technological complexities and costs have significantly negative effects on RFID adoption, with cost being the most significantly negative influencing factor. These research findings will afford enterprises in the agricultural products supply chain with a stronger understanding of the factors that influence RFID adoption in the agricultural product distribution industry. In addition, these findings will help enterprises remain aware of how these factors affect RFID adoption and will thus help enterprises make more accurate and rational decisions by promoting RFID application in the agricultural product distribution industry.

  14. Thermal energy distribution analysis for hydrogen production in RGTT200K conceptual design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumpal Pandiangan; Ign Djoko Irianto

    2011-01-01

    RGTT200K is a high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) which conceptually designed for power generation, hydrogen production and desalination. Hydrogen production process in this design uses thermochemical method of Iodine-Sulphur. To increase the thermal conversion efficiency in hydrogen production installations, it needs to design a thermal energy distribution and temperature associated with the process of thermo-chemical processes in the method of Iodine-Sulphur. In this method there are 7 kinds of processes: (i) H 2 SO4 decomposition reaction (ii) treatment of vaporization (iii) treatment of pre vaporizer (iv) treatment of flash 4 (v) treatment of decomposition of HI (vi) treatment of the flash 1-3 and (vii) Bunsen reaction. To regulate the distribution of energy and temperature appropriate to the needs of each process used 3 pieces of heat exchanger (HE). Calculation of energy distribution through the distribution of helium gas flow has been done with Scilab application programs, so that can know the distribution of thermal energy for production of 1 mole of hydrogen. From this model, it can calculate the thermal energy requirement for production of hydrogen at the desired capacity. In the conceptual design of RGTT200K, helium discharge has been designed by 20 kg/s, so that an efficient hydrogen production capacity needed to produce 15347.8 for 21.74 mole of H 2 . (author)

  15. Model for phonon transmission through a NbN grain-size distribution: Comparison with tunneling-spectroscopy observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chicault, R.; Joly, Y.

    1990-01-01

    Transport properties of phonons in granular NbN thin film with left-angle 111 right-angle texture are discussed. We propose a model in which each grain has an acoustic resonance when phonons propagate parallel to the film and where a coupling through the amorphous boundaries exists. A statistical study shows that the most homogeneous chains in the grain stack are selected because of the strong efficiency of their transport properties and that they give a fine structure of phonon modes even if the grain-size distribution is quite large. A reasonable agreement is obtained between our tunneling-spectroscopy experiments and the model. A typical experimental result has been fitted using an inelastic phonon-electron-interaction mean free path Λ ph ∼215 nm and a mean grain size d M ∼25.7 nm, the full width at half maximum of the grain distribution being 14 nm

  16. A New Method to Measure the Post-reionization Ionizing Background from the Joint Distribution of Lyα and Lyβ Forest Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Frederick B.; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Eilers, Anna-Christina; Lukić, Zarija

    2018-03-01

    The amplitude of the ionizing background that pervades the intergalactic medium (IGM) at the end of the epoch of reionization provides a valuable constraint on the emissivity of the sources that reionized the universe. While measurements of the ionizing background at lower redshifts rely on a simulation-calibrated mapping between the photoionization rate and the mean transmission of the Lyα forest, at z ≳ 6 the IGM becomes increasingly opaque and transmission arises solely in narrow spikes separated by saturated Gunn–Peterson troughs. In this regime, the traditional approach of measuring the average transmission over large ∼50 Mpc/h regions is less sensitive and suboptimal. In addition, the five times smaller oscillator strength of the Lyβ transition implies that the Lyβ forest is considerably more transparent at z ≳ 6, even in the presence of contamination by foreground z ∼ 5 Lyα forest absorption. In this work we present a novel statistical approach to analyze the joint distribution of transmission spikes in the cospatial z ∼ 6 Lyα and Lyβ forests. Our method relies on approximate Bayesian computation (ABC), which circumvents the necessity of computing the intractable likelihood function describing the highly correlated Lyα and Lyβ transmission. We apply ABC to mock data generated from a large-volume hydrodynamical simulation combined with a state-of-the-art model of ionizing background fluctuations in the post-reionization IGM and show that it is sensitive to higher IGM neutral hydrogen fractions than previous techniques. As a proof of concept, we apply this methodology to a real spectrum of a z = 6.54 quasar and measure the ionizing background from 5.4 ≤ z ≤ 6.4 along this sightline with ∼0.2 dex statistical uncertainties. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the

  17. Economic assessment group on power transmission and distribution networks tariffs; Groupe d'expertise economique sur la tarification des reseaux de transport et de distribution de l'electricite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-06-01

    Facing the new law on the electric power market liberalization, the french government created an experts group to analyze solutions and assessment methods of the electrical networks costs and tariffs and to control their efficiency. This report presents the analysis and the conclusions of the group. It concerns the three main subjects: the regulation context, the tariffing of the electric power transmission and distribution (the cost and efficiency of the various options) and the tariffing of the electric power supply to the eligible consumers. The authors provide a guideline for a tariffing policy. (A.L.B.)

  18. Economic assessment group on power transmission and distribution networks tariffs; Groupe d'expertise economique sur la tarification des reseaux de transport et de distribution de l'electricite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-06-01

    Facing the new law on the electric power market liberalization, the french government created an experts group to analyze solutions and assessment methods of the electrical networks costs and tariffs and to control their efficiency. This report presents the analysis and the conclusions of the group. It concerns the three main subjects: the regulation context, the tariffing of the electric power transmission and distribution (the cost and efficiency of the various options) and the tariffing of the electric power supply to the eligible consumers. The authors provide a guideline for a tariffing policy. (A.L.B.)

  19. Creation of a high yielding recombinant maize hybrid for the production of a microbicide for the prevention of HIV-1 transmission

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Barros, E

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to use conventional breeding to increase the production in maize of the human monoclonal antibody 2G12, known to have potential therapeutic properties in the prevention of HIV-1 transmission. The recombinant antibody...

  20. Distribution of the product confidence limits for the indirect effect: Program PRODCLIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, David P.; Fritz, Matthew S.; Williams, Jason; Lockwood, Chondra M.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a program, PRODCLIN (distribution of the PRODuct Confidence Limits for INdirect effects), written for SAS, SPSS, and R, that computes confidence limits for the product of two normal random variables. The program is important because it can be used to obtain more accurate confidence limits for the indirect effect, as demonstrated in several recent articles (MacKinnon, Lockwood, & Williams, 2004; Pituch, Whittaker, & Stapleton, 2005). Tests of the significance of and confidence limits for indirect effects based on the distribution of the product method have more accurate Type I error rates and more power than other, more commonly used tests. Values for the two paths involved in the indirect effect and their standard errors are entered in the PRODCLIN program, and distribution of the product confidence limits are computed. Several examples are used to illustrate the PRODCLIN program. The PRODCLIN programs in rich text format may be downloaded from www.psychonomic.org/archive. PMID:17958149

  1. Measurement of concentration and size distribution of radon decay products in homes using air cleaners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montassier, N.; Hopke, P.K.; Shi, Y.; McCallum, B.

    1992-01-01

    By removing particles, air cleaners can also eliminate radon decay products. However, by removing the particles, the open-quotes unattachedclose quotes fraction of the radon progeny is increased leading to a higher dose per unit exposure. Thus, both the concentration and size distributions of the radon decay products are needed to evaluate air cleaners. Three types of room air cleaners, NO-RAD Radon Removal System, Electronic Air Cleaner and PUREFLOW Air Treatment System were tested in a single family home in Arnprior, Ontario (Canada). Semi-continuous measurements of radon gas concentration and radon decay product activity weighted size distribution were performed in the kitchen/dining room under real living conditions. The effects of air cleaners on both the concentration and size distribution of the radon decay products were measured, and their impact on the dose of radiation given to the lung tissue were examined

  2. Mass and angular distributions of the reaction products in heavy ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasirov, A. K.; Giardina, G.; Mandaglio, G.; Kayumov, B. M.; Tashkhodjaev, R. B.

    2018-05-01

    The optimal reactions and beam energies leading to synthesize superheavy elements is searched by studying mass and angular distributions of fission-like products in heavy-ion collisions since the evaporation residue cross section consists an ignorable small part of the fusion cross section. The intensity of the yield of fission-like products allows us to estimate the probability of the complete fusion of the interacting nuclei. The overlap of the mass and angular distributions of the fusion-fission and quasifission products causes difficulty at estimation of the correct value of the probability of the compound nucleus formation. A study of the mass and angular distributions of the reaction products is suitable key to understand the interaction mechanism of heavy ion collisions.

  3. Radioactivity distribution in phosphate products, by-products, effluents, and wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimond, R.J.; Windham, S.T.

    1975-08-01

    Phosphate rock throughout the world contains uranium in concentrations ranging from a few ppM to a few hundred ppM. In the United States, phosphate rock normally contains between 100 to 150 ppM uranium. Mining and processing of these ores redistributes much of the uranium daughters among the various products, by-products, and wastes. These materials are then widely dispersed throughout the environment. This redistribution may lead to increased exposure of the public to these naturally-occurring radionuclides. In determining the magnitude of the population exposure caused by this redistribution and in developing environmental standards and controls to prevent contamination of the biosphere from these naturally-occurring radionuclides it is necessary to determine the concentrations and total quantities of these radionuclides in the products, by-products, effluents and wastes of phosphate mining and manufacturing. Samples of phosphate ores, products, by-products, effluents, and wastes were obtained and analyzed for their radioactivity content. Quantities of radioactivity entering the environment through various products, by-products, effluents, and wastes were estimated

  4. Genotypic distribution and phylogenetic characterization of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in diarrheic chickens and pigs in multiple cities, China: potential zoonotic transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    Full Text Available This study investigated diarrheic broiler and layer chickens (60 days; n=64 for E. bieneusi genotypes in northeast China and evaluated the potential roles of chickens and pigs in zoonotic transmission of microsporidiosis. Two 45-day-old layer chickens in city Jixi, Heilongjiang province and one 23-day-old broiler chicken in city Songyuan, Jilin province were identified to harbor a human-pathogenic E. bieneusi genotype Henan-IV and a new genotype named CC-1, respectively, by nested PCR and sequence analysis of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS. Eleven of 64 (17.2% duodenal mucosal specimens from pigs in city Tianjin, city Tongliao of Inner Mongolia, cities Jilin and Songyuan of Jilin province, and cities Daqing, Harbin, and Suihua of Heilongjiang province, were positive for E. bieneusi, with the infection rates of weaned pigs (35%, 7/20 significantly higher than preweaned ones (3.6%, 1/28; P<0.05. Nucleotide sequences of the ITS were obtained from 6 pig specimens, belonging to 3 known genotypes CHN7, EbpC, and Henan-IV. That the previous reports have described the occurrence of genotypes EbpC and Henan-IV in humans and EbpC in wastewater in central China and the clustering of genotypes CC-1 and CHN7 into a major phylogenetic group of E. bieneusi genotypes with zoonotic potential indicated that chickens and pigs could be potential sources of human micorsporidiosis. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the existence of zoonotic E. bieneusi genotypes in diarrheic chickens.

  5. Strain distribution in freestanding Si/Si{sub x}N{sub y} membranes studied by transmission electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Hongye, E-mail: hongye18@mm.kyushu-u.ac.j [Faculty of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Ikeda, Ken-ichi; Hata, Satoshi; Nakashima, Hideharu [Faculty of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Wang, Dong; Nakashima, Hiroshi [Art, Science and Technology Center for Cooperative Research, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan)

    2010-09-30

    Strain was induced in a bridge-shaped freestanding Si membrane (FSSM) by depositing an amorphous Si{sub x}N{sub y} layer to surround the Si membrane. Convergent beam electron diffraction revealed that compressive strain is distributed uniformly along the horizontal direction in Si{sub x}N{sub y}-deposited FSSM. On the other hand, strain decreases to almost zero at the ends of the FSSM, where the Si{sub x}N{sub y} layer beneath the Si layer is replaced by a SiO{sub 2} buried oxide layer.

  6. Energy Conversion and Transmission Characteristics Analysis of Ice Storage Air Conditioning System Driven by Distributed Photovoltaic Energy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongfeng Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce the investment and operation cost of distributed PV energy system, ice storage technology was introduced to substitute batteries for solar energy storage. Firstly, the ice storage air conditioning system (ISACS driven by distributed photovoltaic energy system (DPES was proposed and the feasibility studies have been investigated in this paper. And then, the theoretical model has been established and experimental work has been done to analyze the energy coupling and transferring characteristics in light-electricity-cold conversion process. In addition, the structure optimization analysis was investigated. Results revealed that energy losses were high in ice making process of ice slide maker with only 17.38% energy utilization efficiency and the energy efficiency and exergy efficiency of ISACS driven by DPES were 5.44% and 67.30%, respectively. So the immersed evaporator and cointegrated exchanger were adopted for higher energy utilization efficiency and better financial rewards in structure optimization. The COP and exergy efficiency of ice maker can be increased to 1.48 and 81.24%, respectively, after optimization and the energy utilization efficiency of ISACS driven by DPES could be improved 2.88 times. Moreover, ISACS has the out-of-the-box function of ordinary air conditioning system. In conclusion, ISACS driven by DPES will have good application prospects in tropical regions without power grid.

  7. Coordinating Supply Chain Distribution in the Presence of Production Disruption Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuanguo Xu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available With the impacts of unexpected events, production processes of supply chain system may be forced to interrupt in a certain period, which may decrease the supply capacity of manufacturer to its retailers. This paper discusses methods to distribute the limited stock in case the production disruptions occur. To ascertain a reasonable replenish sequence and quantity after the production disruption, a production disruption-oriented supply chain distribution model is offered, which can be used to minimize the negative impact of production disruption to supply chain system. And then a constraint satisfaction optimization method is established to resolve the model. Finally, validity of the model is verified with an actual application in an air-conditioner factory in China.

  8. Maui Smart Grid Demonstration Project Managing Distribution System Resources for Improved Service Quality and Reliability, Transmission Congestion Relief, and Grid Support Functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-09-30

    The Maui Smart Grid Project (MSGP) is under the leadership of the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute (HNEI) of the University of Hawaii at Manoa. The project team includes Maui Electric Company, Ltd. (MECO), Hawaiian Electric Company, Inc. (HECO), Sentech (a division of SRA International, Inc.), Silver Spring Networks (SSN), Alstom Grid, Maui Economic Development Board (MEDB), University of Hawaii-Maui College (UHMC), and the County of Maui. MSGP was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under Cooperative Agreement Number DE-FC26-08NT02871, with approximately 50% co-funding supplied by MECO. The project was designed to develop and demonstrate an integrated monitoring, communications, database, applications, and decision support solution that aggregates renewable energy (RE), other distributed generation (DG), energy storage, and demand response technologies in a distribution system to achieve both distribution and transmission-level benefits. The application of these new technologies and procedures will increase MECO’s visibility into system conditions, with the expected benefits of enabling more renewable energy resources to be integrated into the grid, improving service quality, increasing overall reliability of the power system, and ultimately reducing costs to both MECO and its customers.

  9. Production and Distribution Planning in District Heating Systems; Produktions- och distributionsplanering av fjaerrvaerme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kvarnstroem, Johan; Dotzauer, Erik; Dahlquist, Erik

    2006-12-15

    To produce heat and power is costly. Therefore it is important for the district heating companies to plan and optimize the production. The aim with the present project is to find out how also the distribution of heat can be considered in the planning. The principal procedure is to first construct a prediction of the heat demand, and then, given the demand prediction, construct the production plan. Due to the complexity of the problem, the need for mathematical models is obvious. The report gives a survey introduction to production planning in district heating systems and presents a model for the purpose. The model is developed for one of the district heating systems in Stockholm owned by the energy company Fortum. Traditionally, models for production planning do not consider the distribution network. In such models, usually the methodology Mixed Integer Programming (MIP) is used. The report suggests how the distribution network can be modeled as a MIP; it shall be possible to link the network model to existing software that models the production plants as MIP. The model is developed in the programming language GAMS. Analysis and results are presented. The results show that the suggested plans vary depending on if the distribution network is considered or not. The report also suggests how a simple sensitivity analysis of the production plans can be performed. This is necessary since there are always uncertainties associated with weather- and load predictions.

  10. Evaluation of energy saving tasks performed by the energy transmission and distribution companies; Denmark; Evaluering af energiselskabernes energibespareaktiviteter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Togeby, M. (Ea Energianalyse A/S, Copenhagen (Denmark))

    2012-05-15

    The evaluation is described in the Agreement of 20 November 2009 between the Danish Climate and Energy Minister and the distribution companies for electricity, natural gas, district heating and oil about the companies' future energy conservation efforts. The evaluation was conducted to provide recommendations for adjusting the system. The results of the evaluation show that energy companies and utilities meet the overall savings obligation. In 2011, 2,098 GWh savings are recorded, which is more than the obligation. The evaluation shows that the net effect is about 760 GWh (36%). When looking at types of energy companies, then the oil companies' activities generally have a low net effect and additionally is assessed to be low in relation to the district heating companies' renovation of the district heating network. The greatest additionally exists among large savings in the industry. The means that energy companies use to achieve savings obligations are significantly different today than a few years ago. Today there are grants for more than 85% of registered savings. Before 2006 primarily information and advice was used. Thus an estimated 400 million DKK annually is used for grants. Socio-economics is positive for the part of the effort that is aimed at businesses. The socio-economic value of the savings is calculated to be twice as large as the total cost when you only look at the industry. The system can thus be readily seen as a useful instrument to promote energy conservation in industry. For households, it is estimated that the net effect is 20% of the reported savings, while for industry the net effect is estimated to be 45%. Also, for renovations of the heat distribution networks the net effect is estimated to be low. (LN)

  11. Simulation by the method of inverse cumulative distribution function applied in optimising of foundry plant production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Szymszal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The study discusses application of computer simulation based on the method of inverse cumulative distribution function. The simulationrefers to an elementary static case, which can also be solved by physical experiment, consisting mainly in observations of foundryproduction in a selected foundry plant. For the simulation and forecasting of foundry production quality in selected cast iron grade, arandom number generator of Excel calculation sheet was chosen. Very wide potentials of this type of simulation when applied to theevaluation of foundry production quality were demonstrated, using a number generator of even distribution for generation of a variable ofan arbitrary distribution, especially of a preset empirical distribution, without any need of adjusting to this variable the smooth theoreticaldistributions.

  12. Modeling and Optimization of Inventory-Distribution Routing Problem for Agriculture Products Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Liao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical models of inventory-distribution routing problem for two-echelon agriculture products distribution network are established, which are based on two management modes, franchise chain and regular chain, one-to-many, interval periodic order, demand depending on inventory, deteriorating treatment cost of agriculture products, start-up costs of vehicles and so forth. Then, a heuristic adaptive genetic algorithm is presented for the model of franchise chain. For the regular chain model, a two-layer genetic algorithm based on oddment modification is proposed, in which the upper layer is to determine the distribution period and quantity and the lower layer is to seek the optimal order cycle, quantity, distribution routes, and the rational oddment modification number for the distributor. By simulation experiments, the validity of the algorithms is demonstrated, and the two management modes are compared.

  13. The potential effects of climate change on the distribution and productivity of Cunninghamia lanceolata in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yupeng; Yu, Deyong; Xun, Bin; Sun, Yun; Hao, Ruifang

    2014-01-01

    Climate changes may have immediate implications for forest productivity and may produce dramatic shifts in tree species distributions in the future. Quantifying these implications is significant for both scientists and managers. Cunninghamia lanceolata is an important coniferous timber species due to its fast growth and wide distribution in China. This paper proposes a methodology aiming at enhancing the distribution and productivity of C. lanceolata against a background of climate change. First, we simulated the potential distributions and establishment probabilities of C. lanceolata based on a species distribution model. Second, a process-based model, the PnET-II model, was calibrated and its parameterization of water balance improved. Finally, the improved PnET-II model was used to simulate the net primary productivity (NPP) of C. lanceolata. The simulated NPP and potential distribution were combined to produce an integrated indicator, the estimated total NPP, which serves to comprehensively characterize the productivity of the forest under climate change. The results of the analysis showed that (1) the distribution of C. lanceolata will increase in central China, but the mean probability of establishment will decrease in the 2050s; (2) the PnET-II model was improved, calibrated, and successfully validated for the simulation of the NPP of C. lanceolata in China; and (3) all scenarios predicted a reduction in total NPP in the 2050s, with a markedly lower reduction under the a2 scenario than under the b2 scenario. The changes in NPP suggested that forest productivity will show a large decrease in southern China and a mild increase in central China. All of these findings could improve our understanding of the impact of climate change on forest ecosystem structure and function and could provide a basis for policy-makers to apply adaptive measures and overcome the unfavorable influences of climate change.

  14. Uncovering Bugs in Distributed Storage Systems during Testing (not in Production!)

    OpenAIRE

    Deligiannis, P; McCutchen, M; Thomson, P; Chen, S; Donaldson, AF; Erickson, J; Huang, C; Lal, A; Mudduluru, R; Qadeer, S; Schulte, W

    2016-01-01

    Testing distributed systems is challenging due to multiple sources of nondeterminism. Conventional testing techniques, such as unit, integration and stress testing, are ineffective in preventing serious but subtle bugs from reaching production. Formal techniques, such as TLA+, can only verify high-level specifications of systems at the level of logic-based models, and fall short of checking the actual executable code. In this paper, we present a new methodology for testing distributed systems...

  15. Evaluation of angular distributions and production cross-sections for discrete gamma lines in iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savin, M.V.; Livke, A.V.; Zvenigorodskij, A.G.

    2001-01-01

    The experimental data were compiled and the angular distributions and production cross-sections for the E γ = 846.8, 1238.3 and 1810.8 keV discrete gamma-lines evaluated. The Legendre polynomial coefficients describing the angular distributions in the energy range up to E n = 14.0 MeV and cross-section values in the E n = 0.85-19.0 MeV range were evaluated. (author)

  16. A Sample Calculation of Tritium Production and Distribution at VHTR by using TRITGO Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ik Kyu; Kim, D. H.; Lee, W. J.

    2007-03-01

    TRITGO code was developed for estimating the tritium production and distribution of high temperature gas cooled reactor(HTGR), especially GTMHR350 by General Atomics. In this study, the tritium production and distribution of NHDD was analyzed by using TRITGO Code. The TRITGO code was improved by a simple method to calculate the tritium amount in IS Loop. The improved TRITGO input for the sample calculation was prepared based on GTMHR600 because the NHDD has been designed referring GTMHR600. The GTMHR350 input with related to the tritium distribution was directly used. The calculated tritium activity among the hydrogen produced in IS-Loop is 0.56 Bq/g- H2. This is a very satisfying result considering that the limited tritium activity of Japanese Regulation Guide is 5.6 Bq/g-H2. The basic system to analyze the tritium production and the distribution by using TRITGO was successfully constructed. However, there exists some uncertainties in tritium distribution models, the suggested method for IS-Loop, and the current input was not for NHDD but for GTMHR600. The qualitative analysis for the distribution model and the IS-Loop model and the quantitative analysis for the input should be done in the future

  17. A Sample Calculation of Tritium Production and Distribution at VHTR by using TRITGO Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ik Kyu; Kim, D. H.; Lee, W. J

    2007-03-15

    TRITGO code was developed for estimating the tritium production and distribution of high temperature gas cooled reactor(HTGR), especially GTMHR350 by General Atomics. In this study, the tritium production and distribution of NHDD was analyzed by using TRITGO Code. The TRITGO code was improved by a simple method to calculate the tritium amount in IS Loop. The improved TRITGO input for the sample calculation was prepared based on GTMHR600 because the NHDD has been designed referring GTMHR600. The GTMHR350 input with related to the tritium distribution was directly used. The calculated tritium activity among the hydrogen produced in IS-Loop is 0.56 Bq/g- H2. This is a very satisfying result considering that the limited tritium activity of Japanese Regulation Guide is 5.6 Bq/g-H2. The basic system to analyze the tritium production and the distribution by using TRITGO was successfully constructed. However, there exists some uncertainties in tritium distribution models, the suggested method for IS-Loop, and the current input was not for NHDD but for GTMHR600. The qualitative analysis for the distribution model and the IS-Loop model and the quantitative analysis for the input should be done in the future.

  18. Non-invasive analysis of industrial products using the simultaneous transmission of neutrons and gamma rays (Neugat) method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartle, C.M.

    1998-01-01

    This research programme is designed to develop industrial measurement systems utilising simultaneous transmission of neutrons and gamma rays (Neugat method). Descriptions of these systems have been given in reports and magazine articles, and industrial site trials have been undertaken. (author)

  19. Partial dissociative emission cross sections and product state distributions of the resulting photofragments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picconi, David; Grebenshchikov, Sergy Yu., E-mail: Sergy.Grebenshchikov@ch.tum.de

    2016-12-20

    This paper relates the partial cross section of a continuous optical emission into a given scattering channel of the lower electronic state to the photofragment population. This allows one to infer partial emission cross sections ‘non-optically’ from product state distributions; in computations, explicit construction of exact scattering states is therefore avoided. Applications to the emission spectra of NaI, CO{sub 2}, and pyrrole are given. It is also demonstrated that a similar relationship holds between partial cross sections of dissociative photoionization and distributions of ionic fragments over final product channels.

  20. Multiplicity distributions in a thermodynamical model of hadron production in e+e- collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becattini, F.; Giovannini, A.; Lupia, S.

    1996-01-01

    Predictions of a thermodynamical model of hadron production for multiplicity distributions in e + e - annihilations at LEP and PEP-PETRA centre of mass energies are shown. The production process is described as a two-step process in which primary hadrons emitted from the thermal source decay into final observable particles. The final charged track multiplicity distributions turn out to be of negative binomial type and are in quite good agreement with experimental observations. The average number of clans calculated from fitted negative binomial coincides with the average number of primary hadrons predicted by the thermodynamical model, suggesting that clans should be identified with primary hadrons. (orig.)

  1. Time dependent worldwide distribution of atmospheric neutrons and of their products. I, II, III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merker, M.; Light, E. S.; Verschell, H. J.; Mendell, R. B.; Korff, S. A.

    1973-01-01

    Review of the experimental results obtained in a series of measurements of the fast neutron cosmic ray spectrum by means of high-altitude balloons and aircraft. These results serve as a basis for checking a Monte Carlo calculation of the entire neutron distribution and its products. A calculation of neutron production and transport in the earth's atmosphere is then discussed for the purpose of providing a detailed description of the morphology of secondary neutron components. Finally, an analysis of neutron observations during solar particle events is presented. The Monte Carlo output is used to estimate the contribution of flare particles to fluctuations in the steady state neutron distributions.

  2. Mass resolved angular distribution of fission products in 20Ne + 232Th reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, R.; Sodaye, S.; Sudarshan, K.; Kumar, Amit; Guin, R.

    2011-01-01

    Mass resolved angular distribution of fission products was measured in 20 Ne + 232 Th reaction at beam energy of 120 MeV. A preliminary analysis of the angular distribution data of fission products shows higher average anisotropy compared to that calculated using statistical theory. A signature of rise in anisotropy near symmetry, as reported in earlier studies in literature, is also seen. Further study is in progress to get more detailed information about the contribution from non-compound nucleus fission and dependence of angular anisotropy on asymmetry of mass division

  3. Economics of long-distance transmission, storage, and distribution of heat from nuclear plants with existing and newer techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margen, P.H.

    1978-01-01

    Conventional and newer types of hot-water pipes are applied to the bulk transport of reject heat from central nuclear power plants to the district heating network of cities or groups of cities. With conventional pipes, the transport of 300 to 2000 MW of heat over distances of 30 to 100 km can be justified, while with newer pipe types, even longer distances would often be economic. For medium-size district heating schemes, low-temperature heat transport from simple heat-only reactors suitable for closer location to cities is of interest. For daily storage of heat on district heating systems, steel heat accumulators are currently used in Sweden. The development of more advanced cheaper heat accumulators, such as lake storage schemes, could make even seasonal heat storage economic. Newer distribution technology extends the economic field of penetration of district heating even to suburban one-family house districts. With proper design and optimization, nuclear district heating can be competitive in a wide market and achieve very substantial fossil-fuel savings

  4. Exclusive neutrino production of a charmed vector meson and transversity gluon generalized parton distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pire, B.; Szymanowski, L.

    2017-12-01

    We calculate at the leading order in αs the QCD amplitude for exclusive neutrino production of a D* or Ds* charmed vector meson on a nucleon. We work in the framework of the collinear QCD approach where generalized parton distributions (GPDs) factorize from perturbatively calculable coefficient functions. We include O (mc) terms in the coefficient functions and the O (mD) term in the definition of heavy meson distribution amplitudes. The show that the analysis of the angular distribution of the decay D(s) *→D(s )π allows us to access the transversity gluon GPDs.

  5. On the revival of the negative binomial distribution in multiparticle production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekspong, G.

    1990-01-01

    This paper is based on published and some unpublished material pertaining to the revival of interest in and success of applying the negative binomial distribution to multiparticle production since 1983. After a historically oriented introduction going farther back in time, the main part of the paper is devoted to an unpublished derivation of the negative binomial distribution based on empirical observations of forward-backward multiplicity correlations. Some physical processes leading to the negative binomial distribution are mentioned and some comments made on published criticisms

  6. Methodology for prioritizing projects considering the generation, transmission and distribution integrated planning and the financial restraints; Metodologia para priorizacao de projetos, considerando o planejamento integrado de geracao, transmissao e distribuicao e as restricoes financeiras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Denis Claudio Cruz de; Andrade, Eduardo Leopoldino de; Pimentel, Elson Luiz de Almeida; Pinto, Everton Barroso [Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais (CEMIG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    1995-12-31

    This technical report presents a methodology for economical evaluation and work design priorities in the electric system and the experience of CEMIG, an electric power utility of State of Minas Gerais - Southeast Brazil, in defining its transmission expansion plan. It is presented and discussed the concept of integrated projects for expansion, involving generation, transmission, distribution, automation and telecommunication works 3 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Development and Restructuring of Regional Production/Distribution Networks in East Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Mitsuyo ANDO

    2013-01-01

    This paper attempts to investigate the features of development and restructuring patterns of production/distribution networks in East Asia, mainly in machinery sectors, using international trade data at the most disaggregated level, to discuss their resilient nature, and to provide policy implications for the regional production networks and the economic development in the region. Although the negative impacts of the Global Financial Crisis (GFC) in 2008 were initially transmitted through the...

  8. Global perspectives on ensuring the safety of pharmaceutical products in the distribution process
.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Sohyun; Ji, Eunhee

    2018-01-01

    The distribution of counterfeit or falsified drugs is increasing worldwide. This can contribute to the high burden of disease and cost to society and is of global concern with the worldwide circulation of pharmaceuticals. The preparation and implementation of good distribution practice should be one of the most important aspects of ensuring safe drug circulation and administration. This research aimed to compare and analyze good distribution practice guidelines from advanced countries and international organizations, and to evaluate the status of the current good distribution practice guidelines in the world. Advanced pharmaceutical countries and international organizations, such as the World Health Organization, European Union, Pharmaceutical Inspection Co-operation Scheme, United States of America, Canada, and Australia, which have stable good distribution practice guidelines and public confidence, were included in the analysis. The World Health Organization and European Union guidelines are models for standardized good distribution practice for nations worldwide. The United States of America has a combination of four different series of distribution practices which have a unique structure and detailed content compared to those of other countries. The Canadian guidelines focus on temperature control during storage and transportation. The Australian guidelines apply to both classes of medicinal products and medical devices and need separate standardization. Transparent information about the Internet chain, international cooperation regarding counterfeiting, a high-standard qualification of sellers and customers, and technology to track and trace the whole life cycle of drugs should be the main focus of future good distribution practice guidelines worldwide.
.

  9. DIURON OCCURRENCE AND DISTRIBUTION IN SOIL AND SURFACE AND GROUND WATER ASSOCIATED WITH GRASS SEED PRODUCTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diuron (3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethyl urea) is the principal herbicide used in grass seed production. The occurrence and distribution of diuron was investigated at a poorly-drained field site located along an intermittent tributary of Lake Creek in the southern Willamette ...

  10. Population distribution, food production and other aspects in the vicinity of the Embalse Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancio, D.; Ciallella, N.R.; Zunino, R.; Perez, T.; Jordan, O.

    1978-01-01

    The paper presents some of the results of the pre-operational studies carried out in the vicinity of the site of the Embalse Nuclear Power Station, which is being built in the Province of Cordoba, Rio Tercero, next to the lake Embalse. The studies cover population distribution, food production, and other local aspects. The low population in the vicinity of the site increases in summer due to tourism. Main use of the land is grazing and cereal production. Milk production is small, but some is produced near the site. Other aspects of the study are presented in other papers of the Seminar. (author)

  11. Confidence Limits for the Indirect Effect: Distribution of the Product and Resampling Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, David P.; Lockwood, Chondra M.; Williams, Jason

    2010-01-01

    The most commonly used method to test an indirect effect is to divide the estimate of the indirect effect by its standard error and compare the resulting z statistic with a critical value from the standard normal distribution. Confidence limits for the indirect effect are also typically based on critical values from the standard normal distribution. This article uses a simulation study to demonstrate that confidence limits are imbalanced because the distribution of the indirect effect is normal only in special cases. Two alternatives for improving the performance of confidence limits for the indirect effect are evaluated: (a) a method based on the distribution of the product of two normal random variables, and (b) resampling methods. In Study 1, confidence limits based on the distribution of the product are more accurate than methods based on an assumed normal distribution but confidence limits are still imbalanced. Study 2 demonstrates that more accurate confidence limits are obtained using resampling methods, with the bias-corrected bootstrap the best method overall. PMID:20157642

  12. LOGDIS - a system of support to decision in logistic of petroleum products distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Rogerio M.F.; Limoeiro, Claudio D.P.; Zerbini, Jose E.; Blanco, Jose F.

    2000-01-01

    The deregulation of the oil product distribution segment in Brazil is inducing higher competition and causing reduction of profit margins for all players in the industry. Until the beginning of the 90's, each of the most important products had the same price all over the country, with freight cost differences being integrally paid by the Brazilian Government. In the context of higher competition the minimization of distribution costs turns to be very important for the survival of players in the marketing and distribution sector. In order to achieve this goal, PETROBRAS Distribuidora (BR) has been using, since 1999, a decision support system known as LogDis that incorporates optimization algorithms and geographic information system, helping the supply planners to work in a better and more effective basis. This paper intends to describe and present this system. (author)

  13. 76 FR 55835 - Non-Face-to-Face Sale and Distribution of Tobacco Products and Advertising, Promotion, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    ... Advertising, Promotion, and Marketing of Tobacco Products AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION...-to-face sale and distribution of tobacco products and the advertising, promotion, and marketing of... information related to non-face-to-face sale and distribution of tobacco products; the advertising, promotion...

  14. 76 FR 76096 - Non-Face-to-Face Sale and Distribution of Tobacco Products and Advertising, Promotion, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... Advertising, Promotion, and Marketing of Tobacco Products; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY: Food and Drug... related to non-face-to- face sale and distribution of tobacco products; the advertising, promotion, and...- face-to-face sale and distribution of tobacco products and the advertising, promotion, and marketing of...

  15. Effect of Pyruvate Decarboxylase Knockout on Product Distribution Using Pichia pastoris (Komagataella phaffii) Engineered for Lactic Acid Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Nadiele T M; Mulder, Kelly C L; Nicola, André Moraes; Carvalho, Lucas S; Menino, Gisele S; Mulinari, Eduardo; Parachin, Nádia S

    2018-02-16

    Lactic acid is the monomer unit of the bioplastic poly-lactic acid (PLA). One candidate organism for lactic acid production is Pichia pastoris , a yeast widely used for heterologous protein production. Nevertheless, this yeast has a poor fermentative capability that can be modulated by controlling oxygen levels. In a previous study, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity was introduced into P. pastoris, enabling this yeast to produce lactic acid. The present study aimed to increase the flow of pyruvate towards the production of lactic acid in P. pastoris . To this end, a strain designated GLp was constructed by inserting the bovine lactic acid dehydrogenase gene (LDHb) concomitantly with the interruption of the gene encoding pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC). Aerobic fermentation, followed by micro-aerophilic culture two-phase fermentations, showed that the GLp strain achieved a lactic acid yield of 0.65 g/g. The distribution of fermentation products demonstrated that the acetate titer was reduced by 20% in the GLp strain with a concomitant increase in arabitol production: arabitol increased from 0.025 g/g to 0.174 g/g when compared to the GS115 strain. Taken together, the results show a significant potential for P. pastoris in producing lactic acid. Moreover, for the first time, physiological data regarding co-product formation have indicated the redox balance limitations of this yeast.

  16. Sensitivity of Distributed Hydrologic Simulations to Ground and Satellite Based Rainfall Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singaiah Chintalapudi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, seven precipitation products (rain gauges, NEXRAD MPE, PERSIANN 0.25 degree, PERSIANN CCS-3hr, PERSIANN CCS-1hr, TRMM 3B42V7, and CMORPH were used to force a physically-based distributed hydrologic model. The model was driven by these products to simulate the hydrologic response of a 1232 km2 watershed in the Guadalupe River basin, Texas. Storm events in 2007 were used to analyze the precipitation products. Comparison with rain gauge observations reveals that there were significant biases in the satellite rainfall products and large variations in the estimated amounts. The radar basin average precipitation compared very well with the rain gauge product while the gauge-adjusted TRMM 3B42V7 precipitation compared best with observed rainfall among all satellite precipitation products. The NEXRAD MPE simulated streamflows matched the observed ones the best yielding the highest Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency correlation coefficient values for both the July and August 2007 events. Simulations driven by TRMM 3B42V7 matched the observed streamflow better than other satellite products for both events. The PERSIANN coarse resolution product yielded better runoff results than the higher resolution product. The study reveals that satellite rainfall products are viable alternatives when rain gauge or ground radar observations are sparse or non-existent.

  17. The use of heteroduplex analysis of polymerase chain reaction products to support the possible transmission of Legionella pneumophila from a malfunctioning automobile air conditioner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinar, Ahmet; Ramirez, Julio A; Schindler, Laura L; Miller, Richard D; Summersgill, James T

    2002-03-01

    Air conditioner condensates have not been previously associated with cases of Legionnaires' disease. We report the possible transmission of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 from a malfunctioning automobile air conditioning system's leaking water onto the floorboard of a car driven for a long distance by the patient. Heteroduplex analysis of polymerase chain reaction products was used to help establish an epidemiologic link between the water specimen and the patient.

  18. Sustainable Agrifood Production and Distribution through Innovative Technologies and Operational Research Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bochtis, Dionysis

    The global demand for food is expected to grow considerably as a consequence of the expected population increase and the increasing demand of consumers for product quality and differentiation. In this perspective the global need for food is expected to increase by 70% until 2050. As a consequence......, satellite navigation, and robotics that are originated from the different solution domains, can pave the way towards sustainable and efficient agrifood production and the corresponding distribution systems. However, a preliminary step in the direction of achieving increasing efficiency in terms......, agrifood production will have a crucial effect on the future land use, water resources, climate, biodiversity, etc. To this end, bioproduction and the related distribution systems have to tackle a number of environmental, technological, organisational, financial, and political challenges over the coming...

  19. Measurement of mass distribution of U-235 fission products in the intermediate neutron region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagomi, Yoshihiro; Kobayashi, Shohei; Yamamoto, Shuji; Kanno, Ikuo; Wakabayashi, Hiroaki.

    1982-01-01

    The mass distribution and the momentum distribution of U-235 fission products in the intermediate neutron region were measured by using a combination system of the Yayoi intermediate neutron column and an electron linear accelerator. The double energy measurement method was applied. A fission chamber, which consists of an enriched uranium target and two Si surface barrier detectors, was used for the measurement of the neutrons with energy above 1.3 eV. The linear accelerator was operated at the repetition rate of 100 Hz and the pulse width of 10 ns. The data obtained by the two-dimensional pulse height analysis were analyzed by the Schmitt's method. The preliminary results of the mass distribution and the momentum distribution of fission fragments were obtained. (Kato, T.)

  20. Two efficient heuristics to solve the integrated load distribution and production planning problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajpal, Yuvraj; Nourelfath, Mustapha

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers a multi-period production system where a set of machines are arranged in parallel. The machines are unreliable and the failure rate of machine depends on the load assigned to the machine. The expected production rate of the system is considered to be a non-monotonic function of its load. Because of the machine failure rate, the total production output depends on the combination of loads assigned to different machines. We consider the integration of load distribution decisions with production planning decision. The product demands are considered to be known in advance. The objective is to minimize the sum of holding costs, backorder costs, production costs, setup costs, capacity change costs and unused capacity costs while satisfying the demand over specified time horizon. The constraint is not to exceed available repair resources required to repair the machine breakdown. The paper develops two heuristics to solve the integrated load distribution and production planning problem. The first heuristic consists of a three-phase approach, while the second one is based on tabu search metaheuristic. The efficiency of the proposed heuristics is tested through the randomly generated problem instances. - Highlights: • The expected performance of the system is a non-monotonic function of its load. • We consider the integration of load distribution and production planning decisions. • The paper proposes three phase and tabu search based heuristics to solve the problem. • Lower bound has been developed for checking the effectiveness of the heuristics. • The efficiency of the heuristic is tested through randomly generated instances.

  1. Production and distribution of livestock products in Aomori Prefecture. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyogi, Takashi; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi; Inaba, Jiro

    2001-01-01

    We collected natural and sociological environmental data related to the estimation of radiation dose by radionuclides that will be released from atomic energy facilities in Rokkasho Village. The consumption rates of livestock feed by domestic animals are important factors for the estimation of radioactive materials transfers to them. We surveyed the amount of livestock feed in and around Rokkasho Village by means of questionnaires to stockbreeding farmers. The questionnaires were distributed to 90 farmers who kept one of five kinds of domestic animals or poultry; milking cattle, beef cattle, hogs, broilers and layers. Several farming companies were also included as subjects. Recovery of the questionnaires was 59%. The hogs, broilers and layers were fed with compound feeds made of imported materials. The feed for milking cattle and beef cattle consisted of grass, field corn and other concentrates. The grass and field corn were assumed to be locally produced. The consumption rates of grass and field corn for dairy cattle were 20.4 kg-fresh d -1 and 6.8 kg-fresh d -1 , respectively. Those for beef cattle were 3.1 kg-fresh d -1 and 0.5 kg-fresh d -1 of grass and field corn, respectively. All these rates were lower than those used in the environmental assessment of the reprocessing plant which is now under construction in Rokkasho Village. (author)

  2. Surface-deposition and distribution of the radon-decay products indoors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinosa, G.; Tommasino, L.

    2015-01-01

    The exposure to radon-decay products is of great concern both in dwellings and workplaces. The model to estimate the lung dose refers to the deposition mechanisms and particle sizes. Unfortunately, most of the dose data available are based on the measurement of radon concentration and the concentration of radon decay products. These combined measurements are widely used in spite of the fact that accurate dose assessments require information on the particle deposition mechanisms and the spatial distribution of radon decay products indoors. Most of the airborne particles and/or radon decay products are deposited onto indoor surfaces, which deposition makes the radon decay products unavailable for inhalation. These deposition processes, if properly known, could be successfully exploited to reduce the exposure to radon decay products. In spite of the importance of the surface deposition of the radon decay products, both for the correct evaluation of the dose and for reducing the exposure; little or no efforts have been made to investigate these deposition processes. Recently, two parallel investigations have been carried out in Rome and at Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM) in Mexico City respectively, which address the issue of the surface-deposited radon decay products. Even though these investigations have been carried independently, they complement one another. It is with these considerations in mind that it was decided to report both investigations in the same paper. - Highlights: • Distribution of Radon and Thoron decay indoor products. • Indoor radon measurements complexity. • Short and long term measurements of surface deposit of Radon and Thoron decay products. • Microclimate controlled conditions room. • Nuclear Tracks Detectors

  3. The Integration of Production-Distribution on Newspapers Supply Chain for Cost Minimization using Analytic Models: Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Febriana Aqidawati, Era; Sutopo, Wahyudi; Hisjam, Muh.

    2018-03-01

    Newspapers are products with special characteristics which are perishable, have a shorter range of time between the production and distribution, zero inventory, and decreasing sales value along with increasing in time. Generally, the problem of production and distribution in the paper supply chain is the integration of production planning and distribution to minimize the total cost. The approach used in this article to solve the problem is using an analytical model. In this article, several parameters and constraints have been considered in the calculation of the total cost of the integration of production and distribution of newspapers during the determined time horizon. This model can be used by production and marketing managers as decision support in determining the optimal quantity of production and distribution in order to obtain minimum cost so that company's competitiveness level can be increased.

  4. Neuroglial Transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundersen, Vidar; Storm-Mathisen, Jon; Bergersen, Linda Hildegard

    2015-01-01

    as a signaling substance recently shown to act on specific lactate receptors in the brain. Complementing neurotransmission at a synapse, neuroglial transmission often implies diffusion of the transmitter over a longer distance and concurs with the concept of volume transmission. Transmission from glia modulates...... synaptic neurotransmission based on energetic and other local conditions in a volume of tissue surrounding the individual synapse. Neuroglial transmission appears to contribute significantly to brain functions such as memory, as well as to prevalent neuropathologies....

  5. The Global Experience of Development of the Theory of Spatial Distribution of Productive Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiman Oleh A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The publication is aimed at theoretical generalization of the global experience of development of the theory of spatial distribution of productive forces as the basis of regional economy. Considering the evolution of scientific views on the spatial development of territories, taking account of the particularities of the distribution of production, one can allocate and identify several paradigms, which replaced each other, but preserved their connection with the placement of productive forces. Each one of these paradigms or all of them as a whole provide an example of a single historical process associated with the productive forces. Characteristic of a methodology based on the spatiotemporal paradigm is consideration of both time and space factors, which, in substance, take on the qualities of economic categories. Speaking of the use of theoretical developments in the practice of regional development, it should be specified that programs, strategies and other regulations must take into account the linkage between the progressive and the negative trends as well as cyclical nature of economic development, including the global economy, identify the factors that accelerate or retard the passage of every evolutionary spiral, and observe consistency of the productive forces of region with the technological patterns of production.

  6. Simulation of product distribution at PT Anugrah Citra Boga by using capacitated vehicle routing problem method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamdjaya, T.; Jobiliong, E.

    2017-01-01

    PT Anugrah Citra Boga is a food processing industry that produces meatballs as their main product. The distribution system of the products must be considered, because it needs to be more efficient in order to reduce the shipment cost. The purpose of this research is to optimize the distribution time by simulating the distribution channels with capacitated vehicle routing problem method. Firstly, the distribution route is observed in order to calculate the average speed, time capacity and shipping costs. Then build the model using AIMMS software. A few things that are required to simulate the model are customer locations, distances, and the process time. Finally, compare the total distribution cost obtained by the simulation and the historical data. It concludes that the company can reduce the shipping cost around 4.1% or Rp 529,800 per month. By using this model, the utilization rate can be more optimal. The current value for the first vehicle is 104.6% and after the simulation it becomes 88.6%. Meanwhile, the utilization rate of the second vehicle is increase from 59.8% to 74.1%. The simulation model is able to produce the optimal shipping route with time restriction, vehicle capacity, and amount of vehicle.

  7. Risk for interspecies transmission of zoonotic pathogens during poultry processing and pork production in Peru: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnero, A M; Kitayama, K; Diaz, D A; Garvich, M; Angulo, N; Cama, V A; Gilman, R H; Bayer, A M

    2018-03-30

    Interspecies transmission of pathogens is an unfrequent but naturally occurring event and human activities may favour opportunities not previously reported. Reassortment of zoonotic pathogens like influenza A virus can result from these activities. Recently, swine and birds have played a central role as "mixing vessels" for epidemic and pandemic events related to strains like H1N1 and H5N1. Unsafe practices in poultry markets and swine farms can lead to interspecies transmission, favouring the emergence of novel strains. Thus, understanding practices that lead to interspecies interactions is crucial. This qualitative study aimed to evaluate poultry processing practices in formal and informal markets and the use of leftovers by swine farmers in three Peruvian cities: Lima (capital), Tumbes (coastal) and Tarapoto (jungle). We conducted 80 direct observations at formal and informal markets and interviewed 15 swine farmers. Processors slaughter and pluck chickens and vendors and/or processors eviscerate chickens. Food safety and hygiene practices were suboptimal or absent, although some heterogeneity was observed between cities and chicken vendors versus processors. Both vendors (76%) and processors (100%) sold the chicken viscera leftovers to swine farmers, representing the main source of chicken viscera for swine farms (53%). Swine farmers fed the chicken viscera to their swine. Chicken viscera cooking times varied widely and were insufficient in some cases. Non-abattoired poultry leads to the sale of poultry leftovers to small-scale swine farms, resulting in indirect but frequent interspecies contacts that can lead to interspecies transmission of bacterial pathogens or the reassortment of influenza A viruses. These interactions are exacerbated by suboptimal safety and hygiene conditions. People involved in these activities constitute an at-risk population who could play a central role in preventing the transmission of pathogens between species. Educational

  8. Experience of BESIII data production with local cluster and distributed computing model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Z Y; Li, W D; Liu, H M; Sun, Y Z; Zhang, X M; Lin, L; Nicholson, C; Zhemchugov, A

    2012-01-01

    The BES III detector is a new spectrometer which works on the upgraded high-luminosity collider, BEPCII. The BES III experiment studies physics in the tau-charm energy region from 2 GeV to 4.6 GeV . From 2009 to 2011, BEPCII has produced 106M ψ(2S) events, 225M J/ψ events, 2.8 fb −1 ψ(3770) data, and 500 pb −1 data at 4.01 GeV. All the data samples were processed successfully and many important physics results have been achieved based on these samples. Doing data production correctly and efficiently with limited CPU and storage resources is a big challenge. This paper will describe the implementation of the experiment-specific data production for BESIII in detail, including data calibration with event-level parallel computing model, data reconstruction, inclusive Monte Carlo generation, random trigger background mixing and multi-stream data skimming. Now, with the data sample increasing rapidly, there is a growing demand to move from solely using a local cluster to a more distributed computing model. A distributed computing environment is being set up and expected to go into production use in 2012. The experience of BESIII data production, both with a local cluster and with a distributed computing model, is presented here.

  9. Modeling a distributed environment for a petroleum reservoir engineering application with software product line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheidt, Rafael de Faria; Vilain, Patrícia; Dantas, M A R

    2014-01-01

    Petroleum reservoir engineering is a complex and interesting field that requires large amount of computational facilities to achieve successful results. Usually, software environments for this field are developed without taking care out of possible interactions and extensibilities required by reservoir engineers. In this paper, we present a research work which it is characterized by the design and implementation based on a software product line model for a real distributed reservoir engineering environment. Experimental results indicate successfully the utilization of this approach for the design of distributed software architecture. In addition, all components from the proposal provided greater visibility of the organization and processes for the reservoir engineers

  10. Modeling a distributed environment for a petroleum reservoir engineering application with software product line

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Faria Scheidt, Rafael; Vilain, Patrícia; Dantas, M. A. R.

    2014-10-01

    Petroleum reservoir engineering is a complex and interesting field that requires large amount of computational facilities to achieve successful results. Usually, software environments for this field are developed without taking care out of possible interactions and extensibilities required by reservoir engineers. In this paper, we present a research work which it is characterized by the design and implementation based on a software product line model for a real distributed reservoir engineering environment. Experimental results indicate successfully the utilization of this approach for the design of distributed software architecture. In addition, all components from the proposal provided greater visibility of the organization and processes for the reservoir engineers.

  11. Differential distributions for top-quark hadro-production with a running mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowling, M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Moch, S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2013-05-15

    We take a look at how the differential distributions for top-quark production are affected by changing to the running mass scheme. Specifically we consider the transverse momentum, rapidity and pair-invariant mass distributions at NLO for the top-quark mass in the MS scheme. It is found that, similar to the total cross section, the perturbative expansion converges faster and the scale dependence improves using the mass in the MS scheme as opposed to the on-shell scheme. We also update the analysis for the total cross section using the now available full NNLO contribution.

  12. Differential distributions for top-quark hadro-production with a running mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowling, M.; Moch, S.; Hamburg Univ.

    2013-05-01

    We take a look at how the differential distributions for top-quark production are affected by changing to the running mass scheme. Specifically we consider the transverse momentum, rapidity and pair-invariant mass distributions at NLO for the top-quark mass in the MS scheme. It is found that, similar to the total cross section, the perturbative expansion converges faster and the scale dependence improves using the mass in the MS scheme as opposed to the on-shell scheme. We also update the analysis for the total cross section using the now available full NNLO contribution.

  13. Review of tomography technique for 3-dimensional fission product distribution determination in irradiated fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pakr, D G; Hong, K P; Joo, Y S; Lee, H K

    2006-04-15

    Tomography algorithm is reviewed in order to determine radial 2-dimensional fission product distribution of irradiated fuel rod and to reconstruct it's image using computer. Main contents are Radon transformation, Fourier central slice theorem, inverse Fourier transform, accompanied FBP(Filtered Back Projection) and BPB(Back Projection Filtering). In addition, another tomography reconstruction algorithm, namely, ART(Algebraic Reconstruction Technique) is reviewed briefly. According to reviewed results, we devise equipment for determining of 2-dimensional distribution of irradiated nuclear fuel using existing gamma scanning apparatus. On results of review, It is necessary to develop computer program of reconstruction algorithm for determining of object function and image reconstruction.

  14. Review of tomography technique for 3-dimensional fission product distribution determination in irradiated fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakr, D. G.; Hong, K. P.; Joo, Y. S.; Lee, H. K.

    2006-04-01

    Tomography algorithm is reviewed in order to determine radial 2-dimensional fission product distribution of irradiated fuel rod and to reconstruct it's image using computer. Main contents are Radon transformation, Fourier central slice theorem, inverse Fourier transform, accompanied FBP(Filtered Back Projection) and BPB(Back Projection Filtering). In addition, another tomography reconstruction algorithm, namely, ART(Algebraic Reconstruction Technique) is reviewed briefly. According to reviewed results, we devise equipment for determining of 2-dimensional distribution of irradiated nuclear fuel using existing gamma scanning apparatus. On results of review, It is necessary to develop computer program of reconstruction algorithm for determining of object function and image reconstruction

  15. The Spanish distribution system for oil products: an obstacle to competition?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contin, I. [Universidad Publica de Navarra (Spain). Dpto. Gestion de Empresas; University of Njimegen (Netherlands). International Political Economy Centre; Correlje, A. [University of Rotterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of General Economy; Huerta, E. [Universidad Publica de Navarra (Spain). Dpto. Gestion de Empresas

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines why the formal liberalization of the Spanish market for automotive fuels did not introduce competition in the sector. Against the background of the transformation of the country's oil industry, it is shown how the Spanish distribution system emerged as the essential facility within the formally liberalized oil products market. 'Light-handed' regulation, in combination with the prevailing ownership structure turned the system into an impediment to newcomers' activities and to competition. This suggests that an evaluation of regulatory options for distribution systems in specific markets should take into due account crucial market characteristics like concentration and specific ownership/control relationships. (author)

  16. Practical Coupled Resonators in Domino Arrangements for Power Transmission and Distribution: Replacing Step-Down Power Transformers and Their Branches across the Power Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios G. Lazaropoulos

    2013-01-01

    /low-voltage (MV/LV, and HV/LV power transformers used across the world is investigated verifying their replacement potential with practical DCR configurations in all the cases examined. Fifth, based on a detailed collection of dimensions concerning power transformers and transmission line branches, it is first verified that practical DCR configurations cannot only substitute all step-down power transformers of the today's power grid but also replace entire transmission line branches too. Finally, it is obvious that there is a long journey ahead for WPT technology and its ultramodern DCR configurations to be affordably, widely, reliably, sustainably, and safely adopted in the human society. During these first steps of WPT development for power transmission and distribution, theoretical analyses and visions are necessary. The last cable problem, that is, the seamless power delivery as easily as information is now transmitted through the air, is one of the major technological challenges of the 21st century, and, thus, WPT technology will certainly play key role.

  17. Distribution patterns and morphology of sensilla on the antennae of Plutella xylostella (L.)-A scanning and transmission electron microscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xi-Zhong; Deng, Cai-Ping; Xie, Jiao-Xin; Wu, Lan-Jun; Sun, Xue-Jun; Hao, Chi

    2017-12-01

    The antennal morphology, types of antennal sensilla, fine structures and distributions of the sensilla in Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) were studied by scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy. The antenna, scape, pedicel and flagellum were all longer in males than in females. A total of seventeen types of sensilla were identified on the antennae: trichodea (two subtypes), basiconica, coeloconica (three subtypes), Böhm's bristles (two subtypes), styloconica (two subtypes), squamiformia, auricillica, furcatea (three subtypes), cupuliform organs and terminal sensory pegs. Their numbers and distributions were studied in both male and female, and we found some of the sensilla exhibited various degrees of sexual dimorphisms. Sensilla trichodea were the most abundant of all sensillum types whereas terminal peg was present only once per antenna. Sensilla trichodea in males were bigger (subtype I) and more abundant than in females, however, sensilla basiconica and squamiformia were significantly smaller and less abundant in males than in females. Sensilla styloconica II was only found in females. Seven common sensillum types were studied with TEM to reveal its fine internal structure providing morphological evidences of their sensory functions. Sensilla trichodea I, basiconica and coeloconica III have porous walls suggesting olfactory functions. Combined with the sexual dimorphism, sensilla trichodea male P. xylostella might be involved in detecting sexual pheromones and sensilla basiconica of female might respond to host plant volatiles. Whereas sensilla coeloconica (subtype I and II) and Böhm's bristles have nonporous walls suggesting non-olfactory functions. The study presented a thorough inventory of sensilla on the antennae and laid a solid foundation for future functional studies of these sensilla in this important economical pest. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Towards an optimal transmission system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calviou, M.

    2005-01-01

    This presentation provided background on National Grid USA and discussed transmission investment in the United States (US) and United Kingdom. It also discussed barriers to transmission investments and improvements, thoughts on solutions and a long-term vision. The presentation identified that transmission investment should follow from clear reliability rules designed to promote better operation and management; investment does not necessarily mean new rights-of-way; and transmission investment should target benefits to customers. It was stated that US transmission investment levels have decreased. A comparison between US and UK transmission investment was presented along with a chart of increasing US congestion costs. Barriers to investment in US transmission include vertical integration; misperception of transmission as a market product; federal and state jurisdiction issues; fragmentation in transmission ownership and operation; rate cap based plans that impact transmission; lack of clarity in cost allocation; and the site selection process. Possible solutions include policy and incentives, promoting independence and resolving structural issues. tabs., figs

  19. Drivers of Tuberculosis Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathema, Barun; Andrews, Jason R; Cohen, Ted; Borgdorff, Martien W; Behr, Marcel; Glynn, Judith R; Rustomjee, Roxana; Silk, Benjamin J; Wood, Robin

    2017-11-03

    Measuring tuberculosis transmission is exceedingly difficult, given the remarkable variability in the timing of clinical disease after Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection; incident disease can result from either a recent (ie, weeks to months) or a remote (ie, several years to decades) infection event. Although we cannot identify with certainty the timing and location of tuberculosis transmission for individuals, approaches for estimating the individual probability of recent transmission and for estimating the fraction of tuberculosis cases due to recent transmission in populations have been developed. Data used to estimate the probable burden of recent transmission include tuberculosis case notifications in young children and trends in tuberculin skin test and interferon γ-release assays. More recently, M. tuberculosis whole-genome sequencing has been used to estimate population levels of recent transmission, identify the distribution of specific strains within communities, and decipher chains of transmission among culture-positive tuberculosis cases. The factors that drive the transmission of tuberculosis in communities depend on the burden of prevalent tuberculosis; the ways in which individuals live, work, and interact (eg, congregate settings); and the capacity of healthcare and public health systems to identify and effectively treat individuals with infectious forms of tuberculosis. Here we provide an overview of these factors, describe tools for measurement of ongoing transmission, and highlight knowledge gaps that must be addressed. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  20. Co-pyrolysis of low rank coals and biomass: Product distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soncini, Ryan M.; Means, Nicholas C.; Weiland, Nathan T.

    2013-10-01

    Pyrolysis and gasification of combined low rank coal and biomass feeds are the subject of much study in an effort to mitigate the production of green house gases from integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) systems. While co-feeding has the potential to reduce the net carbon footprint of commercial gasification operations, the effects of co-feeding on kinetics and product distributions requires study to ensure the success of this strategy. Southern yellow pine was pyrolyzed in a semi-batch type drop tube reactor with either Powder River Basin sub-bituminous coal or Mississippi lignite at several temperatures and feed ratios. Product gas composition of expected primary constituents (CO, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and C{sub 2}H{sub 4}) was determined by in-situ mass spectrometry while minor gaseous constituents were determined using a GC-MS. Product distributions are fit to linear functions of temperature, and quadratic functions of biomass fraction, for use in computational co-pyrolysis simulations. The results are shown to yield significant nonlinearities, particularly at higher temperatures and for lower ranked coals. The co-pyrolysis product distributions evolve more tar, and less char, CH{sub 4}, and C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, than an additive pyrolysis process would suggest. For lignite co-pyrolysis, CO and H{sub 2} production are also reduced. The data suggests that evolution of hydrogen from rapid pyrolysis of biomass prevents the crosslinking of fragmented aromatic structures during coal pyrolysis to produce tar, rather than secondary char and light gases. Finally, it is shown that, for the two coal types tested, co-pyrolysis synergies are more significant as coal rank decreases, likely because the initial structure in these coals contains larger pores and smaller clusters of aromatic structures which are more readily retained as tar in rapid co-pyrolysis.

  1. Dispersions and correlations of the distributions of products of 252Cf spontaneous fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidyakin, G.S.; Vyrodov, V.N.; Gurevich, I.I.; Kirillov, B.F.; Kozlov, Y.V.; Martem'yanov, V.P.; Sukhotin, S.V.; Tarasenkov, V.G.; Khakimov, S.K.

    1982-01-01

    We report the results of two experiments on study of the dispersions and correlations of the distributions of products of the spontaneous fission of 252 Cf. In each experiment about 10 8 fissions were recorded with simultaneous measurement of the number of neutrons produced and in one case the fragment kinetic energy and in the other case the energy of the prompt #betta# rays. The quantities obtained were the probabilities of production of a given number of neutrons per fission, the dispersions of the distributions of the number of neutrons produced and of the fragment kinetic energy, and the dependence of the average #betta#-ray energy and the average fragment kinetic energy on the number of neutrons produced. A calculation is made of the spectrum of the total energy carried away by fragments and neutrons, and its dispersion is determined. An estimate of the total energy release in the 252 Cf fission process is made

  2. Integrals over products of distributions and coordinate independence of zero-temperature path integrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinert, H.; Chervyakov, A.

    2003-01-01

    In perturbative calculations of quantum-statistical zero-temperature path integrals in curvilinear coordinates one encounters Feynman diagrams involving multiple temporal integrals over products of distributions, which are mathematically undefined. In addition, there are terms proportional to powers of Dirac δ-functions at the origin coming from the measure of path integration. We give simple rules for integrating products of distributions in such a way that the results ensure coordinate independence of the path integrals. The rules are derived by using equations of motion and partial integration, while keeping track of certain minimal features originating in the unique definition of all singular integrals in 1-ε dimensions. Our rules yield the same results as the much more cumbersome calculations in 1-ε dimensions where the limit ε→0 is taken at the end. They also agree with the rules found in an independent treatment on a finite time interval

  3. Spatiotemporal trends in Canadian domestic wild boar production and habitat predict wild pig distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michel, Nicole; Laforge, Michel; van Beest, Floris

    2017-01-01

    eradication of wild pigs is rarely feasible after establishment over large areas, effective management will depend on strengthening regulations and enforcement of containment practices for Canadian domestic wild boar farms. Initiation of coordinated provincial and federal efforts to implement population...... wild boar and test the propagule pressure hypothesis to improve predictive ability of an existing habitat-based model of wild pigs. We reviewed spatiotemporal patterns in domestic wild boar production across ten Canadian provinces during 1991–2011 and evaluated the ability of wild boar farm...... distribution to improve predictive models of wild pig occurrence using a resource selection probability function for wild pigs in Saskatchewan. Domestic wild boar production in Canada increased from 1991 to 2001 followed by sharp declines in all provinces. The distribution of domestic wild boar farms in 2006...

  4. The design of laser atmosphere transmission characteristic measurement system based on virtual instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Laixian; Sun, Huayan; Xu, Jiawen

    2010-10-01

    The laser atmosphere transmission characteristic affects the use of laser in engineering greatly. This paper designed a laser atmosphere transmission characteristic measurement system based on LabVIEW software, a product of NI. The system acquires laser spacial distribution by means of controlling NI image acquisition card and CCD through PCI, controls oscillograph to acquire laser time domain distribution through Ethernet and controls power meter to acquire energy of laser through RS-232. It processes the data acquired and analyses the laser atmosphere transmission characteristic using Matlab, which is powerful in data processing, through software interface. It provided a new way to study the laser atmosphere transmission characteristic.

  5. Optimization of territories and transport routes for hazardous products in a distribution network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantú, José Manuel Velarde; Solano, Alfredo Bueno; Leyva, Ernesto Alonso Lagarda; Acosta, Mauricio Lopez

    2017-07-01

    In a system of distribution of products are involved in different factors that determine their efficiency, profitability or optimal state, among these factors is the type of goods to be collected or delivered, it must also be considered the physical-chemical composition, hazard index to transport etc., in this sense, exist different standards for collection, delivery and transportation of such material causing with it an increase in operating costs associated with territory design and planning of distribution routes, the current paper present a general model based in mixed integer programming which integrates both problems, seeking to minimize the total distance traveled by the vehicle in each territory. It should be noted that one of the main features of this model is that it only considers the collection of goods in the distribution network which gives us the opportunity to offer low-cost solutions in terms of time and quality, addressing the specific and general characteristics of the emerging markets in Mexico.

  6. Optimization of territories and transport routes for hazardous products in a distribution network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantú, José Manuel Velarde; Solano, Alfredo Bueno; Leyva, Ernesto Alonso Lagarda; Acosta, Mauricio Lopez

    2017-01-01

    In a system of distribution of products are involved in different factors that determine their efficiency, profitability or optimal state, among these factors is the type of goods to be collected or delivered, it must also be considered the physical-chemical composition, hazard index to transport etc., in this sense, exist different standards for collection, delivery and transportation of such material causing with it an increase in operating costs associated with territory design and planning of distribution routes, the current paper present a general model based in mixed integer programming which integrates both problems, seeking to minimize the total distance traveled by the vehicle in each territory. It should be noted that one of the main features of this model is that it only considers the collection of goods in the distribution network which gives us the opportunity to offer low-cost solutions in terms of time and quality, addressing the specific and general characteristics of the emerging markets in Mexico

  7. Longitudinal observations of globally distributed design teams: The impacts on Product Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, Thomas Paul; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2015-01-01

    Factors impacting the success of Product Development (PD) projects are intensified when teams are distributed globally, making it a challenging task for project management to deal with effects on time, cost and quality. It is important for project management to understand when challenges......, such as communication difficulties, a lack of common vision between team members or issues related to documentation, may occur during PD projects, enabling them to take the necessary preventative action (Edmondson and Nembhard, 2009). When investigating factors impacting the success of PD, the majority of research...... studies of globally distributed design teams in PD projects. This paper aims to contribute to the further understanding of the factors impacting the success of PD projects when teams are distributed globally. With the results from a longitudinal observational study over 8 months, the factors impacting...

  8. Integrated Scheduling of Production and Distribution with Release Dates and Capacitated Deliveries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueling Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates an integrated scheduling of production and distribution model in a supply chain consisting of a single machine, a customer, and a sufficient number of homogeneous capacitated vehicles. In this model, the customer places a set of orders, each of which has a given release date. All orders are first processed nonpreemptively on the machine and then batch delivered to the customer. Two variations of the model with different objective functions are studied: one is to minimize the arrival time of the last order plus total distribution cost and the other is to minimize total arrival time of the orders plus total distribution cost. For the former one, we provide a polynomial-time exact algorithm. For the latter one, due to its NP-hard property, we provide a heuristic with a worst-case ratio bound of 2.

  9. Propulsion of a Molecular Machine by Asymmetric Distribution of Reaction Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golestanian, Ramin; Liverpool, Tanniemola B.; Ajdari, Armand

    2005-06-01

    A simple model for the reaction-driven propulsion of a small device is proposed as a model for (part of) a molecular machine in aqueous media. The motion of the device is driven by an asymmetric distribution of reaction products. The propulsive velocity of the device is calculated as well as the scale of the velocity fluctuations. The effects of hydrodynamic flow as well as a number of different scenarios for the kinetics of the reaction are addressed.

  10. A nanojet: propulsion of a molecular machine by an asymmetric distribution of reaction--products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liverpool, Tanniemola; Golestanian, Ramin; Ajdari, Armand

    2006-03-01

    A simple model for the reaction-driven propulsion of a small device is proposed as a model for (part of) a molecular machine in aqueous media. Motion of the device is driven by an asymmetric distribution of reaction products. We calculate the propulsive velocity of the device as well as the scale of the velocity fluctuations. We also consider the effects of hydrodynamic flow as well as a number of different scenarios for the kinetics of the reaction.

  11. Rules for integrals over products of distributions from coordinate independence of path integrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinert, H.; Chervyakov, A.

    2001-01-01

    In perturbative calculations of quantum-mechanical path integrals in curvilinear coordinates, one encounters Feynman diagrams involving multiple temporal integrals over products of distributions which are mathematically undefined. In addition, there are terms proportional to powers of Dirac δ-functions at the origin coming from the measure of path integration. We derive simple rules for dealing with such singular terms from the natural requirement of coordinate independence of the path integrals. (orig.)

  12. Productivity Growth and the General X-factor in Austria´s Gas Distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Gugler, Klaus; Liebensteiner, Mario

    2016-01-01

    We estimate cost functions to derive productivity growth using a unique database on costs and outputs of essentially all regulated Austrian gas distribution companies over the period 2002-2013, covering the times before and after the introduction of incentive regulation in 2008. We estimate a concave relation between total costs and time, and a significant one-off but permanent reduction in real costs after an imposed reduction in granted costs in the course of the introduction of incentive r...

  13. On functional relations between reduced distribution functions and entropy production by non-Hamiltonian perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobbertin, R.

    1976-01-01

    Functional relations are derived which link the reduced distribution functions of a classical N-particle system through the entropy production due to microscopic deviations from hamiltonian dynamics. These relations have been used in an earlier paper for the closure of the BBGKY-hierarchy and may be useful for the establishment of collective particle models in particular and the understanding of irreversibility in general. (Auth.)

  14. STRATEGIES TO PROMOTE WINE PRODUCTS ON FOREIGN MARKETS THROUGH THE NETWORK DISTRIBUTION OF GOODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan MATEI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Distribution of goods has evolved in two main directions that seem contradictory : on the one hand, the mass distribution was fully developed in terms of distribution facilities, logistics, comfort, and standardization of goods and services, on the other hand, the increased competition and customer loyalty has prompted the development of marketing techniques based on developing long-term relationships between the company and customers. Often this relationship is created and maintained through personalized offers, a unique combination of services and through direct contact with customers.These contradictory trends are reproduced in the distribution and consumption of wine. It is considered to be more than a physical product. From one point of view, the wine is not regarded as a simply physical product. The value of wine increases due to its tradition, trademark, country and region of origin, processing method, as well as the consumer’s knowledge and sensitivity. On the other side, the wine is one of the world’s most popular alcoholic beverages.

  15. Distribution and Genetic Profiles of Campylobacter in Commercial Broiler Production from Breeder to Slaughter in Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakaoporn Prachantasena

    Full Text Available Poultry and poultry products are commonly considered as the major vehicle of Campylobacter infection in humans worldwide. To reduce the number of human cases, the epidemiology of Campylobacter in poultry must be better understood. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to determine the distribution and genetic relatedness of Campylobacter in the Thai chicken production industry. During June to October 2012, entire broiler production processes (i.e., breeder flock, hatchery, broiler farm and slaughterhouse of five broiler production chains were investigated chronologically. Representative isolates of C. jejuni from each production stage were characterized by flaA SVR sequencing and multilocus sequence typing (MLST. Amongst 311 selected isolates, 29 flaA SVR alleles and 17 sequence types (STs were identified. The common clonal complexes (CCs found in this study were CC-45, CC-353, CC-354 and CC-574. C. jejuni isolated from breeders were distantly related to those isolated from broilers and chicken carcasses, while C. jejuni isolates from the slaughterhouse environment and meat products were similar to those isolated from broiler flocks. Genotypic identification of C. jejuni in slaughterhouses indicated that broilers were the main source of Campylobacter contamination of chicken meat during processing. To effectively reduce Campylobacter in poultry meat products, control and prevention strategies should be aimed at both farm and slaughterhouse levels.

  16. The effect of alkali on the product distribution from black liquor conversion under supercritical water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawangchu, Y; Atong, D; Sricharoenchaikul, V

    2017-07-01

    Lignin in chemical pulping waste, or black liquor (BL), can be converted into various products via supercritical water gasification (SCWG). However, the inherited alkaline contents from the pulping chemicals may affect the product yields and properties. In this research, the influence of the residual alkali on the product distribution via SCWG of soda BL and kraft BL was evaluated. The SCWG was performed in a batch quartz reactor for 10 min at various temperatures (673, 773 and 873 K) and pressures (250, 300 and 400 bar). The highest hydrogen (H 2 ) production occurred at 873 K for the soda BL. The water-gas shift reaction with sodium ions played an important part in the H 2 production, while only small amounts of methane and carbon monoxide were detected. Hydrocarbons, carboxylic acids and esters were the dominant substrates in the liquid products, which denoted the potential of this method for bond cleaving of the lignin macromolecule. As a result, BL, which typically contains alkali salt, was an appropriate feedstock for the SCWG reaction to produce renewable fuel. This method not only has a positive influence on the generation of value added products from highly corrosive waste but also helps avoid some technical problems commonly encountered with direct firing in a recovery boiler.

  17. Distribution and Genetic Profiles of Campylobacter in Commercial Broiler Production from Breeder to Slaughter in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prachantasena, Sakaoporn; Charununtakorn, Petcharatt; Muangnoicharoen, Suthida; Hankla, Luck; Techawal, Natthaporn; Chaveerach, Prapansak; Tuitemwong, Pravate; Chokesajjawatee, Nipa; Williams, Nicola; Humphrey, Tom; Luangtongkum, Taradon

    2016-01-01

    Poultry and poultry products are commonly considered as the major vehicle of Campylobacter infection in humans worldwide. To reduce the number of human cases, the epidemiology of Campylobacter in poultry must be better understood. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to determine the distribution and genetic relatedness of Campylobacter in the Thai chicken production industry. During June to October 2012, entire broiler production processes (i.e., breeder flock, hatchery, broiler farm and slaughterhouse) of five broiler production chains were investigated chronologically. Representative isolates of C. jejuni from each production stage were characterized by flaA SVR sequencing and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Amongst 311 selected isolates, 29 flaA SVR alleles and 17 sequence types (STs) were identified. The common clonal complexes (CCs) found in this study were CC-45, CC-353, CC-354 and CC-574. C. jejuni isolated from breeders were distantly related to those isolated from broilers and chicken carcasses, while C. jejuni isolates from the slaughterhouse environment and meat products were similar to those isolated from broiler flocks. Genotypic identification of C. jejuni in slaughterhouses indicated that broilers were the main source of Campylobacter contamination of chicken meat during processing. To effectively reduce Campylobacter in poultry meat products, control and prevention strategies should be aimed at both farm and slaughterhouse levels.

  18. Increased food production and reduced water use through optimized crop distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kyle Frankel; Rulli, Maria Cristina; Seveso, Antonio; D'Odorico, Paolo

    2017-12-01

    Growing demand for agricultural commodities for food, fuel and other uses is expected to be met through an intensification of production on lands that are currently under cultivation. Intensification typically entails investments in modern technology — such as irrigation or fertilizers — and increases in cropping frequency in regions suitable for multiple growing seasons. Here we combine a process-based crop water model with maps of spatially interpolated yields for 14 major food crops to identify potential differences in food production and water use between current and optimized crop distributions. We find that the current distribution of crops around the world neither attains maximum production nor minimum water use. We identify possible alternative configurations of the agricultural landscape that, by reshaping the global distribution of crops within current rainfed and irrigated croplands based on total water consumption, would feed an additional 825 million people while reducing the consumptive use of rainwater and irrigation water by 14% and 12%, respectively. Such an optimization process does not entail a loss of crop diversity, cropland expansion or impacts on nutrient and feed availability. It also does not necessarily invoke massive investments in modern technology that in many regions would require a switch from smallholder farming to large-scale commercial agriculture with important impacts on rural livelihoods.

  19. Integrated production-distribution planning optimization models: A review in collaborative networks context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Andres

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Researchers in the area of collaborative networks are more and more aware of proposing collaborative approaches to address planning processes, due to the advantages associated when enterprises perform integrated planning models. Collaborative production-distribution planning, among the supply network actors, is considered a proper mechanism to support enterprises on dealing with uncertainties and dynamicity associated to the current markets. Enterprises, and especially SMEs, should be able to overcome the continuous changes of the market by increasing their agility. Carrying out collaborative planning allows enterprises to enhance their readiness and agility for facing the market turbulences. However, SMEs have limited access when incorporating optimization tools to deal with collaborative planning, reducing their ability to respond to the competition. The problem to solve is to provide SMEs affordable solutions to support collaborative planning. In this regard, new optimisation algorithms are required in order to improve the collaboration within the supply network partners. As part of the H2020 Cloud Collaborative Manufacturing Networks (C2NET research project, this paper presents a study on integrated production and distribution plans. The main objective of the research is to identify gaps in current optimization models, proposed to address integrated planning, taking into account the requirements and needs of the industry. Thus, the needs of the companies belonging to the industrial pilots, defined in the C2NET project, are identified; analysing how these needs are covered by the optimization models proposed in the literature, to deal with the integrated production-distribution planning.

  20. Projected changes in the future distribution and production of sessile oak forests near the xeric limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulyás, Krisztina; Berki, Imre; Veperdi, Gábor

    2017-04-01

    As a result of regional climate change, most European countries are experiencing an increase in mean annual temperature and CO2 concentration and a decrease in mean annual precipitation. In low-elevation areas in Southeast Europe, where precipitation is a limiting factor, the projected climate change threatens the health, production, and potential distribution of forest ecosystems. The intensive summer droughts and commonly occurring extreme weather events create negative influences that cause health declines, changes in yield potential, and tree mortality. Due to the observed damages, attention has been focused on these problems. The impacts of climatic extremes cause difficulties in forest management; these difficulties occur more frequently in Hungary, which is a region that is the most sensitive to climatic extremes. Regional climate model simulations project that the frequency of extremely high temperatures and long-term dry periods will increase; both of these factors have negative effects on future tree species distribution and production. Thus, the aim of our study is to utilize the sessile oak (Quercus petraea) as a climate indicator tree species to investigate potential future distribution and estimate changes in growth trends. For future spatial distribution, we used the Fuzzy membership distribution model in a new Decision Support System (DSS) which was developed for the Hungarian forestry and agricultural sectors. Through study techniques we can employ DSS, which contains various environmental layers (topography, vegetation, past and projected future climate, soils, and hydrology), to create probability distribution maps. The results, based on 12 regional climate model simulations (www.ensembles-eu.org), show that the area of sessile oak forests is shrinking continuously and will continue to do so to the end of the 21st century. For future production estimations, we analysed intensive long-term growth monitoring network plots that were established in

  1. Marginal cost calculation of energy production in hydro thermoelectric systems considering the transmission system; Calculo do custo marginal de producao de energia em sistemas hidrotermoeletricos levando em consideracao a rede de transmissao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, M V.F. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Gorenstin, B G [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Alvarenga Filho, S [ELETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1990-12-31

    The alternatives for calculation of energy marginal cost in hydroelectric systems, considering the transmission one, was analysed, including fundamental concepts; generation/transmission systems, represented by linear power flow model; production marginal costs in hydrothermal systems and computation aspects. (C.G.C.). 11 refs, 5 figs.

  2. 21 CFR 1310.11 - Reinstatement of exemption for drug products distributed under the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reinstatement of exemption for drug products distributed under the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act. 1310.11 Section 1310.11 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT... Reinstatement of exemption for drug products distributed under the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act. (a) The...

  3. Porcine blood used as ingredient in meat productions may serve as a vehicle for hepatitis E virus transmission.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxman, Ingeborg L A; Jansen, Claudia C C; Hägele, Geke; Zwartkruis-Nahuis, Ans; Cremer, Jeroen; Vennema, Harry; Tijsma, Aloys S L

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the use of porcine blood(products) in food could be a risk for a hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection. HEV RNA was detected in 33/36 batches of (non-heated) liquid products and in 7/24 spray dried powder products. Contamination levels varied among

  4. 21 CFR 212.90 - What actions must I take to control the distribution of PET drug products?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What actions must I take to control the... POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY DRUGS (Eff. 12-12-2011) Distribution § 212.90 What actions must I take to control the distribution of PET drug products? (a) Written distribution procedures. You must establish...

  5. Calculating the mass distribution of heavy nucleus fission product by neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudkov, A.N.; Koldobskij, A.B.; Kolobashkin, V.M.; Semenova, E.V.

    1981-01-01

    The technique of calculating the fission product mass yields by neutrons which are necessary for performing nucleus physical calculations in designing nuclear reactor cores is considered. The technique is based on the approximation of fission product mass distribution over the whole mass range by five Gauss functions. New analytical expressions for determining energy weights of used gaussians are proposed. The results of comparison of experimental data with calculated values for fission product mass obtained for reference processes in the capacity of which the fission reactions are chosen: 233 U, 235 U fission by thermal neutrons, 232 Th, 233 U, 235 U, 238 U by fission spectrum neutrons and 14 MeV neutrons and for 232 Th fission reactions by 11 MeV neutrons and 238 U by 7.7 MeV neutrons. On the basis of the analysis of results obtained the conclusion is drawn on a good agreement of fission product mass yield calculation values obtained using recommended values of mass distribution parameters with experimental data [ru

  6. Cheapest insertion heuristics algorithm to optimize WIP product distributions in FBS Fashion Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanjung, WN; Nurhasanah, N.; Suri, QA; Jingga; Aribowo, B.; Mardhika, DA; Gayatri, AM; Safitri, R.; Supriyanto, A.

    2017-12-01

    The textile industry is one of the 10 commodities of industrial products which are still survives in Indonesia due to the crisis in the year 2009 until 2016. Drawback happened in 2017 by increased the number of demand by approximate 3% compares with previous year. In this case, the research conducted in Small Medium Enterprise (SME) called FBS. SME is a business group that is able to absorb a lot of labor and a source of income for society. SME FBS producing clothing boys and domiciled in Jakarta. To complete FBS product, the WIP products are sent to CMT or depot in Sukabumi. In this study, aims to do the shortest route in the determination of the distribution of WIP product to 10 CMT scattered in the area of Sukabumi. After optimization hapened, the route must be started from the Depot SME FBS Sukabumi-Shell Sand Village - village of Sukamaju Village - Margaluyu Village - Narogong Cicurug, - the village of Parakanlima, Cuguha - Padabeunghar Village - Sagaranten Village - village of Ciherang, Ciguyang, Sagaranten - the village of Bojong Waru, Pasirsalam Village, Purabaya - Students - return to Depot SME FBS Sukabumi with mileage in a single trip of 403.6 kilometers. It spents 10 hours 09 minutes and cost distribution issued amounting to IDR 296,928.52. The route length was optimized 47% from 759.1 become 403.6 kilometers.

  7. Satellite observed salinity distributions at high latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere: A comparison of four products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Eidell, Cynthia; Comiso, Josefino C.; Dinnat, Emmanuel; Brucker, Ludovic

    2017-09-01

    Global surface ocean salinity measurements have been available since the launch of SMOS in 2009 and coverage was further enhanced with the launch of Aquarius in 2011. In the polar regions where spatial and temporal changes in sea surface salinity (SSS) are deemed important, the data have not been as robustly validated because of the paucity of in situ measurements. This study presents a comparison of four SSS products in the ice-free Arctic region, three using Aquarius data and one using SMOS data. The accuracy of each product is assessed through comparative analysis with ship and other in situ measurements. Results indicate RMS errors ranging between 0.33 and 0.89 psu. Overall, the four products show generally good consistency in spatial distribution with the Atlantic side being more saline than the Pacific side. A good agreement between the ship and satellite measurements was also observed in the low salinity regions in the Arctic Ocean, where SSS in situ measurements are usually sparse, at the end of summer melt seasons. Some discrepancies including biases of about 1 psu between the products in spatial and temporal distribution are observed. These are due in part to differences in retrieval techniques, geophysical filtering, and sea ice and land masks. The monthly SSS retrievals in the Arctic from 2011 to 2015 showed variations (within ˜1 psu) consistent with effects of sea ice seasonal cycles. This study indicates that spaceborne observations capture the seasonality and interannual variability of SSS in the Arctic with reasonably good accuracy.

  8. Global distribution of radiolytic H2 production in marine sediment and implications for subsurface life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvage, J.; Flinders, A. F.; Spivack, A. J.; D'Hondt, S.

    2017-12-01

    We present the first global estimate of radiolytic H2production in marine sediment. Knowledge of microbial electron donor production rates is critical to understand the bioenergetics of Earth's subsurface ecosystems In marine sediment, radiolysis of water by radiation from naturally occurring radionuclides leads to production of reduced (H2) and oxidized (H2O2, O2) species. Water radiolysis is catalyzed by marine sediment. The magnitude of catalysis depends on sediment composition and radiation type. Deep-sea clay is especially effective at enhancing H2 yields, increasing yield by more than an order of magnitude relative to pure water. This previously unrecognized catalytic effect of geological materials on radiolytic H2 production is important for fueling microbial life in the subseafloor, especially in sediment with high catalytic power. Our estimate of radiolytic H2 production is based on spatially integrating a previously published model and uses (i) experimentally constrained radiolytic H2 yields for the principal marine sediment types, (ii) bulk sediment radioactive element content of sediment cores in three ocean basins (N. Atlantic, N. and S. Pacific), and global distributions of (iii) seafloor lithology, (iv) sediment porosity, and (v) sediment thickness. We calculate that global radiolytic H2 production in marine sediment is 1.6E+12 mol H2 yr-1. This production rate is small relative to the annual rate of photosynthetic organic-matter production in the surface ocean. The globally integrated ratio of radiolytic H2 production relative to photosynthetic primary production is 4.1E-4, based on electron equivalences. Although small relative to global photosynthetic biomass production, sediment-catalyzed production of radiolytic products is significant in the subseafloor. Our analysis of 9 sites in the N. Atlantic, N. and S. Pacific suggests that H2 is the primary microbial fuel in organic-poor sediment older than a few million years; at these sites, calculated

  9. FISH AND SHELLFISH PRODUCTS DISTRIBUTED BY "ETHNIC" MINI-MARKET: CONFORMITY ASSESSMENT TO CURRENT LEGISLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Giorgi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to conduct an assessment on the quality and methods for marketing of fish products sold by ethnic minimarket. Has been inspected 20 supermarkets and buyed 60 fish and shellfish samples. The neatness of the rooms were evaluated during the shopping in the markets. Products purchased in the supermarket (about three samples for each shop were brought in Ichthypathology laboratory of State Veterinary Institute of Piedmont, Liguria and Aosta Valley, in Turin. Were conducted in the laboratory the readings of the labels. The conditions of hygiene were poor, especially in supermarket freezers. Only 16 samples were labelled in accordance with current legislation. According to the results obtained, the products 'ethnic' distributed in the supermarkets visited, may be considered a potential risk to human health.

  10. Transmission issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradford, J.; Wilson, L.; Thon, S.; Millar, N.

    2005-01-01

    This session on transmission issues focused on the role that transmission plays in electricity markets and the importance of getting the market structure right in terms of generation divestiture with buy back contracts, demand side responsive programs, transmission upgrades and long term contracts. The difficulties of distinguishing between market power and scarcity were examined along with some of the complications that ensue if transmission experiences congestion, as exemplified by the August 2003 blackout in eastern North America. The presentations described the best ways to handle transmission issues, and debated whether transmission should be deregulated or follow market forces. Issues of interconnections and reliability of connections were also debated along with the attempt to integrate renewables into the grid. Some presentations identified what new transmission must be built and what must be done to ensure that transmission gets built. The challenges and business opportunities for transmission in Alberta were discussed with reference to plans to invest in new infrastructure, where it is going outside of the province and how it works with other jurisdictions. Manitoba's Conawapa Hydro Project and its 2000 MW tie line to Ontario was also discussed. Some examples of non-optimal use of interconnections in Europe were also discussed in an effort to learn from these mistakes and avoid them in Canada. tabs., figs

  11. Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Jones

    1985-01-01

    Quaking aspen is the most widely distributed native North American tree species (Little 1971, Sargent 1890). It grows in a great diversity of regions, environments, and communities (Harshberger 1911). Only one deciduous tree species in the world, the closely related Eurasian aspen (Populus tremula), has a wider range (Weigle and Frothingham 1911)....

  12. Aspects on the history of transmission and favor of distribution of viruses by iatrogenic action: perhaps an example of a paradigm of the worldwide spread of HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürtler, Lutz G; Eberle, Josef

    2017-08-01

    Transmission of infectious agents might be associated with iatrogenic actions of charitable help in health care. An example is the vaccination against yellow fever in USA that transmitted hepatitis B virus. Another example is injections of praziquantel for treatment and cure of schistosomiasis in Central and Northern Africa, with a focus in Egypt that has spread hepatitis C virus. There is no indication that human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 was spread by injection treatment for African trypanosomiasis, syphilis and treponematosis, but these treatments might have contributed to the early spread of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in Central Africa. Slave trade contributed as well to the spread of viruses from Africa to the Americas; it was stopped in 1850. Until that date HIV-1 was not transported to the Americas. By analysis of nucleic acid sequence data it can be concluded that the continental spread of HCV and HIV-1 might have started around 1920 with an exponential phase from 1940 to 1970. Further iatrogenic actions that promoted the spread of HCV and HIV-1 might be vaccinations to prevent deadly diseases. The successful vaccination was followed by diminution of the infectious agent in the population such as small pox, yellow fever and measles. Measurements to reduce the spread of plague and cholera were further benefits increasing survival of diseased subjects in a population. Thus, the reduction of exposure to deadly infectious agents might have given a chance to HIV-1 infected subjects to survive and for HIV-1 to be distributed around the world starting from Central Africa in the 1950s.

  13. 3D analysis of the morphology and spatial distribution of nitrogen in nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes by energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florea, Ileana; Ersen, Ovidiu; Arenal, Raul; Ihiawakrim, Dris; Messaoudi, Cédric; Chizari, Kambiz; Janowska, Izabela; Pham-Huu, Cuong

    2012-06-13

    We present here the application of the energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) in the tomographic mode to determine the precise 3D distribution of nitrogen within nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (N-CNTs). Several tilt series of energy-filtered images were acquired on the K ionization edges of carbon and nitrogen on a multiwalled N-CNT containing a high amount of nitrogen. Two tilt series of carbon and nitrogen 2D maps were then calculated from the corresponding energy-filtered images by using a proper extraction procedure of the chemical signals. Applying iterative reconstruction algorithms provided two spatially correlated C and N elemental-selective volumes, which were then simultaneously analyzed with the shape-sensitive reconstruction deduced from Zero-Loss recordings. With respect to the previous findings, crucial information obtained by analyzing the 3D chemical maps was that, among the two different kind of arches formed in these nanotubes (transversal or rounded ones depending on their morphology), the transversal arches contain more nitrogen than do the round ones. In addition, a detailed analysis of the shape-sensitive volume allowed the observation of an unexpected change in morphology along the tube axis: close to the round arches (with less N), the tube is roughly cylindrical, whereas near the transversal ones (with more N), its shape changes to a prism. This relatively new technique is very powerful in the material science because it combines the ability of the classical electron tomography to solve 3D structures and the chemical selectivity of the EFTEM imaging.

  14. Long lasting insecticidal bed nets ownership, access and use in a high malaria transmission setting before and after a mass distribution campaign in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanzira, Humphrey; Eganyu, Thomas; Mulebeke, Ronald; Bukenya, Fred; Echodu, Dorothy; Adoke, Yeka

    2018-01-01

    Uganda is conducting a second mass LLIN distribution campaign and Katakwi district recently received LLINs as part of this activity. This study was conducted to measure the success of the campaign in this setting, an area of high transmission, with the objectives to estimate LLIN ownership, access and use pre and post campaign implementation. Two identical cross sectional surveys, based on the Malaria Indicator Survey methodology, were conducted in three sub-counties in this district (Kapujan, Magoro and Toroma), six months apart, one before and another after the mass distribution campaign. Data on three main LLIN indicators including; household LLIN ownership, population with access to an LLIN and use were collected using a household and a women's questionnaire identical to the Malaria Indicator Survey. A total of 601 and 607 households were randomly selected in survey one and two respectively. At baseline, 60.57% (56.53-64.50) of households owned at least one net for every two persons who stayed in the household the night before the survey which significantly increased to 70.35% (66.54-73.96) after the campaign (p = 0.001). Similarly, the percentage of the household population with access to an LLIN significantly increased from 84.76% (82.99-86.52) to 91.57% (90.33-92.81), p = 0.001 and the percentage of household population that slept under an LLIN the night before the survey also significantly increased from 56.85% (55.06-58.82) to 81.72% (76.75-83.21), p = 0.001. The LLIN mass campaign successfully achieved the national target of over eighty-five percent of the population with access to an LLIN in this setting, however, universal household coverage and use were fourteen and three percent points less than the national target respectively. This is useful for malaria programs to consider during the planning of future campaigns by tailoring efforts around deficient areas like mechanisms to increase universal coverage and behavior change communication.

  15. Distribution of fission products in Peach Bottom HTGR fuel element E01-01

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wichner, R.P.; Dyer, F.F.; Martin, W.J.; Fairchild, L.L.

    1978-10-01

    The fifth in a projected series of six postirradiation examinations of Peach Bottom High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor driver fuel elements is described. The element analyzed received an equivalent of 897 full-power days of irradiation prior to the scheduled termination of Core 2 operation. The examination procedures emphasized the determination of fission product distributions in the graphite portions of the fuel element. Continuous axial scans indicated a 137 Cs inventory of 20.3 Ci in the graphite sleeve and 8.1 Ci in the spine at the time of element withdrawal from the core. In addition, the nuclides 134 Cs, /sup 110 m/Ag, 60 Co, and 154 Eu were found in the graphite portions of the fuel element in significant amounts. Radial distributions of these nuclides plus the beta-emitters 3 H, 14 C, and 90 Sr were obtained at four axial locations of the fueled region of the element sleeve and two axial locations of the element spine. The radial dissection was accomplished by use of a manipulator-operated lathe in a hot cell. In addition to fission product distributions, the appearance of the component parts of the element was recorded photographically, fuel compact and graphite dimensions were recorded at numerous locations, and metallographic examinations of the fuel were performed

  16. Energy Production by Means of Pumps As Turbines in Water Distribution Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Venturini

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the estimation of the energy production by means of pumps used as turbines to exploit residual hydraulic energy, as in the case of available head and flow rate in water distribution networks. To this aim, four pumps with different characteristics are investigated to estimate the producible yearly electric energy. The performance curves of Pumps As Turbines (PATs, which relate head, power, and efficiency to the volume flow rate over the entire PAT operation range, were derived by using published experimental data. The four considered water distribution networks, for which experimental data taken during one year were available, are characterized by significantly different hydraulic features (average flow rate in the range 10–116 L/s; average pressure reduction in the range 12–53 m. Therefore, energy production accounts for actual flow rate and head variability over the year. The conversion efficiency is also estimated, for both the whole water distribution network and the PAT alone.

  17. The field measurements of the activity-weighted size distributions of radon decay products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasiolek, P.; Montassier, N.; Hopke, P.K.

    1991-01-01

    Because of the importance of particle size in the calculations of dose deposited in the respiratory tract by radon progeny, the determination of the size distribution of radon decay products in indoor air had increased in interest in recent years. A system for the measurement of the activity-weighted size distribution of radon decay products at environmental levels has been developed. The system (ASC-GSA) utilizes a combination of six multiple wire screens (Graded Screen Array) sampler detector units operated in parallel. The cut off points of the samplers and the data deconvolution procedure allow to obtain the activity fractions of radon progeny in the size range 0.5-500 mn. The computer control of sampling, alpha counting and data storage permits the operation of the system on the semi-continuous basis. The primary application of the ASC-GSA system has been to collect data of activity-weighted size distributions of radon progeny in real house environments. The results of field measurements in several houses with elevated radon levels are presented

  18. Analysis of oil-pipeline distribution of multiple products subject to delivery time-windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jittamai, Phongchai

    This dissertation defines the operational problems of, and develops solution methodologies for, a distribution of multiple products into oil pipeline subject to delivery time-windows constraints. A multiple-product oil pipeline is a pipeline system composing of pipes, pumps, valves and storage facilities used to transport different types of liquids. Typically, products delivered by pipelines are petroleum of different grades moving either from production facilities to refineries or from refineries to distributors. Time-windows, which are generally used in logistics and scheduling areas, are incorporated in this study. The distribution of multiple products into oil pipeline subject to delivery time-windows is modeled as multicommodity network flow structure and mathematically formulated. The main focus of this dissertation is the investigation of operating issues and problem complexity of single-source pipeline problems and also providing solution methodology to compute input schedule that yields minimum total time violation from due delivery time-windows. The problem is proved to be NP-complete. The heuristic approach, a reversed-flow algorithm, is developed based on pipeline flow reversibility to compute input schedule for the pipeline problem. This algorithm is implemented in no longer than O(T·E) time. This dissertation also extends the study to examine some operating attributes and problem complexity of multiple-source pipelines. The multiple-source pipeline problem is also NP-complete. A heuristic algorithm modified from the one used in single-source pipeline problems is introduced. This algorithm can also be implemented in no longer than O(T·E) time. Computational results are presented for both methodologies on randomly generated problem sets. The computational experience indicates that reversed-flow algorithms provide good solutions in comparison with the optimal solutions. Only 25% of the problems tested were more than 30% greater than optimal values and

  19. Microscale Investigation of Arsenic Distribution and Species in Cement Product from Cement Kiln Coprocessing Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufei Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To improve the understanding of the immobilization mechanism and the leaching risk of Arsenic (As in the cement product from coprocessing wastes using cement kiln, distribution and species of As in cement product were determined by microscale investigation methods, including electron probe microanalysis (EPMA and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. In this study, sodium arsenate crystals (Na3AsO412H2O were mixed with cement production raw materials and calcined to produce cement clinker. Then, clinker was mixed water to prepare cement paste. EPMA results showed that As was generally distributed throughout the cement paste. As content in calcium silicate hydrates gel (C-S-H was in low level, but higher than that in other cement mineral phases. This means that most of As is expected to form some compounds that disperse on the surfaces of cement mineral phases. Linear combination fitting (LCF of the X-ray absorption near edge structure spectra revealed that As in the cement paste was predominantly As(V and mainly existed as Mg3(AsO42, Ca3(AsO42, and Na2HAsO4.

  20. Stable isotope separation in calutrons: Forty years of production and distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, W.A.; Tracy, J.G.

    1987-11-01

    The stable isotope separation program, established in 1945, has operated continually to provide enriched stable isotopes and selected radioactive isotopes, including the actinides, for use in research, medicine, and industrial applications. This report summarizes the first forty years of effort in the production and distribution of stable isotopes. Evolution of the program along with the research and development, chemical processing, and production efforts are highlighted. A total of 3.86 million separator hours has been utilized to separate 235 isotopes of 56 elements. Relative effort expended toward processing each of these elements is shown. Collection rates (mg/separator h), which vary by a factor of 20,000 from the highest to the lowest ( 205 Tl to 46 Ca), and the attainable isotopic purity for each isotope are presented. Policies related to isotope pricing, isotope distribution, and support for the enrichment program are discussed. Changes in government funding, coupled with large variations in sales revenue, have resulted in 7-fold perturbations in production levels

  1. Spatial distribution of crystalline corrosion products formed during corrosion of stainless steel in concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serdar, Marijana [Department of Materials, Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Zagreb, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Meral, Cagla [Middle East Technical University, Department of Civil Engineering, Ankara (Turkey); Kunz, Martin [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Bjegovic, Dubravka [Department of Materials, Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Zagreb, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Wenk, Hans-Rudolf [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Monteiro, Paulo J.M., E-mail: monteiro@ce.berkeley.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    The mineralogy and spatial distribution of nano-crystalline corrosion products that form in the steel/concrete interface were characterized using synchrotron X-ray micro-diffraction (μ-XRD). Two types of low-nickel high-chromium reinforcing steels embedded into mortar and exposed to NaCl solution were investigated. Corrosion in the samples was confirmed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). μ-XRD revealed that goethite (α-FeOOH) and akaganeite (β-FeOOH) are the main iron oxide–hydroxides formed during the chloride-induced corrosion of stainless steel in concrete. Goethite is formed closer to the surface of the steel due to the presence of chromium in the steel, while akaganeite is formed further away from the surface due to the presence of chloride ions. Detailed microstructural analysis is shown and discussed on one sample of each type of steel. - Highlights: • Synchrotron micro-diffraction used to map the distribution of crystalline phases. • Goethite and akaganeite are the main corrosion products during chloride induced corrosion in mortar. • Layers of goethite and akaganeite are negatively correlated. • EDS showed Cr present in corrosion products identified by SEM.

  2. The detection and measurement of the electrical mobility size distributions associated with radon decay products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fei, Lin.

    1996-04-01

    The potential risk of lung cancer has evoked interest in the properties of radon decay products. There are two forms of this progeny: either attached to ambient aerosols, or still in the status of ions/molecules/small clusters. This ''unattached'' activity would give a higher dose per unit of airborne activity than the ''attached'' progeny that are rather poorly deposited. In this thesis, a system for determining unattached radon decay products electrical mobility size distribution by measuring their electrical mobilities was developed, based on the fact that about 88% of 218 Po atoms have unit charge at the end of their recoil after decay from 222 Rn, while the remainder are neutral. Essential part of the setup is the radon-aerosol chamber with the Circular Electrical Mobility Spectrometer (CEMS) inside. CEMS is used for sampling and classifying the charged radioactive clusters produced in the chamber. An alpha- sensitive plastic, CR-39 disk, is placed in CEMS as an inlaid disk electrode and the alpha particle detector. CEMS showed good performance in fine inactive particles' classification. If it also works well for radon decay products, it can offer a convenient size distribution measurement for radioactive ultrafine particles. However, the experiments did not obtain an acceptable resolution. Suggestions are made for solving this problem

  3. Spatial distribution of crystalline corrosion products formed during corrosion of stainless steel in concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serdar, Marijana; Meral, Cagla; Kunz, Martin; Bjegovic, Dubravka; Wenk, Hans-Rudolf; Monteiro, Paulo J.M.

    2015-01-01

    The mineralogy and spatial distribution of nano-crystalline corrosion products that form in the steel/concrete interface were characterized using synchrotron X-ray micro-diffraction (μ-XRD). Two types of low-nickel high-chromium reinforcing steels embedded into mortar and exposed to NaCl solution were investigated. Corrosion in the samples was confirmed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). μ-XRD revealed that goethite (α-FeOOH) and akaganeite (β-FeOOH) are the main iron oxide–hydroxides formed during the chloride-induced corrosion of stainless steel in concrete. Goethite is formed closer to the surface of the steel due to the presence of chromium in the steel, while akaganeite is formed further away from the surface due to the presence of chloride ions. Detailed microstructural analysis is shown and discussed on one sample of each type of steel. - Highlights: • Synchrotron micro-diffraction used to map the distribution of crystalline phases. • Goethite and akaganeite are the main corrosion products during chloride induced corrosion in mortar. • Layers of goethite and akaganeite are negatively correlated. • EDS showed Cr present in corrosion products identified by SEM

  4. Evaluation of a distribution model for a new beer company production site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Menoncin Pereira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ambev dominates the beer market in Brazil with a 70% share. The group formed in the 1990s by the merger of the two largest companies in the industry at the time, Brahma and Antarctica. Even with new entrants in the market AmBev kept growing and increasing its participation. One of the biggest challenges to work in the beer market is the distribution strategy. AmBev’s success has, in its distribution strategy, one of the critical factors in reaching this level of market share. The model AmBev has implemented and continues to invest is what Brahma, pre AmBev, adopted as its strategy in the 1990s. This work aims to determine whether, in a company starting its production activities in the same industry, the AmBev distribution model can be applied. Based on the concepts of logistics and supply chain management, the possible concepts of distribution strategies were identified, seeking to understand those underlying the AmBev reference model. With this, a company has been identified and a case study conducted to understand the application of the AmBev model. The main findings of the study point to possibilities for adopting the model, but with restrictions and constant monitoring to control the implementation of the strategy.

  5. Transmission eigenvalues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakoni, Fioralba; Haddar, Houssem

    2013-10-01

    In inverse scattering theory, transmission eigenvalues can be seen as the extension of the notion of resonant frequencies for impenetrable objects to the case of penetrable dielectrics. The transmission eigenvalue problem is a relatively late arrival to the spectral theory of partial differential equations. Its first appearance was in 1986 in a paper by Kirsch who was investigating the denseness of far-field patterns for scattering solutions of the Helmholtz equation or, in more modern terminology, the injectivity of the far-field operator [1]. The paper of Kirsch was soon followed by a more systematic study by Colton and Monk in the context of developing the dual space method for solving the inverse scattering problem for acoustic waves in an inhomogeneous medium [2]. In this paper they showed that for a spherically stratified media transmission eigenvalues existed and formed a discrete set. Numerical examples were also given showing that in principle transmission eigenvalues could be determined from the far-field data. This first period of interest in transmission eigenvalues was concluded with papers by Colton et al in 1989 [3] and Rynne and Sleeman in 1991 [4] showing that for an inhomogeneous medium (not necessarily spherically stratified) transmission eigenvalues, if they existed, formed a discrete set. For the next seventeen years transmission eigenvalues were ignored. This was mainly due to the fact that, with the introduction of various sampling methods to determine the shape of an inhomogeneous medium from far-field data, transmission eigenvalues were something to be avoided and hence the fact that transmission eigenvalues formed at most a discrete set was deemed to be sufficient. In addition, questions related to the existence of transmission eigenvalues or the structure of associated eigenvectors were recognized as being particularly difficult due to the nonlinearity of the eigenvalue problem and the special structure of the associated transmission

  6. Spatial distribution and secondary production of Copepoda in a tropical reservoir: Barra Bonita, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MJ. Santos-Wisniewski

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to describe the spatial distribution of zooplankton copepods, their biomass and instantaneous secondary production, in Barra Bonita, a large eutrophic, polymitic reservoir (22° 29' S and 48° 34' W on the Tietê River, of the Paraná basin. Sampling was carried out during two seasons: dry winter and rainy summer. Species composition, age structure and numerical density of each copepod species population were analyzed at 25 sampling stations. Secondary production was calculated for Copepoda, the dominant group in zooplankton communities, taking Calanoida and Cyclopoida separately. Copepoda represented the largest portion of the total zooplankton biomass, the dominant species being Notodiaptomus iheringi among the Calanoida and Mesocyclops ogunnus and Thermocyclops decipiens among the Cyclopoida. The production of Copepoda was higher during the rainy summer (23.61 mgDW.m-3.d-1 in January 1995 than during the dry winter season (14 mgDW.m-3.d-1 in August 1995, following the general pattern of abundance for the whole zooplankton community. Among the copepods, Cyclopoida production was higher than that of Calanoida, a pattern commonly observed for tropical lakes and reservoirs. Barra Bonita copepods are very productive, but there was a great degree of spatial heterogeneity, related to the physical and chemical conditions, particularly the level of nutrients and also to phytoplankton biomass.

  7. „Sirogojno Style“: The Production and Distribution of Hand-crafted Objects/Products Made of Wool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senka Kovač

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The basic premise of my research regarding the fashion production of Sirogojno style was that „objects are, like words, carriers of information“. Based on research published so far – a paper by Bojana Bogdanovic being the most detailed – and my own fieldwork conducted in 2010, I have attempted to ascertain the extent to which this particular style of fashion carried information about the cultural environment which it represented. The research encompasses the study of the materials being used, the production and the sale of products made of wool. The development of this particular style was influenced by the enthusiasm of designer Dobrila Vasiljevic-Smiljanic and the women of the mt. Zlatibor region, as well as the support provided by the political structure of the period, the local government, and through Dobrila Vasiljevic-Smiljanic’s family ties – the church. Her creations are famous for incorporating adapted local ornaments. A distinct and recognizable style of woolen products was created. This „Wool Road“ – from using local raw materials to materials imported from Iceland, from creating unique motifs to sale in the open, from national and international sales to musealized sales in the first decade of the 21st century – has lasted for over fifty years. Products from Sirogojno were renowned both in the country and abroad. All the negative processes which happened during the nineties influenced the decline of production and distribution of hand-crafted products from Sirogojno. In the late 1990’s, the production was acquired by a local owner who didn’t show much interest in it. This production has been musealized in the first decade of the 21st century. Dobrila Vasiljevic-Smiljanic told me in 2010 that „everything should be started from scratch now, from new motifs to new marketing“. The new owners of the firm say that „the villages are deserted and there aren’t enough weavers“. On the other hand, there is sale

  8. Milk production and distribution in nine western states in the 1950s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, G.M.; Whicker, F.W.

    1987-03-01

    This report provides information on milk distribution and dairy cattle feeding practices in Nevada, Utah and portions of seven other adjacent states during the 1950s. The information was gathered to support the US Department of Energy's ''Offsite Radiation Exposure Review Project (ORERP).'' This project is charged with providing radiation dose estimates for residents of Nevada, Utah, and surrounding states from nuclear weapons testing conducted at the Nevada Test Site from 1951 through 1962. The information on milk production and distribution is essential for assessment of the internal organ doses received by people as a result of ingesting radioactive fallout-contaminated foods. The information is used as input data for Colorado State University's PATHWAY computer code which estimates the ingestion of twenty radionuclides by people relative to a given level of fallout deposition

  9. Measurement of tritium production rate distribution for a fusion-fission hybrid conceptual reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xinhua; Guo Haiping; Mou Yunfeng; Zheng Pu; Liu Rong; Yang Xiaofei; Yang Jian

    2013-01-01

    A fusion-fission hybrid conceptual reactor is established. It consists of a DT neutron source and a spherical shell of depleted uranium and hydrogen lithium. The tritium production rate (TPR) distribution in the conceptual reactor was measured by DT neutrons using two sets of lithium glass detectors with different thicknesses in the hole in the vertical direction with respect to the D + beam of the Cockcroft-Walton neutron generator in direct current mode. The measured TPR distribution is compared with the calculated results obtained by the three-dimensional Monte Carlo code MCNP5 and the ENDF/B-Ⅵ data file. The discrepancy between the measured and calculated values can be attributed to the neutron data library of the hydrogen lithium lack S(α, β) thermal scattering model, so we show that a special database of low-energy and thermal neutrons should be established in the physics design of fusion-fission hybrid reactors. (authors)

  10. Milk production and distribution in nine western states in the 1950s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, G.M.; Whicker, F.W.

    1987-03-01

    This report provides information on milk distribution and dairy cattle feeding practices in Nevada, Utah and portions of seven other adjacent states during the 1950s. The information was gathered to support the US Department of Energy's ''Offsite Radiation Exposure Review Project (ORERP).'' This project is charged with providing radiation dose estimates for residents of Nevada, Utah, and surrounding states from nuclear weapons testing conducted at the Nevada Test Site from 1951 through 1962. The information on milk production and distribution is essential for assessment of the internal organ doses received by people as a result of ingesting radioactive fallout-contaminated foods. The information is used as input data for Colorado State University's PATHWAY computer code which estimates the ingestion of twenty radionuclides by people relative to a given level of fallout deposition.

  11. Isotope Production and Distribution Program`s Fiscal Year 1997 financial statement audit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-27

    The Department of Energy Isotope Production and Distribution Program mission is to serve the national need for a reliable supply of isotope products and services for medicine, industry and research. The program produces and sells hundreds of stable and radioactive isotopes that are widely utilized by domestic and international customers. Isotopes are produced only where there is no U.S. private sector capability or other production capacity is insufficient to meet U.S. needs. The Department encourages private sector investment in new isotope production ventures and will sell or lease its existing facilities and inventories for commercial purposes. The Isotope Program reports to the Director of the Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology. The Isotope Program operates under a revolving fund established by the Fiscal Year (FY) 1990 Energy and Water Appropriations Act and maintains financial viability by earning revenues from the sale of isotopes and services and through annual appropriations. The FY 1995 Energy and Water Appropriations Act modified predecessor acts to allow prices charged for Isotope Program products and services to be based on production costs, market value, the needs of the research community, and other factors. Although the Isotope Program functions as a business, prices set for small-volume, high-cost isotopes that are needed for research purposes may not achieve full-cost recovery. As a result, isotopes produced by the Isotope Program for research and development are priced to provide a reasonable return to the U.S. Government without discouraging their use. Commercial isotopes are sold on a cost-recovery basis. Because of its pricing structure, when selecting isotopes for production, the Isotope Program must constantly balance current isotope demand, market conditions, and societal benefits with its determination to operate at the lowest possible cost to U.S. taxpayers. Thus, this report provides a financial analysis of this situation.

  12. Bacterial community dynamics and product distribution during pH-adjusted fermentation of vegetable wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, N-F; Lü, F; Shao, L-M; Godon, J-J; He, P-J

    2007-10-01

    To estimate the effect of pH on the structures of bacterial community during fermentation of vegetable wastes and to investigate the relationship between bacterial community dynamics and product distribution. The bacterial communities in five batch tests controlled at different pH values [uncontrolled (about pH 4), 5, 6, 7 and 8] were monitored by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP). The two fingerprinting methods provided consistent results and principal component analysis indicated a close similarity of bacterial community at pH 7 and 8 in addition to those at pH 4-6. This clustering also corresponded to dominant metabolic pathway. Thus, pH 7-8 shifted from alcohol-forming to acid-forming, especially butyric acid, whereas both alcohol-forming and acid-forming dominated at pH 5-6, and at pH 4, fermentation was inhibited. Shannon-weaver index was calculated to analyse the DGGE profiles, which revealed that the bacterial diversities at pH 7 and 8 were the highest while those at pH 5 and 4 (uncontrolled) were the lowest. According to sequencing results of the bands excised from DGGE gels, lactic acid bacteria and Clostridium sp. were predominant at all pH values, but varieties in species were observed as pH changed and time prolonged. The bacterial community during fermentation was materially influenced by pH and the diverse product distribution was related to the shift of different bacterial population. The study reveals that the impact of pH on fermentation product distribution is implemented primarily by changes of bacterial community. It also provides information about the comparison of two fingerprinting methods, DGGE and SSCP.

  13. The structure and pyrolysis product distribution of lignite from different sedimentary environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Peng; Zhang, Dexiang; Wang, Lanlan; Zhou, Yang; Pan, Tieying; Lu, Xilan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Carbon structure of three lignites was measured by solid "1"3C NMR. • Effect of carbon structure on pyrolysis product distribution was studied. • Tar yield is influenced by aliphatic carbon and oxygen functional group. • C1–C4 content of pyrolysis gas is related to CH_2/CH_3 ratio. - Abstract: Low-temperature pyrolysis is an economically efficient method for lignite to obtain coal tar and improve its combustion calorific value. The research on the distribution of pyrolysis product (especially coal tar yield) plays an important role in energy application and economic development in the now and future. Pyrolysis test was carried out in a tube reactor at 873 K for 15 min. The structure of the lignite was measured by solid "1"3C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The thermal analysis was analyzed by thermo-gravimetric (TG) analyzer. The results show that the pyrolysis product distribution is related to the breakage of branch structures of aromatic ring in lignites from different sedimentary environment. The gas yield and composition are related to the decomposition of carbonyl group and the breakage of aliphatic carbon. The tar yield derived from lignite pyrolysis follows the order: Xianfeng lignite (XF, 13.67 wt.%) > Xiaolongtan lignite (XLT, 7.97 wt.%) > Inner Mongolia lignite (IM, 6.30 wt.%), which is mainly influenced by the aliphatic carbon contents, the CH_2/CH_3 ratio and the oxygen functional groups in lignite. The pyrolysis water yield depends on the decomposition of oxygen functional groups. IM has the highest content of oxygen-linked carbon so that the pyrolysis water yield derived from IM is the highest (9.20 wt.%), and is far more than that from the other two lignites.

  14. Stimulation of 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) production by actinomycetes after cyclic chlorination in drinking water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbaszadegan, Morteza; Yi, Min; Alum, Absar

    2015-01-01

    The impact of fluctuation in chlorine residual on actinomycetes and the production of 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) were studied in cast-iron and PVC model distribution systems. Actinomycetes were spiked in each system and continued operation for a 12-day non-chlorine experiment, resulting in no changes in actinomycetes and MIB concentrations. Three cyclic chlorination events were performed and chlorine residuals were maintained as follows: 1.0 mg L(-1) for 24 h, 0 mg L(-1) for 48 h, 0.5 mg L(-1) for 48 h, 0 mg L(-1) for 48 h and 2 mg L(-1) for 24 h. After each chlorination event, 2 -3 log decrease in actinomycetes was noted in both systems. However, within 48 h at 0 mg L(-1) chlorine, the actinomycetes recovered to the pre-chlorination levels. On the contrary, MIB concentration in both systems remained un-impacted after the first cycle and increased by fourfold ( 20 mg L(-1)) after the second cycle, which lasted through the third cycle despite the fact that actinomycetes numbers fluctuated 2-3 logs during this time period. For obtaining biofilm samples from field, water meters were collected from municipality drinking water distribution systems located in central Arizona. The actinomycetes concentration in asbestos cement pipe and cast iron pipe averaged 3.1 × 10(3) and 1.9 × 10(4) CFU cm(-2), respectively. The study shows that production of MIB is associated with changes in chlorine residual in the systems. This is the first report of cyclic chlorine shock as a stimulus for MIB production by actinomycetes in drinking water distribution system's ecology.

  15. Uptake and distribution of soil-applied labelled heavy metals in cereal plants and products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberlaender, H.E.; Roth, K.

    1983-01-01

    In the present paper investigations are described on the uptake, distribution and translocation of mercury, cadmium, chromium and zinc by spring and winter varieties of wheat, rye and barley. Pot experiments were carried out at low concentrations of the heavy metals in order to avoid growth interference during the uptake. Using radioisotopes the pathway of the metals was traced through different organs into the milling products. An ion-exchanger was added to the soils and its efficiency of reducing the uptake of the metals by the plants was tested

  16. Internalization of external cost for the production and distribution of electricity in Flanders, Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torfs, R.; De Nocker, L.; Schrooten, L.; Aernouts, K.; Liekens, I.

    2005-04-01

    This report elaborates the external costs of electricity production and distribution in Flanders, Belgium, and tests them against prices and taxes for electricity use. The authors examined whether these external costs decrease in time and whether such a decrease leads to internalization in the price for the users through taxes, levies or other economic instruments. The external costs mainly include external environmental costs caused by air pollution and greenhouse gases, but also damage caused by accidents, hindrance and radioactive substances that may be released. [nl

  17. Rapidity distribution and duality of a phase-space branching model for multiparticle production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwa, R.C.; Lam, C.S.

    1985-11-01

    A branching model is developed for the description of multiparticle production processes at high energy. The starting point is the essential phenomenological validity of approximate KNO scaling. A quasirapidity variable is introduced, in terms of which the exclusive distribution of the produced particles can be calculated. The model is then described in the context of s- and t-channel duality. The dual picture lends itself to a physical interpretation of the model, the contrast of which from dual topological unitarization is pointed out

  18. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) detection or hot atom reaction product internal energy distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quick, C.R. Jr.; Moore, D.S.

    1983-01-01

    Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) is being utilized to investigate the rovibrational energy distributions produced by reactive and nonreactive collisions of translationally hot atoms with simple molecules. Translationally hot H atoms are produced by ArF laser photolysis of HBr. Using CARS we have monitored, in a state-specific and time-resolved manner, rotational excitation of HBr (v = 0), vibrational excitation of HBr and H 2 , rovibrational excitation of H 2 produced by the reaction H + HBr → H 2 + Br, and Br atom production by photolysis of HBr

  19. Duality on Geodesics of Cartan Distributions and Sub-Riemannian Pseudo-Product Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishikawa Goo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Given a five dimensional space endowed with a Cartan distribution, the abnormal geodesics form another five dimensional space with a cone structure. Then it is shown in (15, that, if the cone structure is regarded as a control system, then the space of abnormal geodesics of the cone structure is naturally identified with the original space. In this paper, we provide an exposition on the duality by abnormal geodesics in a wider framework, namely, in terms of quotients of control systems and sub-Riemannian pseudo-product structures. Also we consider the controllability of cone structures and describe the constrained Hamiltonian equations on normal and abnormal geodesics.

  20. Production and distribution of chlorination by-products in the cooling water system of a coastal power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinnitha, E.; Rajamohan, R.; Venugopalan, V.P.; Narasimhan, S.V.

    2008-01-01

    Employing chlorination as antifouling agent in cooling water circuits of coastal power plants can lead to the production of chlorination by-products (CBP), mainly due to chlorine's reactions with the organic compounds present in natural seawater. Important among the by products are trihalomethane, haloacetonitriles, halo acetic acids, halo phenols etc., with trihalomethanes (THM) generally being the predominant compounds. The THM species that are commonly observed are chloroform, mono bromodichloromethane, dibromochloro-methane and bromoform. The present work was carried out to understand the production and distribution of chlorination by products (mainly trihalomethanes) in the cooling water systems of Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS). Field studies were carried out in which samples collected from the intake, forebay pump house, out fall point and mixing point were analysed for THM using gas chromatograph with electron capture detector. The results showed that bromoform was the dominant THM formed as a result of chlorination, followed by dibromochloromethane. Mono bromodichloromethane and chloroform were not observed in seawater throughout the study period. Moreover, no THM could be detected at the intake point. The total THM values at other stations ranged between 25-250 μgL -1 , the highest values were observed at the process seawater pump outlet and the lowest at the mixing point. The concentrations of CBP's formed were found to be related to the chlorine residuals measured. In addition, laboratory experiments were carried out to understand CBP formation as a function of chlorine dose and contact time. Chlorine doses ranging from 1 to 10 mgL -1 were added to unfiltered seawater and the various THMs formed were analysed after different time intervals. The results confirmed that bromoform was the dominant THM species, followed by dibromochloromethane, as observed in the field studies. As the chlorine doses increased, the other THMs, namely, mono

  1. Strategic Simulation - Support of Innovation and Operation in Distribution and production Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette Sanne

    which one was the most cost efficient. It was found that the CSA could be used to investigate the different possible futures as well as give the researcher a deeper look into the organisation. The outsourcing and offshoring of production was also examined in order to define the total costs...... of the current outsourcing / offshoring strategy as well as the possible strategies. It was found that there were hidden costs in relation to outsourcing / offshoring that are significant and important to consider when making decisions. Especially the quality and the costs of poor quality must be taken......Today’s business environment is characterized by global competition, changing conditions, and uncertainty. Many Western companies have responded by developing global distribution and production networks. The increasingly challenging business environment and the more complex structure of companies...

  2. Evolution of the ATLAS PanDA Production and Distributed Analysis System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeno, T; Wenaus, T; Fine, V; Potekhin, M; Panitkin, S; De, K; Nilsson, P; Stradling, A; Walker, R; Compostella, G

    2012-01-01

    The PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis) system has been developed to meet ATLAS production and analysis requirements for a data-driven workload management system capable of operating at LHC data processing scale. PanDA has performed well with high reliability and robustness during the two years of LHC data-taking, while being actively evolved to meet the rapidly changing requirements for analysis use cases. We will present an overview of system evolution including automatic rebrokerage and reattempt for analysis jobs, adaptation for the CernVM File System, support for the multi-cloud model through which Tier-2 sites act as members of multiple clouds, pledged resource management and preferential brokerage, and monitoring improvements. We will also describe results from the analysis of two years of PanDA usage statistics, current issues, and plans for the future.

  3. Bio-oil production through pyrolysis of blue-green algae blooms (BGAB): Product distribution and bio-oil characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Zhiquan; Zheng, Yang; Yan, Feng; Xiao, Bo; Liu, Shiming

    2013-01-01

    Pyrolysis experiments of blue-green algae blooms (BGAB) were carried out in a fixed-bed reactor to determine the effects of pyrolysis temperature, particle size and sweep gas flow rate on pyrolysis product yields and bio-oil properties. The pyrolysis temperature, particle size and sweep gas flow rate were varied in the ranges of 300–700 °C, below 0.25–2.5 mm and 50–400 mL min −1 , respectively. The maximum oil yield of 54.97% was obtained at a pyrolysis temperature of 500 °C, particle size below 0.25 mm and sweep gas flow rate of 100 mL min −1 . The elemental analysis and calorific value of the oil were determined, and the chemical composition of the oil was investigated using gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy (GC–MS) technique. The analysis of bio-oil composition showed that bio-oil from BGAB could be a potential source of renewable fuel with a heating value of 31.9 MJ kg −1 . - Highlights: ► Bio-oil production from pyrolysis of blue-green algae blooms in fixed bed reactor. ► Effects of pyrolysis conditions on product distribution were investigated. ► The maximum bio-oil yield reached 54.97 wt %. ► The bio-oil has high heating value and may be suitable as renewable fuel. ► Pyrolysis of algal biomass beneficial for energy recovery, eutrophication control

  4. A review of the incidence and transmission of Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat products in retail and food service environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lianou, Alexandra; Sofos, John N

    2007-09-01

    Contamination of ready-to-eat products with Listeria monocytogenes may occur at several stages before consumption. Accessibility to the public and relatively limited control interventions at retail and food service establishments (compared with the processing sector of the food industry) and the lack of a specific regulatory framework increase the likelihood of introduction of this pathogen into some foods in these establishments. This review is a compilation of available information on the incidence and transmission of L. monocytogenes through ready-to-eat products at the retail and food service level. The potential transmission of L. monocytogenes within retail and food service operations has been indicated in epidemiological investigations and by survey data. Potential sources of the organism in these operations include the environment, food handlers, and incoming raw ingredients or processed products that have become contaminated after the lethality treatment at the manufacturing facility. L. monocytogenes may be present at retail and food service establishments in various ready-to-eat products, both prepackaged and those packaged in the store, and occasionally at high concentrations. This issue dictates the need for development and application of effective control measures, and potential control approaches are discussed here. Good manufacturing practices, appropriate cleaning, sanitation and hygiene programs, and temperature control required for prevention or inhibition of growth of the pathogen to high levels are critical for control of L. monocytogenes in the retail and food service sector. A comprehensive food safety system designed to be functional in retail and food service operations and based on the philosophy of hazard analysis and critical control point systems and a series of sound prerequisite programs can provide effective control of L. monocytogenes in these environments. However, competent delivery of food safety education and training to retail

  5. The evaluation of supply chain performance in the Oil Products Distribution Company, using information technology indicators and fuzzy TOPSIS technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryosh Mohamadi Janaki

    2018-08-01

    Full Text Available Information Technology (IT plays an essential role on development of effective supply chain planning and it can improve the supply chain performance, either directly or indirectly. As a national industry, the National Iranian Oil Products Distribution Company involves a large number of organizations within its supply chain. Therefore, this descriptive-survey uses information sharing indicators, fuzzy TOPSIS technique based on managers and expert opinions to evaluate and to rank some oil products distribution companies. Data are analyzed and the results show that Oil Products Distribution Company of Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari received the highest rank and Farsan maintained the lowest rank compared with other regional companies.

  6. Quantifying Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolhouse, Mark

    2017-07-01

    Transmissibility is the defining characteristic of infectious diseases. Quantifying transmission matters for understanding infectious disease epidemiology and designing evidence-based disease control programs. Tracing individual transmission events can be achieved by epidemiological investigation coupled with pathogen typing or genome sequencing. Individual infectiousness can be estimated by measuring pathogen loads, but few studies have directly estimated the ability of infected hosts to transmit to uninfected hosts. Individuals' opportunities to transmit infection are dependent on behavioral and other risk factors relevant given the transmission route of the pathogen concerned. Transmission at the population level can be quantified through knowledge of risk factors in the population or phylogeographic analysis of pathogen sequence data. Mathematical model-based approaches require estimation of the per capita transmission rate and basic reproduction number, obtained by fitting models to case data and/or analysis of pathogen sequence data. Heterogeneities in infectiousness, contact behavior, and susceptibility can have substantial effects on the epidemiology of an infectious disease, so estimates of only mean values may be insufficient. For some pathogens, super-shedders (infected individuals who are highly infectious) and super-spreaders (individuals with more opportunities to transmit infection) may be important. Future work on quantifying transmission should involve integrated analyses of multiple data sources.

  7. Effects of ultraviolet radiation on rates and size distribution of primary production by Lake Erie phytoplankton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiriart, V.P.; Greenberg, B.M.; Guildford, S.J.; Smith, R.E.H.

    2002-01-01

    The impact of natural solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR), particularly UVB (297-320 nm), on phytoplankton primary production in Lake Erie was investigated during the spring and summer of 1997. Radiocarbon incorporation and size-selective filtration was used to trace total production and its distribution among particulate and dissolved pools. On average, 1-h exposures produced half the UVB-dependent inhibition of total production realized in 8-h exposures, indicating rapid kinetics of photoinhibition. Cumulative UVB-dependent photoinhibition averaged 36% in 8-h simulated surface exposures. The efficiency of photoinhibition was greater for N-deficient than N-replete communities, but was not related to phytoplankton light history, P limitation, or the dominant genera. The proportion of recently fixed carbon occurring in the dissolved pool after 8-h exposures was significantly greater in higher-UVB treatments, whereas the share in picoplankton (<2 μm) was significantly lower. Significant UVB-dependent inhibition of total production was limited on average to relatively severe exposures, but the rapid kinetics of inhibition and the apparent effects on the allocation of carbon suggest it may be important to the lake's food web. Differences in optical properties and thermal stratification patterns suggested that the relatively turbid west basin was potentially more susceptible to UVR photoinhibition than the more transparent east or central basins. (author)

  8. Distribution and Validation of CERES Irradiance Global Data Products Via Web Based Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutan, David; Mitrescu, Cristian; Doelling, David; Kato, Seiji

    2016-01-01

    The CERES SYN1deg product provides climate quality 3-hourly globally gridded and temporally complete maps of top of atmosphere, in atmosphere, and surface fluxes. This product requires efficient release to the public and validation to maintain quality assurance. The CERES team developed web-tools for the distribution of both the global gridded products and grid boxes that contain long term validation sites that maintain high quality flux observations at the Earth's surface. These are found at: http://ceres.larc.nasa.gov/order_data.php. In this poster we explore the various tools available to users to sub-set, download, and validate using surface observations the SYN1Deg and Surface-EBAF products. We also analyze differences found in long-term records from well-maintained land surface sites such as the ARM central facility and high quality buoy radiometers, which due to their isolated nature cannot be maintained in a similar manner to their land based counterparts.

  9. Frequency distributions of Escherichia coli in the confectionery products offered in retail market in Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasoul Rezaei

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Raw ingredients used in confectionary carry high risk of infection with Escherichia coli. Since confectionaries are offered in the market in quite varied forms and types and there is a great difference in the sanitary status of the confectionaries, this study aimed at evaluation of E.coli   frequency distribution in different types of confectionery products in Isfahan market. In addition, the effect of moisture content, products category and the sanitary level of the confectionaries as well as product types (Industrially or traditionally produced on the contamination level were studied. Materials and methods: A total of 200 samples were randomly collected from confectioneries in Isfahan city through simple random sampling method. Preparation and dilution procedures were conducted under sterile conditions. Samples were cultured on EMB agar medium. Later, some of the positive isolates were randomly selected and confirmed by TSI and IMVIC test. Data analysis was performed using descriptive indices. Also, one way ANOVA and LSD test or independent t test were applied to determine the statistically significant difference between the mean E.coli cell numbers in the categorized groups of sweets. Results: It was found that 19% of the total tested samples were contaminated with E.coli strains. The mean, median and maximum of contamination were (35±.5, (0 and (3.4 CFU/gr, respectively. Moisture content, products category and being traditionally or industrially produced have significant effects on the level of contamination; while, the sanitary status of the traditional confectionaries as graded in this study has no impact on the average E.coli cell count. Discussion and conclusion: Regarding the microbial quality, at least about 25% of the sweets in the market do not meet the national standards of confectionary products. Implementation of strict hygiene regulation in the traditional confectionaries is in need to provide the public with

  10. Translocation and distribution of 14C-assimilation products in soybeans with different growth property

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Koichi; Gotoh, Kanji

    1975-01-01

    To 3 different kinds of soybeans, Tokachinagaha (Determinate), Koganejiro (Intermediate), and Harosoy (Indeterminate), 14 C was given at 3 stages of growth, namely, initial flowering, young pod development, and seed fattening periods. The 14 C assimilation efficiency, namely, the value of total 14 C assimilated divided by the area of the leaves which assimilated 14 C, was large when the leaf area was small. The value decreased with the increase of the leaf area. The rate of translocation of 14 C assimilation products was 20-50% in the period of initial flowering. The rate was highest in Tokachinagaha, followed by Koganejiro and Harosoy in this order. The difference was small in the period of young pod development. In the period of initial flowering, the distribution of 14 C to lower leaves and branches was high in Harosoy. In the period of young pod development, 30-40% of the assimilated 14 C was found in stems. This distribution is possibly due to temporary storage. In the period of seed fattening, 80-90% of the assimilated 14 C was present in pods and seeds. It was then concluded that the movement of assimilated products is high in the determinate type in the initial growth period. In the seed fattening period, the rate is high in the indeterminate type soy beans. (Fukutomi, T.)

  11. Current Outlook for 99mTc Distribution Based on Electron Accelerator Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin L. Nelson; W. David Bence; John R. Snyder

    2007-01-01

    In 1999 a practical example illustrating the economical and reliable production of 99mTc from an accelerator was developed. It included the realistic costs involved in establishing and operating the accelerator facility and the distribution of the 99mTc to regions in Florida. However, the technology was never commercialized. Recent political and economic developments prompted this second look at accelerator produced 99mTc. The practicality of this system in 2007 dollars was established to account for inflation and current demand. The same distribution model and production schedule from the Global 1999 study were used. Numbers were found using current rates and costs where possible and indexed estimations when necessary. Though several of the costs increased significantly and the sale price remains at approximately 35 cents/mCi, the unit cost of 99mTc throughput only increased from 12.8 cents/mCi to 15.0 cents/mCi or approximately 17.2% from 1999 to 2007 thus continuing to be economically viable. This study provides ground work for creating business development models at additional locations within the U.S

  12. CO product energy distribution in the photodissociation of methylketene and acrolein at 193 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, G. T.; Umstead, M. E.; Lin, M. C.

    1985-04-01

    CO product vibrational energy distributions in the photodissociation of the two C3H4O isomers, methylketene (CH3CHCO) and acrolein (CH2CHCHO), at 193 nm have been measured by CO laser resonance absorption. The CO from methylketene was found to be vibrationally excited up to v=7, and from acrolein v=6, with average vibrational energies of 3.4±0.3 and 2.7±0.7 kcal/mol, respectively. The similarities observed in the appearance times and in the vibrational energy content of the CO formed in the two systems support our previous conclusion that in the case of acrolein isomerization to methylketene takes place prior to the dissociation process: CH2CHCHO+hν→CH3CHCO*†→CH3CH+CO†. The CO vibrational energy distributions observed in both systems agree closely with the statistical distribution predicted assuming that ethylidene rather than ethylene is formed in the photodissociation reaction.

  13. Force transmissibility versus displacement transmissibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lage, Y. E.; Neves, M. M.; Maia, N. M. M.; Tcherniak, D.

    2014-10-01

    It is well-known that when a single-degree-of-freedom (sdof) system is excited by a continuous motion of the foundation, the force transmissibility, relating the force transmitted to the foundation to the applied force, equals the displacement transmissibility. Recent developments in the generalization of the transmissibility to multiple-degree-of-freedom (mdof) systems have shown that similar simple and direct relations between both types of transmissibility do not appear naturally from the definitions, as happens in the sdof case. In this paper, the authors present their studies on the conditions under which it is possible to establish a relation between force transmissibility and displacement transmissibility for mdof systems. As far as the authors are aware, such a relation is not currently found in the literature, which is justified by being based on recent developments in the transmissibility concept for mdof systems. Indeed, it does not appear naturally, but the authors observed that the needed link is present when the displacement transmissibility is obtained between the same coordinates where the applied and reaction forces are considered in the force transmissibility case; this implies that the boundary conditions are not exactly the same and instead follow some rules. This work presents a formal derivation of the explicit relation between the force and displacement transmissibilities for mdof systems, and discusses its potential and limitations. The authors show that it is possible to obtain the displacement transmissibility from measured forces, and the force transmissibility from measured displacements, opening new perspectives, for example, in the identification of applied or transmitted forces. With this novel relation, it becomes possible, for example, to estimate the force transmissibility matrix with the structure off its supports, in free boundary conditions, and without measuring the forces. As far as force identification is concerned, this

  14. Production of Mucosally Transmissible SHIV Challenge Stocks from HIV-1 Circulating Recombinant Form 01_AE env Sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence J Tartaglia

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV challenge stocks are critical for preclinical testing of vaccines, antibodies, and other interventions aimed to prevent HIV-1. A major unmet need for the field has been the lack of a SHIV challenge stock expressing circulating recombinant form 01_AE (CRF01_AE env sequences. We therefore sought to develop mucosally transmissible SHIV challenge stocks containing HIV-1 CRF01_AE env derived from acutely HIV-1 infected individuals from Thailand. SHIV-AE6, SHIV-AE6RM, and SHIV-AE16 contained env sequences that were >99% identical to the original HIV-1 isolate and did not require in vivo passaging. These viruses exhibited CCR5 tropism and displayed a tier 2 neutralization phenotype. These challenge stocks efficiently infected rhesus monkeys by the intrarectal route, replicated to high levels during acute infection, and established chronic viremia in a subset of animals. SHIV-AE16 was titrated for use in single, high dose as well as repetitive, low dose intrarectal challenge studies. These SHIV challenge stocks should facilitate the preclinical evaluation of vaccines, monoclonal antibodies, and other interventions targeted at preventing HIV-1 CRF01_AE infection.

  15. Data transmission

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tugal, Dogan A; Tugal, Osman

    1989-01-01

    This updated second edition provides working answers to today's critical questions about designing and managing all types of data transmission systems and features a new chapter on local area networks (LANs...

  16. Metrology for the persevering production, distribution, and usage of energy; Metrologie fuer die nachhaltige Erzeugung, Verteilung und Nutzung von Energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommer, Klaus-Dieter [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Braunschweig (Germany). Abt. ' Chemische Physik und Explosionsschutz'

    2012-12-15

    The author describes the metrological challenges given by the necessarily effective production, transport, distribution, consumption, conservation, and storage of energy, the latter is considered in connection with mobility. Finally the activities of the PTB in this connection are listed. (HSI)

  17. Production-log base model for carbonate permeability distribution and steam flood optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahamed, S.F.; Choudhry, M.A.; Abdulbaqi, J.B. [Kuwait Gulf Oil Co. (Kuwait)

    2008-10-15

    This paper presented a model for the effective management of primary and thermal oil recovery operations in the Wafra Field in Kuwait, where a small huff and puff project was carried out in 1998 to determine if steam injection was a feasible recovery option for the field. The Eocene heavy oil reservoirs of the Wafra Field are carbonate rock admixtures with gypsum and anhydrite. They are the shallowest of the field's productive horizons and exhibit a high degree of fluid flow heterogeneity. The assessment of vertical and lateral permeability variation is a key factor for success of the reservoir development plan. Steam injection began in 2006 in a small scale test (SST) to determine if the innovative technology could produce steam from effluent water and to test the viability of steam injection in carbonate reservoirs. Following the success of the SST, a large scale pilot (LSP) is schedule to start in 2009. It can be used for completion strategies of injectors and producers in steam injection. The model showed that the productivity of the Eocene wells could be correlated with common available logs to develop a log based-permeability model. A series of cross plots for the perforated intervals of high and low productivity wells were constructed to develop a relationship between well productivity and location of log parameters on the plots. A relationship between rock quality, productivity and conventional log parameters was established. It was concluded that the vertical permeability and interwell continuity in the Eocene wells can be used to optimize new well placement for horizontal and vertical infill drilling. The model is also an effective tool to predict the steam injectivity profile to understand the anomalies related to temperature-depth distribution. The model can be used to improve the efficiency of formation heating by optimizing the steam flood process and steam pattern well completion. 16 refs.

  18. Strontium concentrations in corrosion products from residential drinking water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerke, Tammie L; Little, Brenda J; Luxton, Todd P; Scheckel, Kirk G; Maynard, J Barry

    2013-05-21

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) will require some U.S. drinking water distribution systems (DWDS) to monitor nonradioactive strontium (Sr(2+)) in drinking water in 2013. Iron corrosion products from four DWDS were examined to assess the potential for Sr(2+) binding and release. Average Sr(2+) concentrations in the outermost layer of the corrosion products ranged from 3 to 54 mg kg(-1) and the Sr(2+) drinking water concentrations were all ≤0.3 mg L(-1). Micro-X-ray adsorption near edge structure spectroscopy and linear combination fitting determined that Sr(2+) was principally associated with CaCO3. Sr(2+) was also detected as a surface complex associated with α-FeOOH. Iron particulates deposited on a filter inside a home had an average Sr(2+) concentration of 40.3 mg kg(-1) and the associated drinking water at a tap was 210 μg L(-1). The data suggest that elevated Sr(2+) concentrations may be associated with iron corrosion products that, if disturbed, could increase Sr(2+) concentrations above the 0.3 μg L(-1) US EPA reporting threshold. Disassociation of very small particulates could result in drinking water Sr(2+) concentrations that exceed the US EPA health reference limit (4.20 mg kg(-1) body weight).

  19. Distribution and production of plankton communities in the subtropical convergence zone of the Sargasso Sea. II. Protozooplankton and copepods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nikolaj G.; Nielsen, Torkel Gissel; Jakobsen, Hans Henrik

    2011-01-01

    the potential reasons why Atlantic eels Anguilla spp. use this area for spawning, we investigated the distribution and productivity of the zooplankton community across the Subtropical Convergence Zone (STCZ) in the Sargasso Sea in March and April 2007. The vertical and horizontal distributions of protozoans...

  20. On the Distribution of Worker Productivity: The Case for Teacher Effectiveness and Student Achievement. CEDR Working Paper. WP #2016-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhaber, Dan; Startz, Richard

    2016-01-01

    It is common to assume that worker productivity is normally distributed, but this assumption is rarely if ever tested. We estimate the distribution of worker productivity where individual productivity is measured with error, using the productivity of elementary school teachers as an example. Proposals to improve teacher productivity often focus on…

  1. Diverse effects of crop distribution and climate change on crop production in the agro-pastoral transitional zone of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Jianmin; Yu, Deyong; Wang, Qianfeng; Liu, Yupeng

    2018-06-01

    Both crop distribution and climate change are important drivers for crop production and can affect food security, which is an important requirement for sustainable development. However, their effects on crop production are confounded and warrant detailed investigation. As a key area for food production that is sensitive to climate change, the agro-pastoral transitional zone (APTZ) plays a significant role in regional food security. To investigate the respective effects of crop distribution and climate change on crop production, the well-established GIS-based Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model was adopted with different scenario designs in this study. From 1980 to 2010, the crop distribution for wheat, maize, and rice witnessed a dramatic change due to agricultural policy adjustments and ecological engineering-related construction in the APTZ. At the same time, notable climate change was observed. The simulation results indicated that the climate change had a positive impact on the crop production of wheat, maize, and rice, while the crop distribution change led to an increase in the production of maize and rice, but a decrease in the wheat production. Comparatively, crop distribution change had a larger impact on wheat (-1.71 × 106 t) and maize (8.53 × 106 t) production, whereas climate change exerted a greater effect on rice production (0.58 × 106 t), during the period from 1980 to 2010 in the APTZ. This study is helpful to understand the mechanism of the effects of crop distribution and climate change on crop production, and aid policy makers in reducing the threat of future food insecurity.

  2. Diverse effects of crop distribution and climate change on crop production in the agro-pastoral transitional zone of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Jianmin; Yu, Deyong; Wang, Qianfeng; Liu, Yupeng

    2017-07-01

    Both crop distribution and climate change are important drivers for crop production and can affect food security, which is an important requirement for sustainable development. However, their effects on crop production are confounded and warrant detailed investigation. As a key area for food production that is sensitive to climate change, the agro-pastoral transitional zone (APTZ) plays a significant role in regional food security. To investigate the respective effects of crop distribution and climate change on crop production, the well-established GIS-based Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model was adopted with different scenario designs in this study. From 1980 to 2010, the crop distribution for wheat, maize, and rice witnessed a dramatic change due to agricultural policy adjustments and ecological engineering-related construction in the APTZ. At the same time, notable climate change was observed. The simulation results indicated that the climate change had a positive impact on the crop production of wheat, maize, and rice, while the crop distribution change led to an increase in the production of maize and rice, but a decrease in the wheat production. Comparatively, crop distribution change had a larger impact on wheat (-1.71 × 106 t) and maize (8.53 × 106 t) production, whereas climate change exerted a greater effect on rice production (0.58 × 106 t), during the period from 1980 to 2010 in the APTZ. This study is helpful to understand the mechanism of the effects of crop distribution and climate change on crop production, and aid policy makers in reducing the threat of future food insecurity.

  3. Difficulties and aspects to take into account in the production, use and distribution of new radiopharmaceuticals PET; Difficultes et aspects a prendre en compte dans la production, l'utilisation et la distribution des nouveaux radiopharmaceutiques TEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, R.; Rayo, J.I.; Serrano, J.; Infante, J.; Luz Dominguez, M.; Garcia, L.; Duran, C. [Hospital Infanta Cristina, Servicio de Medicina Nuclear, Badajoz (Spain)

    2008-10-15

    This article seeks to describe the requirements, legal and technical, for the production, distribution and use of new radiopharmaceuticals PET (other than the {sup 18}F.D.G.), describing the legislative framework in which we find ourselves, the characteristics of a production and types of synthesis and existing modules. A list of susceptible radiopharmaceuticals is presented that are being currently used in nuclear medicine by specifying the real possibilities of their production and use and which are the difficulties we face.

  4. Potential geographic distribution of atmospheric nitrogen deposition from intensive livestock production in North Carolina, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costanza, Jennifer K.; Marcinko, Sarah E.; Goewert, Ann E.; Mitchell, Charles E.

    2008-01-01

    To examine the consequences of increased spatial aggregation of livestock production facilities, we estimated the annual production of nitrogen in livestock waste in North Carolina, USA, and analyzed the potential distribution of atmospheric nitrogen deposition from confined animal feeding operations ('CAFO') lagoons. North Carolina is a national center for industrial livestock production. Livestock is increasingly being raised in CAFOs, where waste is frequently held, essentially untreated, in open-air lagoons. Reduced nitrogen in lagoons is volatilized as ammonia (NH 3 ), transported atmospherically, and deposited to other ecosystems. The Albemarle-Pamlico Sound, NC, is representative of nitrogen-sensitive coastal waters, and is a major component of the second largest estuarine complex in the U.S. We used GIS to model the area of water in the Sound within deposition range of CAFOs. We also evaluated the number of lagoons within deposition range of each 1 km 2 grid cell of the state. We considered multiple scenarios of atmospheric transport by varying distance and directionality. Modeled nitrogen deposition rates were particularly elevated for the Coastal Plain. This pattern matches empirical data, suggesting that observed regional patterns of reduced nitrogen deposition can be largely explained by two factors: limited atmospheric transport distance, and spatial aggregation of CAFOs. Under our medium-distance scenario, a small portion (roughly 22%) of livestock production facilities contributes disproportionately to atmospheric deposition of nitrogen to the Albemarle-Pamlico Sound. Furthermore, we estimated that between 14-37% of the state receives 50% of the state's atmospheric nitrogen deposition from CAFO lagoons. The estimated total emission from livestock is 134,000 t NH 3 yr -1 , 73% of which originates from the Coastal Plain. Stronger waste management and emission standards for CAFOs, particularly those on the Coastal Plain nearest to sensitive water bodies

  5. Catalysis of copper corrosion products on chlorine decay and HAA formation in simulated distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Andrews, Susan A

    2012-05-15

    This study investigated the effect of copper corrosion products, including Cu(II), Cu(2)O, CuO and Cu(2)(OH)(2)CO(3), on chlorine degradation, HAA formation, and HAA speciation under controlled experimental conditions. Chlorine decay and HAA formation were significantly enhanced in the presence of copper with the extent of copper catalysis being affected by the solution pH and the concentration of copper corrosion products. Accelerated chlorine decay and increased HAA formation were observed at pH 8.6 in the presence of 1.0 mg/L Cu(II) compared with that observed at pH 6.6 and pH 7.6. Further investigation of chlorine decay in the presence of both Suwannee River NOM and Cu(II) indicated that an increased reactivity of NOM with dissolved and/or solid surface-associated Cu(II), rather than chlorine auto-decomposition, was a primary reason for the observed rapid chlorine decay. Copper corrosion solids [Cu(2)O, CuO, Cu(2)(OH)(2)CO(3)] exhibited catalytic effects on both chlorine decay and HAA formation. Contrary to the results observed when in the absence of copper corrosion products, DCAA formation was consistently predominant over other HAA species in the presence of copper corrosion products, especially at neutral and high pH. This study improves the understanding for water utilities and households regarding chlorine residuals and HAA concentrations in distribution systems, in particular once the water reaches domestic plumbing where copper is widely used. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Fission products distributions in Candu primary heat transport and Candu containment systems during a severe accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantin, Marin; Rizoiu, Andrei

    2005-01-01

    The paper is intended to analyse the distribution of the fission products (FPs) in CANDU Primary Heat Transport (PHT) and CANDU Containment Systems by using the ASTEC code (Accident Source Term Evaluation Code). The complexity of the data required by ASTEC and the complexity both of CANDU PHT and Containment System were strong motivations to begin with a simplified geometry in order to avoid the introducing of unmanageable errors at the level of input deck. Thus only 1/4 of the PHT circuit was simulated and a simplified FPs inventory, some simplifications in the feeders geometry and containment were used. The circuit consists of 95 horizontal fuel channels connected to 95 horizontal out-feeders, then through vertical feeders to the outlet-header (a big pipe that collects the water from feeders); the circuit continues from the outlet-header with a riser and then with the steam generator and a pump. After this pump, the circuit was broken; in this point the FPs are transferred to the containment. The containment model consists of 4 rooms connected between by 6 links. The data related to the nodes' definitions, temperatures and pressure conditions were chosen as possible as real data from CANDU NPP loss of coolant accident sequence. Temperature and pressure conditions in the time of the accident were calculated by the CATHENA code and the source term of FPs introduced into the PHT was estimated by the ORIGEN code. The FPs distribution in the nodes of the circuit and the FPs mass transfer per isotope and chemical species are obtained by using SOPHAEROS module of ASTEC code. The distributions into the containment are obtained by the CPA module of ASTEC code (thermalhydraulics calculations in the containment and FPs aerosol transport). The results consist of mass distributions in the nodes of the circuit and the transferred mass to the containment through the break for different species (FPs and chemical species) and mass distributions in the different parts and

  7. Elemental and radionuclides distribution in the production and use of phosphate fertilizers in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saueia, Catia Heloisa Rosignoli

    2006-01-01

    Fertilizer is considered an essential component for agriculture, because its use increases the natural soil nutrients, which are lost slow waste or erosion. The Brazilian phosphate fertilizer is obtained by wet reaction of igneous phosphate rock with concentrated sulphuric acid, giving as final product, phosphoric acid and dihydrated calcium sulphate (phosphogypsum) as by-product. Phosphoric acid is the starting material for triple superphosphate (TSP), single superphosphate (SSP), monoammonium phosphate (MAP) and diammonium phosphate (DAP). The phosphate rock used as raw material presents in its composition, radionuclides of the U and Th natural series in. During the chemical attack of the phosphate rock, this equilibrium is disrupted and the radionuclides and the elements migrate to intermediate, final products and byproducts, according to their solubility and chemical properties. While the fertilizers are commercialized, the phosphogypsum is disposed in stack piles and can cause an impact in the environment. In order to evaluate the radionuclides and the elements distribution in the industrial process of phosphate fertilizer production, samples of concentrated rock, fertilizers (SSP, TSP, MAP and DAP) and phosphogypsum from three national industries (A, B and C), were analyzed. The characterization of the elements Ba, Co, Cr, Fe, Hf, Na, Sc, Ta, Th, U, Zn and Zr, and the rare earths La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb and Lu, were performed by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The results obtained showed that, in general, the rare earth elements are distributed uniformly in the fertilizers and phosphogypsum, except for Lu. The elemental concentration present in the fertilizers SSP and TSP are of the same order of magnitude of the source rock. The same behavior was observed in the fertilizers MAP and DAP, except for the elements Co, Sc and U. The radionuclides of the U series ( 238 U, 234 U, 230 Th, 226 Ra, 210 Pb) and of the Th series ( 232 Th, 228 Ra, 228 Th

  8. Risk of transmission of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease via blood and blood products. The French risk-analysis over the last 15 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, M; Trouvin, J-H

    2013-09-01

    Risk of transmission of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (infectious agent, responsible of spongiform encephalopathy) via blood and blood components (including the plasma-derived medicinal products such as coagulation factors and immunoglobulins) have been a subject of concern for Health authorities since the early 1980s, with a regain of interest in the 1990s, with the bovine spongiform encephalopathy outbreak followed few years after with the notification of the first cases of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans. The risk-analysis and measures taken by the French authorities in the period 1990-2010 will be described with the various assumptions and working hypothesis used and revisited as new findings become available. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Optimisation of distributed maintenance: Modelling and application to the multi-factory production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simeu-Abazi, Zineb, E-mail: Zineb.Simeu-Abazi@g-scop.inpg.fr [Laboratory G-SCOP, 46 Avenue Felix Viallet, 38031 Grenoble Cedex 1 (France); Ahmad, Alali Alhouaij [Laboratory G-SCOP, 46 Avenue Felix Viallet, 38031 Grenoble Cedex 1 (France)

    2011-11-15

    This paper concerns the modelling and the cost evaluation of maintenance activities in a distributed context. In this work we study the particular case where the maintenance activities are executed by two workshops: a central maintenance workshop (CMW) and a mobile maintenance workshop (MMW). The CMW concerns the repairing process for the corrective maintenance and the MMW executes all preventive maintenance in several factories according to a defined scheduling. The aim is to take into account the resources (spare parts in the MMW) and maintenance actions for a given operating budget. A modular approach for modelling a multi-site structure is proposed to achieve the aim of improving the availability of facilities on production sites while minimising the cost of maintenance.

  10. Spatial distribution of crystalline corrosion products formed during corrosion of stainless steel in concrete

    KAUST Repository

    Serdar, Marijana

    2015-05-01

    © 2015 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved. The mineralogy and spatial distribution of nano-crystalline corrosion products that form in the steel/concrete interface were characterized using synchrotron X-ray micro-diffraction (μ-XRD). Two types of low-nickel high-chromium reinforcing steels embedded into mortar and exposed to NaCl solution were investigated. Corrosion in the samples was confirmed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). μ-XRD revealed that goethite (α-FeOOH) and akaganeite (β-FeOOH) are the main iron oxide-hydroxides formed during the chloride-induced corrosion of stainless steel in concrete. Goethite is formed closer to the surface of the steel due to the presence of chromium in the steel, while akaganeite is formed further away from the surface due to the presence of chloride ions. Detailed microstructural analysis is shown and discussed on one sample of each type of steel.

  11. Spatial distribution of crystalline corrosion products formed during corrosion of stainless steel in concrete

    KAUST Repository

    Serdar, Marijana; Meral, Cagla; Kunz, Martin; Bjegovic, Dubravka; Wenk, Hans-Rudolf; Monteiro, Paulo J.M.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved. The mineralogy and spatial distribution of nano-crystalline corrosion products that form in the steel/concrete interface were characterized using synchrotron X-ray micro-diffraction (μ-XRD). Two types of low-nickel high-chromium reinforcing steels embedded into mortar and exposed to NaCl solution were investigated. Corrosion in the samples was confirmed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). μ-XRD revealed that goethite (α-FeOOH) and akaganeite (β-FeOOH) are the main iron oxide-hydroxides formed during the chloride-induced corrosion of stainless steel in concrete. Goethite is formed closer to the surface of the steel due to the presence of chromium in the steel, while akaganeite is formed further away from the surface due to the presence of chloride ions. Detailed microstructural analysis is shown and discussed on one sample of each type of steel.

  12. THE ANCIENT FOUNDATION’S CONCEPT OF THE FAIR RELATIONS OF PRODUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe ILIADI

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses about the development of philosophical concepts, motivation and fair protection of national-public interests of the state and the population. Particular attention is given to the contribution to solving the problem from outstanding creative personalities of ancient Greece. For ancient thinkers gathering knowledge and its use for reasonable welfare of the country and citizens is higher than any other activity. Contemporary issues of fair relations of production and distribution remain popular in most countries, including the Republic of Moldova which recently became an independent state. Conceptual approaches can be used to develop strategies and tactics of motivating the fair protection of national-public interests of the state and the population, both in law and in their practical implementation.

  13. Optimizing a Biobjective Production-Distribution Planning Problem Using a GRASP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha-Selene Casas-Ramírez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses a biobjective production-distribution planning problem. The problem is formulated as a mixed integer programming problem with two objectives. The objectives are to minimize the total costs and to balance the total workload of the supply chain, which consist of plants and depots, considering that it represents a company vertically integrated. In order to solve the model, we propose an adapted biobjective GRASP to obtain an approximation of the Pareto front. To evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm, numerical experimentations are conducted over a set of instances used for similar problems. Results indicate that the proposed GRASP obtains a relatively small number of nondominated solutions for each tested instance in very short computational time. The approximated Pareto fronts are discontinuous and nonconvex. Moreover, the solutions clearly show the compromise between both objective functions.

  14. A multi-objective particle swarm optimization for production-distribution planning in supply chain network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Pourrousta

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Integrated supply chain includes different components of order, production and distribution and it plays an important role on reducing the cost of manufacturing system. In this paper, an integrated supply chain in a form of multi-objective decision-making problem is presented. The proposed model of this paper considers different parameters with uncertainty using trapezoid numbers. We first implement a ranking method to covert the fuzzy model into a crisp one and using multi-objective particle swarm optimization, we solve the resulted model. The results are compared with the performance of NSGA-II for some randomly generated problems and the preliminary results indicate that the proposed model of the paper performs better than the alternative method.

  15. Occurrence, distribution and characteristics of beached plastic production pellets on the island of Malta (central Mediterranean).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Andrew; Holmes, Luke

    2011-02-01

    The distribution, abundance and chemical characteristics of plastic production pellets on beaches of the island of Malta have been determined. Pellets were observed at all locations visited and were generally most abundant (> 1000m⁻² at the surface) on the backshores of beaches with a westerly aspect. Most pellets were disc-shaped or flattened cylinders and could be categorised as white, yellow, amber or brown. The polymeric matrix of all pellets analysed by infrared spectroscopy was polyethylene and the degree of yellowing or darkening was associated with an increase in the carbonyl index, hence extent of photo-oxidation or aging. Qualitatively, pellets are similar to those reported for other regions of the Mediterranean in surveys spanning three decades, suggesting that they are a general and persistent characteristic of the region. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Specification and Verification of Distributed Embedded Systems: A Traffic Intersection Product Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Meseguer

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Distributed embedded systems (DESs are no longer the exception; they are the rule in many application areas such as avionics, the automotive industry, traffic systems, sensor networks, and medical devices. Formal DES specification and verification is challenging due to state space explosion and the need to support real-time features. This paper reports on an extensive industry-based case study involving a DES product family for a pedestrian and car 4-way traffic intersection in which autonomous devices communicate by asynchronous message passing without a centralized controller. All the safety requirements and a liveness requirement informally specified in the requirements document have been formally verified using Real-Time Maude and its model checking features.

  17. Production of Transverse Controllable Laser Density Distribution in Fermilab/NICADD Photoinjector

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jianliang; Tikhoplav, Rodion

    2005-01-01

    The Fermilab/NICADD photoinjector laboratory consist of a photoemission electron source based on an L band rf-gun. The CsTe photocathode is illuminated by an ultrashort UV laser. The transport line from the laser to the photocathode was recently upgraded to allow imaging of an object plane located ~20 m from the photocathode. This upgrade allows the generation of transverse laser distributions with controlled nonuniformity, yielding the production of an electron beam with various transverse densities patterns. Measuring the evolution of the artificial pattern on the electron bunch provides information that can be used to benchmark numerical simulations and investigate the impact of space charge. Preliminary data on these investigations are presented in the present paper.

  18. Homepage to distribute the anatomy learning contents including Visible Korean products, comics, and books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Beom Sun; Chung, Min Suk

    2018-03-01

    The authors have operated the homepage (http://anatomy.co.kr) to provide the learning contents of anatomy. From the homepage, sectioned images, volume models, and surface models-all Visible Korean products-can be downloaded. The realistic images can be interactively manipulated, which will give rise to the interest in anatomy. The various anatomy comics (learning comics, comic strips, plastination comics, etc.) are approachable. Visitors can obtain the regional anatomy book with concise contents, mnemonics, and schematics as well as the simplified dissection manual and the pleasant anatomy essay. Medical students, health allied professional students, and even laypeople are expected to utilize the easy and comforting anatomy contents. It is hoped that other anatomists successively produce and distribute their own informative contents.

  19. Predicting potential global distributions of two Miscanthus grasses: implications for horticulture, biofuel production, and biological invasions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, Heather A; Sinasac, Sarah E; Gedalof, Ze'ev; Newman, Jonathan A

    2014-01-01

    In many regions, large proportions of the naturalized and invasive non-native floras were originally introduced deliberately by humans. Pest risk assessments are now used in many jurisdictions to regulate the importation of species and usually include an estimation of the potential distribution in the import area. Two species of Asian grass (Miscanthus sacchariflorus and M. sinensis) that were originally introduced to North America as ornamental plants have since escaped cultivation. These species and their hybrid offspring are now receiving attention for large-scale production as biofuel crops in North America and elsewhere. We evaluated their potential global climate suitability for cultivation and potential invasion using the niche model CLIMEX and evaluated the models' sensitivity to the parameter values. We then compared the sensitivity of projections of future climatically suitable area under two climate models and two emissions scenarios. The models indicate that the species have been introduced to most of the potential global climatically suitable areas in the northern but not the southern hemisphere. The more narrowly distributed species (M. sacchariflorus) is more sensitive to changes in model parameters, which could have implications for modelling species of conservation concern. Climate projections indicate likely contractions in potential range in the south, but expansions in the north, particularly in introduced areas where biomass production trials are under way. Climate sensitivity analysis shows that projections differ more between the selected climate change models than between the selected emissions scenarios. Local-scale assessments are required to overlay suitable habitat with climate projections to estimate areas of cultivation potential and invasion risk.

  20. PRODUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION OF Jatropha curcas BIOMASS IN THE BRAZILIAN SEMIARID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Antônio Drumond

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess production and distribution of biomass shoots of different genotypes of Jatropha curcas under irrigation in the semiarid region of Pernambuco, Brazil, an experiment was established in Gabriela Farm, in the municipality of Santa Maria da Boa Vista-PE. The experimental design was randomized blocks with ten treatments (genotypes of Jatropha curcas, and three replications in row plots of six plants, with a single border and spacing of 3.0 x 2.0 m. Plants were fertilized with 150 g of NPK (06:24:12 at planting time, and a topdressing with 150 g.planta-1 NPK (10:10:10 applied at six and twelve months of age. The plants were irrigated weekly using a dripping system with an average water application of 20 l.plant-1 during the dry period of the region. At 24 months of age, the overall height of the plants, the average diameter of bifurcations at 1.30m from the soil level and the number of bifurcations at 0.5 m of height were evaluated. Twenty six fruit/ seed harvests were done weekly. Fruits were harvested ripe, before falling on the ground, for seven months. To determine dry biomass, the plants were cut at 0.30 m from soil level. The genotypes showed high agronomic uniformity, except for the variable number of bifurcations, where the genotype 1701 was superior to the genotypes 1501, 1602, 1703 and 1601. Biomass production of genotypes in irrigated conditions in the semiarid region is high and the distribution of biomass followed the decreasing order: root>fruit>thick branches>leaves>bark>thin branches.