WorldWideScience

Sample records for production source categories

  1. Consumer Product Category Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Chemical and Product Categories database (CPCat) catalogs the use of over 40,000 chemicals and their presence in different consumer products. The chemical use information is compiled from multiple sources while product information is gathered from publicly available Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS). EPA researchers are evaluating the possibility of expanding the database with additional product and use information.

  2. Consumer Product Category Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Chemical and Product Categories database (CPCat) catalogs the use of over 40,000 chemicals and their presence in different consumer products. The chemical use...

  3. Anaerobic biodegradability of Category 2 animal by-products: methane potential and inoculum source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozdniakova, Tatiana A; Costa, José C; Santos, Ricardo J; Alves, M M; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2012-11-01

    Category 2 animal by-products that need to be sterilized with steam pressure according Regulation (EC) 1774/2002 are studied. In this work, 2 sets of experiments were performed in mesophilic conditions: (i) biomethane potential determination testing 0.5%, 2.0% and 5.0% total solids (TS), using sludge from the anaerobic digester of a wastewater treatment plant as inoculum; (ii) biodegradability tests at a constant TS concentration of 2.0% and different inoculum sources (digested sludge from a wastewater treatment plant; granular sludge from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor; leachate from a municipal solid waste landfill; and sludge from the slaughterhouse wastewater treatment anaerobic lagoon) to select the more adapted inoculum to the substrate in study. The higher specific methane production was of 317 mL CH(4)g(-1) VS(substrate) for 2.0% TS. The digested sludge from the wastewater treatment plant led to the lowest lag-phase period and higher methane potential rate. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. 40 CFR 98.110 - Definition of the source category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Ferroalloy Production § 98.110 Definition of the source category. The ferroalloy production source category consists of any facility that uses pyrometallurgical techniques to produce any of the following metals: ferrochromium, ferromanganese, ferromolybdenum...

  5. Product Category Management Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Żukowska, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to present the issues related to category management. It includes the overview of category management definitions and the correct process of exercising it. Moreover, attention is paid to the advantages of brand management, the benefits the supplier and retailer may obtain in this way. The risk element related to this topics is also presented herein. Joanna Żukowska

  6. 40 CFR 98.240 - Definition of the source category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... makes methanol, hydrogen, and/or ammonia from synthesis gas is part of the petrochemical source category... hydrogen recovered as product and ammonia. The facility is part of subpart P of this part (Hydrogen... levels of both methanol and ammonia. The facility is part of subpart G of this part (Ammonia...

  7. 40 CFR 98.410 - Definition of the source category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Suppliers of Industrial Greenhouse Gases § 98.410 Definition of the source category. (a) The industrial gas supplier source category consists of any facility that...

  8. 6 Source Categories - Boilers (Proposed Action)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is proposing options to simplify the Clean Air Act permitting process for certain smaller sources of air pollution commonly found in Indian country. This action would ensure that air quality in Indian country is protected.

  9. 40 CFR 98.360 - Definition of the source category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... this rule. (b) A manure management system (MMS) is a system that stabilizes and/or stores livestock... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Manure Management § 98.360 Definition of the source category. (a) This source category consists of livestock facilities with manure management systems that emit 25...

  10. 40 CFR 98.70 - Definition of source category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition of source category. 98.70... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Ammonia Manufacturing § 98.70 Definition of source category...-based feedstock produced via steam reforming of a hydrocarbon. (b) Ammonia manufacturing processes in...

  11. 40 CFR 98.40 - Definition of the source category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition of the source category. 98... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Electricity Generation § 98.40 Definition of the source... category does not include portable equipment, emergency equipment, or emergency generators, as defined in...

  12. Hippocampal activation during episodic and semantic memory retrieval: comparing category production and category cued recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Lee; Cox, Christine; Hayes, Scott M; Nadel, Lynn

    2008-01-01

    Whether or not the hippocampus participates in semantic memory retrieval has been the focus of much debate in the literature. However, few neuroimaging studies have directly compared hippocampal activation during semantic and episodic retrieval tasks that are well matched in all respects other than the source of the retrieved information. In Experiment 1, we compared hippocampal fMRI activation during a classic semantic memory task, category production, and an episodic version of the same task, category cued recall. Left hippocampal activation was observed in both episodic and semantic conditions, although other regions of the brain clearly distinguished the two tasks. Interestingly, participants reported using retrieval strategies during the semantic retrieval task that relied on autobiographical and spatial information; for example, visualizing themselves in their kitchen while producing items for the category kitchen utensils. In Experiment 2, we considered whether the use of these spatial and autobiographical retrieval strategies could have accounted for the hippocampal activation observed in Experiment 1. Categories were presented that elicited one of three retrieval strategy types, autobiographical and spatial, autobiographical and nonspatial, and neither autobiographical nor spatial. Once again, similar hippocampal activation was observed for all three category types, regardless of the inclusion of spatial or autobiographical content. We conclude that the distinction between semantic and episodic memory is more complex than classic memory models suggest.

  13. Tactics at the category level of purchasing and supply management: sourcing levers, contingencies and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesping, Frank

    2015-01-01

    For the ‘front-line’ purchasing agent, it is obvious that not all categories of products and supplier relationships should be managed in the same way. Rather, in a modern category management approach, firms group similar products into ‘sourcing categories’ forming coherent supply markets (e.g.,

  14. Tactics at the category level of purchasing and supply management: sourcing levers, contingencies and performance

    OpenAIRE

    Hesping, Frank

    2015-01-01

    For the ‘front-line’ purchasing agent, it is obvious that not all categories of products and supplier relationships should be managed in the same way. Rather, in a modern category management approach, firms group similar products into ‘sourcing categories’ forming coherent supply markets (e.g., ‘metal sheets’, ‘leather’, ‘displays’, ‘cables’, etc.). Thus, to achieve cost reduction targets, a tailored mix of tactical sourcing levers for each sourcing category may be required. The fundamental q...

  15. 40 CFR 98.420 - Definition of the source category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition of the source category. 98.420 Section 98.420 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... distribution of CO2. (4) Purification, compression, or processing of CO2. (5) On-site use of CO2 captured on...

  16. Task-Modulated Cortical Representations of Natural Sound Source Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortkjær, Jens; Kassuba, Tanja; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard

    2018-01-01

    In everyday sound environments, we recognize sound sources and events by attending to relevant aspects of an acoustic input. Evidence about the cortical mechanisms involved in extracting relevant category information from natural sounds is, however, limited to speech. Here, we used functional MRI...

  17. Identifying demand effects in a large network of product categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelper, S.E.C.; Wilms, I.; Croux, C.

    2016-01-01

    Planning marketing mix strategies requires retailers to understand within- as well as cross-category demand effects. Most retailers carry products in a large variety of categories, leading to a high number of such demand effects to be estimated. At the same time, we do not expect cross-category

  18. What drives consumer involvement? The relative impact of product category and product attribute

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Kügler, Jens Oliver; Scholderer, Joachim

    2009-01-01

    , foods, household appliances, alcoholic beverages) and on two involvement dimensions (interest and importance). The results indicate that in three of the four super-categories the predominant source of variation in product involvement were the attributes of the products, not the product category...... they belong to. Only for foods, the traditional conceptualisation of involvement held. The findings suggest that parts of previous research on involvement may have to be re-interpreted and that future research should adopt more complex conceptualisations of involvement. From a managerial point of view...

  19. 77 FR 20281 - Designation of Product Categories for Federal Procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ... derived from imported oil and natural gas. When USDA designates by rulemaking a product category (a...: Vehicular Products--re-refined lubricating oils. USDA is requesting that manufacturers of these qualifying...

  20. 77 FR 72653 - Designation of Product Categories for Federal Procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... corrosion removers; microbial cleaning products; paint removers; and water turbine bearing oils. USDA is... cover a wide range of products. For some product categories, there are subgroups of products that meet... corrosion remover products are required to meet, but it may have information on only one type of metal...

  1. 78 FR 19393 - Designation of Product Categories for Federal Procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    .../products.htm and then clicking on the appropriate product name. Federal Government Purchase of Sustainable Products. The Federal government's sustainable purchasing program includes the following three statutory... significant. Most of the product categories being designated in this rulemaking are typical consumer products...

  2. Online Consumer Reviews: The Moderating Effect of Product Category

    OpenAIRE

    Bjering, Einar; Havro, Lars Jaakko

    2014-01-01

    This paper tests a previously proposed model for assessing consumer generated online reviews effect on sales, the review impact continuum. Product category is found to play an important role as a moderating factor of several properties concerning user generated online reviews - including its impact on sales. The authors introduce a novel method for product category classification using natural language processing (NLP), and by applying this method show that reviews are more influential for su...

  3. 77 FR 69381 - Designation of Product Categories for Federal Procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-19

    ... expectations. USDA recognizes that performance is the key factor in making purchasing decisions among the... price reasonableness of preferred products before making a purchase. B. Regulatory Flexibility Act (RFA... required generally to purchase biobased products within the designated product category where the purchase...

  4. 76 FR 4155 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories: Gasoline...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-24

    ... 63 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories: Gasoline Distribution Bulk Terminals, Bulk Plants, and Pipeline Facilities; and Gasoline Dispensing Facilities; Final...] RIN 2060-AP16 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories: Gasoline...

  5. Brand importance across product categories in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Formánek Tomáš

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with customer loyalty to brands and provides an analysis of brand-related attitudes among Czech consumers. Brand loyalty is a very important aspect of competitive marketing and we contribute an empirically supported point of view on the topic. Based on primary data from a complex consumer survey carried out for the purpose of this study, we investigate the extent of brand loyalty across different product categories, mostly fast moving consumer goods (FMCG. For convenience, the analysis of our survey-data may be divided in two main areas. First, product categories are ranked according to their potential power to attract customers’ interest and loyalty towards brands. When loyalty programs are prepared, it is important to discern product categories where loyalty potential is weak from those categories that attract consumer loyalty. Second, sociodemographic features and lifestyle factors from the survey are evaluated with respect to different product categories, by means of logistic regression and subsequent average partial effect (APE analysis. A detailed and practically oriented interpretation of the empirical results is provided by the authors. However, both corporate marketers and academic readers can use the tables with empirical estimation outputs that are provided in this article to draw their own conclusions, which may be focused on the product category of interest and/or focused on any specific consumer group that is of particular interest. Among other topics, this paper emphasizes the fact that brand loyalty is a highly complex phenomenon and that it can and should be analysed from different perspectives.

  6. Product Category Layout and Organization: Retail Placement of Food Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herpen, van E.

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the placement of food products in retail stores, in particular how the placement of food products can influence how consumers perceive the store in general and these products in particular. It reviews the overall layout of the store, assortment organization, and shelf

  7. Preliminary data summary for the hospitals point-source category

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strassler, E.; Hund, F.H.

    1989-09-01

    The summaries were prepared in order to allow EPA to respond to the mandate of Section 304(m) of the Clean Water Act. Summaries for categories already subject to rulemaking were developed for comparison purposes, and contain only the minimum amount of data needed to provide some perspective on the relative magnitude of the pollution problems created across the categories. The document summarizes the most current information available regarding the discharge of wastewater and solid wastes containing priority and hazardous non-priority pollutants by hospitals. The document provides a technical basis for determining whether additional national regulations should be developed pursuant to the Clean Water Act (CWA), and makes available preliminary information regarding the discharge of priority and hazardous non-priority pollutants by the hospital industry

  8. Comparing Product Category Rules from Different Programs: Learned Outcomes Towards Global Alignment (Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpose Product category rules (PCRs) provide category-specific guidance for estimating and reporting product life cycle environmental impacts, typically in the form of environmental product declarations and product carbon footprints. Lack of global harmonization between PCRs or ...

  9. Comparing Product Category Rules from Different Programs: Learned Outcomes Towards Global Alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpose Product category rules (PCRs) provide category-specific guidance for estimating and reporting product life cycle environmental impacts, typically in the form of environmental product declarations and product carbon footprints. Lack of global harmonization between PCRs or ...

  10. The effect of midazolam on implicit and explicit memory in category exemplar production and category cued recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Jason; Passannante, Anthony; Hirshman, Elliot

    2004-03-01

    Transfer-appropriate processing theory (Roediger, Weldon, & Challis, 1989) proposes that dissociations between performance on explicit and implicit memory tests arise because these tests often rely on different types of information processing (e.g., perceptual processing vs conceptual processing). This perspective predicts that implicit and explicit memory tasks that rely primarily on conceptual processing should show comparable results, not dissociations. Numerous studies have demonstrated such similarities. It is, however, possible that these results arise from explicit memory contamination of performance on implicit memory tasks. To address this issue, an experiment was conducted in which participants were administered the sedative midazolam prior to study. Midazolam is known to create a temporary, but dense, period of anterograde amnesia. The effects of blocking stimulus materials by semantic category at study and generation at study were investigated on category exemplar production and category-cued recall. The results of this study demonstrated a dissociation of the effects of midazolam on category exemplar production and category-cued recall. Specifically, midazolam reduced the effect of blocking stimulus materials in category-cued recall, but not in category exemplar production. The differential effect of midazolam on explicit and implicit memory is at odds with transfer-appropriate processing theory and suggests that theories of memory must distinguish the roles of different types of conceptual processing on implicit and explicit memory tests.

  11. Safety issues in the handling of radiation sources in category IV gamma radiation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohli, A.K.

    2002-01-01

    There is potential for incidents/accidents related to handling of radiation sources. This is increasing due to the fact that more number of plants that too with much larger levels of activity are now coming up. Such facilities produce very high levels of exposure rates during irradiation. A person accidentally present in the irradiation cell can receive a lethal dose within a very short time. Apart from safety requirements during operation and maintenance of these facilities, safety during loading and unloading of sources is important. Category IV type irradiators are the most common. Doubly encapsulated Co-60 slugs are employed to form the source pencils. These irradiators employ a water pool for safely storing the source pencils when irradiation of the products is not going on or when human access is needed into the irradiation cell for some maintenance or source loading/unloading operations. Safety during loading/unloading operations of source pencils is important. In design itself care needs to be taken such that all such operations are convenient and any incident will not lead to a situation where it becomes difficult to come out. Different situations, which can arise during handling of radiation sources and suggested designs to obviate such tight situations, are discussed. (Author)

  12. 40 CFR 98.190 - Definition of the source category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... (a) Lime manufacturing plants (LMPs) engage in the manufacture of a lime product (e.g., calcium oxide, high-calcium quicklime, calcium hydroxide, hydrated lime, dolomitic quicklime, dolomitic hydrate, or... kraft pulp mill, soda pulp mill, sulfite pulp mill, or only processes sludge containing calcium...

  13. 40 CFR 98.270 - Definition of source category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... this section: (1) Chemical recovery furnaces at kraft and soda mills (including recovery furnaces that burn spent pulping liquor produced by both the kraft and semichemical process). (2) Chemical recovery... into paperboard products (e.g., containers), or operate coating and laminating processes. (b) The...

  14. The Role of External Sources of Information in Children's Evaluative Food Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Simone P.

    2012-01-01

    Evaluative food categories are value-laden assessments, which reflect the healthfulness and palatability of foods (e.g. healthy/unhealthy, yummy/yucky). In a series of three studies, this research examines how 3- to 4-year-old children (N?=?147) form evaluative food categories based on input from external sources of information. The results…

  15. Production of sealed sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandi, L.N.

    2016-01-01

    Radioisotope production has been an ongoing activity in India since the sixties. Radioisotopes find wide-ranging applications in various fields, including industry, research, agriculture and medicine. Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology, an industrial unit of Department of Atomic Energy is involved in fabrication and supply of wide variety of sealed sources. The main radioisotopes fabricated and supplied by BRIT are Cobalt-60, Iridium-192. These isotopes are employed in industrial and laboratory irradiators, teletherapy machines, radiography exposure devices, nucleonic gauges. The source fabrication facilities of BRIT are located at Rajasthan Atomic Power Project Cobalt-60 Facility (RAPPCOF), Kota, Radiological Laboratories Group (RLG) and High Intensity Radiation Utilization Project (HIRUP) at Trombay

  16. Categorization and Willingness to Pay for New Products : The Role of Category Cues as Value Anchors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijken, B.; Gemser, G.; Wijnberg, N.M.

    2017-01-01

    This study focuses on textual category cues and their influence on consumers' willingness to pay for new products. It examines whether an anchoring effect occurs when consumers are provided with textual category cues that refer consumers toward a particular product category. This article argues that

  17. 77 FR 11390 - Delegation of National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories; Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... Source Categories. Subpart ZZZZZZ--NESHAP: Area Source Standards for Aluminum, Copper, and Other... Perchloroethylene Dry X X X Cleaning. N Hard and Decorative X X X Chromium Electroplating and Chromium Anodizing... Publishing X X X Industry. LL Primary Aluminum Reduction X X Plants. MM Chemical Recovery X X Combustion...

  18. Kid Categories: A Comparison of the Category Productions of LSES and MSES Elementary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Rihana S.; Terry, Nicole Patton; Metzger, Isha

    2013-01-01

    The current study compares the productivity (number of responses) and the typical responses to taxonomic and slot-filler prompts in 39 African American children from low-income backgrounds and a diverse group of 21 children from middle-income backgrounds. The authors tested the hypothesis that socioeconomic status would exert a global influence on…

  19. Journey of a Package: Category 1 Source (Co-60) Shipment with Several Border Crossings, Multiple Modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, P. A.

    2016-01-01

    Radioactive materials (RAM) are used extensively in a vast array of industries and in an even wider breadth of applications on a truly global basis each and every day. Over the past 50 years, these applications and the quantity (activity) of RAM shipped has grown significantly, with the next 50 years expected to show a continuing trend. The movement of these goods occurs in all regions of the world, and must therefore be conducted in a manner which will not adversely impact people or the environment. Industry and regulators have jointly met this challenge, so much so that RAM shipments are amongst the safest of any product. How has this level of performance been achieved? What is involved in shipping RAM from one corner of the world to another, often via a number of in-transit locations and often utilizing multiple modes of transport in any single shipment? This paper reviews one such journey, of Category 1 Cobalt-60 sources, as they move from point of manufacture through to point of use including the detailed and multi-approval process, the stringent regulatory requirements in place, the extensive communications required throughout, and the practical aspects needed to simply offer such a product for sale and transport. Upon completion, the rationale for such an exemplary safety and security record will be readily apparent. (author)

  20. 78 FR 34867 - Designation of Product Categories for Federal Procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    .../products.htm and then clicking on the appropriate product name. Federal Government Purchase of Sustainable Products. The Federal government's sustainable purchasing program includes the following three statutory... rulemaking are typical consumer products widely used by the general public and by industrial/commercial...

  1. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Xxxxxx... - Description of Source Categories Affected by This Subpart

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... heating units, combination gas-oil burners, oil or gas swimming pool heaters, heating apparatus (except... supplies industry sector of this source category includes establishments primarily engaged in high energy...), coke and gas burning salamanders, liquid or gas solar energy collectors, solar heaters, space heaters...

  2. Questionnaire survey of customer satisfaction for product categories towards certification of ergonomic quality in design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochimaru, Masaaki; Takahashi, Miwako; Hatakenaka, Nobuko; Horiuchi, Hitoshi

    2012-01-01

    Customer satisfaction was surveyed for 6 product categories (consumer electronics, daily commodities, home equipment, information systems, cars, and health appliances) by questionnaires based on the Analytic Hierarchy Process. Analyzing weight of evaluation factors, the 6 product categories were reorganized into 4 categories, those were related to 4 aspects in daily living that formed by two axes: home living - mobility life and healthy life - active communication. It was found that consumers were attracted by the actual user test by public institutes for all product categories. The certification based on the design process standard established by authorities, such as EQUID was the second best attractor for consumers.

  3. 77 FR 33269 - Designation of Product Categories for Federal Procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-05

    ... procurement program (one part of the BioPreferred Program) is available on the Internet at http://www... program includes the following three statutory preference programs for designated products: the Bio... including the National Industries for the Blind (NIB) and NISH offer products and services for preferred...

  4. From New to Normal : Designing for product category legitimacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bork, S.

    2017-01-01

    A large number of new products and services, such as electric cars, solar panels, and electric boats are introduced and play an important role during sustainability transitions. However, when introduced, these new products do not fit with established aspects of society such as expectations, habits,

  5. Importance of Country-of-Origin on Different Product Categories Purchase Decision

    OpenAIRE

    Krupka Zoran; Arežina Darija

    2017-01-01

    Country of origin is an important factor in product evaluation process as well as for purchase decision. Its importance depends on the amount of information consumers have about the product and product category. This paper investigates the importance of coutry of origin in purchase decision-making process for three different product categories: high risk and high level of consumer involvement in purchasing process (car), medium risk and midium level of consumer involvement in purchasing proce...

  6. Current status of securing Category 1 and 2 radioactive sources in Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Y-F.; Tsai, C-H. [Atomic Energy Council of Executive Yuan of Taiwan (China)

    2014-07-01

    For enhancing safe and secure management of Category 1 and 2 radioactive sources against theft or unauthorized removal, AEC (Atomic Energy Council) of Taiwan have been regulating the import/export of the sources ever since 2005, in compliance with the IAEA's (International Atomic Energy Agency) 'Guidance on the Import and Export of Radioactive Sources'. Furthermore in consulting the IAEA Nuclear Security Series No.11 report, administrative regulations on the program of securing the sources have been embodied into AECL's regulatory system since 2012, for the purpose of enforcing medical and non-medical licensees and industrial radiographers to establish their own radioactive source security programs. Regulations require that security functions such as access control, detection, delay, response and communication and security management measures are to be implemented within the programs. This paper is to introduce the current status in implementing the security control measures in Taiwan. (author)

  7. Fission-product source terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, R.A.

    1981-01-01

    This presentation consists of a review of fission-product source terms for light water reactor (LWR) fuel. A source term is the quantity of fission products released under specified conditions that can be used to calculate the consequences of the release. The source term usually defines release from breached fuel-rod cladding but could also describe release from the primary coolant system, the reactor containment shell, or the site boundary. The source term would be different for each locality, and the chemical and physical forms of the fission products could also differ

  8. Pricing Strategy and the Formation and Evolution of Reference Price Perceptions in New Product Categories

    OpenAIRE

    Lowe, Ben; Alpert, Frank

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the formation and evolution of reference price perceptions in new product categories. It contributes to our understanding of pricing new products by integrating two important research streams in marketing-reference price theory and the theory of pioneer brand advantage. Prior research has focused solely on products in existing or incrementally new categories, and has typically examined fast-moving consumer goods. Using a cross-sectional experiment to study the formation of...

  9. Out-of-category brand imitation : Product categorization determines copycat evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Horen, F.; Pieters, Rik

    2017-01-01

    Copycat brands imitate the trade dress of other brands, such as their brand name, logo, and packaging design. Copycats typically operate in the core product category of the imitated brand under the assumption that such “in-category imitation” is most effective. In contrast, four experiments

  10. The relative labour productivity contribution of different age-skill categories for a developing economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhardus van Zyl

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The article dealt with the estimation, computation and interpretation of the relative productivity contributions of different age-skill categories. Research purpose: The aim of the article was to estimate and compute, (1 relative productivity contributions and (2 relative productivity contribution–employee remuneration cost levels for different age-skill categories. Motivation for the study: The research was deemed necessary given the current debate on relative productivity levels and possible changes to the retirement age in the South African labour market. No real research in this regard has been published regarding the South African labour market situation. Research design, approach and method: A less restrictive production function was used, allowing for the simultaneous estimation and final computation of relative labour contribution levels of different age-skill categories. Main findings: The lower-skilled segment produced significantly smaller productivity contributions and the relative productivity contribution–employee remuneration cost ratios of the 55 years and older age group were superior in the higher-skilled segment but, at the same time, the lowest in the lower-skilled segment. Practical/managerial implications: It is recommended that human resource practitioners (given the perceived rigidity of labour legislation implement and maintain structures that promote higher productivity levels for all age-skill categories in the workplace. Contribution/value-add: An estimation procedure, which can be applied to the measurement of the relative productivity contribution of different age-skill categories, has been established.

  11. The relative labour productivity contribution of different age-skill categories for a developing economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhardus van Zyl

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The article dealt with the estimation, computation and interpretation of the relative productivity contributions of different age-skill categories.Research purpose: The aim of the article was to estimate and compute, (1 relative productivity contributions and (2 relative productivity contribution–employee remuneration cost levels for different age-skill categories.Motivation for the study: The research was deemed necessary given the current debate on relative productivity levels and possible changes to the retirement age in the South African labour market. No real research in this regard has been published regarding the South African labour market situation.Research design, approach and method: A less restrictive production function was used, allowing for the simultaneous estimation and final computation of relative labour contribution levels of different age-skill categories.Main findings: The lower-skilled segment produced significantly smaller productivity contributions and the relative productivity contribution–employee remuneration cost ratios of the 55 years and older age group were superior in the higher-skilled segment but, at the same time, the lowest in the lower-skilled segment.Practical/managerial implications: It is recommended that human resource practitioners (given the perceived rigidity of labour legislation implement and maintain structures that promote higher productivity levels for all age-skill categories in the workplace.Contribution/value-add: An estimation procedure, which can be applied to the measurement of the relative productivity contribution of different age-skill categories, has been established.

  12. Rising from the ashes : How brands and categories can overcome product-harm crises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cleeren, K.; van Heerde, H.J.; Dekimpe, M.G.

    2013-01-01

    Product-harm crises are omnipresent in today's marketplace. Such crises can cause major revenue and market-share losses, lead to costly product recalls, and destroy carefully nurtured brand equity. Moreover, some of these effects may spill over to nonaffected competitors in the category when they

  13. Crossed products of C(X)-algebras by endomorphisms and C(X)-categories

    OpenAIRE

    Vasselli, Ezio

    2001-01-01

    We construct the crossed product of a C(X)-algebra by an endomorphism, in such a way that it becomes induced by a Hilbert C(X)-bimodule. Furthermore we introduce the notion of C(X)-category, and discuss relationships with crossed products and duality for compact groups.

  14. Comparisons of Website Visit Behavior between Purchase Outcomes and Product Categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatpong Tangmanee

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The online retail business has grown substantially. Given distinctive product categories (e.g. search or experience goods, owners must put an effort in the design of websites so every visit may end with a purchase. Clickstream panel data allowing examination into website visiting behavior (i.e. the number of pages viewed (or pageview or the visit duration are increasingly accessible. However, it is unclear whether the differences of the two visiting behavior between purchase outcome or product categories are significant. The present study hopes to fill the void. An analysis of 27,528 visit sessions extracted from ComScore verifies that (1 the difference of page views between purchase outcomes and that between product categories were significant and (2 only the difference of visit duration between the product categories was significant but that between purchase outcomes was insignificant. In addition to theoretical insight into online behavior across purchasing horizons and product categories using clickstream data, online retail practitioners could apply the findings to enhance the possibility of the purchases at their online stores.

  15. Anthropogenic Sulfur Dioxide Emissions, 1850-2005: National and Regional Data Set by Source Category, Version 2.86

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Anthropogenic Sulfur Dioxide Emissions, 1850-2005: National and Regional Data Set by Source Category, Version 2.86 provides annual estimates of anthropogenic...

  16. The analysis of indiference and the price elasticity of demand between different categories of agricultural products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukadinović Predrag

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the analysis of the price elasticity of demand of four different categories of agricultural products in the Republic of Serbia was described. Differentiating the price and demand of these products by sales points, and using the least squares approximation method, the elasticity for all different agricultural categories was expressed in the functional form. According to this, the coefficients of elasticity of the price and demand were computed and between different agricultural categories were analyzed. The results we obtained show that the market of agricultural products in Serbia is mostly inelastic because the coefficients of inelasticity and indifference of demand to change of prices, are dominant. The influence of factors on the elasticity of demand that are not of price character, proved to be very pronounced. The relationship of the two segments of agricultural market (markets and shops was also analysed and it was demonstrated that these two segments have a slight correlation.

  17. INFLUENCE OF ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION ON MICROBIOLOGICAL AND SENSORY CHARACTERISTICS OF CERTAIN CATEGORIES OF VEGETABLES PRODUCTS AND THEIR PRESERVATION LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilevici Constantin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Research paper aims to highlight the scientific correlation between the influence of ultraviolet radiation (UV onsensory and microbiological characteristics of plant products in the category of leaves (lettuce and other types ofvegetables or fruit (bananas and their preservation’s duration, through their UV irradiation under certain conditions.The literature indicates a germicidal action of UV (medium UV on micro-organisms, optimal for λ = 254 nm. Theeffectiveness of radiation is influenced by duration of irradiation, the distance between the radiation source and thesample product and radiant power source.The action of microbial cell inactivation or destruction can be explained by changes in cellular structure andpermeability with changes at the level of mitochondria and the genetic material as a result of photochemical effects ofUV products. Research highlights the preservative effect of UV radiation (with λ = 254 nm and also their influence onsensory properties and positive to negative for leafy vegetables and fruits (bananas in our case.

  18. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart C - VOC Content Limits by Product Category

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (weight-percent VOC) Air fresheners: Single-phase 70 Double-phase 30 Liquids/pump sprays 18 Solids/gels 3... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false VOC Content Limits by Product Category 1 Table 1 to Subpart C Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR...

  19. Importance of Country-of-Origin on Different Product Categories Purchase Decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krupka Zoran

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Country of origin is an important factor in product evaluation process as well as for purchase decision. Its importance depends on the amount of information consumers have about the product and product category. This paper investigates the importance of coutry of origin in purchase decision-making process for three different product categories: high risk and high level of consumer involvement in purchasing process (car, medium risk and midium level of consumer involvement in purchasing process (TV, and low risk and low level of consumer involvement in purchasing process (confectionery products. Also, this paper investigates importance of country of manufacturing for purchase decision-making process in relation to country of origin’s importance. Research was conducted on 215 respondents from Belgium and Republic of Croatia. Results have shown that country of origin is important only for car purchase, but not for TV and confectionery products. For all product categories, country of origin has been shown to be more important in the decision-making process than country of manufacturing.

  20. Property of Fluctuations of Sales Quantities by Product Category in Convenience Stores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaku Fukunaga

    Full Text Available The ability to ascertain the extent of product sale fluctuations for each store and locality is indispensable to inventory management. This study analyzed POS data from 158 convenience stores in Kawasaki City, Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan and found a power scaling law between the mean and standard deviation of product sales quantities for several product categories. For the statistical domains of low sales quantities, the power index was 1/2; for large sales quantities, the power index was 1, so called Taylor's law holds. The value of sales quantities with changing power indixes differed according to product category. We derived a Poissonian compound distribution model taking into account fluctuations in customer numbers to show that the scaling law could be explained theoretically for most of items. We also examined why the scaling law did not hold in some exceptional cases.

  1. Property of Fluctuations of Sales Quantities by Product Category in Convenience Stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukunaga, Gaku; Takayasu, Hideki; Takayasu, Misako

    2016-01-01

    The ability to ascertain the extent of product sale fluctuations for each store and locality is indispensable to inventory management. This study analyzed POS data from 158 convenience stores in Kawasaki City, Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan and found a power scaling law between the mean and standard deviation of product sales quantities for several product categories. For the statistical domains of low sales quantities, the power index was 1/2; for large sales quantities, the power index was 1, so called Taylor's law holds. The value of sales quantities with changing power indixes differed according to product category. We derived a Poissonian compound distribution model taking into account fluctuations in customer numbers to show that the scaling law could be explained theoretically for most of items. We also examined why the scaling law did not hold in some exceptional cases.

  2. The effect of animated images on persuasion: The mediator role of hedonic responses and the moderator role of product category

    OpenAIRE

    Hussant-Zebian, Rola

    2004-01-01

    This paper aims to highlight the mediator role of hedonic responses in the relation between animated images and attitudinal responses. It has another objective which is to show off the moderator role of product category. To this purpose, we have manipulated two categories of advertising opposing computer animated to non-computer animated images. We have also seetwo product categories : a high involvement product and a low involvement one.

  3. Productivity of lexical categories in French-speaking children with cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Normand, M-T; Ouellet, C; Cohen, H

    2003-11-01

    The productivity of lexical categories was studied longitudinally in a sample of 17 young hearing-impaired French-speaking children with cochlear implants. Age of implantation ranged from 22 months to 76 months. Spontaneous speech samples were collected at six-month intervals over a period of 36 months, starting at the one-word stage. Four general measures of their linguistic production (number of utterances, verbal fluency, vocabulary, and grammatical production) as well as 36 specific lexical categories, according to the CHILDES codes, were computed in terms of tokens, i.e., total number of words. Cochlear-implanted children (CI) were compared to a French database of normally hearing children aged 2-4 compiled by the first author. Follow-up results indicate that, at the two-year post-implantation follow-up, noun, and verb morphology was significantly impaired. At the three-year follow-up, the cochlear-implanted group had recovered on adjectives, determiners and nouns, main verbs, and auxiliaries. The two groups differed significantly in processing locative adverbs, prepositions, pronouns, and verbs (infinitive verb, modal, and modal lexical), but individual variability within the cochlear-implanted group was substantial. Results are discussed in terms of recovery and developmental trends and variability in the acquisition of lexical categories by French children two years and three years post-implantation.

  4. Spectral and temporal cues for perception of material and action categories in impacted sound sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortkjær, Jens; McAdams, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    In two experiments, similarity ratings and categorization performance with recorded impact sounds representing three material categories (wood, metal, glass) being manipulated by three different categories of action (drop, strike, rattle) were examined. Previous research focusing on single impact...... correlated with the pattern of confusion in categorization judgments. Listeners tended to confuse materials with similar spectral centroids, and actions with similar temporal centroids and onset densities. To confirm the influence of these different features, spectral cues were removed by applying...

  5. 77 FR 64999 - Guidance for Industry: Necessity of the Use of Food Product Categories in Food Facility...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ...] Guidance for Industry: Necessity of the Use of Food Product Categories in Food Facility Registrations and... industry entitled ``Necessity of the Use of Food Product Categories in Food Facility Registrations and... made available a draft guidance entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Necessity of the Use of Food [[Page...

  6. Chinese as a Foreign Language (CFL Students’ Lexical Tonal Development: An Investigation of Tonal Production and Awareness of Tonal Categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on an empirical study examining the relationship between beginning-level CFL students’ tonal production and their awareness of lexical tonal categories. Additionally, it investigated CFL learners’ views about the relationship. A mixed method approach was adopted to collect and analyze both quantitative and qualitative data from 23 beginning-level English-speaking adult CFL learners. The quantitative results show that the participants’ accuracy of lexical tonal production was statistically significantly correlated to their awareness of tonal categories and their tonal production was statistically more accurate than their awareness of tonal categories. The qualitative findings show that the participants didn’t rely on their awareness of tonal categories when conducting the production task. However, the participants stressed the importance of awareness of tonal categories in their tonal production, particularly when producing unfamiliar characters. Based on the discovered unique relationship, pedagogical suggestions for beginning-level CFL tonal development are offered.

  7. The modality-specific organization of grammatical categories: evidence from impaired spoken and written sentence production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, B; Caramazza, A

    1997-02-01

    We describe the case of a brain-damaged individual whose speech is characterized by difficulty with practically all words except for elements of the closed class vocabulary. In contrast, his written sentence production exhibits a complementary impairment involving the omission of closed class vocabulary items and the relative sparing of nouns. On the basis of these differences we argue: (1) that grammatical categories constitute an organizing parameter of representation and/or processing for each of the independent, modality-specific lexicons, and (2) that these observations contribute to the growing evidence that access to the orthographic and phonological forms of words can occur independently.

  8. Exploring consumer exposure pathways and patterns of use for chemicals in the environment through the Chemical/Product Categories Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exploring consumer exposure pathways and patterns of use for chemicals in the environment through the Chemical/Product Categories Database (CPCat) (Presented by: Kathie Dionisio, Sc.D., NERL, US EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC (1/23/2014).

  9. 77 FR 41075 - Delegation of National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-12

    ... Decorative Chromium Electroplating and Chromium Anodizing Tanks. O Ethylene Oxide X X X X X Sterilization... Operations. KK Printing and X X X X X Publishing Industry. LL Primary Aluminum X X X Reduction Plants. MM... X X Production. QQQ Primary Copper X X X X Smelting. RRR Secondary X X X X Aluminum Production. TTT...

  10. 40 CFR 63.1103 - Source category-specific applicability, definitions, and requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... production is not a process that produces gaseous hydrogen fluoride for direct reaction with hydrated... diester or by ester exchange. Polycarbonate may be produced by solution or emulsion polymerization... paragraph (e)(2) of this section) associated with an ethylene production unit. (F) All heat exchange systems...

  11. Increasing operating room productivity by duration categories and a newsvendor model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtonen, Juha-Matti; Torkki, Paulus; Peltokorpi, Antti; Moilanen, Teemu

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies approach surgery scheduling mainly from the mathematical modeling perspective which is often hard to apply in a practical environment. The aim of this study is to develop a practical scheduling system that considers the advantages of both surgery categorization and newsvendor model to surgery scheduling. The research was carried out in a Finnish orthopaedic specialist centre that performs only joint replacement surgery. Four surgery categorization scenarios were defined and their productivity analyzed by simulation and newsvendor model. Detailed analyses of surgery durations and the use of more accurate case categories and their combinations in scheduling improved OR productivity 11.3 percent when compared to the base case. Planning to have one OR team to work longer led to remarkable decrease in scheduling inefficiency. In surgical services, productivity and cost-efficiency can be improved by utilizing historical data in case scheduling and by increasing flexibility in personnel management. The study increases the understanding of practical scheduling methods used to improve efficiency in surgical services.

  12. Surface negative ion production in ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belchenko, Y.

    1993-01-01

    Negative ion sources and the mechanisms for negative ion production are reviewed. Several classes of sources with surface origin of negative ions are examined in detail: surface-plasma sources where ion production occurs on the electrode in contact with the plasma, and ''pure surface'' sources where ion production occurs due to conversion or desorption processes. Negative ion production by backscattering, impact desorption, and electron- and photo-stimulated desorption are discussed. The experimental efficiencies of intense surface negative ion production realized on electrodes contacted with hydrogen-cesium or pure hydrogen gas-discharge plasma are compared. Recent modifications of surface-plasma sources developed for accelerator and fusion applications are reviewed in detail

  13. 75 FR 8807 - Delegation of National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... Perchloroethylene Dry X X X X Cleaning. N Hard and Decorative X X X X Chromium Electroplating and Chromium Anodizing... Furniture X X X X Manufacturing Operations. KK Printing and Publishing X X X X Industry. LL Primary Aluminum... Primary Copper Smelting X X X RRR Secondary Aluminum X X X Production. TTT Primary Lead Smelting.. X X X...

  14. 77 FR 11039 - Proposed Confidentiality Determinations for the Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Source Category...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... liquids (NGLs) or non-methane gases from produced natural gas, or the separation of NGLs into one or more... than or reveal the composition of the hydrocarbon equal to 10 barrels per liquid or the reporter's... composition of the hydrocarbon equal to 10 barrels per liquid or the reporter's productivity. Data on day...

  15. 75 FR 67625 - Delegation of National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-03

    ... Equipment Leaks--Control X X Level 2. VV Oil-Water Separators and X X Organic-Water Separators. WW Storage... Air X X Pollutants: Equipment Leaks. I Organic Hazardous Air X X Pollutants: Certain Processes Subject to the Negotiated Regulation for Equipment Leaks. J Polyvinyl Chloride and X X Copolymers Production...

  16. 76 FR 74708 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    ... thermoset a binder on the mineral wool fiber used to make bonded products. Fabric filter means an air... molten state, and discharged to the fiber forming and collection process. Melt rate means the mass of... fibrous glassy substance made from natural rock (such as basalt), blast furnace slag or other slag, or a...

  17. The w-categories associated with products of infinite-dimensional globes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, H.

    2000-11-01

    The results in this thesis are organised in four chapters. Chapter 1 is preliminary. We state the necessary definitions and results in w- complexes, atomic complexes and products of w-complexes. Some definitions are restated to meet the requirement for the following chapters. There is a new proof for the existence of 'natural homomorphism' (Theorem 1.3.6) and a new result for the decomposition of molecules in loop-free w-complexes (Theorem 1.4.13). In Chapter 2, we study the product of three infinite dimensional globes. The main result in this chapter is that a subcomplex in the product of three infinite dimensional globes is a molecule if and only if it is pairwise molecular (Theorem 2.1.6). The definition for pairwise molecular subcomplexes is given in section 1. One direction of the main theorem, molecules are necessarily pairwise molecular, is proved in section 2. Some properties of pairwise molecular subcomplexes are studied in section 3. These properties are the preparation for a more explicit description of pairwise molecular subcomplexes, which is given in section 4. The properties for the sources and targets of pairwise molecular subcomplexes are studied in section 5, where we prove that the class of pairwise molecular subcomplexes is closed under source and target operation; there are also algorithms to calculate the sources and targets of a pairwise molecular subcomplex. Section 6 deals with the composition of pairwise molecular subcomplexes. The proof of the main theorem is completed in section 7, where an algorithm for decomposing molecules into atoms is implied in the proof. The construction of molecules in the product of three infinite dimensional globes is studied in Chapter 3. The main result is that any molecule can be constructed inductively by a systematic approach. Section 1 gives another description for molecules in the product of three infinite dimensional globes which is the theoretical basis for the construction. Section 2 states the

  18. Third generation of Thyssen tailored tubes - a new category of tubular products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flehmig, T.; Brueggenbrock, M.; Kibben, M.; Schwenecke, S. [ThyssenKrupp Stahl, Duisburg (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Further weight saving goals have prompted the automotive industry to design lighter car body structures in order to reduce fuel consumption, while maintaining the high safety standards for occupants. Body structures developed with large portions of closed profiles have a so-called ''profile intensive design.'' Particularly in the case of large scale production, it is necessary to have cost effective manufacturing methods. Therefore, production and processing require short process chains as well as the latest techniques. New forming technologies, combined with laser-beam welding and hydroforming processes is one strategy to save costs. A further way to shorten the process chain is the joining and combining of process steps at first and then later fitting the tailored tubes with the new features. The result of these efforts led to a new category of tubular products the so called ''3{sup rd} generation Thyssen Tailored Tubes {sup registered} TTT {sup registered} ''. These nearly finished parts are manufactured by a new forming technology the so called ''Thyssen Tube Curling Process''. This technique permits the direct forming from flat blanks into welded longitudinal beams, for example from the NewSteelBody {sup registered} car, without a hydroforming step, all within a single machine. The paper points out a further forming method with similar results. Compared to processes like roll or roller forming in combination with hydroforming, these new methods cause only minimal plastic strains. The paper shows some parts, manufactured by these methods. The pre-bending of Thyssen Tailored Tubes {sup registered} is also a newly developed process. (orig.)

  19. Thinking on luxury or pragmatic brand products: Brain responses to different categories of culturally based brands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Michael; Rotte, Michael

    2007-08-24

    Culturally based brands have a high impact on people's economic actions. Here we aimed to examine whether socioeconomic information conveyed by certain classes of brands (prestigious versus pragmatic classes) differentially evoke brain response. We presented icons of brands while recording subject's brain activity during a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) session. After the experiment, we asked subjects to assess the brands according to different characteristics. Results revealed an active network of bilateral superior frontal gyri, hippocampus and posterior cingulate related to familiar brands in general. Brands of the category sports and luxury activated regions in medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and precuneus. In contrast, brands rated as value products activated the left superior frontal gyrus and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). The results suggest an active cortical network related to cognitive control for value brands and a network known to be associated with self-relevant processing for prestigious brands. We discuss the results as differential engagement of the prefrontal cortex depending on the attributed characteristic of a brand.

  20. Introducing Product Lines through Open Source Tools

    OpenAIRE

    Haugen, Øystein

    2008-01-01

    We present an approach to introducing product lines to companies that lower their initial risk by applying open source tools and a smooth learning curve into the use and creation of domain specific modeling combined with standardized variability modeling.

  1. The Chandra Source Catalog: Source Properties and Data Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rots, Arnold; Evans, Ian N.; Glotfelty, Kenny J.; Primini, Francis A.; Zografou, Panagoula; Anderson, Craig S.; Bonaventura, Nina R.; Chen, Judy C.; Davis, John E.; Doe, Stephen M.; Evans, Janet D.; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Galle, Elizabeth C.; Gibbs, Danny G., II; Grier, John D.; Hain, Roger; Hall, Diane M.; Harbo, Peter N.; He, Xiang Qun (Helen); Houck, John C.; Karovska, Margarita; Kashyap, Vinay L.; Lauer, Jennifer; McCollough, Michael L.; McDowell, Jonathan C.; Miller, Joseph B.; Mitschang, Arik W.; Morgan, Douglas L.; Mossman, Amy E.; Nichols, Joy S.; Nowak, Michael A.; Plummer, David A.; Refsdal, Brian L.; Siemiginowska, Aneta L.; Sundheim, Beth A.; Tibbetts, Michael S.; van Stone, David W.; Winkelman, Sherry L.

    2009-09-01

    The Chandra Source Catalog (CSC) is breaking new ground in several areas. There are two aspects that are of particular interest to the users: its evolution and its contents. The CSC will be a living catalog that becomes richer, bigger, and better in time while still remembering its state at each point in time. This means that users will be able to take full advantage of new additions to the catalog, while retaining the ability to back-track and return to what was extracted in the past. The CSC sheds the limitations of flat-table catalogs. Its sources will be characterized by a large number of properties, as usual, but each source will also be associated with its own specific data products, allowing users to perform mini custom analysis on the sources. Source properties fall in the spatial (position, extent), photometric (fluxes, count rates), spectral (hardness ratios, standard spectral fits), and temporal (variability probabilities) domains, and are all accompanied by error estimates. Data products cover the same coordinate space and include event lists, images, spectra, and light curves. In addition, the catalog contains data products covering complete observations: event lists, background images, exposure maps, etc. This work is supported by NASA contract NAS8-03060 (CXC).

  2. A long summer of festivals. Experience categories and productive cultures in the Spanish music industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Héctor Fouce; hfoucero@ccinf.ucm.es

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A rigorous analysis of the music industry dynamics cannot take for granted the idea that there is a crisis in music: under that label there is simply a new set of production cultures and consumption. We are in the middle of a change from a cultural industry based on the object (the disc, the CD to an economy grounded on experience (Pine and Gilmore, 2000. In order to exemplify it, I will pay special attention to live music case. On the other hand, there is a surprising height of music festivals by all over Spain. Each city of the country tries to find its own place in the summer map by offering different music styles, such as: hip-hop, folk or rock. This article examines the new public categories, like international tourists or families with children, who join the festivals modifying their organization; the financing and the contents.Un análisis riguroso de las dinámicas de la industria musical no puede dar por sentado la idea de que hay una crisis en la música: bajo esa etiqueta hay simplemente un nuevo conjunto de culturas de producción y consumo. Estamos en pleno giro desde una industria cultural basada en el objeto (el disco, el CD hasta una economía de la experiencia (Pine y Gilmore, 2000. Para ejemplificarlo me centraré en el caso de la música en directo. Hay un sorprendente auge de los festivales musicales por toda España. Del hiphop al folk o al rock, cada ciudad del país intenta situarse en el mapa del verano ofreciendo un festival. El artículo revisa nuevas categorías de público, como los turistas internacionales o las familias con hijos, que se incorporan a los festivales modificando su organización, su financiación y sus contenidos.

  3. Methodologies for estimating air emissions from three non-traditional source categories: Oil spills, petroleum vessel loading and unloading, and cooling towers. Final report, October 1991-March 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, W.; Sleva, S.; Dufner, K.; Snow, S.; Kersteter, S.L.

    1993-04-01

    The report discusses part of EPA's program to identify and characterize emissions sources not currently accounted for by either the existing Aerometric Information Retrieval System (AIRS) or State Implementation Plan (SIP) area source methodologies and to develop appropriate emissions estimation methodologies and emission factors for a group of these source categories. Based on the results of the identification and characterization portions of this research, three source categories were selected for methodology and emission factor development: oil spills, petroleum vessel loading and unloading, and cooling towers. The report describes the category selection process and presents emissions estimation methodologies and emission factor data for the selected source categories. The discussions for each category include general background information, emissions generation activities, pollutants emitted, sources of activity and pollutant data, emissions estimation methodologies and data issues. The information used in these discussions was derived from various sources including available literature, industrial and trade association publications and contracts, experts on the category and activity, and knowledgeable federal and state personnel

  4. Categories of difference in science and policy: Reflections on academic practices, conceptualizations and knowledge production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Bak Jørgensen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Categories of difference have a crucial position in academic research as well as policy-making. They serve to distinguish and differentiate between groups in society. They can appear in the shape of crude dichotomies or in complex and sophisticated forms resting on constructivist and intersectionalist perspectives. Nevertheless, using categories of difference also creates something into existence and there may be implications through the particular application of specific categories. This article reflects on how categories of difference are constructed and employed in research, legislation and policy discourse. By looking at different approaches used by qualitative and quantitative researchers, as well as at how specific concepts enter policy-making and legislation, I want to address a number of questions about how we as researchers understand and work with categories of differences. The article will mainly consist of a theoretical discussion, but will use two main empirical examples of race and religion. The article aims to provide tentative answers about what the consequences of particular uses of categories and concepts could be.

  5. Product reformulation in the context of nutritional warning labels: Exploration of consumer preferences towards food concepts in three food categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ares, Gastón; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Curutchet, María Rosa; Antúnez, Lucía; Machín, Leandro; Vidal, Leticia; Giménez, Ana

    2018-05-01

    The reformulation of the food products available in the marketplace to improve their nutritional quality has been identified as one of the most cost-effective policies for controlling the global obesity pandemic. Front-of-pack (FOP) nutrition labelling is one of the strategies that has been suggested to encourage the food industry to reformulate their products. However, the extent to which certain FOP labels can encourage product reformulation is dependent on consumer reaction. The aim of the present work was to assess consumers' perception towards product reformulation in the context of the implementation of nutritional warnings, an interpretive FOP nutrition labelling scheme. Three product categories were selected as target products: bread, cream cheese and yogurt, each associated with high content of one target nutrient. For each category, six packages were designed using a 3 × 2 experimental design with the following variables: product version (regular, nutrient-reduced and nutrient-free) and brand (market leader and non-market leader). A total 306 Uruguayan participants completed a choice experiment with 18 choice sets. Reformulated products without nutritional warnings were preferred by participants compared to regular products with nutritional warnings. No apparent preference for products reformulated into nutrient-reduced or nutrient-free product versions was found, although differences depended on the product category and the specific reformulation strategy. Preference for reformulated products without nutritional warnings was more pronounced for non-market leaders. Results from the present work suggest that reformulation of foods in the context of the implementation of nutritional warnings holds potential to encourage consumers to make more healthful food choices and to cause a reduction of their intake of nutrients associated with non-communicable diseases. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. 25 CFR 309.10 - What are some sample categories and examples of Indian products?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... products? What constitutes an Indian product is potentially very broad. However, to provide guidance to... contain a sample listing of “specific examples” of objects that meet the definition of Indian products...

  7. Bioactive natural products from novel microbial sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challinor, Victoria L; Bode, Helge B

    2015-09-01

    Despite the importance of microbial natural products for human health, only a few bacterial genera have been mined for the new natural products needed to overcome the urgent threat of antibiotic resistance. This is surprising, given that genome sequencing projects have revealed that the capability to produce natural products is not a rare feature among bacteria. Even the bacteria occurring in the human microbiome produce potent antibiotics, and thus potentially are an untapped resource for novel compounds, potentially with new activities. This review highlights examples of bacteria that should be considered new sources of natural products, including anaerobes, pathogens, and symbionts of humans, insects, and nematodes. Exploitation of these producer strains, combined with advances in modern natural product research methodology, has the potential to open the way for a new golden age of microbial therapeutics. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.

  8. Napping-Ultra Flash Profile as a Tool for Category Identification and Subsequent Model System Formulation of Caramel Corn Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayhew, Emily; Schmidt, Shelly; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2016-07-01

    In a novel approach to formulation, the flash descriptive profiling technique Napping-Ultra Flash Profile (Napping-UFP) was used to characterize a wide range of commercial caramel corn products. The objectives were to identify product categories, develop model systems based on product categories, and correlate analytical parameters with sensory terms generated through the Napping-UFP exercise. In one 2 h session, 12 panelists participated in 4 Napping-UFP exercises, describing and grouping, on a 43×56 cm paper sheet, 12 commercial caramel corn samples by degree of similarity, globally and in terms of aroma-by-mouth, texture, and taste. The coordinates of each sample's placement on the paper sheet and descriptive terms generated by the panelists were used to conduct Multiple Factor Analysis (MFA) and hierarchical clustering of the samples. Strong trends in the clustering of samples across the 4 Napping-UFP exercises resulted in the determination of 3 overarching types of commercial caramel corn: "small-scale dark" (typified by burnt, rich caramel corn), "large-scale light" (typified by light and buttery caramel corn), and "large-scale dark" (typified by sweet and molasses-like caramel corn). Representative samples that best exemplified the properties of each category were used as guides in the formulation of 3 model systems that represent the spread of commercial caramel corn products. Analytical testing of the commercial products, including aw measurement, moisture content determination, and thermal characterization via differential scanning calorimetry, were conducted and results related to sensory descriptors using Spearman's correlation. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  9. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart E of... - Product-Weighted Reactivity Limits by Coating Category

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Aerosol Coatings... primers ABP 1.55 Automotive Bumper and Trim Products ABT 1.75 Aviation or Marine Primers AMP 2.00 Aviation...

  10. Contested Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drawing on social science perspectives, Contested Categories presents a series of empirical studies that engage with the often shifting and day-to-day realities of life sciences categories. In doing so, it shows how such categories remain contested and dynamic, and that the boundaries they create...

  11. Efficient Assessment of Social Hotspots in the Supply Chains of 100 Product Categories Using the Social Hotspots Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Benoît Norris

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Data collection, or the inventory step, is often the most labor-intensive phase of any Life Cycle Assessment (LCA study. The S-LCA Guidelines and numerous authors have recommended generic assessment in this first phase of an S-LCA. In an effort to identify the social hotspots in the supply chains of 100 product categories during just a few months’ time, adopting a streamlined approach was essential. The Social Hotspots Database system was developed by New Earth over 5 years. It includes a Global Input Output (IO model derived from the Global Trade Analysis Project, a Worker Hours Model constructed using annual wage payments and wage rates by country and sector, and Social Theme Tables covering 22 themes within five Social Impact Categories—Labor Rights and Decent Work, Health and Safety, Human Rights, Governance and Community Impacts. The data tables identify social risks for over 100 indicators. Both the ranking of worker hour intensity and the risk levels across multiple social themes for the Country Specific Sectors (CSS within a product category supply chain are used to calculate Social Hotspots Indexes (SHI using an additive weighting method. The CSS with the highest SHI are highlighted as social hotspots within the supply chain of the product in question. This system was tested in seven case studies in 2011. In order to further limit the number of hotspots, a set of prioritization rules was applied. This paper will review the method implemented to study the social hotspots of the 100 product categories and provide one detailed example. Limitations of the approach and recommended research avenues will be outlined.

  12. High production volume chemical Amine Oxide [C8-C20] category environmental risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanderson, Hans; Tibazarwa, Caritas; Greggs, William

    2009-01-01

    and personal care products. Given the lack of persistence or bioaccumulation, and the low likelihood of these chemicals partitioning to soil, the focus of the environmental assessment is on the aquatic environment. In the United States, the E-FAST model is used to estimate effluent concentrations in the United......An environmental assessment of amine oxides has been conducted under the OECD SIDS High Production Volume (HPV) Program via the Global International Council of Chemical Associations (ICCA) Amine Oxides Consortium. Amine oxides are primarily used in conjunction with surfactants in cleaning...... States from manufacturing facilities and from municipal facilities resulting from consumer product uses. Reasonable worst-case ratios of predicted environmental concentration (PEC) to predicted no effect concentration (PNEC) range from 0.04 to 0.003, demonstrating that these chemicals are a low risk...

  13. The Boolean Algebra of Cubical Areas as a Tensor Product in the Category of Semilattices with Zero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Ninin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe a model of concurrency together with an algebraic structure reflecting the parallel composition. For the sake of simplicity we restrict to linear concurrent programs i.e. the ones with no loops nor branching. Such programs are given a semantics using cubical areas. Such a semantics is said to be geometric. The collection of all these cubical areas enjoys a structure of tensor product in the category of semi-lattice with zero. These results naturally extend to fully fledged concurrent programs up to some technical tricks.

  14. Price consciousness and purchase intentions for new food products: the moderating effect of product category knowledge when price is unknown

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Håvard

    2013-01-01

    This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis in JOURNAL of FOOD PRODUCTS MARKETING in July 2013, available online: http://wwww.tandfonline.com/ 10.1080/10454446.2013.724363. This study examines the degree to which consumers’ price consciousness affects their purchase intentions for a newly introduced product when the price of the product is unknown. Based on data from 186 consumers exposed to a new product offering, the results show that price consciousness...

  15. Production patterns of packaging waste categories generated at typical Mediterranean residential building worksites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González Pericot, N., E-mail: natalia.gpericot@upm.es [Escuela Técnica Superior de Edificación, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Calle Juan de Herrera n°6, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Villoria Sáez, P., E-mail: paola.villoria@upm.es [Escuela Técnica Superior de Edificación, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Calle Juan de Herrera n°6, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Del Río Merino, M., E-mail: mercedes.delrio@upm.es [Escuela Técnica Superior de Edificación, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Calle Juan de Herrera n°6, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Liébana Carrasco, O., E-mail: oscar.liebana@uem.es [Escuela de Arquitectura, Universidad Europea de Madrid, Calle Tajo s/n, 28670 Villaviciosa de Odón (Spain)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • On-site segregation level: 1.80%; training and motivation strategies were not effective. • 70% Cardboard waste: from switches and sockets during the building services stage. • 40% Plastic waste: generated during structures and partition works due to palletizing. • >50% Wood packaging waste, basically pallets, generated during the envelope works. - Abstract: The construction sector is responsible for around 28% of the total waste volume generated in Europe, which exceeds the amount of household waste. This has led to an increase of different research studies focusing on construction waste quantification. However, within the research studies made, packaging waste has been analyzed to a limited extent. This article focuses on the packaging waste stream generated in the construction sector. To this purpose current on-site waste packaging management has been assessed by monitoring ten Mediterranean residential building works. The findings of the experimental data collection revealed that the incentive measures implemented by the construction company to improve on-site waste sorting failed to achieve the intended purpose, showing low segregation ratios. Subsequently, through an analytical study the generation patterns for packaging waste are established, leading to the identification of the prevailing kinds of packaging and the products responsible for their generation. Results indicate that plastic waste generation maintains a constant trend throughout the whole construction process, while cardboard becomes predominant towards the end of the construction works with switches and sockets from the electricity stage. Understanding the production patterns of packaging waste will be beneficial for adapting waste management strategies to the identified patterns for the specific nature of packaging waste within the context of construction worksites.

  16. Production patterns of packaging waste categories generated at typical Mediterranean residential building worksites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González Pericot, N.; Villoria Sáez, P.; Del Río Merino, M.; Liébana Carrasco, O.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • On-site segregation level: 1.80%; training and motivation strategies were not effective. • 70% Cardboard waste: from switches and sockets during the building services stage. • 40% Plastic waste: generated during structures and partition works due to palletizing. • >50% Wood packaging waste, basically pallets, generated during the envelope works. - Abstract: The construction sector is responsible for around 28% of the total waste volume generated in Europe, which exceeds the amount of household waste. This has led to an increase of different research studies focusing on construction waste quantification. However, within the research studies made, packaging waste has been analyzed to a limited extent. This article focuses on the packaging waste stream generated in the construction sector. To this purpose current on-site waste packaging management has been assessed by monitoring ten Mediterranean residential building works. The findings of the experimental data collection revealed that the incentive measures implemented by the construction company to improve on-site waste sorting failed to achieve the intended purpose, showing low segregation ratios. Subsequently, through an analytical study the generation patterns for packaging waste are established, leading to the identification of the prevailing kinds of packaging and the products responsible for their generation. Results indicate that plastic waste generation maintains a constant trend throughout the whole construction process, while cardboard becomes predominant towards the end of the construction works with switches and sockets from the electricity stage. Understanding the production patterns of packaging waste will be beneficial for adapting waste management strategies to the identified patterns for the specific nature of packaging waste within the context of construction worksites

  17. Conception of a heat storage system for household applications. Category: New product innovations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Thomas [Leuphana Univ. Lueneburg (Germany); Rammelberg, Holger U.; Roennebeck, Thomas [and others

    2012-07-01

    Almost 90% of the energy consumption of private households in Germany is used for heating. Thus, an efficient, sustainable and reliable heat management is one of the main challenges in the future. Heat storage will become a key technology when considering the daily, weekly, seasonal and unpredictable fluctuations of energy production with renewables. The storage of heat is much more volume- and energy-efficient as well as more economical than electricity storage. However, transport of heat over long distances is coupled with high losses, compared with electricity transport. Therefore, we propose the use of micro CHP in combination with volume-efficient and nearly loss-free heat storage to counteract electricity fluctuations. Focus of this contribution the conception of the large-scale project ''Thermal Battery'', funded by the European Union and the Federal State of Lower Saxony. The underlying principle is the utilization of reversible thermochemical reactions, such as dehydration and rehydration of salt hydrates for heat storage. The main goal is the development of a prototypical storage tank, which is capable of storing 80 kWh of heat with a system volume of less than 1 m{sup 3}. Importantly, the Vattenfall New Energy Services as a collaboration partner will support the development of an application-oriented heat storage device. This project is being carried out by an interdisciplinary team of engineers, chemists, physicists and environmental scientists.

  18. Liver transplantation from maastricht category 2 non-heart-beating donors: a source to increase the donor pool?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, A; Gómez-Gutiérrez, M; Suárez, F; Arnal, F; Fernández-García, A; Aguirrezabalaga, J; García-Buitrón, J; Alvarez, J; Máñez, R

    2004-04-01

    The demand for liver transplantation has increasingly exceeded the supply of cadaver donor organs. Non-heart-beating donors (NHBDs) may be an alternative to increase the cadaver donor pool. The outcome of 20 liver transplants from Maastricht category 2 NHBD was compared with that of 40 liver transplants from heart-beating donors (HBDs). After unsuccessful cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), cardiopulmonary support with simultaneous application of chest and abdominal compression (CPS; n = 6) or cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB; n = 14) was used to maintain the donors. At a minimum follow-up of 2 years, actuarial patient and graft survival rates with livers from Maastricht category 2 NHBD were 80% and 55%, respectively. Transplantation of organs from these donors was associated with a significantly higher incidence of primary nonfunction, biliary complications, and more severe initial liver dysfunction compared with organs from HBDs. The graft survival rates was 83% for livers from NHBDs preserved with CPS and 42% in those maintained with CPB.

  19. THE USAGE OF ANIMAL AND VEGETABLE ORIGIN RAW MATERIALS COMBINATORICS IN MEAT PRODUCTS OF “HALAL†CATEGORY DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan F. Gorlov; Oksana B. Gelunova; Tatiana M. Giro; Ekaterina P. Mirzayanova

    2014-01-01

    Integrated researches aimed to develop technologies and recipes for meat products of “Halal†category using seed fat and Milk Protein-Carbohydrate Concentrate (MPCC) represent a new generation of scientific and practical interest. In this connection, the authors propose technologies and recipes for meat products of “Halal†category, designed on the basis of rational combinatorics of animal and vegetable origin raw materials, that l...

  20. Iridium-192 sources production for brachytherapy use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rostelato, Maria Elisa Chuery Martins

    1997-01-01

    The incidence of cancer increases every year in Brazil and turns out to be one of the most important causes of mortality. Some of the patients are treated with brachytherapy, a form of lesion treatment which is based on the insertion of sources into tumors, in this particular case, activated iridium wires. During this process, the ionizing radiation efficiently destroys the malignant cells. These iridium wires have a nucleus made out of an iridium-platinum alloy 20-30/70-80 of 0,1 mm in diameter either coated by platinum or encased in a platinum tube. The technique consists in irradiating the wire in the reactor neutron flux in order to produce iridium-192. The linear activity goes from 1 mCi/cm to 4 mCi/cm and the basic characteristic, which is required, is the homogeneity of the activation along the wire. It should not present a dispersion exceeding 5% on a wire measuring 50 cm in length, 0.5 mm or 0.3 mm in diameter. Several experiments were carried out in order to define the activation parameters. Wires from different origins were analyzed. It was concluded that United States of America and France wires were found to be perfectly adequate for brachytherapy purposes and have therefore been sent to specialized hospitals and successfully applied to cancer patients. Considering that the major purpose of this work is to make this product more accessible in Brazil, at a cost reflecting the Brazilian reality, the IPEN is promoting the preparation of iridium-192 sources to be used in brachytherapy, on a national level. (author)

  1. I want products my own way, but which way? The effects of different product categories and cues on customer responses to Web-based customizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chia-Chi; Chen, Hui-Yun

    2009-02-01

    Mass customization is a strategy that has been adopted by companies to tailor their products in order to match customer needs more precisely. Therefore, to fully capture the value of mass customization, it is crucial to explore how customers react to mass customization. In previous studies, an implied premise has been that consumers are keen to embrace customized products, and this assumption has also been treated by firms as a prerequisite for successful mass customization strategies. However, an undesirable complexity may result from difficult configuration processes that may intimidate and confuse some customers. Hence, this study explores strategies that marketers can employ to facilitate the customization process. Specifically, this study investigates how to enhance customer satisfaction and purchase decision toward customized products by providing cues compatible with the product category. It is hypothesized that for search products, customers rely more on intrinsic cues when making configuration decisions. On the other hand, for experience products, customers perceive extrinsic cues to be more valuable in assisting them to make configuration decisions. The results suggest that consumers tend to respond more favorably toward customized search products when intrinsic cues are provided than when extrinsic or irrelevant ones are provided. In contrast, when customizing experience products, customers tend to depend more on extrinsic cues than on intrinsic or irrelevant ones.

  2. Development document for the effluent limitations and guidelines for the ore mining and dressing point source category. Volume I. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarrett, B.M.; Kirby, R.G.

    1978-07-01

    To establish effluent limitation guidelines and standards of performance, the ore mining and dressing industry was divided into 41 separate categories and subcategories for which separate limitations were recommended. This report deals with the entire metal-ore mining and dressing industry and examines the industry by ten major categories: iron ore; copper ore; lead and zinc ores; gold ore; silver ore; bauxite ore; ferroalloy-metal ores; mercury ores; uranium, radium and vanadium ores; and metal ores, not elsewhere classified ((ores of antimony, beryllium, pltinum, rare earths, tin, titanium, and zirconium). The subcategorization of the ore categories is based primarily upon ore mineralogy and processing or extraction methods employed; however, other factors (such as size, climate or location, and method of mining) are used in some instances. With the best available technology economically achievable, facilities in 21 of the 41 subcategories can be operated with no discharge of process wastewater to navigable waters. No discharge of process wastewater is also achievable as a new source performance standard for facilities in 21 of the 41 subcategories

  3. Organizational Categories as Viewing Categories

    OpenAIRE

    Mik-Meyer, Nanna

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores how two Danish rehabilitation organizations textual guidelines for assessment of clients’ personality traits influence the actual evaluation of clients. The analysis will show how staff members produce institutional identities corresponding to organizational categories, which very often have little or no relevance for the clients evaluated. The goal of the article is to demonstrate how the institutional complex that frames the work of the organizations produces the client ...

  4. Energy production from renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-04-01

    This table summarizes the electricity and heat produced in France and in overseas departments from renewable energy sources for 1998 (revised), 1999 (temporary) and 2000 (estimated): hydraulic, wind, solar photovoltaic and thermal, geothermal, solid municipal wastes, wood and wood wastes, biogas, ethanol and ester bio-fuels. (J.S.)

  5. Attribution of aerosol radiative forcing over India during the winter monsoon to emissions from source categories and geographical regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, S.; Venkataraman, C.; Boucher, O.

    2011-08-01

    We examine the aerosol radiative effects due to aerosols emitted from different emission sectors (anthropogenic and natural) and originating from different geographical regions within and outside India during the northeast (NE) Indian winter monsoon (January-March). These studies are carried out through aerosol transport simulations in the general circulation (GCM) model of the Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique (LMD). The model estimates of aerosol single scattering albedo (SSA) show lower values (0.86-0.92) over the region north to 10°N comprising of the Indian subcontinent, Bay of Bengal, and parts of the Arabian Sea compared to the region south to 10°N where the estimated SSA values lie in the range 0.94-0.98. The model estimated SSA is consistent with the SSA values inferred through measurements on various platforms. Aerosols of anthropogenic origin reduce the incoming solar radiation at the surface by a factor of 10-20 times the reduction due to natural aerosols. At the top-of-atmosphere (TOA), aerosols from biofuel use cause positive forcing compared to the negative forcing from fossil fuel and natural sources in correspondence with the distribution of SSA which is estimated to be the lowest (0.7-0.78) from biofuel combustion emissions. Aerosols originating from India and Africa-west Asia lead to the reduction in surface radiation (-3 to -8 W m -2) by 40-60% of the total reduction in surface radiation due to all aerosols over the Indian subcontinent and adjoining ocean. Aerosols originating from India and Africa-west Asia also lead to positive radiative effects at TOA over the Arabian Sea, central India (CNI), with the highest positive radiative effects over the Bay of Bengal and cause either negative or positive effects over the Indo-Gangetic plain (IGP).

  6. Radioactive waste management in sealed sources laboratory production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Gilberto

    2001-01-01

    The laboratory of sealed sources production, of Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, was created in 1983 and since then, has produced radioactive sources for industry and engineering in general, having specialization in assembly of radiation sources for non destructive testings, by gammagraphy, with Iridium-192, that represents 98% of the production of laboratory and 2% with the Cobalt-60, used in nuclear gages. The aim of this work, is to quantify and qualify the radioactive wastes generated annually, taking into account, the average of radioactive sources produced, that are approximately 220 sources per year

  7. Geothermal Energy as source or energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lozano, E.

    1998-01-01

    This article shows the use and utilization of geothermal energy. This calorific energy can be used, through the wells perforation, in generation of electricity and many other tasks. In Colombia is possible the utilization of this energy in the electrical production due to the volcanic presence in the Western and Central mountain chains

  8. Antiparticle sources for antihydrogen production and trapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charlton, M.; Bruun Andresen, Gorm; Ashkezari, M. D.

    2011-01-01

    Sources of positrons and antiprotons that are currently used for the formation of antihydrogen with low kinetic energies are reviewed, mostly in the context of the ALPHA collaboration and its predecessor ATHENA. The experiments were undertaken at the Antiproton Decelerator facility, which...... is located at CERN. Operations performed on the clouds of antiparticles to facilitate their mixing to produce antihydrogen are described. These include accumulation, cooling and manipulation. The formation of antihydrogen and some of the characteristics of the anti-atoms that are created are discussed....... Prospects for trapping antihydrogen in a magnetic minimum trap, as envisaged by the ALPHA collaboration, are reviewed....

  9. Antiparticle sources for antihydrogen production and trapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charlton, M; Bertsche, W; Butler, E; Humphries, A J [Department of Physics, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Andresen, G B; Bowe, P D; Hangst, J S [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Ashkezari, M D; Hayden, M E [Department of Physics, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby BC, V5A 1S6 (Canada); Baquero-Ruiz, M; Bray, C C; Chapman, S; Fajans, J [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7300 (United States); Cesar, C L [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro 21941-972 (Brazil); Friesen, T; Hydomako, R [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary AB, T2N 1N4 (Canada); Fujiwara, M C; Gill, D R [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Hardy, W N [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver BC, V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Hayano, R S, E-mail: M.Charlton@Swansea.ac.uk [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2011-12-01

    Sources of positrons and antiprotons that are currently used for the formation of antihydrogen with low kinetic energies are reviewed, mostly in the context of the ALPHA collaboration and its predecessor ATHENA. The experiments were undertaken at the Antiproton Decelerator facility, which is located at CERN. Operations performed on the clouds of antiparticles to facilitate their mixing to produce antihydrogen are described. These include accumulation, cooling and manipulation. The formation of antihydrogen and some of the characteristics of the anti-atoms that are created are discussed. Prospects for trapping antihydrogen in a magnetic minimum trap, as envisaged by the ALPHA collaboration, are reviewed.

  10. Production of jet fuel from alternative source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eller, Zoltan; Papp, Anita; Hancsok, Jenoe [Pannonia Univ., Veszprem (Hungary). MOL Dept. of Hydrocarbon and Coal Processing

    2013-06-01

    Recent demands for low aromatic content jet fuels have shown significant increase in the last 20 years. This was generated by the growing of aviation. Furthermore, the quality requirements have become more aggravated for jet fuels. Nowadays reduced aromatic hydrocarbon fractions are necessary for the production of jet fuels with good burning properties, which contribute to less harmful material emission. In the recent past the properties of gasolines and diesel gas oils were continuously severed, and the properties of jet fuels will be more severe, too. Furthermore, it can become obligatory to blend alternative components into jet fuels. With the aromatic content reduction there is a possibility to produce high energy content jet fuels with the desirable properties. One of the possibilities is the blending of biocomponents from catalytic hydrogenation of triglycerides. Our aim was to study the possibilities of producing low sulphur and aromatic content jet fuels in a catalytic way. On a CoMo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst we studied the possibilities of quality improving of a kerosene fraction and coconut oil mixture depending on the change of the process parameters (temperature, pressure, liquid hourly space velocity, volume ratio). Based on the quality parameters of the liquid products we found that we made from the feedstock in the adequate technological conditions products which have a high smoke point (> 35 mm) and which have reduced aromatic content and high paraffin content (90%), so these are excellent jet fuels, and their stack gases damage the environment less. (orig.)

  11. Sources of Information as Determinants of Product and Process Innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Jaime; Salazar, Idana; Vargas, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we use a panel of manufacturing firms in Spain to examine the extent to which they use internal and external sources of information (customers, suppliers, competitors, consultants and universities) to generate product and process innovation. Our results show that, although internal sources are influential, external sources of information are key to achieve innovation performance. These results are in line with the open innovation literature because they show that firms that are opening up their innovation process and that use different information sources have a greater capacity to generate innovations. We also find that the importance of external sources of information varies depending on the type of innovation (product or process) considered. To generate process innovation, firms mainly rely on suppliers while, to generate product innovation, the main contribution is from customers. The potential simultaneity between product and process innovation is also taken into consideration. We find that the generation of both types of innovation is not independent.

  12. Sources of Information as Determinants of Product and Process Innovation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Gómez

    Full Text Available In this paper we use a panel of manufacturing firms in Spain to examine the extent to which they use internal and external sources of information (customers, suppliers, competitors, consultants and universities to generate product and process innovation. Our results show that, although internal sources are influential, external sources of information are key to achieve innovation performance. These results are in line with the open innovation literature because they show that firms that are opening up their innovation process and that use different information sources have a greater capacity to generate innovations. We also find that the importance of external sources of information varies depending on the type of innovation (product or process considered. To generate process innovation, firms mainly rely on suppliers while, to generate product innovation, the main contribution is from customers. The potential simultaneity between product and process innovation is also taken into consideration. We find that the generation of both types of innovation is not independent.

  13. Sources of Information as Determinants of Product and Process Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we use a panel of manufacturing firms in Spain to examine the extent to which they use internal and external sources of information (customers, suppliers, competitors, consultants and universities) to generate product and process innovation. Our results show that, although internal sources are influential, external sources of information are key to achieve innovation performance. These results are in line with the open innovation literature because they show that firms that are opening up their innovation process and that use different information sources have a greater capacity to generate innovations. We also find that the importance of external sources of information varies depending on the type of innovation (product or process) considered. To generate process innovation, firms mainly rely on suppliers while, to generate product innovation, the main contribution is from customers. The potential simultaneity between product and process innovation is also taken into consideration. We find that the generation of both types of innovation is not independent. PMID:27035456

  14. Primary energy sources for hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassmann, K.; Kuehne, H.M.

    1993-01-01

    The costs for hydrogen production through water electrolysis are estimated, assuming the electricity is produced from solar, hydro-, fossil, or nuclear power. The costs for hydrogen end-use in the power generation, heat and transportation sectors are also calculated, based on a state of the art technology and a more advanced technology expected to represent the state by the year 2010. The costs for hydrogen utilization (without energy taxes) are shown to be higher than current prices for fossil fuels (including taxes). Without restrictions imposed on fossil fuel consumption, hydrogen shall not gain a significant market share in either of the cases discussed. 2 figs., 3 tabs., 4 refs

  15. Effective sourcing strategies for perishable product supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijpkema, W.A.; Rossi, R.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to assess whether an existing sourcing strategy can effectively supply products of appropriate quality with acceptable levels of product waste if applied to an international perishable product supply chain. The authors also analyse whether the effectiveness of

  16. Category: BIOTECHNIQUES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ぢいcp

    2011-01-17

    Jan 17, 2011 ... 1Biotechnology Department, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 457 Zhongshan ... high cost because of low-yield target products. ..... A few rules can be deduced from our experiments: (1).

  17. Radiation protection in category III large gamma irradiators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Neivaldo; Furlan, Gilberto Ribeiro; Itepan, Natanael Marcio

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the advantages of category III large gamma irradiator compared to the others, with emphasis on aspects of radiological protection, in the industrial sector. This category is a kind of irradiators almost unknown to the regulators authorities and the industrial community, despite its simple construction and greater radiation safety intrinsic to the model, able to maintain an efficiency of productivity comparable to those of category IV. Worldwide, there are installed more than 200 category IV irradiators and there is none of a category III irradiator in operation. In a category III gamma irradiator, the source remains fixed in the bottom of the tank, always shielded by water, negating the exposition risk. Taking into account the benefits in relation to radiation safety, the category III large irradiators are highly recommended for industrial, commercial purposes or scientific research. (author)

  18. Bryophytes - an emerging source for herbal remedies and chemical production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabovljevic, Marko S.; Sabovljević, Aneta D.; Ikram, Nur Kusaira K.

    2016-01-01

    biomass in various ecosystems, bryophytes are a seldom part of ethnomedicine and rarely subject to medicinal and chemical analyses. Still, hundreds of novel natural products have been isolated from bryophytes. Bryophytes have been shown to contain numerous potentially useful natural products, including...... loss, plant growth regulators and allelopathic activities. Bryophytes also cause allergies and contact dermatitis. All these effects highlight bryophytes as potential source for herbal remedies and production of chemicals to be used in various products....

  19. Sources of Combustion Products: An Introduction to Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    In addition to environmental tobacco smoke, other sources of combustion products are unvented kerosene and gas space heaters, woodstoves, fireplaces, and gas stoves. The major pollutants released are carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and particles.

  20. Sources of Information as Determinants of Product and Process Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    G?mez, Jaime; Salazar, Idana; Vargas, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we use a panel of manufacturing firms in Spain to examine the extent to which they use internal and external sources of information (customers, suppliers, competitors, consultants and universities) to generate product and process innovation. Our results show that, although internal sources are influential, external sources of information are key to achieve innovation performance. These results are in line with the open innovation literature because they show that firms that are ...

  1. Identification and characterization of five non-traditional-source categories: Catastrophic/accidental releases, vehicle repair facilities, recycling, pesticide application, and agricultural operations. Final report, September 1991-September 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sleva, S.; Pendola, J.A.; McCutcheon, J.; Jones, K.; Kersteter, S.L.

    1993-03-01

    The work is part of EPA's program to identify and characterize emissions sources not currently accounted for by either the existing Aerometric Information Retrieval System (AIRS) or State Implementation Plans (SIP) area source methodologies and to develop appropriate emissions estimation methodologies and emission factors for a group of these source categories. Based on the results of the identification and characterization portions of the research, five source categories were selected for methodology and emission factor development: catastrophic/accidental releases, vehicle repair facilities, recycling, pesticide application and agricultural operations. The report presents emissions estimation methodologies and emission factor data for the selected source categories. The discussions for each selected category include general background information, emissions generation activities, pollutants emitted, sources of activity and pollutant data, emissions estimation methodologies, issues to be considered and recommendations. The information used in these discussions was derived from various sources including available literature, industrial and trade association publications and contracts, experts on the category and activity, and knowledgeable federal and state personnel

  2. Economic feasibility constraints for renewable energy source power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biondi, L.

    1992-01-01

    Suitable analysis criteria for use in economic feasibility studies of renewable energy source power plants are examined for various plant types, e.g., pumped storage hydroelectric, geothermal, wind, solar, refuse-fuelled, etc. The paper focusses on the impacts, on operating cost and rate structure, of the necessity, depending on demand characteristics, to integrate renewable energy source power production with conventional power production in order to effectively and economically meet peak power demand. The influence of commercialization and marketing trends on renewable energy source power plant economic feasibility are also taken into consideration

  3. Fission product source term research at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinauskas, A.P.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to describe some of the research being performed at ORNL in support of the effort to describe, as realistically as possible, fission product source terms for nuclear reactor accidents. In order to make this presentation manageable, only those studies directly concerned with fission product behavior, as opposed to thermal hydraulics, accident sequence progression, etc., will be discussed

  4. Shifting some of the power from corporate entities to the hands of consumers: The use of online social communities for industries with "exciting" product categories

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, Teresa; Pasca, Mihaela

    2006-01-01

    The proliferation of online social communities resulted in major changes in consumer behaviour. Marketers have to adapt to this phenomenon, to seize the benefits resulting from online customer engagement and minimize the risks associated with consumer’s empowerment. This paper provides specific recommendations for those promoting "exciting" product categories. Three case studies are provided to better explain the advantages and challenges from implementing online social communities. As custom...

  5. Industrial open source solutions for product life cycle management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Campos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors go through the open source for product life cycle management (PLM and the efforts done from communities such as the open source initiative. The characteristics of the open source solutions are highlighted as well. Next, the authors go through the requirements for PLM. This is an area where more attention has been given as the manufacturers are competing with the quality and life cycle costs of their products. Especially, the need of companies to try to get a strong position in providing services for their products and thus to make themselves less vulnerable to changes in the market has led to high interest in product life cycle simulation. The potential of applying semantic data management to solve these problems discussed in the light of recent developments. In addition, a basic roadmap is presented as to how the above-described problems could be tackled with open software solutions.

  6. Radioactive sealed sources production process for industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Paulo de S.; Ngunga, Daniel M.G.; Camara, Julio R.; Vasquez, Pablo A.S.

    2017-01-01

    providing products and services to the private and governmental Brazilian users of industrial radiography and nucleonic control systems. Radioactive sealed sources are commonly used in nondestructive tests as radiography to make inspections and verify the internal structure and integrity of materials and in nucleonic gauges to control level, density, viscosity, etc. in on-line industrial processes. One of the most important activities carried out by this laboratory is related to the inspection of source projectors devices used in industrial radiography and its constituent parts as well as remote handle control assembly drive cable and guide tube systems. The laboratory also provide for the users iridium-192, cobalt-60 and selenium-75 sealed sources and performs quality control tests replacing spent or contaminated radiative sources. All discard of radioactive source is treated as radioactive waste. Additionally, administrative and commercial processes and protocols for exportation and transport of radioactive material are developed by specialized departments. In this work are presented the mean processes and procedures used by the Sealed Source Production Laboratory such as the arrival of the radioactive material to the laboratory and the source projectors, mechanical inspections, source loading, source leaking tests, etc. (author)

  7. Radioactive sealed sources production process for industrial radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Paulo de S.; Ngunga, Daniel M.G.; Camara, Julio R.; Vasquez, Pablo A.S., E-mail: psantos@ipen.br, E-mail: hobeddaniel@gmail.com, E-mail: jrcamara@ipen.br, E-mail: pavsalva@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energética s e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    providing products and services to the private and governmental Brazilian users of industrial radiography and nucleonic control systems. Radioactive sealed sources are commonly used in nondestructive tests as radiography to make inspections and verify the internal structure and integrity of materials and in nucleonic gauges to control level, density, viscosity, etc. in on-line industrial processes. One of the most important activities carried out by this laboratory is related to the inspection of source projectors devices used in industrial radiography and its constituent parts as well as remote handle control assembly drive cable and guide tube systems. The laboratory also provide for the users iridium-192, cobalt-60 and selenium-75 sealed sources and performs quality control tests replacing spent or contaminated radiative sources. All discard of radioactive source is treated as radioactive waste. Additionally, administrative and commercial processes and protocols for exportation and transport of radioactive material are developed by specialized departments. In this work are presented the mean processes and procedures used by the Sealed Source Production Laboratory such as the arrival of the radioactive material to the laboratory and the source projectors, mechanical inspections, source loading, source leaking tests, etc. (author)

  8. Medicinal herbs as possible sources of anti-inflammatory products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Corciovă

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Plants constitute an inexhaustible source of bioactive compounds that can be valuable for research in the chemistry field of anti-inflammatory compounds. This review describes several plants from international and national flora that have been shown to have anti-inflammatory activity in various clinical trials. The paper includes: general aspects regarding the vegetal source, compounds responsible for anti-inflammatory activity, mechanism of action and clinical trials carried out with extracts or products containing standardized extracts.

  9. 40 CFR 415.115 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Potassium Metal Production... achieve the following new source performance standards (NSPS): There shall be no discharge of process...

  10. Radiation protection with consumer products containing gaseous tritium light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahders, Erio; Haeusler, Uwe

    2017-01-01

    Consumer products containing gaseous tritium light sources (GTLS) were examined with respect to their radiological safety potential regarding leak tightness or accidents. The maximum tritium leakage rate of 2.7 Bq/d determined from experimental testing is well below the criterion for leak tightness of sealed radioactive sources in DIN 25426-4. In order to investigate the incorporation of tritium due to contact with consumer products, 2 scenarios were reviewed; the correct use of a tritium watch and the accident scenario with a keyring.

  11. Institutional and pedagogical criteria for productive open source learning environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Brian Møller; Ryberg, Thomas; Semey, Ian Peter

    2004-01-01

    In this article we present some institutional and pedagogical criteria for making an informed decision in relation to identifying and choosing a productive open source learning environment. We argue that three concepts (implementation, maintainability and further development) are important when...... considering the sustainability and cost efficiency of an open source system, and we outline a set of key points for evaluating an open source software in terms of cost of system adoption. Furthermore we identify a range of pedagogical concepts and criteria to emphasize the importance of considering...... the relation between the local pedagogical practice and the pedagogical design of the open source learning environment. This we illustrate through an analysis of an open source system and our own pedagogical practice at Aalborg University, Denmark (POPP)....

  12. Can fungi compete with marine sources for chitosan production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghormade, V; Pathan, E K; Deshpande, M V

    2017-11-01

    Chitosan, a β-1,4-linked glucosamine polymer is formed by deacetylation of chitin. It has a wide range of applications from agriculture to human health care products. Chitosan is commercially produced from shellfish, shrimp waste, crab and lobster processing using strong alkalis at high temperatures for long time periods. The production of chitin and chitosan from fungal sources has gained increased attention in recent years due to potential advantages in terms of homogenous polymer length, high degree of deacetylation and solubility over the current marine source. Zygomycetous fungi such as Absidia coerulea, Benjaminiella poitrasii, Cunninghamella elegans, Gongrenella butleri, Mucor rouxii, Mucor racemosus and Rhizopus oryzae have been studied extensively. Isolation of chitosan are reported from few edible basidiomycetous fungi like Agaricus bisporus, Lentinula edodes and Pleurotus sajor-caju. Other organisms from mycotech industries explored for chitosan production are Aspergillus niger, Penicillium chrysogenum, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and other wine yeasts. Number of aspects such as value addition to the existing applications of fungi, utilization of waste from agriculture sector, and issues and challenges for the production of fungal chitosan to compete with existing sources, metabolic engineering and novel applications have been discussed to adjudge the potential of fungal sources for commercial chitosan production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Ion source developments for RNB production at Spiral / GANIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villari, A.C.C.; Barue, C.; Gaubert, G.; Gibouin, S.; Huguet, Y.; Jardin, P.; Kandri-Rody, S.; Landre-Pellemoine, F.; Lecesne, N.; Leroy, R.; Lewitowicz, M.; Marry, C.; Maunoury, L.; Pacquet, J.Y.; Rataud, J.P.; Saint-Laurent, M.G.; Stodel, C.; Lichtenthaeler, R.; Angelique, J.C.; Orr, N.A.

    2000-01-01

    The first on-line production system for SPIRAL/GANIL (Radioactive Ion Production System with Acceleration on-Line) phase-I has been commissioned on the SIRa (Radioactive Ion Separator) test bench. Exotic multicharged noble gas ion beams have been obtained during several days. In parallel, a new ECRIS (Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source) for mono-charged ions has also been developed. Preliminary, off-line results are presented. (authors)

  14. Potential feedstock sources for ethanol production in Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahmani, Mohammad [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Hodges, Alan [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2015-10-01

    This study presents information on the potential feedstock sources that may be used for ethanol production in Florida. Several potential feedstocks for fuel ethanol production in Florida are discussed, such as, sugarcane, corn, citrus byproducts and sweet sorghum. Other probable impacts need to be analyzed for sugarcane to ethanol production as alternative uses of sugarcane may affect the quantity of sugar production in Florida. While citrus molasses is converted to ethanol as an established process, the cost of ethanol is higher, and the total amount of citrus molasses per year is insignificant. Sorghum cultivars have the potential for ethanol production. However, the agricultural practices for growing sweet sorghum for ethanol have not been established, and the conversion process must be tested and developed at a more expanded level. So far, only corn shipped from other states to Florida has been considered for ethanol production on a commercial scale. The economic feasibility of each of these crops requires further data and technical analysis.

  15. Hydrogen Production Costs of Various Primary Energy Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jae Hyuk; Tak, Nam Il; Kim, Yong Hee; Park, Won Seok

    2005-11-01

    Many studies on the economical aspects of hydrogen energy technologies have been conducted with the increase of the technical and socioeconomic importance of the hydrogen energy. However, there is still no research which evaluates the economy of hydrogen production from the primary energy sources in consideration of Korean situations. In this study, the hydrogen production costs of major primary energy sources are compared in consideration of the Korean situations such as feedstock price, electricity rate, and load factor. The evaluation methodology is based on the report of the National Academy of Science (NAS) of U.S. The present study focuses on the possible future technology scenario defined by NAS. The scenario assumes technological improvement that may be achieved if present research and development (R and D) programs are successful. The production costs by the coal and natural gas are 1.1 $/kgH 2 and 1.36 $/kgH 2 , respectively. However, the fossil fuels are susceptible to the price variation depending on the oil and the raw material prices, and the hydrogen production cost also depends on the carbon tax. The economic competitiveness of the renewable energy sources such as the wind, solar, and biomass are relatively low when compared with that of the other energy sources. The estimated hydrogen production costs from the renewable energy sources range from 2.35 $/kgH 2 to 6.03 $/kgH 2 . On the other hand, the production cost by nuclear energy is lower than that of natural gas or coal when the prices of the oil and soft coal are above $50/barrel and 138 $/ton, respectively. Taking into consideration the recent rapid increase of the oil and soft coal prices and the limited fossil resource, the nuclear-hydrogen option appears to be the most economical way in the future

  16. Study on a volume-production H- ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takama, S.

    1988-01-01

    H - ions formed by volume-production are extracted from a multicuspion source. By applying a large positive bias to the plasma electrode, the ratio I - /I e becomes 1/20. H - ion current of 0.4mA is extracted from a 0.3cm 2 circular aperture at an arc current of 10A. (author)

  17. Post-consumer use efficacies of preservatives in personal care and topical drug products: relationship to preservative category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravita, Timothy D; Tanner, Ralph S; Ahearn, Donald G; Arms, Erin L; Crockett, Patrick W

    2009-01-01

    Ninety-six used personal care and topical OTC drug items collected from consumers in the USA were examined for the presence of microbial contaminants. Of the eye and face product type containing global preservative chemistries (i.e., acceptable for use in Japan without major restrictions), 55% yielded numbers of microorganisms in excess of 500 CFU/g (P preservative chemistries, 79% yielded numbers of microorganisms in excess of 500 CFU/g (P preservative chemistries accounted for 88% (n = 14) of the products that had microbial contents above 10(4) CFU/g (P preserved with global preservative chemistries did not maintain as adequate preservation as products with non-global preservatives.

  18. COMPENSATORY AND NON COMPENSATORY FACTORS WHICH INFLUENCE THE BUYING DECISION OF CULINARY PRODUCTS, CONCENTRATED SOUP CATEGORY, IN CONSUMERS FROM BARRANQUILLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARÍA MERCEDES BOTERO

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to identify the main compensatory and non-compensatory factors influencing thepurchase of concentrated broth in consumers of the city of Barranquilla. This research compiles the data obtainedthrough 300 interviews applied to consumers of concentrated broth, who do their shopping in 41 supermarkets and8.000 general stores distributed along the city.The study demonstrated that brand and the flavor are the most important factors in buying concentrated broth.Additionally, customers usually buy the product that they previously have chosen, remaining loyal to their favoritebrand. This corroborates that non-compensatory factors such as memory, experience and tradition are determinantwhen choosing a product.

  19. Error Analysis of CM Data Products Sources of Uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, Brian D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Eckert-Gallup, Aubrey Celia [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Cochran, Lainy Dromgoole [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kraus, Terrence D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Allen, Mark B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Beal, Bill [National Security Technologies, Joint Base Andrews, MD (United States); Okada, Colin [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Simpson, Mathew [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-02-01

    This goal of this project is to address the current inability to assess the overall error and uncertainty of data products developed and distributed by DOE’s Consequence Management (CM) Program. This is a widely recognized shortfall, the resolution of which would provide a great deal of value and defensibility to the analysis results, data products, and the decision making process that follows this work. A global approach to this problem is necessary because multiple sources of error and uncertainty contribute to the ultimate production of CM data products. Therefore, this project will require collaboration with subject matter experts across a wide range of FRMAC skill sets in order to quantify the types of uncertainty that each area of the CM process might contain and to understand how variations in these uncertainty sources contribute to the aggregated uncertainty present in CM data products. The ultimate goal of this project is to quantify the confidence level of CM products to ensure that appropriate public and worker protections decisions are supported by defensible analysis.

  20. Q&A. Does lack of product management impact the users of open source?

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Young

    2008-01-01

    Most commercial software companies employ product managers to handle the planning and marketing of software products, whereas few open source projects have a product manager. Does lack of product management impact the users of open source?

  1. Q&A. Does lack of product management impact the users of open source?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Young

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Most commercial software companies employ product managers to handle the planning and marketing of software products, whereas few open source projects have a product manager. Does lack of product management impact the users of open source?

  2. Mercury in products - a source of transboundary pollutant transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munthe, J; Kindbom, K [Swedish Environmental Research Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1997-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize current knowledge on product-related emissions of mercury to air on a European scale, and to estimate the contribution from mercury contained in products, to the total anthropogenic emissions of mercury to air and transboundary transport of mercury in Europe. Products included in this study are batteries, measuring and control instruments, light sources and electrical equipment, all intentionally containing mercury. The main result of this study is that product-related emission of mercury can contribute significantly to total emissions and transboundary transport of mercury in the European region and that measures to limit the use of mercury in products can contribute to an overall decrease of the environmental input of mercury in Europe. It is concluded that: -Mercury contained in products may be emitted to air during consumption, after disposal when incinerated or when volatilized from landfill. Mercury may also be emitted to air during recycling of scrap metal or when accumulated (stored) in society. -The amount of mercury consumed in batteries and in measuring and control instruments had decreased since the late 1980`s. The total use of mercury in light sources and electrical equipment has not changed significantly during the same time period. The contribution to total anthropogenic emissions of mercury to air in Europe in the mid 1990`s is estimated to be: for batteries 4%; for measuring and control instruments 3%; for lighting and electrical equipment 11%. -Mercury in products leads to significant wet deposition input in Scandinavia. The relative amount of the total deposition flux attributable to products is estimated to be 10-14% 26 refs, 4 figs, 10 tabs

  3. Production of radioisotopic gamma radiation sources in JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katoh, Hisashi; Kogure, Hiroto; Suzuki, Kyohei

    1980-04-01

    The present state of production of gamma radiation sources in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) is described. Sources of 192 Ir, 60 Co and 170 Tm for industrial and 198 Au and 192 Ir for medical applications are produced and delivered routinely by JAERI. Prefabricated assembly targets are irradiated in JRR-2, JRR-3, JRR-4 or JMTR. The irradiated targets are disassembled in a heavy density concrete cave or a lead-shielded cell, depending on the level of radioactivity. The yield of radioactivity in each target is measured with the aid of an ionization chamber. Where necessary, irradiated targets are encapsulated hermetically in capsules of aluminium, stainless steel or other material. The yield of radioactivity is estimated in relation with the burn-up of target nuclide and product nuclide. (author)

  4. Production, Distribution, and Applications of Californium-252 Neutron Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balo, P.A.; Knauer, J.B.; Martin, R.C.

    1999-01-01

    The radioisotope 252 Cf is routinely encapsulated into compact, portable, intense neutron sources with a 2.6-year half-life. A source the size of a person's little finger can emit up to 10 11 neutrons/s. Californium-252 is used commercially as a reliable, cost-effective neutron source for prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) of coal, cement, and minerals, as well as for detection and identification of explosives, laud mines, and unexploded military ordnance. Other uses are neutron radiography, nuclear waste assays, reactor start-up sources, calibration standards, and cancer therapy. The inherent safety of source encapsulations is demonstrated by 30 years of experience and by U.S. Bureau of Mines tests of source survivability during explosions. The production and distribution center for the U. S Department of Energy (DOE) Californium Program is the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). DOE sells 252 Cf to commercial reencapsulators domestically and internationally. Sealed 252 Cf sources are also available for loan to agencies and subcontractors of the U.S. government and to universities for educational, research, and medical applications. The REDC has established the Californium User Facility (CUF) for Neutron Science to make its large inventory of 252 Cf sources available to researchers for irradiations inside uncontaminated hot cells. Experiments at the CUF include a land mine detection system, neutron damage testing of solid-state detectors, irradiation of human cancer cells for boron neutron capture therapy experiments, and irradiation of rice to induce genetic mutations

  5. Means to improve light source productivity: from proof of concept to field implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausa, E.; Cacouris, T.; Conley, W.; Jackson, M.; Luo, S.; Murthy, S.; Rechtsteiner, G.; Steiner, K.

    2016-03-01

    Light source technological performance is key to enabling chipmaker yield and production success. Just as important is ensuring that performance is consistent over time to help maintain as high an uptime as possible on litho-cells (scanner and track combination). While it is common to see average tool uptime of over 99% based on service intervention time, we will show that there are opportunities to improve equipment availability through a multifaceted approach that can deliver favorable results and significantly improve on the actual production efficiency of equipment. The majority of chipmakers are putting light source data generated by tools such as Cymer OnLine (COL), OnPulse Plus, and SmartPulse to good use. These data sets, combined with in-depth knowledge of the equipment, makes it possible to draw powerful conclusions that help increase both chip manufacturing consistency as well as equipment productivity. This discussion will focus on the latter, equipment availability, and how data analysis can help increase equipment availability for Cymer customers. There are several types of opportunities for increasing equipment availability, but in general we can focus on two primary categories: 1) scheduled downtime and 2) unscheduled downtime. For equipment that is under control of a larger entity, as the laser is to the scanner, there are additional categories related to either communication errors or better synchronization of events that can maximize overall litho-cell efficiency. In this article we will focus on general availability without highlighting the specific cause of litho-cell (laser, scanner and track). The goal is to increase equipment available time with a primary focus is on opportunities to minimize errors and variabilities.

  6. Fission product source terms and engineered safety features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinauskas, A.P.

    1984-01-01

    The author states that new, technically defensible, methodologies to establish realistic source term values for nuclear reactor accidents will soon be available. Although these methodologies will undoubtedly find widespread use in the development of accident response procedures, the author states that it is less clear that the industry is preparing to employ the newer results to develop a more rational approach to strategies for the mitigation of fission product releases. Questions concerning the performance of existing engineered safety systems are reviewed

  7. Neutron production enhancements for the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iverson, E. B.

    1999-01-04

    The Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS) was the first high energy spallation neutron source in the US dedicated to materials research. It has operated for sixteen years, and in that time has had a very prolific record concerning the development of new target and moderator systems for pulsed spallation sources. IPNS supports a very productive user program on its thirteen instruments, which are oversubscribed by more than two times, meanwhile having an excellent overall reliability of 95%. Although the proton beam power is relatively low at 7 kW, the target and moderator systems are very efficient. The typical beam power which gives an equivalent flux for long-wavelength neutrons is about 60 kW, due to the use of a uranium target and liquid and solid methane moderators, precluded at some sources due to a higher accelerator power. The development of new target and moderator systems is by no means stagnant at IPNS. They are presently considering numerous enhancements to the target and moderators that offer prospects for increasing the useful neutron production by substantial factors. Many of these enhancements could be combined, although their combined benefit has not yet been well established. Meanwhile, IPNS is embarking on a coherent program of study concerning these improvements and their possible combination and implementation. Moreover, any improvements accomplished at IPNS would immediately increase the performance of IPNS instruments.

  8. Neutron production enhancements for the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iverson, E. B.

    1999-01-01

    The Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS) was the first high energy spallation neutron source in the US dedicated to materials research. It has operated for sixteen years, and in that time has had a very prolific record concerning the development of new target and moderator systems for pulsed spallation sources. IPNS supports a very productive user program on its thirteen instruments, which are oversubscribed by more than two times, meanwhile having an excellent overall reliability of 95%. Although the proton beam power is relatively low at 7 kW, the target and moderator systems are very efficient. The typical beam power which gives an equivalent flux for long-wavelength neutrons is about 60 kW, due to the use of a uranium target and liquid and solid methane moderators, precluded at some sources due to a higher accelerator power. The development of new target and moderator systems is by no means stagnant at IPNS. They are presently considering numerous enhancements to the target and moderators that offer prospects for increasing the useful neutron production by substantial factors. Many of these enhancements could be combined, although their combined benefit has not yet been well established. Meanwhile, IPNS is embarking on a coherent program of study concerning these improvements and their possible combination and implementation. Moreover, any improvements accomplished at IPNS would immediately increase the performance of IPNS instruments

  9. Improving wheat productivity through source and timing of nitrogen fertilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jan, M.T.; Khan, A.; Afridi, M.Z.; Arif, M.; Khan, M.J.; Farhatullah; Jan, D.; Saeed, M.

    2011-01-01

    Efficient nitrogen (N) fertilizer management is critical for the improved production of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and can be achieved through source and timing of N application. Thus, an experiment was carried out at the Research Farm of KPK Agricultural University Peshawar during 2005-06 to test the effects of sources and timing of N application on yield and yield components of wheat. Nitrogen sources were ammonium (NH/sub 4/) and nitrate (NO/sub 3/) applied at the rate of 100 kg ha/sup -1/ at three different stages i.e., at sowing (S1), tillering (S2) and boot stage (S3). Ammonium N increased yield component but did not affect the final grain yield. Split N application at sowing, tillering and boot stages had increased productive tillers m-2, and thousand grains weight, whereas grain yield was higher when N was applied at tillering and boot stages. Nitrogen fertilization increased 20% grain yield compared to control regardless of N application time. It was concluded from the experiment that split application of NH/sub 4/-N performed better than full dose application and/or NO/sub 3/-N for improved wheat productivity and thus, is recommended for general practice in agro-climatic conditions of Peshawar. (author)

  10. Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffy, L.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the sources of radiation in the narrow perspective of radioactivity and the even narrow perspective of those sources that concern environmental management and restoration activities at DOE facilities, as well as a few related sources. Sources of irritation, Sources of inflammatory jingoism, and Sources of information. First, the sources of irritation fall into three categories: No reliable scientific ombudsman to speak without bias and prejudice for the public good, Technical jargon with unclear definitions exists within the radioactive nomenclature, and Scientific community keeps a low-profile with regard to public information. The next area of personal concern are the sources of inflammation. This include such things as: Plutonium being described as the most dangerous substance known to man, The amount of plutonium required to make a bomb, Talk of transuranic waste containing plutonium and its health affects, TMI-2 and Chernobyl being described as Siamese twins, Inadequate information on low-level disposal sites and current regulatory requirements under 10 CFR 61, Enhanced engineered waste disposal not being presented to the public accurately. Numerous sources of disinformation regarding low level radiation high-level radiation, Elusive nature of the scientific community, The Federal and State Health Agencies resources to address comparative risk, and Regulatory agencies speaking out without the support of the scientific community

  11. Production of highly charged ion beams from ECR ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Z.Q.

    1997-09-01

    Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source development has progressed with multiple-frequency plasma heating, higher mirror magnetic fields and better technique to provide extra cold electrons. Such techniques greatly enhance the production of highly charged ions from ECR ion sources. So far at cw mode operation, up to 300 eμA of O 7+ and 1.15 emA of O 6+ , more than 100 eμA of intermediate heavy ions for charge states up to Ar 13+ , Ca 13+ , Fe 13+ , Co 14+ and Kr 18+ , and tens of eμA of heavy ions with charge states to Kr 26+ , Xe 28+ , Au 35+ , Bi 34+ and U 34+ have been produced from ECR ion sources. At an intensity of at least 1 eμA, the maximum charge state available for the heavy ions are Xe 36+ , Au 46+ , Bi 47+ and U 48+ . An order of magnitude enhancement for fully stripped argon ions (I ≥ 60 enA) also has been achieved. This article will review the ECR ion source progress and discuss key requirement for ECR ion sources to produce the highly charged ion beams

  12. Indirect detection of radiation sources through direct detection of radiolysis products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Joseph C [Tracy, CA; Fischer, Larry E [Los Gatos, CA; Felter, Thomas E [Livermore, CA

    2010-04-20

    A system for indirectly detecting a radiation source by directly detecting radiolytic products. The radiation source emits radiation and the radiation produces the radiolytic products. A fluid is positioned to receive the radiation from the radiation source. When the fluid is irradiated, radiolytic products are produced. By directly detecting the radiolytic products, the radiation source is detected.

  13. Hydrogen production from coal using a nuclear heat source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quade, R.N.

    1977-01-01

    A strong candidate for hydrogen production in the intermediate time frame of 1990 to 1995 is a coal-based process using a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) as a heat source. Expected process efficiencies in the range of 60 to 70% are considerably higher than all other hydrogen production processes except steam reforming of a natural gas - a feedstock which may not be available in large quantities in this time frame. The process involves the preparation of a coal liquid, hydrogasification of that liquid, and steam reforming of the resulting gaseous or light liquid product. Bench-scale experimental work on the hydrogasification of coal liquids is being carried out. A study showing process efficiency and cost of hydrogen vs nuclear reactor core outlet temperature has been completed and shows diminishing returns at process temperatures above about 1500 0 F. (author)

  14. Hydrogen production from coal using a nuclear heat source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quade, R. N.

    1976-01-01

    A strong candidate for hydrogen production in the intermediate time frame of 1985 to 1995 is a coal-based process using a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) as a heat source. Expected process efficiencies in the range of 60 to 70% are considerably higher than all other hydrogen production processes except steam reforming of a natural gas. The process involves the preparation of a coal liquid, hydrogasification of that liquid, and steam reforming of the resulting gaseous or light liquid product. A study showing process efficiency and cost of hydrogen vs nuclear reactor core outlet temperature has been completed, and shows diminishing returns at process temperatures above about 1500 F. A possible scenario combining the relatively abundant and low-cost Western coal deposits with the Gulf Coast hydrogen users is presented which provides high-energy density transportation utilizing coal liquids and uranium.

  15. Example Annual Certification & Compliance Reports for Sources with and without Visible Emissions Testing: NESHAP Area Source Standards for Nine Metal Fabrication and Finishing Source Categories 40 CFR 63 Subpart XXXXXX

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains examples of the type of information that must be submitted to fulfill the Notification of Compliance Status requirement of 40 CFR 63, subpart XXXXXX for sources reporting and not reporting visible emissions information.

  16. Environmental performance of crop residues as an energy source for electricity production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, T Lan T; Hermansen, John Erik; Mogensen, Lisbeth

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to address the question, “What is the environmental performance of crop residues as an alternative energy source to fossil fuels, and whether and how can it be improved?”. In order to address the issue, we compare electricity production from wheat straw to that from coal and natural...... gas. The results on the environmental performance of straw for energy utilization and the two fossil fuel references are displayed first for different midpoint categories and then aggregated into a single score. The midpoint impact assessment shows that substitution of straw either for coal...... or for natural gas reduces global warming, non-renewable energy use, human toxicity and ecotoxicity, but increases eutrophication, respiratory inorganics, acidification and photochemical ozone. The results at the aggregate level show that the use of straw biomass for conversion to energy scores better than...

  17. Hydrogen Production Costs of Various Primary Energy Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jae Hyuk; Tak, Nam Il; Kim, Yong Hee; Park, Won Seok

    2005-01-01

    The limited resource and environmental impacts of fossil fuels are becoming more and more serious problems in the world. Consequently, hydrogen is in the limelight as a future alternative energy due to its clean combustion and inexhaustibility and a transition from the traditional fossil fuel system to a hydrogen-based energy system is under considerations. Several countries are already gearing the industries to the hydrogen economy to cope with the limitations of the current fossil fuels. Unfortunately, hydrogen has to be chemically separated from the hydrogen compounds in nature such as water by using some energy sources. In this paper, the hydrogen production costs of major primary energy sources are compared in consideration of the Korean situations. The evaluation methodology is based on the report of the National Academy of Science (NAS) of U.S

  18. Sealed radioactive sources and method of their production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benadik, A.; Tympl, M.; Stopek, K.

    1985-01-01

    The active layer of the proposed sources consists of an inorganic sorbent activated with a radioactive component in form of gel, xerogel or glass. The active particles of the inorganic sorbent have the shape of spheres 2 to 2000 μm in diameter. The sources have a tubular, cylindrical or needle shape and are compact with low leachability. They feature minimal radionuclide leakage, they are reliable and safe. Their production technology is proposed. The inorganic sorbent is put in contact with the sollution of the radioactive compound, then separated from the liquid phase, filled into containers, dried, calcined or sintered or otherwise heat-processed into glass at temperatures of 250 -1800 degC. (M.D.)

  19. Modeling Degradation Product Partitioning in Chlorinated-DNAPL Source Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroumand, A.; Ramsburg, A.; Christ, J.; Abriola, L.

    2009-12-01

    Metabolic reductive dechlorination degrades aqueous phase contaminant concentrations, increasing the driving force for DNAPL dissolution. Results from laboratory and field investigations suggest that accumulation of cis-dichloroethene (cis-DCE) and vinyl chloride (VC) may occur within DNAPL source zones. The lack of (or slow) degradation of cis-DCE and VC within bioactive DNAPL source zones may result in these dechlorination products becoming distributed among the solid, aqueous, and organic phases. Partitioning of cis-DCE and VC into the organic phase may reduce aqueous phase concentrations of these contaminants and result in the enrichment of these dechlorination products within the non-aqueous phase. Enrichment of degradation products within DNAPL may reduce some of the advantages associated with the application of bioremediation in DNAPL source zones. Thus, it is important to quantify how partitioning (between the aqueous and organic phases) influences the transport of cis-DCE and VC within bioactive DNAPL source zones. In this work, abiotic two-phase (PCE-water) one-dimensional column experiments are modeled using analytical and numerical methods to examine the rate of partitioning and the capacity of PCE-DNAPL to reversibly sequester cis-DCE. These models consider aqueous-phase, nonaqueous phase, and aqueous plus nonaqueous phase mass transfer resistance using linear driving force and spherical diffusion expressions. Model parameters are examined and compared for different experimental conditions to evaluate the mechanisms controlling partitioning. Biot number, a dimensionless number which is an index of the ratio of the aqueous phase mass transfer rate in boundary layer to the mass transfer rate within the NAPL, is used to characterize conditions in which either or both processes are controlling. Results show that application of a single aqueous resistance is capable to capture breakthrough curves when DNAPL is distributed in porous media as low

  20. Marine Vibrionaceae as a source of bioactive natural products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Månsson, Maria; Wietz, Matthias; Gram, Lone

    an ecological function. Using chemical profiling, vibrio strains were compared on a global scale, revealing that the production of certain compounds is a conserved feature independent of sample locations. Chemical screening techniques such as explorative solid-phase extraction led to the isolation of two novel...... that some strains were capable of producing antibacterial compounds when grown on natural substrates such as chitin or seaweed. One Vibrio coralliilyticus strain was capable of producing the antibacterial compound when using chitin as the sole carbon source and in a live chitin model system, suggesting...... of which possess biological activities attractive for alternative strategies in antibacterial therapy....

  1. How do Category Managers Manage?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Kim Sundtoft; Sigurbjornsson, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research is to explore the managerial role of category managers in purchasing. A network management perspective is adopted. A case based research methodology is applied, and three category managers managing a diverse set of component and service categories in a global production...... firm is observed while providing accounts of their progress and results in meetings. We conclude that the network management classification scheme originally deve loped by Harland and Knight (2001) and Knight and Harland (2005) is a valuable and fertile theoretical framework for the analysis...

  2. Industrialization and production of neutral beam ion sources for MFTF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, W.S.

    1981-01-01

    The existing LLNL designs of the 20 and 80kV deuterium fueled Neutral Beam Ion Source Modules (NBSM) have been industrialized and are being produced successfully for the MFTF. Industrialization includes value engineering, production engineering, cost reduction, fixturing, facilitation and procurement of components. Production assembly, inspection and testing is being performed in a large electronics manufacturing plant. Decades of experience in high voltage, high vacuum power tubes is being applied to the procedures and processes. Independent quality and reliability assurance criteria are being utilized. Scheduling of the various engineering, procurement and manufacturing task is performed by the use of a Critical Path Method (CPM) computer code, Innovative, computerized grid alignment methods were also designed and installed specifically for this project. New jointing and cleaning techniques were devised for the NBSMs. Traceability and cost control are also utilized

  3. Marine actinobacteria: an important source of bioactive natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manivasagan, Panchanathan; Kang, Kyong-Hwa; Sivakumar, Kannan; Li-Chan, Eunice C Y; Oh, Hyun-Myung; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2014-07-01

    Marine environment is largely an untapped source for deriving actinobacteria, having potential to produce novel, bioactive natural products. Actinobacteria are the prolific producers of pharmaceutically active secondary metabolites, accounting for about 70% of the naturally derived compounds that are currently in clinical use. Among the various actinobacterial genera, Actinomadura, Actinoplanes, Amycolatopsis, Marinispora, Micromonospora, Nocardiopsis, Saccharopolyspora, Salinispora, Streptomyces and Verrucosispora are the major potential producers of commercially important bioactive natural products. In this respect, Streptomyces ranks first with a large number of bioactive natural products. Marine actinobacteria are unique enhancing quite different biological properties including antimicrobial, anticancer, antiviral, insecticidal and enzyme inhibitory activities. They have attracted global in the last ten years for their ability to produce pharmaceutically active compounds. In this review, we have focused attention on the bioactive natural products isolated from marine actinobacteria, possessing unique chemical structures that may form the basis for synthesis of novel drugs that could be used to combat resistant pathogenic microorganisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Medical Isotope Production Analyses In KIPT Neutron Source Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talamo, Alberto; Gohar, Yousry

    2016-01-01

    Medical isotope production analyses in Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT) neutron source facility were performed to include the details of the irradiation cassette and the self-shielding effect. An updated detailed model of the facility was used for the analyses. The facility consists of an accelerator-driven system (ADS), which has a subcritical assembly using low-enriched uranium fuel elements with a beryllium-graphite reflector. The beryllium assemblies of the reflector have the same outer geometry as the fuel elements, which permits loading the subcritical assembly with different number of fuel elements without impacting the reflector performance. The subcritical assembly is driven by an external neutron source generated from the interaction of 100-kW electron beam with a tungsten target. The facility construction was completed at the end of 2015, and it is planned to start the operation during the year of 2016. It is the first ADS in the world, which has a coolant system for removing the generated fission power. Argonne National Laboratory has developed the design concept and performed extensive design analyses for the facility including its utilization for the production of different radioactive medical isotopes. 99 Mo is the parent isotope of 99m Tc, which is the most commonly used medical radioactive isotope. Detailed analyses were performed to define the optimal sample irradiation location and the generated activity, for several radioactive medical isotopes, as a function of the irradiation time.

  5. Medical Isotope Production Analyses In KIPT Neutron Source Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talamo, Alberto [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gohar, Yousry [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Medical isotope production analyses in Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT) neutron source facility were performed to include the details of the irradiation cassette and the self-shielding effect. An updated detailed model of the facility was used for the analyses. The facility consists of an accelerator-driven system (ADS), which has a subcritical assembly using low-enriched uranium fuel elements with a beryllium-graphite reflector. The beryllium assemblies of the reflector have the same outer geometry as the fuel elements, which permits loading the subcritical assembly with different number of fuel elements without impacting the reflector performance. The subcritical assembly is driven by an external neutron source generated from the interaction of 100-kW electron beam with a tungsten target. The facility construction was completed at the end of 2015, and it is planned to start the operation during the year of 2016. It is the first ADS in the world, which has a coolant system for removing the generated fission power. Argonne National Laboratory has developed the design concept and performed extensive design analyses for the facility including its utilization for the production of different radioactive medical isotopes. 99Mo is the parent isotope of 99mTc, which is the most commonly used medical radioactive isotope. Detailed analyses were performed to define the optimal sample irradiation location and the generated activity, for several radioactive medical isotopes, as a function of the irradiation time.

  6. IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF FIVE NON- TRADITIONAL SOURCE CATEGORIES: CATASTROPHIC/ACCIDENTAL RELEASES, VEHICLE REPAIR FACILITIES, RECYCLING, PESTICIDE APPLICATION, AND AGRICULTURAL OPERATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of work that is part of EPA's program to identify and characterize emissions sources not currently accounted for by either the existing Aerometric Information Retrieval System (AIRS) or State Implementation Plan (SIP) area source methodologies and to deve...

  7. Geothermal source potential and utilization for alcohol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austin, J.C.

    1981-11-01

    A study was conducted to assess the technical and economic feasibility of using a potential geothermal source to drive a fuel grade alcohol plant. Test data from the well at the site indicated that the water temperature at approximately 8500 feet should approach 275/sup 0/F. However, no flow data was available, and so the volume of hot water that can be expected from a well at this site is unknown. Using the available data, numerous fuel alcohol production processes and various heat utilization schemes were investigated to determine the most cost effective system for using the geothermal resource. The study found the direct application of hot water for alcohol production based on atmospheric processes using low pressure steam to be most cost effective. The geothermal flow rates were determined for various sizes of alcohol production facility using 275/sup 0/F water, 235/sup 0/F maximum processing temperature, 31,000 and 53,000 Btu per gallon energy requirements, and appropriate process approach temperatures. It was determined that a 3 million gpy alcohol plant is the largest facility that can practically be powered by the flow from one large geothermal well. An order-of-magnitude cost estimate was prepared, operating costs were calculated, the economic feasibility of the propsed project was examined, and a sensitivity analysis was performed.

  8. Microbial production of poly(hydroxybutyrate) from C₁ carbon sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravi-Darani, Kianoush; Mokhtari, Zahra-Beigom; Amai, Tomohito; Tanaka, Kenji

    2013-02-01

    Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is an attractive substitute for petrochemical plastic due to its similar properties, biocompatibility, and biodegradability. The cost of scaled-up PHB production inhibits its widespread usage. Intensive researches are growing to reduce costs and improve thermomechanical, physical, and processing properties of this green biopolymer. Among cheap substrates which are used for reducing total cost of PHB production, some C₁ carbon sources, e.g., methane, methanol, and CO₂ have received a great deal of attention due to their serious role in greenhouse problem. This article reviews the fundamentals of strategies for reducing PHA production and moves on to the applications of several cheap substrates with a special emphasis on methane, methanol, and CO₂. Also, some explanation for involved microorganisms including the hydrogen-oxidizing bacteria and methanotrophs, their history, culture condition, and nutritional requirements are given. After description of some important strains among the hydrogen-oxidizing and methanotrophic producers of PHB, the article is focused on limitations, threats, and opportunities for application and their future trends.

  9. A compilation of life cycle studies for six household detergent product categories in Europe: the basis for product-specific A.I.S.E. Charter Advanced Sustainability Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golsteijn, Laura; Menkveld, Rimousky; King, Henry; Schneider, Christine; Schowanek, Diederik; Nissen, Sascha

    2015-01-01

    A.I.S.E., the International Association for Soaps, Detergents and Maintenance Products, launched the 'A.I.S.E. Charter for Sustainable Cleaning' in Europe in 2005 to promote sustainability in the cleaning and maintenance products industry. This Charter is a proactive programme for translating the concept of sustainable innovation into reality and actions. Per product category, life cycle assessments (LCA) are used to set sustainability criteria that are ambitious, but also achievable by all market players. This paper presents and discusses LCAs of six household detergent product categories conducted for the Charter, i.e.: manual dishwashing detergents, powder and tablet laundry detergents, window glass trigger spray cleaners, bathroom trigger spray cleaners, acid toilet cleaners, and bleach toilet cleaners. Relevant impact categories are identified, as well as the life cycle stages with the largest contribution to the environmental impact. It was concluded that the variables that mainly drive the results (i.e. the environmental hotspots) for manual dishwashing detergents and laundry detergents were the water temperature, water consumption (for manual dishwashing detergents), product dosage (for laundry detergents), and the choice and amount of surfactant. By contrast, for bathroom trigger sprays, acid and bleach toilet cleaners, the driving factors were plastic packaging, transportation to retailer, and specific ingredients. Additionally, the type of surfactant was important for bleach toilet cleaners. For window glass trigger sprays, the driving factors were the plastic packaging and the type of surfactant, and the other ingredients were of less importance. A.I.S.E. used the results of the studies to establish sustainability criteria, the so-called 'Charter Advanced Sustainability Profiles', which led to improvements in the marketplace.

  10. Design and production of activimeters verification sealed radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serra, R.; Hernandez Rivero, A. T.; Oropesa, P.; Rapado, M.; Falcon, L.

    2006-01-01

    Measurement in a radionuclide calibrator (activimeter) of the doses to be administered to a patient for diagnosis or radiotherapeutic treatment is an essential element in Nuclear Medicine practice. To assure that patient will receive the optimal doses that guarantee the necessary quality of the image to be studied or optimum radiotherapeutic effect, the activity determination should fulfil established accuracy requirements. To this aim, the overall uncertainty in activity determination must not surpass a preestablished limit of about 10 % for the expanded uncertainty of the activity value (with a coverage factor k = 3). To have suitable equipment, periodically calibrated for specialized and authorized specialists and frequently verified in inter calibration periods to guarantee detection of any malfunctioning, are essential requirements to assure the compliance with the prescribed regulations and limiting values. This paper describes the design and production of two models of 137 Cs activimeters verification sealed radioactive sources elaborated with this aim at the Radionuclide Metrology Department of the Isotope Centre of Cuba. Taking into account the international experience in this field was defined 3 -10 MBq as convenient activity range, the 137 Cs as a suitable radionuclide, and a classification ISO/99/C22212 (ISO 2919:1999) for the sealed sources to be obtained. In designed and produced models the activity is bonded in a hydrogel copolymer obtained by gamma irradiation, in a 60 Co irradiator, of a mixture of a 137 Cs aqueous solution with an approximate activity of 5 MBq with two proper monomers (acrylamide and methacrylic acid). The density of obtained copolymer is similar to that of the radioactive solutions employed in nuclear medicine departments for diagnosis and therapy. The obtained sources have appropriate physical stability for a temperature range between 40 o C below zero and 80 o C, as well as for defined activity range. The stability of the

  11. Categories from scratch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poss, R.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of category from mathematics happens to be useful to computer programmers in many ways. Unfortunately, all "good" explanations of categories so far have been designed by mathematicians, or at least theoreticians with a strong background in mathematics, and this makes categories

  12. Carbon Sources Influence Fumonisin Production in Fusarium proliferatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Taotao; Gong, Liang; Jiang, Guoxiang; Wang, Yong; Gupta, Vijai Kumar; Qu, Hongxia; Duan, Xuewu; Wang, Jiasheng; Jiang, Yueming

    2017-10-01

    Fusarium proliferatum is a worldwide fungal pathogen that produces fumonisins which are harmful to animal and human health. However, environmental factors affecting fumonisin biosynthesis in F. proliferatum are not well understood. Based on our preliminary results, in this study, we investigated the effect of sucrose or mannose as the sole carbon source on fumonisin B (FB) production by F. proliferatum and studied their underlying mechanisms via proteome and gene expression analysis. Our results showed that mannose, used as the sole carbon source, significantly blocked fumonisin B 1 and B 2 production by F. proliferatum as compared with the use of sucrose. Fifty-seven differentially expressed proteins were successfully identified. The downregulated proteins in the mannose-cultured strain were mainly involved in carbon metabolism, response to stress, and methionine metabolism, as compared with the sucrose-cultured strain. Moreover, quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that expression of several key genes involved in FB biosynthetic pathway and in transcription regulation were significantly downregulated in the mannose-cultured F. proliferatum, whereas expression of histone deacetylation-related genes were significantly upregulated. These results suggested that the blockage of FB biosynthesis by mannose was associated with the decreases in conversion of acetyl-CoA to polyketide, methionine biosynthesis, and NADPH regeneration. More importantly, milder oxidative stress, downregulated expression of genes involved in biosynthetic pathway and transcription regulation, and upregulated expression of genes with histone deacetylation possibly were responsible for the blockage of FB biosynthesis in F. proliferatum. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. The Phebus Fission Product and Source Term International Programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, B.; Zeyen, R.

    2005-01-01

    The international Phebus FP programme, initiated in 1988 is one of the major research programmes on light water reactors severe accidents. After a short description of the facility and of the test matrix, the main outcomes and results of the first four integral tests are provided and analysed. Several results were unexpected and some are of importance for safety analyses, particularly concerning fuel degradation, cladding oxidation, chemical form of some fission products, especially iodine, effect of control rod materials on degradation and chemistry, iodine behaviour in the containment. Prediction capabilities of calculation tools have largely been improved as a result of this research effort. However, significant uncertainties remain for a number of phenomena, requiring detailed physical analysis and implementation of improved models in codes, sustained by a number of separate-effect experiments. This is the subject of the new Source Term programme for a better understanding of the phenomenology on important safety issues, in accordance with priorities defined in the EURSAFE project of the 5 th European framework programme aiming at reducing the uncertainties on Source Term analyses. It covers iodine chemistry, impact of boron carbide control rods degradation and oxidation, air ingress situations and fission product release from fuel. Regarding the interpretation of Phebus, an international co-operation has been established since over ten years, particularly helpful for the improvement and common understanding of severe accident phenomena. Few months ago, the Phebus community was happy to welcome representatives of a large number of organisations from the following new European countries: the Czech republic, Hungary, Lithuania, Slovakia, Slovenia and also from Bulgaria and Romania. (author)

  14. Productivity of a nuclear chemical reactor with gamma radioisotopic sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anguis T, C.

    1975-01-01

    According to an established mathematical model of successive Compton interaction processes the made calculations for major distances are extended checking the acceptability of the spheric geometry model for the experimental data for radioisotopic sources of Co-60 and Cs-137. Parameters such as the increasing factor and the absorbed dose served as comparative base. calculations for the case of a punctual source succession inside a determined volume cylinder are made to obtain the total dose, the deposited energy by each photons energetic group and the total absorbed energy inside the reactor. Varying adequately the height/radius relation for different cylinders, the distinct energy depositions are compared in each one of them once a time standardized toward a standard value of energy emitted by the reactor volume. A relation between the quantity of deposited energy in each point of the reactor and the conversion values of chemical species is established. They are induced by electromagnetic radiation and that are reported as ''G'' in the scientific literature (number of molecules formed or disappeared by each 100 e.v. of energy). Once obtained the molecular performance inside the reactor for each type of geometry, it is optimized the height/radius relation according to the maximum production of molecules by unity of time. It is completed a bibliographical review of ''G'' values reported by different types of aqueous solutions with the purpose to determine the maximum performance of molecular hydrogen as a function of pH of the solution and of the used type of solute among other factors. Calculations for the ethyl bromide production as an example of one of the industrial processes which actually work using the gamma radiation as reactions inductor are realized. (Author)

  15. Polyhydroxybutyrate production from marine source and its application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, Ganapathy; Rengasamy, Ramasamy; Inbakandan, Dhinakarasamy

    2018-05-01

    The increasing significance of non-degradable plastic wastes is an emerging concern. As a substitute, researches are being endeavoured from existing reserve to yield bioplastics based on their properties of biodegradability. Owing to their cost, now the experts are quest for a substitute source like bacteria, microalgae, actinomycetes, cyanobacteria and plants. PHB is biodegradable, environmental friendly and biocompatible thermoplastics. Varying in toughness and flexibility, depending on their formulation, they are used in various ways similar to many non-biodegradable petrochemical plastics currently in use. Promising strategies contain genetic engineering of microorganisms to introduce production pathways examined for the past two decades. Such kind of researches focusing on the use of unconventional substrates, novel extraction methods, and genetically enhanced species with assessment to make PHB from marine microbes are commercially attractive field. Hence, this biopolymer synthesis may displayed as one of the survival mechanisms of endosymbiotic, macroalgae, or sponge-associated bacteria, which exist in a highly competitive and stressful marine microenvironment. This review throws light on the promising and growing awareness of using marine microbes as PHB source, along with their applications in different fields of aquaculture, medicine, antifouling and tissue engineering. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Sources of product information used by consumers when purchasing kitchen cabinets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffrey H. Donovan; David L. Nicholls; Joseph. Roos

    2004-01-01

    Survey data from home shows in Seattle, Washington and Anchorage, Alaska were used to determine the sources of product information used by consumers when buying kitchen cabinets. Results show that in-store sales staff are the most common source of product information, and that consumers' favorite wood species, age, and gender can influence the source of product...

  17. Evaluation of short- and long-term fission product sources at the Fukushima Daiichi NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Shunsuke; Naitoh, Masanori; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Okada, Hidetoshi; Pellegrini, Marco; Achilli, Andrea; Hanamoto, Yukio; Sasaki, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    Research on fission product (FP) behaviors used to be one of the most important subjects in water chemistry but it is not done nowadays as a consequence of the increased integrity of nuclear fuels and the minimization of FP release into the environment. Evaluation of FP release into the environment is still one of the key issues for severe accident analysis, though. Although there have been a long quiet period in nuclear safety research, how to detect initiation of severe accidents, how to prevent them and how to mitigate them are still important subjects for nuclear engineering, and how to control the severe accidents after their occurrence, especially how to control FP release into the environment, has seldom been discussed in the water chemistry group recently. The paper is intended to address the issue of fewer activities for FP studies. FP sources are divided into two categories, short- and long-term FP sources. Short-term FP source can be evaluated based on the measured data obtained from monitoring posts (MPs), which give us clear evidence on the importance of radioactive iodine and cesium releases into the environment. It used to be considered that during primary containment vessel (PCV) venting, release of each element, e.g., iodine and cesium, was determined by the suppression pool scrubbing efficiency and most of the cesium would likely be removed in the pool due to its large scrubbing efficiency. But as a result of analyzing the MP data at early stage of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) accident, it was confirmed that the releases of both elements were in proportion to their inventories in the reactors and their scrubbing efficiencies were almost the same. The scrubbing efficiency which increased with the pool water temperature became almost the same for iodine and cesium around the pool water boiling temperature. As a result of the mass balance analysis for FPs in the contaminated water accumulated in the Fukushima Daiichi plant site, it

  18. All-source Information Management and Integration for Improved Collective Intelligence Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    Intelligence (ELINT) • Open Source Intelligence ( OSINT ) • Technical Intelligence (TECHINT) These intelligence disciplines produce... intelligence , measurement and signature intelligence , signals intelligence , and open - source data, in the production of intelligence . All- source intelligence ...All- Source Information Integration and Management) R&D Project 3 All- Source Intelligence

  19. TV MEDIA ANALYSIS FOR BANKING CATEGORY (2012)

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra Elena POȘTOACĂ; Dorian – Laurențiu FLOREA

    2014-01-01

    This article represents a short overview of the media landscape for the banking category in Romania in 2012. Unlike the other categories (for example FMCG – fast moving consumer goods), the banking category is more complex because every bank can communicate for a wider range of products (credits, deposits, packages dedicated to students, pensioners and other types of banking products). In the first part of this paper, there will be presented some theoretical notions about media planning a...

  20. The product category and the message informed in food children’s advertising / La categoría de producto y el mensaje transmitido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lic. Cristina González Díaz [C. V.Lic. Cristina González Díaz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article explains the worry about children obesity and the accusation that many sectors exert on advertising. Furthermore, it tries to develop a theoric framework in order to set out the researches, which have been done, about food children’s advertising and its connection with obesity. In adittion to this, the article talks about other researches which prove the restricted influence advertising exerts on children as regards food consumption and the factors which are necessary to affirm that there are direct causes to provoke obesity. The purpose of this essay is to analyze what type of product category exerts more advertising pressure and what kind of messages are used. This analysis will expound if children’s advertising is really surrounded by non healthy products or, however, by advisable ones in a child’s diet. Finally, it will also expound which communicative subjects are found in this kind of products.Resumen: El presente artículo, contextualizado bajo la preocupación de la obesidad infantil y la acusación que desde numerosos sectores se ejerce sobre la publicidad, ha pretendido desarrollar un marco teórico donde se expusieran las investigaciones que sobre el binomio publicidad infantil de alimentos – obesidad se han realizado; así como aquellas donde se dejaba evidencia de la limitada influencia que la misma podía realizar sobre el menor en lo concerniente a consumo de alimentos, y los numerosos factores necesarios para poder hablar de causantes directos de la problemática de la obesidad. El objetivo sobre el que subyace el trabajo trata de analizar los tipos de productos que más presión publicitaria ejercen así como los mensajes sobre los que versa su estrategia comunicativa para así poder observar si realmente la publicidad infantil está copada por productos poco saludables o recomendables en la dieta del menor y observar qué tipo de temática comunicativa impregna este tipo de productos.

  1. Blocking in Category Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Bott, Lewis; Hoffman, Aaron B.; Murphy, Gregory L.

    2007-01-01

    Many theories of category learning assume that learning is driven by a need to minimize classification error. When there is no classification error, therefore, learning of individual features should be negligible. We tested this hypothesis by conducting three category learning experiments adapted from an associative learning blocking paradigm. Contrary to an error-driven account of learning, participants learned a wide range of information when they learned about categories, and blocking effe...

  2. 1999 who's who category index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    A classified index and alphabetical directory of Canadian corporate entities involved in the production, manufacturing, conversion, service, retail sales, research and development, transportation, insurance, legal and communications aspects of propane in Canada is provided. The alphabetical directory section provides the usual business information (name, postal address, phone, fax, e-mail and Internet addresses), names of principal officers, affiliations, products or services produced or marketed, and the category under which the company is listed in the classified index

  3. Tracing waste to the source along the product life cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maina, S.M.

    2008-01-01

    It is currently evident that the environment is ailing. We are exposed to many human activities that are devastating to the environment and societies. Since the time the report, Our Common Future, from the UN World Commission on environment and Development (WCED) identified the problem in 1987, its effects are currently a reality. The report sought to recapture the spirit of the United Nations Conference on the Human environment. It placed environmental issues firmly on the political agenda. It also aimed to discuss the environment and development as a single issue. In it is advanced the view that, many countries with poor environmental governance systems are likely to have have conflicts and poor laws protecting the environment. This paper looks at this problem from an ethical perspective. Effects of lack of eco-ethics are numerous. Burning refuse affecting air quality, lack of space for dumping solid waste, the increasing cost of waste disposal and hazards to ground water. In Kenya, the situation of solid waste is a source of concern. In this paper a view is advanced that the problem starts with the product designer. In Kenya designers use flawed design process ignoring the ethical responsibility towards environment, leading to waste accumulation around Nairobi. The uncollected or illegally dumped wastes constitute a disaster for human health and causes environmental degradation (author)

  4. Ozone production at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weilandics, C.; Rohrig, N.; Gmur, N.F.

    1987-01-01

    Ozone production by synchrotron radiation as a function of power density in air was investigated using a white beam at the BNL National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) x-ray ring. Power densities were calculated from the energy spectrum at 2.52 GeV. Ozone concentrations in small beam pipes were measured for power densities between I = 10 12 and 10 15 eV . cm -3 . sec -1 . The measured ozone half-life was 37 +- 2 min. The measured G-value was 2.69 +- 0.14 mol/100 eV and the ozone destruction factor k was less than 7 x 10 -19 cm 3 . eV -1 . The random uncertainties stated are approximately one standard error. The large departure of the values for G and k from previous values suggest that some undiscovered systematic error may exist in the experiment. Ozone concentration in excess of the 0.1 ppM ACGIH TLV can be generated in the experimental hutches but can readily be controlled. Industrial hygiene aspects of operation and possible control measures will be discussed. 19 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  5. Pediocins: The bacteriocins of Pediococci. Sources, production, properties and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasiadou Sofia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Class IIa bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria are small, cationic proteins with antilisterial activity. Within this class, the pediocins are those bacteriocins that share a highly conserved hydrophilic and charged N-terminal part harboring the consensus sequence -YGNGV- and a more variable hydrophobic and/or amphiphilic C-terminal part. Several pediocins have been isolated and characterized. Despite the structural similarities, their molecular weight varies, as well as their spectrum of antimicrobial activity. They exhibit important technological properties, e.g. thermostability and retaining of activity at a wide pH range, which along with the bactericidal action against Gram-positive food spoilage and pathogenic bacteria, make them an important class of biopreservatives. Much new information regarding the pediocins has emerged during the last years. In this review, we summarize and discuss all the available information regarding the sources of pediocins, the characteristics of their biosynthesis and production in fermentation systems, the characteristics of the known pediocin molecules, and their antibacterial action. The advances made by genetic engineering in improving the features of pediocins are also discussed, as well as their perspectives for future applications.

  6. Category I structures program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endebrock, E.G.; Dove, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    The objective of the Category I Structure Program is to supply experimental and analytical information needed to assess the structural capacity of Category I structures (excluding the reactor cntainment building). Because the shear wall is a principal element of a Category I structure, and because relatively little experimental information is available on the shear walls, it was selected as the test element for the experimental program. The large load capacities of shear walls in Category I structures dictates that the experimental tests be conducted on small size shear wall structures that incorporates the general construction details and characteristics of as-built shear walls

  7. An Analysis of Open Source Security Software Products Downloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Brian J.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the continued demand for open source security software, a gap in the identification of success factors related to the success of open source security software persists. There are no studies that accurately assess the extent of this persistent gap, particularly with respect to the strength of the relationships of open source software…

  8. Categories and logical syntax

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klev, Ansten Morch

    2014-01-01

    The notions of category and type are here studied through the lens of logical syntax: Aristotle's as well as Kant's categories through the traditional form of proposition `S is P', and modern doctrines of type through the Fregean form of proposition `F(a)', function applied to argument. Topics

  9. Computing color categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yendrikhovskij, S.N.; Rogowitz, B.E.; Pappas, T.N.

    2000-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to develop a coherent framework for understanding, modeling, and computing color categories. The main assumption is that the structure of color category systems originates from the statistical structure of the perceived color environment. This environment can be modeled as

  10. Chicken fat and inorganic nitrogen source for lipase production by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-03-19

    Mar 19, 2014 ... for lipase production, the production cost was $US 518.00/million Units of lipase. Key words: ... energetics, fine chemicals and pulp and paper industries. ... for enzyme production is extremely important in dictating ... fat is waste product of poultry processing industry ... Economic Research Service,” 2013).

  11. ERC sources for the production of highly charged ions (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyneis, C.M.; Antaya, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRIS) using rf between 5 and 16 GHz have been developed into stable, reliable sources of highly charged ions produced from a wide range of elements. These devices are currently used as ion sources for cyclotrons, synchrotrons, and heavy-ion linacs for nuclear and relativistic heavy-ion physics. They also serve the atomic physics community as a source of low energy multiply charged ions. In order to improve their performance both with respect to maximum charge state and beam intensity, ECRIS builders are now designing and constructing sources which will operate at frequencies up to 30 GHz. In this article we review the present status of operating ECRIS, review recent experimental measurements on plasma parameters, and look at the technology and potential of sources operating at frequencies up to 30 GHz

  12. Order of 28 April 1989 fixing the categories of products not subject to the new article R5235 of the Public Health Code in implementation of paragraph eight b and c of that article

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-05-01

    This Order establishes the categories of products containing radioelements with a low specific activity or having a limited radiotoxicity which are exempted from the licensing regime for artificial radioelements for non-medical or other uses or which do not concern human biology [fr

  13. Neutron production and thermal moderation at the PSI UCN source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, H. [Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Institute for Particle Physics, Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule, Zürich (Switzerland); Bison, G.; Blau, B.; Chowdhuri, Z.; Eikenberg, J.; Fertl, M. [Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Kirch, K. [Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Institute for Particle Physics, Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule, Zürich (Switzerland); Lauss, B., E-mail: bernhard.lauss@psi.ch [Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Perret, G.; Reggiani, D.; Ries, D.; Schmidt-Wellenburg, P. [Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Talanov, V., E-mail: vadim.talanov@psi.ch [Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Wohlmuther, M.; Zsigmond, G. [Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2015-03-21

    We report on gold foil activation measurements performed along a vertical channel along the tank of the ultracold neutron source at the Paul Scherrer Institute. The activities obtained at various distances from the spallation target are in very good agreement with MCNPX simulations which take into account the detailed description of the source as built.

  14. Fission product gamma-ray sources as an alternative to cobalt-60 sources for sewage sludge sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrnberger, V.R.D.

    1975-01-01

    The sterilization of sewage sludge is now performed successfully using 60 Co gamma-ray sources. The question arises whether more economic gamma-ray sources exist that could replace the 60 Co source. The following types of sources are considered: Spent fuel elements; mixtures of solidified fission products; and isolated solidified fission products such as 134 / 137 Cs. For a particular irradiation plant the specific source costs (S.Fr./Ci) and their contribution to the irradiation costs for 1 m 3 of sewage irradiated to a dose of 250 krad(S.Fr./m 3 ) are determined and compared with the costs of a plant using a 60 Co source. The encapsulation costs and the effect of the gamma absorption of the source are taken into account. Different encapsulation and source management techniques are reviewed to find the most economic for each source type. A spent fuel element irradiation facility is recommended for use either in combination with a sewage water purification plant or as part of a power reactor station where it replaces the storage water pool for the spent fuel elements. Additional source capsules are not envisaged, as long as double-walled source containers are used. The fission product mixtures are enclosed in double-walled capsules of two different forms: Small cylindrical rods and hollow cylinders. For caesium and cobalt cylindrical rods only are used. The main conclusions of the study are that the highest irradiation costs arise from the use of a fission product mixture source. The costs are, however, only 15% above those of a 60 Co plant. To be competitive the flow-rate has to be adapted to the decreasing activity of the source, resulting in a reduction to 20% within ten years of source utilization. The integrated irradiation plant with a spent fuel element source offers irradiation costs comparable with those of a 60 Co plant, if the flow-rate is constant during one year of source utilization. The irradiation costs are reduced to 25% of those of a 60 Co plant

  15. Triangulated categories (AM-148)

    CERN Document Server

    Neeman, Amnon

    2014-01-01

    The first two chapters of this book offer a modern, self-contained exposition of the elementary theory of triangulated categories and their quotients. The simple, elegant presentation of these known results makes these chapters eminently suitable as a text for graduate students. The remainder of the book is devoted to new research, providing, among other material, some remarkable improvements on Brown''s classical representability theorem. In addition, the author introduces a class of triangulated categories""--the ""well generated triangulated categories""--and studies their properties. This

  16. Proteome Profiles of Digested Products of Commercial Meat Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Liu, Yuan; Zhou, Guanghong; Xu, Xinglian; Li, Chunbao

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to characterize in vitro-digested products of proteins from four commercial meat products, including dry-cured ham, cooked ham, emulsion-type sausage, and dry-cured sausage. The samples were homogenized and incubated with pepsin and trypsin. The digestibility and particle sizes of digested products were measured. Nano-LC–MS/MS was applied to characterize peptides. The results showed the highest digestibility and the lowest particle size in dry-cured ham (P meat products. Our findings give an insight into nutritional values of different meat products. PMID:28396857

  17. Development and production of cobalt-60 sources for metallurgical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Paulo Fernando; Valente, Eduardo Sarmento; Maretti Junior, Fausto

    2002-01-01

    The CDTN has developed and produced 60 Co sources to be used in level controllers on continuous ingot casting. The sources used in these systems are sealed with a stainless steel revetment and have an useful life equivalent to one half life of the 60 Co (5.272 years). Each system of continuous ingot casting uses a source with one specified activity and different activation section. The sources have been imported with a very high cost due the special shields used to keep and transport them safety. One of its sources, with initial activity of 148 MBq, after being used for more than 5 years in one factory, was given to CDTN to carry out an activation section studies. After these studies be concluded CDTN/CNEN began the procedures to produce a new source in the IPR-R1 TRIGA Reactor, with an irradiation of one cobalt wire in the maximum flux region of the core. The same metallic cobalt wire was irradiated (10% of total activity), to determinate the necessary irradiation time to obtain the final activation. The CDTN developed too a stainless steel recipient with a aluminum nucleus, to seal and to guarantee the integrity of the source. (author)

  18. Analysis of rare categories

    CERN Document Server

    He, Jingrui

    2012-01-01

    This book focuses on rare category analysis where the majority classes have smooth distributions and the minority classes exhibit the compactness property. It focuses on challenging cases where the support regions of the majority and minority classes overlap.

  19. Production of iridium-192 radiation sources: Indian Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sastry, K.V.S.; Kolhe, O.T.; Nagarja, P.S.; Paramr, Y.D.

    2002-01-01

    Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology (BRIT), a unit under the Department of Atomic Energy is fabricating and supplying Ir-192 industrial radiography sources for various models of radiography cameras for use in the industry for non-destructive testing. Basically these sources are fabricated by encapsulating the required quantity of the activity in stainless steel 316 L capsules using Tungsten Inert gas welding process and crimping/attaching to the respective pigtail assemblies of the radiography cameras. The inactive iridium pellets are irradiated in the DHRUVA reactor at a flux on 1.8 X 10 14 n/cm 2 /sec. The performance classification of these source encapsulation for various conditions of normal and accidental nature are tested by subjecting the prototype sources as per the standard laid down by the regulatory authority, Atomic Energy Regulatory Board, in India. The sources are fabricated as per the national and international standards. Activity of the sources varies from 37O GBq (10 Ci ) to 2.96 TBq (80 Ci ) source strength depending on the requirement of the user. The specific activity of the Ir-192 sources supplied is around 7.4 TBq/gm (200 Ci/gm ). Quality control /Assurance for the manufacture of the source begins from the procurement of the raw material and ends with the finished source. Ir- 192 in the form of -0.3 mm diameter (0.1 mm dia wire of Ir-25 % and Pt-75% sheathed in pure platinum of 0.1 mm thick) is being supplied for use in the treatment of cancer of cervix, tongue etc. by brachytherapy. This is supplied in lengths of 50 cm / 100 cm with 37 - 185 GBq/cm ( 1-5 mCi/cm) activity. Annually 925 TBq (25 kCi) of Ir-192 for industrial radiography and about 60 meters of wire for brachytherapy are being fabricated and supplied. Because of the quality of these sources BRIT not only caters to the Indian industry but also is able to export sources to the third world countries. (Author)

  20. Production of H- ions by an RF driven multicusp source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, K.N.; Bachman, D.A.; McDonald, D.S.

    1992-01-01

    An RF driven H - source has been developed at LBL for use in the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC). To date, an H - current of ∼40 mA can be obtained from a 5.6-cm-diameter aperture with the source operated at a pressure of about 12 mTorr and 50 kW of RF power. Attempts have been made to enhance the H - beam current by introducing a small quantity of cesium vapor into the source chamber. It is found that the H - output current can be increased by a factor larger than three if some cesium is applied in the collar around the exit aperture

  1. Development of quality assurance procedures for production of sealed radiation source

    CERN Document Server

    Nam, J H; Cho, W K; Han, H S; Hong, S B; Kim, K H; Kim, S D; Lee, Y G; Lim, N J

    2001-01-01

    The quality assurance procedures for sealed radiation sources production using HANARO and RIPF have been developed. The detailed quality assurance procedures are essential to manage the whole work process effectively and ensure the quality of the produced sealed sources. Through applying this quality assurance procedures to the entire production works of the sealed radiation sources, it is expected that the quality of the products, the safety of the works and the satisfaction of the customers will be increased.

  2. Chicken fat and inorganic nitrogen source for lipase production by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MA41) from Atlantic Forest, using chicken fat and association of organic and inorganic nitrogen sources in submerged fermentation to seek economically attractive bioprocess. A 2-level, 4-factor Central Composite Design (CCD) and response ...

  3. The influence of different nitrogen and carbon sources on mycotoxin production in Alternaria alternata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzonkalik, Katrin; Herrling, Tanja; Syldatk, Christoph; Neumann, Anke

    2011-05-27

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of different carbon and nitrogen sources on the production of the mycotoxins alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethyl ether (AME) and tenuazonic acid (TA) by Alternaria alternata at 28°C using a semi-synthetic medium (modified Czapek-Dox broth) supplemented with nitrogen and carbon sources. Additionally the effect of shaken and static cultivation on mycotoxin production was tested. Initial experiments showed a clear dependency between nitrogen depletion and mycotoxin production. To assess whether nitrogen limitation in general or the type of nitrogen source triggers the production, various nitrogen sources including several ammonium/nitrate salts and amino acids were tested. In static culture the production of AOH/AME can be enhanced greatly with phenylalanine whereas some nitrogen sources seem to inhibit the AOH/AME production completely. TA was not significantly affected by the choice of nitrogen source. In shaken culture the overall production of all mycotoxins was lower compared to static cultivation. Furthermore tests with a wide variety of carbon sources including monosaccharides, disaccharides, complex saccharides such as starch as well as glycerol and acetate were performed. In shaken culture AOH was produced when glucose, fructose, sucrose, acetate or mixtures of glucose/sucrose and glucose/acetate were used as carbon sources. AME production was not detected. The use of sodium acetate resulted in the highest AOH production. In static culture AOH production was also stimulated by acetate and the amount is comparable to shaken conditions. Under static conditions production of AOH was lower except when cultivated with acetate. In static cultivation 9 of 14 tested carbon sources induced mycotoxin production compared to 4 in shaken culture. This is the first study which analyses the influence of carbon and nitrogen sources in a semi-synthetic medium and assesses the effects of culture conditions on

  4. Marine organisms: an alternative source of potentially valuable natural products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alphonse Kelecom

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper recalls the outcoming of marine natural products research and reviews a selection of marirne bioactive metabolites in current use together with promising trends in marine pharmacology.

  5. Characterization of cellulase production by carbon sources in two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user7

    2013-11-27

    Nov 27, 2013 ... 7State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin ... China. Accepted 28 March, 2012. The induction of cellulase production in two .... prevent the contamination with bacteria, 0.02% sodium azide was.

  6. Influence of nitrogen sources on production of β- galactosidase by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-05-17

    May 17, 2010 ... that enzyme production enhanced 2.7 fold by use of suitable ... tages of applying microbial enzymes for industries are ... downstream processing are essential to reduce the cost ... of economic importance in the country.

  7. Sources of Research Ideas Among Productive Scholars. Implications for Administrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glueck, William F.; Jauch, Lawrence R.

    1975-01-01

    Administrators wishing to stimulate research productivity should try to lure the most creative researchers but should also put emphasis on libraries and information retrieval services, and funds to attend professional meetings. (Editor)

  8. Production of effective microorganism using halal based sources: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malaysia is recognized as a modern Islamic country; citizens have concerns regarding halal issues associated with EM ingredients, which are not clearly mentioned by the manufacturer. Hence, a halal-based source is suggested in the utilization of EM technology. This study presents the development and applications of ...

  9. Production of effective microorganism using halal- based sources: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2011-12-16

    Dec 16, 2011 ... Key words: Component, effective microorganisms (EM), agriculture, halal-based source. INTRODUCTION. In recent years, with focus on feeding a rapidly growing human population, Malaysia has jeopardized the environ- ment and its natural resources, which are already under great stress. Consequently ...

  10. Models as Relational Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkonen, Tommi

    2017-11-01

    Model-based learning (MBL) has an established position within science education. It has been found to enhance conceptual understanding and provide a way for engaging students in authentic scientific activity. Despite ample research, few studies have examined the cognitive processes regarding learning scientific concepts within MBL. On the other hand, recent research within cognitive science has examined the learning of so-called relational categories. Relational categories are categories whose membership is determined on the basis of the common relational structure. In this theoretical paper, I argue that viewing models as relational categories provides a well-motivated cognitive basis for MBL. I discuss the different roles of models and modeling within MBL (using ready-made models, constructive modeling, and generative modeling) and discern the related cognitive aspects brought forward by the reinterpretation of models as relational categories. I will argue that relational knowledge is vital in learning novel models and in the transfer of learning. Moreover, relational knowledge underlies the coherent, hierarchical knowledge of experts. Lastly, I will examine how the format of external representations may affect the learning of models and the relevant relations. The nature of the learning mechanisms underlying students' mental representations of models is an interesting open question to be examined. Furthermore, the ways in which the expert-like knowledge develops and how to best support it is in need of more research. The discussion and conceptualization of models as relational categories allows discerning students' mental representations of models in terms of evolving relational structures in greater detail than previously done.

  11. Characterization of Greater-Than-Class C sealed sources. Volume 2, Sealed source characterization and future production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, G.; Griffel, A.

    1994-09-01

    Sealed sources are small, relatively high-activity radioactive sources typically encapsulated in a metallic container. The activities can range from less than 1 mCi to over 1,000 Ci. They are used in a variety of industries and are commonly available. Many of the sources will be classified as Greater-Than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW) for the purpose of waste disposal. The US Department of Energy is responsible for disposing of this class of low-level radioactive waste. The characterization of a sealed source is essentially a function of the type of radiation it emits, the principal use for which it is applied, and the activity it contains. The types of radiation of most interest to the GTCC LLW Program are gamma rays and neutrons, since these are emitted by the highest activity sources. The principal uses of most importance are gamma irradiators, medical teletherapy, well logging probes, and other general neutron applications. Current annual production rates of potential Greater-Than-Class C (PGTCC) sources sold to specific licensees were estimated based on data collected from device manufacturers. These estimates were then adjusted for current trends in the industry to estimate future annual production rates. It is expected that there will be approximately 8,000 PGTCC sealed sources produced annually for specific licensees

  12. Categories of transactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter discusses the types of wholesale sales made by utilities. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), which regulates inter-utility sales, divides these sales into two broad categories: requirements and coordination. A variety of wholesale sales do not fall neatly into either category. For example, power purchased to replace the Three Mile Island outage is in a sense a reliability purchase, since it is bought on a long-term firm basis to meet basic load requirements. However, it does not fit the traditional model of a sale considered as part of each utility's long range planning. In addition, this chapter discusses transmission services, with a particular emphasis on wheeling

  13. Growth and xanthan production of Xanthomonas campestris depending on the N-source concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prell, A [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague (Czech Republic). Inst. of Microbiology; Lasik, J [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague (Czech Republic). Inst. of Microbiology; Konicek, J [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague (Czech Republic). Inst. of Microbiology; Sobotka, M [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague (Czech Republic). Inst. of Microbiology; Sys, J [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague (Czech Republic). Inst. of Microbiology

    1995-11-01

    Growth of X. campestris and production of xanthan were studied in several batch fermentations with different starting concentrations of N-source. The dependencies of growth, productivity and yields on initial N-source concentration were observed. The maximum yields in the course of cultivations were identified. (orig.)

  14. Brosimum Alicastrum as a Novel Starch Source for Bioethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Olguin-Maciel

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Ramon (Brosimum alicastrum is a forest tree native to the Mesoamerican region and the Caribbean. The flour obtained from Ramon seeds is 75% carbohydrate, of which 63% is starch, indicating its potential as a novel raw material for bioethanol production. The objective of this study was to produce ethanol from Ramon flour using a 90 °C thermic treatment for 30 min and a native yeast strain (Candida tropicalis for the fermentation process. In addition, the structure of the flour and the effects of pretreatment were observed via scanning electron microscopy. The native yeast strain was superior to the commercial strain, fermenting 98.8% of the reducing sugar (RS at 48 h and generating 31% more ethanol than commercial yeast. One ton of flour yielded 213 L of ethanol. These results suggest that Ramon flour is an excellent candidate for ethanol production. This is the first report on bioethanol production using the starch from Ramon seed flour and a native yeast strain isolated from this feedstock. This alternative material for bioethanol production minimizes the competition between food and energy production, a priority for Mexico that has led to significant changes in public policies to enhance the development of renewable energies.

  15. Radiation protection in category III large gamma irradiators; Radioprotecao em irradiadores de grande porte de categoria III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Neivaldo; Furlan, Gilberto Ribeiro, E-mail: neivaldo@cena.usp.b, E-mail: gilfurlan@cena.usp.b [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Itepan, Natanael Marcio, E-mail: natanael.itepan@unianhanguera.edu.b [Universidade Anhanguera, Goiania, GO (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    This article discusses the advantages of category III large gamma irradiator compared to the others, with emphasis on aspects of radiological protection, in the industrial sector. This category is a kind of irradiators almost unknown to the regulators authorities and the industrial community, despite its simple construction and greater radiation safety intrinsic to the model, able to maintain an efficiency of productivity comparable to those of category IV. Worldwide, there are installed more than 200 category IV irradiators and there is none of a category III irradiator in operation. In a category III gamma irradiator, the source remains fixed in the bottom of the tank, always shielded by water, negating the exposition risk. Taking into account the benefits in relation to radiation safety, the category III large irradiators are highly recommended for industrial, commercial purposes or scientific research. (author)

  16. Thin, Conductive, Pyrrolyc film production for radioactive sources backings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, L.; Arcos, J.M. los

    1993-01-01

    A procedure for electro polymerization of pyrrole has been set up in order to produce thin, (> 15 μg/cm2) homogeneous (thickness variation < 2%) films, with no need for additional metallization to be used as backings of radioactive sources, having 10-0,4 Kfl/sample, for 35-70 μg/cm . The experimental equipment, reagent and procedure utilized is described as well as the characterization of Pyrrolyc films produced. (Author) 28 refs

  17. Effect of nitrogen source on curdlan production by Alcaligenes faecalis ATCC 31749.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Longfa

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of nitrogen source on curdlan production by Alcaligenes faecalis ATCC 31749. Curdlan production fell when excess nitrogen source was present, while biomass accumulation increased as the level of nitrogen source raised. Curdlan production and biomass accumulation were greater with urea compared with those with other nitrogen sources. The highest production of curdlan and biomass accumulation by A. faecalis ATCC 31749 was 28.16 g L(-1) and 9.58 g L(-1), respectively, with urea, whereas those with NH(4)Cl were 15.17 g L(-1) and 6.25 g L(-1), respectively. The optimum fermentation time for curdlan production was also affected by the nitrogen source in the medium. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Radioactive sources production in the Boris Kidric Institute of nuclear sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radosavljevic, B.; Nemoda, Dj.; Memedovic, T.; Bircanin, LJ.

    1978-01-01

    Since 1960, in the Laboratory for radioisotopes production of the Institute isotopes were produced for industrial, medical and research purposes. From the beginning, this activity was developed in two directions: 1. sealed sources, for industrial radiography, teletherapy Cobalt, later for lightning arresters, level meters, densitometers etc., 2. radioactive sources that need chemical treatment for different applications in industry and research. This paper lists the types of radioactive sources and methods for production [sr

  19. The effect of different nutrient sources on biomass production of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of various organic, inorganic and complex compounds on the biomass production (mycelial dry weight) of Lepiota procera, a Nigerian edible higher fungus was investigated. Among the seventeen carbon compounds tested, mannose enhanced the best biomass yield. This was followed in order by glucose, ...

  20. Towards sustainable fish feed production using novel protein sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Draganovic, V.

    2013-01-01

    The consumption of fish and fish-related products is increasing. Due to improved welfare and suggested health benefits, consumers are now eating more fish. In 2008, global fisheries supplied the world with about 142 million tons of fish, of which 115 million tons was used as human food, which is

  1. Open Source Development of Tangible Products - from a business perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjeldsted, Asta S.; Adalsteinsdottir, Gudrun; Howard, Thomas J.

    definition for OSD is proposed and used to describe the key elements of a suggested OSD Process model. Several case studies are analysed to create an Archetypal Business Model characterising OSD of tangible products and the possibilities and delimitations within. Furthermore, strategic tools are suggested...... utilise this new approach to improve their business models and capture value in innovative ways....

  2. Characterization of cellulase production by carbon sources in two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user7

    2013-11-27

    Nov 27, 2013 ... 7State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, ... acted on these inducers, analysis of reaction products by high performance liquid chromatography. (HPLC) revealed that cell wall/envelope enzyme and endoenzyme from two ... specific activity are major factors in preventing application.

  3. Categories of space in music and lifestyles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenković Pavle

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the connection between categories of space in music, music production and lifestyles. The relations between the symbolic space of social connections and musical contents in the social space of various status interactions is complex and contradictory. Category of space in the music exists in four forms. Categories of space in the description of the experience of the musical works, as well as in the way of music production (spacing are the integral part of the special way of consumption of these works (home Hi-Fi, and represent the social status, ways of cultural consumption and habitus in general.

  4. 40 CFR 432.105 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Renderers § 432.105 New source... renderer that does not cure cattle hide as part of the plant operations. If a renderer does cure hide, the...

  5. 40 CFR 405.86 - Pretreatment standards for new sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS DAIRY PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ice Cream, Frozen Desserts, Novelties and Other Dairy Desserts Subcategory § 405.86 Pretreatment standards for new sources. Any new...

  6. Energy harvesting: small scale energy production from ambient sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeatman, Eric M.

    2009-03-01

    Energy harvesting - the collection of otherwise unexploited energy in the local environment - is attracting increasing attention for the powering of electronic devices. While the power levels that can be reached are typically modest (microwatts to milliwatts), the key motivation is to avoid the need for battery replacement or recharging in portable or inaccessible devices. Wireless sensor networks are a particularly important application: the availability of essentially maintenance free sensor nodes, as enabled by energy harvesting, will greatly increase the feasibility of large scale networks, in the paradigm often known as pervasive sensing. Such pervasive sensing networks, used to monitor buildings, structures, outdoor environments or the human body, offer significant benefits for large scale energy efficiency, health and safety, and many other areas. Sources of energy for harvesting include light, temperature differences, and ambient motion, and a wide range of miniature energy harvesters based on these sources have been proposed or demonstrated. This paper reviews the principles and practice in miniature energy harvesters, and discusses trends, suitable applications, and possible future developments.

  7. Marketing Impact of Halal Labeling toward Indonesian Muslim Consumer’s Behavioral Intention Based on Ajzen’s Planned Behavior Theory: Policy Capturing Studies on Five Different Product Categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Salehudin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to test the applicability of the theory of planned behavior (TPB in explaining the intention to switch from products without certified Halal labels within a wide array of purchase context, especially in the purchase of food and medicine products. A policy capturing questionnaire was used to elicit responses from consumers using a convenience sampling technique. A total of 7500 responses were obtained from 150 participating respondent in 50 different scenario cases. Data is analyzed using Multi-Group Structural Equation Modeling. The study finds that the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB is not completely valid to explain both the behavioral intention of Muslim consumers in Indonesia to seek information about the Halal certification of a product and to cancel their purchase if the product did not have Halal certification. Differences in magnitude and significance of causal relationships exist between different product categories.

  8. Exopolysaccharides enriched in rare sugars: bacterial sources, production, and applications

    OpenAIRE

    Roca, Christophe; Alves, Vitor D.; Freitas, Filomena; Reis, Maria A. M.

    2015-01-01

    The authors acknowledge Fundacao para a Ciencia e Tecnologia (FC&T), Portugal, through projects PEst-C/EQB/LA0006/2013 and PTDC/AGR-ALI/114706/2009 - "New edible bioactive coatings for the improvement of food products quality." FF acknowledges FCT&T for Post-Doctoral fellowship SFRH/BPD/72280/2010. Microbial extracellular polysaccharides (EPS), produced by a wide range of bacteria, are high molecular weight biopolymers, presenting an extreme diversity in terms of chemical structure and com...

  9. Basic category theory

    CERN Document Server

    Leinster, Tom

    2014-01-01

    At the heart of this short introduction to category theory is the idea of a universal property, important throughout mathematics. After an introductory chapter giving the basic definitions, separate chapters explain three ways of expressing universal properties: via adjoint functors, representable functors, and limits. A final chapter ties all three together. The book is suitable for use in courses or for independent study. Assuming relatively little mathematical background, it is ideal for beginning graduate students or advanced undergraduates learning category theory for the first time. For each new categorical concept, a generous supply of examples is provided, taken from different parts of mathematics. At points where the leap in abstraction is particularly great (such as the Yoneda lemma), the reader will find careful and extensive explanations. Copious exercises are included.

  10. Laccase: microbial sources, production, purification, and potential biotechnological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shraddha; Shekher, Ravi; Sehgal, Simran; Kamthania, Mohit; Kumar, Ajay

    2011-01-01

    Laccase belongs to the blue multicopper oxidases and participates in cross-linking of monomers, degradation of polymers, and ring cleavage of aromatic compounds. It is widely distributed in higher plants and fungi. It is present in Ascomycetes, Deuteromycetes and Basidiomycetes and abundant in lignin-degrading white-rot fungi. It is also used in the synthesis of organic substance, where typical substrates are amines and phenols, the reaction products are dimers and oligomers derived from the coupling of reactive radical intermediates. In the recent years, these enzymes have gained application in the field of textile, pulp and paper, and food industry. Recently, it is also used in the design of biosensors, biofuel cells, as a medical diagnostics tool and bioremediation agent to clean up herbicides, pesticides and certain explosives in soil. Laccases have received attention of researchers in the last few decades due to their ability to oxidize both phenolic and nonphenolic lignin-related compounds as well as highly recalcitrant environmental pollutants. It has been identified as the principal enzyme associated with cuticular hardening in insects. Two main forms have been found: laccase-1 and laccase-2. This paper reviews the occurrence, mode of action, general properties, production, applications, and immobilization of laccases within different industrial fields.

  11. Microalga Scenedesmus obliquus as a potential source for biodiesel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandal, Shovon; Mallick, Nirupama [Indian Inst. of Technology, Kharagpur, West Bengal (India). Agricultural and Food Engineering Dept.

    2009-08-15

    Biodiesel from microalgae seems to be the only renewable biofuel that has the potential to completely replace the petroleum-derived transport fuels. Therefore, improving lipid content of microalgal strains could be a cost-effective second generation feedstock for biodiesel production. Lipid accumulation in Scenedesmus obliquus was studied under various culture conditions. The most significant increase in lipid reached 43% of dry cell weight (dcw), which was recorded under N-deficiency (against 12.7% under control condition). Under P-deficiency and thiosulphate supplementation the lipid content also increased up to 30% (dcw). Application of response surface methodology in combination with central composite rotary design (CCRD) resulted in a lipid yield of 61.3% (against 58.3% obtained experimentally) at 0.04, 0.03, and 1.0 g l{sup -1} of nitrate, phosphate, and sodium thiosulphate, respectively for time culture of 8 days. Scenedesmus cells pre-grown in glucose (1.5%)-supplemented N 11 medium when subjected to the above optimized condition, the lipid accumulation was boosted up to 2.16 g l{sup -1}, the value {proportional_to}40-fold higher with respect to the control condition. The presence of palmitate and oleate as the major constituents makes S. obliquus biomass a suitable feedstock for biodiesel production. (orig.)

  12. Energy sources consumption: end uses, efficiency and productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    This document analyzes the impact of the choices made by all actors, from the energy producers to the process and infrastructure designers and the end users, in the evolution of energy consumptions. Some very little improvements made in the energy efficiency of appliances can become equivalent to the production of several oil fields or power plants at the world scale. More efficient energy uses will not replace the additional productions but they must be considered together to be compared. The energy files are first analyzed as a whole in order to show the hidden field of energy choices. In this framework, users, designers and fitters have to face very different choices because they consider efficiency improvements under different aspects: scientifical, technical, economical and social (public information and habits). These differences in efficiency uses have a time and spatial impact on the growth of energy consumption. The economical and social factors influence the collective way to consume energy and are expressed by the energy intensity of the economic activity. The last part of this document analyzes the influence of this notion on the world energy consumption scenarios at the 2050 prospects. (J.S.)

  13. Laccase: Microbial Sources, Production, Purification, and Potential Biotechnological Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shraddha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Laccase belongs to the blue multicopper oxidases and participates in cross-linking of monomers, degradation of polymers, and ring cleavage of aromatic compounds. It is widely distributed in higher plants and fungi. It is present in Ascomycetes, Deuteromycetes and Basidiomycetes and abundant in lignin-degrading white-rot fungi. It is also used in the synthesis of organic substance, where typical substrates are amines and phenols, the reaction products are dimers and oligomers derived from the coupling of reactive radical intermediates. In the recent years, these enzymes have gained application in the field of textile, pulp and paper, and food industry. Recently, it is also used in the design of biosensors, biofuel cells, as a medical diagnostics tool and bioremediation agent to clean up herbicides, pesticides and certain explosives in soil. Laccases have received attention of researchers in the last few decades due to their ability to oxidize both phenolic and nonphenolic lignin-related compounds as well as highly recalcitrant environmental pollutants. It has been identified as the principal enzyme associated with cuticular hardening in insects. Two main forms have been found: laccase-1 and laccase-2. This paper reviews the occurrence, mode of action, general properties, production, applications, and immobilization of laccases within different industrial fields.

  14. CHURCH, Category, and Speciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinderknecht Jakob Karl

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Roman Catholic definition of “church”, especially as applied to groups of Protestant Christians, creates a number of well-known difficulties. The similarly complex category, “species,” provides a model for applying this term so as to neither lose the centrality of certain examples nor draw a hard boundary to rule out border cases. In this way, it can help us to more adequately apply the complex ecclesiology of the Second Vatican Council. This article draws parallels between the understanding of speciation and categorization and the definition of Church since the council. In doing so, it applies the work of cognitive linguists, including George Lakoff, Zoltan Kovecses, Giles Fauconnier and Mark Turner on categorization. We tend to think of categories as containers into which we sort objects according to essential criteria. However, categories are actually built inductively by making associations between objects. This means that natural categories, including species, are more porous than we assume, but nevertheless bear real meaning about the natural world. Taxonomists dispute the border between “zebras” and “wild asses,” but this distinction arises out of genetic and evolutionary reality; it is not merely arbitrary. Genetic descriptions of species has also led recently to the conviction that there are four species of giraffe, not one. This engagement will ground a vantage point from which the Council‘s complex ecclesiology can be more easily described so as to authentically integrate its noncompetitive vision vis-a-vis other Christians with its sense of the unique place held by Catholic Church.

  15. Visual memory needs categories

    OpenAIRE

    Olsson, Henrik; Poom, Leo

    2005-01-01

    Capacity limitations in the way humans store and process information in working memory have been extensively studied, and several memory systems have been distinguished. In line with previous capacity estimates for verbal memory and memory for spatial information, recent studies suggest that it is possible to retain up to four objects in visual working memory. The objects used have typically been categorically different colors and shapes. Because knowledge about categories is stored in long-t...

  16. Libertarianism & Category-Mistake

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos G. Patarroyo G.

    2009-01-01

    This paper offers a defense against two accusations according to which libertarianism incurs in a category-mistake. The philosophy of Gilbert Ryle will be used to explain the reasons which ground these accusations. Further, it will be shown why, although certain sorts of libertarianism based on agent-causation or Cartesian dualism incur in these mistakes, there is at least one version of libertarianism to which this criticism does not necessarily apply: the version that seeks to find in physi...

  17. Convergence semigroup categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Richardson

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Properties of the category consisting of all objects of the form (X, S, λ are investigated, where X is a convergence space, S is a commutative semigroup, and λ: X × S → X is a continuous action. A “generalized quotient” of each object is defined without making the usual assumption that for each fixed g ∈ S, λ(., g : X  → X is an injection.

  18. Categories and Commutative Algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Salmon, P

    2011-01-01

    L. Badescu: Sur certaines singularites des varietes algebriques.- D.A. Buchsbaum: Homological and commutative algebra.- S. Greco: Anelli Henseliani.- C. Lair: Morphismes et structures algebriques.- B.A. Mitchell: Introduction to category theory and homological algebra.- R. Rivet: Anneaux de series formelles et anneaux henseliens.- P. Salmon: Applicazioni della K-teoria all'algebra commutativa.- M. Tierney: Axiomatic sheaf theory: some constructions and applications.- C.B. Winters: An elementary lecture on algebraic spaces.

  19. Improvement of highly charged ion production in the ECR source of heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirkov, G.D.

    1996-01-01

    Some physical limitations of the highly charged ion production in the ECR source are analyzed in this report. A few possible ways to improve the output of highly charged ions from the ECR source for heavy ions are proposed. A new library of computer codes for the numerical simulation of heavy ion production in the ECR ion source is used to examine these ways to improve the ECR source operation according to the CERN program of heavy ion acceleration. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  20. Exopolysaccharides enriched in rare sugars: bacterial sources, production, and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca, Christophe; Alves, Vitor D; Freitas, Filomena; Reis, Maria A M

    2015-01-01

    Microbial extracellular polysaccharides (EPS), produced by a wide range of bacteria, are high molecular weight biopolymers, presenting an extreme diversity in terms of chemical structure and composition. They may be used in many applications, depending on their chemical and physical properties. A rather unexplored aspect is the presence of rare sugars in the composition of some EPS. Rare sugars, such as rhamnose or fucose, may provide EPS with additional biological properties compared to those composed of more common sugar monomers. This review gives a brief overview of these specific EPS and their producing bacteria. Cultivation conditions are summarized, demonstrating their impact on the EPS composition, together with downstream processing. Finally, their use in different areas, including cosmetics, food products, pharmaceuticals, and biomedical applications, are discussed.

  1. Polysaccharides enriched in rare sugars: bacterial sources, production and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe eRoca

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Microbial extracellular polysaccharides (EPS, produced by a wide range of bacteria, are high molecular weight biopolymers, presenting an extreme diversity in terms of chemical structure and composition. They may be used in many applications, depending on their chemical and physical properties. A rather unexplored aspect is the presence of rare sugars in the composition of some EPS. Rare sugars, such as rhamnose or fucose, may provide EPS with additional biological properties compared to those composed of more common sugar monomers.This review gives a brief overview of these specific EPS and their producing bacteria. Cultivation conditions are summarized, demonstrating their impact on the EPS composition, together with downstream processing. Finally, their use in different areas, including cosmetics, food products, pharmaceuticals and biomedical applications, are discussed.

  2. Meat and meat products as a source of bioactive peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Totosaus

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Meat is a high protein content food, with great nutritional and biological value. Meat protein hydrolysis begins with the muscle to meat conversion, during meat ageing. After slaughter, endogen enzymes are responsible of meat softening since myofibrillar anchorage proteins are degraded. Protein hydrolysis continues during food preparation. When meat reaches the stomach, pepsin is the first enzyme to interact. As the food travel trough out gastrointestinal tract, pancreatic enzymes degraded the remained protein and the peptidases made the final proteolysis process. The small proteins or peptides are the absorbed to the circulatory system and distributed to the rest of the body. Bioactive peptides activity of meat and meat products is anti-hypertensive mainly, where histidine, carnosine and anserine are the main peptides identified. Another peptide with anti-oxidant activity is glutathione. The content depends on animal species.

  3. Thermonuclear neutron sources - a new isotope production technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heckman, Richard A [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1970-05-15

    With the successful detonation of the Hutch device, we have demonstrated the feasibility of a new isotope production technique. The exposure of a 238-U and 232-Th target to an extremely large neutron flux, 1.8 x 10{sup 25} neutrons/cm{sup 2}, produced super-heavy nuclides up to 257-Fm by the multiple neutron capture process. Kilogram quantities of Hutch debris were recovered by a modification of standard drilling techniques. A semicontinuous batch process was used to concentrate approximately 10{sup 10} atoms of 257-Fm from approximately 50 kg of debris. Experience from the Hutch debris recovery efforts indicates that significant engineering advances in recovery techniques and subsequent cost reductions are possible. The demonstrated success of the device clearly justifies anengineering development program. Comparing debris recovery by underground mining operations with recovery using possible advances in drilling technology does not indicate an obvious cost advantage of one system over the other. Possible advances in mining technology could change this tentative conclusion. Any novel schemes for debris concentration that might be possible through an understanding of underground nuclear detonation phonomenology would also radically affect recovery and processing economics. A preliminary process engineering design of a large-scale (a few hundred to a few thousand kilograms) processing facility located at the Nevada Test Site will be discussed. Cost estimates for isotopes produced in this facility will be described. The effects of debris concentration, 'ore' beneficiation, and total debris processed on unit costs will be discussed. These preliminary estimates show that this new isotope 'production' scheme would be competitive with existing reactor facilities. (author)

  4. Emission and source characterization of monoaromatic hydrocarbons from coke production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Q.S.; Wang, X.M.; Sheng, G.Y.; Fu, J.M. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou (China). State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry

    2005-09-15

    Monoaromatic hydrocarbons (MAHs) from indigenous and industrial coking processes are studied in Shanxi province. They are sampled on the top of coke ovens and in the chimneys using stainless steel canister and determined by GC/MSD after preconcentration with liquid nitrogen. Benzene, toluene and xylene are the main components among MAHs emitted from coking processes. Benzene and the total MAHs concentrations were as high as 3421.0 microg/m3 and 4 865.9 microg/m3 in the air from indigenous coking, 548.7 microg/m3 and 1 054.8 microg/m3 in the oventop air from industrial coking, and 1 376.4 microg/m3 and 1 819.4 microg/m3 in stack gas from industrial coking, respectively. The MAHs concentrations vary greatly during the indigenous coking process, which in the prophase (from firing to 10 days) is obviously higher than in the anaphase (10 days to quenching the coke). In industrial coking the MAHs in the oventop air are highest when charging the coal and next when transferring the hot coke, but in stack gas they are highest when charging coal and lowest when transferring the coke. Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) in industrial coking samples show good linearity, indicating that MAHs in industrial coking might come predominantly from coal pyrolysis; but BTEX distribute dispersedly in indigenous coking samples, indicating that its emission might be affected by many factors. In all samples BTEX ratios especially high B/E ratio, is unique among MAHs sources, and might be helpful to characterize pollution from coking.

  5. [Emission and source characterization of monoaromatic hydrocarbons from coke production].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qiu-Sheng; Wang, Xin-Ming; Sheng, Guo-Ying; Fu, Jia-Mo

    2005-09-01

    Monoaromatic hydrocarbons (MAHs) from indigenous and industrial coking processes are studied in Shanxi province. They are sampled on the top of coke ovens and in the chimneys using stainless steel canister and determined by GC/MSD after preconcentration with liquid nitrogen. Benzene, toluene and xylene are the main components among MAHs emitted from coking processes. Benzene and the total MAHs concentrations were as high as 3421.0 microg/m3 and 4 865.9 microg/m3 in the air from indigenous coking, 548.7 microg/m3 and 1 054.8 microg/m3 in the oventop air from industrial coking, and 1 376.4 microg/m3 and 1 819.4 microg/m3 in stack gas from industrial coking, respectively. The MAHs concentrations vary greatly during the indigenous coking process, which in the prophase (from firing to 10 days) is obviously higher than in the anaphase (10 days to quenching the coke). In industrial coking the MAHs in the oventop air are highest when charging the coal and next when transferring the hot coke, but in stack gas they are highest when charging coal and lowest when transferring the coke. Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) in industrial coking samples show good linearity, indicating that MAHs in industrial coking might come predominantly from coal pyrolysis; but BTEX distribute dispersedly in indigenous coking samples, indicating that its emission might be affected by many factors. In all samples BTEX ratios especially high B/E ratio, is unique among MAHs sources, and might be helpful to characterize pollution from coking.

  6. Investigating cross-category brand loyalty behavior in FMCG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boztug, Yasemin; Hildebrandt, Lutz; Silberhorn, Nadja

    category depend on purchases in other categories. The aspect of cross-category related brand loyalty has been somewhat neglected so far. We concentrate on cross-category relationships of strong national brands and on how customers' brand choice decisions are related across several product categories.......In competitive markets, customer retention is more efficient than trying to attract new customers. Brand loyalty is an intrinsic commitment to repeatedly purchase a particular brand. But most analyses have been conducted in one specific category only. It has been shown that product purchases in one...

  7. Design and simulation of ion optics for ion sources for production of singly charged ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelenak, A.; Bogomolov, S. L.

    2004-05-01

    During the last 2 years different types of the singly charged ion sources were developed for FLNR (JINR) new projects such as Dubna radioactive ion beams, (Phase I and Phase II), the production of the tritium ion beam and the MASHA mass separator. The ion optics simulations for 2.45 GHz electron cyclotron resonance source, rf source, and the plasma ion source were performed. In this article the design and simulation results of the optics of new ion sources are presented. The results of simulation are compared with measurements obtained during the experiments.

  8. Design and simulation of ion optics for ion sources for production of singly charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelenak, A.; Bogomolov, S.L.

    2004-01-01

    During the last 2 years different types of the singly charged ion sources were developed for FLNR (JINR) new projects such as Dubna radioactive ion beams, (Phase I and Phase II), the production of the tritium ion beam and the MASHA mass separator. The ion optics simulations for 2.45 GHz electron cyclotron resonance source, rf source, and the plasma ion source were performed. In this article the design and simulation results of the optics of new ion sources are presented. The results of simulation are compared with measurements obtained during the experiments

  9. Pullulan production by Aureobasidium pullulans grown on ethanol stillage as a nitrogen source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, T P; Strohfus, B

    1996-01-01

    Pullulan production by Aureobasidium pullulans strain RP-1 using thin stillage from fuel ethanol production as a nitrogen source was studied in a medium using corn syrup as a carbon source. The use of 1% thin stillage as a nitrogen source instead of ammonium sulphate elevated polysaccharide production by strain RP-1 cells when grown on a concentration of up to 7.5% corn syrup, independent of yeast extract supplementation. Dry weights of cells grown in medium containing ammonium sulphate as the nitrogen source were higher than the stillage-grown cells after 7 days of growth. The viscosity of the polysaccharide on day 7 was higher for cells grown on thin stillage rather than ammonium sulphate as a nitrogen source. The pullulan content of the polysaccharide elaborated by ammonium sulphate-grown cells on day 7 was higher than the pullulan content of polysaccharide produced by stillage-grown cells regardless of whether yeast extract was added to the culture medium.

  10. The impact of animal source food products on human nutrition and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The impact of animal source food products on human nutrition and health. ... the widest array of complex scientific, economic, environmental and political issues. ... investment in research and extrapolation of information towards appropriate ...

  11. LIBERTARISMO & ERROR CATEGORIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos G. Patarroyo G.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se ofrece una defensa del libertarismo frente a dos acusaciones según las cuales éste comete un error categorial. Para ello, se utiliza la filosofía de Gilbert Ryle como herramienta para explicar las razones que fundamentan estas acusaciones y para mostrar por qué, pese a que ciertas versiones del libertarismo que acuden a la causalidad de agentes o al dualismo cartesiano cometen estos errores, un libertarismo que busque en el indeterminismo fisicalista la base de la posibilidad de la libertad humana no necesariamente puede ser acusado de incurrir en ellos.

  12. Libertarianism & Category-Mistake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos G. Patarroyo G.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a defense against two accusations according to which libertarianism incurs in a category-mistake. The philosophy of Gilbert Ryle will be used to explain the reasons which ground these accusations. Further, it will be shown why, although certain sorts of libertarianism based on agent-causation or Cartesian dualism incur in these mistakes, there is at least one version of libertarianism to which this criticism does not necessarily apply: the version that seeks to find in physical indeterminism the grounding of human free will.

  13. Libertarismo & Error Categorial

    OpenAIRE

    PATARROYO G, CARLOS G

    2009-01-01

    En este artículo se ofrece una defensa del libertarismo frente a dos acusaciones según las cuales éste comete un error categorial. Para ello, se utiliza la filosofía de Gilbert Ryle como herramienta para explicar las razones que fundamentan estas acusaciones y para mostrar por qué, pese a que ciertas versiones del libertarismo que acuden a la causalidad de agentes o al dualismo cartesiano cometen estos errores, un libertarismo que busque en el indeterminismo fisicalista la base de la posibili...

  14. Sucrose Fermentation by Brazilian Ethanol Production Yeasts in Media Containing Structurally Complex Nitrogen Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda Junior, Messias [UNESP; Batistote, Margareth [UNESP; Cilli, Eduardo Maffud [UNESP; Ernandes, Jose Roberto [UNESP

    2009-01-01

    Four Saccharomyces cerevisiae Brazilian industrial ethanol production strains were grown, under shaken and static conditions, in media containing 22% (w/v) sucrose supplemented with nitrogen sources varying from a single ammonium salt (ammonium sulfate) to free amino acids (casamino acids) and peptides (peptone). Sucrose fermentations by Brazilian industrial ethanol production yeasts strains were strongly affected by both the structural complexity of the nitrogen source and the availability o...

  15. 16 CFR 18.8 - Deception as to origin or source of industry products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... misrepresentation as to source or origin (e.g., “Colorado Blue Spruce,” “Arizona Cypress,” “Black Hills Spruce... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deception as to origin or source of industry... GUIDES FOR THE NURSERY INDUSTRY § 18.8 Deception as to origin or source of industry products. (a) It is...

  16. The role of designer expertise in source selection during product metaphor generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cila, N.; Hekkert, P.P.M.; Visch, V.T.

    2012-01-01

    Metaphors have a communicative role in design that entails a transfer of meaning from an entity (i.e. source) to the designed product (i.e. target). In this paper, we investigate the effect of the expertise of designer on the accessibility of the sources that they employ in metaphors. In the study

  17. The impact of animal source food products on human nutrition and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FBDG

    Associates of the Institute of Food, Nutrition and Well-being, University of ... nutrition), the role of animal source foods as part of a healthy diet requires continuous investment ... Keywords: Animal source foods, livestock products, nutrition, health ..... sensation of fullness that persists after eating until hunger returns (Benelam, ...

  18. Analysis of carbon monoxide production in multihundred-watt heat sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, D.E.; Mulford, R.N.R.

    1976-05-01

    The production of carbon monoxide observed within Multihundred Watt heat sources placed under storage conditions was analyzed. Results of compositional and isotopic analyses of gas taps performed on eight heat sources are summarized and interpreted. Several proposed CO generation mechanisms are examined theoretically and assessed by applying thermodynamic principles. Outgassing of the heat source graphite followed by oxygen isotopic exchange through the vent assemblies appears to explain the CO production at storage temperatures. Reduction of the plutonia fuel sphere by the CO is examined as a function of temperature and stoichiometry. Experiments that could be performed to investigate possible CO generation mechanisms are discussed

  19. Estimate of production of medical isotopes by photo-neutron reaction at the Canadian Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szpunar, B.; Rangacharyulu, C.; Daté, S.; Ejiri, H.

    2013-11-01

    In contrast to conventional bremsstrahlung photon beam sources, laser backscatter photon sources at electron synchrotrons provide the capability to selectively tune photons to energies of interest. This feature, coupled with the ubiquitous giant dipole resonance excitations of atomic nuclei, promises a fertile method of nuclear isotope production. In this article, we present the results of simulations of production of the medical/industrial isotopes 196Au, 192Ir and 99Mo by (γ,n) reactions. We employ FLUKA Monte Carlo code along with the simulated photon flux for a beamline at the Canadian Light Source in conjunction with a CO2 laser system.

  20. 21 CFR 330.5 - Drug categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drug categories. 330.5 Section 330.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN...) Stimulants. (r) Antitussives. (s) Allergy treatment products. (t) Cold remedies. (u) Antirheumatic products...

  1. Nitrous oxide production, its source and distribution in urine patches on grassland on peat soil.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koops, J.G.; Beusichem, van M.L.; Oenema, O.

    1997-01-01

    Urine patches are considered to be important sites for nitrous oxide (N2O) production through nitrification and denitrification due to their high concentration of nitrogen (N). The aim of the present study was to determine the microbial source and size of production of N2O in different zones of a

  2. Production of calibration sources and/or radioactive tracers with the cyclotron CV-28

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osso Junior, Joao Alberto

    1995-01-01

    The present stage of production of calibration sources and radioactive tracers with the Cyclotron CV-28 is described. Among the methods already developed special attention is given to the production of 57 Co, 109 Cd and 111 In. (author). 3 refs

  3. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources 1 Table 1 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION.... 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63—Emission Limits for Tire Production...

  4. Beyond the Categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Jeffrey

    2015-07-01

    Shushu is a Turkish Cypriot drag performance artist and the article begins with a discussion of a short film about him by a Greek Cypriot playwright, film maker, and gay activist. The film is interesting in its own right as a documentary about a complex personality, but it is also relevant to wider discussion of sexual and gender identity and categorization in a country divided by history, religion, politics, and military occupation. Shushu rejects easy identification as gay or transgender, or anything else. He is his own self. But refusing a recognized and recognizable identity brings problems, and I detected a pervasive mood of melancholy in his portrayal. The article builds from this starting point to explore the problematic nature of identities and categorizations in the contemporary world. The analysis opens with the power of words and language in defining and classifying sexuality. The early sexologists set in motion a whole catalogue of categories which continue to shape sexual thinking, believing that they were providing a scientific basis for a more humane treatment of sexual variations. This logic continues in DSM-5. The historical effect, however, has been more complex. Categorizations have often fixed individuals into a narrow band of definitions and identities that marginalize and pathologize. The emergence of radical sexual-social movements from the late 1960s offered new forms of grassroots knowledge in opposition to the sexological tradition, but at first these movements worked to affirm rather than challenge the significance of identity categories. Increasingly, however, identities have been problematized and challenged for limiting sexual and gender possibilities, leading to the apparently paradoxical situation where sexual identities are seen as both necessary and impossible. There are emotional costs both in affirming a fixed identity and in rejecting one. Shushu is caught in this dilemma, leading to the pervasive sense of loss that shapes the

  5. Semantic category interference in overt picture naming: sharpening current density localization by PCA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maess, Burkhard; Friederici, Angela D; Damian, Markus; Meyer, Antje S; Levelt, Willem J M

    2002-04-01

    The study investigated the neuronal basis of the retrieval of words from the mental lexicon. The semantic category interference effect was used to locate lexical retrieval processes in time and space. This effect reflects the finding that, for overt naming, volunteers are slower when naming pictures out of a sequence of items from the same semantic category than from different categories. Participants named pictures blockwise either in the context of same- or mixed-category items while the brain response was registered using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Fifteen out of 20 participants showed longer response latencies in the same-category compared to the mixed-category condition. Event-related MEG signals for the participants demonstrating the interference effect were submitted to a current source density (CSD) analysis. As a new approach, a principal component analysis was applied to decompose the grand average CSD distribution into spatial subcomponents (factors). The spatial factor indicating left temporal activity revealed significantly different activation for the same-category compared to the mixed-category condition in the time window between 150 and 225 msec post picture onset. These findings indicate a major involvement of the left temporal cortex in the semantic interference effect. As this effect has been shown to take place at the level of lexical selection, the data suggest that the left temporal cortex supports processes of lexical retrieval during production.

  6. Market assessment for active solar heating and cooling products. Category B: a survey of decision-makers in the HVAC marketplace. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-09-01

    A comprehensive evaluation of the market for solar heating and cooling products for new and retrofit markets is reported. The emphasis is on the analysis of solar knowledge among HVAC decision makers and a comprehensive evaluation of their solar attitudes and behavior. The data from each of the following sectors are described and analyzed: residential consumers, organizational and manufacturing buildings, HVAC engineers and architects, builders/developers, and commercial/institutional segments. (MHR)

  7. Production and characterization of cellulolytic enzymes from Trichoderma reesei grown on various carbon sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warzywoda, Michel; Labre, Elisabeth; Pourquie, Jacques [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France)

    1992-01-01

    Ethanol production from lignocellulosics is considered, using a process in which biomass is first pretreated by steam explosion, yielding freely water-extractible pentoses and a cellulose-rich residue which can be further hydrolyzed by cellulases into glucose to be fermented into ethanol. Results that are reported show that both the pentose extracts and the glucose-rich hydrolyzates can be used as carbon sources for cellulase production by Trichoderma reesei. When compared with lactose as the main carbon source, pentose extracts support lower but satisfactory protein productions which are characterized by an increase in hemicellulolytic activities, which significantly improves the saccharifying potential of these enzyme preparations. (author).

  8. Monitoring of conditions inside gas aggregation cluster source during production of Ti/TiOx nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kousal, J.; Kolpaková, A.; Shelemin, A.; Kudrna, P.; Tichý, M.; Kylián, O.; Hanuš, J.; Choukourov, A.; Biederman, H.

    2017-10-01

    Gas aggregation sources are nowadays rather widely used in the research community for producing nanoparticles. However, the direct diagnostics of conditions inside the source are relatively scarce. In this work, we focused on monitoring the plasma parameters and the composition of the gas during the production of the TiOx nanoparticles. We studied the role of oxygen in the aggregation process and the influence of the presence of the particles on the plasma. The construction of the source allowed us to make a 2D map of the plasma parameters inside the source.

  9. Influence of Nitrogen Source on 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol Production by the Biocontrol Strain Pf-5

    OpenAIRE

    M, Hultberg; B, Alsanius

    2008-01-01

    The production of 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG) by the biocontrol agent Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5 was studied in nutrient-solution based media with varying nitrogen content. No production of DAPG was observed when organic nitrogen was omitted from the media, regardless of the inorganic nitrogen source used. Furthermore, a micromolar concentration range of organic nitrogen was insufficient to sustain production. When a millimolar concentration range of organic nitrogen was used, DAPG pr...

  10. Legislation relating to nutraceuticals in the European Union with a particular focus on botanical-sourced products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulati, Om P.; Berry Ottaway, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Nutraceuticals are food or food ingredients that have defined physiological effects. They do not easily fall into the legal categories of food or drug and often inhabit a grey area between the two. These products in general terms cover health promotion, 'optimal nutrition' the concept of enhanced performance - both physically and mentally - and reduction of disease risk factors. In this paper the focus is mainly on legislation governing botanical-sourced nutraceuticals in the European Union (EU). Nutraceutical concept in general has been defined. Different pieces of legislation influencing botanical nutraceuticals are described. The issue of the borderline between food and drug is discussed. The regulatory status of botanical nutraceuticals as food supplement, food ingredient, functional and fortified food, novel foods and foods for particular nutritional use in the diversified, complex and ever-changing European regulatory environment is described. Botanical nutraceuticals present additional problems because of their complex nature and composition particularly with respect to the quality aspects, which in turn affect safety parameters and overall efficacy of the products. Quality issues relating to botanical sources, growth conditions, end products, their specifications and other technical criteria are highlighted. Guiding principles to be observed for conducting in vitro, in vivo studies in animals and their impact on clinical safety data are discussed. Finally, health claims, their types and criteria of substantiation in light of ongoing discussions with regard to the EU frame work of regulation on nutrition and health claims and role of process for the assessment of scientific support for claims (PASSCLAIM) initiative is discussed. The concept of grading of evidence to substantiate different claims and to establish standards, which should not be revoked or reversed by emerging science at a later stage has been considered. These issues are crucial and are being

  11. 40 CFR 63.5985 - What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire production affected sources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the emission limits for tire production affected sources? 63.5985 Section 63.5985 Protection of... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources § 63.5985 What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire production affected sources? You must use...

  12. Effects of different nitrogen sources on the biogas production - a lab-scale investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Andreas Otto; Hohlbrugger, Peter; Lins, Philipp; Illmer, Paul

    2012-12-20

    For anaerobic digestion processes nitrogen sources are poorly investigated although they are known as possible process limiting factors (in the hydrolysis phase) but also as a source for fermentations for subsequent methane production by methanogenic archaea. In the present study different complex and defined nitrogen sources were investigated in a lab-scale experiment in order to study their potential to build up methane. The outcome of the study can be summarised as follows: from complex nitrogen sources yeast extract and casamino acids showed the highest methane production with approximately 600 ml methane per mole of nitrogen, whereas by the use of skim milk no methane production could be observed. From defined nitrogen sources L-arginine showed the highest methane production with almost 1400 ml methane per mole of nitrogen. Moreover it could be demonstrated that the carbon content and therefore C/N-ratio has only minor influence for the methane production from the used substrates. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Categories for Observing Language Arts Instruction (COLAI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benterud, Julianna G.

    Designed to study individual use of time spent in reading during regularly scheduled language arts instruction in a natural classroom setting, this coding sheet consists of nine categories: (1) engagement, (2) area of language arts, (3) instructional setting, (4) partner (teacher or pupil(s)), (5) source of content, (6) type of unit, (7) assigned…

  14. By-products of fruits processing as a source of phytochemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Djilas

    Full Text Available The processing of fruits results in high amounts of waste materials such as peels, seeds, stones, and oilseed meals. A disposal of these materials usually represents a problem that is further aggravated by legal restrictions. Thus new aspects concerning the use of these wastes as by-products for further exploitation on the production of food additives or supplements with high nutritional value have gained increasing interest because these are high-value products and their recovery may be economically attractive. It is well known that by-products represent an important source of sugars, minerals, organic acid, dietary fibre and phenolics which have a wide range of action which includes antitumoral, antiviral, antibacterial, cardioprotective and antimutagenic activities. This review discusses the potential of the most important by-products of apple, grape and citrus fruits processing as a source of valuable compounds. The relevance of this topic is illustrated by a number of references.

  15. Language categories in Russian morphology

    OpenAIRE

    زهرایی زهرایی

    2009-01-01

    When studying Russian morphology, one can distinguish two categories. These categories are “grammatical” and “lexico-grammatical”. Grammatical categories can be specified through a series of grammatical features of words. Considering different criteria, Russian grammarians and linguists divide grammatical categories of their language into different types. In determining lexico-grammatical types, in addition to a series of grammatical features, they also consider a series of lexico-semantic fe...

  16. How to Do Things with Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbe, Anders Dahl

    Consumers and other audiences draw upon cognitive categories when evaluating technological products (Clark, 1985; Kaplan and Tripsas, 2008). Categories such as “mini-van” or “computer” provide labels and conceptual meaning structures that consumers and other market actors draw upon in making sense...... the majority of archival data was collected. Finally, to trace consumer reception of innovations in the design of products and technological innovations, I constructed a data set based on posts from an online hearing aid consumer forum. The initial analysis each spawned into three distinct trajectories...

  17. Relationship between availability of contraceptive products and pharmacists as information sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Elizabeth A; Farris, Karen B; Chrischilles, Elizabeth; Aquilino, Mary

    2012-01-01

    To describe the relationship between the availability and accessibility of contraceptives in Iowa pharmacies and the extent to which pharmacists act as an information source regarding contraceptives. Descriptive, exploratory, nonexperimental study. Iowa in fall 2008. 282 pharmacists at Iowa community pharmacies. Cross-sectional survey. Contraceptive availability score, contraceptive accessibility score, and total access score. Regression analyses tested the relationships between the pharmacist information source score and the contraceptive availability, accessibility, and total access scores, controlling for geography, ownership, staff size, and average number of prescriptions per day. Significant positive relationships between the pharmacist information source score and product accessibility, product availability, and total access were observed. The relationship appeared to be driven primarily by product availability, and all were significantly influenced by pharmacy type. Significant negative relationships were found between product accessibility and independent/small chain pharmacies and mass merchandiser/grocery store pharmacies relative to large chain pharmacies. A significant negative relationship was found between independent/small chain pharmacies and the product availability score. Significant relationships were found between pharmacists' ability to act as sources of information for contraceptive products and the availability, accessibility, and overall access to contraceptives in the pharmacy.

  18. The role of grammatical category information in spoken word retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duràn, Carolina Palma; Pillon, Agnesa

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the role of lexical syntactic information such as grammatical gender and category in spoken word retrieval processes by using a blocking paradigm in picture and written word naming experiments. In Experiments 1, 3, and 4, we found that the naming of target words (nouns) from pictures or written words was faster when these target words were named within a list where only words from the same grammatical category had to be produced (homogeneous category list: all nouns) than when they had to be produced within a list comprising also words from another grammatical category (heterogeneous category list: nouns and verbs). On the other hand, we detected no significant facilitation effect when the target words had to be named within a homogeneous gender list (all masculine nouns) compared to a heterogeneous gender list (both masculine and feminine nouns). In Experiment 2, using the same blocking paradigm by manipulating the semantic category of the items, we found that naming latencies were significantly slower in the semantic category homogeneous in comparison with the semantic category heterogeneous condition. Thus semantic category homogeneity caused an interference, not a facilitation effect like grammatical category homogeneity. Finally, in Experiment 5, nouns in the heterogeneous category condition had to be named just after a verb (category-switching position) or a noun (same-category position). We found a facilitation effect of category homogeneity but no significant effect of position, which showed that the effect of category homogeneity found in Experiments 1, 3, and 4 was not due to a cost of switching between grammatical categories in the heterogeneous grammatical category list. These findings supported the hypothesis that grammatical category information impacts word retrieval processes in speech production, even when words are to be produced in isolation. They are discussed within the context of extant theories of lexical production.

  19. High-current negative hydrogen ion beam production in a cesium-injected multicusp source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeiri, Y.; Tsumori, K.; Kaneko, O.

    1997-01-01

    A high-current negative hydrogen ion source has been developed, where 16.2 A of the H - current was obtained with a current density of 31 mA/cm 2 . The ion source is a multicusp source with a magnetic filter for negative ion production, and cesium vapor is injected into the arc chamber, leading to enhancement of the negative ion yields. The cesium-injection effects are discussed, based on the experimental observations. Although the surface production of the negative ions on the cesium-covered plasma grid is thought to be a dominant mechanism of the H - current enhancement, the cesium effects in the plasma volume, such as the cesium ionization and the electron cooling, are observed, and could contribute to the improved operation of the negative ion source. (author)

  20. Efficient source for the production of ultradense deuterium D(-1) for laser-induced fusion (ICF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Patrik U.; Loenn, Benny; Holmlid, Leif

    2011-01-01

    A novel source which simplifies the study of ultradense deuterium D(-1) is now described. This means one step further toward deuterium fusion energy production. The source uses internal gas feed and D(-1) can now be studied without time-of-flight spectral overlap from the related dense phase D(1). The main aim here is to understand the material production parameters, and thus a relatively weak laser with focused intensity ≤10 12 W cm -2 is employed for analyzing the D(-1) material. The properties of the D(-1) material at the source are studied as a function of laser focus position outside the emitter, deuterium gas feed, laser pulse repetition frequency and laser power, and temperature of the source. These parameters influence the D(-1) cluster size, the ionization mode, and the laser fragmentation patterns.

  1. Efficient source for the production of ultradense deuterium D(-1) for laser-induced fusion (ICF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Patrik U.; Lönn, Benny; Holmlid, Leif

    2011-01-01

    A novel source which simplifies the study of ultradense deuterium D(-1) is now described. This means one step further toward deuterium fusion energy production. The source uses internal gas feed and D(-1) can now be studied without time-of-flight spectral overlap from the related dense phase D(1). The main aim here is to understand the material production parameters, and thus a relatively weak laser with focused intensity ≤1012 W cm-2 is employed for analyzing the D(-1) material. The properties of the D(-1) material at the source are studied as a function of laser focus position outside the emitter, deuterium gas feed, laser pulse repetition frequency and laser power, and temperature of the source. These parameters influence the D(-1) cluster size, the ionization mode, and the laser fragmentation patterns.

  2. Life cycle assessment and product category rules for the construction sector. The floor and wall tiles sector case study; Analisis de ciclo de vida y reglas de categoria de producto en la construccion. El caso de las baldosas ceramicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benveniste, G.; Gazulla, C.; Fullana, P.; Celades, I.; Ros, T.; Zaera, V.; Godes, B.

    2011-07-01

    This paper illustrates the Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) activities performed during the preparation of the Spanish Product Category Rules (PCR) relative to the construction sector. Specifically, the study presents the results obtained from the life cycle analysis of the floor and wall tile sector, which served as the basis for the drafting of the PCR required for the definition of Environmental Product Declarations (EPD). More than 50 Spanish companies in the ceramic tile sector participated in the study, providing inventory data on the manufacture of their products. Additionally, bibliographic information and the GaBi 4 software database by PE International were used to complete background and generic data, such as those related to energy and transportation processes. EPDs are voluntary declarations based on LCA studies that permit the disclosure and dissemination of environmental information quantified over the life cycle of a product. The definition of PCRs for ceramic tiles was performed in accordance to the UNE EN ISO 14025 and ISO 21930 standards and they have been submitted to industries and professional association public consultations. PCRs have been developed in the context of the DAPc program (promoted by the Catalan Government and CAATEEB) and represents the first eco labelling activity for building products in Spain. (Author) 18 refs.

  3. In-Situ Ion Source Cleaning: Review of Chemical Mechanisms and Evaluation Data at Production Fabs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaim, R.; Bishop, S.; Byl, O.; Eldridge, D.; Marganski, P.; Mayer, J.; Sweeney, J.; Yedave, S.; Fuchs, D.; Spreitzer, S.; Vogel, J.; Dunn, J.; Lundquist, P.; Rolland, J.; Romig, T.; Newman, D.; Mitchell, M.; Ditzler, K.

    2008-01-01

    Since the concept of chemical in-situ ion implanter cleaning was introduced at IIT2006 [1], evaluations of the XeF 2 cleaning technology have taken place or are ongoing at more than 40 production fabs worldwide. Testing has been focused on assessing effects of cleaning in the source arc chamber and extraction regions. In this paper we describe use of the cleaning technology in a production environment and summarize evaluation data showing advantages of the technology for improving ion source life, reducing glitching, improving beam auto-tuning and avoiding species cross-contamination. More details of the evaluations are given in several separate papers submitted to this Conference. We have supplemented the fab production data with laboratory experiments designed to investigate the reactivity of XeF 2 and fundamental aspects of the source deposition and cleaning processes. These experiments are summarized here, and more details can be found in separate papers submitted to this Conference

  4. TV MEDIA ANALYSIS FOR BANKING CATEGORY (2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Elena POȘTOACĂ

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article represents a short overview of the media landscape for the banking category in Romania in 2012. Unlike the other categories (for example FMCG – fast moving consumer goods, the banking category is more complex because every bank can communicate for a wider range of products (credits, deposits, packages dedicated to students, pensioners and other types of banking products. In the first part of this paper, there will be presented some theoretical notions about media planning and media analyses in order for the lecturer to easily go through the second part of the article. The second part of the paper will only refer to TV analyses. This media channel owns the highest budget share in our category, and also in the media mix of every important player, active in the Romanian market. The analyses will show which bank communicated most effectively, which is the most important spender on TV, what banking products had the largest budget allocated, which is the pattern for this category when it comes to allocating audience points for each day interval and so on. The starting point of this analyses is based on the secondary data obtained from InfoSys+ which is the world’s leading TV analyses software, used in more than 29 countries by 8000+ users.

  5. The Potential for Electrofuels Production in Sweden Utilizing Fossil and Biogenic CO2 Point Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansson, Julia; Hackl, Roman; Taljegard, Maria; Brynolf, Selma; Grahn, Maria

    2017-01-01

    This paper maps, categorizes, and quantifies all major point sources of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions from industrial and combustion processes in Sweden. The paper also estimates the Swedish technical potential for electrofuels (power-to-gas/fuels) based on carbon capture and utilization. With our bottom-up approach using European databases, we find that Sweden emits approximately 50 million metric tons of CO 2 per year from different types of point sources, with 65% (or about 32 million tons) from biogenic sources. The major sources are the pulp and paper industry (46%), heat and power production (23%), and waste treatment and incineration (8%). Most of the CO 2 is emitted at low concentrations (<15%) from sources in the southern part of Sweden where power demand generally exceeds in-region supply. The potentially recoverable emissions from all the included point sources amount to 45 million tons. If all the recoverable CO 2 were used to produce electrofuels, the yield would correspond to 2–3 times the current Swedish demand for transportation fuels. The electricity required would correspond to about 3 times the current Swedish electricity supply. The current relatively few emission sources with high concentrations of CO 2 (>90%, biofuel operations) would yield electrofuels corresponding to approximately 2% of the current demand for transportation fuels (corresponding to 1.5–2 TWh/year). In a 2030 scenario with large-scale biofuels operations based on lignocellulosic feedstocks, the potential for electrofuels production from high-concentration sources increases to 8–11 TWh/year. Finally, renewable electricity and production costs, rather than CO 2 supply, limit the potential for production of electrofuels in Sweden.

  6. Best practices for International eSourcing of Software Products and Services

    OpenAIRE

    Käkölä, Timo

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes how the information and communications technology-supported international eSourcing of software products and services (IeS) can be effectively executed. The extant literature falls short of providing a systematic and detailed enough set of best practices to guide IeS. This paper presents best practices for IeS to facilitate further research, and to help managers and other stakeholders to understand, execute, and proactively improve and manage international eSourcing. The p...

  7. Companion Animals as a Source of Viruses for Human Beings and Food Production Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reperant, L A; Brown, I H; Haenen, O L; de Jong, M D; Osterhaus, A D M E; Papa, A; Rimstad, E; Valarcher, J-F; Kuiken, T

    2016-07-01

    Companion animals comprise a wide variety of species, including dogs, cats, horses, ferrets, guinea pigs, reptiles, birds and ornamental fish, as well as food production animal species, such as domestic pigs, kept as companion animals. Despite their prominent place in human society, little is known about the role of companion animals as sources of viruses for people and food production animals. Therefore, we reviewed the literature for accounts of infections of companion animals by zoonotic viruses and viruses of food production animals, and prioritized these viruses in terms of human health and economic importance. In total, 138 virus species reportedly capable of infecting companion animals were of concern for human and food production animal health: 59 of these viruses were infectious for human beings, 135 were infectious for food production mammals and birds, and 22 were infectious for food production fishes. Viruses of highest concern for human health included hantaviruses, Tahyna virus, rabies virus, West Nile virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus, Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus, Aichi virus, European bat lyssavirus, hepatitis E virus, cowpox virus, G5 rotavirus, influenza A virus and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. Viruses of highest concern for food production mammals and birds included bluetongue virus, African swine fever virus, foot-and-mouth disease virus, lumpy skin disease virus, Rift Valley fever virus, porcine circovirus, classical swine fever virus, equine herpesvirus 9, peste des petits ruminants virus and equine infectious anaemia virus. Viruses of highest concern for food production fishes included cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (koi herpesvirus), viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus and infectious pancreatic necrosis virus. Of particular concern as sources of zoonotic or food production animal viruses were domestic carnivores, rodents and food production animals kept as companion animals. The current list of viruses provides an objective

  8. Comparing costs of power and heat production by prospective and present sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, S.

    1979-01-01

    Capital and running costs are compared of power and heat production from different sources. The lowest capital costs were found for coal-fired power plants followed by light water reactor power plants. The capital costs of other types of power plants, such as wind, geothermal, solar, thermonuclear power plants are significantly higher. The estimated specific cost for electric power production in 1985 for a nuclear power plant is lower than for a fossil-fuel power plant. It is estimated that in 1985 coal will be the cheapest heat source. (Ha)

  9. Influence of nitrogen sources on amino acid production by aspergillus niger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almani, F.; Dahot, M.U.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of different organic and inorganic nitrogen sources in 0.1% and 0.2% concentration on the production of amino acid was studied using a wild strain of Aspergillus niger. The rate of amino acid biosynthesis was found to be higher when 0.2% corn steep liquor was incorporated in the mineral medium. It was concluded from the study that the amino acid synthesis by wild strain depends not only on the nature and type of nitrogen sources used but the concentration of nitrogen source also play an important in the accumulation of free amino acids in the medium. (author)

  10. The influence of various carbon and nitrogen sources on oil production by Fusarium oxysporum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, S; Mathur, J M

    1987-01-01

    The oil-synthesizing capacity of Fusarium oxysporum, cultivated on basal nutrient medium, was evaluated using different carbon and nitrogen sources. In one of the media, molasses was also used as a principal carbon source. Media containing glucose and ammonium nitrate were found to be most efficient for oil production. Fatty acid profile of the fungal oil indicated the presence of a wide range of fatty acids ranging from C8 to C24. Fatty acid composition largely depends on the type of carbon and nitrogen sources.

  11. Potential of chicken by-products as sources of useful biological resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasekan, Adeseye; Abu Bakar, Fatimah; Hashim, Dzulkifly

    2013-01-01

    By-products from different animal sources are currently being utilised for beneficial purposes. Chicken processing plants all over the world generate large amount of solid by-products in form of heads, legs, bones, viscera and feather. These wastes are often processed into livestock feed, fertilizers and pet foods or totally discarded. Inappropriate disposal of these wastes causes environmental pollution, diseases and loss of useful biological resources like protein, enzymes and lipids. Utilisation methods that make use of these biological components for producing value added products rather than the direct use of the actual waste material might be another viable option for dealing with these wastes. This line of thought has consequently led to researches on these wastes as sources of protein hydrolysates, enzymes and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Due to the multi-applications of protein hydrolysates in various branches of science and industry, and the large body of literature reporting the conversion of animal wastes to hydrolysates, a large section of this review was devoted to this subject. Thus, this review reports the known functional and bioactive properties of hydrolysates derived from chicken by-products as well their utilisation as source of peptone in microbiological media. Methods of producing these hydrolysates including their microbiological safety are discussed. Based on the few references available in the literature, the potential of some chicken by-product as sources of proteases and polyunsaturated fatty acids are pointed out along with some other future applications

  12. Biomass and pigments production in photosynthetic bacteria wastewater treatment: effects of light sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qin; Zhang, Panyue; Zhang, Guangming

    2015-03-01

    This study is aimed at enhancing biomass and pigments production together with pollution removal in photosynthetic bacteria (PSB) wastewater treatment via different light sources. Red, yellow, blue, white LED and incandescent lamp were used. Results showed different light sources had great effects on the PSB. PSB had the highest biomass production, COD removal and biomass yield with red LED. The corresponding biomass, COD removal and biomass yield reached 2580 mg/L, 88.6% and 0.49 mg-biomass/mg-COD-removal, respectively. The hydraulic retention time of wastewater treatment could be shortened to 72 h with red LED. Mechanism analysis showed higher ATP was produced with red LED than others. Light sources could significantly affect the pigments production. The pigments productions were greatly higher with LED than incandescent lamp. Yellow LED had the highest pigments production while red LED produced the highest carotenoid/bacteriochlorophyll ratio. Considering both efficiency and energy cost, red LED was the optimal light source. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Sources of New Life Insurance Product Ideas in LIC of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furquan Uddin

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The present complex nature of market has created sturdy challenges before the business world in the form of designing right product, right price, right placement and right promotion. In order to survive and thrive, a marketer has to focus on these challenges. Amongst, right product is most crucial which requires good and feasible ideas in all industries including life insurance. In fact, life insurance is perceived as an unsought and complicated financial product in India. The present paper is a humble attempt to examine the sources of new life insurance product ideas in LIC of India. The findings of the present study include the sources into six groups such as key stakeholders, workforce, organizational documents and other sources, research unit, competitors, and national and international source. It may be noticed the key stakeholders like Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority of India, actuary, top management, and policyholders play vital role in providing ideas in the new product development process of LIC of India.

  14. Potential of chicken by-products as sources of useful biological resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasekan, Adeseye [Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Abu Bakar, Fatimah, E-mail: fatim@putra.upm.edu.my [Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Halal Products Research Institute, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Hashim, Dzulkifly [Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Halal Products Research Institute, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2013-03-15

    By-products from different animal sources are currently being utilised for beneficial purposes. Chicken processing plants all over the world generate large amount of solid by-products in form of heads, legs, bones, viscera and feather. These wastes are often processed into livestock feed, fertilizers and pet foods or totally discarded. Inappropriate disposal of these wastes causes environmental pollution, diseases and loss of useful biological resources like protein, enzymes and lipids. Utilisation methods that make use of these biological components for producing value added products rather than the direct use of the actual waste material might be another viable option for dealing with these wastes. This line of thought has consequently led to researches on these wastes as sources of protein hydrolysates, enzymes and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Due to the multi-applications of protein hydrolysates in various branches of science and industry, and the large body of literature reporting the conversion of animal wastes to hydrolysates, a large section of this review was devoted to this subject. Thus, this review reports the known functional and bioactive properties of hydrolysates derived from chicken by-products as well their utilisation as source of peptone in microbiological media. Methods of producing these hydrolysates including their microbiological safety are discussed. Based on the few references available in the literature, the potential of some chicken by-product as sources of proteases and polyunsaturated fatty acids are pointed out along with some other future applications.

  15. Upgrading of citric acid production from cheap carbohydrate sources as affected by aspergillus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elbatal, A.I.; Khalaf, S.A.; Khalil, A.H.

    1995-01-01

    Five strains of aspergillus niger (EMCC 102, EMCC 104, EMCC 111, EMCC 132 and EMCC 147) were for citric acid production at different incubation period using different cheap carbohydrate substrates, such as beet, cane and citrus molasses and milk whey. A. niger EMCC 111 was found to be the most potent strain for citric acid production from beet molasses after 11 days of incubation at 30 degree. The studies concerning molasses concentration and nitrogen sources (inorganic and organic sources with different concentration, revealed that 30 g% beet molasses and ammonium sulfate with 0.05 g% as N 2 content, gave the highest production of citric acid. Gamma irradiated inocula of A. niger EMCC 111 at doses (0.05-0.8 KGy), showed that the dose 0.4 KGy was the optimum for maximum citric acid production. 8 tabs

  16. Influence of carbon source on alpha-amylase production by Aspergillus oryzae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Morten; Nielsen, Jens

    2001-01-01

    on sucrose, fructose, glycerol, mannitol and acetate. During growth on acetate there was no production of alpha -amylase, whereas addition of small amounts of glucose resulted in alpha -amylase production. A possible induction by alpha -methyl-D-glucoside during growth on glucose was also investigated......, but this compound was not found to be a better inducer of alpha -amylase production than glucose. The results strongly indicate that besides acting as a repressor via the CreA protein, glucose acts as an inducer.......The influence of the carbon source on a-amylase production by Aspergillus oryzae was quantified in carbon-limited chemostat cultures. The following carbon sources were investigated: maltose, maltodextrin (different chain lengths), glucose, fructose, galactose, sucrose, glycerol, mannitol...

  17. Grammatical category dissociation in multilingual aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faroqi-Shah, Yasmeen; Waked, Arifi N

    2010-03-01

    Word retrieval deficits for specific grammatical categories, such as verbs versus nouns, occur as a consequence of brain damage. Such deficits are informative about the nature of lexical organization in the human brain. This study examined retrieval of grammatical categories across three languages in a trilingual person with aphasia who spoke Arabic, French, and English. In order to delineate the nature of word production difficulty, comprehension was tested, and a variety of concomitant lexical-semantic variables were analysed. The patient demonstrated a consistent noun-verb dissociation in picture naming and narrative speech, with severely impaired production of verbs across all three languages. The cross-linguistically similar noun-verb dissociation, coupled with little evidence of semantic impairment, suggests that (a) the patient has a true "nonsemantic" grammatical category specific deficit, and (b) lexical organization in multilingual speakers shares grammatical class information between languages. The findings of this study contribute to our understanding of the architecture of lexical organization in bilinguals.

  18. Chandra Source Catalog: User Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaventura, Nina; Evans, Ian N.; Rots, Arnold H.; Tibbetts, Michael S.; van Stone, David W.; Zografou, Panagoula; Primini, Francis A.; Glotfelty, Kenny J.; Anderson, Craig S.; Chen, Judy C.; Davis, John E.; Doe, Stephen M.; Evans, Janet D.; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Galle, Elizabeth C.; Gibbs, Danny G., II; Grier, John D.; Hain, Roger; Hall, Diane M.; Harbo, Peter N.; He, Helen; Houck, John C.; Karovska, Margarita; Kashyap, Vinay L.; Lauer, Jennifer; McCollough, Michael L.; McDowell, Jonathan C.; Miller, Joseph B.; Mitschang, Arik W.; Morgan, Douglas L.; Mossman, Amy E.; Nichols, Joy S.; Nowak, Michael A.; Plummer, David A.; Refsdal, Brian L.; Siemiginowska, Aneta L.; Sundheim, Beth A.; Winkelman, Sherry L.

    2009-09-01

    The Chandra Source Catalog (CSC) is intended to be the definitive catalog of all X-ray sources detected by Chandra. For each source, the CSC provides positions and multi-band fluxes, as well as derived spatial, spectral, and temporal source properties. Full-field and source region data products are also available, including images, photon event lists, light curves, and spectra. The Chandra X-ray Center CSC website (http://cxc.harvard.edu/csc/) is the place to visit for high-level descriptions of each source property and data product included in the catalog, along with other useful information, such as step-by-step catalog tutorials, answers to FAQs, and a thorough summary of the catalog statistical characterization. Eight categories of detailed catalog documents may be accessed from the navigation bar on most of the 50+ CSC pages; these categories are: About the Catalog, Creating the Catalog, Using the Catalog, Catalog Columns, Column Descriptions, Documents, Conferences, and Useful Links. There are also prominent links to CSCview, the CSC data access GUI, and related help documentation, as well as a tutorial for using the new CSC/Google Earth interface. Catalog source properties are presented in seven scientific categories, within two table views: the Master Source and Source Observations tables. Each X-ray source has one ``master source'' entry and one or more ``source observation'' entries, the details of which are documented on the CSC ``Catalog Columns'' pages. The master source properties represent the best estimates of the properties of a source; these are extensively described on the following pages of the website: Position and Position Errors, Source Flags, Source Extent and Errors, Source Fluxes, Source Significance, Spectral Properties, and Source Variability. The eight tutorials (``threads'') available on the website serve as a collective guide for accessing, understanding, and manipulating the source properties and data products provided by the catalog.

  19. Bakery products as a source of total dietary fiber in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markiewicz-Żukowska, Renata; Moskwa, Justyna; Gromkowska-Kępka, Krystyna; Laskowska, Emilia; Laskowska, Jolanta; Tomczuk, Justyna; Borawska, Maria Halina

    2016-01-01

    Bakery products are a source of bioactive compounds, such as dietary fibre (DF), whose proper supply plays an important role in prevention of civilisation diseases. The aim of the present study was to determine total dietary fibre (TDF) content in bakery products and their contribution to TDF supply. The determination of TDF content was performed using enzymatic-gravimetric method in 72 samples of six types of bakery products (wholemeal rye bread, wheat-rye bread, wheat-rye bread with grains, toast bread, crispbread, rolls) included in the young adults diet. Simultaneously, frequency of bakery products consumption and their contribution to TDF supply were assessed based on dietary interview questionnaires carried out among 224 students from Poland. Index of nutritional quality (INQ) of examined bakery products was calculated. Our data indicate that average TDF content depended on the type of bakery products and ranged from 2.19 g/100 g in rolls to 11.80 g/100 g in wholemeal rye bread. All of the tested types of bakery products, except rolls, were a good source of fibre (INQ≥1), but the richest were wholemeal rye and wheat-rye with grains breads. Analysis of questionnaires data showed that bakery products were regularly consumed by 80% of young adults; however, most of whom preferred rolls. Consumption of bakery products covered current recommendations for dietary fibre in 27%. Daily intake of bakery products and TDF was not correlated with student's BMI, however, women frequently consuming bread had a lower BMI than those who rarely ate it. Wholemeal rye and wheat-rye with grains breads are the rich source of TDF and they should be consumed by young adults in order to achieve the recommended TDF values.

  20. Trustworthiness of product review blogs:a source trustworthiness scale validation

    OpenAIRE

    Ghazisaeedi, Mehdi; Steyn, Peter; van Heerden, Gene

    2012-01-01

    With the introduction of Web 2.0, online blogging has established its place in the lexicon of public relations management. Especially blogs that offer reviews of products, services and technologies, have become essential to practitioners of public relations in their dialogue with the market place. From a public relations perspective, this paper addresses the source trustworthiness of product review blogs among online consumers, and whether consumer demographics have a significant impact on th...

  1. 40 CFR 415.346 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Chrome Pigments Production Subcategory § 415.346 Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS). Except as provided in 40 CFR...

  2. [Effects of carbon and nitrogen sources on 5-keto-gluconic acid production].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zhilei; Wang, Hongcui; Wei, Yuqiao; Li, Yanyan; Zhong, Cheng; Jia, Shiru

    2014-01-01

    Gluconobacter oxydans is known to oxidize glucose to gluconic acid (GA), and subsequently, to 2-keto-gluconic acid (2KGA) and 5-keto-gluconic acid (5KGA), while 5KGA can be converted to L-(+)-tartaric acid. In order to increase the production of 5KGA, Gluconobacter oxydans HGI-1 that converts GA to 5KGA exclusively was chosen in this study, and effects of carbon sources (lactose, maltose, sucrose, amylum and glucose) and nitrogen sources (yeast extract, fish meal, corn steep liquor, soybean meal and cotton-seed meal) on 5KGA production were investigated. Results of experiment in 500 mL shake-flask show that the highest yield of 5KGA (98.20 g/L) was obtained using 100 g/L glucose as carbon source. 5KGA reached 100.20 g/L, 109.10 g/L, 99.83 g/L with yeast extract, fish meal and corn steep liquor as nitrogen source respectively, among which the optimal nitrogen source was fish meal. The yield of 5KGA by corn steep liquor is slightly lower than that by yeast extract. For the economic reason, corn steep liquor was selected as nitrogen source and scaled up to 5 L stirred-tank fermentor, and the final concentration of 5KGA reached 93.80 g/L, with its maximum volumetric productivity of 3.48 g/(L x h) and average volumetric productivity of 1.56 g/(L x h). The result obtained in this study showed that carbon and nitrogen sourses for large-scale production of 5KGA by Gluconobacter oxydans HGI-1 were glucose and corn steep liquor, respectively, and the available glucose almost completely (85.93%) into 5KGA.

  3. Lecithin: a by-product of biodiesel production and a source of choline for dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igino Andrighetto

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of soy lecithins (L, a by-product of the biodiesel production process, and choline chloride microencapsulated with hydrogenated vegetable oils (C on dry matter intake, milk yield,  milk quality traits, milk choline and haematological profile of dairy cows. A total of 12 mid-lactating Holstein Friesian cows were assigned to one of two experimental groups and fed according to cross-over design (2 diets x 2 periods. Diets were isoenergetic, isofibrous and isonitrogenous and had the same content of choline. Dry matter intake was not affected by the diet, but L led to lower milk choline (P

  4. Numerical study of cesium effects on negative ion production in volume sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukumasa, Osamu; Niitani, Eiji [Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-02-01

    Effects of cesium vapor injection of H{sup -} production in a tandem negative ion source are studied numerically as a function of plasma parameters. Model calculation is done by solving a set of particle balance equations in a steady-state hydrogen discharge plasmas. Here, the results which focus on gas pressure and electron temperature dependences of H{sup -} volume production are presented and discussed. With including H{sup -} surface production processes caused by both H atoms and positive hydrogen ions, enhancement of H{sup -} production and pressure dependence of H{sup -} production observed experimentally are well reproduced in the model. To enhance H{sup -} production, however, so-called electron cooling is not so effective if plasma parameters are initially optimized with the use of magnetic filter. (author)

  5. Production of γ-aminobutyric acid by microorganisms from different food sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudec, Jozef; Kobida, Ľubomír; Čanigová, Margita; Lacko-Bartošová, Magdaléna; Ložek, Otto; Chlebo, Peter; Mrázová, Jana; Ducsay, Ladislav; Bystrická, Judita

    2015-04-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a potentially bioactive component of foods and pharmaceuticals. The aim of this study was screen lactic acid bacteria belonging to the Czech Collection of Microorganisms, and microorganisms (yeast and bacteria) from 10 different food sources for GABA production by fermentation in broth or plant and animal products. Under an aerobic atmosphere, very low selectivity of GABA production (from 0.8% to 1.3%) was obtained using yeast and filamentous fungi, while higher selectivity (from 6.5% to 21.0%) was obtained with bacteria. The use of anaerobic conditions, combined with the addition of coenzyme (pyridoxal-5-phosphate) and salts (CaCl2 , NaCl), led to the detection of a low concentration of GABA precursor. Simultaneously, using an optimal temperature of 33 °C, a pH of 6.5 and bacteria from banana (Pseudomonadaceae and Enterobacteriaceae families), surprisingly, a high selectivity of GABA was obtained. A positive impact of fenugreek sprouts on the proteolytic process and GABA production from plant material as a source of GABA precursor was identified. Lactic acid bacteria for the production of new plant and animal GABA-rich products from different natural sources containing GABA precursor can be used. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Metabolic engineering of Corynebacterium glutamicum aimed at alternative carbon sources and new products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Fritz Wendisch

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Corynebacterium glutamicum is well known as the amino acid-producing workhorse of fermentation industry, being used for multi-million-ton scale production of glutamate and lysine for more than 60 years. However, it is only recently that extensive research has focused on engineering it beyond the scope of amino acids. Meanwhile, a variety of corynebacterial strains allows access to alternative carbon sources and/or allows production of a wide range of industrially relevant compounds. Some of these efforts set new standards in terms of titers and productivities achieved whereas others represent a proof-of-principle. These achievements manifest the position of C. glutamicum as an important industrial microorganism with capabilities far beyond the traditional amino acid production. In this review we focus on the state of the art of metabolic engineering of C. glutamicum for utilization of alternative carbon sources, (e.g. coming from wastes and unprocessed sources, and construction of C. glutamicum strains for production of new products such as diamines, organic acids and alcohols.

  7. USE OF MEAT-BONE PASTE AS A PROTEIN SOURCE IN MEAT PRODUCT PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Kakimov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the results of the experimental research on developing the technology of a protein complex based on the meat-bone paste and protein-fat-blood emulsion are shown. The technological scheme of meat-bone paste production on the basis of complex grinding meat-bone raw material to bone particle size of 100 ∙10–6 m and further processing of bone particles using reagent, cheese whey, with pH 4,3 is presented. When studying the nutritive and biological value of the protein complex, it was established that the protein complex consisting of the food component from bone and protein-fat-blood emulsion could be used instead of the basic raw material in meat product production. The comparative analysis of the nutritive value of the protein complex and horse meat demonstrated the following results: the amino acid composition of the protein complex showed a balance of the essential amino acids and the high content of the essential amino acids which limit the biological value: lysine, leucine and threonine. The high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids was observed, which justified the biological value of the protein complex.

  8. Development of a surface ionization source for the production of radioactive alkali ion beams in SPIRAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eleon, C.; Jardin, P.; Gaubert, G.; Saint-Laurent, M.-G.; Alcantara-Nunez, J.; Alves Conde, R.; Barue, C.; Boilley, D.; Cornell, J.; Delahaye, P.; Dubois, M.; Jacquot, B.; Leherissier, P.; Leroy, R.; Lhersonneau, G.; Marie-Jeanne, M.; Maunoury, L.; Pacquet, J.Y.; Pellemoine, F.; Pierret, C.

    2008-01-01

    In the framework of the production of radioactive alkali ion beams by the isotope separation on-line (ISOL) method in SPIRAL I, a surface ionization source has been developed at GANIL to produce singly-charged ions of Li, Na and K. This new source has been designed to work in the hostile environment whilst having a long lifetime. This new system of production has two ohmic heating components: the first for the target oven and the second for the ionizer. The latter, being in carbon, offers high reliability and competitive ionization efficiency. This surface ionization source has been tested on-line using a 48 Ca primary beam at 60.3 A MeV with an intensity of 0.14 pA. The ionization efficiencies obtained for Li, Na and K are significantly better than the theoretical values of the ionization probability per contact. The enhanced efficiency, due to the polarization of the ionizer, is shown to be very important also for short-lived isotopes. In the future, this source will be associated with the multicharged electron-cyclotron-resonance (ECR) ion source NANOGAN III for production of multicharged alkali ions in SPIRAL. The preliminary tests of the set up are also presented in this contribution.

  9. Effect of dietary starch source on milk production and composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of four sources of starch on milk production and composition, nutrient digestion and blood metabolites of lactating Holstein cows. Four multiparous Holstein cows (708 ± 70 kg of body weight; 83 ± 9 days in milk) were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with 21-d periods.

  10. Monochromatic light-emitting diode (LED source in layers hens during the second production cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Borille

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTLight is an important environmental factor for birds, allowing not only their vision, but also influencing their physiological responses, such as behavioral and reproductive activity. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the impact of different colors of monochromatic light (LED sources in laying hens production during the second laying cycle. The study was conducted in an experimental laying house during 70 days. A total of 300 laying hens Isa Brown® genetic strain, aged 95 weeks, in the second laying cycle were used in the study. The artificial light sources used were blue, yellow, green, red and white. The light regimen was continuous illumination of 17 h per day (12 h natural and 5 h artificial in a daily light regimen of 17L:5D (light: dark. The Latin Square design was adopted with five treatments (five colors divided into five periods, and five boxes, with six replicates of ten birds in each box. The production and egg quality were evaluated. The different colors of light source did not affect production parameters or egg quality (p > 0.05. The monochromatic light source may be considered as an alternative to artificial lighting in laying hens during the second production cycle.

  11. Fiber Based Mid Infrared Supercontinuum Source for Spectroscopic Analysis in Food Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsay, Jacob; Dupont, Sune Vestergaard Lund; Keiding, Søren Rud

    Optimization of sustainable food production is a worldwide challenge that is undergoing continuous development as new technologies emerge. Applying solutions for food analysis with novel bright and broad mid-infrared (MIR) light sources has the potential to meet the increasing demands for food...

  12. Assessment of the risks associated with Iodine-125 handling production sources for brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Daiane C.B.; Rostelato, Maria Elisa C.; Vicente, Roberto; Zeituni, Carlos A.; Tiezzi, Rodrigo; Costa, Osvaldo L.; Souza, Carla D.; Peleias Junior, Fernando S.; Rodrigues, Bruna T.; Souza, Anderson S.; Batista, Talita Q.; Melo, Emerson R.; Camargo, Anderson R., E-mail: dcsouza@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Karam Junior, Dib, E-mail: dib.karam@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    In Brazil, prostate cancer is the second most frequent disease, with an estimated 68,800 new cases in 2013. This type of cancer can be treated with brachytherapy, which uses sealed sources of Iodine-125 implanted permanently in the prostate. These sources are currently imported at a high cost, making public treatment in large scale impractical. To reduce costs and to meet domestic demand, the laboratory for production of brachytherapy sources at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN) is currently nationalizing the production of this radioisotope. Iodine is quite volatile making the handling of its radioactive isotopes potentially dangerous. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the risks to which workers are exposed during the production and handling of the sources. The research method consisted initially of a literature review on the toxicity of iodine, intake limits, related physical risks, handling of accidents, generation of radioactive wastes, etc. The results allowed for establishing safety and radioprotection policies in order to ensure efficient and safe production in all stages and the implementation of good laboratory practices. (author)

  13. Assessment of the risks associated with Iodine-125 handling production sources for brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Daiane C.B.; Rostelato, Maria Elisa C.; Vicente, Roberto; Zeituni, Carlos A.; Tiezzi, Rodrigo; Costa, Osvaldo L.; Souza, Carla D.; Peleias Junior, Fernando S.; Rodrigues, Bruna T.; Souza, Anderson S.; Batista, Talita Q.; Melo, Emerson R.; Camargo, Anderson R.; Karam Junior, Dib

    2015-01-01

    In Brazil, prostate cancer is the second most frequent disease, with an estimated 68,800 new cases in 2013. This type of cancer can be treated with brachytherapy, which uses sealed sources of Iodine-125 implanted permanently in the prostate. These sources are currently imported at a high cost, making public treatment in large scale impractical. To reduce costs and to meet domestic demand, the laboratory for production of brachytherapy sources at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN) is currently nationalizing the production of this radioisotope. Iodine is quite volatile making the handling of its radioactive isotopes potentially dangerous. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the risks to which workers are exposed during the production and handling of the sources. The research method consisted initially of a literature review on the toxicity of iodine, intake limits, related physical risks, handling of accidents, generation of radioactive wastes, etc. The results allowed for establishing safety and radioprotection policies in order to ensure efficient and safe production in all stages and the implementation of good laboratory practices. (author)

  14. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources 2 Table 2 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 2 Table 2 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63—Emission Limits for Tire Cord...

  15. The influence of carbon source and calcium on the production of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-10

    Dec 10, 2011 ... The influence of carbon source and calcium on the production of ... Furthermore, since the middle lamella contains high levels of calcium, it was thought that it may play an important ..... Processing of the pectate lyase PelI by ...

  16. Secrecy versus openness : Internet security and the limits of open source and peer production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, A.

    2014-01-01

    Open source and peer production have been praised as organisational models that could change the world for the better. It is commonly asserted that almost any societal activity could benefit from distributed, bottom-up collaboration — by making societal interaction more open, more social, and more

  17. Growth, productivity, and scientific impact of sources of HIV/AIDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study uses an informetric approach to examine the growth, productivity and scientific impact of these sources, during the period 1980 to 2005, and especially to measure performance in the publication and dissemination of HIV/AIDS research about or from eastern or southern Africa. Data were collected from MEDLINE, ...

  18. Production of low axial energy spread ion beams with multicusp sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yung -Hee Y. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1998-05-01

    Multicusp ion sources are capable of producing ions with low axial energy spread which are necessary in applications such as: ion projection lithography (IPL) and focused ion beams for the next generation lithographic tools and nuclear science experiments such as radioactive ion beam production. The axial ion energy spread for multicusp source is approximately 6 eV which is too large for IPL and radioactive ion beam applications. The addition of a magnetic filter which consists of a pair of permanent magnets to the multicusp source reduces the energy spread considerably. The reduction is due to the improvement in the uniformity of the axial plasma potential distribution in the discharge region. Axial ion energy spread of the filament driven ion source has been measured using three different techniques. In all cases, it was found to be less than 2 eV. Energy spread of the radio frequency (RF) driven source has also been explored, and it was found to be less than 3 eV with the proper RF-shielding. A new multicusp source configuration has been designed and constructed to further reduce the energy spread. To achieve a more uniform axial plasma potential distribution, a cylindrical magnetic filter has been designed and constructed for a 2-cm-diameter source. This new source configuration, the co-axial source, is new in its kind. The energy spread in this source has been measured to be a record low of 0.6 eV. Because of the novelty of this device, some plasma parameters inside the source have been studied. Langmuir probe has been used to measure the plasma potential, the electron temperature and the density distribution.

  19. Production of low axial energy spread ion beams with multicusp sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.H.Y.

    1998-05-01

    Multicusp ion sources are capable of producing ions with low axial energy spread which are necessary in applications such as: ion projection lithography (IPL) and focused ion beams for the next generation lithographic tools and nuclear science experiments such as radioactive ion beam production. The axial ion energy spread for multicusp source is approximately 6 eV which is too large for IPL and radioactive ion beam applications. The addition of a magnetic filter which consists of a pair of permanent magnets to the multicusp source reduces the energy spread considerably. The reduction is due to the improvement in the uniformity of the axial plasma potential distribution in the discharge region. Axial ion energy spread of the filament driven ion source has been measured using three different techniques. In all cases, it was found to be less than 2 eV. Energy spread of the radio frequency (RF) driven source has also been explored, and it was found to be less than 3 eV with the proper RF-shielding. A new multicusp source configuration has been designed and constructed to further reduce the energy spread. To achieve a more uniform axial plasma potential distribution, a cylindrical magnetic filter has been designed and constructed for a 2-cm-diameter source. This new source configuration, the co-axial source, is new in its kind. The energy spread in this source has been measured to be a record low of 0.6 eV. Because of the novelty of this device, some plasma parameters inside the source have been studied. Langmuir probe has been used to measure the plasma potential, the electron temperature and the density distribution

  20. Source term analysis for a criticality accident in metal production line glove boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, D.H.

    1991-06-01

    A recent development in criticality accident analysis is the deterministic calculations of the transport of fission products and actinides through the barriers of the physical facility. The knowledge of the redistribution of the materials inside the facility will help determine the reentry and clean-up procedures. The amount of radioactive materials released to the environment is the source term for dispersion calculations. We have used an integrated computer model to determine the release of fission products to the environment from a hypothetical criticality event in a glove box of the metal production line (MPL) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)

  1. Bio-Nano ECRIS: An electron cyclotron resonance ion source for new materials production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchida, T. [Bio-Nano Electronics Research Centre, Toyo University, 2100, Kujirai, Kawagoe, Saitama 350-8585 (Japan); Minezaki, H. [Graduate School of Engineering, Toyo University, 2100, Kujirai, Kawagoe, Saitama 350-8585 (Japan); Tanaka, K.; Asaji, T. [Tateyama Machine Co., Ltd., 30 Shimonoban, Toyama, Toyama 930-1305 (Japan); Muramatsu, M.; Kitagawa, A. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Kato, Y. [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Biri, S. [Institute of Nuclear Research (ATOMKI), H-4026 Debrecen, Bem Ter 18/c (Hungary); Yoshida, Y. [Bio-Nano Electronics Research Centre, Toyo University, 2100, Kujirai, Kawagoe, Saitama 350-8585 (Japan); Graduate School of Engineering, Toyo University, 2100, Kujirai, Kawagoe, Saitama 350-8585 (Japan)

    2010-02-15

    We developed an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) for new materials production on nanoscale. Our main target is the endohedral fullerenes, which have potential in medical care, biotechnology, and nanotechnology. In particular, iron-encapsulated fullerene can be applied as a contrast material for magnetic resonance imaging or microwave heat therapy. Thus, our new ECRIS is named the Bio-Nano ECRIS. In this article, the recent progress of the development of the Bio-Nano ECRIS is reported: (i) iron ion beam production using induction heating oven and (ii) optimization of singly charged C{sub 60} ion beam production.

  2. Effects of irradiation source and dose level on quality characteristics of processed meat products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Youn-Kyung; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Kim, Yong-Jae; Choi, Yun-Sang; Song, Beom-Seok; Park, Jong-Heum; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2017-01-01

    The effect of irradiation source (gamma-ray, electron-beam, and X-ray) and dose levels on the physicochemical, organoleptic and microbial properties of cooked beef patties and pork sausages was studied, during 10 days of storage at 30±1 °C. The processed meat products were irradiated at 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10 kGy by three different irradiation sources. The pH of cooked beef patties and pork sausages was unaffected by irradiation sources or their doses. The redness of beef patties linearly decreased with increasing dose level (Pchanges in overall acceptability were observed for pork sausages regardless of irradiation source (P>0.05), while gamma-ray irradiated beef patties showed significantly decreased overall acceptability in a dose-dependent manner (Poxidation of samples was accelerated by irradiation depending on irradiation sources and dose levels during storage at 30 °C. E-beam reduced total aerobic bacteria of beef patties more effectively, while gamma-ray considerably decreased microbes in pork sausages as irradiation dose increased. The results of this study indicate that quality attributes of meat products, in particular color, lipid oxidation, and microbial properties are significantly influenced by the irradiation sources.

  3. Multi-Criteria Analysis to Prioritize Energy Sources for Ambience in Poultry Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DC Collatto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This paper intends to outline a model of multi-criteria analysis to pinpoint the most suitable energy source for heating aviaries in poultry broiler production from the point of view of the farmer and under environmental logic. Therefore, the identification of criteria was enabled through an exploratory study in three poultry broiler production units located in the mountain region of Rio Grande do Sul. In order to identify the energy source, the Analytic Hierarchy Process was applied. The criteria determined and validated in the research contemplated the cost of energy source, leadtime, investment in equipment, energy efficiency, quality of life and environmental impacts. The result of applying the method revealed firewood as the most appropriate energy for heating. The decision support model developed could be replicated in order to strengthen the criteria and energy alternatives presented, besides identifying new criteria and alternatives that were not considered in this study.

  4. Morphogenesis and Production of Enzymes by Penicillium echinulatum in Response to Different Carbon Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willian Daniel Hahn Schneider

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different carbon sources on morphology and cellulase and xylanase production of Penicillium echinulatum was evaluated in this work. Among the six carbon sources studied, cellulose and sugar cane bagasse were the most suitable for the production of filter paper activity, endoglucanases, xylanases, and β-glucosidases. However, sucrose and glucose showed β-glucosidase activities similar to those obtained with the insoluble sources. The polyacrylamide gels proved the enzymatic activity, since different standards bands were detected in the media mentioned above. Regarding morphology, it was observed that the mycelium in a dispersed form provided the greatest enzymatic activity, possibly due to greater interaction between the substrate and hyphae. These data are important in understanding the physiology of fungi and could contribute to obtaining enzyme with potential application in the technology of second generation ethanol.

  5. Comments on H- volume production in Cs-seeded ion sources. Appendix I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    Considerable interest was generated at the IAEA Negative Ion Beam Workshop in Grenoble, France, in March, 1985, by a report from the Kurchatov Institute on the development of a 2-ampere steady-state H - ion source, in which the ions were volume-produced in a discharge in H 2 , seeded with Cs vapor. The mechanism primarily responsible for this remarkably high current from a volume production source was not yet understood, but it was tentatively presumed to involve the collisional energy transfer from electronically excited Cs 6p atoms into H 2 vibrations. In any case, it was apparently different from the surface-plasma interactions that have been assumed to control the H - production in the Dudnikov-Dimov type sources

  6. Biotechnological Production of Docosahexaenoic Acid Using Aurantiochytrium limacinum: Carbon Sources Comparison And Growth Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergi Abad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aurantiochytrium limacinum, a marine heterotrophic protist/microalga has shown interesting yields of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA when cultured with different carbon sources: glucose, pure and crude glycerol. A complete study in a lab-scale fermenter allowed for the characterization and comparison of the growth kinetic parameters corresponding to each carbon source. Artificial Marine Medium (AMM with glucose, pure and crude glycerol offered similar biomass yields. The net growth rates (0.10–0.12 h−1, biomass (0.7–0.8 g cells/g Substrate and product (0.14–0.15 g DHA/g cells yields, as well as DHA productivity were similar using the three carbon sources. Viable potential applications to valorize crude glycerol are envisioned to avoid an environmental problem due to the excess of byproduct.

  7. Strong neutron sources - How to cope with weapon material production capabilities of fusion and spallation neutron sources?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Englert, M.; Franceschini, G.; Liebert, W.

    2013-01-01

    In this article we investigate the potential and relevance for weapon material production in future fusion power plants and spallation neutron sources (SNS) and sketch what should be done to strengthen these technologies against a non-peaceful use. It is shown that future commercial fusion reactors may have military implications: first, they provide an easy source of tritium for weapons, an element that does not fall under safeguards and for which diversion from a plant could probably not be detected even if some tritium accountancy is implemented. Secondly, large fusion reactors - even if not designed for fissile material breeding - could easily produce several hundred kg Pu per year with high weapon quality and very low source material requirements. If fusion-only reactors will prevail over fission-fusion hybrids in the commercialization phase of fusion technology, the safeguard challenge will be more of a legal than of a technical nature. In pure fusion reactors (and in most SNS) there should be no nuclear material present at any time by design. The presence of undeclared nuclear material would indicate a military use of the plant. This fact offers a clear-cut detection criterion for a covert use of a declared facility. Another important point is that tritium does not fall under the definition of 'nuclear material', so a pure fusion reactor or a SNS that do not use nuclear materials are not directly falling under any international non-proliferation treaty requirements. Non-proliferation treaties have to be amended to take into account that fact. (A.C.)

  8. 40 CFR 415.645 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Cadmium Pigments and Salts Production Subcategory § 415.645 New source performance standards (NSPS). (a) Any new source subject to this subpart and producing cadmium pigments must achieve the following new source performance standards (NSPS...

  9. Children of Different Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulløv, Eva; Bundgaard, Helle

    2007-01-01

    In this article we discuss the production of social distinctions within an institutional setting. Based on ethnographic fieldwork in a multi-ethnic pre-school in Denmark we focus on the interpersonal encounters between immigrant children, their parents and the staff. More specifically we explore...... an apparent paradox in daily practice where on the one hand staff attempt to mute differences between children on the assumption that all children are equal and should be treated as such, while on the other hand distinctions are in practice established when children behave in ways considered inappropriate...... in relation to their own long term interest. Our material indicates that this logic systematically marks Middle Eastern children as ?other?. This legitimises an educational effort to compensate practices of upbringing in the families by teaching these children how to behave in ways considered 'proper...

  10. sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Yin Chiang

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the simplified models of the ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode multiplexer network with Bernoulli random traffic sources. Based on the model, the performance measures are analyzed by the different output service schemes.

  11. The Feasibility of Onsite Electrolysis as Primary and Clean Production Source of Fuel Hydrogen in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    COSTA, Andre R

    2006-01-01

    In accordance with the International Monetary Fund Brazil is currently the world's 12. largest and Latin America's largest economy, with a nominal GPD in the amount of US dollars 732,078 millions. Despite the fact that energy production is still heavily based on hydrocarbons, such as oil, natural gas and coal, the country is often indicated as one of the worldwide leaders in implementing renewable energy sources, primarily due to the spread utilization of bio-ethanol in transportation and the electricity production from hydropower. The purpose of this study is to assess the feasibility of onsite electrolysis as primary and clean source of fuel hydrogen in Brazil, indicating the main advantages of this production method. A perspective of the most significant challenges and actions to be taken regarding the accomplishment of a clean Brazilian hydrogen economy will be presented herein. (author)

  12. The Systemic Products as a Source of Competitive Advantage on Healthcare Sector Example. Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela SZTANGRET

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the healthcare sector, different healthcare providers, such as home care, primary care, pharmacies and hospital clinics but also a financial institution, collaborate in order to increase values for patients, such as better health state, more complex services, high quality of services, and increased feeling of safety. By creating a value, flexible networks health care providers and additional actors create value through collaboration. The purpose of this article is to identify the specific character of systemic healthcare product, created in synergy relations of medical enntities in the area of new way of meeting customers’ needs. Critical analysis of literature in the field of studied category is conducted in the article; furthermore qualitative method of empirical studies (case study and quantitative (online questionnaire is applied for practical illustration of described processes and phenomena. The article is a second part of the stud.

  13. Preliminary feasibility study on production of cobalt-60 source for industrial irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joo, Po Kook; Park, Kyung Bae; Ahn, Yun Soo; Lee, Jong Tai; Kim, Hark Rho

    1999-05-01

    As there is a high possible demand of industrial Co-60 source in the world market, feasibility study of a project was performed to produce and to export Co-60 sources, utilizing KEPCO's Wolsung NPP for irradiation of cobalt and KAERI's hot-cells for fabrication of cobalt sources. Main concerns of the study were to understand irradiation and fabrication (encapsulation) processes and to examine related technologies, required facilities and equipment. In particular, it was examined intensively if it would be possible to modify facilities around the reactor vessel of Wolsung NPP tp substantiate the related licensing in order to irradiate cobalt in the reactor. It is expected that once, if cooperation scheme with MDS Nordion of Canada is established, main issues such as modification of facilities, related licensing, raw material procurement and technology transfer for high quality product will be solved. In order to review overall feasibility of the project, present status and prospect of the world market was surveyed and various usages of cobalt sources were reviewed with emphasis on possible demand increase per usage. Food poisoning accidents are prevailing worldwide and food irradiation with cobalt sources is considered as a promising measure to prevent them and may bring forth high increase of cobalt sources demand in the world market. Preliminary economic feasibility was studied in conservation, evaluating roughly the investment and the operating cost based on materials from various information sources. (author)

  14. Global dust sources detection using MODIS Deep Blue Collection 6 aerosol products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez García-Pando, C.; Ginoux, P. A.

    2015-12-01

    Our understanding of the global dust cycle is limited by a dearth of information about dust sources, especially small-scale features which could account for a large fraction of global emissions. Remote sensing sensors are the most useful tool to locate dust sources. These sensors include microwaves, visible channels, and lidar. On the global scale, major dust source regions have been identified using polar orbiting satellite instruments. The MODIS Deep Blue algorithm has been particularly useful to detect small-scale sources such as floodplains, alluvial fans, rivers, and wadis , as well as to identify anthropogenic sources from agriculture. The recent release of Collection 6 MODIS aerosol products allows to extend dust source detection to the entire land surfaces, which is quite useful to identify mid to high latitude dust sources and detect not only dust from agriculture but fugitive dust from transport and industrial activities. This presentation will overview the advantages and drawbacks of using MODIS Deep Blue for dust detection, compare to other instruments (polar orbiting and geostationary). The results of Collection 6 with a new dust screening will be compared against AERONET. Applications to long range transport of anthropogenic dust will be presented.

  15. Methods of forming single source precursors, methods of forming polymeric single source precursors, and single source precursors and intermediate products formed by such methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Robert V.; Rodriguez, Rene G.; Pak, Joshua J.; Sun, Chivin; Margulieux, Kelsey R.; Holland, Andrew W.

    2012-12-04

    Methods of forming single source precursors (SSPs) include forming intermediate products having the empirical formula 1/2{L.sub.2N(.mu.-X).sub.2M'X.sub.2}.sub.2, and reacting MER with the intermediate products to form SSPs of the formula L.sub.2N(.mu.-ER).sub.2M'(ER).sub.2, wherein L is a Lewis base, M is a Group IA atom, N is a Group IB atom, M' is a Group IIIB atom, each E is a Group VIB atom, each X is a Group VIIA atom or a nitrate group, and each R group is an alkyl, aryl, vinyl, (per)fluoro alkyl, (per)fluoro aryl, silane, or carbamato group. Methods of forming polymeric or copolymeric SSPs include reacting at least one of HE.sup.1R.sup.1E.sup.1H and MER with one or more substances having the empirical formula L.sub.2N(.mu.-ER).sub.2M'(ER).sub.2 or L.sub.2N(.mu.-X).sub.2M'(X).sub.2 to form a polymeric or copolymeric SSP. New SSPs and intermediate products are formed by such methods.

  16. Subject categories and scope descriptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This document is one in a series of publications known as the ETDE/INIS Joint Reference Series. It defines the subject categories and provides the scope descriptions to be used for categorization of the nuclear literature for the preparation of INIS and ETDE input by national and regional centres. Together with the other volumes of the INIS Reference Series it defines the rules, standards and practices and provides the authorities to be used in the International Nuclear Information System and ETDE. A complete list of the volumes published in the INIS Reference Series may be found on the inside front cover of this publication. This INIS/ETDE Reference Series document is intended to serve two purposes: to define the subject scope of the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) and the Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE) and to define the subject classification scheme of INIS and ETDE. It is thus the guide to the inputting centres in determining which items of literature should be reported, and in determining where the full bibliographic entry and abstract of each item should be included in INIS or ETDE database. Each category is identified by a category code consisting of three alphanumeric characters. A scope description is given for each subject category. The scope of INIS is the sum of the scopes of all the categories. With most categories cross references are provided to other categories where appropriate. Cross references should be of assistance in finding the appropriate category; in fact, by indicating topics that are excluded from the category in question, the cross references help to clarify and define the scope of the category to which they are appended. A Subject Index is included as an aid to subject classifiers, but it is only an aid and not a means for subject classification. It facilitates the use of this document, but is no substitute for the description of the scope of the subject categories

  17. In-Pile 4He Source for UCN Production at the ESS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanini, Luca; Batkov, Konstantin; Takibayev, Alan; Mezei, Ferenc; Klinkby, Esben; Schönfeldt, Troels; Pitcher, Eric

    2014-01-01

    ESS will be a premier neutron source facility. Unprecedented neutron beam intensities are ensured by spallation reactions of a 5 MW, 2.0 GeV proton beam impinging on a tungsten target equipped with advanced moderators. The work presented here aims at investigating possibilities for installing an ultra cold neutron (UCN) source at the ESS. One consequence of using the recently proposed flat moderators is that they take up less space than the moderators originally foreseen and thus leave more freedom to design a UCN source, close to the spallation hotspot. One of the options studied is to place a large 4 He UCN source in a through-going tube which penetrates the shielding below the target. First calculations of neutron flux available for UCN production are given, along with heat-load estimates. It is estimated that the flux can give rise to a UCN production at a rate of up to 1.5·10 8 UCN/s. A production in this range potentially allows for a number of UCN experiments to be carried out at unprecedented precision, including, for example, quantum gravitational spectroscopy with UCNs which rely on high phase-space density

  18. Activated sludge is a potential source for production of biodegradable plastics from wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khardenavis, A; Guha, P K; Kumar, M S; Mudliar, S N; Chakrabarti, T

    2005-05-01

    Increased utilization of synthetic plastics caused severe environmental pollution due to their non-biodegradable nature. In the search for environmentally friendly materials to substitute for conventional plastics, different biodegradable plastics have been developed by microbial fermentations. However, limitations of these materials still exist due to high cost. This study aims at minimization of cost for the production of biodegradable plastics P(3HB) and minimization of environmental pollution. The waste biological sludge generated at wastewater treatment plants is used for the production of P(3HB) and wastewater is used as carbon source. Activated sludge was induced by controlling the carbon: nitrogen ratio to accumulate storage polymer. Initially polymer accumulation was studied by using different carbon and nitrogen sources. Maximum accumulation of polymer was observed with carbon source acetic acid and diammonium hydrogen phosphate (DAHP) as nitrogen source. Further studies were carried out to optimize the carbon: nitrogen ratios using acetic acid and DAHP. A maximum of 65.84% (w/w) P(3HB) production was obtained at C/N ratio of 50 within 96 hours of incubation.

  19. Enhanced microalgal lipid production with media engineering of potassium nitrate as a nitrogen source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gour, Rakesh Singh; Bairagi, Madhusudan; Garlapati, Vijay Kumar; Kant, Anil

    2018-01-01

    Algal biofuels are far from a commercial reality due to the technical challenges associated with their growth and lipid extraction procedures. In this study, we investigated the effect of 4 different media and 5 different nitrogen sources at 5 levels on the growth, biomass and lipid productivity of Scenedesmus sp and Chlorella sp The hypothesis was that a nitrogen source can be identified that provides enough stress to accumulate lipids without compromising significantly on biomass and lipid productivity. A maximum specific growth rate and doubling per day have been observed with algal species using modified BG-11 medium. Among the tested nitrogen sources, 2.5 mM potassium nitrate as a nitrogen constituent of modified BG-11 medium resulted in higher lipid content and productivity in the case of S. dimorphus (29.15%, 15.449 mg L -1 day -1 ). Another noteworthy outcome of the present study lies in the usage of a smaller amount of the nitrogen source, i.e., 2.5 mM, which is found to be 7 times less than the standard BG11 media (17.60 mM sodium nitrate).

  20. Assessment of Fine Aggregates from Different Sources in Ibadan and Environs for Concrete Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. O. Ajagbe

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of natural sand being used as fine aggregate for concrete production in Ibadan and its environs was carried out. Ten sources (F1 – F10 were selected for the study; four (F5, F6, F7, F8 were river sand sources while six (F1, F2, F3, F4, F9, F10 were burrow pit sand sources. Samples from each source were subjected to sieve analysis, atterberg limit, bulk density, specific gravity, water absorption, sand equivalent, clay lumps and friable particles, amount of materials passing 75μm and organic impurities adopting ASTM standard procedures. Results revealed that sand from river sources met all the criteria for concrete production stated in ASTM standard while sand from burrow pits deviated from limits of the standard in some respects. F10 had water absorption of 2.6% which exceeded maximum 2% specified, F9 was not free from clay lumps and friable particles with a significant value of 6% as against 3% maximum specification. F1, F2, F3, F4, F9 and F10 have more amounts of materials passing the 75μm sieve ranging from 10.8% for F9 to 20.1% for F10 than maximum of 5% in standard specification while F1, F9 and F10 showed an indication of having organic impurities. It is recommended that performance test be conducted on concrete made from burrow pits sand before use for concrete production. The knowledge of this study can be used as a prospecting tool for selecting suitable sand for the production of quality concrete.

  1. 40 CFR 440.24 - New Source performance standards (NSPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Ore Subcategory § 440.24 New... pollutants discharged in mine drainage from mines producting bauxite ores shall not exceed: Effluent...

  2. Gas production strategy of underground coal gasification based on multiple gas sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tianhong, Duan; Zuotang, Wang; Limin, Zhou; Dongdong, Li

    2014-01-01

    To lower stability requirement of gas production in UCG (underground coal gasification), create better space and opportunities of development for UCG, an emerging sunrise industry, in its initial stage, and reduce the emission of blast furnace gas, converter gas, and coke oven gas, this paper, for the first time, puts forward a new mode of utilization of multiple gas sources mainly including ground gasifier gas, UCG gas, blast furnace gas, converter gas, and coke oven gas and the new mode was demonstrated by field tests. According to the field tests, the existing power generation technology can fully adapt to situation of high hydrogen, low calorific value, and gas output fluctuation in the gas production in UCG in multiple-gas-sources power generation; there are large fluctuations and air can serve as a gasifying agent; the gas production of UCG in the mode of both power and methanol based on multiple gas sources has a strict requirement for stability. It was demonstrated by the field tests that the fluctuations in gas production in UCG can be well monitored through a quality control chart method.

  3. Gas Production Strategy of Underground Coal Gasification Based on Multiple Gas Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duan Tianhong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To lower stability requirement of gas production in UCG (underground coal gasification, create better space and opportunities of development for UCG, an emerging sunrise industry, in its initial stage, and reduce the emission of blast furnace gas, converter gas, and coke oven gas, this paper, for the first time, puts forward a new mode of utilization of multiple gas sources mainly including ground gasifier gas, UCG gas, blast furnace gas, converter gas, and coke oven gas and the new mode was demonstrated by field tests. According to the field tests, the existing power generation technology can fully adapt to situation of high hydrogen, low calorific value, and gas output fluctuation in the gas production in UCG in multiple-gas-sources power generation; there are large fluctuations and air can serve as a gasifying agent; the gas production of UCG in the mode of both power and methanol based on multiple gas sources has a strict requirement for stability. It was demonstrated by the field tests that the fluctuations in gas production in UCG can be well monitored through a quality control chart method.

  4. Impact of feed carbohydrates and nitrogen source on the production of soluble microbial products (SMPs) in anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Chencheng; Stuckey, David C

    2017-10-01

    Six stirred fill-and-draw batch reactors with a range of carbohydrate feeds (glucose, fructose and sucrose), and nitrogen sources (NH 4 Cl, urea) at various concentrations were used to investigate the effect of feed composition on the production of soluble microbial products (SMPs) during anaerobic digestion (AD). To gain greater insights into the SMPs produced, the composition of various fractions was analyzed, while the low molecular weight (MW) SMPs generated with different feeds and nutrients were collected and chemically analyzed using GC-MS. Other organic solutes such as free amino acids were determined using HPLC, and this level of chemical analysis has never been carried out in past work because of analytical limitations. It was found that the presence of ammonium salts rather than urea at 200 mg/L stimulated the production of not only volatile fatty acids, but also SMPs of different MW fractions, and reduced the production of biogas significantly. The study also revealed that the type of SMP that dominates in a particular system depends on the chemical characteristics of the feed, and this insight has implications on the composition of the effluent from anaerobic digesters (and their potential chlorination by-products), and membrane fouling in membrane bioreactors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Seaweed as source of energy. 1: effect of a specific bacterial strain on biogas production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sreenivasa R.P.; Tarwade, S.J.; Sarma, K.S.R.

    1980-09-01

    Only certain marine bacteria capable of digesting the special type of polysaccharide - agar and alginic acid can bring about the biodegradation of these substances and utilise them as carbon source to produce the organics which will be utilised by the methane bacteria to produce methane. When bacterial strain was used in conjunction with cowdung as a source of methane bacteria in seaweed digester, production of biogas from seaweed was accelerated. Adding of small amount of Ulva to seaweed digester increased the output of gas. (Refs. 4).

  6. How categories come to matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leahu, Lucian; Cohn, Marisa; March, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    In a study of users' interactions with Siri, the iPhone personal assistant application, we noticed the emergence of overlaps and blurrings between explanatory categories such as "human" and "machine". We found that users work to purify these categories, thus resolving the tensions related to the ...... initial data analysis, due to our own forms of latent purification, and outline the particular analytic techniques that helped lead to this discovery. We thus provide an illustrative case of how categories come to matter in HCI research and design.......In a study of users' interactions with Siri, the iPhone personal assistant application, we noticed the emergence of overlaps and blurrings between explanatory categories such as "human" and "machine". We found that users work to purify these categories, thus resolving the tensions related...

  7. The composition of category conjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutter, Russell R C; Crisp, Richard J

    2005-05-01

    In three experiments, the authors investigated the impression formation process resulting from the perception of familiar or unfamiliar social category combinations. In Experiment 1, participants were asked to generate attributes associated with either a familiar or unfamiliar social category conjunction. Compared to familiar combinations, the authors found that when the conjunction was unfamiliar, participants formed their impression less from the individual constituent categories and relatively more from novel emergent attributes. In Experiment 2, the authors replicated this effect using alternative experimental materials. In Experiment 3, the effect generalized to additional (orthogonally combined) gender and occupation categories. The implications of these findings for understanding the processes involved in the conjunction of social categories, and the formation of new stereotypes, are discussed.

  8. Management of surplus electricity-production from a fluctuating renewable-energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, H.

    2003-01-01

    Renewable-energy sources and energy efficiency are important elements in Danish Energy Policy. The implementation of wind power and combined heat- and power-production (CHP) have already led to substantial fuel savings, and both technologies are intended for further expansion in the coming decade. Today, approximately 50% of both Danish electricity and heat demand are produced via CHP, and more than 15% of the electricity demands are produced by wind turbines. However, the electricity production from these technologies is linked to fluctuations either in wind or in heat demands rather than fluctuations in demand for electricity. Consequently, the electricity production exceeds the demand during certain periods and creates a problem of ''surplus production''. This paper discusses and analyses different national strategies for solving this problem. (author)

  9. Examining the sources of variability in cell culture media used for biopharmaceutical production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGillicuddy, Nicola; Floris, Patrick; Albrecht, Simone; Bones, Jonathan

    2018-01-01

    Raw materials, in particular cell culture media, represent a significant source of variability to biopharmaceutical manufacturing processes that can detrimentally affect cellular growth, viability and specific productivity or alter the quality profile of the expressed therapeutic protein. The continual expansion of the biopharmaceutical industry is creating an increasing demand on the production and supply chain consistency for cell culture media, especially as companies embrace intensive continuous processing. Here, we provide a historical perspective regarding the transition from serum containing to serum-free media, the development of chemically-defined cell culture media for biopharmaceutical production using industrial scale bioprocesses and review production mechanisms for liquid and powder culture media. An overview and critique of analytical approaches used for the characterisation of cell culture media and the identification of root causes of variability are also provided, including in-depth liquid phase separations, mass spectrometry and spectroscopic methods.

  10. Biological caproate production by Clostridium kluyveri from ethanol and acetate as carbon sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Yanan; Zhang, Yifeng; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov

    2017-01-01

    Caproate is a valuable industrial product and chemical precursor. In this study, batch tests were conducted to investigate the fermentative caproate production through chain elongation from acetate and ethanol. The effect of acetate/ethanol ratio and initial ethanol concentration on caproate...... production was examined. When substrate concentration was controlled at 100 mM total carbon, hydrogen was used as an additional electron donor. The highest caproate concentration of 3.11 g/L was obtained at an ethanol/acetate ratio of 7:3. No additional electron donor was needed upon an ethanol/acetate ratio...... ≥7:3. Caproate production increased with the increase of carbon source until ethanol concentration over 700 mM, which inhibited the fermentation process. The highest caproate concentration of 8.42 g/L was achieved from high ethanol strength wastewater with an ethanol/acetate ratio of 10:1 (550 m...

  11. 40 CFR 415.50 - Applicability; description of the calcium oxide production subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... calcium oxide production subcategory. 415.50 Section 415.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Oxide Production Subcategory § 415.50 Applicability; description of the calcium... the production of calcium oxide. ...

  12. Effect of electrode materials on a negative ion production in a cesium seeded negative ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Takashi; Morishita, Takutoshi; Kashiwagi, Mieko; Hanada, Masaya; Iga, Takashi; Inoue, Takashi; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Imai, Tsuyoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment; Wada, Motoi [Doshisha Univ., Kyoto (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    Effects of plasma grid materials on the negative ion production efficiency in a cesium seeded ion source have been experimentally studied. Grid materials of Au, Ag, Cu, Ni, and Mo were examined. A 2.45 GHz microwave ion source was utilized in the experiment to avoid contamination of tungsten from filament cathode. Relations between the negative ion currents and work functions of the grid were measured for these materials. Influence of the contamination by tungsten on the grid was also investigated. If was clarified that the negative ion production efficiency was determined only by the work function of the grid. The efficiency did not depend on the material itself. The lowest work function of 1.42 eV was obtained for Au grid with Cs, and a high H{sup -} production efficiency of 20.7 mA/kW was measured. This efficiency is about 1.3 times larger than that of Cs/Mo and Cs/Cu. Further improvement of the production efficiency was observed by covering the plasma grid with tungsten and cesium simultaneously. Such co-deposition of W and Cs on the plasma grid produced the negative ion production efficiency of 1.7 times higher than that from the tungsten grid simply covered with Cs. (author)

  13. Chicken feather peptone: A new alternative nitrogen source for pigment production by Monascus purpureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orak, Tugba; Caglar, Ozge; Ortucu, Serkan; Ozkan, Hakan; Taskin, Mesut

    2018-04-10

    Peptones are accepted as one of the most favourable nitrogen sources supporting pigment synthesis in Monascus purpureus. The present study was performed to test the feasibility of chicken feather peptone (CFP) as nitrogen source for pigment production from M. purpureus ATCC16365. CFP was compared with fish peptone (FP) and protease peptone (PP) in order to elucidate its effectiveness on pigment production. CFP was prepared from waste feathers using hydrolysis (KOH) and neutralization (H 2 SO 4 ) methods. The protein content of CFP was determined as 67.2 g/100 g. Optimal concentrations of CFP and glucose for pigment production were determined as 3 and 20 g/L, respectively. A medium pH of 5.5 and an incubation period of 7-days were found to be more favourable for pigment production. In CFP, PP and FP media, yellow pigment absorbances were 2.819, 2.870 and 2.831, red pigment absorbances were 2.709, 2.304 and 2.748, and orange pigment absorbances were 2.643, 2.132 and 2.743, respectively. Sugar consumption and mycelia growth showed the similar trends in CFP, FP and PP media. This study indicates that the peptone from chicken feathers may be a good nutritional substrate for pigment production from M. purpureus. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Utilization of rapeseed pellet from fatty acid methyl esters production as an energy source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciunel, Krzysztof; Klugmann-Radziemska, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Rapeseed pellet - crushed seed residue from oil extraction is a by-product of fatty acid methyl esters production process. As other types of biomass, it can either be burned directly in furnaces or processed to increase its energetic value. Biomass is renewable, abundant and has domestic usage; the sources ofbiomass can help the world reduce its dependence on petroleum products, fossil coal and natural gas. Energetically effective utilization of rapeseed pellet could substantially improve the economic balance of an individual household in which biodiesel for fulfilling the producer's own energetic demand is obtained. In this article, the experimental results of combusting rapeseed pellet in a calorimeter, combustion in a boiler heater and the analysis of the emissions level of different pollutants in exhaust fumes during different stages of biomass boiler operation are presented. It has been proved that the pellet, a by-product of biodiesel production, is not only a valuable substitute of animal fodder, but also an excellent renewable and environmentally friendly energy source, viable for use in household tap water heating installations.

  15. Evaluating the composition and processing potential of novel sources of Brazilian biomass for sustainable biorenewables production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Marisa A; Gomez, Leonardo D; Steele-King, Clare G; Simister, Rachael; Bernardinelli, Oigres D; Carvalho, Marcelo A; Rezende, Camila A; Labate, Carlos A; Deazevedo, Eduardo R; McQueen-Mason, Simon J; Polikarpov, Igor

    2014-01-18

    The search for promising and renewable sources of carbohydrates for the production of biofuels and other biorenewables has been stimulated by an increase in global energy demand in the face of growing concern over greenhouse gas emissions and fuel security. In particular, interest has focused on non-food lignocellulosic biomass as a potential source of abundant and sustainable feedstock for biorefineries. Here we investigate the potential of three Brazilian grasses (Panicum maximum, Pennisetum purpureum and Brachiaria brizantha), as well as bark residues from the harvesting of two commercial Eucalyptus clones (E. grandis and E. grandis x urophylla) for biofuel production, and compare these to sugarcane bagasse. The effects of hot water, acid, alkaline and sulfite pretreatments (at increasing temperatures) on the chemical composition, morphology and saccharification yields of these different biomass types were evaluated. The average yield (per hectare), availability and general composition of all five biomasses were compared. Compositional analyses indicate a high level of hemicellulose and lignin removal in all grass varieties (including sugarcane bagasse) after acid and alkaline pretreatment with increasing temperatures, whilst the biomasses pretreated with hot water or sulfite showed little variation from the control. For all biomasses, higher cellulose enrichment resulted from treatment with sodium hydroxide at 130°C. At 180°C, a decrease in cellulose content was observed, which is associated with high amorphous cellulose removal and 5-hydroxymethyl-furaldehyde production. Morphological analysis showed the effects of different pretreatments on the biomass surface, revealing a high production of microfibrillated cellulose on grass surfaces, after treatment with 1% sodium hydroxide at 130°C for 30 minutes. This may explain the higher hydrolysis yields resulting from these pretreatments, since these cellulosic nanoparticles can be easily accessed and cleaved by

  16. The phosphorus fertilizer production as a source of rare-earth elements pollution of the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volokh, A.A.; Gorbunov, A.V.; Revich, B.A.; Gundorina, S.F.; Frontas'eva, M.V.; Chen Sen Pal.

    1989-01-01

    This paper considers some peculiarities of the production of phosphorus fertilizers from the point of view of the pollution of the environment with rare-earth elements. The principal possibility is demonstrated of the determination of the influence of a given type of production on the environment by measuring the change in the rare-arth elements interrelationship in the show. The main source of industrial dust is identified. The distribution of pollutants in dependence on the size of aerosol particles is given. The data on the concentrations of the pollutants in agricultural plants, employees hair and hair of local residents are also reported. 8 refs.; 4 figs.; 4 tabs

  17. Production of chemical energy carriers by non-expendable energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitsch, J

    1976-01-01

    The different forms of energy (radiation, high-temperature heat and electricity) arising from non-expendable energy sources like solar energy can be used for the production of chemical energy-carriers. Possible methods are the splitting of water by means of photolysis, thermochemical cycles and electrolysis, as well as the storage of energy in closed loop chemical systems. These methods are described and efficiencies and costs of the production of these energy carriers are specified. Special problems of the long-distance transportation of hydrogen produced by solar energy are described and the resulting costs are estimated.

  18. Effects of Carbon and Nitrogen Sources on Lipase Production by Candida rugosa

    OpenAIRE

    ERKMEN, Sibel FADILOĞLU and Osman

    2014-01-01

    The production of lipase by Candida rugosa growing on media with various carbon and nitrogen sources was studied. While high yields of enzyme activity (5.58 U mL-1) were obtained with yeast extract and proteose-peptone in the medium with olive oil, the minimum lipase activity (2.81 U mL-1) was observed with tryptone and lactose. In the absence of olive oil, the media with proteose peptone and glucose gave the maximum enzyme activity (2.21 U mL-1). The best results in the production of lipa...

  19. Calculation of the isotope concentrations, source terms and radiation shielding of the SAFARI-1 irradiation products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoker, C.C.; Ball, G.

    2000-01-01

    The ever increasing expansion of the irradiation product portfolio of the SAFARI-1 reactor leads to the need to routinely calculate the radio-isotope concentrations and source terms for the materials irradiated in the reactor accurately. In addition to this, the required shielding for the transportation and processing of these irradiation products needs to be determined. In this paper the calculational methodology applied is described with special attention given to the spectrum dependence of the one-group cross sections of selected SAFARI-1 irradiation materials and the consequent effect on the determination of the isotope concentrations and source terms. Comparisons of the calculated isotopic concentrations and dose rates with experimental analysis and measurements provide confidence in the calculational methodologies and data used. (author)

  20. A potention of renewable energy sources in Slovakia in term of production of electricity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štefan Kuzevič

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Electro-energetics of Slovak Republic is in this time in state of re-structuralization consequent from responsibilities which SR has with integration to the EU and on the other hand with actual status of production capacities of fossil fuels using in heat power stations and heat stations also the utilization of nuclear energy in nuclear power stations Jaslovské Bohunice and Mochovce. Paradoxically slim representation in production capacities have renewable energy sources, while only one relevant one is utilization of water in small hydro power stations. According to fact, that to the year 2010, the share of renewable sources of energy using in comparing with electric energy has to achieve 21,7% (direction of EU 77/2001. It is necessary to evaluate possibilities of utilization and to specify potential of utilization from technical and economical aspect.

  1. Xylanase Production from Trichoderma harzianum 1073 D3 with Alternative Carbon and Nitrogen Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isil Seyis

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of some natural wastes (orange pomace, orange peel, lemon pomace, lemon peel, apple pomace, pear peel, banana peel, melon peel and hazelnut shell on the production of xylanase from Trichoderma harzianum 1073 D3 has been studied and maximum activity has been observed on melon peel (26.5 U/mg of protein followed by apple pomace and hazelnut shell. Also, molasses could be used as an additional carbon source as it decreased the production time approximately by 50 %. Finally, potential alternatives of organic nitrogen source (cotton leaf and soybean residue wastes were analyzed and it was concluded that peptone could be replaced with these residues especially when economics of the process is the major objective.

  2. Structure of production costs of different energy sources (fossile fuels and nuclear energy) (group 11)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girard, Ph.

    2002-01-01

    This article is the work of a group of students from the ''Ecole Nationale d'Administration'', they had to study the structure of the costs of the different energy sources. This analysis shows some common features between the energy sources. The cost is very dependent on the partial costs of technological constraints due to exploration, production, transport and distribution. For primary energies the market appears to be not very competitive, the price depends strongly on the market power of the operator and benefits are generally important. In France, taxes play a role to assure competitiveness of gas and coal against oil. Uranium fuel presents the lowest production and transformation costs at the same energy content. Transport costs are important for natural gas which implies a strong mutual dependence between gas producers and consumers. The irreplaceable use of oil in transport assures regular high revenues for oil companies. (A.C.)

  3. Is an organic nitrogen source needed for cellulase production by Trichoderma reesei Rut-C30?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodríguez Gómez, Divanery; Hobley, Timothy John

    2013-01-01

    The effect of organic and inorganic nitrogen sources on Trichoderma reesei Rut-C30 cellulase production was investigated in submerged cultivations. Stirred tank bioreactors and shake flasks, with and without pH control, respectively, were employed. The experimental design involved the addition...... of individual organic nitrogen sources (soy peptone, glutamate, glycine and alanine) within a basal medium containing Avicel (i.e. micro crystalline cellulose) and ammonium sulphate. It was found that in the shake flask experiments, the highest cellulase activities (~0.1 ± 0.02 FPU ml−1) were obtained...... with media containing soy peptone (3–6 g l−1) and glutamate (3.6 g l−1). However, these improvements in the cellulase titers in the presence of the organic nitrogen sources appeared to be related to smaller changes in the pH of the medium. This was confirmed using stirred tank bioreactors with pH control...

  4. Evaluation of exhaust system for gaseous waste from the source production laboratory for radiotherapy - IPEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, D.C.B. de; Costa, O.L.; Feher, A.; Geraldo, B.; Carvalho, V.S.; Barbosa, N.K.O.; Vicente, R.; Zeituni, C.A.; Rostelato, M.E.C.M., E-mail: dcsouza@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Exhaust systems in fume hood for chemicals and hazardous materials as radioactive substances are of great importance for the protection of the Occupationally Exposed Individual and the environment. They protect against external contaminations by particulate matter, volatile and against inhalation of radioactive gases. This work intends to evaluate the exhaustion system of the Laboratory of Production of Radioactive Sources at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN). (author)

  5. Sustainable carbon sources for microbial organic acid production with filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dörsam, Stefan; Fesseler, Jana; Gorte, Olga; Hahn, Thomas; Zibek, Susanne; Syldatk, Christoph; Ochsenreither, Katrin

    2017-01-01

    The organic acid producer Aspergillus oryzae and Rhizopus delemar are able to convert several alternative carbon sources to malic and fumaric acid. Thus, carbohydrate hydrolysates from lignocellulose separation are likely suitable as substrate for organic acid production with these fungi. Before lignocellulose hydrolysate fractions were tested as substrates, experiments with several mono- and disaccharides, possibly present in pretreated biomass, were conducted for their suitability for malic acid production with A. oryzae. This includes levoglucosan, glucose, galactose, mannose, arabinose, xylose, ribose, and cellobiose as well as cheap and easy available sugars, e.g., fructose and maltose. A. oryzae is able to convert every sugar investigated to malate, albeit with different yields. Based on the promising results from the pure sugar conversion experiments, fractions of the organosolv process from beechwood ( Fagus sylvatica ) and Miscanthus giganteus were further analyzed as carbon source for cultivation and fermentation with A. oryzae for malic acid and R. delemar for fumaric acid production. The highest malic acid concentration of 37.9 ± 2.6 g/L could be reached using beechwood cellulose fraction as carbon source in bioreactor fermentation with A. oryzae and 16.2 ± 0.2 g/L fumaric acid with R. delemar . We showed in this study that the range of convertible sugars for A. oryzae is even higher than known before. We approved the suitability of fiber/cellulose hydrolysate obtained from the organosolv process as carbon source for A. oryzae in shake flasks as well as in a small-scale bioreactor. The more challenging hemicellulose fraction of F. sylvatica was also positively evaluated for malic acid production with A. oryzae .

  6. On the sequence of core-melt accidents: Fission product release, source terms and Chernobyl release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht, H

    1986-01-01

    There is a sketch of our ideas on the course of a core melt-out accident in a PWR. There is then a survey of the most important results on fission product release, which were obtained by experiments on the SASCHA melt-out plant. The 3rd part considers questions which are important for determining source terms for the environment and the last part contains some considerations on radioactivity release from the Chernobyl reactor.

  7. Study of Au- production in a plasma-sputter type negative ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okabe, Yushirou.

    1991-10-01

    A negative ion source of plasma-sputter type has been constructed for the purpose of studying physical processes which take place in the ion source. Negative ions of gold are produced on the gold target which is immersed in an argon discharge plasma and biased negatively with respect to the plasma. The work function of the target surface was lowered by the deposition of Cs on the target. An in-situ method has been developed to determine the work function of the target surface in the ion source under discharge conditions. The observed minimum work function of a cesiated gold surface in an argon plasma was 1.3 eV, when the negative ion production rate took the maximum value. The production rate increased monotonically and saturated when the surface work function was reduced from 1.9 eV to 1.3 eV. The dependence of Au - production rate on the incident ion energy and on the number of the incident ion was studied. From the experimental results, it is shown that the sputtering process is an important physical process for the negative ion production in the plasma-sputter type negative ion source. The energy distribution function was also measured. When the bias voltage was smaller than 280 V, the high energy component in the distribution decreased as the target voltage was decreased. Therefore, the energy spread ΔE, of the observed negative ion energy distribution also decreased. This tendency is also seen in the energy spectrum of Cu atoms sputtered in normal direction by Ar + ions. (J.P.N.)

  8. Eyewitnesses of History: Italian Amateur Cinema as Cultural Heritage and Source for Audiovisual and Media Production

    OpenAIRE

    Simoni, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    abstractThe role of amateur cinema as archival material in Italian media productions has only recently been discovered. Italy, as opposed to other European countries, lacked a local, regional and national policy for the collection and preservation of private audiovisual documents, which led, as a result, to the inaccessibility of the sources. In 2002 the Archivio Nazionale del Film di Famiglia (Italy’s Amateur Film Archive), founded in Bologna by the Home Movies Association, became the refere...

  9. Ion beam production and study of radioactive isotopes with the laser ion source at ISOLDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedosseev, Valentin; Chrysalidis, Katerina; Day Goodacre, Thomas; Marsh, Bruce; Rothe, Sebastian; Seiffert, Christoph; Wendt, Klaus

    2017-08-01

    At ISOLDE the majority of radioactive ion beams are produced using the resonance ionization laser ion source (RILIS). This ion source is based on resonant excitation of atomic transitions by wavelength tunable laser radiation. Since its installation at the ISOLDE facility in 1994, the RILIS laser setup has been developed into a versatile remotely operated laser system comprising state-of-the-art solid state and dye lasers capable of generating multiple high quality laser beams at any wavelength in the range of 210-950 nm. A continuous programme of atomic ionization scheme development at CERN and at other laboratories has gradually increased the number of RILIS-ionized elements. At present, isotopes of 40 different elements have been selectively laser-ionized by the ISOLDE RILIS. Studies related to the optimization of the laser-atom interaction environment have yielded new laser ion source types: the laser ion source and trap and the versatile arc discharge and laser ion source. Depending on the specific experimental requirements for beam purity or versatility to switch between different ionization mechanisms, these may offer a favourable alternative to the standard hot metal cavity configuration. In addition to its main purpose of ion beam production, the RILIS is used for laser spectroscopy of radioisotopes. In an ongoing experimental campaign the isotope shifts and hyperfine structure of long isotopic chains have been measured by the extremely sensitive in-source laser spectroscopy method. The studies performed in the lead region were focused on nuclear deformation and shape coexistence effects around the closed proton shell Z = 82. The paper describes the functional principles of the RILIS, the current status of the laser system and demonstrated capabilities for the production of different ion beams including the high-resolution studies of short-lived isotopes and other applications of RILIS lasers for ISOLDE experiments. This article belongs to the Focus on

  10. Production and action pattern of inulinase from Aspergillus Niger-245: hydrolysis of inulin from several sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz Vinícius D?Arcadia

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A strain of Aspergillus niger isolated from soil samples showed great capacity to produce extracellular inulinase. Although the enzyme has been synthesized in presence of monosaccharides, sucrose and sugar cane molasse, the productivity was significantly higher (p<0.05 when the microorganism was inoculated in media formulated with dahlia extract and pure inulin, as carbon sources. With regard to the nitrogen source, the best results were obtained with casein and other sources of proteic nitrogen, comparatively to the mineral nitrogen. However, statistic significance (p<0.01 only was found between the productivity obtained in the medium prepared with casein and ammonium sulphate. The optimum pH of the purified enzyme for inulin hydrolysis was found between 4.0 and 4.5 and the optimun temperature at 60oC. When treated by 30 minutes in this temperature no loss of activity was observed. The enzyme showed capacity to hydrolyse sucrose, raffinose and inulin from which it liberated only fructose units showing, therefore, an exo-action mechanism. Acting on inulins from several sources, the enzyme showed larger hydrolysis speed on the polissaccharide from chicory (Cichorium intibus, comparatively, to the inulins from dahlia (Dahlia pinnata and Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus roots.

  11. Alginate Production from Alternative Carbon Sources and Use of Polymer Based Adsorbent in Heavy Metal Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çiğdem Kıvılcımdan Moral

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Alginate is a biopolymer composed of mannuronic and guluronic acids. It is harvested from marine brown algae; however, alginate can also be synthesized by some bacterial species, namely, Azotobacter and Pseudomonas. Use of pure carbohydrate sources for bacterial alginate production increases its cost and limits the chance of the polymer in the industrial market. In order to reduce the cost of bacterial alginate production, molasses, maltose, and starch were utilized as alternative low cost carbon sources in this study. Results were promising in the case of molasses with the maximum 4.67 g/L of alginate production. Alginates were rich in mannuronic acid during early fermentation independent of the carbon sources while the highest guluronic acid content was obtained as 68% in the case of maltose. The polymer was then combined with clinoptilolite, which is a natural zeolite, to remove copper from a synthetic wastewater. Alginate-clinoptilolite beads were efficiently adsorbed copper up to 131.6 mg Cu2+/g adsorbent at pH 4.5 according to the Langmuir isotherm model.

  12. Production of bacterial cellulose using different carbon sources and culture media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadkazemi, Faranak; Azin, Mehrdad; Ashori, Alireza

    2015-03-06

    In this work, the effects of carbon sources and culture media on the production and structural properties of bacterial cellulose (BC) have been studied. BC nanofibers were synthesized using Gluconacetobacter xylinus strain PTCC 1734. Media used were Hestrin-Schramm (H), Yamanaka (Y), and Zhou (Z). Five different carbon sources, namely date syrup, glucose, mannitol, sucrose, and food-grade sucrose were used in these media. All the produced BC pellicles were characterized in terms of dry weight production, biomass yield, thermal stability, crystallinity and morphology by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), x-ray diffraction (XRD), and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The obtained results showed that mannitol lead to the highest yield, followed by sucrose. The highest production efficiency of mannitol might be due to the nitrogen source, which plays an important role. The maximum improvement on the thermal stability of the composites was achieved when mannitol was used in H medium. In addition, the crystallinity was higher in BC formed in H medium compared to other media. FE-SEM micrographs illustrated that the BC pellicles, synthesized in the culture media H and Z, were stable, unlike those in medium Y that were unstable. The micrographs of BC produced in media containing mannitol and sucrose provided evidence of the strong interfacial adhesion between the BC fibers without noticeable aggregates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Strategic planning as a competitive differential: A case study of the Sealed Sources Production Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, Imário; Nascimento, Fernando C.; Calvo, Wilson A. Parejo

    2017-01-01

    Strategic planning has always been and continues to be one of the most important management tools for decision making. Amidst the uncertainties of the 21"s"t century, public, private and third sector organizations are steadily struggling to improve their strategic plans by using more effective results management tools such as BSC-Balanced Scorecard. Nuclear research institutes and research centers around the world have been using more and more these types of tools in their strategic planning and management. The objective of this article was to recommend the use the BSC as a strategic tool for decision making for the Sealed Sources Production Laboratory located in the Radiation Technology Center, at Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN/CNEN-SP), in Sao Paulo, Brazil. The methodology used in this academic article was a case study, which considered the object of the study, the Sealed Sources Production Laboratory, from January 2014 to August 2016. Among the main results obtained with this study can be cited: the improvement of the information flow, the visualization and proposition to change the periodicity of analysis of the results, among others. In view of the expected results, it was possible to conclude that this study may be of value to the Sealed Sources Production Laboratory for Industrial Radiography and Industrial Process Control and also to other research centers, as it will allow and contribute with an additional management support tool. (author)

  14. Strategic planning as a competitive differential: A case study of the Sealed Sources Production Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Imário; Nascimento, Fernando C.; Calvo, Wilson A. Parejo, E-mail: imariovieira@yahoo.com, E-mail: wapcalvo@ipen.br, E-mail: fcodelo@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Faculdade SENAI de Tecnologia Ambiental, Sao Bernardo do Campo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    Strategic planning has always been and continues to be one of the most important management tools for decision making. Amidst the uncertainties of the 21{sup st} century, public, private and third sector organizations are steadily struggling to improve their strategic plans by using more effective results management tools such as BSC-Balanced Scorecard. Nuclear research institutes and research centers around the world have been using more and more these types of tools in their strategic planning and management. The objective of this article was to recommend the use the BSC as a strategic tool for decision making for the Sealed Sources Production Laboratory located in the Radiation Technology Center, at Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN/CNEN-SP), in Sao Paulo, Brazil. The methodology used in this academic article was a case study, which considered the object of the study, the Sealed Sources Production Laboratory, from January 2014 to August 2016. Among the main results obtained with this study can be cited: the improvement of the information flow, the visualization and proposition to change the periodicity of analysis of the results, among others. In view of the expected results, it was possible to conclude that this study may be of value to the Sealed Sources Production Laboratory for Industrial Radiography and Industrial Process Control and also to other research centers, as it will allow and contribute with an additional management support tool. (author)

  15. Molds contamination of raw milk and dairy products: Occurrence, diversity and contamination source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Moshtaghi Maleki

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the occurrence and diversity of mold species in raw milk and its products along with the identification of potential contamination sources. For this reason, a total of 260 samples consisting of 80 raw milk, 100 dairy products (i.e., pasteurized milk, yoghurt, cheese and buttermilk and 80 environmental (i.e. ingredients, packaging materials, surface of processing equipments and air specimens were collected. Using culture assay and microscopic observation, the occurrence as well as the diversity of mold species was investigated. According to the results, 82.3% of the samples were identified as positive for mold contamination. The percentage of mold contamination for raw milk was estimated as 97.5%. In the case of pasteurized milk, yoghurt, buttermilk, cheese and environmental samples, it was determined as 52%, 76%, 52%, 56% and 96.25%, respectively. Mold diversity among various samples consisted of Aspergillus, Geotrichum, Penicillium, Mucor, Alternaria, Rhizopus, Stemphylium, Cladosporium, and Fusarium. Results revealed a significant (p < 0.01 correlation between kind of mold species isolated from raw milk and dairy products. Similarly, a correlation was observed between dairy products and environmental sources. Regarding the high occurrence of mold contamination in raw milk and environmental sources, it seems that in some instances heat treatment was not effective enough to inactivate all molds; whereas in some other cases, cross contamination may have resulted in mold contamination. Therefore, it is crucial to maintain hygienic conditions during raw milk handling as well as processing steps. These practices could efficiently reduce the occurrence of mold contaminations in dairy products.

  16. Light ion source for proton/deuteron production at CEA Saclay for the Spiral2 project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuske, O.; Adroit, G.; Delferriere, O.; Denis, J-F.; Gauthier, Y.; Girardot, P.; Gobin, R.; Harrault, F.; Guiho, P.; Sauce, Y.; Uriot, D.; Vacher, T.; Van Hille, C. [CEA/Saclay, DSM/IRFU/SACM, F- 91191-Gif/Yvette (France); Graehling, P.; Hosselet, J.; Maazouzi, C. [IPHC, Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien, Strasbourg (France)

    2012-02-15

    The production of rare radioactive ion beam (RIB) far from the valley of stability is one of the final purposes of the Spiral2 facility in Caen. The RIB will be produced by impinging a deuteron beam onto a carbon sample to produce a high neutron flux, which will interact with a uranium target. The primary deuteron beam is produced by an ion source based on ECR plasma generation. The deuteron source and the low energy beam transport (LEBT) has been assembled and tested at CEA Saclay. Diagnostics from other laboratories were implemented on the LEBT in order to characterize the deuteron beam produced and compare it to the initial simulations. The ion source has been based on a SILHI-type source, which has demonstrated good performances in pulsed and continuous mode, and also a very good reliability on long term operation. The 5 mA of deuteron beam required at the RFQ entrance is extracted from the plasma source at the energy of 40 kV. After a brief description of the experimental set-up, this article reports on the first beam characterization experiments.

  17. Recent status on cobalt-60 gamma ray radiation sources production and its application in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Zhijian; Song Yunjiang; Zhang Chunhua; Li Maoling

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the status of Co-60 γ ray radiation sources and their application in China. At present, the production capacity of Co-60 γ ray radiation sources in China is about 11.1 PBq (0.3 MCi) per year. 5 years later, it is increased to 37 PBq (1 MCi) per year. The radioactivity of each source is 370 TBq - 740 TBq (1000-2000 Ci). There are over 150 Co-60 γ ray radiation facilities with total design capacity of over 370 PBq (10 MCi) and practical capacity of about 92.5 PBq (2.5 MCi) in operation. The number of Co-60 γ ray radiation facilities with practical capacity of over 3.7 PBq (0.1 MCi) is 14. The main applications of the Co-60 γ ray sources are radiation crosslinking, radiation sterilization of disposable medical supplies and food irradiation. The prospects for Co-60 γ ray radiation source application in China are good. (author)

  18. Non-Edible Plant Oils as New Sources for Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rafiqul Islam

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to the concern on the availability of recoverable fossil fuel reserves and the environmental problems caused by the use those fossil fuels, considerable attention has been given to biodiesel production as an alternative to petrodiesel. However, as the biodiesel is produced from vegetable oils and animal fats, there are concerns that biodiesel feedstock may compete with food supply in the long-term. Hence, the recent focus is to find oil bearing plants that produce non-edible oils as the feedstock for biodiesel production. In this paper, two plant species, soapnut (Sapindus mukorossi and jatropha (jatropha curcas, L. are discussed as newer sources of oil for biodiesel production. Experimental analysis showed that both oils have great potential to be used as feedstock for biodiesel production. Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME from cold pressed soapnut seed oil was envisaged as biodiesel source for the first time. Soapnut oil was found to have average of 9.1% free FA, 84.43% triglycerides, 4.88% sterol and 1.59% others. Jatropha oil contains approximately 14% free FA, approximately 5% higher than soapnut oil. Soapnut oil biodiesel contains approximately 85% unsaturated FA while jatropha oil biodiesel was found to have approximately 80% unsaturated FA. Oleic acid was found to be the dominant FA in both soapnut and jatropha biodiesel. Over 97% conversion to FAME was achieved for both soapnut and jatropha oil.

  19. Homological algebra in -abelian categories

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Deren Luo

    2017-08-16

    Aug 16, 2017 ... Homological algebra in n-abelian categories. 627. We recall the Comparison lemma, together with its dual, plays a central role in the sequel. Lemma 2.1 [13, Comparison lemma 2.1]. Let C be an additive category and X ∈ Ch. ≥0(C) a complex such that for all k ≥ 0the morphism dk+1. X is a weak cokernel ...

  20. Target life time of laser ion source for low charge state ion production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanesue,T.; Tamura, J.; Okamura, M.

    2008-06-23

    Laser ion source (LIS) produces ions by irradiating pulsed high power laser shots onto the solid state target. For the low charge state ion production, laser spot diameter on the target can be over several millimeters using a high power laser such as Nd:YAG laser. In this case, a damage to the target surface is small while there is a visible crater in case of the best focused laser shot for high charge state ion production (laser spot diameter can be several tens of micrometers). So the need of target displacement after each laser shot to use fresh surface to stabilize plasma is not required for low charge state ion production. We tested target lifetime using Nd:YAG laser with 5 Hz repetition rate. Also target temperature and vacuum condition were recorded during experiment. The feasibility of a long time operation was verified.

  1. Online data sources for regulation and remediation of chemical production, distribution, use and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snow, B.; Arnold, S.

    1995-01-01

    Environmental awareness is essential for todays corporation. Corporations have been held liable for the short-term and long-term effects of such chemicals as pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals and petrochemicals to name a few. Furthermore, corporations have been held accountable for disposal of wastes or by-products of chemical production. Responsibility for the environment either mandated by government agencies or done voluntarily is an economic factor for business operations. Remediation of environmental hazards on a voluntary basis has often created goodwill and a payoff for being socially responsible. Remediation also can result in new business opportunities or savings in production costs. To be environmentally aware and socially responsible, the chemist should know where to find regulatory information for countries worldwide. Using online data sources is an efficient method of seeking this information

  2. High-intensity, thin-target He-jet production source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Y.; Vieira, D.J.; Wouters, J.M.; Butler, G.W.; Rosenauer, Dk; Loebner, K.E.G.; Lind, V.G.; Phillips, D.R.

    1996-01-01

    A thin-target He-jet system suited to the production and rapid transport of non-volatile radioactive species has been successfully operated with proton beam intensities of up to 700 μA. The system consists of a water-cooled, thin-target chamber, capillary gas transport system, moving tape/Ge detection system, and an aerosol generator/gas recirculator. The yields for a wide variety of uranium fission and deep spallation products have been measured and robust operation of the system demonstrated for several weeks. He-jet transport and collection efficiencies ranged between 15 and 25% with collection rates of 10 7 to 10 8 atoms/sec/isotope. The high-intensity, thin-target He-jet approach represents a robust production source for nonvolatile radioactive heavy ion beams

  3. Prospects and Trends in the Brazilian Market for Biologically Sourced Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana da Silva Madeira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to select the most interesting Brazilian biopharmaceuticals, with the best market opportunity for production. The biopharmaceuticals filgrastim, infliximab, somatropin, imiglucerase, betainterferon and factor VIII were selected because they are not produced in Brazil and thus could increase the technological capacity of domestic production. The use of a data mining tool facilitated the results achieved here, using the patents deposited in several banks worldwide as the source information. The prospects and trends of producing biopharmaceuticals in Brazil are of great interest to the country to establish a competitive industry and reduce the vulnerability of the National Health System, such as display windows of opportunity, showing the possibility of moving towards the production of biopharmaceuticals.

  4. Data categories for marine planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightsom, Frances L.; Cicchetti, Giancarlo; Wahle, Charles M.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. National Ocean Policy calls for a science- and ecosystem-based approach to comprehensive planning and management of human activities and their impacts on America’s oceans. The Ocean Community in Data.gov is an outcome of 2010–2011 work by an interagency working group charged with designing a national information management system to support ocean planning. Within the working group, a smaller team developed a list of the data categories specifically relevant to marine planning. This set of categories is an important consensus statement of the breadth of information types required for ocean planning from a national, multidisciplinary perspective. Although the categories were described in a working document in 2011, they have not yet been fully implemented explicitly in online services or geospatial metadata, in part because authoritative definitions were not created formally. This document describes the purpose of the data categories, provides definitions, and identifies relations among the categories and between the categories and external standards. It is intended to be used by ocean data providers, managers, and users in order to provide a transparent and consistent framework for organizing and describing complex information about marine ecosystems and their connections to humans.

  5. Nitrogen sources affect productivity, desiccation tolerance and storage stability of Beauveria bassiana blastospores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarin, G M; Kobori, N N; Jackson, M A; Dunlap, C A; Delalibera, Í

    2018-03-01

    Nitrogen is a critical element in industrial fermentation media. This study investigated the influence of various nitrogen sources on blastospore production, desiccation tolerance and storage stability using two strains of the cosmopolitan insect-pathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana. Complex organic sources of nitrogen such as soy flour, autolysed yeast and cottonseed flour induced great numbers of blastospores after 2-3 days of fermentation, which also survived drying and remained viable (32-56% survival) after 9 months storage at 4°C, although variations were found between strains. Nitrogen availability in the form of free amino acids directly influenced blastospore production and resistance to desiccation. Increasing glucose and nitrogen concentrations up to 120 and 30 g l -1 , respectively, did not improve blastospore production but enhanced desiccation tolerance. Cell viability after drying and upon fast-rehydration was increased when ≥25 g acid-hydrolysed casein per litre was supplemented in the liquid culture medium. These findings indicate that low-cost complex nitrogen compounds are suitable to enhance yeast-like growth by B. bassiana with good desiccation tolerance and therefore support its further scale-up production as a mycoinsecticide. Nitrogen is the most expensive nutrient in liquid media composition, but this study underscores the feasibility of using low-cost nitrogen compounds composed mainly of agro-industrial by-products for rapid production of desiccation-tolerant B. bassiana blastospores by liquid culture fermentation. © 2018 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. Glycerol as a carbon source for xantan production by Xanthomonas campestris isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajić Bojana Ž.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The success of xanthan biosynthesis depends on several factors, most importantly the genetic potential of the production microorganism and cultivation media composition. Cultivation media composition affects the yield and quality of the desired product as well as production costs. This is why many studies focus on finding cheap alternative raw materials, especially carbon sources, to replace commercially used glucose and sucrose. In addition to the Xanthomonas campestris ATCC 13951 which is the primary industrial production microorganism, other Xanthomonas strains can produce xanthan as well. Under the same conditions, different strains produce different amounts of the biopolymer of varying quality. The aim of this paper is to compare producibility of phytopathogenic X. campestris strains, isolated from the environment with the reference X. campestris ATCC 13951 strain and to estimate the possibility of xanthan production using alternative glycerol-based media than the synthetic glucose-based media. Submerged cultivation on the medium based on glucose or glycerol (2.0 %w/v was performed using the reference strain and eight isolated X. campestris strains. In order to assess the success of biosynthesis, xanthan yield and rheological properties were determined. Strains isolated from the environment produced yields between 2.98 g/L and 12.17 g/L on the glucose-based medium and 1.68 g/L and 6.31 g/L on the glycerol-based medium. Additionally, X. campestris ATCC 13951 provided the highest yield when using glucose (13.24 g/L, as well as glycerol-based medium (7.44 g/L. The obtained results indicate that in the applied experimental conditions and using all tested strains, glycerol is viable as a carbon source for the production of xanthan.

  7. Chromatic Perceptual Learning but No Category Effects without Linguistic Input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandison, Alexandra; Sowden, Paul T; Drivonikou, Vicky G; Notman, Leslie A; Alexander, Iona; Davies, Ian R L

    2016-01-01

    Perceptual learning involves an improvement in perceptual judgment with practice, which is often specific to stimulus or task factors. Perceptual learning has been shown on a range of visual tasks but very little research has explored chromatic perceptual learning. Here, we use two low level perceptual threshold tasks and a supra-threshold target detection task to assess chromatic perceptual learning and category effects. Experiment 1 investigates whether chromatic thresholds reduce as a result of training and at what level of analysis learning effects occur. Experiment 2 explores the effect of category training on chromatic thresholds, whether training of this nature is category specific and whether it can induce categorical responding. Experiment 3 investigates the effect of category training on a higher level, lateralized target detection task, previously found to be sensitive to category effects. The findings indicate that performance on a perceptual threshold task improves following training but improvements do not transfer across retinal location or hue. Therefore, chromatic perceptual learning is category specific and can occur at relatively early stages of visual analysis. Additionally, category training does not induce category effects on a low level perceptual threshold task, as indicated by comparable discrimination thresholds at the newly learned hue boundary and adjacent test points. However, category training does induce emerging category effects on a supra-threshold target detection task. Whilst chromatic perceptual learning is possible, learnt category effects appear to be a product of left hemisphere processing, and may require the input of higher level linguistic coding processes in order to manifest.

  8. Intense highly charged ion beam production and operation with a superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. W. Zhao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source with advanced design in Lanzhou (SECRAL is a superconducting-magnet-based electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS for the production of intense highly charged heavy ion beams. It is one of the best performing ECRISs worldwide and the first superconducting ECRIS built with an innovative magnet to generate a high strength minimum-B field for operation with heating microwaves up to 24–28 GHz. Since its commissioning in 2005, SECRAL has so far produced a good number of continuous wave intensity records of highly charged ion beams, in which recently the beam intensities of ^{40}Ar^{12+} and ^{129}Xe^{26+} have, for the first time, exceeded 1 emA produced by an ion source. Routine operations commenced in 2007 with the Heavy Ion accelerator Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL, China. Up to June 2017, SECRAL has been providing more than 28,000 hours of highly charged heavy ion beams to the accelerator demonstrating its great capability and reliability. The great achievement of SECRAL is accumulation of numerous technical advancements, such as an innovative magnetic system and an efficient double-frequency (24+18  GHz heating with improved plasma stability. This article reviews the development of SECRAL and production of intense highly charged ion beams by SECRAL focusing on its unique magnet design, source commissioning, performance studies and enhancements, beam quality and long-term operation. SECRAL development and its performance studies representatively reflect the achievements and status of the present ECR ion source, as well as the ECRIS impacts on HIRFL.

  9. Intense highly charged ion beam production and operation with a superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H. W.; Sun, L. T.; Guo, J. W.; Lu, W.; Xie, D. Z.; Hitz, D.; Zhang, X. Z.; Yang, Y.

    2017-09-01

    The superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source with advanced design in Lanzhou (SECRAL) is a superconducting-magnet-based electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) for the production of intense highly charged heavy ion beams. It is one of the best performing ECRISs worldwide and the first superconducting ECRIS built with an innovative magnet to generate a high strength minimum-B field for operation with heating microwaves up to 24-28 GHz. Since its commissioning in 2005, SECRAL has so far produced a good number of continuous wave intensity records of highly charged ion beams, in which recently the beam intensities of 40Ar+ and 129Xe26+ have, for the first time, exceeded 1 emA produced by an ion source. Routine operations commenced in 2007 with the Heavy Ion accelerator Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL), China. Up to June 2017, SECRAL has been providing more than 28,000 hours of highly charged heavy ion beams to the accelerator demonstrating its great capability and reliability. The great achievement of SECRAL is accumulation of numerous technical advancements, such as an innovative magnetic system and an efficient double-frequency (24 +18 GHz ) heating with improved plasma stability. This article reviews the development of SECRAL and production of intense highly charged ion beams by SECRAL focusing on its unique magnet design, source commissioning, performance studies and enhancements, beam quality and long-term operation. SECRAL development and its performance studies representatively reflect the achievements and status of the present ECR ion source, as well as the ECRIS impacts on HIRFL.

  10. 40 CFR 156.62 - Toxicity Category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Acute Toxicity Categories for Pesticide Products Hazard Indicators I II III IV Oral LD50 Up to and including 50 mg/kg >50 thru 500 mg/kg >500 thru 5,000 mg/kg >5,000 mg/kg Dermal LD50 Up to and including 200 mg/kg >200 thru 2000 mg/kg >2000 thru 20,000 mg/kg >20,000 mg/kg Inhalation LC50 Up to and including...

  11. The influence of nitrogen sources on the alpha-amylase productivity of Aspergillus oryzae in continuous cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik; Nielsen, Jens

    2000-01-01

    The influence of the nitrogen source on the cc-amylase productivity of Aspergillus oryzae was quantified in continuous cultivations. Both inorganic and complex nitrogen sources were investigated and glucose was used as the carbon and energy sources. For production of alpha-amylase, nitrate...... in the cc-amylase productivity. The higher alpha-amylase productivity during growth on casein hydrolysate was not caused by increased transcription of the alpha-amylase genes but was caused by a faster secretion of alpha-amylase or by a lower binding of alpha-amylase to the biomass....

  12. Development of a compact ECR ion source for various ion production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muramatsu, M., E-mail: m-mura@nirs.go.jp; Hojo, S.; Iwata, Y.; Katagiri, K.; Sakamoto, Y.; Kitagawa, A. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Takahashi, N. [Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd., 19 Natsushima, Yokosuka, Kanagawa 237-8555 (Japan); Sasaki, N.; Fukushima, K.; Takahashi, K.; Suzuki, T.; Sasano, T. [Accelerator Engineering Corporation, 3-8-5 Konakadai, Inage, Chiba 263-0043 (Japan); Uchida, T.; Yoshida, Y. [Bio-Nano Electronics Research Centre, Toyo University, 2100 Kujirai, Kawagoe-shi, Saitama 350-8585 (Japan); Hagino, S.; Nishiokada, T.; Kato, Y. [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita-shi, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    There is a desire that a carbon-ion radiotherapy facility will produce various ion species for fundamental research. Although the present Kei2-type ion sources are dedicated for the carbon-ion production, a future ion source is expected that could provide: (1) carbon-ion production for medical use, (2) various ions with a charge-to-mass ratio of 1/3 for the existing Linac injector, and (3) low cost for modification. A prototype compact electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source, named Kei3, based on the Kei series has been developed to correspond to the Kei2 type and to produce these various ions at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS). The Kei3 has an outer diameter of 280 mm and a length of 1120 mm. The magnetic field is formed by the same permanent magnet as Kei2. The movable extraction electrode has been installed in order to optimize the beam extraction with various current densities. The gas-injection side of the vacuum chamber has enough space for an oven system. We measured dependence of microwave frequency, extraction voltage, and puller position. Charge state distributions of helium, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and neon were also measured.

  13. Effect of nitrogen sources on biomass, lipid and docosahexanoic acid production by Aurantiochytrium sp. SW1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auma, Khairunnisa; Hamid, Aidil Abdul; Yusoff, Wan Mohtar Wan

    2018-04-01

    A local isolate, Aurantiochytrium sp. SW1 has been verified to have high content of docosahexanoic acid (DHA). However, the effect of different nitrogen sources on biomass, lipid concentration and DHA content in Aurantiochytrium sp. SW1 is still unknown. Hence, this study is focused in using six different organic and inorganic nitrogen sources to grow Aurantiochytrium sp. SW1 in optimized Burja medium. Monosodium glutamate (MSG) gave the highest biomass concentration of 15.97 g/L followed by ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) with 13.37 g/L at 96 hr. These two nitrogen sources had significant effect on the biomass concentration (pDHA content in lipid showed cultivation using MSG reached 47.9% (4.95 g/L). Statistical analysis using least significant difference (LSD) showed significant lipid production (pDHA productivity (0.052 g/L hr-1) was obtained in medium containing MSG. This study proves that nitrogen component in the medium significantly affects the biomass concentration, lipid and DHA content.

  14. Potential Impacts of Food Production on Freshwater Availability Considering Water Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinjiro Yano

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We quantify the potential impacts of global food production on freshwater availability (water scarcity footprint; WSF by applying the water unavailability factor (fwua as a characterization factor and a global water resource model based on life cycle impact assessment (LCIA. Each water source, including rainfall, surface water, and groundwater, has a distinct fwua that is estimated based on the renewability rate of each geographical water cycle. The aggregated consumptive water use level for food production (water footprint inventory; WI was found to be 4344 km3/year, and the calculated global total WSF was 18,031 km3 H2Oeq/year, when considering the difference in water sources. According to the fwua concept, which is based on the land area required to obtain a unit volume of water from each source, the calculated annual impact can also be represented as 98.5 × 106 km2. This value implies that current agricultural activities requires a land area that is over six times larger than global total cropland. We also present the net import of the WI and WSF, highlighting the importance of quantitative assessments for utilizing global water resources to achieve sustainable water use globally.

  15. Performance Assessment of Multi-Source Weighted-Ensemble Precipitation (MSWEP Product over India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhilesh S. Nair

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Error characterization is vital for the advancement of precipitation algorithms, the evaluation of numerical model outputs, and their integration in various hydro-meteorological applications. The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA has been a benchmark for successive Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM based products. This has given way to the evolution of many multi-satellite precipitation products. This study evaluates the performance of the newly released multi-satellite Multi-Source Weighted-Ensemble Precipitation (MSWEP product, whose temporal variability was determined based on several data products including TMPA 3B42 RT. The evaluation was conducted over India with respect to the IMD-gauge-based rainfall for pre-monsoon, monsoon, and post monsoon seasons at daily scale for a 35-year (1979–2013 period. The rainfall climatology is examined over India and over four geographical extents within India known to be subject to uniform rainfall. The performance evaluation of rainfall time series was carried out. In addition to this, the performance of the product over different rainfall classes was evaluated along with the contribution of each class to the total rainfall. Further, seasonal evaluation of the MSWEP products was based on the categorical and volumetric indices from the contingency table. Upon evaluation it was observed that the MSWEP products show large errors in detecting the higher quantiles of rainfall (>75th and > 95th quantiles. The MSWEP precipitation product available at a 0.25° × 0.25° spatial resolution and daily temporal resolution matched well with the daily IMD rainfall over India. Overall results suggest that a suitable region and season-dependent bias correction is essential before its integration in hydrological applications. While the MSWEP was observed to perform well for daily rainfall, it suffered from poor detection capabilities for higher quantiles, making

  16. Agricultural production as a source of irradiation of populations in radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexakhin, R.M.

    2000-01-01

    Radioactive contamination of the agricultural production sphere in case of a radiation accident with radionuclide release is one of the most important sources of additional irradiation for population. As a result, realisation of the measures for mitigating the consequences of the accident in agro-industrial complex assumes the leading role in total system of measures providing radiation safety. The possibility to obtain agricultural production meeting the radiological standards is one of the main indications of effectiveness of liquidation of the accident consequences. First, obtaining of agricultural production meeting the radiological standards provides decreasing of the total radiation dose. The evidence is obtained in the 8-year experience of liquidation of the Chernobyl NPP accident that the 70% decrease of the internal dose for population became possible through a complex of protection measures in agriculture (during the first year after the accident, the contribution of internal dose into the total one amounted to 45%, and that of external irradiation - 52%; for the 70-year period these values are 39% and 60%, respectively). Second, the possibility to obtain 'pure' agricultural production is one of the most important factors of psychological stability for population. Third, obtaining of consumable (as to radionuclide content) agricultural production in private small holdings is one of the guarantees of stability of demographic sector in the accident-affected zone. From the point of view of organization of agricultural production in liquidation of the consequences of accidents with radioactive releases into environment, some periods can be distinguished: (i) the first (early) period takes 10-12 days after the accident. The main measures in the field of agricultural production are in operative assessment of the radiological situation, organization of radiation survey, express classification of agricultural products ready to consumption. If radionuclide content

  17. Atmospheric Precipitations, Hailstone and Rainwater, as a Novel Source of Streptomyces Producing Bioactive Natural Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento-Vizcaíno, Aida; Espadas, Julia; Martín, Jesús; Braña, Alfredo F.; Reyes, Fernando; García, Luis A.; Blanco, Gloria

    2018-01-01

    A cultivation-dependent approach revealed that highly diverse populations of Streptomyces were present in atmospheric precipitations from a hailstorm event sampled in February 2016 in the Cantabrian Sea coast, North of Spain. A total of 29 bioactive Streptomyces strains isolated from small samples of hailstone and rainwater, collected from this hailstorm event, were studied here. Taxonomic identification by 16S rRNA sequencing revealed more than 20 different Streptomyces species, with their closest homologs displaying mainly oceanic but also terrestrial origins. Backward trajectory analysis revealed that the air-mass sources of the hailstorm event, with North Western winds, were originated in the Arctic Ocean (West Greenland and North Iceland) and Canada (Labrador), depending on the altitude. After traveling across the North Atlantic Ocean during 4 days the air mass reached Europe and precipitated as hailstone and rain water at the sampling place in Spain. The finding of Streptomyces species able to survive and disperse through the atmosphere increases our knowledge of the biogeography of genus Streptomyces on Earth, and reinforces our previous dispersion model, suggesting a generalized feature for the genus which could have been essential in his evolution. This unique atmospheric-derived Streptomyces collection was screened for production of bioactive secondary metabolites. Analyses of isolates ethyl acetate extracts by LC-UV-MS and further database comparison revealed an extraordinary diversity of bioactive natural products. One hundred molecules were identified, mostly displaying contrasted antibiotic and antitumor/cytotoxic activities, but also antiparasitic, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotector, and insecticide properties. More interestingly, 38 molecules not identified in natural products databases might represent new natural products. Our results revealed for the first time an extraordinary diversity of Streptomyces species in the atmosphere able to

  18. Production and characterization of polyhydroxybutyrate from Vibrio harveyi MCCB 284 utilizing glycerol as carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohandas, S P; Balan, L; Lekshmi, N; Cubelio, S S; Philip, R; Bright Singh, I S

    2017-03-01

    Production and characterization of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) from moderately halophilic bacterium Vibrio harveyi MCCB 284 isolated from tunicate Phallusia nigra. Twenty-five bacterial isolates were obtained from tunicate samples and three among them exhibited an orange fluorescence in Nile red staining indicating the presence of PHB. One of the isolates, MCCB 284, which showed rapid growth and good polymer yield, was identified as V. harveyi. The optimum conditions of the isolate for the PHB production were pH 8·0, sodium chloride concentration 20 g l -1 , inoculum size 0·5% (v/v), glycerol 20 g l -1 and 72 h of incubation at 30°C. Cell dry weight (CDW) of 3·2 g l -1 , PHB content of 2·3 g l -1 and final PHB yield of 1·2 g l -1 were achieved. The extracted PHB was characterized by FTIR, NMR and DSC-TGA techniques. An isolate of V. harveyi that could effectively utilize glycerol for growth and PHB accumulation was obtained from tunicate P. nigra. PHB produced was up to 72% based on CDW. This is the first report of an isolate of V. harveyi which utilizes glycerol as the sole carbon source for PHB production with high biomass yield. This isolate could be of use as candidate species for commercial PHB production using glycerol as the feed stock or as source of genes for recombinant PHB production or for synthetic biology. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. Influence of fission product transport on delayed neutron precursors and decay heat sources in LMFBR accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apperson, C.E. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    A method is presented for studying the influence of fission product transpot on delayed neutron precursors and decay heat sources during Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) unprotected accidents. The model represents the LMFBR core as a closed homogeneous cell. Thermodynamic phase equilibrium theory is used to predict fission product mobility. Reactor kinetics behavior is analyzed by an extension of point kinetics theory. Group dependent delayed neutron precursor and decay heat source retention factors, which represent the fraction of each group retained in the fuel, are developed to link the kinetics and thermodynamics analysis. Application of the method to a highly simplified model of an unprotected loss-of-flow accident shows a time delay on the order of 10 ms is introduced in the predisassembly power history if fission product motion is considered when compared to the traditional transient solution. The post-transient influence of fission product transport calculated by the present model is a 24 percent reduction in the decay heat level in the fuel material which is similar to traditional approximations. Isotopes of the noble gases, Kr and Xe, and the elements I and Br are shown to be very mobile and are responsible for a major part of the observed effects. Isotopes of the elements Cs, Se, Rb, and Te were found to be moderately mobile and contribute to a lesser extent to the observed phenomena. These results obtained from the application of the described model confirm the initial hypothesis that sufficient fission product transport can occur to influence a transient. For these reasons, it is concluded that extension of this model into a multi-cell transient analysis code is warranted

  20. Fission Product Transport and Source Terms in HTRs: Experience from AVR Pebble Bed Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Moormann

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Fission products deposited in the coolant circuit outside of the active core play a dominant role in source term estimations for advanced small pebble bed HTRs, particularly in design basis accidents (DBA. The deposited fission products may be released in depressurization accidents because present pebble bed HTR concepts abstain from a gas tight containment. Contamination of the circuit also hinders maintenance work. Experiments, performed from 1972 to 88 on the AVR, an experimental pebble bed HTR, allow for a deeper insight into fission product transport behavior. The activity deposition per coolant pass was lower than expected and was influenced by fission product chemistry and by presence of carbonaceous dust. The latter lead also to inconsistencies between Cs plate out experiments in laboratory and in AVR. The deposition behavior of Ag was in line with present models. Dust as activity carrier is of safety relevance because of its mobility and of its sorption capability for fission products. All metal surfaces in pebble bed reactors were covered by a carbonaceous dust layer. Dust in AVR was produced by abrasion in amounts of about 5 kg/y. Additional dust sources in AVR were ours oil ingress and peeling of fuel element surfaces due to an air ingress. Dust has a size of about 1  m, consists mainly of graphite, is partly remobilized by flow perturbations, and deposits with time constants of 1 to 2 hours. In future reactors, an efficient filtering via a gas tight containment is required because accidents with fast depressurizations induce dust mobilization. Enhanced core temperatures in normal operation as in AVR and broken fuel pebbles have to be considered, as inflammable dust concentrations in the gas phase.

  1. Effect of feeding of different sources of NPN on production performance of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraj Karcol

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyse the effect of feeding of different sources of NPN on nutrient utilization and production performance of dairy cows under field conditions. Balancing diets for crude protein without consideration of protein quality or rumen degradability often led to overfeeding of nitrogen and less than optimum production. High yielding dairy cows separated in two groups with 85 resp. 80 cows in each were set up for the trial. Groups were consistent according the stage of production and reproduction cycle as well as age structure. Both groups were fed concentrate mixture with the same composition with only difference in NPN/ microbial protein source, with same dosage of 100 g per cow and day. Field trial was performed for period of 3 subsequent months. Performance data were collected in accordance with official milk recording. In both groups majority of cows were on first lactation. Significant differences in daily milk production were observed 2.87 kg (P<0.01 for group 2, in fat content 0.07 % for group 2 non-significant, whereas in protein content 0.18% for group 1 significant (P<0.01 in case of first lactations. If considering first tree lactations, group 2 produced 1.7 kg milk per day more (P<0.08, with 0.05% fat more and 0.002 % protein less than group 1. The space created in dry matter intake by a concentrated slow-release NPN can be filled with high quality forage that could reduce the cost of feeding while maintaining levels of production.

  2. Effect of three sources of nutrients on biomass and pigment production of freshwater microalgae Hyaloraphidium contortum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caña, E.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Multifunctionality of microalgae is becoming increasingly important, hence science develops new techniques to maximize their potential by providing food, sustainable and affordable fuels and innovative environmental solutions. In this study, we analyzed the effect of different nutrient sources (Nitrofoska®, Quimifol® and Guillard and sowing time on the kinetics of growth and pigment production of freshwater microalgae Hyaloraphidium contortum; besides of registering some physical and chemical variables in different growth mediums. Bioassays were performed in batch cultures by quadruplicate, continously maintaining and controlling temperature, ventilation and lighting. Growth was determined by cell count and production of pigments by spectrophotometry. The largest population densities and productivities per volume of culture were obtained in F/2 Guillard (9.7±0.2x107 cel mL-1 and 7.6x108 cel/L/ day and Nitrofoska® (8.7±0.5x107 cel mL-1 and 5.7x108 cel/L/day. The highest average chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and total carotenoid concentration was achieved with foliar fertilizer Nitrofoska®, on days 18 and 24 (8, 3.29 and 2.2 μg mL-1, respectively, followed by the obtained by Guillard and Quimifol®. We conclude that this microalgae can be grown with commercial agricultural fertilizers as an alternative source of nutrients to produce biomass and pigments with applications in biotechnology and aquaculture industries.

  3. Particle production in field theories coupled to strong external sources, I: Formalism and main results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelis, Francois; Venugopalan, Raju

    2006-01-01

    We develop a formalism for particle production in a field theory coupled to a strong time-dependent external source. An example of such a theory is the color glass condensate. We derive a formula, in terms of cut vacuum-vacuum Feynman graphs, for the probability of producing a given number of particles. This formula is valid to all orders in the coupling constant. The distribution of multiplicities is non-Poissonian, even in the classical approximation. We investigate an alternative method of calculating the mean multiplicity. At leading order, the average multiplicity can be expressed in terms of retarded solutions of classical equations of motion. We demonstrate that the average multiplicity at next-to-leading order can be formulated as an initial value problem by solving equations of motion for small fluctuation fields with retarded boundary conditions. The variance of the distribution can be calculated in a similar fashion. Our formalism therefore provides a framework to compute from first principles particle production in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions beyond leading order in the coupling constant and to all orders in the source density. We also provide a transparent interpretation (in conventional field theory language) of the well-known Abramovsky-Gribov-Kancheli (AGK) cancellations. Explicit connections are made between the framework for multi-particle production developed here and the framework of reggeon field theory

  4. Eyewitnesses of History: Italian Amateur Cinema as Cultural Heritage and Source for Audiovisual and Media Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Simoni

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The role of amateur cinema as archival material in Italian media productions has only recently been discovered. Italy, as opposed to other European countries, lacked a local, regional and national policy for the collection and preservation of private audiovisual documents, which led, as a result, to the inaccessibility of the sources. In 2002 the Archivio Nazionale del Film di Famiglia (Italy’s Amateur Film Archive, founded in Bologna by the Home Movies Association, became the reference repository of home movies and amateur cinema, promoting the availability of a cultural heritage that had previously been neglected. Today, it preserves about 5,000 hours of footage, contributes to documentary film productions and acts as a cultural and production center. The impact factor of the Home Movies Archive on the Italian audiovisual scenario and the sustainable perspectives strengthen the awareness that amateur film offers new opportunities to discover and represent the past from a different perspective, the one of an eyewitness “from below”. The article overviews the European and Italian discovery of amateur cinema as historical source from the seventies, and some cases from the Italian panorama during the last fifteen years, which powerfully raised the attention on home movies and amateur archive material.

  5. Forecast of power generation and heat production from renewable energy sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pydych Tadeusz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The share of renewable energy sources (RES in the end use of energy in the UE will increase from the present level of about 25% to 50 % in 2030 according to the assumptions of the European Commission. In Poland the RES Act was passed in 2015. The act defines mechanisms and instruments for supporting the production of electricity and heat from renewable energy sources. Statistics (2003–2014 of electricity generation and heat production from RES in Poland were used in the research. Because of amendments to regulations connected with promoting RES and the emissions trading system (ETS as well as the uncertainty associated with further directions of the energy and environmental policy, generation of electricity and heat based on the use of RES must be modelled while taking risk into account. A number of dynamic processes incorporating random events may be modelled by stochastic equations using Ito calculus. By applying Euler’s method to solve stochastic differential equations (SDE, it is possible to simulate the development of the use of renewable energy carriers in electricity generation and heat production in the future.

  6. Effects of alternative protein sources on rumen microbes and productivity of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metha Wanapat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of various protein sources on digestibility, rumen fermentation, milk yield and milk composition in dairy cows. Four Holstein Friesian native crossbred cows in early lactating were randomly assigned according to a 4x4 Latin square design. The dietary treatments containing different protein sources in concentrate diets were soybean meal (SBM, cassava hay (CH, Leucaena leucocephala (LL and yeast-fermented cassava chips (YEFECAP, with ad libitum intake of urea-treated rice straw. Digestibility of DM, OM, NDF and ADF was not different among treatments (P>0.05 while CP digestibility was highest (P<0.05 in CH and YEFECAP supplemented groups. Ruminal NH3-N and BUN concentrations varied among protein sources and were highest in SBM and LL fed groups (P<0.05. Ruminal total volatile fatty acid (VFA and propionic acid were found highest in cows receiving CH and YEFECAP (P<0.05. Ruminal fungi, proteolytic and cellulolytic bacteria were highest when YEFECAP was supplemented. Milk fat and milk protein were significantly increased (P<0.05 in cows fed with CH and YEFECAP. Based on this study, it was concluded that providing CH or YEFECAP as protein source in concentrate diets could improve rumen fermentation and milk production in lactating dairy cows fed on rice straw.

  7. Towards the development of a salinity impact category for South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DRINIE

    2003-07-03

    Jul 3, 2003 ... nature from existing categories to warrant a separate salinity impact category. A conceptual method is ... compounds to the environment from all stages of a product's life- cycle are ... Marine. - Terrestrial. • Photo-oxidant formation. • Acidification .... algae. Reduced light input. Oxygen depletion near bottom.

  8. Biomass production and energy source of thermophiles in a Japanese alkaline geothermal pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Hiroyuki; Mori, Kousuke; Nashimoto, Hiroaki; Hattori, Shohei; Yamada, Keita; Koba, Keisuke; Yoshida, Naohiro; Kato, Kenji

    2010-02-01

    Microbial biomass production has been measured to investigate the contribution of planktonic bacteria to fluxations in dissolved organic matter in marine and freshwater environments, but little is known about biomass production of thermophiles inhabiting geothermal and hydrothermal regions. The biomass production of thermophiles inhabiting an 85 degrees C geothermal pool was measured by in situ cultivation using diffusion chambers. The thermophiles' growth rates ranged from 0.43 to 0.82 day(-1), similar to those of planktonic bacteria in marine and freshwater habitats. Biomass production was estimated based on cellular carbon content measured directly from the thermophiles inhabiting the geothermal pool, which ranged from 5.0 to 6.1 microg C l(-1) h(-1). This production was 2-75 times higher than that of planktonic bacteria in other habitats, because the cellular carbon content of the thermophiles was much higher. Quantitative PCR and phylogenetic analysis targeting 16S rRNA genes revealed that thermophilic H2-oxidizing bacteria closely related to Calderobacterium and Geothermobacterium were dominant in the geothermal pool. Chemical analysis showed the presence of H2 in gases bubbling from the bottom of the geothermal pool. These results strongly suggested that H2 plays an important role as a primary energy source of thermophiles in the geothermal pool.

  9. Glycerol (byproduct of biodiesel production) as a source of fuels and chemicals : mini review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, X.; Burton, R. [Piedmont Biofuels Industrial, Pittsboro, NC (United States); Zhou, Y. [Yonezawa Hamari Chemical, Ltd., Yonezawa, Yamagata (Japan)

    2010-07-01

    Glycerol, a byproduct of biodiesel production, is a potential renewable feedstock for the production of functional chemicals. This paper reviewed recent developments in the conversion of glycerol into value-added products, including citric acid, lactic acid, 1,3-dihydroxyacetone (DHA), 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD), dichloro-2-propanol (DCP), acrolein, hydrogen, and ethanol. The new applications of glycerol will improve the economic viability of the biodiesel industry and capitalize on the oversupply of crude glycerol that the biodiesel industry has produced. Increasing abundance and attractive pricing make glycerol an attractive feedstock for deriving value-added chemical compounds. The processes turn glycerol into chemicals, materials, and fuels and fuel additives. Whereas glycerol from first-generation biodiesel production has low purity, glycerol from second-generation biodiesel production, which uses non-edible oil as a feedstock, produces a higher purity glycerol, minimizing the related impurity problem and potentially increasing the applications of glycerol. Glycerol is also being looked at as a carbon source for algal biomass fermentation. 36 refs.

  10. Ozone Production With Dielectric Barrier Discharge: Effects of Power Source and Humidity

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xuming

    2016-08-24

    Ozone synthesis in air dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) was studied with an emphasis on the effects of power sources and humidity. Discharge characteristics were investigated to understand the physical properties of plasma and corresponding system performance. It was found that 10-ns pulsed DBD produced a homogeneous discharge mode, while ac DBD yielded an inhomogeneous pattern with many microdischarge channels. At a similar level of the energy density (ED), decreasing the flowrate is more effective in the production of ozone for the cases of the ac DBD, while increased voltage is more effective for the pulsed DBD. Note that the maximum ozone production efficiency (110 g/kWh) was achieved with the pulsed DBD. At the ED of ∼ 85 J/L, the ozone concentrations with dry air were over three times higher than those with the relative humidity of 100% for both the ac DBD and pulsed DBD cases. A numerical simulation was conducted using a global model to understand a detailed chemical role of water vapor to ozone production. It was found HO and OH radicals from water vapor significantly consumed O atoms, resulting in a reduction in ozone production. The global model qualitatively captured the experimental trends, providing further evidence that the primary effect of humidity on ozone production is chemical in nature.

  11. Volatile chemical products emerging as largest petrochemical source of urban organic emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Brian C.; de Gouw, Joost A.; Gilman, Jessica B.; Jathar, Shantanu H.; Akherati, Ali; Cappa, Christopher D.; Jimenez, Jose L.; Lee-Taylor, Julia; Hayes, Patrick L.; McKeen, Stuart A.; Cui, Yu Yan; Kim, Si-Wan; Gentner, Drew R.; Isaacman-VanWertz, Gabriel; Goldstein, Allen H.; Harley, Robert A.; Frost, Gregory J.; Roberts, James M.; Ryerson, Thomas B.; Trainer, Michael

    2018-02-01

    A gap in emission inventories of urban volatile organic compound (VOC) sources, which contribute to regional ozone and aerosol burdens, has increased as transportation emissions in the United States and Europe have declined rapidly. A detailed mass balance demonstrates that the use of volatile chemical products (VCPs)—including pesticides, coatings, printing inks, adhesives, cleaning agents, and personal care products—now constitutes half of fossil fuel VOC emissions in industrialized cities. The high fraction of VCP emissions is consistent with observed urban outdoor and indoor air measurements. We show that human exposure to carbonaceous aerosols of fossil origin is transitioning away from transportation-related sources and toward VCPs. Existing U.S. regulations on VCPs emphasize mitigating ozone and air toxics, but they currently exempt many chemicals that lead to secondary organic aerosols.

  12. Study and survey of assembling parameters to a radioactive source production laboratory used to verify equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauglitz, Erica; Nagatomy, Helio Rissei; Moura, Eduardo S.; Zeituni, Carlos Alberto; Hilario, Katia A. Fonseca; Rostelato, Maria Elisa C.M.; Karam Junior, Dib

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the survey of parameters for the installation and implementation of a laboratory for radioactive sources production at immobilized resin. These sources are used in nuclear medicine for verification of dose calibrators, as the standard guidelines of the National Commission of Nuclear CNEN-NE-3.05 'Radioprotection and safety requirements for nuclear medicine services.' The radioisotopes used for this purpose are: Co-57, Cs-137 and Ba-133, with activities of 185 MBq, 9.3 MBq and 5.4 MBq, respectively. The parameters for the assembly of the laboratory shall be defined according to guidelines that guide the deployment of radiochemical laboratories and standards of the National Commission of Nuclear Energy. (author)

  13. Occurrence, sources and fate of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in the groundwater: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Sui

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The presence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs in the aquatic environment may pose potential threat to the ecosystem and human health, hence PPCPs have aroused much concern over the world. The contamination of PPCPs in the groundwater, the main source of drinking water supply in many countries and regions, has been extensively studied in the last decade. This paper reviews the occurrence of frequently detected PPCPs, including antibiotics, anti-inflammatories, lipid-regulators, carbamazepine, caffeine, and N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide in groundwater, with special concern to the progress made over the past three years. Possible emission sources for PPCPs in groundwater, such as wastewater and contaminated surface water, landfills, septic systems, livestock breeding and sewer leakage, are summarized. Besides, adsorption, migration and degradation, the dominant mechanisms in the subsurface transport and fate of PPCPs, are discussed, and the insights into the future study of PPCPs in the groundwater are provided.

  14. Study and survey of assembling parameters to a radioactive source production laboratory used to verify equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauglitz, Erica; Nagatomy, Helio Rissei; Moura, Eduardo S.; Zeituni, Carlos Alberto; Hilario, Katia A. Fonseca; Rostelato, Maria Elisa C.M., E-mail: egauglitz@ipen.b, E-mail: elisaros@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Karam Junior, Dib, E-mail: dib.karan@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola de Artes, Ciencias e Humanidades

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents the survey of parameters for the installation and implementation of a laboratory for radioactive sources production at immobilized resin. These sources are used in nuclear medicine for verification of dose calibrators, as the standard guidelines of the National Commission of Nuclear CNEN-NE-3.05 'Radioprotection and safety requirements for nuclear medicine services.' The radioisotopes used for this purpose are: Co-57, Cs-137 and Ba-133, with activities of 185 MBq, 9.3 MBq and 5.4 MBq, respectively. The parameters for the assembly of the laboratory shall be defined according to guidelines that guide the deployment of radiochemical laboratories and standards of the National Commission of Nuclear Energy. (author)

  15. A high-intensity He-jet production source for radioactive beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, D.J.; Kimberly, H.J.; Grisham, D.L.; Talbert, W.L.; Wouters, J.M.; Rosenauer, D.; Bai, Y.

    1993-01-01

    The use of a thin-target, He-jet transport system operating with high primary beam intensities is explored as a high-intensity production source for radioactive beams. This method is expected to work well for short-lived, non-volatile species. As such the thin-target, He-jet approach represents a natural complement to the thick-target ISOL method in which such species are not, in general, rapidly released. Highlighted here is a thin-target, He-jet system that is being prepared for a 500 + μA, 800-MeV proton demonstration experiment at LAMPF this summer

  16. Sources of HO x and production of ozone in the upper troposphere over the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Jaeglé, L.; Jacob, Daniel James; Brune, W. H.; Tan, D.; Faloona, I. C.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Ridley, B. A.; Campos, T. L.; Sachse, G. W.

    1998-01-01

    The sources of HOx (OH+peroxy radicals) and the associated production of ozone at 8–12 km over the United States are examined by modeling observations of OH, HO2, NO, and other species during the SUCCESS aircraft campaign in April–May 1996. The HOx concentrations measured in SUCCESS are up to a factor of 3 higher than can be calculated from oxidation of water vapor and photolysis of acetone. The highest discrepancy was seen in the outflow of a convective storm. We show that convective injecti...

  17. Comparison of DT neutron production codes MCUNED, ENEA-JSI source subroutine and DDT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Čufar, Aljaž, E-mail: aljaz.cufar@ijs.si [Reactor Physics Department, Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Lengar, Igor; Kodeli, Ivan [Reactor Physics Department, Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Milocco, Alberto [Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Sauvan, Patrick [Departamento de Ingeniería Energética, E.T.S. Ingenieros Industriales, UNED, C/Juan del Rosal 12, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Conroy, Sean [VR Association, Uppsala University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, PO Box 516, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Snoj, Luka [Reactor Physics Department, Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Results of three codes capable of simulating the accelerator based DT neutron generators were compared on a simple model where only a thin target made of mixture of titanium and tritium is present. Two typical deuteron beam energies, 100 keV and 250 keV, were used in the comparison. • Comparisons of the angular dependence of the total neutron flux and spectrum as well as the neutron spectrum of all the neutrons emitted from the target show general agreement of the results but also some noticeable differences. • A comparison of figures of merit of the calculations using different codes showed that the computational time necessary to achieve the same statistical uncertainty can vary for more than 30× when different codes for the simulation of the DT neutron generator are used. - Abstract: As the DT fusion reaction produces neutrons with energies significantly higher than in fission reactors, special fusion-relevant benchmark experiments are often performed using DT neutron generators. However, commonly used Monte Carlo particle transport codes such as MCNP or TRIPOLI cannot be directly used to analyze these experiments since they do not have the capabilities to model the production of DT neutrons. Three of the available approaches to model the DT neutron generator source are the MCUNED code, the ENEA-JSI DT source subroutine and the DDT code. The MCUNED code is an extension of the well-established and validated MCNPX Monte Carlo code. The ENEA-JSI source subroutine was originally prepared for the modelling of the FNG experiments using different versions of the MCNP code (−4, −5, −X) and was later extended to allow the modelling of both DT and DD neutron sources. The DDT code prepares the DT source definition file (SDEF card in MCNP) which can then be used in different versions of the MCNP code. In the paper the methods for the simulation of the DT neutron production used in the codes are briefly described and compared for the case of a

  18. Category O for quantum groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henning Haahr; Mazorchuk, Volodymyr

    2015-01-01

    We study the BGG-categories O_q associated to quantum groups. We prove that many properties of the ordinary BGG-category O for a semisimple complex Lie algebra carry over to the quantum case. Of particular interest is the case when q is a complex root of unity. Here we prove a tensor decomposition...... for simple modules, projective modules, and indecomposable tilting modules. Using the known Kazhdan–Lusztig conjectures for O and for finite-dimensional U_q-modules we are able to determine all irreducible characters as well as the characters of all indecomposable tilting modules in O_q . As a consequence......, we also recover the known result that the generic quantum case behaves like the classical category O....

  19. Contribution of green energy sources to electrical power production of Turkey: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balat, Havva

    2008-01-01

    Green power products may be seen as a means of fostering renewable energy sources (RES) because they create and channel consumer demand for environmentally sound power generation. Turkey also has a large potential for renewable energy exploitation in a number of areas. Clean, domestic and renewable energy is commonly accepted as the key for future life, not only for Turkey but also for the world. The renewable energy contribution in the total primary energy production is insignificant. The alternative and renewable energy systems have been neglected so far in Turkey but must be included in the new energy programs. In this context, Renewable Energy Law was enacted in 2005 in order to encourage renewable-based generation in competitive market conditions. Supporting mechanisms such as feed-in tariffs and purchase obligation are defined in the law, in conformity with the EU legislation and practice. These mechanisms are envisaged to facilitate the development of power plants based on RES. (author)

  20. Evaluation of biobutanol production by Clostridium beijerinckii NRRL B-592 using sweet sorghum as carbon source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Jardel Visioli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this research it was evaluated the production of biobutanol by Clostridium beijerinckiiNRRL B-592 using sweet sorghum juice as carbon source. Operational variables, like pH and initial inoculum size, as well as supplementation of industrial media with yeast extract and tryptone, were evaluated. The maximum butanol obtained was 2.12g kg-1 using 12.5% of inoculum size, 0.05g 100mL-1 of tryptone and 0.1g 100mL-1 of yeast extract and initial pH of 5.5. The main contribution of this research was to show a systematic procedure for development of a low cost industrial media for biobutanol production from sweet sorghum.

  1. Insect proteins as a potential source of antimicrobial peptides in livestock production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Józefiak, A; Engberg, Ricarda Margarete

    2017-01-01

    in the nutrition of different livestock. The great potential for the use of AMPs in animal production is primarily associated with the growing problem of antibiotics resistance, which has triggered the search for alternatives to antibiotics in livestock production. The review presents the current knowledge...... been identified in different organisms, including plants, fungi, bacteria and animals. Insects are a primary source of AMPs which are considered as not resulting in the development of natural bacterial resistance. In general, they are characterized as heat-stable with no adverse effects on eukaryotic...... cells. These characteristics contribute to the potential use of these proteins in human and veterinary medicine and in animal nutrition. Depending on their mode of action, insect AMPs may be applied as single peptides, as a complex of different AMPs and as an active fraction of insect proteins...

  2. High charge state metal ion production in vacuum arc ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, I.G.; Anders, A.; Anders, S.

    1994-01-01

    The vacuum arc is a rich source of highly ionized metal plasma that can be used to make a high current metal ion source. Vacuum arc ion sources have been developed for a range of applications including ion implantation for materials surface modification, particle accelerator injection for fundamental nuclear physics research, and other fundamental and applied purposes. Typically the source is repetitively pulsed with pulse length of order a millisecond and duty cycle or order 1% and operation of a dc embodiment has been demonstrated also. Beams have been produced from over 50 of the solid metals of the periodic table, with mean ion energy up to several hundred keV and with peak (pulsed) beam current up to several amperes. The ion charge state distribution has been extensively studied. Ion spectra have been measured for a wide range of metallic cathode materials, including Li, C, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ge, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Pd, Ag, Cd, In, Sn, Sb, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Hf, Ta, W, Ir, Pt, Au, Pb, Bi, Th and U, as well as compound and alloy cathode materials such as TiC, SiC, UC, PbS, brass, and stainless steel. The ions generated are in general multiply-stripped with a mean charge state of from 1 to 3, depending on the particular metal species, and the charge state distribution can have components from Q = 1+ to 6+. Here the authors review the characteristics of vacuum arc ion sources from the perspective of their high charge state metal ion production

  3. Comparison of ammonium sulfate and urea as nitrogen sources in rice production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bufogle, A. Jr.; Bollich, P.K.; Kovar, J.L.; Lindau, C.W.; Macchiavellid, R.E.

    1998-01-01

    Wetland rice agriculture is the major anthropogenic source of methane, an important greenhouse gas. Methane emissions are less when ammonium sulfate (AS) rather than urea is the nitrogen (N) source. However, an agronomic advantage of AS over urea has not been established. The objectives of this study were: (i) to compare the effectiveness of AS, urea, and urea plus elemental sulfur (S) as sources of N in flooded rice culture, (ii) to compare fertilizer recovery of each source of N from application at preflood (PF) and panicle initiation (PI), and (iii) to determine if there is a response to S by rice grown on a soil with a less than optimum level of available S. 'Cypress' rice was drill-seeded in a Crowley silt loam soil (fine, montmorillonitic, thermic Typic Albaqualf) of 7.25 to 10.75 mg S kg-1. Ammonium sulfate, urea, or urea plus S was applied in split applications of 101 kg N ha-1 PF and 50 kg N ha-1 PI. Microplots with retainers and 15N-labeled N were used. Unlabeled N was used in field plots. Microplots were harvested at 50% heading, while field plots were harvested at maturity. Dry matter and total N accumulation at 50% heading and at maturity were similar regardless of N source. Grain dry matter yields were 8.54, 8.47, and 8.79 Mg ha-1 for AS, urea, and urea plus S treatments, respectively. Greater N recovery was generally found from N application at PI than at PF, but this was not reflected by an increase in grain yield. No response to S was detected, although grain yields were slightly higher when S-containing fertilizers were used. Ammonium sulfate and urea were equally effective for flooded rice production in Louisiana

  4. FINANCIAL CONTROL AS A CATEGORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Yu. Volkov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the basics of “financial control” as a category. The main attention is concentrated on the “control” itself (asa term, multiplicity of interpretation of“financial control” term and its juristic-practical matching. The duality of financial control category is detected. The identity of terms “financial control” and “state financial control” is justified. The article also offers ways of development of financial control juristical regulation.

  5. Space-time dependence between energy sources and climate related energy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engeland, Kolbjorn; Borga, Marco; Creutin, Jean-Dominique; Ramos, Maria-Helena; Tøfte, Lena; Warland, Geir

    2014-05-01

    The European Renewable Energy Directive adopted in 2009 focuses on achieving a 20% share of renewable energy in the EU overall energy mix by 2020. A major part of renewable energy production is related to climate, called "climate related energy" (CRE) production. CRE production systems (wind, solar, and hydropower) are characterized by a large degree of intermittency and variability on both short and long time scales due to the natural variability of climate variables. The main strategies to handle the variability of CRE production include energy-storage, -transport, -diversity and -information (smart grids). The three first strategies aim to smooth out the intermittency and variability of CRE production in time and space whereas the last strategy aims to provide a more optimal interaction between energy production and demand, i.e. to smooth out the residual load (the difference between demand and production). In order to increase the CRE share in the electricity system, it is essential to understand the space-time co-variability between the weather variables and CRE production under both current and future climates. This study presents a review of the literature that searches to tackle these problems. It reveals that the majority of studies deals with either a single CRE source or with the combination of two CREs, mostly wind and solar. This may be due to the fact that the most advanced countries in terms of wind equipment have also very little hydropower potential (Denmark, Ireland or UK, for instance). Hydropower is characterized by both a large storage capacity and flexibility in electricity production, and has therefore a large potential for both balancing and storing energy from wind- and solar-power. Several studies look at how to better connect regions with large share of hydropower (e.g., Scandinavia and the Alps) to regions with high shares of wind- and solar-power (e.g., green battery North-Sea net). Considering time scales, various studies consider wind

  6. Enhancement of H{sup -}/D{sup -} volume production in a double plasma type negative ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukumasa, Osamu; Nishimura, Hideki; Sakiyama, Satoshi [Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-02-01

    H{sup -}/D{sup -} production in a pure volume source has been studied. In our double plasma type negative ion source, both energy and density of fast electrons are well controlled. With the use of this source, the enhancement of H{sup -}/D{sup -} production has been observed. Namely, under the same discharge power, the extracted H{sup -}/D{sup -} current in the double plasma operation is higher than that in the single plasma operation. At the same time, measurements of plasma parameters have been made in the source and the extractor regions for these two cases. (author)

  7. Ammonia production from amino acid-based biomass-like sources by engineered Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikami, Yosuke; Yoneda, Hisanari; Tatsukami, Yohei; Aoki, Wataru; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi

    2017-12-01

    The demand for ammonia is expected to increase in the future because of its importance in agriculture, industry, and hydrogen transportation. Although the Haber-Bosch process is known as an effective way to produce ammonia, the process is energy-intensive. Thus, an environmentally friendly ammonia production process is desired. In this study, we aimed to produce ammonia from amino acids and amino acid-based biomass-like resources by modifying the metabolism of Escherichia coli. By engineering metabolic flux to promote ammonia production using the overexpression of the ketoisovalerate decarboxylase gene (kivd), derived from Lactococcus lactis, ammonia production from amino acids was 351 mg/L (36.6% yield). Furthermore, we deleted the glnA gene, responsible for ammonia assimilation. Using yeast extract as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen, the resultant strain produced 458 mg/L of ammonia (47.8% yield) from an amino acid-based biomass-like material. The ammonia production yields obtained are the highest reported to date. This study suggests that it will be possible to produce ammonia from waste biomass in an environmentally friendly process.

  8. Production of Transglutaminase by Streptoverticillium ladakanum NRRL-3191 Using Glycerol as Carbon Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simón J. Téllez-Luis

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The enzyme transglutaminase (TG catalyses the formation of covalent bonds between adjacent proteins, thereby improving the gel structure of proteins and has important applications for the food industry. The aims of this work were: (i to elucidate the effect of agitation speed during the biotechnological production of TG by Streptoverticillium ladakanum NRRL-3191 using glycerol as carbon source; and (ii to improve TG production by optimising the composition of media based on glycerol, xylose and casein. An agitation speed of 250 rpm and a fermentation time of 72 h resulted in the optimal enzymatic activity (0.628 U/mL with a productivity of 0.087 U/(mL·h. The composition of media with glycerol, xylose and casein were optimised using an experimental design to improve TG production. The model predicts that the maximum TG activity (0.725 U/mL can be obtained using glycerol 50.5 g/L and casein 20 g/L without the addition of xylose.

  9. Natural gas usage as a heat source for integrated SMR and thermochemical hydrogen production technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaber, O.; Naterer, G.F.; Dincer, I.

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates various usages of natural gas (NG) as an energy source for different hydrogen production technologies. A comparison is made between the different methods of hydrogen production, based on the total amount of natural gas needed to produce a specific quantity of hydrogen, carbon dioxide emissions per mole of hydrogen produced, water requirements per mole of hydrogen produced, and a cost sensitivity analysis that takes into account the fuel cost, carbon dioxide capture cost and a carbon tax. The methods examined are the copper-chlorine (Cu-Cl) thermochemical cycle, steam methane reforming (SMR) and a modified sulfur-iodine (S-I) thermochemical cycle. Also, an integrated Cu-Cl/SMR plant is examined to show the unique advantages of modifying existing SMR plants with new hydrogen production technology. The analysis shows that the thermochemical Cu-Cl cycle out-performs the other conventional methods with respect to fuel requirements, carbon dioxide emissions and total cost of production. (author)

  10. Challenges and prospects of electricity production from renewable energy sources in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mansour, Fouad; Sucic, Boris; Pusnik, Matevz

    2014-01-01

    Development of the utilisation of renewable energy sources and energy efficiency represents the main policy for sustainable development. The overall target of the European Union Directive on the promotion of the use of energy from renewables (RES) is to achieve at least a 20% share of energy from renewables in the gross final energy consumption in 2020. The mandatory national target for Slovenia is a 25% share of energy from RES in the gross final consumption. The share of RES in the gross final energy consumption in Slovenia was 18.8% in 2011 and the share of electricity production from RES was 30.8% in the gross electricity consumption. Electricity production from photovoltaics (PV) and biogas plants in agriculture has been growing fast after the adoption of the new supportive decree for electricity from RES in 2009. The very fast growth of PV plants has caused a problem for financing electricity from RES. Similar effects have been also recorded in the biogas sector, which represents a threat to food production. The state of the art, targets and challenges of electricity production from RES in Slovenia are described in the paper. - Highlights: • Slovenia's RES policy, regulatory frameworks and incentives are described. • The most important development challenges of the RES-E sector are discussed. • RES-E policy priorities need to be reassessed in view of recent global trends. • Responsible policy making and implementation follow-up are necessary

  11. Flexibility as a source of value in the production of alternative fuels: The ethanol case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastian-Pinto, Carlos; Brandao, Luiz; Hahn, Warren J.

    2009-01-01

    There is typically a high degree of flexibility associated with the production of alternative fuels due to the ability to source from different input raw materials or to produce different output products based on market conditions. In this paper, we consider the particular example of ethanol and seek to quantify the incremental value from flexibility in its production from sugarcane in Brazil. We accomplish this by first jointly modeling the stochastic processes for the prices of the two relevant commodities, sugar (a food commodity) and ethanol (an energy commodity) in discrete time as a bivariate lattice. This framework allows us to value the option to switch output products based on the respective price signals of the two commodities. However, unlike the usual assumption of geometric Brownian motion stochastic processes, we use the more realistic case of mean reverting commodity price processes. We estimate the parameters for these processes by applying a regression-based procedure to empirical sugar and ethanol data collected during a period from 1998 through 2008. Our results show that the option to switch outputs has significant value, even under the assumption of mean reverting prices, which has implications for both producers and policy-makers alike.

  12. Cashew apple bagasse as a source of sugars for ethanol production by Kluyveromyces marxianus CE025.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Maria Valderez Ponte; Rodrigues, Tigressa Helena Soares; Melo, Vania M M; Gonçalves, Luciana R B; de Macedo, Gorete Ribeiro

    2011-08-01

    The potential of cashew apple bagasse as a source of sugars for ethanol production by Kluyveromyces marxianus CE025 was evaluated in this work. This strain was preliminarily cultivated in a synthetic medium containing glucose and xylose and was able to produce ethanol and xylitol at pH 4.5. Next, cashew apple bagasse hydrolysate (CABH) was prepared by a diluted sulfuric acid pretreatment and used as fermentation media. This hydrolysate is rich in glucose, xylose, and arabinose and contains traces of formic acid and acetic acid. In batch fermentations of CABH at pH 4.5, the strain produced only ethanol. The effects of temperature on the kinetic parameters of ethanol fermentation by K. marxianus CE025 using CABH were also evaluated. Maximum specific growth rate (μ(max)), overall yields of ethanol based on glucose consumption [Formula: see text] and based on glucose + xylose consumption (Y ( P/S )), overall yield of ethanol based on biomass (Y ( P/X )), and ethanol productivity (P (E)) were determined as a function of temperature. Best results of ethanol production were achieved at 30°C, which is also quite close to the optimum temperature for the formation of biomass. The process yielded 12.36 ± 0.06 g l(-1) of ethanol with a volumetric production rate of 0.257 ± 0.002 g l(-1) h(-1) and an ethanol yield of 0.417 ± 0.003 g g(-1) glucose.

  13. Influence of organic waste and inorganic nitrogen source on biomass productivity of Scenedesmus and Chlorococcum sp.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arumugam, M.; Agarwal, A.; Arya, M.C. [Defence Institute of Bio-Energy Research, Defence R and D Organization, Ministry of Defence, Govt. of India, Field Station Pithoragarh - 262501, Uttarakhand (India); Ahmed, Z. [Defence Institute of Bio-Energy Research, Defence R and D Organization, Ministry of Defence, Govt. of India Haldwani- 263 139, Uttarakhand (India)

    2011-07-01

    Algae gaining the more attention in the recent years in order to supplement the futuristic demand of fuel requirement because of its unique feature like high productivity, short duration and higher fatty acids content. However algal culturing for large-scale production is limited due to many technical and engineering challenges. One of the main constraints for large-scale biomass production is the non-availability of cost effective and affordable growth medium for open pond condition. In order to overcome this lacuna, the present study was carried out to find out the suitable cost effective growth medium using locally available resources. Farm Yard Manure an easily available organic waste yet, rich in nutrients and used for agriculture over the generations. FYM coupled with inorganic nitrogen source like urea was found to be better alternative to the synthetic growth medium, which may make wider acceptability at farmers' field for large-scale algal mass production. The present study reveals that FYM extract of 50% supplemented with 0.1% Urea was performing better for algal biomass growth in outdoor open pond condition.

  14. Environmental aspects and renewable energy sources in the production of construction aggregate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzypczak, Izabela; Kokoszka, Wanda; Buda-Ożóg, Lidia; Kogut, Janusz; Słowik, Marta

    2017-11-01

    The main activity of open pit mining of aggregates are aggregates' exploitation of natural mineral deposits and its modification in order to obtain high-quality aggregates. The development of aggregate production is conditioned by a number of factors. The most important are: documented material resources, mining and manufacturing capabilities, the need of environmental protection (environmental aspects), the subordination of the plan of spatial development, formal and legal issues, as well as economic and financial aspects. While identifying and assessing the environmental impacts of manufacturing aggregates one may distinguish those environmental aspects that have or may have the greatest magnitude of the impact on the environment as a result of industrial activities. Manufacturers producing aggregates located in the areas covered by the special environmental protection require extra diligence in the conduct of mining activities for preservation of natural resources. The article discusses some main environmental aspects of the production of construction aggregates on the example of one of the largest producers of this material in Subcarpathian province of Poland. Environmental protection in production of aggregates may refer to four aspects: the use of natural resources, having excluded land from agriculture and forestry, land reclamation after exploitation, and use of energy from renewable energy sources. The economic and environmental impact of production volume of aggregates is evaluated by the index information capacity method and the method of graphs.

  15. Biotechnological route for sustainable succinate production utilizing oil palm frond and kenaf as potential carbon sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthfi, Abdullah Amru Indera; Manaf, Shareena Fairuz Abdul; Illias, Rosli Md; Harun, Shuhaida; Mohammad, Abdul Wahab; Jahim, Jamaliah Md

    2017-04-01

    Due to the world's dwindling energy supplies, greater thrust has been placed on the utilization of renewable resources for global succinate production. Exploration of such biotechnological route could be seen as an act of counterbalance to the continued fossil fuel dominance. Malaysia being a tropical country stands out among many other nations for its plenty of resources in the form of lignocellulosic biomass. To date, oil palm frond (OPF) contributes to the largest fraction of agricultural residues in Malaysia, while kenaf, a newly introduced fiber crop with relatively high growth rate, holds great potential for developing sustainable succinate production, apart from OPF. Utilization of non-food, inexhaustible, and low-cost derived biomass in the form of OPF and kenaf for bio-based succinate production remains largely untapped. Owing to the richness of carbohydrates in OPF and kenaf, bio-succinate commercialization using these sources appears as an attractive proposition for future sustainable developments. The aim of this paper was to review some research efforts in developing a biorefinery system based on OPF and kenaf as processing inputs. It presents the importance of the current progress in bio-succinate commercialization, in addition to describing the potential use of different succinate production hosts and various pretreatments-saccharifications under development for OPF and kenaf. Evaluations on the feasibility of OPF and kenaf as fermentation substrates are also discussed.

  16. Review on Sources and Handling Method of Pesticide Residues in Animal Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indraningsih

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Field studies and literature search showed that some pesticide residues either organochlorines (OC or organophosphates (OP were detected in animal products (meat and milk . Pesticide residues in meat collected from West Java were detected at the level of 0 .8 ppb lindane and 62 ppb diazinon . While in meat from Lampung was detected at the level of 7 ppb lindane . 2 .7 heptachlor, 0 .8 endosulfan and 0 .5 ppb aldrin . Furthermore, pesticide residues were also detected in the milk collected from West, Central and East Java . The levels of lindane were 2,3 ; 15,9 ; 0,2 ppb ; heptachlor 8 ; 0 .4 and 0,05 ppb; diazinon 8 ; 0 and 1,8 ppb; CPM 0,4 ; 0,8 and 0 ppb ; endosulfan 0,1 ; 0,04 and 0,05 ppb for West, Central and East Java, respectively . The source of pesticide contamination in animal products is generally originated from feed materials, fodders . contaminated soils and water around the farm areas . Minimalization approach of pesticide residues in animal products could be conducted integratedly, such as through chemical process, biodegradation using microorganisms . Organic farming system is recognised as an alternative that may be applied to minimise contamination on agricultural land, eventually reducing pesticide residues in the agricultural products . Feeding with organic agricultural by-products with low pesticide residues appears to reduce pesticide residues in animal products . In order to eliminate pesticide contamination in soil, it has to be conducted progressively by implementing sustainable organic farming .

  17. Energy Data Base: subject categories and scope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bost, D.E.

    1985-03-01

    The subject scope of the Energy Data Base (EDB) encompasses all DOE-sponsored research. Broadly defined, EDB subject scope includes all technological aspects of energy production, conversion, and efficient utilization, and the economic, social, and political aspects as well. Scope notes are provided to define the extent of interest in certain subject areas, particularly areas of basic research. Cross references between categories are provided to aid both the categorization of information and its retrieval. Citations entered into DOE's computerized bibliographic information system are assigned six-digit subject category numbers to broadly group information for storage, retrieval, and manipulation. These numbers are used in the preparation of printed documents, such as bibliographies and abstract journals, to arrange the citations and to aid searching on the DOE/RECON on-line system

  18. 40 CFR 415.330 - Applicability; description of the carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory. 415.330 Section 415.330 Protection of... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Carbon Monoxide and By-Product Hydrogen Production Subcategory § 415.330 Applicability; description of the carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory. The provisions...

  19. Corrosion protection products as a source of bisphenol A and toxicity to the aquatic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeirssen, Etiënne L M; Dietschweiler, Conrad; Werner, Inge; Burkhardt, Michael

    2017-10-15

    Steel components are typically treated with anti-corrosion coatings like epoxy or polyurethane resins to protect the integrity and functioning of steel. Such resins may contain substances, such as bisphenol A (BPA), that have caused concern in a human and environmental toxicological context. We investigated the release of toxicity from four anti-corrosion coatings used in hydraulic and civil engineering. Resins were applied onto glass plates and leachate samples produced by horizontally shaking the plates in water for 7 days. Two experiments were conducted, one with a 1 day and one with a 7 day curing period. Using a suite of bioassays, we tested samples for: agonistic and antagonistic effects on various mammalian nuclear receptors; inhibition of photosynthesis and growth in algae; inhibition of bacterial bioluminescence; and inhibition of water flea reproduction. Concentrations of BPA, bisphenol F and various BPA transformation products were determined by chemical analysis (LC-MS/MS). Bioassay results were evaluated using a scheme developed by DIBt (Centre of Competence for Construction, Berlin, Germany). Three products induced responses in one or more of the measured endpoints and toxicity profiles varied markedly in intensity across products. One product released high amounts of BPA which was associated with effects on nuclear receptor transactivation, requiring a more than 700-fold dilution for effect induction to fall below 20%. The same product was also the most toxic to water flea reproduction, requiring ca. 70-fold dilution for effects to fall below 20%. Another product was highly toxic in terms of bacterial bioluminescence, particularly after a shorter curing time, requiring a ca. 1'300-fold dilution for effects to fall below 20%. The third product required a 22-fold dilution for inhibition of water flea reproduction to drop below 20%. Results show that anti-corrosion coatings based on epoxy resins can be a source of toxicity to the aquatic environment

  20. Acetal Resins, Acrylic & Modacrylic Fibers, Carbon Black, Hydrogen Fluoride, Polycarbonate, Ethylene, Spandex & Cyanide Chemical Manufacturing: NESHAP for Source Categories, Generic Maximum Achievable Control Technology Standards (40 CFR 63, Subpart YY)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about the NESHAP for GMACT for acetal resins, hydrogen fluoride, polycarbonate, ethylene production and cyanide chemicals. Find the rule history information, federal register citations, legal authority, rule summary, and additional resources

  1. Liquid by-products from fish canning industry as sustainable sources of ω3 lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Ana; Paquincha, Diogo; Martins, Florinda; Queirós, Rui P; Saraiva, Jorge A; Švarc-Gajić, Jaroslava; Nastić, Nataša; Delerue-Matos, Cristina; Carvalho, Ana P

    2018-08-01

    Fish canning industry generates large amounts of liquid wastes, which are discarded, after proper treatment to remove the organic load. However, alternative treatment processes may also be designed in order to target the recovery of valuable compounds; with this procedure, these wastewaters are converted into liquid by-products, becoming an additional source of revenue for the company. This study evaluated green and economically sustainable methodologies for the extraction of ω3 lipids from fish canning liquid by-products. Lipids were extracted by processes combining physical and chemical parameters (conventional and pressurized extraction processes), as well as chemical and biological parameters. Furthermore, LCA was applied to evaluate the environmental performance and costs indicators for each process. Results indicated that extraction with high hydrostatic pressure provides the highest amounts of ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (3331,5 mg L -1 effluent), apart from presenting the lowest environmental impact and costs. The studied procedures allow to obtain alternative, sustainable and traceable sources of ω3 lipids for further applications in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Additionally, such approach contributes towards the organic depuration of canning liquid effluents, therefore reducing the overall waste treatment costs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of Nitrogen and Carbon Sources on Lipase Production by Penicillium aurantiogriseum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria M. G. Lima

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A wild fungal strain isolated from soybean oil and identified as Penicillium aurantiogriseum initially presented a volumetric lipase activity of 0.4 U/mL in submerged culture in a medium containing 0.5 % yeast extract and 1 % olive oil. Studies were undertaken to improve lipase production. The effect of nitrogen source was studied by adding casein peptone, meat peptone, yeast extract or ammonium sulfate to a medium containing potassium nitrate and other mineral salts. The best yield, of 13 U/mL after 72 h, was obtained with the medium supplemented with ammonium sulfate. With the ammonium sulfate concentration increased to double the C/N ratio from 2.5 to 5, a lipolytic activity of 18 U/mL was obtained. Olive, corn, soy and sunflower oils were tested as carbon sources in this medium, with olive oil at 1 % giving a lipolytic activity of 25 U/mL after 48 h, the highest yield obtained in this study. Enzyme production was best at 29 °C, within a range tested from 26 to 32 °C. These results are promising because this strain produces lipase in an inexpensive inorganic medium and we succeeded in increasing the lipolytic activity 62-fold over the initial values obtained with the non-optimized medium.

  3. Biomarker fingerprinting : application and limitations for source identification and correlation of oils and petroleum products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Z.; Fingas, M.F.; Yang, C.; Hollebone, B.

    2004-01-01

    Biological markers or biomarkers are complex molecules originating from formerly living organisms. They are among the most important hydrocarbon groups in petroleum because every crude oil exhibits an essentially unique biomarker or fingerprint due to the wide variety of geological conditions under which oil is formed. When found in crude oils, rocks and sediments, biomarkers have the same structures as their parent organic molecules. Therefore, chemical analysis of source-characteristic and environmentally persistent biomarkers can provide valuable information in determining the source of spilled oil. Biomarkers can also be used to differentiate oils and to monitor the degradation process and the weathering state of oils under a range of conditions. The use of biomarker techniques to study oil spills has increased significantly in recent years. This paper provided case studies to demonstrate: (1) biomarker distribution in weathered oil and in petroleum products with similar chromatographic profiles, (2) sesquiterpenes and diamondoid biomarkers in oils and light petroleum products, (3) unique biomarker compounds in oils, (4) diagnostic ratios of biomarkers, and (5) biodegradation of biomarkers. It was noted that the trend to use biomarkers to study oil spills will continue. Continuous advances in analytical methods will further improve the application of oil hydrocarbon fingerprinting for environmental studies. 36 refs., 5 tabs., 12 figs

  4. Production and transport chemistry of atomic fluorine in remote plasma source and cylindrical reaction chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangoli, S P; Johnson, A D; Fridman, A A; Pearce, R V; Gutsol, A F; Dolgopolsky, A

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly, NF 3 -based plasmas are being used in semiconductor manufacturing to clean chemical vapour deposition (CVD) chambers. With advantages such as faster clean times, substantially lower emissions of gases having high global warming potentials, and reduced chamber damage, NF 3 plasmas are now favoured over fluorocarbon-based processes. Typically, a remote plasma source (RPS) is used to dissociate the NF 3 gas and produce atomic fluorine that etches the CVD residues from the chamber surfaces. However, it is important to efficiently transport F atoms from the plasma source into the process chamber. The current work is aimed at understanding and improving the key processes involved in the production and transport of atomic fluorine atoms. A zero-dimensional model of NF 3 dissociation and F production chemistry in the RPS is developed based on various known and derived plasma parameters. Additionally, a model describing the transport of atomic fluorine is proposed that includes both physical (diffusion, adsorption and desorption) and chemical processes (surface and three-body volume recombination). The kinetic model provides an understanding of the impact of chamber geometry, gas flow rates, pressure and temperature on fluorine recombination. The plasma-kinetic model is validated by comparing model predictions (percentage F atom density) with experimental results (etch rates)

  5. Long-term dust aerosol production from natural sources in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagsson-Waldhauserova, Pavla; Arnalds, Olafur; Olafsson, Haraldur

    2017-02-01

    Iceland is a volcanic island in the North Atlantic Ocean with maritime climate. In spite of moist climate, large areas are with limited vegetation cover where >40% of Iceland is classified with considerable to very severe erosion and 21% of Iceland is volcanic sandy deserts. Not only do natural emissions from these sources influenced by strong winds affect regional air quality in Iceland ("Reykjavik haze"), but dust particles are transported over the Atlantic ocean and Arctic Ocean >1000 km at times. The aim of this paper is to place Icelandic dust production area into international perspective, present long-term frequency of dust storm events in northeast Iceland, and estimate dust aerosol concentrations during reported dust events. Meteorological observations with dust presence codes and related visibility were used to identify the frequency and the long-term changes in dust production in northeast Iceland. There were annually 16.4 days on average with reported dust observations on weather stations within the northeastern erosion area, indicating extreme dust plume activity and erosion within the northeastern deserts, even though the area is covered with snow during the major part of winter. During the 2000s the highest occurrence of dust events in six decades was reported. We have measured saltation and Aeolian transport during dust/volcanic ash storms in Iceland, which give some of the most intense wind erosion events ever measured. Icelandic dust affects the ecosystems over much of Iceland and causes regional haze. It is likely to affect the ecosystems of the oceans around Iceland, and it brings dust that lowers the albedo of the Icelandic glaciers, increasing melt-off due to global warming. The study indicates that Icelandic dust may contribute to the Arctic air pollution. Long-term records of meteorological dust observations from Northeast Iceland indicate the frequency of dust events from Icelandic deserts. The research involves a 60-year period and

  6. Progressive Image Transmission Based on Joint Source-Channel Decoding Using Adaptive Sum-Product Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. Daut

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A joint source-channel decoding method is designed to accelerate the iterative log-domain sum-product decoding procedure of LDPC codes as well as to improve the reconstructed image quality. Error resilience modes are used in the JPEG2000 source codec making it possible to provide useful source decoded information to the channel decoder. After each iteration, a tentative decoding is made and the channel decoded bits are then sent to the JPEG2000 decoder. The positions of bits belonging to error-free coding passes are then fed back to the channel decoder. The log-likelihood ratios (LLRs of these bits are then modified by a weighting factor for the next iteration. By observing the statistics of the decoding procedure, the weighting factor is designed as a function of the channel condition. Results show that the proposed joint decoding methods can greatly reduce the number of iterations, and thereby reduce the decoding delay considerably. At the same time, this method always outperforms the nonsource controlled decoding method by up to 3 dB in terms of PSNR.

  7. Dynamic robustness of knowledge collaboration network of open source product development community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hong-Li; Zhang, Xiao-Dong

    2018-01-01

    As an emergent innovative design style, open source product development communities are characterized by a self-organizing, mass collaborative, networked structure. The robustness of the community is critical to its performance. Using the complex network modeling method, the knowledge collaboration network of the community is formulated, and the robustness of the network is systematically and dynamically studied. The characteristics of the network along the development period determine that its robustness should be studied from three time stages: the start-up, development and mature stages of the network. Five kinds of user-loss pattern are designed, to assess the network's robustness under different situations in each of these three time stages. Two indexes - the largest connected component and the network efficiency - are used to evaluate the robustness of the community. The proposed approach is applied in an existing open source car design community. The results indicate that the knowledge collaboration networks show different levels of robustness in different stages and different user loss patterns. Such analysis can be applied to provide protection strategies for the key users involved in knowledge dissemination and knowledge contribution at different stages of the network, thereby promoting the sustainable and stable development of the open source community.

  8. Sources and doses of nitrogen in the production of sunflower plants irrigated with saline water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginaldo G. Nobre

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The cultivation of sunflower allows its use as bio-fuel and alternative forage. It is a viable alternative in the semiarid regions. Current study evaluates the effect of saline water use, sources and doses of nitrogen fertilization on the production of sunflower in the experiment conducted in drainage lysimeters between May and August 2012, under protected conditions, at Pombal - PB Brazil. The experiment consisted of a randomized block design, with a 2 x 3 x 4 factorial arrangement and three replications. The treatments consisted of two levels of electrical conductivity of water - ECw (0.3 and 3.0 dS m-1, three sources of nitrogen (urea, ammonium sulfate and calcium nitrate and four levels of N (40, 80, 120 and 160% of recommended dose - 100 mg kg-1, for trials in pots. Dry mass of chapter (DMC, mass of achenes (MAc, the number of viable seeds (MVS, total number of seeds (TNS and internal (DCI and external (DCE diameter of chapter. Irrigation with water of ECw=3.0 dS m-1 negatively affected all variable evaluated. Doses of N 104 and 160% of recommended dose for trials in pots, resulted in the highest DMC, TNS, DCE and DCI. N sources and the interaction between factors did not affect significantly any of the variable evaluated.

  9. Accumulation status, sources and phytoavailability of metals in greenhouse vegetable production systems in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li; Lu, Anxiang; Wang, Jihua; Ma, Zhihong; Pan, Ligang; Feng, Xiaoyuan; Luan, Yunxia

    2015-12-01

    The accumulation status, sources and phytoavailability of selected metals in greenhouse vegetable production systems in peri-urban areas of Beijing were investigated. The mean concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Hg and Pb in greenhouse soils were 8.44, 0.25, 69.0, 0.09 and 22.0 mg kg(-1), dw, respectively. According to principal component analysis, As, Cd, Cr and Hg are mainly from anthropogenic source, but Pb is likely from natural source. Metal concentrations in all vegetable samples were decreased in the order of Cr>As>Pb>Cd>Hg. Compared with root and fruit vegetables, leaf vegetables had relatively high concentrations and transfer factors of heavy metals, except for Cd. By including soil pH, OM and greenhouse soil metals, 10 empirical models were derived using stepwise multiple linear regression analysis to predict heavy metal concentrations in the edible parts of different vegetables. Among the different vegetable groups, the highest intakes of metals occurred through consumption of leaf vegetables for the two age groups, except for Cd. The HI value of the studied metals were all below 1, indicating that consumption of vegetables grown in greenhouse soils was of low risk to consumers in our study area. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Modelling and simulation the radioactive source-term of fission products in PWR type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porfirio, Rogilson Nazare da Silva

    1996-01-01

    The source-term was defined with the purpose the quantify all radioactive nuclides released the nuclear reactor in the case of accidents. Nowadays the source-term is limited to the coolant of the primary circuit of reactors and may be measured or modelled with computer coders such as the TFP developed in this work. The calculational process is based on the linear chain techniques used in the CINDER-2 code. The TFP code considers forms of fission products release from the fuel pellet: Recoil, Knockout and Migration. The release from the gap to the coolant fluid is determined from the ratio between activity measured in the coolant and calculated activity in the gap. Considered the operational data of SURRY-1 reactor, the TFP code was run to obtain the source=term of this reactor. From the measured activities it was verified the reliability level of the model and the employed computational logic. The accuracy of the calculated quantities were compared to the measured data was considered satisfactory. (author)

  11. Progressive Image Transmission Based on Joint Source-Channel Decoding Using Adaptive Sum-Product Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Weiliang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A joint source-channel decoding method is designed to accelerate the iterative log-domain sum-product decoding procedure of LDPC codes as well as to improve the reconstructed image quality. Error resilience modes are used in the JPEG2000 source codec making it possible to provide useful source decoded information to the channel decoder. After each iteration, a tentative decoding is made and the channel decoded bits are then sent to the JPEG2000 decoder. The positions of bits belonging to error-free coding passes are then fed back to the channel decoder. The log-likelihood ratios (LLRs of these bits are then modified by a weighting factor for the next iteration. By observing the statistics of the decoding procedure, the weighting factor is designed as a function of the channel condition. Results show that the proposed joint decoding methods can greatly reduce the number of iterations, and thereby reduce the decoding delay considerably. At the same time, this method always outperforms the nonsource controlled decoding method by up to 3 dB in terms of PSNR.

  12. International Conference on Category Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Pedicchio, Maria; Rosolini, Guiseppe

    1991-01-01

    With one exception, these papers are original and fully refereed research articles on various applications of Category Theory to Algebraic Topology, Logic and Computer Science. The exception is an outstanding and lengthy survey paper by Joyal/Street (80 pp) on a growing subject: it gives an account of classical Tannaka duality in such a way as to be accessible to the general mathematical reader, and to provide a key for entry to more recent developments and quantum groups. No expertise in either representation theory or category theory is assumed. Topics such as the Fourier cotransform, Tannaka duality for homogeneous spaces, braided tensor categories, Yang-Baxter operators, Knot invariants and quantum groups are introduced and studies. From the Contents: P.J. Freyd: Algebraically complete categories.- J.M.E. Hyland: First steps in synthetic domain theory.- G. Janelidze, W. Tholen: How algebraic is the change-of-base functor?.- A. Joyal, R. Street: An introduction to Tannaka duality and quantum groups.- A. Jo...

  13. Learnable Classes of Categorial Grammars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Makoto

    Learnability theory is an attempt to illuminate the concept of learnability using a mathematical model of learning. Two models of learning of categorial grammars are examined here: the standard model, in which sentences presented to the learner are flat strings of words, and one in which sentences are presented in the form of functor-argument…

  14. Language universals without universal categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croft, W.; van Lier, E.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors present their views on an article by author Sandra Chung related to lexical categories. According to them, Chung's article critiques an analysis of word classes in Chamorro by author Donald M. Topping. They discuss the restatements made by Chung on Topping's criteria for

  15. Auditory and phonetic category formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudbeek, Martijn; Cutler, A.; Smits, R.; Swingley, D.; Cohen, Henri; Lefebvre, Claire

    2017-01-01

    Among infants' first steps in language acquisition is learning the relevant contrasts of the language-specific phonemic repertoire. This learning is viewed as the formation of categories in a multidimensional psychophysical space. Research in the visual modality has shown that for adults, some kinds

  16. Digestate as nutrient source for biomass production of sida, lucerne and maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno Piaz Barbosa, Daniela; Nabel, Moritz; Horsch, David; Tsay, Gabriela; Jablonowski, Nicolai

    2014-05-01

    Biogas as a renewable energy source is supported in many countries driven by climate and energy policies. Nowadays, Germany is the largest biogas producer in the European Union. A sustainable resource management has to be considered within this growing scenario of biogas production systems and its environmental impacts. In this respect, studies aiming to enhance the management of biogas residues, which represents a valuable source of nutrients and organic fertilization, are needed. Our objective was to evaluate the digestate (biogas residue after fermentation process) application as nutrient source for biomass production of three different plants: sida (Sida hermaphrodita - Malvaceae), lucerne (Medicago sativa - Fabaceae) and maize (Zea mays - Poaceae). The digestate was collected from an operating biogas facility (fermenter volume 2500m³, ADRW Natur Power GmbH & Co.KG Titz/Ameln, Germany) composed of maize silage as the major feedstock, and minor amounts of chicken manure, with a composition of 3,29% N; 1,07% P; 3,42% K; and 41,2% C. An arable field soil (Endogleyic Stagnosol) was collected from 0-30 cm depth and 5 mm sieved. The fertilizer treatments of the plants were established in five replicates including digestate (application amount equivalent to 40 t ha-1) and NPK fertilizer (application amount equivalent to 200:100:300 kg ha-1) applications, according to the recommended agricultural doses, and a control (no fertilizer application). The digestate and the NPK fertilizer were thoroughly mixed with the soil in a rotatory shaker for 30 min. The 1L pots were filled with the fertilized soil and the seedlings were transplanted and grown for 30 days under greenhouse conditions (16 h day/8 h night: 24ºC/18ºC; 60% air humidity). After harvesting, the leaf area was immediately measured, and the roots were washed to allow above and below-ground biomass determination. Subsequently, shoots and roots were dried at 60ºC for 48 hours. The biomass and leaf area of sida

  17. An effective dose assessment technique with NORM added consumer products using skin-point source on computational human phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Do Hyeon; Shin, Wook-Geun; Lee, Hyun Cheol; Choi, Hyun Joon; Testa, Mauro; Lee, Jae Kook; Yeom, Yeon Soo; Kim, Chan Hyeong; Min, Chul Hee

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop the assessment technique of the effective dose by calculating the organ equivalent dose with a Monte Carlo (MC) simulation and a computational human phantom for the naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) added consumer products. In this study, we suggests the method determining the MC source term based on the skin-point source enabling the convenient and conservative modeling of the various type of the products. To validate the skin-point source method, the organ equivalent doses were compared with that by the product modeling source of the realistic shape for the pillow, waist supporter, sleeping mattress etc. Our results show that according to the source location, the organ equivalent doses were observed as the similar tendency for both source determining methods, however, it was observed that the annual effective dose with the skin-point source was conservative than that with the modeling source with the maximum 3.3 times higher dose. With the assumption of the gamma energy of 1 MeV and product activity of 1 Bq g"−"1, the annual effective doses of the pillow, waist supporter and sleeping mattress with skin-point source was 3.09E-16 Sv Bq"−"1 year"−"1, 1.45E-15 Sv Bq"−"1 year"−"1, and 2,82E-16 Sv Bq"−"1 year"−"1, respectively, while the product modeling source showed 9.22E-17 Sv Bq"−"1 year"−"1, 9.29E-16 Sv Bq"−"1 year"−"1, and 8.83E-17 Sv Bq"−"1 year"−"1, respectively. In conclusion, it was demonstrated in this study that the skin-point source method could be employed to efficiently evaluate the annual effective dose due to the usage of the NORM added consumer products. - Highlights: • We evaluate the exposure dose from the usage of NORM added consumer products. • We suggest the method determining the MC source term based on the skin-point source. • To validate the skin-point source, the organ equivalent doses were compared with that the modeling source. • The skin-point source could

  18. Environmental Impact of the Production of Mealworms as a Protein Source for Humans ? A Life Cycle Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Oonincx, Dennis G. A. B.; de Boer, Imke J. M.

    2012-01-01

    The demand for animal protein is expected to rise by 70-80% between 2012 and 2050, while the current animal production sector already causes major environmental degradation. Edible insects are suggested as a more sustainable source of animal protein. However, few experimental data regarding environmental impact of insect production are available. Therefore, a lifecycle assessment for mealworm production was conducted, in which greenhouse gas production, energy use and land use were quantified...

  19. From Web Analytics to Product Analytics: The Internet of Things as a New Data Source for Enterprise Information Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Klat , Wilhelm; Stummer , Christian; Decker , Reinhold

    2016-01-01

    Part 4: Advanced Manufacturing and Management Aspects; International audience; The internet of things (IoT) paves the way for a new generation of consumer products that collect and exchange data, constituting a new data source for enterprise information systems (EIS). These IoT-ready products use built-in sensors and wireless communication technologies to capture and share data about product usage and the environment in which the products are used. The dissemination of the internet into the p...

  20. Advancement of highly charged ion beam production by superconducting ECR ion source SECRAL (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, L.; Lu, W.; Zhang, W. H.; Feng, Y. C.; Qian, C.; Ma, H. Y.; Zhang, X. Z.; Zhao, H. W.; Guo, J. W.; Yang, Y.; Fang, X.

    2016-01-01

    At Institute of Modern Physics (IMP), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), the superconducting Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source SECRAL (Superconducting ECR ion source with Advanced design in Lanzhou) has been put into operation for about 10 years now. It has been the main working horse to deliver intense highly charged heavy ion beams for the accelerators. Since its first plasma at 18 GHz, R&D work towards more intense highly charged ion beam production as well as the beam quality investigation has never been stopped. When SECRAL was upgraded to its typical operation frequency 24 GHz, it had already showed its promising capacity of very intense highly charged ion beam production. And it has also provided the strong experimental support for the so called scaling laws of microwave frequency effect. However, compared to the microwave power heating efficiency at 18 GHz, 24 GHz microwave heating does not show the ω 2 scale at the same power level, which indicates that microwave power coupling at gyrotron frequency needs better understanding. In this paper, after a review of the operation status of SECRAL with regard to the beam availability and stability, the recent study of the extracted ion beam transverse coupling issues will be discussed, and the test results of the both TE 01 and HE 11 modes will be presented. A general comparison of the performance working with the two injection modes will be given, and a preliminary analysis will be introduced. The latest results of the production of very intense highly charged ion beams, such as 1.42 emA Ar 12+ , 0.92 emA Xe 27+ , and so on, will be presented

  1. Bioequivalence of eslicarbazepine acetate from two different sources of its active product ingredient in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcão, Amílcar; Lima, Ricardo; Sousa, Rui; Nunes, Teresa; Soares-da-Silva, Patrício

    2013-06-01

    To compare the bioavailability (BA) and pharmacokinetic (PK) properties and to demonstrate the bioequivalence (BE) between two active product ingredient (API) sources of eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) in healthy volunteers. Forty healthy male and female subjects aged 18-40 years were randomized to treatment with 400 or 800 mg ESL marketed (MF) formulation [current active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) source] and 400 or 800 mg ESL to-be-marketed (TBM) formulation (new API source) under a gender-balanced, two-period, two-sequence crossover open-label study design. Subjects were assigned to receive either 400 or 800 mg ESL dose strengths, and each was randomly administered on two occasions--either a single oral tablet of MF or a single oral tablet of TBM--separated by a washout period of at least 7 days. Formulations were to be considered bioequivalent if, for both 400 or 800 mg ESL dosage strengths, the test (TBM)/reference (MF) geometric mean ratios (GMR) and 90% confidence intervals (90% CI) of the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) and peak plasma concentration (Cmax) were within the predetermined range of 80-125%. Test/reference GMR (90% CI) for the Cmax and AUC was respectively 100% (94-109%) and 96% (94-98%) following 400 mg ESL and 100% (95-105%) and 100% (97-103%) following 800 mg ESL. Oral tablet formulations of either 400 or 800 mg ESL from the new API source were found to be bioequivalent to the corresponding marketed Zebinix® formulation according to the regulatory definition of bioequivalence.

  2. Cultivation of Nannochloropsis salina using anaerobic digestion effluent as a nutrient source for biofuel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Ting; Park, Stephen Y.; Racharaks, Ratanachat; Li, Yebo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Cultivation of Nannochloropsis salina with effluent of anaerobic digestion (AD). • The highest biomass yield was obtained at 6% AD effluent loading. • Lipid content and productivity decreased with increased effluent loading from 3% to 18%. • Biomass productivity increased by up to 49% as harvest ratio increased from 25% to 50%. - Abstract: The biomass and lipid productivities and the nutrient removal capacity of microalgae Nannochloropsis salina grown using anaerobically digested municipal wastewater effluent as a nutrient source were evaluated in this study. Results from bench-scale batch reactors showed that N. salina grew well under 3%, 6%, 12%, and 18% (v/v) anaerobic digestion (AD) effluent loading with the highest growth rate being 0.645 d −1 obtained at 6% AD effluent loading. The growth of N. salina decreased when the effluent loading was increased to 24%. The highest biomass productivity of 92 mg l −1 d −1 was obtained with 6% effluent loading. Three harvesting frequencies (1, 2, and 3 d intervals) and two harvesting ratios (25% and 50%, v/v) were tested in semi-continuous bench-scale reactors with 6% effluent loading. The highest lipid productivity of 38.7 mg l −1 d −1 was achieved with a 2-d harvesting interval and 50% harvesting ratio, where nitrogen and phosphorus were removed at rates of 35.3 mg l −1 d −1 and 3.8 mg l −1 d −1 , respectively. The fatty acid (FA) profile showed that palmitic acid (C16:0), palmitoleic acid (C16:1), and eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5) were the major components, accounting for 32.1%, 26%, and 15.7% of the total FAs, respectively

  3. Production of microbunched beams of very highly charged ions with an electron beam ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoeckli, M.P.

    1998-01-01

    Electron beam ion sources produce very highly charged ions most efficiently in a batch mode as the confinement time can be directly optimized for the production of the desired charge state. If, after confinement, the voltage of the ion-confining downstream dam is lowered rapidly, all ions escape and form an ion beam pulse with a length of a few tens of μs. Raising the main trap voltage while maintaining a constant dam voltage in a open-quotes spill-over expulsionclose quotes reduces the energy spread of the expelled ions. The longer time periods of open-quotes slow-,close quotes open-quotes leaky batch mode-,close quotes and open-quotes direct current (dc) batch mode-close quotes expulsions allow for increasing the ion beam duty cycle. Combining the rapid expulsion with one of the latter methods allows for the expulsion of the ions of a single batch in many small microbunches with variable intervals, maintaining the low energy spread and the increased duty cycle of slow expulsions. Combining the open-quotes microbunchingclose quotes with open-quotes dc batch mode productionclose quotes and a multitrap operation will eventually allow for the production of equally intense ion bunches over a wide range of frequencies without any deadtime, and with minimal compromise on the most efficient production parameters. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  4. Scenedesmus sp. NJ-1 isolated from Antarctica: a suitable renewable lipid source for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhuo; Gong, Yangmin; Fang, Xiantao; Hu, Hanhua

    2012-11-01

    Microalgal lipids are promising alternative feedstocks for biodiesel production. Scenedesmus sp. NJ-1, an oil-rich freshwater microalga isolated from Antarctica, was identified to be a suitable candidate to produce biodiesel in this study. This strain could grow at temperatures ranging from 4 to 35 °C. With regular decrease in nitrate concentration in the medium, large quantities of triacylglycerols accumulated under batch culture conditions detected by thin layer chromatography and BODIPY 505/515 fluorescent staining. Scenedesmus sp. NJ-1 achieved the average biomass productivity of 0.105 g l⁻¹ d⁻¹ (dry weight) and nearly the highest lipid content (35 % of dry cell weight) was reached at day 28 in the batch culture. Neutral lipids accounted for 78 % of total lipids, and C18:1 (n-9), C16:0 were the major fatty acids in total lipids, composing 37 and 20 % of total fatty acids of Scenedesmus sp. NJ-1 grown for 36 days, respectively. These results suggested that Scenedesmus sp. NJ-1 was a good source of microalgal oils for biodiesel production.

  5. Onopordum nervosum as biomass source: some aspects of its production and transformation by enzymatic hydrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manzanares, P; Negro, M J; Saez, R; Martin, C [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, Madrid (Spain). Inst. de Energias Renovables; Fernandez, J [ETSIA, Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Produccion Vegetal, Botanica y Proteccion Vegetal

    1993-01-01

    Onopordum nervosum, a lignocellulosic herbaceous species of the Iberian Peninsula, has been selected as a suitable biomass source to be used in transformation processes to obtain energy or industrial products. In this work, the effectiveness of different chemical pretreatments as a preliminary step to the enzymatic hydrolysis of this lignocellulosic biomass was evaluated. In order to determine biomass productivity, field assays were carried out in 1988 and 1989 using different planting densities and evaluating the effect to top fertilization. Biomass yields between 12 and 20 t ha[sup -1] were obtained, depending on the year and the planting density assayed. No significant differences were found in production rates when top fertilization was applied. Enzymatic hydrolysis of O.nervosum using a cellulolytic complex from Trichoderma longibrachiatum QM9414, gave low yields when untreated lignocellulosic biomass was used as substrate. Among different chemical pretreatments tested, ethanol and butanol solubilizations in the presence of a basic catalyst gave the best results. For the most effective pretreatment conditions, a delignification of about 30% and a complete recovery of glucose in the treated substrate were obtained both for butanol and ethanol. The highest enzymatic hydrolysis yields were found when ethanol was used as solvent, giving a saccharification efficiency of about 66% which, compared to the 23% for the native substrate, indicates the remarkable increment in the susceptibility of the cellulose to enzyme attack effected by this pretreatment. (author)

  6. Effect of Wall Material on H– Production in a Plasma Sputter-Type Ion Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. D. M. Ponce

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of wall material on negative hydrogen ion (H– production was investigated in a multicusp plasma sputter-type ion source (PSTIS. Steady-state cesium-seeded hydrogen plasma was generated by a tungsten filament, while H– was produced through surface production using a molybdenum sputter target. Plasma parameters and H– yields were determined from Langmuir probe and Faraday cup measurements, respectively. At an input hydrogen pressure of 1.2 mTorr and optimum plasma discharge parameters Vd = –90 V and Id = –2.25 A, the plasma parameters ne was highest and T–e was lowest as determined from Langmuir probe measurements. At these conditions, aluminum generates the highest ion current density of 0.01697 mA/cm2, which is 64% more than the 0.01085 mA/cm2 that stainless steel produces. The yield of copper, meanwhile, falls between the two materials at 0.01164 mA/cm2. The beam is maximum at Vt = –125 V. Focusing is achieved at VL = –70 V for stainless steel, Vt = –60 V for aluminum, and Vt = –50 V for copper. The results demonstrate that proper selection of wall material can greatly enhance the H– production of the PSTIS.

  7. Numerical study of cesium effects on negative ion production in volume H-and D- ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukumasa, Osamu; Niitani, Eiji; Yoshino, Kyougo

    1997-01-01

    We present the results of model calculation on H - /D - isotope effects in the tandem volume source. The model includes the surface production due to cesium injection. On the electron density n e dependence of H - /D - production, we have observed an interesting phenomena. Namely D - production, i.e D - density, is higher than H - production in low n e , but in high n e H - production is higher than D - production. The atomic density plays an important role in the density inversion between H - and D - ions. (author)

  8. The effects of online review message appeal and online review source across two product types on review credibility, product attitude, and purchase intention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beldad, Ardion; Avicenna, Fitria; De Vries, Sjoerd; Fui-Hoon, Fiona; Tan, Chuan-Hoo

    2017-01-01

    The study reported in this paper investigated the effects of online review message appeal and online review source type on review credibility perception, product attitude, and purchase intention across two types of products, namely technical and non-technical. A between-respondent 2 (message appeal:

  9. Environmental Impact of the Production of Mealworms as a Protein Source for Humans – A Life Cycle Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oonincx, Dennis G. A. B.; de Boer, Imke J. M.

    2012-01-01

    The demand for animal protein is expected to rise by 70–80% between 2012 and 2050, while the current animal production sector already causes major environmental degradation. Edible insects are suggested as a more sustainable source of animal protein. However, few experimental data regarding environmental impact of insect production are available. Therefore, a lifecycle assessment for mealworm production was conducted, in which greenhouse gas production, energy use and land use were quantified and compared to conventional sources of animal protein. Production of one kg of edible protein from milk, chicken, pork or beef result in higher greenhouse gas emissions, require similar amounts of energy and require much more land. This study demonstrates that mealworms should be considered a more sustainable source of edible protein. PMID:23284661

  10. Environmental impact of the production of mealworms as a protein source for humans - a life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oonincx, Dennis G A B; de Boer, Imke J M

    2012-01-01

    The demand for animal protein is expected to rise by 70-80% between 2012 and 2050, while the current animal production sector already causes major environmental degradation. Edible insects are suggested as a more sustainable source of animal protein. However, few experimental data regarding environmental impact of insect production are available. Therefore, a lifecycle assessment for mealworm production was conducted, in which greenhouse gas production, energy use and land use were quantified and compared to conventional sources of animal protein. Production of one kg of edible protein from milk, chicken, pork or beef result in higher greenhouse gas emissions, require similar amounts of energy and require much more land. This study demonstrates that mealworms should be considered a more sustainable source of edible protein.

  11. Environmental impact of the production of mealworms as a protein source for humans - a life cycle assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis G A B Oonincx

    Full Text Available The demand for animal protein is expected to rise by 70-80% between 2012 and 2050, while the current animal production sector already causes major environmental degradation. Edible insects are suggested as a more sustainable source of animal protein. However, few experimental data regarding environmental impact of insect production are available. Therefore, a lifecycle assessment for mealworm production was conducted, in which greenhouse gas production, energy use and land use were quantified and compared to conventional sources of animal protein. Production of one kg of edible protein from milk, chicken, pork or beef result in higher greenhouse gas emissions, require similar amounts of energy and require much more land. This study demonstrates that mealworms should be considered a more sustainable source of edible protein.

  12. Grammatical Constructions as Relational Categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldwater, Micah B

    2017-07-01

    This paper argues that grammatical constructions, specifically argument structure constructions that determine the "who did what to whom" part of sentence meaning and how this meaning is expressed syntactically, can be considered a kind of relational category. That is, grammatical constructions are represented as the abstraction of the syntactic and semantic relations of the exemplar utterances that are expressed in that construction, and it enables the generation of novel exemplars. To support this argument, I review evidence that there are parallel behavioral patterns between how children learn relational categories generally and how they learn grammatical constructions specifically. Then, I discuss computational simulations of how grammatical constructions are abstracted from exemplar sentences using a domain-general relational cognitive architecture. Last, I review evidence from adult language processing that shows parallel behavioral patterns with expert behavior from other cognitive domains. After reviewing the evidence, I consider how to integrate this account with other theories of language development. Copyright © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  13. A Formal Calculus for Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cáccamo, Mario José

    This dissertation studies the logic underlying category theory. In particular we present a formal calculus for reasoning about universal properties. The aim is to systematise judgements about functoriality and naturality central to categorical reasoning. The calculus is based on a language which...... extends the typed lambda calculus with new binders to represent universal constructions. The types of the languages are interpreted as locally small categories and the expressions represent functors. The logic supports a syntactic treatment of universality and duality. Contravariance requires a definition...... of universality generous enough to deal with functors of mixed variance. Ends generalise limits to cover these kinds of functors and moreover provide the basis for a very convenient algebraic manipulation of expressions. The equational theory of the lambda calculus is extended with new rules for the definitions...

  14. Seismic Category I Structures Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endebrock, E.G.; Dove, R.C.; Anderson, C.A.

    1984-01-01

    The Seismic Category I Structures Program currently being carried out at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is sponsored by the Mechanical/Structural Engineering Branch, Division of Engineering Technology of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This project is part of a program designed to increase confidence in the assessment of Category I nuclear power plant structural behavior beyond the design limit. The program involves the design, construction, and testing of heavily reinforced concrete models of auxiliary buildings, fuel-handling buildings, etc., but doe not include the reactor containment building. The overall goal of the program is to supply to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission experimental information and a validated procedure to establish the sensitivity of the dynamic response of these structures to earthquakes of magnitude beyond the design basis earthquake

  15. Different Categories of Business Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona-Valeria TOMA

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Every business organisation involves some element of risk. Unmitigated risks can result in lost opportunity, financial losses, loss of reputation, or loss of the right to operate in a jurisdiction. Like any other risk type, understanding business risks is quite important for every business to garner profits instead of facing losses. A business risk is a universal risk type; this means that every business in the world faces business risks. Therefore, it is imperative to understand the different categories of business risk in order to create the appropriate strategies. The aim of this paper is to describe the most important categories of business risks and to make sure that every type of risk receives equal treatment and consideration.

  16. Evaluation and Selection of Potential Biomass Sources of North-East India towards Sustainable Bioethanol Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nongthombam, Grihalakshmi D.; Labala, Rajendra K.; Das, Sudripta; Handique, Pratap J.; Talukdar, Narayan C.

    2017-01-01

    Vegetation biomass production in North-East India within Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot is luxuriant and available from April to October to consider their potential for bioethanol production. Potential of six lignocellulosic biomass (LCB) sources; namely, sugarcane bagasse (BG), cassava aerial parts (CS), ficus fruits (Ficus cunia) (FF), “phumdi” (floating biomass), rice straw (RS), and sawdust were investigated for bioethanol production using standard techniques. Morphological and chemical changes were evaluated by Scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and quantity of sugars and inhibitors in LCB were determined by High performance liquid chromatography. Hydrothermally treated BG, CS, and FF released 954.54, 1,354.33, and 1,347.94 mg/L glucose and 779.31, 612.27, and 1,570.11 mg/L of xylose, respectively. Inhibitors produced due to effect of hydrothermal pretreatment ranged from 42.8 to 145.78 mg/L acetic acid, below detection level (BDL) to 17.7 µg/L 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, and BDL to 56.78 µg/L furfural. The saccharification efficiency of hydrothermally treated LCB (1.35–28.64%) was significantly higher compared with their native counterparts (0.81–17.97%). Consolidated bioprocessing of the LCB using MTCC 1755 (Fusarium oxysporum) resulted in maximum ethanol concentration of 0.85 g/L and corresponded to 42 mg ethanol per gram of hydrothermally treated BG in 120 h followed by 0.83 g/L corresponding to 41.5 mg/g of untreated CS in 144 h. These ethanol concentrations corresponded to 23.43 and 21.54% of theoretical ethanol yield, respectively. LCB of CS and FF emerged as a suitable material to be subjected to test for enhanced ethanol production in future experiments through efficient fermentative microbial strains, appropriate enzyme loadings, and standardization of other fermentation parameters.

  17. Evaluation and Selection of Potential Biomass Sources of North-East India towards Sustainable Bioethanol Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nongthombam, Grihalakshmi D., E-mail: griha789@gmail.com; Labala, Rajendra K.; Das, Sudripta [Institute of Bioresources and Sustainable Development (IBSD), Imphal (India); Handique, Pratap J. [Department of Biotechnology, Gauhati University, Guwahati (India); Talukdar, Narayan C., E-mail: griha789@gmail.com [Division of Life Sciences, Institute of Advanced Study in Science and Technology, Guwahati (India)

    2017-07-11

    Vegetation biomass production in North-East India within Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot is luxuriant and available from April to October to consider their potential for bioethanol production. Potential of six lignocellulosic biomass (LCB) sources; namely, sugarcane bagasse (BG), cassava aerial parts (CS), ficus fruits (Ficus cunia) (FF), “phumdi” (floating biomass), rice straw (RS), and sawdust were investigated for bioethanol production using standard techniques. Morphological and chemical changes were evaluated by Scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and quantity of sugars and inhibitors in LCB were determined by High performance liquid chromatography. Hydrothermally treated BG, CS, and FF released 954.54, 1,354.33, and 1,347.94 mg/L glucose and 779.31, 612.27, and 1,570.11 mg/L of xylose, respectively. Inhibitors produced due to effect of hydrothermal pretreatment ranged from 42.8 to 145.78 mg/L acetic acid, below detection level (BDL) to 17.7 µg/L 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, and BDL to 56.78 µg/L furfural. The saccharification efficiency of hydrothermally treated LCB (1.35–28.64%) was significantly higher compared with their native counterparts (0.81–17.97%). Consolidated bioprocessing of the LCB using MTCC 1755 (Fusarium oxysporum) resulted in maximum ethanol concentration of 0.85 g/L and corresponded to 42 mg ethanol per gram of hydrothermally treated BG in 120 h followed by 0.83 g/L corresponding to 41.5 mg/g of untreated CS in 144 h. These ethanol concentrations corresponded to 23.43 and 21.54% of theoretical ethanol yield, respectively. LCB of CS and FF emerged as a suitable material to be subjected to test for enhanced ethanol production in future experiments through efficient fermentative microbial strains, appropriate enzyme loadings, and standardization of other fermentation parameters.

  18. An integrated system for the energy production and accumulation from renewable sources: a rural tower prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Francesco, Silvia; Petrozzi, Alessandro; Montesarchio, Valeria

    2014-05-01

    This research work presents the implementation of an architectural prototype aiming at the complete energy self-sufficiency through an integrated system based on renewable energy. It is suitable for historical buildings in rural areas, isolated but important from natural and architectonical point of view. In addition to the energy aspects, it is important to protect the impact in terms of land-use and environment. This idea is also especially powerful because in the rural countries there are many little building centers abandoned because they are devoid of a connection to the electric energy grid and methane piping. Thus, taking inspiration from dove towers, architectural typology widespread in central Italy, a virtual model has been developed as an integrated system for renewable energy production, storage and supply. While recovering the ancient tower, it is possible to design and assembly an integrated intelligent system, able to combine energy supply and demand: a new tower that should be flexible, efficient and replicable in other contexts as manufacturing, commercial and residential ones. The prototype has been applied to a real case of study, an ancient complex located in Umbria Region. The sources for electric production installed on the tower are photovoltaics, on the head and shaft of the tower, hydropower and a biomass gasifier providing thermal too. A tank at the head of the tower allows an available hydraulic potential energy, for the turbine at any time, to cover photovoltaic lacks, caused by sudden loss of production, for environmental causes. Conversely, photovoltaic peaks, otherwise unusable, can be used to reload the water from the receiving tank at the foot of the tower, up to the tank in the head. The same underground tank acts as a thermal flywheel to optimize the geothermal heat pumps for the heat and cold production. Keywords: hydropower, photovoltaics, dove tower.

  19. Virtue Ethics: The Misleading Category

    OpenAIRE

    Martha Nussbaum

    1998-01-01

    Virtue ethics is frequently considered to be a single category of ethical theory, and a rival to Kantianismand Utilitarianism. I argue that this approach is a mistake, because both Kantians and Utilitarians can, and do, have an interest in the virtues and the forrnation of character. But even if we focus on the group of ethical theorists who are most commonly called "virtue theorists" because they reject the guidance of both Kantianism and Utilitarianism, and derive inspiration from ancient G...

  20. Virtue Ethics: The Misleading Category

    OpenAIRE

    Nussbaum, Martha

    2013-01-01

    Virtue ethics is frequently considered to be a single category of ethical theory, and a rival to Kantianismand Utilitarianism. I argue that this approach is a mistake, because both Kantians and Utilitarians can, and do, have an interest in the virtues and the forrnation of character. But even if we focus on the group of ethical theorists who are most commonly called "virtue theorists" because they reject the guidance of both Kantianism and Utilitarianism, and derive inspiration from ancient G...

  1. Production of intensive negative lithium beam with caesium sputter-type ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobanov, Nikolai R.

    2018-01-01

    Compounds of lithium oxide, hydroxide and carbonate, mixed with silver, were prepared for use as a cathode in caesium-sputter ion source. The intention was to determine the procedure which would produce the highest intensity negative lithium beams over extended period and with maximum stability. The chemical composition and properties of the samples were analysed using mass-spectrometry, optical microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Analyses (EDX) and Raman spectroscopy. These analyses showed that the chemical transformations with components resulted from pressing, storage and bake out were qualitatively in agreement with expectations. Intensive negative lithium ion beams >1 μA were delivered using cathodes fabricated from materials with multicomponent chemical composition when the following conditions were met: (i) use of components with moderate enthalpy of formation; (ii) low moisture content at final stage of cathode production and (iii) small concentration of water molecules in hydrate phase in the cathode mixture.

  2. An update on measurements of helium-production reactions with a spallation neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haight, R.C.; Bateman, F.B.; Chadwick, M.B.

    1995-01-01

    This report gives the status, updated since the last Research Coordination Meeting, of alpha-particle production cross sections, emission spectra and angular distributions which we are measuring at the spallation source of fast neutrons at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). Detectors at angles of 30, 60, 90 and 135 degrees are used to identify alpha particles, measure their energy spectra, and indicate the time-of-flight, and hence the energy, of the neutrons inducing the reaction. The useful neutron energy ranges from less than 1 MeV to approximately 50 MeV for the present experimental setup. Targets under study at present include C, N, 0, 27 Al, Si, 51 V, 56 Fe, 59 CO, 58,60 Ni, 89 Y and 93 Nb. Data for 59 Co have been re-analyzed. The results illustrate the capabilities of the approach, agreement with literature values, and comparisons with nuclear reaction model calculations

  3. Status of helium-production reaction studies with a spallation neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haight, R.C.; Bateman, F.B.; Chadwick, M.B.

    1994-01-01

    Alpha--particle production cross sections and spectra are being measured at the spallation source of fast neutrons at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). Detectors at angles of 30, 60, 90 and 135 degree are used to identify alpha particles, measure their energy spectra, and indicate the time-of-flight, and hence the energy, of the neutrons inducing the reaction. The useful neutron energy ranges from less than 1 MeV to approximately 50 MeV for the present experimental setup. Targets under study at present include C, N, O, 27 Al, Si, 51 V, 56 Fe, 59 Co, 58,60 Ni, 89 Y and 93 Nb. Results for 59 Co illustrate the capabilities of the approach

  4. Fission product source from Ignalina NPP in case of loss-of-coolant accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ubonavicius, E.; Rimkevicius, S.

    2001-01-01

    The release of radioactive materials to the environment is of special importance in the case of any accident at Nuclear Power Plants (NPP). The integrated analysis of thermal-hydraulic parameters behavior and radioactive fission products (FP) transport and deposition in the compartments play an important role in the evaluation of FP release to the environment and determines the irradiation dozes of personnel and public. In this report the transport and the deposition of radioactive material in the Ignalina NPP unit 1 compartments as well as the FP source term to the environment in the case of design basis loss-of-coolant accidents are discussed. The calculation models for the evaluation of FP transport and deposition as well as the results of performed calculations of several accidents at Ignalina NPP are presented. (author)

  5. High brightness--multiple beamlets source for patterned X-ray production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Ka-Ngo [Hercules, CA; Ji, Qing [Albany, CA; Barletta, William A [Oakland, CA; Jiang, Ximan [El Cerrito, CA; Ji, Lili [Albany, CA

    2009-10-27

    Techniques for controllably directing beamlets to a target substrate are disclosed. The beamlets may be either positive ions or electrons. It has been shown that beamlets may be produced with a diameter of 1 .mu.m, with inter-aperture spacings of 12 .mu.m. An array of such beamlets, may be used for maskless lithography. By step-wise movement of the beamlets relative to the target substrate, individual devices may be directly e-beam written. Ion beams may be directly written as well. Due to the high brightness of the beamlets from extraction from a multicusp source, exposure times for lithographic exposure are thought to be minimized. Alternatively, the beamlets may be electrons striking a high Z material for X-ray production, thereafter collimated to provide patterned X-ray exposures such as those used in CAT scans. Such a device may be used for remote detection of explosives.

  6. Seaweed as source of energy. I: effect of a specific bacterial strain on biogas production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, P.S.; Tarwade, S.J.; Sarma, K.S.R.

    1980-01-01

    Biogas was produced from seaweed by making use of alginate-digesting marine bacteria that were isolated from decomposing seaweed and can digest seaweed carbohydrates (agar and alginic acid). Laboratory digesters containing 100 g seaweed were inoculated with 50 mL broth cultures of different seaweed-derived bacterial strains, and the maximum amount of degradation obtained was 28% (compared with 13% for a bacteria-free digestion). Cow dung was added as a source of methanogenic bacteria, and the amount of biogas produced was more than double the amount obtained when seaweed and cow dung were digested in the absence of the seaweed-derived bacteria. Adding a small amount of Ulva to the seaweed digester increased the production of biogas.

  7. Electron beam production and characterization for the PLEIADES Thomson X-ray source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, W.J.; Hartemann, F.V.; Tremaine, A.M.; Springer, P.T.; Le Sage, G.P.; Barty, C.P.J.; Crane, J.K.; Cross, R.R.; Fittinghoff, D.N.; Slaughter, D.R.; Rosenzweig, J.B.; Anderson, S.; Gibson, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    We report on the performance of an S-band RF photocathode electron gun and accelerator for operation with the PLEIADES Thomson x-ray source at LLNL. Simulations of beam production, transport, and focus are presented. It is shown that a 1 ps, 500 pC electron bunch with a normalized emittance of less than 5 πmm-mrad can be delivered to the interaction point. Initial electron measurements are presented. Calculations of expected x-ray flux are also performed, demonstrating an expected peak spectral brightness of 1020 photons/s/mm2/mrad2/0.1% bandwidth. Effects of RF phase jitter are also presented, and planned phase measurements and control methods are discussed

  8. White source gamma-ray production spectral measurement facilities in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, D.C.; Dickens, J.K.; Nelson, R.O.; Wender, S.A.

    1991-01-01

    The two primary neutron sources for measuring gamma-ray production (GRP) cross sections for basic and applied work in the USA are the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator (ORELA) located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Weapons Neutron Research (WNR) facility located at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). ORELA is based on a 180-MeV electron linear accelerator, while the WNR facility uses the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility 800 MeV proton beam to produce neutrons. The facilities collectively cover the neutron-energy range from thermal to over 700 MeV. The paper describes the present capabilities for GRP measurements at each facility. 18 refs

  9. Review of highly charged heavy ion production with electron cyclotron resonance ion source (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, T.

    2014-01-01

    The electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) plays an important role in the advancement of heavy ion accelerators and other ion beam applications worldwide, thanks to its remarkable ability to produce a great variety of intense highly charged heavy ion beams. Great efforts over the past decade have led to significant ECRIS performance improvements in both the beam intensity and quality. A number of high-performance ECRISs have been built and are in daily operation or are under construction to meet the continuously increasing demand. In addition, comprehension of the detailed and complex physical processes in high-charge-state ECR plasmas has been enhanced experimentally and theoretically. This review covers and discusses the key components, leading-edge developments, and enhanced ECRIS performance in the production of highly charged heavy ion beams

  10. Characterization of the relationship between ceramic pot filter water production and turbidity in source water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvinelli, Carlo; Elmore, A Curt; Reidmeyer, Mary R; Drake, K David; Ahmad, Khaldoun I

    2016-11-01

    Ceramic pot filters represent a common and effective household water treatment technology in developing countries, but factors impacting water production rate are not well-known. Turbidity of source water may be principal indicator in characterizing the filter's lifetime in terms of water production capacity. A flow rate study was conducted by creating four controlled scenarios with different turbidities, and influent and effluent water samples were tested for total suspended solids and particle size distribution. A relationship between average flow rate and turbidity was identified with a negative linear trend of 50 mLh -1 /NTU. Also, a positive linear relationship was found between the initial flow rate of the filters and average flow rate calculated over the 23 day life of the experiment. Therefore, it was possible to establish a method to estimate the average flow rate given the initial flow rate and the turbidity in the influent water source, and to back calculate the maximum average turbidity that would need to be maintained in order to achieve a specific average flow rate. However, long-term investigations should be conducted to assess how these relationships change over the expected CPF lifetime. CPFs rejected fine suspended particles (below 75 μm), especially particles with diameters between 0.375 μm and 10 μm. The results confirmed that ceramic pot filters are able to effectively reduce turbidity, but pretreatment of influent water should be performed to avoid premature failure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Dietary sources and their effects on animal production and environmental sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metha Wanapat

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Animal agriculture has been an important component in the integrated farming systems in developing countries. It serves in a paramount diversified role in producing animal protein food, draft power, farm manure as well as ensuring social status-quo and enriching livelihood. Ruminants are importantly contributable to the well-being and the livelihood of the global population. Ruminant production systems can vary from subsistence to intensive type of farming depending on locality, resource availability, infrastructure accessibility, food demand and market potentials. The growing demand for sustainable animal production is compelling to researchers exploring the potential approaches to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG emissions from livestock. Global warming has been an issue of concern and importance for all especially those engaged in animal agriculture. Methane (CH4 is one of the major GHG accounted for at least 14% of the total GHG with a global warming potential 25-fold of carbon dioxide and a 12-year atmospheric lifetime. Agricultural sector has a contribution of 50 to 60% methane emission and ruminants are the major source of methane contribution (15 to 33%. Methane emission by enteric fermentation of ruminants represents a loss of energy intake (5 to 15% of total and is produced by methanogens (archae as a result of fermentation end-products. Ruminants׳ digestive fermentation results in fermentation end-products of volatile fatty acids (VFA, microbial protein and methane production in the rumen. Rumen microorganisms including bacteria, protozoa and fungal zoospores are closely associated with the rumen fermentation efficiency. Besides using feed formulation and feeding management, local feed resources have been used as alternative feed additives for manipulation of rumen ecology with promising results for replacement in ruminant feeding. Those potential feed additive practices are as follows: 1 the use of plant extracts or plants containing

  12. Design of a helicon plasma source for ion–ion plasma production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, N., E-mail: narayan.sharma@cppipr.res.in; Chakraborty, M.; Neog, N.K.; Bandyopadhyay, M.

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • Development of a helicon plasma system to carry out ion–ion plasma studies in electronegative gases such as Hydrogen, Oxygen and Chlorine. • Determination of initial parameters of helicon plasma source for ion–ion plasma by using dispersion relation of bounded helicon waves. • Design and development of solenoid with magnetic field strength production capability of ∼ 600 G along the axis of the chamber. • Optimization of the chamber parameters using Helic codes and estimation of optimum attainable density. • Estimation of RF power requirements for various gases. - Abstract: A helicon plasma system is being designed and developed at CPP-IPR. The design parameters of the system are deduced from the dispersion relation of bounded helicon waves and the required magnetic fields are simulated by using Poisson Superfish code. The Helic code is used to simulate the power deposition profile for various conditions and to investigate the optimum values of chamber parameters for effective coupling of radio frequency (RF) power to plasma. The helicon source system is aimed at carrying out ion–ion plasma studies in electronegative gases such as Hydrogen, Oxygen and Chlorine. The system mainly consists of a source chamber in which helicon plasma will be produced by injecting RF power at a frequency of 13.56 MHz through a right helical antenna in presence of a DC magnetic field followed by an expansion chamber in which it is expected to produce negative ions along with the positive ions. Installation of the various parts of the system is in progress. The details of the design and development of the system is presented in this article.

  13. Berry Leaves: An Alternative Source of Bioactive Natural Products of Nutritional and Medicinal Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia-Varvara Ferlemi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Berry fruits are recognized, worldwide, as “superfoods” due to the high content of bioactive natural products and the health benefits deriving from their consumption. Berry leaves are byproducts of berry cultivation; their traditional therapeutic use against several diseases, such as the common cold, inflammation, diabetes, and ocular dysfunction, has been almost forgotten nowadays. Nevertheless, the scientific interest regarding the leaf composition and beneficial properties grows, documenting that berry leaves may be considered an alternative source of bioactives. The main bioactive compounds in berry leaves are similar as in berry fruits, i.e., phenolic acids and esters, flavonols, anthocyanins, and procyanidins. The leaves are one of the richest sources of chlorogenic acid. In various studies, these secondary metabolites have demonstrated antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, and neuroprotective properties. This review focuses on the phytochemical composition of the leaves of the commonest berry species, i.e., blackcurrant, blackberry, raspberry, bilberry, blueberry, cranberry, and lingonberry leaves, and presents their traditional medicinal uses and their biological activities in vitro and in vivo.

  14. Study and survey of assembling parameters to a radioactive source production laboratory used to verify equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauglitz, Erica

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a survey of parameters for the proper and safe flooring, doors, windows, fume hoods and others, in a radiochemical laboratory. The layout of each item follows guidelines and national standards of the National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), aiming to ensure the radiological protection of workers and environment. The adequate items arrangement in the radiochemical laboratory ensures quality and safety in the production of 57 Co 137 Cs and 133 Ba radioactive sealed sources, with activities 185, 9.3 and 5.4 MBq, respectively. These sources are used to verify meter activity equipment and should be available throughout the Nuclear Medicine Center, following the recommendations of CNEN-NN-3.05 standard R equirements for Radiation Protection and Safety Services for Nuclear Medicine , to verify the activity of radiopharmaceuticals that are administered in patients, for diagnosis and therapy. Verification of measuring activity equipment will be used to perform accuracy, reproducibility and linearity tests, which should show results within the limits specified in the standard CNEN-NN-3.05. (author)

  15. Uncertainties in source term calculations generated by the ORIGEN2 computer code for Hanford Production Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heeb, C.M.

    1991-03-01

    The ORIGEN2 computer code is the primary calculational tool for computing isotopic source terms for the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project. The ORIGEN2 code computes the amounts of radionuclides that are created or remain in spent nuclear fuel after neutron irradiation and radioactive decay have occurred as a result of nuclear reactor operation. ORIGEN2 was chosen as the primary code for these calculations because it is widely used and accepted by the nuclear industry, both in the United States and the rest of the world. Its comprehensive library of over 1,600 nuclides includes any possible isotope of interest to the HEDR Project. It is important to evaluate the uncertainties expected from use of ORIGEN2 in the HEDR Project because these uncertainties may have a pivotal impact on the final accuracy and credibility of the results of the project. There are three primary sources of uncertainty in an ORIGEN2 calculation: basic nuclear data uncertainty in neutron cross sections, radioactive decay constants, energy per fission, and fission product yields; calculational uncertainty due to input data; and code uncertainties (i.e., numerical approximations, and neutron spectrum-averaged cross-section values from the code library). 15 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs

  16. A neutron booster for spallation sources--application to accelerator driven systems and isotope production

    CERN Document Server

    Galy, J; Van Dam, H; Valko, J

    2002-01-01

    One can design a critical system with fissile material in the form of a thin layer on the inner surface of a cylindrical neutron moderator such as graphite or beryllium. Recently, we have investigated the properties of critical and near critical systems based on the use of thin actinide layers of uranium, plutonium and americium. The thickness of the required fissile layer depends on the type of fissile material, its concentration in the layer and on the geometrical arrangement, but is typically in the mu m-mm range. The resulting total mass of fissile material can be as low as 100 g. Thin fissile layers have a variety of applications in nuclear technology--for example in the design neutron amplifiers for medical applications and 'fast' islands in thermal reactors for waste incineration. In the present paper, we investigate the properties of a neutron booster unit for spallation sources and isotope production. In those applications a layer of fissile material surrounds the spallation source. Such a module cou...

  17. Castor oil as secondary carbon source for production of sophorolipids using Starmerella bombicola NRRL Y-17069.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Vinit Kamalkishor; Annapure, Uday S

    2015-01-01

    Sophorolipids (SLs), a prominent member of the biosurfactants family are produced in acidic and/or lactonic form by yeast Starmerella bombicola NRRL Y-17069 when grown on hydrophilic or hydrophobic or both carbon sources. In current study, ricinoleic acid rich castor oil (10%) was used as hydrophobic and glycerol (10%) was used as hydrophilic carbon source. The yields of 24.5 ± 0.25 g/l sophorolipids were analyzed by anthrone and HPLC method which further increased upto 40.24 ± 0.76 g/l sophorolipids using fed batch process at 5L fermenter level. The structures of sophorolipids synthesized on castor oil were elucidated by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometer (LC-MS), (13)C and (1)H NMR. The results indicated that the ricinoleic acid (RA) gets hydroxylated at ω-1 position but incorporated into sophorolipids through already available hydroxyl group at 12(th) position. It resulted in the production of a novel sophorolipids with hydroxyl fatty acid as side chain and has applications as surfactant for novel drug delivery, anti microbial agent, cosmetic ingredient and emulsifier.

  18. Production of highly charged ion beams from electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Z.Q.

    1998-01-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) development has progressed with multiple-frequency plasma heating, higher mirror magnetic fields, and better technique to provide extra cold electrons. Such techniques greatly enhance the production of highly charged ions from ECRISs. So far at continuous wave (CW) mode operation, up to 300 eμA of O 7+ and 1.15 emA of O 6+ , more than 100 eμA of intermediate heavy ions for charge states up to Ar 13+ , Ca 13+ , Fe 13+ , Co 14+ , and Kr 18+ , and tens of eμA of heavy ions with charge states to Kr 26+ , Xe 28+ , Au 35+ , Bi 34+ , and U 34+ were produced from ECRISs. At an intensity of at least 1 eμA, the maximum charge state available for the heavy ions are Xe 36+ , Au 46+ , Bi 47+ , and U 48+ . An order of magnitude enhancement for fully stripped argon ions (I≥60enA) were also achieved. This article will review the ECR ion source progress and discuss key requirement for ECRISs to produce the highly charged ion beams. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  19. An investigation of sources of Campylobacter in a poultry production and packing operation in Barbados.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Suzanne N; Mathison, George E; Lavoie, Marc C

    2008-01-15

    Chicken meat is frequently contaminated with Campylobacter jejuni and is thought to be the major source of organisms causing human Campylobacter enteritis. Genotypic similarities between Campylobacter isolates from chicken meat at retail outlets and patients with gastroenteritis in Barbados suggested that it is a vehicle for infection of humans on the island and prompted this investigation of transmission of Campylobacter in a local poultry operation. Campylobacter testing was conducted at the hatchery, on the broiler farm and in the processing plant for two consecutive production cycles. The genetic relatedness of Campylobacter isolates was determined by RAPD typing with primer OPA 11. Hatchery samples and week-old chicks were negative for Campylobacter. Flocks became colonized as early as three weeks after introduction to the farm. Ten distinct RAPD genotypes were identified among isolates. Some genotypes were similar and may be of clonal origin. There was no evidence of vertical transmission of Campylobacter. The results suggest that the broiler flock was infected from more than one source in the farm environment.

  20. Production and characterization of a custom-made {sup 228}Th source with reduced neutron source strength for the Borexino experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maneschg, W., E-mail: werner.maneschg@mpi-hd.mpg.de [Max Planck Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Baudis, L. [Physik Institut der Universitaet Zuerich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zuerich (Switzerland); Dressler, R. [Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Eberhardt, K. [Institut fuer Kernchemie, Universitaet Mainz, Fritz-Strassmann-Weg 2, D-55128 Mainz (Germany); Eichler, R. [Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Keller, H. [Institut fuer Kernchemie, Universitaet Mainz, Fritz-Strassmann-Weg 2, D-55128 Mainz (Germany); Lackner, R. [Max Planck Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Praast, B. [Institut fuer Kernchemie, Universitaet Mainz, Fritz-Strassmann-Weg 2, D-55128 Mainz (Germany); Santorelli, R. [Physik Institut der Universitaet Zuerich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zuerich (Switzerland); Schreiner, J. [Max Planck Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Tarka, M. [Physik Institut der Universitaet Zuerich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zuerich (Switzerland); Wiegel, B.; Zimbal, A. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Bundesallee 100, D-38116 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2012-07-11

    A custom-made {sup 228}Th source of several MBq activities was produced for the Borexino experiment to study the external background of the detector. The aim was to reduce the unwanted neutron emission produced via ({alpha},n) reactions in ceramics typically used for commercial {sup 228}Th sources. For this purpose a ThCl{sub 4} solution was chemically converted into ThO{sub 2} and embedded in a gold foil. The paper describes the production of the custom-made source and its characterization by means of {gamma}-activity, dose rate and neutron source strength measurements. From {gamma}-spectroscopic measurements it was deduced that activity transfer from the initial solution to the final source was >91% (at 68% C.L.) and the final activity was (5.41{+-}0.30) MBq. The dose rate was measured with two dosimeters yielding 12.1 mSv/h and 14.3 mSv/h in 1 cm distance. The neutron source strength of the 5.41 MBq {sup 228}Th source was determined to be (6.59{+-}0.85) s{sup -1}.